WorldWideScience

Sample records for quit rates results

  1. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazici AB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Bulent Yazici,1 Hilal Uslu Yuvaci,2 Esra Yazici,3 Ebru Halimoglu Caliskan,4 Arif Serhan Cevrioglu,2 Atila Erol3 1Department of Psychiatry, Training and Research Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 3Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey Background: Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant.  Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy.  Method: This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results: The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively, alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively, and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively. Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion: Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic

  2. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  3. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129. However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  4. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  5. Advice to Quit Smoking and Ratings of Health Care among Medicare Beneficiaries Aged 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor; Elliott, Marc N; Haas, Ann; Haviland, Amelia M; Orr, Nate; Shadel, William G; Ma, Sai; Friedberg, Mark W; Cleary, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    To examine the relationship between physician advice to quit smoking and patient care experiences. The 2012 Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (MCAHPS) surveys. Fixed-effects linear regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional survey data, which included a nationally representative sample of 26,432 smokers aged 65+. Eleven of 12 patient experience measures were significantly more positive among smokers who were always advised to quit smoking than those advised to quit less frequently. There was an attenuated but still significant and positive association of advice to quit smoking with both physician rating and physician communication, after controlling for other measures of care experiences. Physician-provided cessation advice was associated with more positive patient assessments of their physicians. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. The impact of minimum wages on quit, layoff and hiring rates

    OpenAIRE

    Brochu, Pierre; Green, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate differences in quit, layoff and hiring rates in high versus low minimum wage regimes using Canadian data spanning 1979 to 2008. The data include consistent questions on job tenure and reason for job separation for the whole period. Over the same time frame, there were over 140 minimum wage changes in Canada. We find that higher minimum wages are associated with lower hiring rates but also with lower job separation rates. Importantly, the reduced separation rates are due mainly ...

  7. Use of varenicline for 4 weeks before quitting smoking: decrease in ad lib smoking and increase in smoking cessation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden J; Myers, Katie E; Stapleton, John; Dhanji, Al-Rehan

    2011-04-25

    The use of varenicline tartrate alleviates postquit withdrawal discomfort, but it also seems to reduce the "reward" associated with smoking. The current treatment schedule, which commences 1 week before quitting, relies primarily on the first mechanism. We set out to determine whether increasing the prequit medication period renders cigarettes less satisfying and facilitates quitting. One hundred one smokers attending a stop-smoking clinic in London, United Kingdom, were randomly allocated to receive varenicline for 4 weeks before the target quit date (TQD) or to receive placebo for 3 weeks before the TQD, followed by varenicline for 1 week before the TQD. In both groups, standard varenicline treatment was given for 3 months after the TQD. Measures included smoking satisfaction and smoke intake before quitting, urges to smoke and withdrawal discomfort after quitting, and sustained abstinence from the TQD to 3 months. Varenicline preloading reduced prequit enjoyment of smoking (P = .004) and smoke intake (P lib smoking and enhance 12-week quit rates. Current treatment schedules may lead to suboptimal treatment results. Trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to corroborate these findings. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00789074.

  8. Abstinence and Relapse Rates Following a College Campus-Based Quit & Win Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; An, Larry; Luo, Xianghua; Scherber, Robyn M.; Berg, Carla J.; Golden, Dave; Ehlinger, Edward P.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To conduct and evaluate Quit & Win contests at 2 2-year college and 2 4-year university campuses. Participants: During Spring semester, 2006, undergraduates (N = 588) interested in quitting smoking signed up for a Quit & Win 30-day cessation contest for a chance to win a lottery prize. Methods: Participants (N = 588) completed a…

  9. The impact of including incentives and competition in a workplace smoking cessation program on quit rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, D M; Lee, J W; Hopp, J W; Emont, S L

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent smoking cessation program supplemented by incentives and team competition. A quasi-experimental design was employed to compare the effectiveness of three different smoking cessation programs, each assigned to separate worksite. The study was conducted from 1990 to 1991 at three aerospace industry worksites in California. All employees who were current, regular tobacco users were eligible to participate in the program offered at their site. The multicomponent program included a self-help package, telephone counseling, and other elements. The incentive-competition program included the multicomponent program plus cash incentives and team competition for the first 5 months of the program. The traditional program offered a standard smoking cessation program. Self-reported questionnaires and carbon monoxide tests of tobacco use or abstinence were used over a 12-month period. The incentive-competition program had an abstinence rate of 41% at 6 months (n = 68), which was significantly better than the multicomponent program (23%, n = 81) or the traditional program (8%, n = 36). At 12 months, the quit rates for the incentive and multicomponent-programs were statistically indistinguishable (37% vs. 30%), but remained higher than the traditional program (11%). Chi-square tests, t-tests, and logistic regression were used to compare smoking abstinence across the three programs. Offering a multicomponent program with telephone counseling may be just as effective for long-term smoking cessation as such a program plus incentives and competition, and more effective than a traditional program.

  10. Examining educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting as predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas J; Redner, Ryan; Skelly, Joan M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2014-10-01

    We investigated three potential predictors (educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting [DD]) of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers. These predictors were examined alone and in combination with other potential predictors using study-intake assessments from controlled clinical trials examining the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Data from 349 pregnant women (231 continuing smokers and 118 spontaneous quitters) recruited from the greater Burlington, VT, area contributed to this secondary analysis, including psychiatric/sociodemographic characteristics, smoking characteristics, and performance on a computerized DD task. Educational attainment, smoking rate, and DD values were each significant predictors of spontaneous quitting in univariate analyses. A model examining those three predictors together retained educational attainment as a main effect and revealed a significant interaction of DD and smoking rate (i.e., DD was a significant predictor at lower but not higher smoking rates). A final model considering all potential predictors, included education, the interaction of DD and smoking rate, and five additional predictors (i.e., stress ratings, the belief that smoking during pregnancy will "greatly harm my baby," age of smoking initiation, marital status, and prior quit attempts during pregnancy). The study presented here contributes new knowledge on predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers with substantive practical implications for reducing smoking during pregnancy.

  11. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  12. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs. Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice to more advanced devices (MODs was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month as well as a trend in decreasing thee-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month. Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates.

  13. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get free help with quitting by calling 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669) ... Kreyòl Ayisyen Deutsch 日本語 فارسی English A Federal Government website managed by the U.S. Department of Health ...

  14. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. Objective To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. Methods We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Results Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one’s needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety

  15. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-03-10

    Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one's needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety. Results generally did not vary by stage of

  16. Quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, C D; Ginsberg, D; Hall, S M

    1985-01-01

    Four factors which influence smoking treatment outcome are identified: environmental variables, client characteristics, process variables, and specific treatment approaches. Important environmental factors are stress and social support. Of client characteristics, sex is the best predictor of treatment success. Men are more likely to quit and maintain abstinence than women. However, the majority of women alter their smoking habits during pregnancy. Low-income persons and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among subjects in treatment studies and have larger percentages of smokers in the population at large. Extraverted smokers are more likely to begin to smoke and have difficulty quitting. Also, the more anxious, poorly adjusted smoker has more trouble quitting than the less troubled smoker. The higher the client's sense of self-efficacy, the better the chance of that person entering treatment and doing well. Furthermore, smokers who take in lower levels of nicotine are more successful at quitting. Many process questions are suggested. Few have been approached empirically. The effectiveness of ex-smokers as therapists in smoking cessation programs has not been systematically investigated, even though the smoking history of therapists is a question frequently asked by clients. We suggest that the skill and empathy of group leaders is more important than smoking history. Smoking therapists should be aware of nonspecific treatment factors such as positive expectations, social reinforcement, and self-disclosure which may have a powerful influence on the efficacy of smoking treatment. Specific treatment approaches were classified into three categories: low-contact approaches, including educational, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches; psychological treatments; and pharmacological treatment. Education, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches are thought to be accretively effective when the large size of the audience is considered. Also, innovative

  17. Recall of Anti-Tobacco Advertisements and Effects on Quitting Behavior: Results From the California Smokers Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Eric C.; Myers, Mark G.; Strong, David R.; Hofstetter, C. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether an anti-tobacco television advertisement called “Stages,” which depicted a woman giving a brief emotional narrative of her experiences with tobacco use, would be recalled more often and have a greater effect on smoking cessation than 3 other advertisements with different intended themes. Methods. Our data were derived from a sample of 2596 California adult smokers. We used multivariable log-binomial and modified Poisson regression models to calculate respondents’ probability of quitting as a result of advertisement recall. Results. More respondents recalled the “Stages” ad (58.5%) than the 3 other ads (23.1%, 23.4%, and 25.6%; P advertisements that depict visceral and personal messages may be recalled by a larger percentage of smokers and may have a greater impact on smoking cessation than other types of advertisements. PMID:25521871

  18. A Nurse-Led Smoking Cessation Clinic--Quit Rate Results and Views of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. A.; Parahoo, A. K.; Blair, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the success of a community nurse-led smoking cessation clinic, based in one trust in Northern Ireland. The clinic operated a group therapy approach. The study employed quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection to measure smoking behaviour and to gain the views of participants. Smoking behaviour was measured by…

  19. The effect of financial incentives on top of behavioral support on quit rates in tobacco smoking employees: study protocol of a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, F A; Nagelhout, G E; Winkens, B; Evers, S M A A; Kotz, D; Chavannes, N H; van Schayck, C P

    2016-10-06

    Stimulating successful tobacco cessation among employees has multiple benefits. Employees who quit tobacco are healthier, more productive, less absent from work, and longer employable than employees who continue to use tobacco. Despite the evidence for these benefits of tobacco cessation, a successful method to stimulate employees to quit tobacco is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether adding a financial incentive to behavioral support (compared with no additional incentive) is effective and cost-effective in increasing abstinence rates in tobacco smoking employees participating in a smoking cessation group training. In this cluster-randomized trial employees in the intervention and control group both participate in a smoking cessation group training consisting of seven weekly counseling sessions of ninety minutes each. In addition to the training, employees in the intervention group receive a voucher as an incentive for being abstinent from smoking at the end of the training (€50), after three months (€50), after six months (€50), and after one year (€200). The control group does not receive any incentive. The primary outcome is carbon monoxide validated 12-month continuous abstinence from smoking (Russel's standard). Additionally, an economic evaluation is performed from a societal and an employer perspective. The present paper describes the methods and design of this cluster-randomized trial in detail. We hypothesize that the financial incentive for abstinence in the form of vouchers increases abstinence rates over and above the group training. The results of this study can provide important recommendations for enhancement of employee tobacco cessation. Dutch Trial Register: NTR5657 . First received 27-01-2016.

  20. Assessing the effect of an interactive decision-aid smartphone smoking cessation application (app) on quit rates: a double-blind automated randomised control trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BinDhim, Nasser F; McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-07-18

    In a previous study exploring the feasibility of a smoking cessation application (app), we found that about 77% of the respondents from three countries were ready to quit in the next 30 days without significant differences between countries in terms of age, operating system and number of quitting attempts. However, the efficacy of smartphone apps for smoking cessation has not yet been established. This study tests the efficacy of a smartphone smoking cessation decision-aid app compared with an app that contains only smoking cessation information. This is an automated double-blind, randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation app that contains the eligibility requirements and baseline questionnaire and will randomise the participants into one of the two subapps (the intervention and the control). Participants will be recruited directly from the Apple app stores in Australia, Singapore, the UK and the USA. Daily smokers aged 18 and above will be randomised into one of the subapps after completing the baseline questionnaire. Abstinence rates will be measured at 10 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months, with the 1-month follow-up abstinence rate as the primary outcome. Logistic regression mixed models will be used to analyse the primary outcome. This study was approved by the University of Sydney's Human Ethics Committee. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals according to the CONSORT statement. Australian New Zealand ClinicalTrial RegistryACTRN12613000833763. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The "Quit and Win" campaign to promote smoking cessation in Italy: results and one year follow-up across three Italian editions (2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Gianti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Quit and Win” Campaign is a health promotion campaign that aims to encourage smoking cessation. It is in its fourth edition in Italy and in its sixth edition in Finland. In Italy, it originally started in one region (Veneto, the Italian Coordinating Centre and has spread to incorporate 11 regions in its latest edition. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness, results and trends within the various editions of the campaign. This initiative has been carried out thanks to the collaboration and partnership that exists among the participating regions and the different community services. The involvement of local press and the media have also been utilized to promote the initiative. In addition to this, substantial efforts were made to inform general practitioners, chemists and other health care personnel of the scheme in order that they would promote it by disseminating brochures. Efforts were also made in order to secure sponsorship for the programme. The results from all of the Italian editions have shown an increase in the number of participants, from 5,938 participants in 2000 to 8,185 in 2004 (latest edition. This one ahowed, in 2004, a participation of 4,812 males (M and 3,373 females (F, a rate of 58.7% and 41.2% respectively; with the largest amount of participants falling into the age class of 25-34 years, accounting for 35.5% M and 32.6% F. 43.4% M and 40.6% F had been smoking for 20 years or more. Strong smokers (> 40 cigarettes/day accounted for 9.5% of M and 3.1% F. Among all subjects, 47.2% had previously attempted to quit smoking at least once or twice. Among those who had quit smoking for at least four weeks, 39.5% remained non-smokers after one year of follow-up (2004 edition. Most quitters didn’t use any support to replace the effects of the nicotine (79.7% and half of them didn’t receive any support from those people around them (55.2%. Smokers received information about the campaign in the first edition

  2. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  3. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries.

  4. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Land

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United States Public Health Service (USPHS Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01. On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%-4.6% per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.5%-8.1%. There was no change in the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses following systems change among non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical practice data from HVMA suggest that a systems approach can lead to significant reductions in smoking prevalence and the rate of office visits for smoking-related diseases. Most comprehensive tobacco intervention strategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of antismoking television advertisements: do audience ratings of perceived effectiveness predict changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Decisions about which antismoking advertisements should be aired are often guided by audience ratings of perceived effectiveness (PE). Given that the usefulness of PE measures depends on their ability to predict the likelihood that a message will have a positive impact on outcomes such as behaviour change, in the current study we used pre-exposure, postexposure and follow-up measures to test the association between PE and subsequent changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours. Daily smokers (N=231; 18 years and older) completed baseline measures of quitting intentions before watching an antismoking advertisement. Immediately following exposure, intentions were measured again and PE was measured using six items that factored into two scales: ad-directed PE (ADPE) and personalised PE (PPE). A follow-up telephone survey conducted within 3 weeks of exposure measured behaviour change (reduced cigarette consumption or quit attempts). From pre-exposure to postexposure, 18% of smokers showed a positive change in their intentions. Controlling for baseline intentions, PPE independently predicted intention change (OR=2.57, p=0.004). At follow-up, 26% of smokers reported that they had changed their behaviour. PPE scores also predicted the likelihood of behaviour change (OR=1.93, p=0.009). Audience ratings of PPE, but not ADPE, were found to predict subsequent intention and behaviour change. These findings increase confidence in the use of PE measures to pretest and evaluate antismoking television advertisements, particularly when these measures tap the extent to which a smoker has been personally affected by the message. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. [Quitting the tobacco habit in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A; Hernández, I; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    1991-06-29

    The tendencies in the cessation from smoking and their determinants provide useful information to developed preventive policies and to predict the evolution of diseases associated with cigarette consumption. Spain is one of the European countries with more prevalent smoking habits in the general population, and thus the study of factors determining cessation from smoking is particularly relevant. The socioeconomic, demographic and health-related variables associated with the cessation from smoking were evaluated using the data bank from the National Health Survey carried out by the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo in 1987, which includes interviews to 29,647 individuals above 16 years of age. The data were analyzed by the calculation of the quit ratio standardized for age. The quit ratio is influenced by age and sex; it is higher among women and it increases with age. The results are questionable regarding the relation with educational level, family income and occupation. The smokers of less than 10 or more than 25 cigarettes/day are those with a higher quit ratio. The quit ratio is also higher in individuals with health problems, a higher rate of use of health services and in those without usual alcohol consumption. The profile of the individuals who quit smoking in Spain has specific features when compared with other countries, particularly regarding the higher quit rate among women and the lack of a linear correlation with indicators of socioeconomic level.

  7. Quits, layoffs, and job destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W; Broersma, L

    2003-01-01

    We examine the quit-layoff distinction and its implications for job destruction from the employer's perspective. Using a set of panel data of Dutch firms, we get the following results. First, in addition to layoffs, quits contribute to the speed of downward adjustment of labour. Second, about 22% of

  8. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems with ...

  9. Guide to Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for help. You’ll find this information here. Overcoming Tobacco Addiction Remember, tobacco addiction is both mental and physical. For most people, the best way to quit will be some combination of medicine, a method to change personal habits, and emotional support. Deciding to Quit ...

  10. Nicotine Therapy Sampling to Induce Quit Attempts Among Smokers Unmotivated to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J.; Hughes, John R.; Gray, Kevin M.; Wahlquist, Amy E.; Saladin, Michael E.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rates of smoking cessation have not changed in a decade, accentuating the need for novel approaches to prompt quit attempts. Methods Within a nationwide randomized clinical trial (N=849) to induce further quit attempts and cessation, smokers currently unmotivated to quit were randomized to a practice quit attempt (PQA) alone or to nicotine replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as nicotine therapy), sampling within the context of a PQA. Following a 6-week intervention period, participants were followed up for 6 months to assess outcomes. The PQA intervention was designed to increase motivation, confidence, and coping skills. The combination of a PQA plus nicotine therapy sampling added samples of nicotine lozenges to enhance attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and to promote the use of additional cessation resources. Primary outcomes included the incidence of any ever occurring self-defined quit attempt and 24-hour quit attempt. Secondary measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at any time during the study (ie, floating abstinence) and at the final follow-up assessment. Results Compared with PQA intervention, nicotine therapy sampling was associated with a significantly higher incidence of any quit attempt (49% vs 40%; relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1–1.4) and any 24-hour quit attempt (43% vs 34%; 1.3; 1.1–1.5). Nicotine therapy sampling was marginally more likely to promote floating abstinence (19% vs 15%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0–1.7); 6-month point prevalence abstinence rates were no different between groups (16% vs 14%; 1.2; 0.9–1.6). Conclusion Nicotine therapy sampling during a PQA represents a novel strategy to motivate smokers to make a quit attempt. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00706979 PMID:22123796

  11. Making a Quit Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your quit plan. Be healthier Be healthier Save money Save money Smell better Smell better My loved ones My ... songs, plan a movie night with friends, or save up your cigarette money for a special treat when you reach a ...

  12. Quit Smoking: 3 Tools to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 3 Tools to Help You Quit Past Issues / ... triggers head on You can prepare to quit smoking by thinking of ways to avoid some triggers ...

  13. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older ... may wonder if it’s too late to quit smoking. Or you may ask yourself if it’s even ...

  14. Did Nixon quit before he resigned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. Beckmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On August 9, 1974, Richard M. Nixon formally resigned the presidency; however, folklore hints Nixon informally quit fulfilling his duties well before then. As Watergate became less “a third rate burglary” than “high crimes and misdemeanors,” rumors of President Nixon’s wallowing, wandering, drinking, and mumbling swirled. Yet evidence for such assertions has been thin, and prevailing scholarship offers compelling reasons to believe Nixon’s institutional protocols overrode his individual proclivities. This study offers a new, systematic look at Nixon’s presidency by coding his public events and private interactions with top government officials during every day of his presidency. Contrary to our expectations, the results corroborate the rumors: Richard Nixon effectively quit being president well before he resigned the presidency. In fact, it turns out there was a defining moment when Nixon disengaged from his administration: on December 6, 1973, the day Gerald Ford was confirmed as Vice President.

  15. Predictors of quit attempts and abstinence among smokers not currently interested in quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Rates of quitting smoking remain stagnant, and thus it is becoming increasingly important to identify determinants of successful quitting behavior. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine predictors of quit attempts and 7-day point prevalence abstinence in a large nationally based sample. The study population consisted exclusively of smokers with minimal interest in quitting in the immediate future, for whom the need to identify facilitating factors of cessation is highly significant. Participants consisted of 849 smokers participating in a nationwide population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) to promote quit attempts and cessation; all participants were not currently interested in cessation. After adjusting for treatment group, and using a multivariate logistic approach, a combination of motivational and self-efficacy variables consistently predicted quit attempts, regardless of how quit attempts were defined (i.e., any self-defined vs. 24 hr). Additionally, a greater number of previous quit attempts significantly predicted making future quit attempts. In terms of achieving short-term abstinence, regardless of whether analyses were restricted to individuals who made prior quit attempts or not, self-efficacy emerged as the only significant consistent predictor. Unlike previous studies, we did not find strong evidence suggesting unique predictors for making a quit attempt compared with achieving abstinence. Our findings demonstrate that even among smokers not currently interested in quitting, self-efficacy and motivation are key factors in the cessation process. Overall, the findings have important implications, as they highlight factors to target for future treatment.

  16. How Can I Quit Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Can I Quit Smoking? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Quit Smoking? A A A What's in this article? Where ... becoming tobacco-free. Many people don't quit smoking because they think it's too hard, and it's ...

  17. Trends in Current Tobacco Use, Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts among Saudi Population during Periods of 17 Years (1996-2012: Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M Almutairi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the causes behind increase trends in smoking and extent of tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. We also explored the issues related to and its impact tobacco control research and policy in the Kingdom.Data were collected from various published articles, public data based such as WHO, Geneva and CDC Atlanta. Data were also obtained from surveys conducted by various institutions under The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS for high school students and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS for medical student. Tobacco importation data and death rates were estimated by various International Organizations.Tobacco importation in Saudi Arabia increased from 1996 to 2012. The proportion of smokers in the KSA almost doubled especially in males from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2012. Mortality attributable to tobacco in the KSA was estimated to account for 280, 000 premature deaths over the same period (without accounting for smuggled tobacco. The economic burden of tobacco consumption over the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the KSA was 20.5 billion US dollars (based on 2011 prices. Anti-tobacco measures in KSA have been reinforced by the enactment of anti-tobacco laws and collaboration among different government agencies and ministries.If effective tobacco control strategies are not enacted, serious consequences, increasing premature mortality rates among them, will continue to threaten the KSA.

  18. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Thomas G; Rigotti, Nancy A; Levy, Douglas E; Schilling, Thad; Warner, Donna; Li, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data. Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA) sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, pstrategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core tobacco measures are widely adopted.

  19. Talking about Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers’ Quit Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on two quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relationship between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected prior to the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3277 adult Philadelphian smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants three months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors, and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  20. Talking About Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers' Quit Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy S L; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on 2 quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relation between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected before the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3,277 adult Philadelphia smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants 3 months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and the indirect effects of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns.

  1. A controlled trial of a Quit and Win contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Warnick, Todd A; Chirila, Costel; Rasnake, Robert T; Paul, Todd P; Christie, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a state-of-the-art Quit and Win contest on tobacco quit rates at 3, 6, and 12 months after the 30-day quit period. Quasi-experimental with a volunteer sample of 494 Quit and Win contest registrants (treatment group) and 512 randomly selected tobacco users not exposed to the promotional media campaign (control group). Intervention included a 30-day quit period to be eligible for large cash prizes; provider advice via weekly mailings; online and telephone quit assistance; media campaign; and community support. Community-based intervention in Kentucky. A total of 1006 adult tobacco users. Quit rates were measured using 7-day point prevalence for tobacco use. Urine cotinine measurements confirmed self-reported quitting. Treatment group participants were significantly more likely than controls to experience quitting during the 1-year follow-up, as determined by both self-report and urine confirmation. After adjusting for baseline differences in demographics, tobacco use, and stage of change, those in the treatment group had 2.6 times the odds of reporting quitting in the postintervention period and 5.3 times the odds of experiencing quitting confirmed by urine cotinine, relative to controls. Women, minorities, and low-income tobacco users had equal odds of quitting as men, whites, and those with higher incomes. That the contest was minimally intensive and yielded a relatively high, quit rate demonstrates the potential effectiveness of the intervention.

  2. Quit Smoking: Latest NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Latest NIH Research Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... with chest X-rays. Clinical Trials Related to Smoking Clinical trials are scientific studies that try to ...

  3. The Quit Benefits Model: a Markov model for assessing the health benefits and health care cost savings of quitting smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the lack of comprehensive information about the health and economic benefits of quitting smoking for Australians, we developed the Quit Benefits Model (QBM. Methods The QBM is a Markov model, programmed in TreeAge, that assesses the consequences of quitting in terms of cases avoided of the four most common smoking-associated diseases, deaths avoided, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs and health care costs saved (in Australian dollars, A$. Quitting outcomes can be assessed for males and females in 14 five year age-groups from 15–19 to 80–84 years. Exponential models, based on data from large case-control and cohort studies, were developed to estimate the decline over time after quitting in the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and death. Australian data for the year 2001 were sourced for disease incidence and mortality and health care costs. Utility of life estimates were sourced from an international registry and a meta analysis. In this paper, outcomes are reported for simulated subjects followed up for ten years after quitting smoking. Life-years, QALYs and costs were estimated with 0%, 3% and 5% per annum discount rates. Summary results are presented for a group of 1,000 simulated quitters chosen at random from the Australian population of smokers aged between 15 and 74. Results For every 1,000 males chosen at random from the reference population who quit smoking, there is a an average saving in the first ten years following quitting of A$408,000 in health care costs associated with AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke, and a corresponding saving of A$328,000 for every 1,000 female quitters. The average saving per 1,000 random quitters is A$373,000. Overall 40 of these quitters will be spared a diagnosis of AMI, COPD, lung cancer and stroke in the first ten years following quitting, with an estimated saving of 47 life-years and

  4. Nicotine therapy sampling to induce quit attempts among smokers unmotivated to quit: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Hughes, John R; Gray, Kevin M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Saladin, Michael E; Alberg, Anthony J

    2011-11-28

    Rates of smoking cessation have not changed in a decade, accentuating the need for novel approaches to prompt quit attempts. Within a nationwide randomized clinical trial (N = 849) to induce further quit attempts and cessation, smokers currently unmotivated to quit were randomized to a practice quit attempt (PQA) alone or to nicotine replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as nicotine therapy), sampling within the context of a PQA. Following a 6-week intervention period, participants were followed up for 6 months to assess outcomes. The PQA intervention was designed to increase motivation, confidence, and coping skills. The combination of a PQA plus nicotine therapy sampling added samples of nicotine lozenges to enhance attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and to promote the use of additional cessation resources. Primary outcomes included the incidence of any ever occurring self-defined quit attempt and 24-hour quit attempt. Secondary measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at any time during the study (ie, floating abstinence) and at the final follow-up assessment. Compared with PQA intervention, nicotine therapy sampling was associated with a significantly higher incidence of any quit attempt (49% vs 40%; relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4) and any 24-hour quit attempt (43% vs 34%; 1.3; 1.1-1.5). Nicotine therapy sampling was marginally more likely to promote floating abstinence (19% vs 15%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7); 6-month point prevalence abstinence rates were no different between groups (16% vs 14%; 1.2; 0.9-1.6). Nicotine therapy sampling during a PQA represents a novel strategy to motivate smokers to make a quit attempt. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00706979.

  5. What characterises smokers who quit without using help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang;

    2015-01-01

    regression analysis. RESULTS: Quitting unaided was reported by 63%. Adjusted analyses showed that men were more likely to quit unaided than women, and younger compared with older were more likely to quit unaided (eg, OR among women age 45-59 versus age 14-29 were 0.18, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.20). Additionally...

  6. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 5 Steps to START Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... a part of every successful plan to quit smoking: S et a quit date. T ell family, friends, ...

  7. Smoking - Medicines to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Smoking - Medicines To Help You Quit Share Tweet Linkedin ... associated with the use of the medicine. Quit Smoking Tips Quit Smoking… for yourself and for those ...

  8. Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafidou Jasmin-Olga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greece has the highest smoking rates (in the 15-nation bloc in Europe. The purpose of this study was to investigate Greek smokers' intention and appraisal of capability to quit employing the theoretical frameworks of Decisional Balance (DB and Cognitive Dissonance (CD. Methods A cross-sectional study including 401 Greek habitual smokers (205 men and 195 women, falling into four groups according to their intention and self-appraised capability to quit smoking was carried out. Participants completed a questionnaire recording their attitude towards smoking, intention and self appraised capability to quit smoking, socio-demographic information, as well as a DB and a CD scale. Results The most numerous group of smokers (38% consisted of those who neither intended nor felt capable to quit and these smokers perceived more benefits of smoking than negatives. DB changed gradually according to smokers' "readiness" to quit: the more ready they felt to quit the less the pros of smoking outnumbered the cons. Regarding relief of CD, smokers who intended but did not feel capable to quit employed more "excuses" compared to those who felt capable. Additionally smokers with a past history of unsuccessful quit attempts employed fewer "excuses" even though they were more frequently found among those who intended but did not feel capable to quit. Conclusion Findings provide support for the DB theory. On the other hand, "excuses" do not appear to be extensively employed to reduce the conflict between smoking and concern for health. There is much heterogeneity regarding smokers' intention and appraised capability to quit, reflecting theoretical and methodological problems with the distinction among stages of change. Harm reduction programs and interventions designed to increase the implementation of smoking cessation should take into account the detrimental effect of past unsuccessful quit attempts.

  9. Eyelid Malignancies- Always Quite Challenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Arumugham

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of eyelid cancers are quite challenging. Eyelid tumours are relatively rare diverse group of diseases varied in their presentation and extent. Many benign tumours and inflammatory conditions quite frequently masquerade eyelid cancers. Eyelid cancers are not single entity but comprise a wide range of tumours with extremes of tumour biology from indolent to very aggressive histopathologic types. Compromise on aesthetics and eyelids’ indispensable function of protecting the eyes during management, may lead to untoward cosmetic disfigurement and loss of vision. On the other hand, inadequate cancer clearance will also be vision threatening and life threatening due to loco regional recurrence and metastasis. To strike an optimal balance is a challenging task, to achieve ‘cancer cure’ with maximum preservation of function and cosmetics. In addition, the integration of other modalities of treatment, judicious selection and their sequencing require multidisciplinary discussion and joint management by different specialists. We are presenting four case scenarios, we met with in our teaching hospital with reference to literature review to emphasize that eyelid malignancies are not always simple with respect to diagnosis and management. PMID:28511494

  10. Correlates of smoking quit attempts: Florida Tobacco Callback Survey, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietz Noella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The public health burden of tobacco-associated diseases in the USA remains high, in part because many people's attempts to quit are unsuccessful. This study examined factors associated with having lifetime or recent attempts to quit smoking among current smokers, based on a telephone survey of Florida adults. Methods Data from the 2007 telephone-based Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and its follow-up survey, the Tobacco Callback Survey, were used to assess determinants of having ever attempted to quit smoking and attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months. All analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Among 3,560 current smokers, 41.5% reported having tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months while 83.4% reported having ever tried to quit. Having a history of a tobacco-related medical condition was significantly associated with both recent (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.41 [Confidence Interval 1.19–1.65] and lifetime quit attempts (AOR 1.43 [1.15–1.79]. Greater nicotine dependence and being advised by a physician to quit smoking were also positively associated with lifetime quit attempts. Receipt of healthcare provider advice to quit smoking in the past 12 months and a strong belief that quitting following a long history of regular smoking would not result in health benefits and belief that there are health benefits to quitting smoking were associated with lifetime quit attempts. Conclusion Targeted smoking cessation interventions are needed for smokers with selected medical conditions and with high nicotine dependence. The importance of physician advice in encouraging individuals to quit is further highlighted.

  11. Quitting Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann; Schauer, Gillian; Asman, Kat; Jamal, Ahmed

    2017-01-06

    Quitting cigarette smoking benefits smokers at any age (1). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration-approved medications increase quit rates (1-3). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 objectives of increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who attempt to quit smoking cigarettes to ≥80.0% (TU-4.1), and increasing recent smoking cessation success to ≥8.0% (TU-5.1),* CDC assessed national estimates of cessation behaviors among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). During 2015, 68.0% of adult smokers wanted to stop smoking, 55.4% made a past-year quit attempt, 7.4% recently quit smoking, 57.2% had been advised by a health professional to quit, and 31.2% used cessation counseling and/or medication when trying to quit. During 2000-2015, increases occurred in the proportion of smokers who reported a past-year quit attempt, recently quit smoking, were advised to quit by a health professional, and used cessation counseling and/or medication (psmoking. As of 2015, 59.1% of adults who had ever smoked had quit. To further increase cessation, health care providers can consistently identify smokers, advise them to quit, and offer them cessation treatments (2-4). In addition, health insurers can increase cessation by covering and promoting evidence-based cessation treatments and removing barriers to treatment access (2,4-6).

  12. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  13. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  14. On the way of tobacco quitting: A VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; Christian Ben lakhdar; Thérèse Lebrun

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the process of tobacco quitting, we perform a VAR model and causality tests both on the monthly sales of tobacco products and nicotine dependence drugs in France, for the period going from February 2004 to April 2009. According to the path of tobacco quitting found out, it results that an upward harmonization of tax policy on the different tobacco products could accelerate the tobacco quitting process.

  15. RESULTS OF INTERBANK EXCHANGE RATES FORECASTING USING STATE SPACE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the performance of three alternative models for forecasting daily interbank exchange rate of U.S. dollar measured in Pak rupees. The simple ARIMA models and complex models such as GARCH-type models and a state space model are discussed and compared. Four different measures are used to evaluate the forecasting accuracy. The main result is the state space model provides the best performance among all the models.

  16. A representation result for rate-independent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    The representation formula for hysteresis operators acting on scalar-valued continuous input functions being piecewise monotone that was derived in Brokate and Sprekels (1996) [1] has been extended to results for hysteresis operators acting on vectorial input function, see Klein (2012, 2014) [2-5]. In the current paper, the representation result is extended to rate-independent systems, as considered for example in Mielke (2005) [9]. The input functions are requested to be continuous and to be piecewise strictly monotaffine, i.e. to be piecewise the composition of a strictly monotone increasing function with an affine function, the strictly monotone function being applied first.

  17. A representation result for rate-independent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Olaf, E-mail: olaf.klein@wias-berlin.de

    2016-04-01

    The representation formula for hysteresis operators acting on scalar-valued continuous input functions being piecewise monotone that was derived in Brokate and Sprekels (1996) [1] has been extended to results for hysteresis operators acting on vectorial input function, see Klein (2012, 2014) [2–5]. In the current paper, the representation result is extended to rate-independent systems, as considered for example in Mielke (2005) [9]. The input functions are requested to be continuous and to be piecewise strictly monotaffine, i.e. to be piecewise the composition of a strictly monotone increasing function with an affine function, the strictly monotone function being applied first.

  18. Results of experimental investigations of cobalt beta decay rate variation

    CERN Document Server

    Baurov, Yu A; Nikitin, V A; Dunin, V B; Tihomirov, V V; Sergeev, S V; Demchuk, N A

    2013-01-01

    Results of long-term investigations of variation of cobalt beta decay rate from 28.12.2010 till 08.02.2012 are presented. The scintillation spectrometer with two LaBr3 detectors is used to register of gamma-quanta with energy 1.173 and 1.332 MeV accompanying cobalt beta decay. Counting rate of each detector and their gamma-quanta coincidence are collected in successive time intervals 10 s. The statistical Kolmogorov-Smirnov method for data analysis is used. Temperature influence on experimental results is also analyzed. Deviations of beta decay counting rate from constant distribution during the days were detected in those decades: from 11.03 to 21.03 with significance level a = 0.1; from 22.04 to 02.05 with a=0.0125; from 24.06 to 04.07 with a=0.05; from 04.08 to 14.08 with a=0.05.

  19. Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out ... of nicotine patches or the drug Zyban helps pregnant women quit smoking before and after they give birth, a new ...

  20. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.; West, R.; de Vries, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite their positive motivation to quit, many smokers do not attempt to quit or relapse soon after their quit attempt. This study investigated the predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted secondary data ana

  1. Further Results on Dynamic Additive Hazard Rate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengcheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the proportional and additive hazard rate models have been investigated in the works. Nanda and Das (2011 introduced and studied the dynamic proportional (reversed hazard rate model. In this paper we study the dynamic additive hazard rate model, and investigate its aging properties for different aging classes. The closure of the model under some stochastic orders has also been investigated. Some examples are also given to illustrate different aging properties and stochastic comparisons of the model.

  2. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  3. When "no" might not quite mean "no"; the importance of informed and meaningful non-consent: results from a survey of individuals refusing participation in a health-related research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMurdo Marion ET

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low participation rates can lead to sampling bias, delays in completion and increased costs. Strategies to improve participation rates should address reasons for non-participation. However, most empirical research has focused on participants' motives rather than the reasons why non-participants refuse to take part. In this study we investigated the reasons why older people choose not to participate in a research project. Methods Follow-up study of people living in Tayside, Scotland who had opted-out of a cross-sectional survey on activities in retirement. Eight hundred and eighty seven people aged 65–84 years were invited to take part in a home-based cross-sectional survey. Of these, 471 refused to take part. Permission was obtained to follow-up 417 of the refusers. Demographic characteristics of people who refused to take part and the reasons they gave for not taking part were collected. Results 54% of those invited to take part in the original cross-sectional survey refused to do so. However, 61% of these individuals went on to participate in the follow-up study and provided reasons for their original refusal. For the vast majority of people initial non-participation did not reflect an objection to participating in research in principle but frequently stemmed from barriers or misunderstandings about the nature or process of the project itself. Only 28% indicated that they were "not interested in research". The meaningfulness of expressions of non-consent may therefore be called into question. Hierarchical log-linear modelling showed that refusal was independently influenced by age, gender and social class. However, this response pattern was different for the follow-up study in which reasons for non-participation in the first survey were sought. This difference in pattern and response rates supports the likely importance of recruitment issues that are research and context specific. Conclusion An expression of non

  4. Interactions Among Psychological Capital, Performance, Intention to Quit and Job Satisfaction: Moderating Effect of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Çetin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the psychological capital on job satisfaction, job performance and intention to quit and to determine the mediator and moderator roles of job satisfaction and gender in these relations. Focusing just the relations between variables, the data were collected with using survey method from 237 employees working different positions in a large scale private company in Ankara. The instruments were psychological capital scale (Luthans et al, 2007, job satisfaction scale (Hackman & Oldham, 1975, intention to quit scale (Mobley et al, 1978 and job performance ratings. Results showed that psychological capital has positive relations with job satisfaction and job performance, and negative relations with intention to quit; also job satisfaction has a mediator role in the relations between psychological capital and intention to quit. Moreover it was determined that gender has a moderator role in the relations of psychological capital- job satisfaction, and psychological capital-intention to quit. All these results were discussed in the light of previous findings.

  5. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse. ...

  6. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  7. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  8. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like ... out signals to direct your actions and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes ...

  9. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topi... ...

  10. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  11. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  12. QuitNowTXT Text Messaging Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Overview: The QuitNowTXT text messaging program is designed as a resource that can be adapted to specific contexts including those outside the United States and in...

  13. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ... 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control ...

  14. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse. ...

  15. Why Is It So Hard to Quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit? It’s hard to tackle the physical addiction to nicotine . Cigarettes contain nicotine, a highly addictive ... a support group can give you comfort and positive reinforcement. Cut back on caffeine . Caffeine is a ...

  16. Influence of Insulating Materials on Green Building Rating System Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bisegna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of a change in the thermal insulating material on both the energy and environmental performance of a building, evaluated through two different green building assessment methods: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED and Istituto per l’innovazione e Trasparenza degli Appalti e la Compatibilità Ambientale (ITACA. LEED is one of the most qualified rating systems at an international level; it assesses building sustainability thanks to a point-based system where credits are divided into six different categories. One of these is fully related to building materials. The ITACA procedure derives from the international evaluation system Sustainable Building Tool (SBTool, modified according to the Italian context. In the region of Umbria, ITACA certification is composed of 20 technical sheets, which are classified into five macro-areas. The analysis was developed on a residential building located in the central Italy. It was built taking into account the principles of sustainability as far as both structural and technical solutions are concerned. In order to evaluate the influence of thermal insulating material, different configurations of the envelope were considered, replacing the original material (glass wool with a synthetic one (expanded polystyrene, EPS and two natural materials (wood fiber and kenaf. The study aims to highlight how the materials characteristics can affect building energy and environmental performance and to point out the different approaches of the analyzed protocols.

  17. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  18. Field Cone Penetration Tests with Various Penetration Rates - Test Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The test site is located at Nordre Ringgade near the town called Dronninglund in the northern Jutland in Denmark. The site area is relatively flat, and was chosen because it has a size of approximately 3 ha and contains a relatively thick deposit of silty soils. Furthermore the groundwater...... was encountered at approximately 0.2-0.6 m below the ground level. The soil stratigraphy of the test site was before test start identified by geotechnical borings results. The geotechnical borings indicated that the site contains of sandy silt with clay stripes from approx. 4.0 to 10 m. In the top the silty soil...... is very sandy with few clay stripes, and gradually the clay stripes increases wherefore the soil from approx. 10 m contains of clay with sandy silt stripes. Large soil sample was also collected from the test site in order to determine basic soil properties in the laboratory....

  19. Life gain in Italian smokers who quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzi, Laura; Falcone, Franco; Carreras, Giulia; Pistelli, Francesco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Martini, Andrea; Viegi, Giovanni

    2014-02-26

    This study aims to estimate the number of life years gained with quitting smoking in Italian smokers of both sexes, by number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day) and age at cessation. All-cause mortality tables by age, sex and smoking status were computed, based on Italian smoking data, and the survival curves of former and current smokers were compared. The more cig/day a man/woman smokes, and the younger his/her age of quitting smoking, the more years of life he/she gains with cessation. In fact, cessation at age 30, 40, 50, or 60 years gained, respectively, about 7, 7, 6, or 5, and 5, 5, 4, or 3 years of life, respectively, for men and women that smoked 10-19 cig/day. The gain in life years was higher for heavy smokers (9 years for >20 cig/day) and lower for light smokers (4 years for 1-9 cig/day). Consistently with prospective studies conducted worldwide, quitting smoking increases life expectancy regardless of age, gender and number of cig/day. The estimates of the number of years of life that could be gained by quitting smoking, when computed specifically for a single smoker, could be used by physicians and health professionals to promote a quit attempt.

  20. Why Don’t Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers’ Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Morphett

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker’s addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual’s situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers’ views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers’ attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  1. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-10

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  2. Smoking prevalence, readiness to quit and smoking cessation in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Degen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the interaction between smoking and the virus and the antiretroviral therapy, the excess health hazard due to smoking is higher in HIV+ patients than in the general population. International studies suggest a higher prevalence of smoking in HIV+ subjects compared to the general population. It was the aim of the study to assess prevalence of smoking, to analyze determinants of smoking, and to evaluate readiness to quit in HIV+ patients in Germany and Austria. Material and Methods: Consecutive patients with positive tested HIV status, smokers and non-smokers, who are treated in seven different HIV care centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependency (FTND, and stages of change by a standardized readiness to quit questionnaire. Self-reported smoking status was objectified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Smokers who wanted to quit were offered a structured smoking cessation programme, and those who did not want to quit received a 1-minute consultation. After six months, the smoking status of all included subjects was reassessed. Results: A total of 447 patients were included; the response rate was 92%. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower age, male sex, lower educational level, and smoking of the partner were significantly associated with the smoking status. According to the FTND, 25.3% showed a low (0–2 points, 27.6 a moderate (3–4 points and 47.1% a high (5–10 points dependency. Regarding stages of change, 15.4% of the smokers were in the stadium precontemplation, 48.4 in contemplation, 15.4 in preparation and 10.0 in the stadium action. 11.0% were not assignable in any stadium. Higher education level and lower grade of dependency were significantly associated with the wish to quit smoking. Six months after the baseline examination, smoking cessation visits (at least

  3. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help you or a loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse. ... 770 views 1:35 Let's quit abusing drug users - Duration: 19:02. TEDMED 216,321 views 19: ...

  4. Job Insecurity As Moderating Employee Engagement Toward Intention To Quit At Goverment Bank In Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Rusyandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the importance of employee engagement and its relationship to employee intent to quit witch moderated by job insecurity on employees frontline state bank in Bandung City Indonesia. The method used is explanatory survey method that this study took a sample of the population with a questionnaire and interview techniques as the primary means of data collection. The subjects of the study were also as the unit of analysis in this study is the frontline employees teller and customer service that serve the general customers where the position is vulnerable to employee turnover whereas they are the spearhead or the forefront frontline that connects to the customers bank the customer . A randomly selected sample of 4 bank was used in this study. A total of 270 respondents participated. Data were analyzed using Smart PLS 2.0. The linear regression analysis indicated there was a significant strong and negative linear relationship between employee engagement level and employee intent to quit rate. The results of this research promote employee engagement is a significant negative effect amounted 4142 of the intention to quit while the variable job insecurity is not proven significantly. The conclusion from this study is that the employe engagement give significant influence on the intention to quit and variable job insecurity is not a variable moderation.

  5. Differential success rates in racial groups: Results of a clinical trial of smoking cessation among female prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Michael F.; Eldridge, Gloria D.; Villalobos, Gabriela C.; Best, Al M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction This study replicated prior observations of racial differences in smoking cessation in which Black smokers have demonstrated lower smoking cessation rates than White smokers. Methods The study used data from a smoking cessation intervention and compared White and Black female prisoners (N = 233) on a 10-week intervention of group psychotherapy and nicotine replacement (patch). Generalized estimating equations were used to model smoking cessation across the 12-month follow-up. Results Compared with an untreated control group, both Black and White smokers benefited from the cessation treatment. However, after controlling for potential confounds, White smokers had significantly higher overall smoking cessation rates across time compared with Black smokers (e.g., 30% vs. 24% abstinent at 6 weeks; 13% vs. 10% abstinent at 12 months). Smoking mentholated cigarettes was not associated with these differences in quit rates. Discussion Understanding differential treatment responses can lead to the development of more tailored and efficacious smoking cessation interventions that may reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in prison populations. PMID:19386816

  6. Brief Advice on Smoking Reduction Versus Abrupt Quitting for Smoking Cessation in Chinese Smokers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William H; Cheung, Yee Tak; Lam, Oi Bun; Wu, Yongda; Kwong, Antonio C; Lai, Vienna W; Chan, Sophia S; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-02-09

    To compare the efficacy of brief advice about cut-down-to-quit (CDTQ) with that of brief advice about quit immediately (QI), as delivered by trained volunteers, without the use of pharmacological therapy, to outreach-recruited Chinese smokers in Hong Kong who intend to quit smoking. Smokers (N = 1077) who enrolled in the Quit and Win Contest 2014 and intended to quit or reduce smoking were randomized in participation sessions to CDTQ (n = 559) and QI (n = 518) groups. Subjects in the CDTQ group received brief advice and a card about smoking reduction. Subjects in the QI group received brief advice and a leaflet about quitting smoking. All received a smoking cessation booklet and corresponding CDTQ or QI brief telephone advice at intervals of 1 week, 1 month, or 2 months. The primary outcomes were self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) at the 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. The secondary outcomes included abstinence rate as validated by biochemical tests, smoking reduction (≥50% reduction from baseline), and quit attempt (QA). The outcome assessors were blinded as to group assignment. By intention to treat, the QI and CDTQ groups showed similar results as regards (i) self-reported PPA (10.6% [95% CI 8.1%-13.6%] vs. 9.1% [95% CI 6.9%-11.8%]), (ii) validated abstinence rate (5.6% [3.8%-7.9%] vs. 5.4% [3.6%-7.6%]), and (iii) QA rate (59.2% [53.5%-64.8%] vs. 54.1% [48.7%-59.3%]) at 6-month. However, the CDTQ group showed a significantly higher reduction rate than the QI group (20.9% [CI 17.6%-24.5%] vs. 14.5% [11.6%-17.8%]). The overall intervention adherence was suboptimal (45.4%), particularly in the CDTQ group (42.3%). Self-efficacy as regards quitting of smoking was similar between the groups at 6 months. Brief advice on CDTQ and QI had similar short-term PPAs. Longer-term follow-up is needed to understand the latent effect of smoking reduction on abstinence. This is the first randomized controlled trial in ethnic Chinese smokers to evaluate the

  7. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  8. Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: a social network quit-smoking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Delucchi, Kevin; Lakon, Cynthia M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated a novel Twitter-delivered intervention for smoking cessation, Tweet2Quit, which sends daily, automated communications to small, private, self-help groups to encourage high-quality, online, peer-to-peer discussions. A 2-group randomised controlled trial assessed the net benefit of adding a Tweet2Quit support group to a usual care control condition of nicotine patches and a cessation website. Participants were 160 smokers (4 cohorts of 40/cohort), aged 18-59 years, who intended to quit smoking, used Facebook daily, texted weekly, and had mobile phones with unlimited texting. All participants received 56 days of nicotine patches, emails with links to the smokefree.gov cessation website, and instructions to set a quit date within 7 days. Additionally, Tweet2Quit participants were enrolled in 20-person, 100-day Twitter groups, and received daily discussion topics via Twitter, and daily engagement feedback via text. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence at 7, 30 and 60 days post-quit date. Participants (mean age 35.7 years, 26.3% male, 31.2% college degree, 88.7% Caucasian) averaged 18.0 (SD=8.2) cigarettes per day and 16.8 (SD=9.8) years of smoking. Participants randomised to Tweet2Quit averaged 58.8 tweets/participant and the average tweeting duration was 47.4 days/participant. Tweet2Quit doubled sustained abstinence out to 60 days follow-up (40.0%, 26/65) versus control (20.0%, 14/70), OR=2.67, CI 1.19 to 5.99, p=0.017. Tweeting via phone predicted tweet volume, and tweet volume predicted sustained abstinence (p<0.001). The daily autocommunications caused tweeting spikes accounting for 24.0% of tweets. Tweet2Quit was engaging and doubled sustained abstinence. Its low cost and scalability makes it viable as a global cessation treatment. NCT01602536. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. Results A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate. Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77% and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2 lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8% reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%, cash rewards (52% and non-cash rewards (47% for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%. Conclusions Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  10. Quitting drugs: quantitative and qualitative features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gene M

    2013-01-01

    According to the idea that addiction is a chronic relapsing disease, remission is at most a temporary state. Either addicts never stop using drugs, or if they do stop, remission is short lived. However, research on remission reveals a more complex picture. In national epidemiological surveys that recruited representative drug users, remission rates varied widely and were markedly different for legal and illegal drugs and for different racial/ethnic groups. For instance, the half-life for cocaine dependence was four years, but for alcohol dependence it was 16 years, and although most dependent cocaine users remitted before age 30, about 5% remained heavy cocaine users well into their forties. Although varied, the remission results were orderly. An exponential growth curve closely approximated the cumulative frequency of remitting for different drugs and different ethnic/racial groups. Thus, each year a constant proportion of those still addicted remitted, independent of the number of years since the onset of dependence.

  11. Online tobacco websites and online communities-who uses them and do users quit smoking? The quit-primo and national dental practice-based research network Hi-Quit studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Sadasivam, Rajani S; DeLaughter, Kathryn; Kamberi, Ariana; Volkman, Julie E; Cobb, Nathan; Gilbert, Gregg H; Ray, Midge N; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-12-01

    Online tobacco cessation communities are beneficial but underused. Our study examined whether, among smokers participating in a web-assisted tobacco intervention (Decide2quit.org), specific characteristics were associated with navigating to BecomeAnEx.org, an online cessation community, and with subsequent quit rates. Among smokers (N = 759) registered with Decide2quit.org, we identified visitors to BecomeAnEx.org, examining associations between smoker characteristics and likelihood of visiting. We then tested for associations between visits and 6-month cessation (point prevalence). We also tested for an interaction between use of other online support-seeking (Decide2quit.org tobacco cessation coaches), visiting, and 6-month cessation. One quarter (26.0 %; n = 197) of the smokers visited BecomeAnEx.org; less than one tenth (7.5 %; n = 57) registered to participate in the online forum. Visitors were more likely to be female (73.0 vs. 62.6 % of non-visitors, P Online cessation communities attract smokers with previous cessation website experience and recent quit attempts. Community visiting was not associated with quit rates in our study, but low use may have limited our power to detect differences. Further research should explore whether an additive effect can be achieved by offering community visitors support via online coaches.

  12. Age at quitting smoking as a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease incidence independent of smoking status, time since quitting and pack-years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walls Helen L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk prediction for CVD events has been shown to vary according to current smoking status, pack-years smoked over a lifetime, time since quitting and age at quitting. The latter two are closely and inversely related. It is not known whether the age at which one quits smoking is an additional important predictor of CVD events. The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of CVD events varied according to age at quitting after taking into account current smoking status, lifetime pack-years smoked and time since quitting. Findings We used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the risk of developing a first CVD event for a cohort of participants in the Framingham Offspring Heart Study who attended the fourth examination between ages 30 and 74 years and were free of CVD. Those who quit before the median age of 37 years had a risk of CVD incidence similar to those who were never smokers. The incorporation of age at quitting in the smoking variable resulted in better prediction than the model which had a simple current smoker/non-smoker measure and the one that incorporated both time since quitting and pack-years. These models demonstrated good discrimination, calibration and global fit. The risk among those quitting more than 5 years prior to the baseline exam and those whose age at quitting was prior to 44 years was similar to the risk among never smokers. However, the risk among those quitting less than 5 years prior to the baseline exam and those who continued to smoke until 44 years of age (or beyond was two and a half times higher than that of never smokers. Conclusions Age at quitting improves the prediction of risk of CVD incidence even after other smoking measures are taken into account. The clinical benefit of adding age at quitting to the model with other smoking measures may be greater than the associated costs. Thus, age at quitting should be considered in addition to smoking status, time since

  13. The Genetic Equidistance Result of Molecular Evolution is Independent of Mutation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi

    2008-12-26

    The well-established genetic equidistance result shows that sister species are approximately equidistant to a simpler outgroup as measured by DNA or protein dissimilarity. The equidistance result is the most direct evidence, and remains the only evidence, for the constant mutation rate interpretation of this result, known as the molecular clock. However, data independent of the equidistance result have steadily accumulated in recent years that often violate a constant mutation rate. Many have automatically inferred non-equidistance whenever a non-constant mutation rate was observed, based on the unproven assumption that the equidistance result is an outcome of constant mutation rate. Here it is shown that the equidistance result remains valid even when different species can be independently shown to have different mutation rates. A random sampling of 50 proteins shows that nearly all proteins display the equidistance result despite the fact that many proteins have non-constant mutation rates. Therefore, the genetic equidistance result does not necessarily mean a constant mutation rate. Observations of different mutation rates do not invalidate the genetic equidistance result. New ideas are needed to explain the genetic equidistance result that must grant different mutation rates to different species and must be independently testable.

  14. Contrasting snus and NRT as methods to quit smoking. an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffels Janne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Snus is considerably less hazardous to health than cigarettes. Recent data from Scandinavia have indicated that many smokers use snus as a method for quitting smoking. Methods Data from five repeated cross-sectional surveys of Norwegian men and women aged 16-74 were pooled (N = 6 262. Respondents were asked about current and former smoking and snus use. Former daily smokers (N = 1219 and current daily smokers who had tried to quit at least once (N = 1118 were asked about the method they had used at their latest quit attempt and how many quit attempts they had made. Former smokers were also requested to report what year they had made their final quit attempt. Results Snus was the most common method used for quitting smoking among men, while NRT was most often used among women. Stratifying the data according to year of quitting smoking (1945-2007 indicated a significant increase in use of the methods for quitting asked about over time. Among men, this was largely due to an increase in the use of snus. Among male quitters under the age of 45 years, 45.8% of those who had used snus on their last attempt to quit were current non-smokers (OR = 1.61, CI 1.04-2.29, while 26,3% of those who had used NRT were current non-smokers. 59.6% of successful quitters and 19.5% of unsuccessful quitters who had used snus as a method for quitting smoking had continued to use snus on a daily basis after quitting. Conclusion Norwegian men frequently use snus as a method for quitting smoking whereas women are more likely to use NRT. The findings indicate that switching to snus can be an effective method for quitting smoking.

  15. Results on stabilization of nonlinear systems under finite data-rate constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De

    2004-01-01

    We discuss in this paper a result concerning the stabilization problem of nonlinear systems under data-rate constraints using output feedback. To put the result in a broader context, we shall first review a number of recent contributions on the stabilization problem under data-rate constraints when

  16. Successful Quitting (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-12

    Quitting smoking is a major challenge for many people. Seeking help and using proven techniques can improve your chances of quitting for good. In this podcast, Steve Babb discusses ways to successfully quit smoking.  Created: 1/12/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/12/2017.

  17. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Man Singh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years and late adolescence (16–19 years. Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%. The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%. Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45. Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation.

  18. Modelling of water potential and water uptake rate of tomato plants in the greenhouse: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, G.T.; Schouwink, H.E.; Gieling, Th.H.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented which predicts water potential and water uptake rate of greenhouse tomato plants using transpiration rate as input. The model assumes that water uptake is the resultant of water potential and hydraulic resistance, and that water potential is linearly related to water con

  19. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  20. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can initial perceptions about quitting predict smoking cessation among Malaysian smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Masilamani, Retneswari; Ming, Moy Foong; Koh, David; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking may be important factors in successful treatment. This study examined the association between initial perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and outcomes during a two month smoking cessation attempt. Participants (n = 185) were treatment-seeking smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia. They received structured behavioral therapy and free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT). Prior to treatment, a 12 item Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PRBQ) was administered. This was used to assess the smoker's initial perceptions during their quit attempt. Participants were re-contacted at the end of two months to determine their smoking status. The results show participants intending to quit demonstrated a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting smoking than the risks of quitting. Those with a higher education level had a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting (p = 0.02). PRBQ items, such as perceived risks of quitting (ie weight gain, negative affect, social ostracism, loss of enjoyment and craving) were not associated with abstinence at two months. However, those who perceived a benefit of higher physical attraction post-cessation were less likely to have stopped smoking at two months (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.08-0.45). Other perceived benefits at baseline, such as health, general well-being, self-esteem, finances and social approval, were not associated with smoking cessation at two months. The results suggest that in our study population, smokers' baseline perceptions of the benefits of cessation of smoking prior to therapy are not associated with quit results at two months. Counseling patients regarding the advantages and disadvantages of quitting may have changed their perceptions during quitting process and should be further explored in future studies.

  2. Reported planning before and after quitting and quit success: retrospective data from the ITC 4-Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, James; Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Planning before quitting smoking is widely believed to be beneficial and is usually recommended in cessation counseling, but there is little evidence on the efficacy of specific planning activities. Using data from 1140 respondents who reported quit attempts at Wave 8 of the ITC 4-Country Survey, we analyzed use of 8 specific planning strategies before (5) and after (3) implementation of a quit attempt, in relation to cessation outcomes, delay in implementation of the attempt, and recent quitting history. Most participants reported some planning both before and after quitting, even among those reporting quitting 'spontaneously.' Younger smokers, those who cut down before quitting, and users of stop-smoking medication were more likely to report planning. Those who planned prequit were also more likely to plan postquit. Unexpectedly, we found no clear benefit of planning on short-term (1 month) cessation outcomes, whereas one prequit strategy (practicing not smoking) was negatively related to outcome. There was evidence for a predicted moderating effect of recent quitting experience on planning for the prequit task 'practice replacement strategies.' This predicted quit success among those with multiple quit attempts in the past year, but failure among those without. This finding suggests that the quality of planning may be critical. More research, particularly on the moderating effect of quit experience, and where measures of planning are collected before outcomes become evident, is needed before clear recommendations can be made on the utility of various forms of planning for the success of quit attempts.

  3. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-09-20

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Did Unilateral Divorce Laws Raise Divorce Rates? A Reconciliation and New Results

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Wolfers

    2003-01-01

    Application of the Coase Theorem to marital bargaining suggests that shifting from a consent divorce regime to no-fault unilateral divorce laws should not affect divorce rates. Each iteration of the empirical literature examining the evolution of divorce rates across US states has yielded different conclusions about the effects of divorce law liberalization. I show that these results reflect a failure to jointly consider both the political endogeneity of these divorce laws and the dynamic res...

  5. The influence of thoron on measurement results of radon exhalation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao De Tao; Ling Qiu; Leung, J K C

    2002-01-01

    Because of thoron exhalation, the measurement results of radon exhalation rate using a local still method is usually larger than the true value of radon flux rate of the monitored material surface. The influence of sup 2 sup 1 sup 6 Po(ThA) on radon exhalation rate can be eliminated for sensitive radon monitors. Theoretical evaluations of the influence of sup 2 sup 1 sup 2 Bi(ThC) and sup 2 sup 1 sup 2 Po(ThC')on radon exhalation rate are carried out in a sampler with diameter of 188 mm, and height of 125 mm, and supplied electrostatic field inside (generated by high voltage and electret) under following conditions: the sampling time are 1, 2, 3 h, respectively, thoron exhalation rate is 100 times of radon's. The calculation results indicate that the measurement results of radon flux rate are possibly 35.5% larger than true value due to the influence of thoron for fast and multifunctional radon monitors with electret, high voltage, respectively and using CR-39 SSNTD as detector, but this influence is negligib...

  6. A Decision Tree Approach for Predicting Smokers' Quit Intentions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Ding; Susan Bedingfield; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ron Borland; David Young; Jian-Ying Zhang; Sonja Petrovic-Lazarevic; Ken Coghill

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a decision tree approach for predicting smokers'quit intentions using the data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Three rule-based classification models are generated from three data sets using attributes in relation to demographics, warning labels, and smokers' beliefs. Both demographic attributes and warning label attributes are important in predicting smokers' quit intentions. The model's ability to predict smokers' quit intentions is enhanced, if the attributes regarding smokers' internal motivation and beliefs about quitting are included.

  7. Inadequate control of heart rate in patients with stable angina: results from the European heart survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daly, C.A.; Clemens, F.; Sendon, J.L.; Tavazzi, L.; Boersma, E.; Danchin, N.; Delahaye, F.; Gitt, A.; Julian, D.; Mulcahy, D.; Ruzyllo, W.; Thygesen, K.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Fox, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To examine resting heart rate (HR) in a population presenting with stable angina in relation to prior and subsequent pharmacological treatment, comorbid conditions and clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The European Heart Survey was a prospective, observational, cohort study of 3779 patien

  8. Combined results on b-hadron production rates, lifetimes, oscillations and semileptonic decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Andreev, V; Barberio, E; Battaglia, Marco; Blyth, S; Boix, G; Bourdarios, C; Calvi, M; Checchia, P; Coyle, P; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Gagnon, P; Hawkings, R; Hayes, O J; Henrard, P; Hessing, T L; Jimack, Martin Paul; Kroll, I J; Leroy, O; Lucchesi, D; Margoni, M; Mele, S; Moser, H G; Muheim, F; Palla, Fabrizio; Pallin, D; Parodi, F; Paulini, M; Piotto, E; Privitera, P; Rosnet, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rousseau, D; Schneider, O; Schwick, C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Simonetto, F; Spagnolo, P; Stocchi, A; Su, D; Usher, T; Weiser, C; Wells, P S; Wicklund, B; Willocq, S

    2000-01-01

    Combined results on b-hadron lifetimes, b-hadron production rates, B&0_d - Bbar^0_d and B^0_s - Bbar^0_s oscillations, the decay width difference between the mass eigenstates of the B^s0_s - Bbar^0_s system, and the values of the CKM

  9. Corporate interest rate risk management with derivatives in Australia: empirical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Ferreira Carneiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial and insurance theories explain that large widely-held corporations manage corporate risks if doing so is costective to reduce frictional costs such as taxes, agency costs and financial distress costs. A large number of previous empirical studies, most in the U.S., have tested the hypotheses underlying corporate risk management with financial derivative instruments. In order to quantify corporate hedge demand, most previous studies have used the ratio of principal notional amount of derivatives to company size, although they recognize that company size is not an appropriate proxy for financial risk. This paper analyzes the interest-rate-risk hedge demand by Australian companies, measured through the ratio of principal notional amount of interest rate derivatives to interest-rate-riskbearing liabilities. Modern panel data methods are used, with two panel data sets from 1998 to 2003 (1102 and 465 observations, respectively. Detailed information about interest-rate-risk exposures was available after manual data collection from financial annual reports, which was only possible due to specific reporting requirements in Australian accounting standards. Regarding the analysis of the extent of hedge, our measurement of interest-rate-risk exposures generates some significant results di erent from those found in previous studies. For example, this study shows that total leverage (total debt ratio is not significantly important to interest-rate-risk hedge demand and that, instead, this demand is related to the specific risk exposure in the interest bearing part of the firms liabilities. This study finds significant relations of interest-rate-risk hedge to company size, floating-interest-rate debt ratio, annual log returns, and company industry type (utilities and non-banking financial institutions.

  10. Effectiveness of an Intervention to Teach Physicians How to Assist Patients to Quit Smoking in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez Stable, Eliseo J; Kaplan, Celia P; Gregorich, Steven E; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Peña, Lorena; Alderete, Mariela; Schoj, Veronica; Alderete, Ethel

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated an intervention to teach physicians how to help their smoking patients quit compared to usual care in Argentina. Physicians were recruited from six clinical systems and randomized to intervention (didactic curriculum in two 3-hour sessions) or usual care. Smoking patients who saw participating physicians within 30 days of the intervention (index clinical visit) were randomly sampled and interviewed by telephone with follow-up surveys at months 6 and 12 after the index clinical visit. Outcomes were tobacco abstinence (main), quit attempt in the past month, use of medications to quit smoking, and cigarettes per day. Repeated measures on the same participants were accommodated via generalized linear mixed models. Two hundred fifty-four physicians were randomized; average age 44.5 years, 53% women and 12% smoked. Of 1378 smoking patients surveyed, 81% were women and 45% had more than 12 years of education. At 1 month, most patients (77%) reported daily smoking, 20% smoked some days and 3% had quit. Mean cigarettes smoked per day was 12.9 (SD = 8.8) and 49% were ready to quit within the year. Intention-to-treat analyses did not show significant group differences in quit rates at 12 months when assuming outcome response was missing at random (23% vs. 24.1%, P = .435). Using missing=smoking imputation rule, quit rates were not different at 12 months (15.6% vs. 16.4% P = .729). Motivated smokers were more likely to quit at 6 months (17.7% vs. 9.6%, P = .03). Training in tobacco cessation for physicians did not improve abstinence among their unselected smoking patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Investigating the Effect of Emotional Intelligence on the Addiction Relapse after Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Raisjouyan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addiction is multi-dimensional medical problem and psychologic defects have a major role on its establishment. This study was designed to determine the effect of emotional quotient (EQ on the rate of addiction relapse after quitting. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study on 22 to 51 year old subjects who were being treated at chemical dependency rehabilitation centers in Mashhad, Iran, during December 2012 to May 2013. For assessment of EQ, the Persian version of Bar-On EQ questionnaire was employed at first visit of each patient. During the rehabilitation therapy, the subjects were visited monthly. The data of patients were collected during the first 6 months post-quitting. Results: One-hundred sixty subjects were studied which 87% of them were men. Mean (SD score of patients' EQ was 11.9 (2.8. The mean number of addiction relapses was 2.1 (2.8. Data analysis showed that there was a significant inverse correlation between EQ score and the number of relapses (r = -0.82, P = 0.05. In addition, it was found that the EQ score had a direct significant relationship with age (r = 0.33, P = 0.05. No significant correlation between type of abused substance and the number of relapses was found. Conclusion: EQ has a positive impact on preventing addiction relapse. Increasing EQ through educational programs can be used as a preventive measure for treating addict persons.   How to cite this article: Raisjouyan Z, Talebi M, Ghasimi Shahgaldi F, Abdollahian E. Investigating the Effect of Emotional Intelligence on the Addiction Relapse after Quitting. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:27-30.

  12. Quit Behavior and the Role of Job Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Gielen (Anne); K. Tatsiramos (Konstantinos)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractJob protection reduces job turnover by changing firms’ hiring and firing decisions. Yet the effect of job protection on workers’ quit decisions and post-quit outcomes is still unknown. We present the first evidence using individual panel data from 12 European countries, which differ both

  13. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucinska Romana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. Results In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76% used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001, mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%. The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%, personal health problems (32% and social reasons (32%. However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3% abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. Conclusion The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is

  14. Cigarette smoking in pregnant substance users: Association with substance use and desire to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.

  15. Some results on convergence rates for probabilities of moderate deviations for sums of random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deli Li

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X, Xn, n≥1 be a sequence of iid real random variables, and Sn=∑k=1nXk, n≥1. Convergence rates of moderate deviations are derived, i.e., the rate of convergence to zero of certain tail probabilities of the partial sums are determined. For example, we obtain equivalent conditions for the convergence of series ∑n≥1(ψ2(n/nP(|Sn|≥nφ(n only under the assumptions convergence that EX=0 and EX2=1, where φ and ψ are taken from a broad class of functions. These results generalize and improve some recent results of Li (1991 and Gafurov (1982 and some previous work of Davis (1968. For b∈[0,1] and ϵ>0, letλϵ,b=∑n≥3((loglognb/nI(|Sn|≥(2+ϵnloglogn.The behaviour of Eλϵ,b as ϵ↓0 is also studied.

  16. An Alternative Approach for Determining Photoionization Rate in H2+: Numerical Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu; ZHANG Gui-Zhong; XIANG Wang-Hua; W.T. Hill Ⅲ

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present an alternative approach for determining the photoionization rate of hydrogen molecules under the interaction of intense light, by calculating the spatial overlap integral between the potential function and the time-dependent wavefunction. The suggested method was applied to varying excitation pulse shapes: square envelope and chirped hyperbolic secant envelope. The computed results confirmed that our method was robust and could be extended to general molecular dynamics calculations.

  17. Improved results in proteomics by use of local and peptide-class specific false discovery rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukowski-Wills Jimi-Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic protein identification results need to be compared across laboratories and platforms, and thus a reliable method is needed to estimate false discovery rates. The target-decoy strategy is a platform-independent and thus a prime candidate for standardized reporting of data. In its current usage based on global population parameters, the method does not utilize individual peptide scores optimally. Results Here we show that proteomic analyses largely benefit from using separate treatment of peptides matching to proteins alone or in groups based on locally estimated false discovery rates. Our implementation reduces the number of false positives and simultaneously increases the number of proteins identified. Importantly, single peptide identifications achieve defined confidence and the sequence coverage of proteins is optimized. As a result, we improve the number of proteins identified in a human serum analysis by 58% without compromising identification confidence. Conclusion We show that proteins can reliably be identified with a single peptide and the sequence coverage for multi-peptide proteins can be increased when using an improved estimation of false discovery rates.

  18. Physician's advice on quitting smoking in HIV and TB patients in south India: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S R; Pooranagangadevi, N; Rajendran, M; Mayer, K; Flanigan, T; Niaura, R; Balaguru, S; Venkatesan, P; Swaminathan, S

    2017-03-21

    Setting: National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Madurai, India. Objective: To determine the efficacy of physician's advice on quitting smoking compared with standard counselling in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Design/Methods: This was a clinical trial conducted in Madurai, south India, among 160 male patients (80 with TB and 80 with HIV), randomised and stratified by nicotine dependence (low/high according to the Fagerström scale), who received physician's advice with standard counselling or standard counselling alone for smoking cessation. Abstinence at 1 month was assessed by self-report and carbon monoxide breath analysis. Results: The patients' mean age was 39.4 years (SD 8.5). Overall, 35% of the patients had high nicotine dependence. Most patients (41%) smoked both cigarettes and bidis. In a combined analysis including both the HIV and the TB groups, quit rates were 41% of the 68 patients in the physician group and 35% of the 68 patients in the standard counselling arm. Conclusions: Physician's advice to quit smoking delivered to patients with TB or HIV is feasible and acceptable. Smoking cessation could easily be initiated in TB patients in programme settings. Future studies should assess long-term abstinence rates with a larger sample size to demonstrate the efficacy of physician's advice.

  19. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Yzer, M.C.; Willemsen, M.C.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the

  20. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Putte; M.C. Yzer; M.C. Willemsen; G.J. de Bruijn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the t

  1. Pre-quitting nicotine replacement therapy: Findings from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace-Bell Mark

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT while still smoking in the lead up to quitting could enhance success at quitting, one of the most cost-effective means of improving health, but little is known about its acceptability and tolerability. Aim To test the acceptability and tolerability of using NRT while smoking for two weeks before quitting, to inform a randomised controlled trial of pre-quitting NRT versus usual NRT-based quitting practice. Methods Prospective pragmatic uncontrolled clinic-based pilot study in which 14 adult smokers recruited from a smoking cessation clinic were prescribed nicotine patches or gum with follow up for two weeks. Data were collected on participants' concerns about smoking while using NRT, importance of quitting, urges to smoke, smoking behaviour, previous NRT use and the length of the pre-quitting period. Urine tests were collected weekly for cotinine, and participants recorded smoking activity and noted experiences and changes in their health in diaries. Results Only 21% of 14 participants expressed concerns about using NRT while smoking. All of the nine followed up used it as recommended, 56% of these reporting no unpleasant symptoms. Median urine cotinine levels declined over the two weeks. Urges to smoke averaged 1.8 on a 4-point scale. All participants decreased the number of cigarettes per day. Diary records showed wide variation in smoking and NRT use, with an increased sense of control and determination to quit. Conclusion Smokers using pre-quitting NRT over two weeks appeared to titrate nicotine levels and symptoms of toxicity were uncommon and of low intensity.

  2. Single-plate Molteno implants in complicated glaucomas : Results, survival rates, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakantan Arvind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two single-plate single-stage Molteno implantations for complicated glaucomas were performed between March 1991 and November 1992. The charts of all these patients were reviewed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP control success rate (< 21 mm Hg with or without medications, visual success rate (retention or improvement of visual acuity from preoperative level and the rate of complications encountered. A Kaplan-Meier life-table (survival analysis was also performed. IOP control was obtained in 74.2% of cases. Mean postoperative IOP was 16.97 +/- 8.07 mm Hg (Mean +/- SD. Visual success was obtained in 51.6% of the eyes. Eyes with aphakia/pseudophakic glaucomas showed the best response with 80% of them achieving IOP control and 60% achieving visual success. The survival plot for IOP control revealed 75.81% and 74.19% success rates at 48 and 72 weeks, respectively. Complications encountered were either due to the early postoperative hypotony or were tube-related. These results were gratifying considering the severity of the glaucoma in these cases and they reaffirm the usefulness of the Molteno implant in the management of difficult glaucomas.

  3. Pain intensity rating training: results from an exploratory study of the ACTTION PROTECCT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon M; Amtmann, Dagmar; Askew, Robert L; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Hunsinger, Matthew; Jensen, Mark P; McDermott, Michael P; Patel, Kushang V; Williams, Mark; Bacci, Elizabeth D; Burke, Laurie B; Chambers, Christine T; Cooper, Stephen A; Cowan, Penney; Desjardins, Paul; Etropolski, Mila; Farrar, John T; Gilron, Ian; Huang, I-zu; Katz, Mitchell; Kerns, Robert D; Kopecky, Ernest A; Rappaport, Bob A; Resnick, Malca; Strand, Vibeke; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Veasley, Christin; Versavel, Mark; Wasan, Ajay D; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Clinical trial participants often require additional instruction to prevent idiosyncratic interpretations regarding completion of patient-reported outcomes. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership developed a training system with specific, standardized guidance regarding daily average pain intensity ratings. A 3-week exploratory study among participants with low-back pain, osteoarthritis of the knee or hip, and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy was conducted, randomly assigning participants to 1 of 3 groups: training with human pain assessment (T+); training with automated pain assessment (T); or no training with automated pain assessment (C). Although most measures of validity and reliability did not reveal significant differences between groups, some benefit was observed in discriminant validity, amount of missing data, and ranking order of least, worst, and average pain intensity ratings for participants in Group T+ compared with the other groups. Prediction of greater reliability in average pain intensity ratings in Group T+ compared with the other groups was not supported, which might indicate that training produces ratings that reflect the reality of temporal pain fluctuations. Results of this novel study suggest the need to test the training system in a prospective analgesic treatment trial.

  4. Match injury rates in professional soccer vary with match result, match venue, and type of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Håkan; Ekstrand, Jan; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Player activities in soccer matches are influenced by the match result and match venue. It is not known whether injury rates are influenced by these factors. To investigate whether there are associations between injury rates and the match result, venue, and type of competition in male soccer. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-six professional clubs from 10 countries were followed prospectively during 9 seasons (2001-2002 to 2009-2010). All matches, and injuries occurring in these matches, were registered by the team's medical staff. An injury was registered if it resulted in player absence from training or matches. Information about match result, venue, and type of competition for all reported matches was gathered by the authors from online databases. Injury rates in matches with varying match characteristics were compared by use of generalized estimating equations. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 2738 injuries during 6010 matches were registered. There were no associations between odds of 1 injury occurrence and match result or type of competition, whereas the odds were decreased in matches played away compared with home matches (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99). The odds of 2 or more injury occurrences in a match were increased in matches resulting in a draw (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.69) or loss (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.38-1.98) compared with matches won and were decreased in other cup matches compared with league matches (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39-0.84) and in matches played away compared with home matches (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.82). Finally, injuries with more than 1 week's absence occurred more frequently in Champions League matches compared with league matches both for matches with 1 injury (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45) and matches with 2 or more injuries (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.13-2.20). The odds of 2 or more injury occurrences in professional soccer were higher in matches resulting in a loss or a draw compared

  5. On the influence of strain rate in acousto-elasticity : experimental results for Berea sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J. V.; Candela, T.; Scuderi, M.; Marone, C.; Guyer, R. A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Elastic nonlinear effects are pervasive in the Earth, including during strong ground motion, tidal forcing and earthquake slip processes. We study elastic nonlinear effects in the laboratory with the goal of developing new methods to probe elastic changes in the Earth, and to characterize and understand their origins. Here we report on nonlinear, frequency dispersion effects by applying a method termed dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE), analogous to quasi-static acousto-elasticity. DAE allows one to obtain the elastic behavior over the entire dynamic cycle, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression, including hysteresis and memory effects. We perform DAE on samples of Berea sandstone subject to 0.5 MPa uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions with oscillating loads at frequencies from 0.001 to 10 Hz and amplitudes of a few 100 kPa. We compare results to DAE measurements made in the kHz range. We observe that the average decrease in modulus due to nonlinear material softening increases with frequency, suggesting a frequency and/or a strain rate dependence. Previous quasi-static measurements (Claytor et al., GRL 2009) show that stress-strain nonlinear hysteretic behavior disappears when the experiment is performed at a very low strain-rate, implying that a rate dependent nonlinear elastic model would be useful (Gusev et al., PRB 2004). Our results also suggest that when elastic nonlinear Earth processes are studied, stress forcing frequency is an important consideration, and may lead to unexpected behaviors.

  6. Dynamics of Job Quitting among High Educated Female Former Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seno Aditya Utama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of highly educated woman workers increased in recent year, but job quitting and woman career discontinuity was still high; it was related to working inequalities and work-family issues. The current study investigates the antecedent of woman job quitting decision, career aspiration, spouse and supervisor support. Individual in-depth interviews investigated the 12 highly educated ex-employee mothers. The findings were spouse support on woman job quitting, children care orientation, supervisor retention effort, current positive evaluation and unintended future career.

  7. Dynamics of Job Quitting among High Educated Female Former Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Seno Aditya Utama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of highly educated woman workers increased in recent year, but job quitting and woman career discontinuity was still high; it was related to working inequalities and work-family issues. The current study investigates the antecedent of woman job quitting decision, career aspiration, spouse and supervisor support. Individual in-depth interviews investigated the 12 highly educated ex-employee mothers. The findings were spouse support on woman job quitting, children care orientation, supervisor retention effort, current positive evaluation and unintended future career.

  8. Early results on wrist based heart rate monitoring using mechanical transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxi, Dilpreet; Penders, Julien; van Hoof, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring has been a significant topic of interest in the areas of healthcare, sports and gaming. Compared to locations such as the neck, ear, or chest, the wrist is a convenient measurement point, as the measurement technology can be integrated into a wristwatch. However, key technical challenges exist, namely a small physiological SNR and large disturbances due to motion artifact. This paper reports early results on a packaging concept to monitor the heartrate during rest and motion using off-the-shelf piezoelectric PVDF film sensors. Evaluation has shown good results at rest and unsatisfactory results during motion. Results from this investigation will nonetheless be used as input for the development of a wrist-based heartrate monitor which could function during activities such as running, walking or typing on a keyboard.

  9. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  10. Demographic Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Motivation to Quit as Possible Determinants of Smoking Behaviors and Acceptability of Shocking Warnings in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures to quit or reduce tobacco use. Methods. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc. the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. Results. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (<45 years, who are more motivated to quit (Mondor’s score ≥ 12, and females showed a higher effectiveness of shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P<0.05. Conclusions. This study suggests that pictorial warnings on cigarette packages are more likely to be noticed and rated as effective by Italian smokers. Female and younger smokers appear to be more involved by shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior.

  11. What explains usage of mobile physician-rating apps? Results from a web-based questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmon, Sonja; Terlutter, Ralf; Röttl, Johanna

    2014-06-11

    in the past and attitude toward PRWs, but not the amount of daily Internet use for health-related information, were significant predictors of willingness to pay. The perceived usefulness of the Internet to gain health-related information and the amount of daily Internet use in general did not have any significant effect on both of the endogenous variables. The moderation analysis with the group comparisons for users and nonusers of PRWs revealed that the attitude toward PRWs had significantly more impact on the adoption and willingness to pay for mobile physician-rating apps in the nonuser group. Important variables that contribute to the adoption of a mobile physician-rating app and the willingness to pay for it were identified. The results of this study are important for researchers because they can provide important insights about the variables that influence the acceptance of apps that allow for ratings of physicians. They are also useful for creators of mobile physician-rating apps because they can help tailor mobile physician-rating apps to the consumers' characteristics and needs.

  12. Experimental results for studies of the 40Ca(α,γ)44Ti reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Becker, Hans-Werner; Bowers, Matt; Collon, Philippe; Goerres, Joachim; Lu, Wenting; Schmitt, Chris; Wiescher, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Observational studies of galactic γ emitters such as 44Ti have highlighted their use in nucleosynthesis studies of massive stars in their late stage stellar evolution and final explosive demise in core collapse supernova events. Models used in the simulation of such γ emitters rely heavily upon reliable reaction rates for both the creation and annihilation of these isotopes over large temperature ranges. The production of 44Ti mainly through the 40Ca(α,γ)44Ti reaction is thought to take place primarily in the α-rich freeze out phase of a core collapse supernova. However, current supernova models predict lower 44Ti to 56Ni ratios than observed, creating a need for more information about its production mechanism. A number of previous studies include prompt γ-ray measurements, recoil mass separator experiments and the use of AMS, all giving greatly different reaction rates. Aiding in the refinement of these needed rates, the results of experiments at the DTL, Bochum and NSL, Notre Dame will be presented against the backdrop of these previous measurements. Work supported by grant # 0758100 and # 0822648.

  13. Results of reference pricing and reimbursement discount rate schemes of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guvenc Kockaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: General Directorate of Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacy (IEGM is responsible for setting all prices for human medicinal products. The reference pricing system is used for setting these prices. Reference countries are reviewed annually and may be subject to certain alterations. There were 5 reference countries in 2009: Spain, Italy, Germany, France and Greece. The aim of this study is to show the distribution of reference countries which were used for reference pricing.METHODS: The price list of pharmaceuticals which was published by IEGM on 15.04.2011 was used for analysis. Distribution of reference countries and prices were evaluated.RESULTS: Prices of 6,251 generic and 3,703 original products were set according to the price list. 5,283 of generics and 3,306 of originals were in the positive list for reimbursement. Reference pricing was used for 2,352 generics and 2,281 originals. Prices of the remaining were set outside of reference pricing. 32 different countries were used for reference pricing. Italy was the most popular country for reference pricing. Even if it was not a reference country, Germany was used in some of the pharmaceuticals. The average reimbursement discount rate and price were 24.43% and 249 TL, respectively. There were no colerations between price and reimbursement discount rate, or reference country and reimbursement rate.CONCLUSION: It has been shown that Italy has the highest impact on the pricing of all pharmaceuticals in Turkey. Even if it was not a reference country, Germany showed to affect pharmaceuticals more than other countries which were also not used for reference pricing. Even if reimbursement discount rates are stated by the Social Security Institution (SGK, there are different discount rates for pharmaceuticals. The analysis stated that there were correlation between price, country and discount rates. This analysis is first for the literature. Further analysis is necessary in the light of price

  14. Effect of Semi-quantitative Culture Results from Complex Host Surgical Wounds on Dehiscence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarsafi, Tammer; Garwood, Caitlin S; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Attinger, Christopher E; Kim, Paul J

    2017-01-16

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of positive bacterial cultures at the time of closure on dehiscence rates. Pre and post-débridement wound cultures from patients undergoing serial surgical débridement of infected wounds were compared with outcomes 30 days postoperatively. One-hundred patients were enrolled; 35 were excluded for incomplete culture data. Sixty-five patients were evaluated for species counts, including Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, and semi-quantitative culture data for each débridement. The post-débridement cultures on the date of closure had no growth in 42 patients (64.6%) of which 6 dehisced (14.3%), and 36 remained closed; with no statistically significant difference in dehiscence rates (p=0.0664). Pre-débridement cultures from the 1(st) débridement of the 65 patients showed 8 patients had no growth, 29 grew 1 species, 19 grew 2 species, and 9 had 3-5 species. There was a reduction in the number of species and improvement of semi-quantitative cultures with each subsequent débridement. The dehiscence rate for those who had 2 débridements (n=42) was 21.4% at 30 day follow-up and 21.7% in those who had 3 débridements (n=23). The number of débridements had no statistical significance on dehiscence rates. The presence of Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) on the day of closure was a statistically significant risk for dehiscence within 30 days (p=0.0091) postoperatively. This data demonstrates: (1) positive post-débridement cultures (scant/rare, growth in enrichment broth) at the time of closure did not affect overall dehiscence rates (p=0.0664), (2) the number of species and semi-quantitiative culture results both improved with each subsequent débridement, (3) the number of surgical débridement did not influence post-closure dehiscence rates. (4) Positive cultures containing Coagulase negative Staphylococcus at the time of closure is a risk factor for dehiscence (p=0.0091). This article is protected by

  15. Intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anecia Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a higher education institution (HEI to maintain a long-term trajectory of excellence, a strong focus on retaining a younger generation of skilled academics is needed.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in HEIs.Motivation for the study: Higher education institutions are more dependent on the abilities and commitment of their staff than most other organisations. More than 4000 academics will retire and need to be replaced by 2018, providing justification for the study of intention to quit of academics.Research design, approach and method: An ex post facto quantitative research design was followed. Academics at six HEIs in South Africa were sampled. Measurement instruments included abridged versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Arnold and Feldman Intention to Quit Scale, Job Descriptive Scale and Chew’s reward scale.Main findings: Employee engagement, job satisfaction, remuneration, reward, recognition and transformational leadership were significantly related to intention to quit. In the partial model, three of these variables explained 45% of the variance in intention to quit. Partial least square path modelling revealed that employee engagement and job satisfaction have significant negative impacts on intention to quit.Practical/managerial implications: The findings serve as input for the development of efficacious strategies to retain Generation Y academics at HEIs in South Africa.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to our knowledge of intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics. It provides evidence of the complexity and inter-relatedness of variables in the phenomenological network of intention to quit.

  16. HD DVD:“I Quit!”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扁毅

    2008-01-01

    美国有一档娱乐体育节目叫WWE——美国职业摔跤,受到广大摔跤爱好者的追捧,而其中有一种比赛就被命名为 I Quit Match,没有任何规则,直到对方自己口中说出"I Quit"为止。

  17. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  18. Motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and abstinence maintenance among treated Spanish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-02-01

    Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (pMotivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rate control is more cost-effective than rhythm control for patients with persistent atrial fibrillation - results from the RAte Control versus Electrical cardioversion (RACE) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, VE; Vermeulen, KM; TenVergert, EM; Van Veldhuisen, JGP; Bosker, HA; Kamp, O; Kingma, JH; Tijssen, JGP; Crijns, HJGM; Van Gelder, IC

    2004-01-01

    Aims To evaluate costs between a rate and rhythm control strategy in persistent atrial. fibrillation. Methods and results In a prospective substudy of RACE (Rate control versus electrical cardioversion for persistent atrial. fibrillation) in 428 of the total 522 patients (206 rate control and 222 rh

  20. Rate control is more cost-effective than rhythm control for patients with persistent atrial fibrillation - results from the RAte Control versus Electrical cardioversion (RACE) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, VE; Vermeulen, KM; TenVergert, EM; Van Veldhuisen, JGP; Bosker, HA; Kamp, O; Kingma, JH; Tijssen, JGP; Crijns, HJGM; Van Gelder, IC

    Aims To evaluate costs between a rate and rhythm control strategy in persistent atrial. fibrillation. Methods and results In a prospective substudy of RACE (Rate control versus electrical cardioversion for persistent atrial. fibrillation) in 428 of the total 522 patients (206 rate control and 222

  1. Intentions to Quit Work among Care Staff Working in the Aged Care Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantzas, Gery C.; Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya E.; Beaton, Paul; Mrkic, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The aged care industry experiences high rates of staff turnover. Staff turnover has significant implications for the quality of care provided to care recipients and the financial costs to care agencies. In this study, we applied a model of intention to quit to identify the contextual and personal factors that shape aged care…

  2. Stress-strain characteristics of materials at high strain rates. Part II. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripperger, E. A. [Texas. Univ., Austin, TX (US). Structural Mechanics Research Lab.

    1958-08-29

    These two reports were issued separately, but are cataloged as a unit. A photoelectric method for measuring displacements during high-velocity impacts is described. The theory of the system is discussed in detail, and a prototype system which was built and tested is described. The performance of the prototype system is evaluated by comparing the results which it gives with results obtained by other methods of measurement. The system was found capable of a resolution of at least 0.01 inches. static and dynamic stress-strain characteristics of seven high polymers, polyethylene, teflon, nylon, tenite M, tenite H, polystyrene, and saran, plus three metals, lead, copper, and aluminum, are described and compared by means of stress-strain curves and photographs. Data are also presented which show qualitatively the effects produced on stress-strain characteristics by specimen configuration, temperature, and impact velocity. It is shown that there is a definite strain-rate effect for all these materials except polystyrene. The effect is one of an apparent stiffening of the material with increasing strain rate, which is similar to the effect produced by lowering the temperature. The stress-strain measurements are examined critically, inconsistencies are pointed out, and possible sources of error suggested. Values of yield stress, modulus of elasticity and energy absorption for all materials (except copper and aluminum), specimen configurations, temperatures, and impact velocities included in the investigation are tabulated.

  3. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Avramidis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate – interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole – core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  4. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results from Alikes lagoon in Zakynthos island, an area that is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental changes, we based on data derived from a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis was carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the studied sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP while 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times is on the order of 1.03 mm/yr. These sedimentation rates results are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  5. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  6. Branching and annihilating random walks: exact results at low branching rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Federico; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2013-05-01

    We present some exact results on the behavior of branching and annihilating random walks, both in the directed percolation and parity conserving universality classes. Contrary to usual perturbation theory, we perform an expansion in the branching rate around the nontrivial pure annihilation (PA) model, whose correlation and response function we compute exactly. With this, the nonuniversal threshold value for having a phase transition in the simplest system belonging to the directed percolation universality class is found to coincide with previous nonperturbative renormalization group (RG) approximate results. We also show that the parity conserving universality class has an unexpected RG fixed point structure, with a PA fixed point which is unstable in all dimensions of physical interest.

  7. Combined results on b-hadron production rates and decay properties

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Andreev, V; Barberio, E; Battaglia, Marco; Blyth, S; Boix, G; Calvi, M; Checchia, P; Coyle, P; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Gagnon, P; Hawkings, R; Hayes, O J; Henrard, P; Hessing, T L; Kroll, I J; Leroy, O; Lucchesi, D; Margoni, M; Mele, S; Moser, H G; Muheim, F; Palla, Fabrizio; Pallin, D; Parodi, F; Paulini, M; Piotto, E; Privitera, P; Rosnet, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rousseau, D; Schneider, O; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Simonetto, F; Spagnolo, P; Stocchi, A; Su, D; Usher, T; Weiser, C; Wicklund, B; Willocq, S; CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Combined results on b-hadron lifetimes, b-hadron production rates, B^0_d - \\bar{B^0_d} and B^0_S - \\bar{B^0_s} oscillations, the decay width difference between the mass eigenstates of the B^0_s - \\bar{B^0_s} system, the average number of c and \\bar{c} quarks in b-hadron decays, and searches for CP violation in the B^0_d - \\bar{B-0_d} system are presented. They have been obtained from published and preliminary measurements available in Summer 2000 from the ALEPH, CDF, DELPHI, L3, OPAL and SLD Collaborations. These results have been used to determine the parameters of the CKM unitarity triangle.

  8. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E; Behm, Frédérique M; Drgon, Tomas; Johnson, Catherine; Uhl, George R

    2010-01-01

    Improving and targeting nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are cost-effective strategies for reducing adverse health consequences for smokers. Treatment studies document the efficacy of precessation NRT and support important roles for level of nicotine dependence and precessation smoking reduction in successful quitting. However, prior work has not identified the optimal precessation dose or means for personalizing NRT. Genome-wide association has identified groups of genomic markers associated with successful quitting, allowing us to develop a v1.0 "quit-success" genotype score. We now report influences of v1.0 quit-success genotype score, level of dependence and precessation smoking reduction in a smoking cessation trial that examined effects of 21 versus 42 mg/24 h precessation NRT. Four hundred seventy-nine smokers were randomized to 21 or 42 mg NRT, initiated 2 wks prior to target quit dates. We monitored self-reported abstinence and end-expired air carbon monoxide (CO). Genotyping used Affymetrix arrays (Santa Clara, CA, USA). The primary outcome was 10-wk continuous smoking abstinence. NRT dose, level of nicotine dependence and genotype scores displayed significant interactive effects on successful quitting. Successful abstinence also was predicted by CO reductions during precessation NRT. These results document ways in which smoking cessation strategies can be personalized based on levels of nicotine dependence, genotype scores and CO monitoring. These assessments, taken together, can help match most smokers with optimal NRT doses and help rapidly identify some who may be better treated using other methods.

  9. The importance of social networks on smoking: perspectives of women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Stephanie N; Von Kohorn, Isabelle; Schulman-Green, Dena; Colson, Eve R

    2012-08-01

    While up to 45% of women quit smoking during pregnancy, nearly 80% return to smoking within a year after delivery. Interventions to prevent relapse have had limited success. The study objective was to understand what influences return to smoking after pregnancy among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, with a focus on the role of social networks. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews during the postpartum hospital stay with women who quit smoking while pregnant. Over 300 pages of transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methods to identify common themes. Respondents [n = 24] were predominately white (63%), had at least some college education (54%) and a mean age of 26 years (range = 18-36). When reflecting on the experience of being a smoker who quit smoking during pregnancy, all participants emphasized the importance of their relationships with other smokers and the changes in these relationships that ensued once they quit smoking. Three common themes were: (1) being enmeshed in social networks with prominent smoking norms (2) being tempted to smoke by members of their social networks, and (3) changing relationships with the smokers in their social networks as a result of their non-smoking status. We found that women who quit smoking during pregnancy found themselves confronted by a change in their social network since most of those in their social network were smokers. For this reason, smoking cessation interventions may be most successful if they help women consider restructuring or reframing their social network.

  10. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    Background: Addiction, especially addiction quitting, has been the main problem of health systems of many countries in recent years. High percentage of addiction recurrence (more than 80%) indicates that the nature and therapeutic method of addiction have not been recognized and it demands more efforts in this field. Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza...

  11. Experimental Results of High Pressure and High Strain Rate Tantalum Flow Stress on Omega and NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Arsenlis, A.; Barton, N.; Benedetti, L.; Huntington, C.; McNaney, J.; Orlikowski, D.; Prisbrey, S.; Remington, B.; Rudd, R.; Swift, D.; Weber, S.; Wehrenberg, C.; Comley, A.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the high pressure, high strain rate plastic deformation dynamics of materials is an area of research of high interest to planetary formation dynamics, meteor impact dynamics, and inertial confinement fusion designs. Developing predictive theoretical and computational descriptions of such systems, however, has been a difficult undertaking. We have performed many experiments on Omega, LCLS and NIF to test Ta strength models at high pressures (~ up to 4 Mbar), high strain rates (~ 107 s-1) and high strains (>30%) under ramped compression conditions using Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability properties. These experiments use plasma drive to ramp compress the sample to higher pressure without shock-melting. We also studied lattice level strength mechanisms under shocked compression using a diffraction-based technique. Our studies show that the strength mechanisms from macro to micro scales are different from the traditional strength model predictions and that they are loading path dependent. We will report the experimental results. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  12. Characterising the Smoking Status and Quit Smoking Behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Maksimovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs in South Australia (SA, Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5% included quitters (22.4% and never smokers (27.1%. Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking.

  13. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction and intentions to quit among teachers in private secondary schools in Edo-State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofili, A N; Usiholo, E A; Oronsaye, M O

    2009-01-01

    Teachers are an inseparable corner stone of the society and their satisfaction will affect the quality of service they render. Poor job satisfaction could result in job stress and this could affect their psychological health. This study aims to ascertain the level, causes of job dissatisfaction, intentions to quit and psychological morbidity among teachers in private secondary schools in a developing country. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers (392) in private secondary schools in Benin-City, Edo-State Nigeria, between June 2003 to November 2003. A total population of 400 teachers who had spent at least one year in the service were included in the study. The respondents completed a self-administered designed questionnaire and a standard instrument--The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) The response rate was 98%. Fifty-eight (14.8%) of the respondents had psychological morbidity (GHQ score of 4 and above). One hundred and seventy-eight (45.4%) teachers were very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs. A significant number (45.9%) of teachers would want to quit their jobs. The proportion of teachers with GHQ score 4 and above increased with the level of dissatisfaction but this was not found to be statistically significant. Poor salary was found to be the main cause of job dissatisfaction and major reason for wanting to quit the job. This study shows a low level of job satisfaction among Nigerian teachers. Poor salary was the major cause of job dissatisfaction and intention to quit. Further work need to be done to ascertain the association of psychological morbidity and job dissatisfaction.

  14. Morphological divergence rate tests for natural selection: uncertainty of parameter estimation and robustness of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro R. Monteiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a combination of geometric morphometric and evolutionary genetics methods for the inference of possible mechanisms of evolutionary divergence. A sensitivity analysis for the constant-heritability rate test results regarding variation in genetic and demographic parameters was performed, in order to assess the relative influence of uncertainty of parameter estimation on the robustness of test results. As an application, we present a study on body shape variation among populations of the poeciliine fish Poecilia vivipara inhabiting lagoons of the quaternary plains in northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sensitivity analysis showed that, in general, the most important parameters are heritability, effective population size and number of generations since divergence. For this specific example, using a conservatively wide range of parameters, the neutral model of genetic drift could not be accepted as a sole cause for the observed magnitude of morphological divergence among populations. A mechanism of directional selection is suggested as the main cause of variation among populations in different habitats and lagoons. The implications of parameter estimation and biological assumptions and consequences are discussed.

  15. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  16. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  17. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes.

  18. Plerixafor as preemptive strategy results in high success rates in autologous stem cell mobilization failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worel, Nina; Fritsch, Gerhard; Agis, Hermine; Böhm, Alexandra; Engelich, Georg; Leitner, Gerda C; Geissler, Klaus; Gleixner, Karoline; Kalhs, Peter; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Keil, Felix; Kopetzky, Gerhard; Mayr, Viktor; Rabitsch, Werner; Reisner, Regina; Rosskopf, Konrad; Ruckser, Reinhard; Zoghlami, Claudia; Zojer, Niklas; Greinix, Hildegard T

    2016-08-31

    Plerixafor in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is approved for autologous stem cell mobilization in poor mobilizing patients with multiple myeloma or malignant lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of plerixafor in an immediate rescue approach, administrated subsequently to G-CSF alone or chemotherapy and G-CSF in patients at risk for mobilization failure. Eighty-five patients mobilized with G-CSF alone or chemotherapy were included. Primary endpoint was the efficacy of the immediate rescue approach of plerixafor to achieve ≥2.0 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg for a single or ≥5 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg for a double transplantation and potential differences between G-CSF and chemotherapy-based mobilization. Secondary objectives included comparison of stem cell graft composition including CD34(+) cell and lymphocyte subsets with regard to the mobilization regimen applied. No significant adverse events were recorded. A median 3.9-fold increase in CD34(+) cells following plerixafor was observed, resulting in 97% patients achieving at least ≥2 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg. Significantly more differentiated granulocyte and monocyte forming myeloid progenitors were collected after chemomobilization whereas more CD19(+) and natural killer cells were collected after G-CSF. Fifty-two patients underwent transplantation showing rapid and durable engraftment, irrespectively of the stem cell mobilization regimen used. The addition of plerixafor in an immediate rescue model is efficient and safe after both, G-CSF and chemomobilization and results in extremely high success rates. Whether the differences in graft composition have a clinical impact on engraftment kinetics, immunologic recovery, and graft durability have to be analysed in larger prospective studies.

  19. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up smoking

  20. The Incidence of Unemployment: Identifying Quits and Layoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    1997-01-01

    We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM-algorithm...

  1. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up

  2. Common factors and the exchange rate: results from the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rafael de Oliveira Felício

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the usefulness of factor models in explaining the dynamics of the exchange rate Real / Dollar from January 1999 to August 2011. The paper verifies that the inclusion of factors embedded on the common movements of exchange rates of a set of countries significantly improves the in-sample and out-of-sample predictive power of the models comprising only macroeconomic fundamentals commonly used in the literature to forecast the exchange rate. The paper also links the information contained in the factors to global shocks like the demand for dollars - a "dollar effect", volatility and liquidity of global financial markets.

  3. Parameterizing Aggregation Rates: Results of cold temperature ice-ash hydrometeor experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtland, L. M.; Dufek, J.; Mendez, J. S.; McAdams, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the study of tephra aggregation have indicated that (i) far-field effects of tephra sedimentation are not adequately resolved without accounting for aggregation processes that preferentially remove the fine ash fraction of volcanic ejecta from the atmosphere as constituent pieces of larger particles, and (ii) the environmental conditions (e.g. humidity, temperature) prevalent in volcanic plumes may significantly alter the types of aggregation processes at work in different regions of the volcanic plume. The current research extends these findings to explore the role of ice-ash hydrometeor aggregation in various plume environments. Laboratory experiments utilizing an ice nucleation chamber allow us to parameterize tephra aggregation rates under the cold (0 to -50 C) conditions prevalent in the upper regions of volcanic plumes. We consider the interaction of ice-coated tephra of variable thickness grown in a controlled environment. The ice-ash hydrometers interact collisionally and the interaction is recorded by a number of instruments, including high speed video to determine if aggregation occurs. The electric charge on individual particles is examined before and after collision to examine the role of electrostatics in the aggregation process and to examine the charge exchange process. We are able to examine how sticking efficiency is related to both the relative abundance of ice on a particle as well as to the magnitude of the charge carried by the hydrometeor. We here present preliminary results of these experiments, the first to constrain aggregation efficiency of ice-ash hydrometeors, a parameter that will allow tephra dispersion models to use near-real-time meteorological data to better forecast particle residence time in the atmosphere.

  4. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Paul; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background Men continue to smoke cigarettes in greater numbers than women. There is growing evidence for the value of developing targeted, men-centered health promotion programs. However, few smoking cessation interventions have been designed for men. A gender-specific website, QuitNow Men, was developed based on focus group interview findings, stakeholder feedback, and evidence-based cessation strategies. The website was designed to incorporate a masculine look and feel through the use of images, direct language, and interactive content. Usability experts and end-users provided feedback on navigation and functionality of the website prior to pilot testing. Objectives The objectives of the pilot study were to describe (1) men’s use and evaluations of the interactive resources and information on the QuitNow Men website, and (2) the potential of QuitNow Men to engage men in reducing and quitting smoking. Methods A one-group, pretest-posttest study design was used. Men who were interested in quitting were recruited and invited to use the website over a 6-month period. Data were collected via online questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 117 men completed the baseline survey. Over half of those (67/117, 57.3%) completed both follow-up surveys. Results At baseline, participants (N=117) had been smoking for an average of 24 years (SD 12.1) and smoked on average 15 cigarettes a day (SD 7.4). The majority had not previously used a quit smoking website (103/117, 88.0%) or websites focused on men’s health (105/117, 89.7%). At the 6-month follow-up, the majority of men used the QuitNow Men website at least once (64/67, 96%). Among the 64 users, 29 (43%) reported using the website more than 6 times. The men using QuitNow Men agreed or strongly agreed that the website was easy to use (51/64, 80%), the design and images were appealing (42/64, 66%), they intended to continue to use the website (42/64, 66%), and that they would recommend Quit

  5. The Relation of Arm Exercise Peak Heart Rate to Stress Test Results and Outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xian, Hong; Liu, Weijian; Marshall, Cynthia; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Martin, III, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSEArm exercise is an alternative to pharmacologic stress testing for >50% of patients unable to perform treadmill exercise but no data exist regarding the effect of attained peak arm exercise heart rate on test sensitivity...

  6. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  7. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001).

  8. High-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Consistently Results in High Quality Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Evan C.; Kamrava, Mitchell R.; Demarco, John; Park, Sang-June; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kayode, Oluwatosin; Steinberg, Michael L. [California Endocurietherapy at UCLA, Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine of University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Demanes, D. Jeffrey, E-mail: jdemanes@mednet.ucla.edu [California Endocurietherapy at UCLA, Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine of University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: We performed a dosimetry analysis to determine how well the goals for clinical target volume coverage, dose homogeneity, and normal tissue dose constraints were achieved with high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Cumulative dose-volume histograms for 208 consecutively treated HDR prostate brachytherapy implants were analyzed. Planning was based on ultrasound-guided catheter insertion and postoperative CT imaging; the contoured clinical target volume (CTV) was the prostate, a small margin, and the proximal seminal vesicles. Dosimetric parameters analyzed for the CTV were D90, V90, V100, V150, and V200. Dose to the urethra, bladder, bladder balloon, and rectum were evaluated by the dose to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, and 2 cm{sup 3} of each organ, expressed as a percentage of the prescribed dose. Analysis was stratified according to prostate size. Results: The mean prostate ultrasound volume was 38.7 {+-} 13.4 cm{sup 3} (range: 11.7-108.6 cm{sup 3}). The mean CTV was 75.1 {+-} 20.6 cm{sup 3} (range: 33.4-156.5 cm{sup 3}). The mean D90 was 109.2% {+-} 2.6% (range: 102.3%-118.4%). Ninety-three percent of observed D90 values were between 105 and 115%. The mean V90, V100, V150, and V200 were 99.9% {+-} 0.05%, 99.5% {+-} 0.8%, 25.4% {+-} 4.2%, and 7.8% {+-} 1.4%. The mean dose to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, and 2 cm{sup 3} for organs at risk were: Urethra: 107.3% {+-} 3.0%, 101.1% {+-} 14.6%, and 47.9% {+-} 34.8%; bladder wall: 79.5% {+-} 5.1%, 69.8% {+-} 4.9%, and 64.3% {+-} 5.0%; bladder balloon: 70.3% {+-} 6.8%, 59.1% {+-} 6.6%, and 52.3% {+-} 6.2%; rectum: 76.3% {+-} 2.5%, 70.2% {+-} 3.3%, and 66.3% {+-} 3.8%. There was no significant difference between D90 and V100 when stratified by prostate size. Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy allows the physician to consistently achieve complete prostate target coverage and maintain normal tissue dose constraints for organs at risk over a wide range of target volumes.

  9. Assessment of different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health systems play key roles in identifying tobacco users and providing evidence-based care to help them quit. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran in order to identify those that are most appropriate for the country health system. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a random sample of all quit centers at the country level was used to obtain a representative sample. Patients completed the self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: A total of 1063 smokers returned completed survey questionnaires. The most frequently used methods were Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT and combination therapy (NRT and Counseling with 228 and 163 individuals reporting these respectively. The least used methods were hypnotism (n = 8 and the quit and win (n = 17. The methods which gained the maximum scores were respectively the combined method, personal and Champix with means of 21.4, 20.4 and 18.4. The minimum scores were for e-cigarettes, hypnotism and education with means of 12.8, 11 and 10.8, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores based on different cities and different methods. Conclusions: According to smokers′ selection the combined therapy, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods for quit smoking and these methods could be much more considered in the country health system.

  10. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...... development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way...

  11. Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussman S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms, than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics. The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19% and contingency-based reinforcement (16% programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%. Computer-based (expert system programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate, as did school-based clinics (12%. There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting

  12. Effects of sixty six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussman S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a review of the last two and a half decades of research in adolescent and young-adult tobacco use cessation. A total of 66 tobacco cessation intervention studies – targeted or population – are reviewed. In addition, an exhaustive review is completed of adolescent self-initiated tobacco use cessation, involving 17 prospective survey studies. Average reach and retention across the intervention studies was 61% and 78%, respectively, and was higher when whole natural units were treated (e.g., classrooms, than when units created specifically for the program were treated (e.g., school-based clinics. The mean quit-rate at a three to 12-month average follow-up among the program conditions was 12%, compared to approximately 7% across control groups. A comparison of intervention theories revealed that motivation enhancement (19% and contingency-based reinforcement (16% programs showed higher quit-rates than the overall intervention cessation mean. Regarding modalities (channels of change, classroom-based programs showed the highest quit rates (17%. Computer-based (expert system programs also showed promise (13% quit-rate, as did school-based clinics (12%. There was a fair amount of missing data and wide variation on how data points were measured in the programs' evaluations. Also, there were relatively few direct comparisons of program and control groups. Thus, it would be difficult to conduct a formal meta-analysis on the cessation programs. Still, these data suggest that use of adolescent tobacco use cessation interventions double quit rates on the average. In the 17 self-initiated quitting survey studies, key predictors of quitting were living in a social milieu that is composed of fewer smokers, less pharmacological or psychological dependence on smoking, anti-tobacco beliefs (e.g., that society should step in to place controls on smoking and feeling relatively hopeful about life. Key variables relevant to the quitting

  13. Does rating of perceived exertion result in target exercise intensity during interval training in cardiac rehabilitation? A study of the Borg scale versus a heart rate monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamot, Inger-Lise; Forbord, Siv Hege; Karlsen, Trine; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2014-09-01

    To assess whether rating of perceived exertion using the Borg 6-20 scale is a valid method for achieving target exercise intensity during high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation. A single-group cross-over design. Ten participants (56 (6.5) years) who were enrolled in a high-intensity interval training cardiac rehabilitation program were recruited. A target exercise intensity of Borg 17 (very hard) was used for exercise intensity guidance in the initial four exercise sessions that took place before a cardiopulmonary exercise test, as in usual care rehabilitation. The heart rate was recorded and blinded to the participants. After performing the test, the participants were then instructed using heart rate monitors openly for exercise guidance in four subsequent exercise sessions, at an intensity corresponding to 85-95% of peak heart rate. The mean exercise intensity during high-intensity bouts was 82% (6%) of peak heart rate for the rating of perceived exertion and 85% (6%) using heart rate monitors (p=0.005). Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis with a mean bias showed a bias of 2.97 (-2.08, 8.02) percentage points for the two methods. Exercise intensity was highly repeatable with intra-class correlations of 0.95 (95% CI 0.86-0.99, pexercise sessions using rating of perceived exertion and percentage of peak heart rate for intensity control, respectively. Rating of perceived exertion results in an exercise intensity below target during high-intensity interval training bouts in cardiac rehabilitation. Heart rate monitoring should be used for accurate intensity guidance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High mortality rates after nonelective colon cancer resection : results of a national audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I. S.; Snijders, H. S.; Grossmann, I.; Karsten, T. M.; Havenga, K.; Wiggers, T.

    AimColon cancer resection in a nonelective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on nonelective resection. MethodData were obtained from

  15. A Decision Tree Approach for Predicting Smokers' Quit Intentions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Ding; Susan Bedingfield; Chung-Hsing Yeh; Ron Borland; David Young; Jian-Ying Zhang; Sonja Petrovic-Lazarevic; Ken Coghill

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a decision treeapproach for predicting smokers' quit intentions usingthe data from the International Tobacco Control FourCountry Survey. Three rule-based classification modelsare generated from three data sets using attributes inrelation to demographics, warning labels, and smokers'beliefs. Both demographic attributes and warning labelattributes are important in predicting smokers' quitintentions. The model's ability to predict smokers' quitintentions is enhanced, if the attributes regardingsmokers' internal motivation and beliefs about quittingare included.

  16. High dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy. Results and complications in 189 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taulelle, M.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Felix-Faure, C.; Buciarelli, B.; Garcia, R.; Brewer, Y.; Reboul, F. [Clinique Sainte Catherine, Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Avignon (France)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefit of high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy in the treatment of obstructive lung cancer. Between September 1990 and March 1995, 189 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma were treated with high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy. Most patients (63.3%) had received prior treatment and presented with symptomatic bronchial obstruction due to either recurrent or residual endobronchial disease. A small group (12%) was medically unfit for either surgical resection or thoracic radiotherapy and benefited from endobronchial brachytherapy alone for small endobronchial tumours. The remainder of the patients had not been treated previously and endobronchial brachytherapy was performed for life-threatening symptoms requiring emergency obstruction relief before other therapy. Treatment was performed weekly and consisted of three to four 8 to 10 Gy fractions at a radius of 10 mm from the centre of the source. Major symptomatic relief was obtained for haemoptysis (74%), dyspnoea (54%), and cough (54%). Complete endoscopic response was observed in 54% of cases. Median survival was 7 months for the entire group. For small, strictly endobronchial tumours, complete response rate was 96%, median survival 17 months, and 30 month survival 46%, with a plateau starting at 18 months. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities occurred at a rate of 17% and included massive haemoptysis (n=13), bronchial stenosis (n=12), soft tissue necrosis (n=8), and bronchial fistula (n=3). By univariate analysis, no factor was found to be predictive of late pulmonary toxicity. The present study confirms the usefulness of endobronchial brachytherapy in alleviating symptoms caused by endobronchial recurrence of bronchogenic carcinoma. In addition, this therapy can be tried with curative intent in patients who present with small endobronchial tumours and are not candidates for other forms of therapy. (au). 23 refs.

  17. Comparison of mass loss rate in reaction of silica with carbon from different investigation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Węgrzyn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of carbothermic reaction of SiO2 + mC, key reactions appear on the surfaces of both SiO2 and C grains. However, the values of these surfaces are not known. Assuming the simplest case, quartzite and carbon grains are spheres, total surfaces of reaction were calculated for grains of carbon and quartzite respectively. This enabled to determine the rate of weight loss referred to the unit area of C and SiO2.

  18. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for Brescia-Cimino hemodialysis fistula dysfunction: technical success rate, patency rate and factors that influence the results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Kiyosumi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu-city, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)]. E-mail: kiyosumi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp; Furukawa, Akira [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu-city, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Yamasaki, Michio [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu-city, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu-city, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical success and long-term patency rates of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) using a venous approach for dysfunctional Brescia-Cimino fistula and to identify factors that may affect initial success and long-term patency. Materials and methods: A total of 99 PTA procedures were performed in retrograde fassion for 60 mature Brescia-Cimino shunts with dysfunction caused by anastomotic or peripheral outflow vein stenosis or occlusion. The initial clinical success rates were compared between stenosis and occlusion using Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the primary and secondary cumulative patency rates, and the log-rank test was used for comparison. Relative risks of patency loss according to clinical characteristics were determined with multivariate Cox models. Results: The initial clinical success rate of all interventions was 92%, and the rates for stenosis and occlusion were 99 and 65%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The primary and secondary cumulative patency rates for fistulas (excluding initial failure) at 12 months were 53 and 84%, respectively. The relative risks were 5.2 (P 0.004) for longer lesions and 4.5 (P = 0.007) for younger fistulas. The primary cumulative patency rate of four patients with a younger fistula and a longer stenosis at 4 months was 0%. Conclusion: Favorable primary and secondary cumulative patency rates are obtained in most patients. Long lesion length and younger age of fistulas were the two factors that reduced the patency rate after PTA.

  19. Dependence and motivation to stop smoking as predictors of success of a quit attempt among smokers seeking help to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Michael; Kakar, Geetanjali; Hajek, Peter; West, Robert

    2016-02-01

    It is not known how well motivation to stop smoking predicts abstinence in a clinical sample relative to the most widely used measure of cigarette dependence. A secondary analysis was conducted from a trial with 864 smokers making quit attempt. Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), and motivation to stop smoking (composite of determination to quit and importance of quitting) were measured at baseline. Continuous smoking abstinence, validated by expired-air carbon monoxide, was assessed at 4weeks, 6months and 12months post-quit date. FTCD, HSI, non-HSI items in FTCD, and motivation were assessed as predictors of abstinence. In multiple-logistic regressions, controlling for age, gender and medication use, lower scores for FTCD, HSI and non-HSI all significantly predicted abstinence at all follow-ups, while motivation did not predict abstinence at any time. Likelihood ratio tests showed that the FTCD contributed most to the model at 4weeks and 6months; at 12months FTCD and non-HSI equally contributed most to the model. At 4weeks and 6months, predictions were improved by combining HSI and non-HSI components, compared with using these components alone. Cigarette dependence, measured by the FTCD, or by its HSI or non-HSI components, predicts both short-term and medium-term outcomes of attempts to stop smoking in treatment-seeking smokers involved in a clinical trial, whereas strength of motivation to stop predicts neither. Both the HSI and non-HSI components may be considered as briefer alternatives to the full FTCD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Accuracy Rates of Sex Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists through Comparison with DNA Typing Results in Forensic Casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H

    2016-09-01

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the biological sex of a decedent by exploiting the sexual dimorphism between males and females. Estimation methods are often based on analysis of skeletal collections of known sex and most include a research-based accuracy rate. However, the accuracy rates of sex estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses sex determinations based on DNA results from 360 forensic cases to develop accuracy rates for sex estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct sex estimation from these cases is 94.7% with increasing accuracy rates as more skeletal material is available for analysis and as the education level and certification of the examiner increases. Nine of 19 incorrect assessments resulted from cases in which one skeletal element was available, suggesting that the use of an "undetermined" result may be more appropriate for these cases.

  1. Intention to quit among Indian tobacco users: Findings from International Tobacco Control Policy evaluation India pilot survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Surani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco users face barriers not just in quitting, but also in thinking about quitting. The aim of this study was to understand factors encouraging intention to quit from the 2006 International Tobacco Control Policy (TCP Evaluation India Pilot Study Survey. Materials and Methods: A total of 764 adult respondents from urban and rural areas of Maharashtra and Bihar were surveyed through face-to-face individual interviews, with a house-to-house approach. Dependent variable was "intention to quit tobacco." Independent variables were demographic variables, peer influence, damage perception, receiving advice to quit, and referral to cessation services by healthcare professionals and exposure to anti-tobacco messages. Logistic regression model was used with odds ratio adjusted for location, age, gender, and marital status for statistical analysis. Results: Of 493 tobacco users, 32.5% intended to quit. More numbers of users who were unaware about their friends′ tobacco use intended to quit compared to those who were aware (adjusted OR = 8.06, 95% CI = 4.58-14.19. Higher numbers of users who felt tobacco has damaged their health intended to quit compared to those who did not feel that way (adjusted OR = 5.62, 95% CI = 3.53-8.96. More numbers of users exposed to anti-tobacco messages in newspapers/magazines (adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.02-3.03, restaurants (adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.46, radio (adjusted OR=4.84, 95% CI = 3.01-7.78, cinema halls (adjusted OR = 9.22, 95% CI = 5.31-15.75, and public transportation (adjusted OR = 10.58, 95% = 5.90-18.98 intended to quit compared to unexposed users. Conclusion: Anti-tobacco messages have positive influence on user′s intentions to quit.

  2. Projecting rates of urbanisation in England, 1991-2016: method, policy application and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, P; Shepherd, J

    1997-01-01

    "The rate of conversion of land from rural to urban uses has been a central concern of the British planning system. Despite this interest, however, the factual basis of the debate on the pace of urban growth, its form and distribution has been extremely weak. The reason for this is lack of appropriate data. This paper reports research on two new data sources on land use--a digital database of the boundaries of tracts of urban land in 1981 and 1991 and the Land Use Change Statistics--to analyse recent urban growth in England and, in conjunction with current household projections, to estimate the likely extent of urbanisation in 2016. In addition to assessing the geographical distribution of this growth, the paper draws out some implications for policy analysis of the method of projecting the extent of land in urban use." excerpt

  3. Barriers to Quitting Smoking Among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Cassidy, Rachel N; Murphy, Cara M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2016-05-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n=184 and 340). Both components (general barriers, weight concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; weight concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD.

  4. MapMySmoke: feasibility of a new quit cigarette smoking mobile phone application using integrated geo-positioning technology, and motivational messaging within a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Kelsey, Thomas W; Marston, John; Samson, Kay; Humphris, Gerald W

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour. With the ubiquity of smartphones that can log spatial, quantitative and qualitative data related to smoking behaviour, there exists a person-centred clinical opportunity to support smokers attempting to quit by first understanding their smoking behaviour and subsequently sending them dynamic messages to encourage health behaviour change within a situational context. We have built a smartphone app-MapMySmoke-that works on Android and iOS platforms. The deployment of this app within a clinical National Health Service (NHS) setting has two distinct phases: (1) a 2-week logging phase where pre-quit patients log all of their smoking and craving events; and (2) a post-quit phase where users receive dynamic support messages and can continue to log craving events, and should they occur, relapse events. Following the initial logging phase, patients consult with their general practitioner (GP) or healthcare provider to review their smoking patterns and to outline a precise, individualised quit attempt plan. Our feasibility study consists of assessment of an initial app version during and after use by eight patients recruited from an NHS Fife GP practice. In addition to evaluation of the app as a potential smoking cessation aid, we have assessed the user experience, technological requirements and security of the data flow. In an initial feasibility study, we have deployed the app for a small number of patients within one GP practice in NHS Fife. We recruited eight

  5. The Spitzer c2d Legacy Results: Star Formation Rates and Efficiencies; Evolution and Lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Neal J; Jørgensen, Jes K; Enoch, Melissa L; Merín, Bruno; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Alcalá, Juan M; Myers, Philip C; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Huard, Tracy L; Allen, Lori E; Harvey, Paul M; van Kempen, Tim; Blake, Geoffrey A; Koerner, David W; Mundy, Lee G; Padgett, Deborah L; Sargent, Anneila I

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) The c2d Spitzer Legacy project obtained images and photometry with both IRAC and MIPS instruments for five large, nearby molecular clouds. This paper combines information drawn from studies of individual clouds into a combined and updated statistical analysis of star formation rates and efficiencies, numbers and lifetimes for SED classes, and clustering properties. Current star formation efficiencies range from 3% to 6%. Taken together, the five clouds are producing about 260 solar masses of stars per Myr. The star formation surface density is more than an order of magnitude larger than would be predicted from the Kennicutt relation used in extragalactic studies. Measured against the dense gas probed by the maps of dust continuum emission, the efficiencies are much higher, and the current stock of dense cores would be exhausted in 1.8 Myr on average. The derived lifetime for the Class I phase is 0.44 to 0.54 Myr, considerably longer than some estimates. Similarly, the lifetime for the Class 0 SED c...

  6. Lacustrine responses to decreasing wet mercury deposition rates: results from a case study in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Mark E.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Gay, David A.; Maki, Ryan P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Wiener, James G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a case study comparing metrics of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination for four undeveloped lakes in Voyageurs National Park to wet atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg), sulfate (SO4–2), and hydrogen ion (H+) in northern Minnesota. Annual wet Hg, SO4–2, and H+ deposition rates at two nearby precipitation monitoring sites indicate considerable decreases from 1998 to 2012 (mean decreases of 32, 48, and 66%, respectively). Consistent with decreases in the atmospheric pollutants, epilimnetic aqueous methylmercury (MeHgaq) and mercury in small yellow perch (Hgfish) decreased in two of four lakes (mean decreases of 46.5% and 34.5%, respectively, between 2001 and 2012). Counter to decreases in the atmospheric pollutants, MeHgaq increased by 85% in a third lake, whereas Hgfish increased by 80%. The fourth lake had two disturbances in its watershed during the study period (forest fire; changes in shoreline inundation due to beaver activity); this lake lacked overall trends in MeHgaq and Hgfish. The diverging responses among the study lakes exemplify the complexity of ecosystem responses to decreased loads of atmospheric pollutants.

  7. Successful and unsuccessful cannabis quitters: Comparing group characteristics and quitting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooke Sally E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve treatments for cannabis use disorder, a better understanding of factors associated with successful quitting is required. Method This study examined differences between successful (n = 87 and unsuccessful (n = 78 cannabis quitters. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing demographic, mental health, and cannabis-related variables, as well as quitting strategies during their most recent quit attempt. Results Eighteen strategies derived from cognitive behavioral therapy were entered into a principal components analysis. The analysis yielded four components, representing (1 Stimulus Removal, (2 Motivation Enhancement, (3 (lack of Distraction, and (4 (lack of Coping. Between groups comparisons showed that unsuccessful quitters scored significantly higher on Motivation Enhancement and (lack of Coping. This may indicate that unsuccessful quitters focus on the desire to quit, but do not sufficiently plan strategies for coping. Unsuccessful quitters also had significantly more symptoms of depression and stress; less education; lower exposure to formal treatment; higher day-to-day exposure to other cannabis users; and higher cannabis dependence scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that coping, environmental modification, and co-morbid mental health problems may be important factors to emphasize in treatments for cannabis use disorder.

  8. Latent interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour applied to quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Hagtvet, Knut A; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2014-02-01

    This study applies three latent interaction models in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press; Ajzen, 1991, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., 50, 179) to quitting smoking: (1) attitude × perceived behavioural control on intention; (2) subjective norms (SN) × attitude on intention; and (3) perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting behaviour. The data derive from a longitudinal Internet survey of 939 smokers aged 15-74 over a period of 4 months. Latent interaction effects were estimated using the double-mean-centred unconstrained approach (Lin et al., 2010, Struct. Equ. Modeling, 17, 374) in LISREL. Attitude × SN and attitude × perceived behavioural control both showed a significant interaction effect on intention. No significant interaction effect was found for perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting. The latent interaction approach is a useful method for investigating specific conditions between TPB components in the context of quitting behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Retained gas sampler extractor mixing and mass transfer rate study: Experimental and simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagle, K.P.; Bates, J.M.; Shekarriz, A.

    1997-11-01

    Research staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted experimental testing and computer simulations of the impeller-stirred Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) gas extractor system. This work was performed to verify experimentally the effectiveness of the extractor at mixing viscous fluids of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian rheology representative of Hanford single- and double-shell wastes, respectively. Developing the computational models and validating their results by comparing them with experimental results would enable simulations of the mixing process for a range of fluid properties and mixing speeds. Five tests were performed with a full-scale, optically transparent model extractor to provide the data needed to compare mixing times for fluid rheology, mixer rotational direction, and mixing speed variation. The computer model was developed and exercised to simulate the tests. The tests demonstrated that rotational direction of the pitched impeller blades was not as important as fluid rheology in determining mixing time. The Newtonian fluid required at least six hours to mix at the hot cell operating speed of 3 rpm, and the non-Newtonian fluid required at least 46 hours at 3 rpm to become significantly mixed. In the non-Newtonian fluid tests, stagnant regions within the fluid sometimes required days to be fully mixed. Higher-speed (30 rpm) testing showed that the laminar mixing time was correlated to mixing speed. The tests demonstrated that, using the RGS extractor and current procedures, complete mixing of the waste samples in the hot cell should not be expected. The computer simulation of Newtonian fluid mixing gave results comparable to the test while simulation of non-Newtonian fluid mixing would require further development. In light of the laboratory test results, detailed parametric analysis of the mixing process was not performed.

  10. What causes EBRI retirement readiness ratings to vary: results from the 2014 Retirement Security Projection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2014-02-01

    RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY IMPROVED SLIGHTLY IN 2013: Due to the increase in financial market and housing values during 2013, the probability that Baby Boomers and Generation Xers would NOT run short of money in retirement increases between 0.5 and 1.6 percentage points, based on the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) Retirement Readiness Ratings (RRRs). ELIGIBILITY FOR PARTICIPATION IN AN EMPLOYER-SPONSORED DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLAN REMAINS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: RRR values double for Gen Xers in the lowest-income quartile when comparing those with 20 or more years of future eligibility with those with no years of future eligibility, while those in the middle income quartiles experience increases in RRR values by 27.1-30.3 percentage points. FUTURE SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS MAKE A HUGE DIFFERENCE FOR THE RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY OF SOME HOUSEHOLDS, ESPECIALLY GEN XERS IN THE LOWEST-INCOME QUARTILE: If Social Security benefits are subject to proportionate decreases beginning in 2033 (according to the values in Figure 8), the RRR values for those households will drop by more than 50 percent: from 20.9 percent to 10.3 percent. LONGEVITY RISK AND STOCHASTIC HEALTH CARE RISK ARE ASSOCIATED WITH HUGE VARIATIONS IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: For both of these factors, a comparison between the most "risky" quartile with the least risky quartile shows a spread of approximately 30 percentage points for the lowest income range, approximately 25 to 40 percentage points for the highest income range, and even larger spreads for those in the middle income ranges. A GREAT DEAL OF THE VARIABILITY IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY COULD BE MITIGATED BY APPROPRIATE RISK-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AT OR NEAR RETIREMENT AGE: For example, the annuitization of a portion of the defined contribution and IRA balances may substantially increase the probability of not running short of money in retirement. Moreover, a well-functioning market in long

  11. LOW-DOSE RATE BRACHYTHERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER: DIFFERENT INDICATIONS – DIFFERENT RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Biryukov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Russia, there is presently a growing interest in low-dose intratissue radiotherapy (brachytherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer (PC. Since its inception, current brachytherapy has undergone a number of significant changes in terms of improved visualization and better treatment planning and monitoring, which is sure to have affected the higher quality of their performance and better long-term results. The main purpose of the given paper is to generalize the data of foreign investigators who have the greatest experience with brachytherapy for its further use in the treatment of patients with locally advanced PC under the conditions of Russian clinics.

  12. Do commitment based human resource practices influence job embeddedness and intention to quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper provides evidence that commitment based human resource practices (CBHRP influence employees' turnover intentions by embedding newcomers more extensively into organisations. The study was conducted with 501 managers in 19 financial service organisations in India. Results reveal that CBHRP enable organisations to actively embed employees. The results also indicate that on-the-job embeddedness (on-the-JE is negatively related to turnover intentions and mediates relationships between CBHRP and employees' intention to quit.

  13. Associations between tobacco control mass media campaign expenditure and smoking prevalence and quitting in England: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie

    2017-06-30

    It has been established that mass media campaigns can increase smoking cessation rates, but there is little direct evidence estimating associations between government expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns and smoking cessation. This study assessed the association over 8 years between mass media expenditure in England and quit attempts, smoking cessation and smoking prevalence. Autoregressive integrated moving average modelling with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) was applied to monthly estimates from the Smoking Toolkit Study between June 2008 and February 2016. We assessed the association between the trends in mass media expenditure and (1) quit attempts in the last two months, (2) quit success among those who attempted to quit and (3) smoking prevalence. Analyses were adjusted for trends in weekly spending on tobacco by smokers, tobacco control policies and the use of established aids to cessation. Monthly spending on mass media campaigns ranged from nothing to £2.4 million, with a mean of £465 054. An increase in mass media expenditure of 10% of the monthly average was associated with a 0.51% increase (of the average) in success rates of quit attempts (95% CI 0.10% to 0.91%, p=0.014). No clear association was detected between changes in mass media expenditure and changes in quit attempt prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -2.05% to 2.00%, p=0.979) or smoking prevalence (β=-0.03, 95% CI -0.09% to 0.03%, p=0.299). Between 2008 and 2016, higher monthly expenditure on tobacco control mass media campaigns in England was associated with higher quit success rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Prisoners and cigarettes or ‘imprisoned in cigarettes’? What helps prisoners quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Elias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was, despite the special characteristics of prisons, to identify the features which led prisoners who attended the Smoking Cessation Centre at the Kassavetia Detention Centre in Volos (region of Thessaly, in the central part of mainland Greece to quit smoking. Methods Personal interviews with 204 male prisoners irrespective of smoking habitus over the period June 2008 to December 2010 were obtained. Information about medical history, history of tobacco use and addiction to narcotic use was obtained and imprisonment status was recorded. Pharmaceutical treatment (Varenicline and counselling or only counselling were suggested as alternative strategies to them in order to help quit smoking. SPSS v15.0 software was employed, descriptive statistics were used, and a X2 independence test and Student’s t-test were performed. Results Of the sample examined, 75.5% (154 were smokers. They were mainly Greeks (51.5%, single (53.4% and had not gratuated from a high school (secondary education level (70.6%. 59.75% begun smoking early ( ≤14 years of age and 64.9% were highly addicted according to Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. 74% (114 of all smokers at the prison attended the Smoking Cessation Centre. Of them, 30.7% were able to quit smoking at 3 months but 1 year later there were 20.2% ex-smokers. The key characteristics of those who were able to be ex-smokers were a change in smoking habits (decreased compared to when free (p = .001, previous attempts to quit (while incarcerated and in general (p = .001, average dependence levels (p  Conclusions Average dependence, a past free of addictive substance abuse and a better environment of daily living for certain prisoners (as far as the number of cellmates was concerned had a catalytic impact on prisoners finally managed to quit smoking.

  15. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layoun, Nelly; Salameh, Pascal; Waked, Mirna; Aoun Bacha, Z; Zeenny, Rony M; El Hitti, Eric; Godin, Isabelle; Dramaix, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to the textual warnings effects. A higher motivation to quit cigarette smoking was seen among the following groups of smokers: males (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, P=0.02), who had stopped smoking for at least 1 month during the last year due to textual warning (OR =2.79, Pmotivated to quit smokers appeared to be more hypothetically susceptible to shocking pictorial warnings. Motivation to quit was associated with sensitivity to warnings, but not with the presence of all chronic respiratory symptoms.

  16. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily ...

  17. Effect of Rating Scales and Test Parts of Body on the Evaluation Results of Fabric-evoked Prickle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ge-hui; RON Postle; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of rating scales and test parts of body on the fabric-evoked prickle evaluation results are studied by carrying out subjective evaluation tests under controlled environment conditions (24±1)℃, (65±5) %RH. Ten college female students aged about 20 were chosen as the subjects, who have participated a preliminary training on subjective prickle evaluation. The prickle of a range of 9 light-weight worsted woven wool and wool blend fabrics and a cotton fabric were tested by using a 1 - 5 rating scale and using a 0 - 10 rating scale respectively at different test parts of body respectively such as forearm, upper arm ball and neck back. The test results were statistically analyzed. It is found that there is a significant correlation coefficient between the evaluation results of using the 1 - 5 rating scale and of using the 0 - 10 rating scale. It is also found that there are highly significant correlation coefficients between the evaluation results of using the forearm prickle test and the neck back prickle test, between the evaluation results of using the neck back prickle test and the upper arm ball prickle test, and between the evaluation results of using the forearm prickle test and the upper arm ball prickle test. It is suggested that the forearm prickle test is preferable in evaluating fabric-evoked prickle for its convenience and sensitivity.

  18. Evaluating the effect of access to free medication to quit smoking: a clinical trial testing the role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Cropsey, Karen L; Wahlquist, Amy E; Gray, Kevin M; Silvestri, Gerard A; Cummings, K Michael; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Although the majority of smokers are ambivalent about quitting, few treatments specifically target smokers lacking motivation to quit in the near future. Most existing interventions are instead predicated on the belief that active treatments should only be distributed to smokers interested in quitting, a largely untested assumption. In the current clinical trial (N = 157), motivated smokers wanting to quit in the next 30 days were given a 2-week nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sample and a referral to a quitline (Group MNQ), while unmotivated smokers were randomized to receive the same treatment (Group UNQ) or a quitline referral only (Group UQ). Participants were tracked via telephone for 3 months to assess quitting behaviors and smoking reduction. Groups significantly differed across all comparisons with regard to incidence of any quit attempt (MNQ: 77%, UNQ: 40%, UQ: 18%, p < .05) and any 24-hr quit attempts (62%, 32%, 16%, p < .05). Clinically meaningful differences emerged in the rates of floating (19%, 17%, 6%) and point prevalence abstinence (17%, 15%, 5%). Compared to participants in Group UQ (11%), a greater proportion of participants in Group MNQ (48%, p = .01) and Group UNQ (31%, p = .01) reduced their daily cigarette consumption by at least half. Proxy measures of cessation readiness (e.g., motivation) favored participants receiving active forms of treatment. Providing NRT samples engaged both motivated and unmotivated smokers into the quitting process and produced positive changes in smoking outcomes. This suggests that motivation should not be considered a necessary precondition to receiving treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Illiteracy, ignorance, and willingness to quit smoking among villagers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavarasana, S; Gorty, P V; Allam, A

    1992-04-01

    During the field work to control oral cancer, difficulty in communication was encountered with illiterates. A study to define the role of illiteracy, ignorance and willingness to quit smoking among the villagers was undertaken in a rural area surrounding Doddipatla Village, A.P., India. Out of a total population of 3,550, 272 (7.7%) persons, mostly in the age range of 21-50 years, attended a cancer detection camp. There were 173 (63.6%) females and 99 (36.4%) males, among whom 66 (M53 + F13) were smokers; 36.4% of males and 63% of females were illiterate. Among the illiterates, it was observed that smoking rate was high (56%) and 47.7% were ignorant of health effects of smoking. The attitude of illiterate smokers was encouraging, as 83.6% were willing to quit smoking. Further research is necessary to design health education material for 413.5 million illiterates living in India (1991 Indian Census). A community health worker, trained in the use of mass media coupled with a person-to-person approach, may help the smoker to quit smoking.

  20. Determination of the Metabolic Rate and Work Arduousness Class for Workers in Coal Mines - The Results of in Situ Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenda, Jan; Kułagowska, Ewa; Różański, Zenon; Pach, Grzegorz; Wrona, Paweł; Karolak, Izabela

    2017-06-01

    Considering different duties and activities among miners working in underground coal mines, their work is connected with variable metabolic rate. Determination of this rate for different workplace was the aim of the research and was the base for set up the work arduousness classes for the workplace (according to the standard PN-EN 27243). The research covered 6 coal mines, 268 workers and 1164 series of measurements. Metabolic rate was established on the base of heart rate obtained from individual pulsometers (according to the standard PN-EN ISO 8996). Measurements were supplemented by poll surveys about worker and thermal environment parameters. The results showed significant variability of average heart rate (from 87 bmp to 100 bpm) with variance coefficient 14%. Mean values of metabolic rate were from 150 W/m2 to 207 W/m2. According to the results, the most common class of work arduousness was at moderate metabolic rate (class 2 - moderate work), however, more intense work was found in headings, especially at " blind end" workplace.

  1. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  2. Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game

    CERN Document Server

    Ichinose, Genki

    2014-01-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players decide how to split a certain amount of money. One player (proposer) makes only one offer to the other player (responder). If the responder accepts the offer, the money will be split between them accordingly, but if not, neither receives anything. Although making minimal offers and accepting any offers is the most rational choice in UG, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in experiments. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation or empathy is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if the game is probabilistic, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). In NQUG, players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.

  3. ExtraLevatory AbdominoPerineal Excision (ELAPE) Does Not Result in Reduced Rate of Tumor Perforation or Rate of Positive Circumferential Resection Margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Fischer, Anders; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oncological results and possible benefits associated with extralevatory abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) when compared with conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE). BACKGROUND: ELAPE was introduced in 2007 with the purpose of reducing the rate of positive resection...... margins after resection of low rectal cancers. Preliminary studies have shown promising results. No large-scale or nationwide data have been presented. METHODS: Database study based on data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's prospective database. Data on all ELAPEs and APEs performed in Denmark...

  4. Self-Exempting Beliefs and Intention to Quit Smoking within a Socially Disadvantaged Australian Sample of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Twyman, Laura; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of beliefs used to rationalise smoking will have important implications for the content of anti-smoking programs targeted at socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who show the lowest rates of cessation in the population. This study aimed to assess the types of self-exempting beliefs reported by a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, and identify associations between these beliefs and other smoking-related factors with quit intentions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March-December 2012 with smokers seeking welfare assistance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia (n = 354; response rate 79%). Responses to a 16-item self-exempting beliefs scale and intention to quit, smoker identity, and enjoyment of smoking were assessed. Most participants earned smoking due to ubiquity of risk) and selected "skeptic" beliefs were endorsed by 25%-47% of the sample, indicating these smokers may not fully understand the extensive risks associated with smoking. Smokers with limited quit intentions held significantly stronger self-exempting beliefs than those contemplating or preparing to quit (all p smoking-related variables only "skeptic" beliefs were significantly associated with intention to quit (p = 0.02). Some of these beliefs are incorrect and could be addressed in anti-smoking campaigns.

  5. The Impact of Not on Tobacco on Teen Smoking Cessation: End-of-Program Evaluation Results, 1998 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kimberly; Dino, Geri; Kalsekar, Iftekhar; Mody, Reema

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes end-of-program quit rates from 6 controlled and 10 field-based Not on Tobacco (NOT) evaluations. Approximately 6,130 youth from 5 states and 489 schools participated. Intent-to-treat and compliant quit rates were calculated at 3 months postbaseline (end-of-program). Results from controlled evaluations revealed an aggregate…

  6. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted.

  7. Does Short Message Service Increase Adherence to Smoking Cessation Clinic Appointments and Quitting Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önür, Seda Tural; Uysal, Mehmet Atilla; İliaz, Sinem; Yurt, Sibel; Bahadır, Ayşe; Hattatoğlu, Didem Görgün; Ortaköylü, Mediha Gönenç; Bağcı, Belma Akbaba; Chousein, Efsun Gonca Uğur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using innovative and scientific methods increases the rate of quitting in smokers. Short message service (SMS) is a communication tool widely used and well integrated in many people’s daily lives. To increase adherence to appointments in smoking cessation clinics (SCC), it is thought that increased compliance could be achieved by falling outside the traditional methods. SMS has been shown to increase the compliance of patients with SCC appointments. Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of SMS in the compliance of patients with SCC follow-up visits and smoking cessation success. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Our study was a controlled, open, prospective study. We enrolled 436 cases applied to SCC of Yedikule Training and Research Hospital between 01.10.2013–30.06.2014 and agreed to follow-up with SMS. SMS was sent to the patients to remind them of appointments at the SCC and to query their smoking state. Results: Two hundred-and-eighty seven (65.8%) of the patients were male and 149 (34.2%) were female. The mean age was 45±12 years. In this study, 296 (67.9%) patients had graduated from primary school. Our patients’ smoking state was queried by telephone at the 6-month follow-up and we contacted 348 patients. According to this, 88 (25.3%) patients were not smoking, and 260 (74.7%) patients were smokers. Therefore, the smoking cessation rate was 24% (n=60) in patients who did not respond to SMS reminders at all, and 28.6% (n=28) in patients answering any SMS at least once (p=0.377). Smoking cessation rate of the patients invited by SMS but who did not attend any control visits was 19.1%, and it was 34.5% in patients coming to a control visit at least once. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: In our study, there was increased success of smoking cessation in patients coming to control visits. We think that this may result from the possibly increased compliance to SCC appointments following

  8. Women who quit maquiladora work on the U.S.-Mexico border: assessing health, occupation, and social dimensions in two transnational electronics plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, S; Samuels, S; Ramirez, M

    1998-05-01

    This cohort study of 725 women examined the health, occupational, and social factors that contribute to quitting work in two transnational electronics maquiladoras (assembly plants) in Tijuana, Mexico. The estimated cumulative probabilities of quitting were 68% and 81% by 1 and 2 years of employment. After adjusting for other factors, women who had a history of smoking or surgery and those who returned to work after a paid leave due to illness were more likely to quit. In contrast, women with a history of chronic illness had lower quitting rates. The nationality of the company and the work shift also significantly influenced quitting rates, but demographic characteristics and health care visits did not have a significant effect. Women selectively leave maquiladora employment, often due to health-related events. The healthy worker effect is difficult to measure in a mobile population with high turnover.

  9. Regional variations in mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China:Results from 1990-1992 national mortality survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Xin Chen; Peizhong Peter Wang; Si-Wei Zhang; Lian-Di Li; Feng-Zhu Lu; Xi-Shan Hao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the regional variations in mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China.METHODS: Aggregated mortality data of pancreatic cancer were extracted from the 1990-1992 national death of all causes and its mortality survey in China. Age specific and standardized mortality rates were calculated at both national and provincial levels with selected characteristics including sex and residence status.RESULTS: Mortality of pancreatic cancer ranked the ninth and accounted for 1.38 percent of the total malignancy deaths. The crude and age standardized mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China in the period of 1990-1992 were 1.48/100 000 and 1.30/100 000, respectively. Substantial regional variations in mortality rates across China were observed with adjusted mortality rates ranging from 0.43/100 000 to 3.70/100 000 with an extremal value of 8.7.Urban residents had significant higher pancreatic mortality than rural residents.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show different mortality rates of this disease and highlight the importance of further investigation on factors, which might contribute to the observed epidemiological patterns.

  10. Information system of index-rating evaluation of higher school students and the result in its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Васильевич Рочев

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the information system of index-rating evaluation and financial incentives of university students, a list of indicators to measure the student’s activities, features of the calculation and analysis of data on the results of implementing the system in Ukhta State Technical University.

  11. Community Schools--Results that Turn around Failing Schools: Test Scores, Attendance, Graduation and College-Going Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Community Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Great strides have been made by community school initiatives across the nation in their efforts to impact student achievement, attendance, student engagement, graduation rates, parent involvement and more. Data on community schools is growing and the authors encourage readers to review research reports and syntheses on results. The results…

  12. Effects of Mass Media Campaign Exposure Intensity and Durability on Quit Attempts in a Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 months…

  13. Racial Bias in the Manager-Employee Relationship: An Analysis of Quits, Dismissals, and Promotions at a Large Retail Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Laura; Levine, David I.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large U.S. retail firm, we examine how racial matches between managers and their employees affect rates of employee quits, dismissals, and promotions. We exploit changes in management at hundreds of stores to estimate hazard models with store fixed effects that control for all unobserved differences across store locations. We…

  14. Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Sayama, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players (proposer and responder) decide how to split a certain amount of money. While traditional economic theories based on rational decision making predict that the proposer should make a minimal offer and the responder should accept it, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in UG. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation, empathy, or spatial structure is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). Evolutionary simulations of NQUG showed that the probabilistic decision making contributes to the increase of proposers' offer amounts to avoid rejection, while the repetition of the game works to responders' advantage because they can wait until a good offer comes. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.

  15. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison J; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M

    2007-10-01

    Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Cohort study. A total of 792 smokers, participating in a trial of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)-assisted smoking cessation. Participants were informed that the trial investigated relationships between genetic markers and smoking behaviour, but personalized genetic feedback was not provided. Primary care in Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, UK. Perceived control over smoking and perceived importance of genetic factors in causing smoking assessed pre-quit; abstinence 4, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after the start of treatment. A total of 515 smokers (65.0%) viewed genetic factors as playing some role in causing their smoking. They had lower perceived control over smoking than smokers who viewed genetic factors as having no role in causing their smoking. Attributing smoking to genetic causes was not associated significantly with a lower probability of quit attempt success. Attributing smoking to genetic factors was associated with lower levels of perceived control over smoking but not lower quit rates. This suggests that learning of one's genetic predisposition to smoking during a pharmacogenetically tailored smoking cessation intervention may not deter quitting. Further research should examine whether the lack of impact of genetic attributions on quit attempt success is also found in smokers provided with personalized genetic feedback.

  16. Quitting activity and tobacco brand switching: findings from the ITC-4 Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Partos, Timea; Borland, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Among Australian smokers, to examine associations between cigarette brand switching, quitting activity and possible causal directions by lagging the relationships in different directions. Current smokers from nine waves (2002 to early 2012) of the ITC-4 Country Survey Australian dataset were surveyed. Measures were brand switching, both brand family and product type (roll-your-own versus factory-made cigarettes) reported in adjacent waves, interest in quitting, recent quit attempts, and one month sustained abstinence. Switching at one interval was unrelated to concurrent quit interest. Quit interest predicted switching at the following interval, but the effect disappeared once subsequent quit attempts were controlled for. Recent quit attempts more strongly predicted switching at concurrent (OR 1.34, 95%CI=1.18-1.52, pbrand switching does not affect subsequent quitting. Brand switching does not appear to interfere with quitting. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Foraging rates of larval dragonfly colonists are positively related to habitat isolation: results from a landscape-level experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Shannon J; Brodin, Tomas; Hammond, John

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence of intraspecific variation in dispersal behavior. Individual differences in dispersal behavior may be correlated with other traits that determine the impact individuals have on patches they colonize. We established habitat patches-artificial pools-across a landscape, and these pools were naturally colonized by dragonfly larvae. Larvae were collected from pools at different levels of isolation and held under common lab conditions for 5 months. We then compared larval foraging rates. Foraging rate was positively related to habitat isolation, and colonists from the most isolated artificial pools had significantly higher foraging rates than individuals from the least isolated pools. Our results indicate that spatial patterns in colonist behavior can develop across a landscape independent of species-level dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that studies of community structure across space should include an assessment of the distribution of phenotypes as well as species-level dispersal limitation patterns.

  18. Short-form Mini-Nutritional Assessment with either BMI or calf circumference is effective in rating the nutritional status of elderly Taiwanese -- results of a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alan C; Chang, Tsui-Lan; Wang, Jiun-Yi

    2013-09-28

    The present study was aimed to validate two normalised short-form (SF) Mini-Nutritional Assessments (MNA) that contained either BMI (Taiwan version 1, T1) or calf circumference (CC; Taiwan version 2, T2) for rating the nutritional status of elderly Taiwanese. Both versions adopted Taiwanese anthropometric cut-offs, but T2 further had the BMI item replaced by CC. We compared the ability of the two SF in rating the nutritional status of 2674 elderly Taiwanese in the 1999 ‘Taiwan Longitudinal Survey on Aging’ with their respective full versions. We evaluated the agreement between the SF and full scales with weighted κ and performed Cox regression analysis for the follow-up 4-year mortality according to nutritional status rated at baseline. The results showed that the agreements between the respective SF and the full MNA were good (weighted κ: 0·679 for T1 and 0·667 for T2). Both SF performed well in predicting follow-up 4-year mortality relative to the full MNA. In conclusion, MNA-T1-SF and -T2-SF have good consistency with the full MNA and have quite comparable abilities in rating the nutritional status of elderly Taiwanese. Both SF versions appear appropriate for functioning as stand-alone units for rating the nutritional status of the elderly in community-living settings or the general population.

  19. Electronic cigarette use is not associated with quitting of conventional cigarettes in youth smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William H; Wu, Yongda; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundTo investigate the association between electronic cigarette (e-cig) use and smoking cessation among smokers who called the Youth Quitline in Hong Kong.MethodsThis longitudinal study collected data on youth smokers' (N=189) use and perception of e-cigs, conventional cigarette smoking behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. Self-reported past 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) was assessed in the 6-month telephone follow-up. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the association of e-cig use with quitting cigarette smoking and other cessation-related outcomes.ResultsE-cig users were younger, more addicted to nicotine, and less ready to quit (all Pcig users (13.4% vs. 20.8%) at follow-up. E-cig use was not associated with PPA at the 6-month follow-up (odds ratio (OR): 0.56, 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.35), but it was nonsignificantly related to more cessation attempts (raw coefficient (b): 1.26, 95% CI: -0.13 to 2.66). Among those who still smoked, e-cig use was nonsignificantly associated with intention to quit smoking (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.15 to 2.05), nicotine dependence (Fagerström score, b: 0.75, 95% CI: -0.39 to 1.90), and perceptions on quitting cigarette smoking.ConclusionE-cig use was not associated with successful smoking cessation among Youth Quitline smokers.

  20. Efficacy of a smoking quit line in the military: baseline design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Phyllis A; Klesges, Robert C; Talcott, Gerald W; Debon, Margaret; Womack, Catherine; Thomas, Fridtjof; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann

    2012-09-01

    Thirty percent of all military personnel smoke cigarettes. Because of the negative health consequences and their impact on physical fitness, overall health, and military readiness, the Department of Defense has identified the reduction of tobacco use as a priority of US military forces. This study aims to evaluate the one-year efficacy of a proactive versus reactive smoking quit line in the US military with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both groups. This paper reports on the baseline variables of the first 1000 participants randomized, the design, and proposed analysis of the randomized two-arm clinical trial "Efficacy of a Tobacco Quit Line in the Military". Participants are adult smokers who are Armed Forces Active Duty personnel, retirees, Reservist, National Guard and family member healthcare beneficiaries. All participants are randomized to either the Counselor Initiated (proactive) group, receiving 6 counseling sessions in addition to an 8-week supply of NRT, or the Self-Paced (reactive) group, in which they may call the quit line themselves to receive the same counseling sessions, in addition to a 2-week supply of NRT. The primary outcome measure of the study is self-reported smoking abstinence at 1-year follow-up. Results from this study will be the first to provide evidence for the efficacy of an intensive Counselor Initiated quit line with provided NRT in military personnel and could lead to dissemination throughout the US Air Force, the armed forces population as a whole and ultimately to civilian personnel that do not have ready access to preventive health services.

  1. Rate on the rebound of films, strategic design and results; Tasa de rechazo de peliculas, diseno de estrategias y resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelalde, E.; Fernandez, J.M.; Ramirez, R.; Canevaro, R.; Vano, E. [Catedra de Fisica Medica. Departamento de Radiologia. Universidad Complutense. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The present work pretends to identify the diagnostic tests of greatest rate on the rebound and to analyze their causes comparing them with the reference values obtained in the University Hospital `San Carlos` study in 1993. Equally is looking for contributing with criterions and strategies for the implantation of a responsible system of information caption. The control of the rate on rebound of radiographic plates is fundamental for the quality control programs feedback. The results emitted by this study confirm the utility to the advantage of this type of global indicators for the quality control programs and contribute reducing collective doses, since the improvement of medical diagnostic and diminishing the operation costs of the inputs utilized. It is emphasized the importance what had to introduce at the personnel which participate in the system to obtain fitted results. (Author)

  2. Predictors of return rate for an HIV-positive result in a French Voluntary Counseling and Testing centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Golriz; Burdet, Charles; Laouénan, Cédric; Guiroy, Frédérique; Bouscarat, Fabrice; Tosini, William; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Bouvet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bichat Hospital's free and anonymous Voluntary Counseling and Testing centre in Paris is widely visited, with a high rate of HIV-positive diagnosis. This study proposed, in this centre, to describe the HIV newly-diagnosed patients over an 8-year period and to determinate risk factors for failure to return for a positive result. Higher risk for failure to return was found among the heterosexual subjects regardless of their socio-economic background.

  3. Use of research-based instructional strategies: how to avoid faculty quitting

    CERN Document Server

    Wieman, Carl; Gilley, Brett

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the teaching practices of faculty members who adopted research-based instructional strategies as part of the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative (CWSEI) at the University of British Columbia. Of the 70 that adopted such strategies with the support of the CWSEI program, only one subsequently stopped using these strategies. This is a tiny fraction of the 33% stopping rate for physics faculty in general [Henderson, Dancy, and Niewiadomska-Bugaj, PRST-PER, 8, 020104 (2012)]. Nearly all of these UBC faculty members who had an opportunity to subsequently use RBIS in other courses (without CWSEI support) did so. We offer possible explanations for the difference in quitting rates. The direct support of the faculty member by a trained science education specialist in the discipline during the initial implementation of the new strategies may be the most important factor.

  4. Mean Abnormal Result Rate: Proof of Concept of a New Metric for Benchmarking Selectivity in Laboratory Test Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, Christopher T; Guo, Maggie

    2016-04-01

    There is a need to develop and validate new metrics to access the appropriateness of laboratory test requests. The mean abnormal result rate (MARR) is a proposed measure of ordering selectivity, the premise being that higher mean abnormal rates represent more selective test ordering. As a validation of this metric, we compared the abnormal rate of lab tests with the number of tests ordered on the same requisition. We hypothesized that requisitions with larger numbers of requested tests represent less selective test ordering and therefore would have a lower overall abnormal rate. We examined 3,864,083 tests ordered on 451,895 requisitions and found that the MARR decreased from about 25% if one test was ordered to about 7% if nine or more tests were ordered, consistent with less selectivity when more tests were ordered. We then examined the MARR for community-based testing for 1,340 family physicians and found both a wide variation in MARR as well as an inverse relationship between the total tests ordered per year per physician and the physician-specific MARR. The proposed metric represents a new utilization metric for benchmarking relative selectivity of test orders among physicians. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Positive outcomes influence the rate and time to publication, but not the impact factor of publications of clinical trial results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Suñé

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Publication bias may affect the validity of evidence based medical decisions. The aim of this study is to assess whether research outcomes affect the dissemination of clinical trial findings, in terms of rate, time to publication, and impact factor of journal publications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All drug-evaluating clinical trials submitted to and approved by a general hospital ethics committee between 1997 and 2004 were prospectively followed to analyze their fate and publication. Published articles were identified by searching Pubmed and other electronic databases. Clinical study final reports submitted to the ethics committee, final reports synopses available online and meeting abstracts were also considered as sources of study results. Study outcomes were classified as positive (when statistical significance favoring experimental drug was achieved, negative (when no statistical significance was achieved or it favored control drug and descriptive (for non-controlled studies. Time to publication was defined as time from study closure to publication. A survival analysis was performed using a Cox regression model to analyze time to publication. Journal impact factors of identified publications were recorded. Publication rate was 48·4% (380/785. Study results were identified for 68·9% of all completed clinical trials (541/785. Publication rate was 84·9% (180/212 for studies with results classified as positive and 68·9% (128/186 for studies with results classified as negative (p<0·001. Median time to publication was 2·09 years (IC95 1·61-2·56 for studies with results classified as positive and 3·21 years (IC95 2·69-3·70 for studies with results classified as negative (hazard ratio 1·99 (IC95 1·55-2·55. No differences were found in publication impact factor between positive (median 6·308, interquartile range: 3·141-28·409 and negative result studies (median 8·266, interquartile range: 4·135-17·157. CONCLUSIONS

  6. Transitions in Smokers' Social Networks After Quit Attempts: A Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Bethany C; Smith, Rachel A; Piper, Megan E; Roberts, Linda J; Baker, Timothy B

    2016-12-01

    Smokers' social networks vary in size, composition, and amount of exposure to smoking. The extent to which smokers' social networks change after a quit attempt is unknown, as is the relation between quitting success and later network changes. Unique types of social networks for 691 smokers enrolled in a smoking-cessation trial were identified based on network size, new network members, members' smoking habits, within network smoking, smoking buddies, and romantic partners' smoking. Latent transition analysis was used to identify the network classes and to predict transitions in class membership across 3 years from biochemically assessed smoking abstinence. Five network classes were identified: Immersed (large network, extensive smoking exposure including smoking buddies), Low Smoking Exposure (large network, minimal smoking exposure), Smoking Partner (small network, smoking exposure primarily from partner), Isolated (small network, minimal smoking exposure), and Distant Smoking Exposure (small network, considerable nonpartner smoking exposure). Abstinence at years 1 and 2 was associated with shifts in participants' social networks to less contact with smokers and larger networks in years 2 and 3. In the years following a smoking-cessation attempt, smokers' social networks changed, and abstinence status predicted these changes. Networks defined by high levels of exposure to smokers were especially associated with continued smoking. Abstinence, however, predicted transitions to larger social networks comprising less smoking exposure. These results support treatments that aim to reduce exposure to smoking cues and smokers, including partners who smoke. Prior research has shown that social network features predict the likelihood of subsequent smoking cessation. The current research illustrates how successful quitting predicts social network change over 3 years following a quit attempt. Specifically, abstinence predicts transitions to networks that are larger and afford

  7. TControl: A mobile app to follow up tobacco-quitting patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifarré, Marc; Carrera, Adrián; Vilaplana, Jordi; Cuadrado, Josep; Solsona, Sara; Abella, Francesc; Solsona, Francesc; Alves, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for a wide range of respiratory and circulatory diseases in active and passive smokers. Well-designed campaigns are raising awareness to the problem and an increasing number of smokers seeks medical assistance to quit their habit. In this context, there is the need to develop mHealth Apps that assist and manage large smoke quitting programs in efficient and economic ways. Our main objective is to develop an efficient and free mHealth app that facilitates the management of, and assistance to, people who want to quit smoking. As secondary objectives, our research also aims at estimating the economic effect of deploying that App in the public health system. Using JAVA and XML we develop and deploy a new free mHealth App for Android, called TControl (Tobacco-quitting Control). We deploy the App at the Tobacco Unit of the Santa Maria Hospital in Lleida and determine its stability by following the crashes of the App. We also use a survey to test usability of the app and differences in aptitude for using the App in a sample of 31 patients. Finally, we use mathematical models to estimate the economic effect of deploying TControl in the Catalan public health system. TControl keeps track of the smoke-quitting users, tracking their status, interpreting it, and offering advice and psychological support messages. The App also provides a bidirectional communication channel between patients and clinicians via mobile text messages. Additionally, registered patients have the option to interchange experiences with each other by chat. The App was found to be stable and to have high performances during startup and message sending. Our results suggest that age and gender have no statistically significant effect on patient aptitude for using TControl. Finally, we estimate that TControl could reduce costs for the Catalan public health system (CPHS) by up to € 400M in 10 years. TControl is a stable and well behaved App, typically operating near

  8. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Ucinska Romana; Lewandowska Katarzyna; Jassem Ewa; Buczkowski Krzysztof; Sieminska Alicja; Chelminska Marta

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals ...

  9. The rate of and risk factors for frequent hospitalization in systemic lupus erythematosus: results from the Korean lupus network registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Park, D J; Kang, J H; Choi, S E; Yim, Y R; Kim, J E; Lee, K E; Wen, L; Kim, T J; Park, Y W; Sung, Y K; Lee, S S

    2016-11-01

    Objectives The survival rate of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus has improved in the last few decades, but the rate of hospitalization and health care costs for these patients remain higher than in the general population. Thus, we evaluated the rate of hospitalization and associated risk factors in an inception cohort of Korean patients with lupus. Methods Of the 507 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus enrolled in the KORean lupus NETwork, we investigated an inception cohort consisting of 196 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus presenting within 6 months of diagnosis based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. We evaluated the causes of hospitalization, demographic characteristics, and laboratory and clinical data at the time of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis of hospitalized patients and during a follow-up period. We calculated the hospitalization rate as the number of total hospitalizations divided by the disease duration, and defined "frequent hospitalization" as hospitalization more than once per year. Results Of the 196 patients, 117 (59.6%) were admitted to hospital a total of 257 times during the 8-year follow-up period. Moreover, 22 (11.2%) patients were hospitalized frequently. The most common reasons for hospitalization included disease flares, infection, and pregnancy-related morbidity. In the univariate regression analysis, malar rash, arthritis, pericarditis, renal involvement, fever, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index > 12, hemoglobin level < 10 mg/dl, albumin level < 3.5 mg/dl, and anti-Sjögren's syndrome A positivity were associated with frequent hospitalization. Finally, multivariate analysis showed that arthritis, pericarditis, and anti-Sjögren's syndrome A antibody positivity at the time of diagnosis were risk factors for frequent hospitalization. Conclusions Our results showed that frequent hospitalization occurred in 11.2% of hospitalized patients and

  10. KiSThelP: a program to predict thermodynamic properties and rate constants from quantum chemistry results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canneaux, Sébastien; Bohr, Frédéric; Henon, Eric

    2014-01-05

    Kinetic and Statistical Thermodynamical Package (KiSThelP) is a cross-platform free open-source program developed to estimate molecular and reaction properties from electronic structure data. To date, three computational chemistry software formats are supported (Gaussian, GAMESS, and NWChem). Some key features are: gas-phase molecular thermodynamic properties (offering hindered rotor treatment), thermal equilibrium constants, transition state theory rate coefficients (transition state theory (TST), variational transition state theory (VTST)) including one-dimensional (1D) tunnelling effects (Wigner, and Eckart) and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) rate constants, for elementary reactions with well-defined barriers. KiSThelP is intended as a working tool both for the general public and also for more expert users. It provides graphical front-end capabilities designed to facilitate calculations and interpreting results. KiSThelP enables to change input data and simulation parameters directly through the graphical user interface and to visually probe how it affects results. Users can access results in the form of graphs and tables. The graphical tool offers customizing of 2D plots, exporting images and data files. These features make this program also well-suited to support and enhance students learning and can serve as a very attractive courseware, taking the teaching content directly from results in molecular and kinetic modelling. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Protocol for a randomised pragmatic policy trial of nicotine products for quitting or long-term substitution in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doug; Borland, Ron; Gartner, Coral

    2015-10-06

    Smoking is Australia's leading preventable cause of premature mortality and a major contributor to the national disease burden. If quit rates do not dramatically improve, then smoking will continue to be a major public health issue for decades to come. Harm-reduction approaches using novel nicotine products like e-cigarettes as long term replacements for smoking have the potential to improve quit rates. However, little research has assessed such approaches. Three-arm parallel-group pragmatic randomised controlled trial. People living in Australia who are at least 18 years old, smoke five or more cigarettes per day and are willing to try a sample of nicotine products. Participants are randomised to receive standard quit advice and medicinal nicotine (Condition A); quit or substitute advice and medicinal nicotine (Condition B); or quit or substitute advice and medicinal nicotine and e-cigarettes (Condition C). Participants choose which (if any) nicotine products to receive to try in a free sample pack followed by a two to three week free supply of their favourite product(s) and the option to purchase more at a discounted price. Follow-up surveys will assess nicotine product use and smoking. Continuous abstinence for at least 6 months. Target sample size: 1600 people (Condition A: 340; Condition B: 630; Condition C: 630) provides at least 80 % power at p = 0.05 to detect a 5 % difference in abstinence rates between each condition. This trial will provide data on tobacco harm-reduction approaches and in particular the use of e-cigarettes as a replacement for smoking. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612001210864. Date of registration: 15/11/2012.

  12. Empirical Results of Modeling EUR/RON Exchange Rate using ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH, TARCH and PARCH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea – Cristina PETRICĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study consists in examining the changes in the volatility of daily returns of EUR/RON exchange rate using on the one hand symmetric GARCH models (ARCH and GARCH and on the other hand the asymmetric GARCH models (EGARCH, TARCH and PARCH, since the conditional variance is time-varying. The analysis takes into account daily quotations of EUR/RON exchange rate over the period of 04th January 1999 to 13th June 2016. Thus, we are modeling heteroscedasticity by applying different specifications of GARCH models followed by looking for significant parameters and low information criteria (minimum Akaike Information Criterion. All models are estimated using the maximum likelihood method under the assumption of several distributions of the innovation terms such as: Normal (Gaussian distribution, Student’s t distribution, Generalized Error distribution (GED, Student’s with fixed df. Distribution, and GED with fixed parameter distribution. The predominant models turned out to be EGARCH and PARCH models, and the empirical results point out that the best model for estimating daily returns of EUR/RON exchange rate is EGARCH(2,1 with Asymmetric order 2 under the assumption of Student’s t distributed innovation terms. This can be explained by the fact that in case of EGARCH model, the restriction regarding the positivity of the conditional variance is automatically satisfied.

  13. Supermassive black holes with high accretion rates in active galactic nuclei: I. First results from a new reverberation mapping campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Du, P; Lu, K -X; Wang, F; Qiu, J; Li, Y -R; Bai, J -M; Kaspi, S; Netzer, H; Wang, J -M

    2013-01-01

    We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4-m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Edddington rates, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+3333 with H$\\beta$ time lags relative to the 5100\\AA\\ continuum of $10.6^{+1.7}_{-2.9}$, $6.4^{+0.8}_{-2.2}$ and $11.4^{+2.9}_{-1.9}$ days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are $(6.0_{-2.0}^{+1.5})\\times 10^6M_{\\odot}$, $(3.4_{-1.4}^{+0.8})\\times 10^6M_...

  14. Prospective study comparing functional outcomes and revision rates between hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty: preliminary results for 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailhé, Régis; Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Sharma, Akash; Lafontan, Valérie; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Chiron, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Postel-Merle d'Aubigné (MDA) score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1) [100 Durom(®) (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA) and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing(®) (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA)] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2). The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001). In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom(®) implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time.

  15. Prospective study comparing functional outcomes and revision rates between hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty: preliminary results for 2 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pailhé

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS and Postel-Merle d’Aubigné (MDA score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1 [100 Durom® (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing® (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2. The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001. In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom® implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time.

  16. NanoSIMS results from olivine-hosted melt embayments: Magma ascent rate during explosive basaltic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alexander S.; Ruprecht, Philipp; Hauri, Erik H.; Rose, William; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Plank, Terry

    2014-08-01

    The explosivity of volcanic eruptions is governed in part by the rate at which magma ascends and degasses. Because the time scales of eruptive processes can be exceptionally fast relative to standard geochronometers, magma ascent rate remains difficult to quantify. Here we use as a chronometer concentration gradients of volatile species along open melt embayments within olivine crystals. Continuous degassing of the external melt during magma ascent results in diffusion of volatile species from embayment interiors to the bubble located at their outlets. The novel aspect of this study is the measurement of concentration gradients in five volatile elements (CO2, H2O, S, Cl, F) at fine-scale (5-10 μm) using the NanoSIMS. The wide range in diffusivity and solubility of these different volatiles provides multiple constraints on ascent timescales over a range of depths. We focus on four 100-200 μm, olivine-hosted embayments erupted on October 17, 1974 during the sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán de Fuego. H2O, CO2, and S all decrease toward the embayment outlet bubble, while F and Cl increase or remain roughly constant. Compared to an extensive melt inclusion suite from the same day of the eruption, the embayments have lost both H2O and CO2 throughout the entire length of the embayment. We fit the profiles with a 1-D numerical diffusion model that allows varying diffusivities and external melt concentrations as a function of pressure. Assuming a constant decompression rate from the magma storage region at approximately 220 MPa to the surface, H2O, CO2 and S profiles for all embayments can be fit with a relatively narrow range in decompression rates of 0.3-0.5 MPa/s, equivalent to 11-17 m/s ascent velocity and an 8 to 12 minute duration of magma ascent from ~ 10 km depth. A two stage decompression model takes advantage of the different depth ranges over which CO2 and H2O degas, and produces good fits given an initial stage of slow decompression (0.05-0.3 MPa/s) at high

  17. Modelling of football companies' rates of return according to sport results and bookmakers' expectations on the example of serie A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Majewski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to investigate whether the rates of return on listed companies - football clubs can affect their athletic performance or bookmakers' market expectations. For this purpose 2001-2014 stock prices were collected of three companies - AS Roma, Juventus and SS Lazio - listed on the Milan Stock Exchange as well as their betting odds from the website www.betexplorer.com. The assumption that there are relationships between financial factors and results of sport events or bookmakers’ expectation was posed after the study of the world literature in this field.

  18. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2011-10-26

    Social and community service organisations (SCSOs) are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate). Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking) was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77%) and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2) lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8%) reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%), cash rewards (52%) and non-cash rewards (47%) for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%). Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  19. Associated factors to self-rated health among hypertensive and/or diabetic elderly: results from Bambuí project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the associated factors with negative self-rated health among hypertensive and/or diabetic elderly. Methods: All the participants of Bambuí Project elderly cohort who suffered from hypertension and/or diabetes and who answered the questionnaire without the help of a close informant were selected for this (n = 942. Covariates encompassed sociodemographic characteristics, social support, health behaviors, health status and use of health services. Results: Negative self-rated health showed positively associated with dissatisfaction with social relations (PR = 1.98, 95%CI 1.42 - 2.76, attendance at religious services less than once a month (PR = 1.96, 95%CI 1.44 - 2.68; be smokers (PR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.24 - 2.17, presence of arthritis (PR = 1.35, 95%CI 1.07 - 1.71, depressive symptoms (PR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.37 - 2.39 and insomnia (PR = 1.37, 95%CI 1.06 - 1.78, having consulted the doctor two or more times in the last twelve months (PR = 2.18; 95%CI 1.14 - 4.19 and PR = 3.96; 95%CI 2.10 - 7.48, respectively for "2 - 3" and "4+" visits, and have hypertension and diabetes (compared to the isolated presence of hypertension Conclusions: Our results confirmed the multidimensional nature of self-rated health and were consistent with that observed in other national and international studies.

  20. On new non-modal hydrodynamic stability modes and resulting non-exponential growth rates - a Lie symmetry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlack, Martin; Nold, Andreas; Sanjon, Cedric Wilfried; Wang, Yongqi; Hau, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Classical hydrodynamic stability theory for laminar shear flows, no matter if considering long-term stability or transient growth, is based on the normal-mode ansatz, or, in other words, on an exponential function in space (stream-wise direction) and time. Recently, it became clear that the normal mode ansatz and the resulting Orr-Sommerfeld equation is based on essentially three fundamental symmetries of the linearized Euler and Navier-Stokes equations: translation in space and time and scaling of the dependent variable. Further, Kelvin-mode of linear shear flows seemed to be an exception in this context as it admits a fourth symmetry resulting in the classical Kelvin mode which is rather different from normal-mode. However, very recently it was discovered that most of the classical canonical shear flows such as linear shear, Couette, plane and round Poiseuille, Taylor-Couette, Lamb-Ossen vortex or asymptotic suction boundary layer admit more symmetries. This, in turn, led to new problem specific non-modal ansatz functions. In contrast to the exponential growth rate in time of the modal-ansatz, the new non-modal ansatz functions usually lead to an algebraic growth or decay rate, while for the asymptotic suction boundary layer a double-exponential growth or decay is observed.

  1. Using Behavioral Intervention Technologies to Help Low-Income and Latino Smokers Quit: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ricardo F; Bunge, Eduardo L; Barrera, Alinne Z; Wickham, Robert E; Lee, Jessica

    2016-06-14

    The Institute for International Internet Interventions for Health at Palo Alto University proposes to develop digital tools specifically to help low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers to quit. Individuals from lower-income countries and those with lower social status quit at lower rates than those from high-income countries and those with higher social status. We plan to launch a project designed to test whether a mobile-based digital intervention designed with systematic input from low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers from a public-sector health care system can significantly improve its acceptability, utilization, and effectiveness. Using human-centered development methods, we will involve low-income patients in the design of a Web app/text messaging tool. We will also use their input to improve our recruitment and dissemination strategies. We will iteratively develop versions of the digital interventions informed by our human-centered approach. The project involves three specific aims: (1) human-centered development of an English/Spanish smoking cessation web app, (2) improvement of dissemination strategies, and (3) evaluation of resulting smoking cessation web app. We will develop iterative versions of a digital smoking cessation tool that is highly responsive to the needs and preferences of the users. Input from participants will identify effective ways of reaching and encouraging low-income English- and Spanish-speaking smokers to use the digital smoking cessation interventions to be developed. This information will support ongoing dissemination and implementation efforts beyond the grant period. We will evaluate the effectiveness of the successive versions of the resulting stop smoking Web app by an online randomized controlled trial. Increased effectiveness will be defined as increased utilization of the Web app and higher abstinence rates than those obtained by a baseline usual care Web app. Recruitment will begin January 2016, the

  2. RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE CORROSION RATES FOR 304L IN HB-LINE DISSOLVER VESSEL VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J; Kathryn Counts, K

    2008-02-22

    Radioactive material being processed as part of the DE3013 program for HB-Line will result in the presence of chlorides, and in some cases fluorides, in the dissolver. Material Science and Technology developed an experimental plan to evaluate the impact of chloride on corrosion of the dissolver vessel ventilation system. The plan set test variables from the proposed operating parameters, previous test results, and a desired maximum chloride concentration for processing. The test variables included concentrations of nitric acid, fluorides and chlorides, and the presence of a welded and stressed metal coupon. Table 1 contains expected general corrosion rates in the HB-Line vessel vent system from dissolution of 3013 contents of varying nitric acid and chloride content. These general corrosion rates were measured upstream of the condenser in the experiment's offgas system near the entrance to the dissolver. However, they could apply elsewhere in the offgas system, depending on factors not simulated in the testing, including offgas system temperatures and airflow. Localized corrosion was significant in Tests One, Two, and Three. This corrosion is significant because it will probably be the first mode of penetration of the 304L steel in several places in the system. See Table 2. For Tests One and Three, the penetration rate of localized corrosion was much higher than that for general corrosion. It was approximately four times higher in Test One and at least 45 times higher in Test Three, penetrating an entire coupon thickness of 54 mils in 186 hours or less. There was no significant difference in corrosion between welded areas and un-welded areas on coupons. There was also no significant attack on stressed portions of coupons. It is probable that the lack of corrosion was because the stressed areas were facing downwards and offered no place for condensation or deposits to form. Had deposits formed, pitting may have occurred and led to stress corrosion cracking. The

  3. Treatment results of radical radiotherapy of carcinoma uterine cervix using external beam radiotherapy and high dose rate intracavitary radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the outcome of carcinoma cervix patients treated radically by external beam radiotherapy and high dose rate intracavitary radiotherapy. Material and Methods: From January 2005 to December 2006, a total of 709 newly diagnosed cases of carcinoma cervix were reported in our department. All cases were staged according to the International Federation of Gynecologist and Oncologist staging system. Out of 709 cases, 342 completed radical radiotherapy and were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of local residual disease, local recurrence, distant metastases, radiation reaction, and disease free survival. Results: There were 11(3.22%, 82(23.98%, 232(67.83%, and 17(4.97% patients in stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively. The median follow up time for all patients was 36 months (range 3 -54 months. The overall treatment time (OTT ranged from 52 to 69 days (median 58 days. The 3 year disease free survival rate was 81.8%, 70.7%, 40.08%, and 11.76% for stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively. There were 91 (26.6% cases with local residual diseases, 27(7.9% developed distant metastasis, and 18(5.26% pts had local recurrence. Discussion: The results of this study suggest that radical radiotherapy with HDR brachytherapy was appropriate for the treatment of early staged cancer of uterine cervix. For locally advanced cancer of cervix addition of concurrent chemotherapy, higher radiation doses, reduction of overall treatment time to less than 8 weeks, and use of latest radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT is recommended to improve the results.

  4. Global Modeling of N2O Discharges: Rate Coefficients and Comparison with ICP and Glow Discharges Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Katsonis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a Global Model for N2O plasmas valid for applications in various power, gas flow rate, and pressure regimes. Besides energy losses from electron collisions with N2O, it takes into consideration those due to molecular N2 and O2 and to atomic N and O species. Positive atomic N+ and O+ and molecular N2O+, N2+, and O2+ have been treated as separate species and also negative O− ions. The latter confer an electronegative character to the discharge, calling for modified plasma sheath and plasma potential formulas. Electron density and temperature and all species densities have been evaluated, hence the ionization and dissociation percentages of N2O, N2, and O2 molecules and the plasma electronegativity. The model is extended to deal with N2/O2 mixtures feedings, notably with air. Rate coefficients and model results are discussed and compared with those from available theoretical and experimental work on ICP and glow discharge devices.

  5. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  6. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Results: Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9% were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative was −21. Conclusion: Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  7. ATTITUDE TO HEALTH AND MOTIVATION TO QUIT SMOKING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chetverkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to study of features of the status of smoking in patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Degree of nicotine addiction, types of smoking behavior in various age groups of patients are determined. The interrelation at sick HOBL between motivation to refusal of smoking and the attitude towards health is analyzed. The directions of psychotherapeutic impacts for increase in efficiency of the techniques directed to refusal of smoking are offered.Objective  – to study the motivation to quit smoking and attitudes towards health in patients with COPD. Materials  and  methods. A questionnaire by D. Horney for determining the type of smoking behavior; Fagerstrem test for the determination of nicotine dependence; the questionnaire for determining the motivation to refuse to smoke; the questionnaire of N.E. Vodopyanova «Assessment of the level of satisfaction with the quality of life» (2005 and the methodology «Attitude to health» by R. A. Berezovsky.Results.  The average age for the entire sample of respondents was 65.3±7.6 years, the length of smoking in smokers was 33.5±14.3 years. The predominant type of smoking behavior in the survey sample was «Support». In patients with high motivation, the assessment of the level of satisfaction with the overall «quality of life index» (ICI was 26 points. In patients with low motivation to quit smoking, the mean value (ICR was 21.Conclusion. Patients with high motivation to quit smoking were older than patients with low motivation. A group of patients with COPD with high motivation to quit smoking was characterized mainly by low or medium degree of nicotine dependence; the dominant type of smoking behavior of them was «Support.» On the contrary, in the group of patients with low motivation, physical dependence on nicotine prevailed; the «thirst» was the dominant type of smoking behavior.

  8. High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Treatment Evolution and Mature Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Tselis, Nikolaos, E-mail: ntselis@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Buhleier, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Martin, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany); Milickovic, Natasa; Papaioannou, Sokratis [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany); Ackermann, Hanns [Institute of Biostatistics, J.W. Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Tunn, Ulf W. [Department of Urology, Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial (IRT) brachytherapy (BRT) as sole treatment (monotherapy) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 718 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided HDR monotherapy. Three treatment protocols were applied; 141 patients received 38.0 Gy using one implant in 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy with computed tomography-based treatment planning; 351 patients received 38.0 Gy in 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy, using 2 implants (2 weeks apart) and intraoperative TRUS real-time treatment planning; and 226 patients received 34.5 Gy, using 3 single-fraction implants of 11.5 Gy (3 weeks apart) and intraoperative TRUS real-time treatment planning. Biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix consensus, and toxicity was evaluated using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. Results: The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. The 36-, 60-, and 96-month biochemical control and metastasis-free survival rates for the entire cohort were 97%, 94%, and 90% and 99%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. Toxicity was scored per event, with 5.4% acute grade 3 genitourinary and 0.2% acute grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. Late grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were 3.5% and 1.6%, respectively. Two patients developed grade 4 incontinence. No other instance of grade 4 or greater acute or late toxicity was reported. Conclusion: Our results confirm IRT-HDR-BRT is safe and effective as monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.

  9. Investigations of DNA damage induction and repair resulting from cellular exposure to high dose-rate pulsed proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renis, M.; Malfa, G.; Tomasello, B. [Drug Sciences Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Borghesi, M.; Schettino, G. [Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Favetta, M.; Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNS), Catania (Italy); Manti, L. [Physics Science Department, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, and National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Naples (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    Studies regarding the radiobiological effects of low dose radiation, microbeam irradiation services have been developed in the world and today laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may be used in radiation therapy. The application of different facilities is essential for studying bystander effects and relating signalling phenomena in different cells or tissues. In particular the use of ion beams results advantageous in cancer radiotherapy compared to more commonly used X-rays, since the ability of ions in delivering lethal amount of doses into the target tumour avoiding or limiting damage to the contiguous healthy tissues. At the INFN-LNS in Catania, a multidisciplinary radiobiology group is strategically structured aimed to develop radiobiological research, finalised to therapeutic applications, compatible with the use of high dose laser-driven ion beams. The characteristic non-continuous dose rates with several orders of magnitude of laser-driven ion beams makes this facility very interesting in the cellular systems' response to ultra-high dose rates with non-conventional pulse time intervals cellular studies. Our group have projected to examine the effect of high dose laser-driven ion beams on two cellular types: foetal fibroblasts (normal control cells) and DU145 (prostate cancer cells), studying the modulation of some different bio-molecular parameters, in particular cell proliferation and viability, DNA damage, redox cellular status, morphological alterations of both the cytoskeleton components and some cell organelles and the possible presence of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Our group performed preliminary experiments with high energy (60 MeV), dose rate of 10 Gy/min, doses of 1, 2, 3 Gy and LET 1 keV/μm on human foetal fibroblasts (control cells). We observed that cell viability was not influenced by the characteristics of the beam, the irradiation conditions or the analysis time. Conversely, DNA damage was present at time 0, immediately

  10. Reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancer with salvage interstitial pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy. Long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strnad, Vratislav; Lotter, Michael; Kreppner, Stephan; Fietkau, Rainer [University Hospital Erlangen, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-10

    To assess the long-term results of protocol-based interstitial pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) brachytherapy as reirradiation combined with simultaneous chemotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia in selected patients with recurrent head and neck tumors. A total of 104 patients with biopsy-proven recurrent head and neck cancer were treated with interstitial PDR brachytherapy. Salvage surgery had also been undergone by 53/104 (51 %) patients (R1 or R2 resection in > 80 % of patients). Salvage brachytherapy alone was administered in 81 patients (78 %), with a median total dose of 56.7 Gy. Salvage brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was performed in 23/104 patients (32 %), using a median total dose of D{sub REF} = 24 Gy. Simultaneously to PDR brachytherapy, concomitant chemotherapy was administered in 58/104 (55.8 %) patients. A single session of interstitial hyperthermia was also used to treat 33/104 (31.7 %) patients. The analysis was performed after a median follow-up of 60 months. Calculated according to Kaplan-Meier, local tumor control rates after 2, 5, and 10 years were 92.5, 82.4, and 58.9 %, respectively. Comparing results of salvage PDR brachytherapy with or without simultaneous chemotherapy, the 10-year local control rates were 76 vs. 39 % (p= 0014), respectively. No other patient- or treatment-related parameters had a significant influence on treatment results. Soft tissue necrosis or bone necrosis developed in 18/104 (17.3 %) and 11/104 (9.6 %) patients, respectively, but only 3 % of patients required surgical treatment. PDR interstitial brachytherapy with simultaneous chemotherapy is a very effective and, in experienced hands, also a safe treatment modality in selected patients with head and neck cancer in previously irradiated areas. (orig.) [German] Es erfolgte die Analyse der Langzeitergebnisse einer protokollbasierten interstitiellen Brachytherapie (Re-Bestrahlung) mit simultaner Chemotherapie und interstitieller Hyperthermie

  11. Effects of varenicline versus transdermal nicotine replacement therapy on cigarette demand on quit day in individuals with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cara M; MacKillop, James; Martin, Rosemarie A; Tidey, Jennifer W; Colby, Suzanne M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2017-08-01

    Cigarette demand is a behavioral economic measure of the relative value of cigarettes. Decreasing the value of cigarette reinforcement may help with quitting smoking. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of initial use of varenicline (VAR) versus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on demand for cigarettes on quit day among smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) and to determine whether reduced demand was associated with subsequent abstinence from smoking at 1 and 3 months. Participants (N = 110) were randomized to double-blind, double-placebo conditions: VAR with placebo NRT or NRT with placebo capsules. The cigarette purchase task (CPT) was used to assess demand for cigarettes at baseline and on quit day, following a 1-week medication dose run-up/placebo capsule lead-in and first day use of the patch. Demand for cigarettes decreased from baseline to quit day without significant differences between medications. Reductions in CPT intensity (number of cigarettes that would be smoked if they were free) and CPT breakpoint (lowest price at which no cigarettes would be purchased) predicted greater likelihood of abstaining on quit day. Reduced intensity predicted length of abstinence at 1 and 3 months while reduced breakpoint predicted only 1 month length of abstinence. Initial therapeutic doses of VAR and NRT resulted in similar reductions in cigarette reinforcement. Larger initial reductions in demand on quit day were associated with early success with abstaining from cigarettes. Behavioral economic approaches may be useful for identifying individuals who benefit less from pharmacotherapy and may need additional treatment resources. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00756275.

  12. Evidence of psychosocial and behavioral effects related to the intention to quit alcohol in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and factors that influenced certain subjects within a population-based sample of Korean drinkers to quit alcohol consumption (N = 8910). Explored were various factors of psychosocial behaviors such as socioeconomic reasons, health behavior, cues to action, and self-control related to the intentions of alcohol abstinence. Using path analysis, it was found that, for men, self-control (B = 0.51), health behavior (B = 0.78), and health literacy (B = 0.58) were positively associated with cues to action which in turn positively induced them to quit drinking. This pattern of results appeared to apply only to men and not to women. In conclusion, this study reveals that men who do not smoke, regularly exercise, have high self-control, and look for health information are likely to be active in acquiring cues for behavioral changes and making themselves motivated. However, conventions of alcohol consumption in the female population are more dependent on social factors in comparison to those of men.

  13. Leading-Brand Advertisement of Quitting Smoking Benefits for E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthi, Divya; Gall, Phillip A; Ayoub, Noel; Jackler, Robert K

    2016-11-01

    To provide regulators and the US Food and Drug Administration with a description of cessation-themed advertising among electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) brands. We performed a content analysis of 6 months (January through June 2015) of advertising by e-cigarette brands on their company-sponsored social media channels and blogs as well as user-generated content (testimonials) appearing within brand-sponsored Web sites. An explicit claim of cessation efficacy unambiguously states that e-cigarettes help in quitting smoking, and implicit claims use euphemisms such as "It works." We selected a cohort of 23 leading e-cigarette brands, either by their rank in advertising spending or their prevalence in Internet searches. Among leading e-cigarette brands, 22 of 23 used cessation-themed advertisements. Overall, 23% of the advertisements contained cessation claims, of which 18% were explicit and 82% were implicit. Among leading e-cigarette advertisers, cessation themes are prevalent with implicit messaging predominating over explicit quit claims. These results can help the Food and Drug Administration clarify whether tobacco products should be regulated as drugs with therapeutic purpose or as recreational products.

  14. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9%) were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative) was -21. Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  15. Relapse to smoking and postpartum weight retention among women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D; Cheng, Yu; Marcus, Marsha D; Kalarchian, Melissa A

    2012-02-01

    Postpartum weight retention contributes to obesity risk in women. Given that most women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy will resume smoking within 6 months postpartum and that there is a robust association between smoking and weight, we sought to evaluate postpartum weight retention as a function of postpartum smoking status among women who had quit smoking during pregnancy. Women (N = 183) with biochemically confirmed cigarette abstinence at the end of pregnancy were recruited between February 2003 and November 2006. Women self-reported demographic information and weight before pregnancy. Smoking status and weight were documented at the end of pregnancy and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. Breastfeeding was reported at 6 weeks postpartum. Differences in weight retention by relapse status at each assessment were evaluated. To examine weight retention in the presence of conceptually relevant covariates, mixed models with log-transformed weight data were used. At 24 weeks postpartum, 34.6% of women remained abstinent. Women who remained abstinent throughout the 24-week period retained 4.7 ± 2.1 kg more than did women who had relapsed by 6 weeks postpartum, P = 0.03. This difference in postpartum weight retention was significant after controlling for relevant covariates (age, race, breastfeeding, and pregravid BMI). Resumption of smoking within the first 6 weeks following childbirth is associated with decreased postpartum weight retention, even after controlling for breastfeeding and pregravid weight. Interventions to sustain smoking abstinence postpartum might be enhanced by components designed to minimize weight retention.

  16. Which adverse effects influence the dropout rate in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment? Results for 50,824 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostev, Karel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Nowadays, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently prescribed antidepressants due to their superior clinical efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability, and safety as compared to tricyclic antidepressants or monoamino oxidase inhibitors. However, despite these advantages SSRIs are still associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, especially in the early stages of treatment, which may lead to premature discontinuation of therapy in some cases. The aim of the present study was to assess the most common adverse drug reactions of SSRIs as well as their impact on dropout rate in a large study population.Patients and methods: Data for 50,824 patients treated for major depressive disorder with SSRIs for the first time was accessed via the Disease Analyzer database (IMS Health, Germany, providing information on SSRI adverse drug reactions and their influence on premature treatment discontinuation calculated by regression analysis. The presence of certain co-morbidities was also registered. Results: The mean age was 54.5 ± 19 years, two-thirds of the study population being female. The adverse effects mentioned most frequently were: “discomfort” of the digestive system (10%, sleep disorders (8.6%, and heart rhythm disorders (4%; however, these were of tolerable severity as they did not significantly influence the dropout rate. Contrary to that, somnolence and younger age (≤50 years in particular increased the chance of premature treatment discontinuation, while patients suffering from cardiovascular risk factors or osteoporosis tended to adhere to the therapy.Conclusions: Overall, there is high tolerability for early SSRI treatment, whereas the occurrence of somnolence leads to discontinuation.

  17. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana Garcia; Paya, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Vazquez, Andres; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica [Department of Radiation Physics, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Objectives: We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the 'Phoenix consensus'. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. (author)

  18. Prediction of Rn-222 exhalation rates from phosphogypsum-based embankments. Part II: numerical simulation and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Denis A.; Rabi, Jose A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Silva, Nivaldo C. da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)]|[Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio

    2002-07-01

    As shown in the first part of this paper, equations for an attempt to simulate {sup 222} Rn activity along the axial distance in phosphogypsum-based embankments were presented. For that, an existing one-dimension diffusive model with source and sink terms was applied. Knowledge of the {sup 222} Rn concentration activity profile enables the assessment of the corresponding exhalation rate. In this second part of the paper, a preliminary version of the corresponding computational simulation program was tested against the analytical solution and steady-state experimental data. The numerical solution method followed a finite volume discretization on a structured orthogonal mesh. Grid points were located according to a cell-centered scheme and variables were stored in a collocated arrangement. The resulting algebraic equation system was relaxed by either the Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm or Gauss-Seidel method. Grid size independence was observed as well. Numerical results are discussed upon and new developments and extensions of this first approach are pointed out. (author)

  19. A Brief Smoking Cessation Advice by Youth Counselors for the Smokers in the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest 2010: a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Wong, Yee Man Bonny; Kwong, Antonio; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2017-07-28

    Smoking cessation counseling by healthcare professionals is effective, but very few healthcare professionals can deliver these interventions in the busy clinical settings. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief smoking cessation advice delivered by briefly-trained youth counselors at the enrolment of an incentive-based smoking cessation campaign. The study design was a cluster 2-arm randomized controlled trial of 831 Chinese adult smokers who were recruited in public areas to participate in the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest 2010. The intervention group (n = 441) received a 5-min quitting advice from the youth counselors, who were mainly undergraduate nursing students, and a 12-page self-help smoking cessation booklet at the enrolment, while the control group (n = 390) only received the same booklet. Biochemically confirmed quitters at 6-month follow-up could join a lucky draw that offered HK$10,000 (US$1282) cash prize to three winners and HK$4000 gift vouchers to the other 10 winners. Primary outcome was self-reported smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up. By intention-to-treat, the intervention group had a non-significantly higher self-reported (18.4 versus 13.8%, OR = 1.40, 95% CI 0.96-2.04, p = 0.08) and validated quit rate (9.1 versus 6.7%, OR = 1.40, 95% CI 0.84-2.33, p = 0.20) than the control group at 6-month follow-up. The analysis with multiple imputation for missing data also found similar results. We concluded that the brief on-site advice by trained youth counselors had a modest effect on smoking cessation, but the effect was not significant. Future studies with larger sample size and results from higher participation of the biochemical validation to confirm the effectiveness are warranted.

  20. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Wu, Qiuxia; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Fengyu; Wang, Xuyi; Qi, Chang; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Kelly, Brian C; Cohen, Joanna

    2016-08-19

    Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of "the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China". The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that 'Happy Quit' will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female), age (19-34 or >34 years), educational level (≤ or >12 years), and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5), to 'Happy Quit', comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention). A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and tobacco use prevention in China. It will also serve as mHealth model for extending the public

  1. Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingall, G; Cropley, M.

    2010-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during...

  2. The Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based/Faith-Based Addiction Quitting Courses on General and Coping Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosin Nazari, Sh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: One of the influential elements in the life of an individual is his or her level of self efficacy. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses on general and coping self efficacy of the people who want to quit opium addiction through these courses in Tehran city. Method: In semi experimental research design 80 people who referred to abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses were selected by census method. General self efficacy questionnaire of Jerusalem and Schwartzer (1981 and coping self-efficacy questionnaire of Chesney (2006 administered among selected sample before and after treatment. Results: The results of paired t-test indicated that abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses have a significant influence on the skills of impeding negative thoughts and excitements and gaining friends’ and colleagues’ support. Conclusion: The findings of this research concur with the findings of similar researches, and indicated with appropriate strategies of training self-efficacy beliefs can be improved and boosted.

  3. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layoun N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelly Layoun,1,2 Pascal Salameh,2,3 Mirna Waked,4 Z Aoun Bacha,5 Rony M Zeenny,6 Eric El Hitti,4 Isabelle Godin,1 Michèle Dramaix1 1Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Pulmonology, St George Hospital University Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Pharmacy Practice Department, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to

  4. Multifractal analysis of heart rate variability and laser Doppler flowmetry fluctuations:comparison of results from different numerical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne; Buard, Benjamin; Chapeau-Blondeau, Francois; Rousseau, David [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Automatises (LISA), Universite d' Angers, 62 avenue Notre Dame du Lac, 49000 Angers (France); Mahe, Guillaume; Abraham, Pierre, E-mail: anne.humeau@univ-angers.f [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, UMR CNRS 6214-INSERM 771, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France)

    2010-10-21

    To contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamics in the cardiovascular system (CVS), the central CVS has previously been analyzed through multifractal analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) signals that were shown to bring useful contributions. Similar approaches for the peripheral CVS through the analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals are comparatively very recent. In this direction, we propose here a study of the peripheral CVS through a multifractal analysis of LDF fluctuations, together with a comparison of the results with those obtained on HRV fluctuations simultaneously recorded. To perform these investigations concerning the biophysics of the CVS, first we have to address the problem of selecting a suitable methodology for multifractal analysis, allowing us to extract meaningful interpretations on biophysical signals. For this purpose, we test four existing methodologies of multifractal analysis. We also present a comparison of their applicability and interpretability when implemented on both simulated multifractal signals of reference and on experimental signals from the CVS. One essential outcome of the study is that the multifractal properties observed from both the LDF fluctuations (peripheral CVS) and the HRV fluctuations (central CVS) appear very close and similar over the studied range of scales relevant to physiology.

  5. Multifractal analysis of heart rate variability and laser Doppler flowmetry fluctuations:comparison of results from different numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Anne; Buard, Benjamin; Mahé, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Abraham, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamics in the cardiovascular system (CVS), the central CVS has previously been analyzed through multifractal analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) signals that were shown to bring useful contributions. Similar approaches for the peripheral CVS through the analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals are comparatively very recent. In this direction, we propose here a study of the peripheral CVS through a multifractal analysis of LDF fluctuations, together with a comparison of the results with those obtained on HRV fluctuations simultaneously recorded. To perform these investigations concerning the biophysics of the CVS, first we have to address the problem of selecting a suitable methodology for multifractal analysis, allowing us to extract meaningful interpretations on biophysical signals. For this purpose, we test four existing methodologies of multifractal analysis. We also present a comparison of their applicability and interpretability when implemented on both simulated multifractal signals of reference and on experimental signals from the CVS. One essential outcome of the study is that the multifractal properties observed from both the LDF fluctuations (peripheral CVS) and the HRV fluctuations (central CVS) appear very close and similar over the studied range of scales relevant to physiology.

  6. High survival frequencies at low herbicide use rates in populations of Lolium rigidum result in rapid evolution of herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, P; Powles, S

    2005-12-01

    The frequency of phenotypic resistance to herbicides in previously untreated weed populations and the herbicide dose applied to these populations are key determinants of the dynamics of selection for resistance. In total, 31 Lolium rigidum populations were collected from sites with no previous history of exposure to herbicides and where there was little probability of gene flow from adjacent resistant populations. The mean survival frequency across all 31 populations following two applications of commercial rates (375 g ha(-1)) of the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicide, diclofop-methyl was 0.43%. Survivors from five of these populations were grown to maturity and seed was collected. Dose-response experiments compared population level resistance to diclofop-methyl in these selected lines with their original parent populations. A single cycle of herbicide selection significantly increased resistance in all populations (LD(50) R:S ratios ranged from 2.8 to 23.2), confirming the inheritance and genetic basis of phenotypic resistance. In vitro assays of ACCase inhibition by diclofop acid indicated that resistance was due to a non-target-site mechanism. Following selection with diclofop-methyl, the five L. rigidum populations exhibited diverse patterns of cross-resistance to ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides, suggesting that different genes or gene combinations were responsible for resistance. The relevance of these results to the management of herbicide resistance are discussed.

  7. Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

  8. Suburban Bliss or Disillusionment - Why Do Terrorists Quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van der Heide

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the explanatory value of two theories of desistance – the cessation of criminal behavior – in explaining why 27 individuals left the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq (ISIS. The article focuses specifically on jihadists that turned away from ISIS after March 2011, asking why individuals desist from ISIS and choose to leave the caliphate. A dataset of 27 narratives of desistance was analysed to answer the question to what extent desistance from ISIS by jihadists can be explained by the Laub & Sampson’s life course theory and by Altier, Thorogughood & Horgan’s model of push and pull factors. The primary pathways for desistance are coded according to the two theories. The results show that of the 27 individuals, the majority desisted from the caliphate because of their perception of the excessive use of force by ISIS and their inability to cope with the effects. A minority desisted because of their perception of alternative options outside the terrorist group or because of important life events that happened ‘at home’. Thus, the article concludes that the push and pull factors model is valid in the explanation of desistance from the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq whereas life course theory does not hold explanatory value

  9. Enhanced Rates of Hydrogen Absorption Resulting from Oxidation of Pd and Internal Oxidation of Pd-Al Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1999-08-20

    The goal of this research was the determination of the relative rates before and after internal oxidation of Pd--Al alloys and oxidation (Pd) and this is independent of whether heat transfer is the rate-limiting step for the internally oxidized Pd--Al alloys rather than a more fundamental step.

  10. Kill rate of wolves on moose in a low density prey population: results from eastern interior Alaska.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study to estimate the kill rate of wolves on moose was initiated in eastern interior Alaska. This study is the first to examine kill rates in a system with such a...

  11. Relación entre salud y renuncia al empleo en trabajadoras de la industria maquiladora electrónica de Tijuana The relationship between health and quitting work among electronic industry female workers in Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Guendelman

    1999-07-01

    electronic parts factories in Tijuana, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A cohort study of 725 women employed either at a Japanese or an American electronic parts factory in Tijuana was performed between January 1992 and March 1994. The sample was stratified in two time intervals ­30 or >30 days of work. Follow up was continued until quitting or end of the observation period, by recollecting data regarding health, social and occupational variables from different logs and reports provided by the employer. Reasons for quitting and accuracy of data obtained from logs and reports were evaluated through a follow up interview applied to 46% (n=148 of the women who had quit, and were located approximately 12 months after ceasing to work (SD= 6.7. RESULTS. The estimated cumulative probabilities of quitting were 67% during the first year and 81% during the second. Newcomers to the work force, a day shift and the company is nationality were predic ors the of quitting within 30 days. Smoking, surgical antecedents and paid leave due to illness were predictors for quitting after 30 days. In contrast, quitting rate after 30 days was lower in women with a history of chronic disease. CONCLUSIONS. Quitting work is high and selective among workers female electronic factories. While occupational factors are associated with workers quitting early, health factors are stronger predictors for quitting after 30 days.

  12. Reduction in driveline infection rates: Results from the HeartMate II Multicenter Driveline Silicone Skin Interface (SSI) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David; Kallel, Faouzi; Ewald, Gregory A; Tatooles, Antony; Sheridan, Brett C; Brewer, Robert J; Caldeira, Christian; Farrar, David J; Akhter, Shahab A

    2015-06-01

    During left ventricular assist device implantation, a surgical tunneling technique to keep the entire driveline (DL) velour portion in the subcutaneous tunnel, resulting in a silicone-skin interface (SSI) at the exit site, has been adopted by many centers. To assess long-term freedom from DL infection associated with this technique, a multicenter SSI registry was initiated. It was hypothesized that the modified tunneling technique is associated with at least 50% reduction in DL infection at 1 year post-implant compared with the velour-to-skin method used in the HeartMate II (HMII) Destination Therapy (DT) trial. SSI is a retrospective and prospective registry of patients who have received the HMII device. Results are reported from the retrospective cohort, which consists of 200 patients who were implanted during the period 2009-2012 with the SSI tunneling method and on HMII support for at least 10 months at the time of enrollment. The prevalence and incidence of DL infection after left ventricular assist device implantation in the SSI retrospective cohort were determined and compared with a control group of 201 patients also on HMII support for at least 10 months from the HMII DT clinical trial who were implanted during the period 2007-2009 using the traditional method in which a small section of the velour portion of the DL was externalized. The 1-year and 2-year prevalence rates of DL infection were 9% and 19% in the SSI patient group compared with 23% and 35% in the control group (hazard ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.73, p SSI and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Based on a multivariate analysis, age and DL exit side were the only independent variables associated with DL infection. Effects of management changes over the eras were not studied and could have contributed to the findings. These results suggest that leaving the entire DL velour portion below the skin is associated with 50% reduction in DL infection compared with results from the

  13. Restored river corridors: first results on the effects of flow variability on vegetation cuttings survival rate and related root architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Jiang, Z.; Burlando, P.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding and predicting the evolution of river alluvial bed forms toward a vegetated or a non-vegetated morphology have important implications for restored river corridors and the related ecosystem functioning (see also Schäppi et al, this session). Vegetation recruitment and growth on non-cohesive material of river corridors, such as gravel bars and islands of braided river, depend on the ability of roots to develop and anchor efficiently such to resist against flow erosion. In this work, we study the interannual morphological evolution of a gravel bar island, the survival rate and the growth of a number of plots with different density and orientation of transplanted cuttings (Salix Alba), the space and time dynamics of which depend on erosion and deposition processes due to floods. Our purpose is to identify island locations where the hydrodynamic conditions are more suitable for plants germination, growth and survival in relation to the river hydrograph statistics. This information is a first step to build a stochastic model able to predict the future evolution and progress of the restoration action of the investigated river reach. We focus at the main island of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Canton Thurgau, Switzerland), the restoration success of which is investigated from a mechanistic viewpoint in the research project "REstored CORridor Dynamics" (www.record.ethz.ch). Accordingly, we analyze two recent Digital Elevation Models (1 year difference), which were first corrected to account for the river bathymetry, and then we compare them in order to extract relevant interannual morphological changes. Using a two dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model we simulate several flow conditions ranging from the minimum recorded flow up to the one that completely inundates the island. Hence, we build inundation maps of the island that we associate to the frequency and the submergence duration of every area. We then correlate such results to the observed survival

  14. MS cortical lesions on DIR: not quite what they seem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sethi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Accurate identification and localization of cortical gray matter (CGM lesions in MS is important when determining their clinical relevance. Double inversion recovery (DIR scans have been widely used to detect MS CGM lesions. Phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR scans have a higher signal to noise, and can therefore be obtained at a higher resolution within clinically acceptable times. This enables detection of more CGM lesions depicting a clearer cortical and juxtacortical anatomy. In this study, we systematically investigated if the use of high resolution PSIR scans changes the classification of CGM lesions, when compared with standard resolution DIR scans. METHODS: 60 patients [30 RR(Relapsing remitting and 15 each with PP(Primary progressive and SP(Secondary progressive MS] were scanned on a 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner. Images acquired included DIR (1×1×3 mm resolution and PSIR (0.5×0.5×2 mm. CGM lesions were detected and classified on DIR as intracortical (IC or leucocortical (LC. We then examined these lesions on corresponding slices of the high resolution PSIR scans and categorized them as IC, LC, Juxtacortical white matter (JC-WM, abutting but not entering cortex and other white matter (WM, not juxtacortical. Classifications using both scans were noted. RESULTS: 282 IC and 483 LC were identified on DIR. Of the IC lesions, 61% were confirmed as IC on PSIR, 35.5% were reclassified as LC and 3.5% as JC-WM or other WM only. Of the LC DIR lesions, 43.9% were confirmed at LC on PSIR, 16.1% were reclassified as IC and 40% as JC-WM or other WM only. Overall, 50% (381/765 of CGM lesions seen on DIR were reclassified, and 26.5% (203/765 affected WM only. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with higher resolution PSIR, a significant proportion of lesions classified as involving CGM on DIR appear to either contain more white matter than expected or to not involve CGM at all.

  15. The effects of subanesthetic ketamine infusions on motivation to quit and cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent research volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakwar, Elias; Levin, Frances; Foltin, Richard W; Nunes, Edward V; Hart, Carl L

    2014-07-01

    Cocaine dependence involves problematic neuroadaptations that might be responsive to modulation of glutamatergic circuits. This investigation examined the effects of subanesthetic ketamine infusions on motivation for quitting cocaine and on cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent participants, 24 hours postinfusion. Eight volunteers with active DSM-IV cocaine dependence not seeking treatment or abstinence were entered into this crossover, double-blind trial. Three 52-min intravenous infusions were administered: ketamine (.41 mg/kg or .71 mg/kg) or lorazepam 2 mg, counterbalanced into three orderings in which ketamine .41 mg/kg always preceded the .71 mg/kg dose. Infusions were separated by 48 hours, and assessments occurred at baseline and at 24 hours postinfusion. Outcomes were change between postinfusion and preinfusion values for: 1) motivation to quit cocaine scores with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment; and 2) sums of visual analogue scale craving ratings administered during cue exposure. Compared with the active control lorazepam, a single ketamine infusion (.41 mg/kg) led to a mean 3.9-point gain in University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (p = .012), which corresponds to an approximately 60% increase over preceding values. There was a reduction of comparable magnitude in cue-induced craving (p = .012). A subsequent ketamine infusion (.71 mg/kg) led to further reductions in cue-induced craving compared with the control. Infusions were well-tolerated. Subanesthetic ketamine demonstrated promising effects on motivation to quit cocaine and on cue-induced craving, 24 hours postinfusion. Research is needed to expand on these preliminary results and to evaluate the efficacy of this intervention in clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Supermassive black holes with high accretion rates in active galactic nuclei. I. First results from a new reverberation mapping campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Lu, Kai-Xing [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011, Yunnan (China); Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai [Wise Observatory, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Collaboration: SEAMBH collaboration

    2014-02-10

    We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both are not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4 m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Eddington ratios, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142, and IRAS F12397+3333, with Hβ time lags relative to the 5100 Å continuum of 10.6{sub −2.9}{sup +1.7}, 6.4{sub −2.2}{sup +0.8} and 11.4{sub −1.9}{sup +2.9} days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are (8.3{sub −3.2}{sup +2.6})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, (3.4{sub −1.2}{sup +0.5})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, and (7.5{sub −4.1}{sup +4.3})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, and the lower limits on the Eddington ratios are 0.6, 2.3, and 4.6 for the minimal radiative efficiency of 0.038. Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+333 (extinction corrected) clearly deviate from the currently known relation between Hβ lag and continuum luminosity. The three Eddington ratios are beyond the values expected in thin accretion disks and two of them are the largest measured so far among objects with RM-based BH masses. We briefly discuss implications for slim disks, BH growth, and cosmology.

  17. Estimating the probabilities of making a smoking quit attempt in Italy: stall in smoking cessation levels, 1986-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreras Giulia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data on annual smoking cessation probability (i.e., the probability of successfully quit in a given year are available for Italy at a population level. Mathematical models typically used to estimate smoking cessation probabilities do not account for smoking relapse. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model to estimate annual quitting probabilities, taking into account smoking relapse and time since cessation. Methods We developed a dynamic model describing the evolution of current, former, and never smokers. We estimated probabilities of smoking cessation by fitting the model with observed smoking prevalence in Italy, 1986-2009. Results Annual cessation probabilities were higher than 5% only in elderly persons and in women aged Conclusions Over the last 20 years, cessation probabilities among Italian smokers, particularly for those aged 30-59 years, have been very low and stalled. Quitting in Italy is considered as a practicable strategy only by women in the age of pregnancy and by elderly persons, when it’s likely that symptoms of tobacco-related diseases have already appeared. In order to increase cessation probabilities, smoking cessation treatment policies (introducing total reimbursement of cessation treatments, with a further development of quitlines and smoking cessation services should be empowered and a country-wide mass media campaign targeting smokers aged 30-59 years and focusing on promotion of quitting should be implemented.

  18. Health evaluation of the 2nd International "Quit and Win" Antinicotine Campaign participants ten years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Alina; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Krakowiak, Jan; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Pikala, Małgorzata; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Drygas, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most often noticed types of negative behaviour among the Poles. In the work, the results of the health evaluation are presented of the participants of the 'Quit and Win' competition ten years after making a decision to refrain from smoking, also the dependency between this evaluation and behaviour connected with smoking among the people living in big cities and small towns and villages was analysed. Among the 648 respondents, majority, which is 302 people (46.6%) evaluated their health as good, 236 (36.4%) as average, and 76 of the questioned (11.7%) as very good, 29 people (4.5%) as bad, and 5 of the questioned (0.8%) as very bad. The respondents most often evaluated negatively their health in the group of the still smoking living in the big cities, and the least often in the group of the non-smokers living in small towns and villages.

  19. The Impact of Quitting Smoking on Weight Among Women Prisoners Participating in a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leslie A.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Villalobos, Gabrielle C.; Weaver, Michael F.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of smoking cessation on weight change in a population of women prisoners. Methods. Women prisoners (n = 360) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention; 250 received a 10-week group intervention plus transdermal nicotine replacement. Results. Women who quit smoking had significant weight gain at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with a net difference of 10 pounds between smokers and abstainers at 6 months. By the 12-month follow-up, weight gain decreased among abstainers. Conclusions. We are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate weight gain associated with smoking cessation among women prisoners. Smoking cessation interventions that address postcessation weight gain as a preventative measure may be beneficial in improving health and reducing the high prevalence of smoking in prisoner populations. PMID:20558806

  20. Analysis on influencing factors of quit smoking among undergraduate students in Guangzhou City%广州市大学生戒烟影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱; 许信红; 陈建伟; 何子健

    2013-01-01

    目的了解广州市大学生戒烟情况及影响因素。方法采用分层随机整群抽样的方法,于2012年5月对广州市6所大学1~4年级学生进行问卷调查,采用多因素非条件 Logistic 回归分析戒烟的影响因素。结果共调查11593人,戒烟人数360,戒烟率33.77%;女性戒烟率(43.24%)高于男性(32.24%);家庭平均月收入、学生月生活费及父亲文化程度越高,学生戒烟率越低;城职户籍学生戒烟率低于农村户籍;多因素 Logistic 回归分析结果显示戒烟的影响因素为:性别(OR =0.362,95% CI:0.240~0.547)、学校(OR 医学类与理工类=5.275,95% CI:2.872~9.689)、月生活费(OR <500与≥2000=7.115,95% CI:2.538~19.945)、户籍所在地(OR 本省外市 VS 本市=1.597,95% CI:1.044~2.442)、吸烟知识(OR =1.407,95% CI:1.047~1.891)、压力(OR 无与中、重=0.503,95%CI:0.278~0.912)。结论吸烟大学生戒烟与否受多种客观因素的影响,需要社会、学校和家长联合对大学生开展控烟宣传教育以及加强管理工作,促使吸烟学生尽早改变吸烟行为。%Objective To describe the quit smoking status and influence factors among undergraduate students in Guangzhou City.Methods A survey on tobacco use was carried out in six universities of Guangzhou in May 2012,and stratified random cluster sampling method was used.Multivariable logistic regressions were conduct to explore the influence factors of quit smoking.Results A total of 11 593 students were investigated,and the prevalence rate of quit smoking was 33.77% (360 in 11 593).The quit smoking rate was higher in female (43.24%)than those in male (32.24%).The monthly incoming of family,living expenses per month in school and father’s education level were negative related to quit smoking.The quit smoking rate of undergraduate who come from town was lower than those come from

  1. Does screening participation affect cigarette smokers’ decision to quit? A long-horizon panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bretteville-Jensen Anne Line

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Despite decades of intensive anti-tobacco initiatives, millions of people are still smoking. The health authorities are seeking new tools and extended knowledge. Screening programs may, in addition to the potential health benefits from early detection of smoking related diseases, also increase smoking cessation among participants. This study examines the effect of screening participation by comparing the smokers’ cessation hazard in screening years to nonscreening years. METHODS - All smokers (n=10,471 participated in a three-wave cardiovascular screening and were followed up over a maximum of 14 years. The panel was merged with administrative registers. We used a flexible discrete-time duration model to investigate the effect of the screening program while simultaneously accounting for the possible influence of personal characteristics, addiction indicators, economic factors, health status and health changes. Specifically, we examined and compared long-term smokers (LT; smoked ≥25 years with short-term (ST; smoked ≤ 5 years and medium-term (MT; smoked 10-20 years smokers. RESULTS - We found that 29% of LT smokers quitted smoking during the follow-up whereas 32% of MT and 48% of ST smokers reported the same. The screening participation years stood out as especially important for all groups. The impact of the first screening was particularly high, and for the first two screenings, the effect was higher for long-term smokers than for the smokers with shorter smoking careers. Receiving an abnormal test result was not associated with a significant increase in cessation hazard for any group of smokers. CONCLUSIONS - The substantial effect of being invited to and participating in a screening appears robust, and may prove useful when discussing future policies for smoking cessation. This paper suggests that further initiatives for consultations with health personnel, in this case through a screening program, could increase the

  2. Impact of Scottish smoke-free legislation on smoking quit attempts and prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. METHODS: We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT prescribed in Scotland in 2003-2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. RESULTS: NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001 higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001. Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July-September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001 more than expected from the underlying trend. CONCLUSIONS: Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support.

  3. Predictors of Successful Quitting among Thai Adult Smokers: Evidence from ITC-SEA (Thailand Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aree Jampaklay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia (ITC-SEA Thailand survey to explore patterns and predictors of successful quitting among Thai adult smokers as a function of time quit. A cohort of a representative sample of 2000 smokers was surveyed four times from 2005 to 2009. A sample of 1533 individuals provided data for at least one of the reported analyses. Over the four years of follow-up, 97% made attempts to quit. Outcomes were successful quitting/relapse: (a quit attempts of at least one month (short-term relapse, 43% (57% remaining quit; (b surviving at least six months (medium-term (31%; (c relapse between one and six months (45%; (d having continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (sustained abstinence (14%; and (e relapse from six months on (44% compared to those who continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (56%. Predictors for early relapse (<1 month differ from longer-term relapse. Age was associated with reduced relapse over all three periods, and was much stronger for longer periods of abstinence. Cigarette consumption predicted relapse for short and medium terms. Self-assessed addiction was predictive of early relapse, but reversed to predict abstinence beyond six months. Previous quit history of more than one week was predictive of early abstinence, but became unrelated subsequently. Self-efficacy was strongly predictive of abstinence in the first month but was associated with relapse thereafter. Some determinants of relapse change with time quit, but this may be in somewhat different to patterns found in the West.

  4. The impact of perceived sleep quality and sleep efficiency/duration on cannabis use during a self-guided quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2013-11-01

    Poor sleep quality may play a significant role in observed high rates of sustained cannabis use among veterans attempting to quit. We investigated whether individuals with poorer perceived sleep quality (rather than sleep efficiency/duration), as measured via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, & Berman, 1989), would have less of a reduction in cannabis use (measured via Timeline FollowBack; Sobell and Sobell, 1992) during the first 6 months following a self-guided quit attempt. We expected these effects to remain significant after adjusting for baseline age, posttraumatic stress symptoms, as well as alcohol, tobacco, and opioid use, and cannabis withdrawal severity over the course of 6 months following the cannabis cessation attempt. Generalized linear mixed modeling using a Poisson distribution was employed to test the hypotheses among 102 cannabis dependent, primarily male, military veterans. Results indicated that veterans with poor perceived sleep quality had less of a reduction in mean cannabis use following a self-guided cannabis cessation attempt compared to those with good perceived sleep quality, while efficiency/duration was unrelated to cannabis use outcomes. Conclusions from this study should be considered in light of limitations including the use of self-report measures and generalizability to non-veterans and women.

  5. Analysis of impact of geographic characteristics on suicide rate and visualization of result with Geographic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mayumi; Kubota, Takafumi; Tsubaki, Hiroe; Yamauchi, Keita

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to understand the geographic characteristics of Japanese communities and the impact of these characteristics on suicide rates. We calculated the standardized mortality ratio from suicide statistics of 3318 municipalities from 1972 to 2002. Correlation analysis, multi-regression analysis and generalized additive model were used to find the relation between topographic and climatic variables and suicide rate. We visualized the relation between geographic characteristics and suicide rate on the map of Wakayama Prefecture, using the Geographic Information System. Our study showed that the geographic characteristics of each community are related with its suicide rate. The strongest factor among the geographic characteristics to increase the suicide rate was the slope of the habitable land. It is necessary to take the characteristics of each community into consideration when we work out measures of suicide prevention. Visualization of the findings on the local map should be helpful to promote understanding of problems and to share the information among various parties in charge of suicide prevention. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Reliability of a patient-reported outcome measure in schizophrenia: Results from back-to-back self-ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary

    2016-10-30

    This study aimed to assess patient's capacity to perform a patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure (i.e., a self-rating scale) and examine its relationship with clinical characteristics including cognition. Fifty patients with schizophrenia were asked to rate the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics scale - Short form (SWNS) twice; the second rating was started immediately after they completed the first to minimize the gap between ratings. At the same time, the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) and Brief Neurocognitive Assessment (BNA) were administered. The correlations between the two ratings for the SWNS total and each item scores were high (rs=0.94 and rs=0.60-0.84, respectively); however, for 16 (80%) of 20 items, 5 or more patients (i.e., ≥10%) demonstrated a>1 point score difference. There was no significant correlation between the SWNS total score difference and any clinical characteristics including age, education duration, illness duration, antipsychotic dose, psychopathology, and cognition. In contrast, the number of items with a>1 point score difference was significantly correlated with disorganized symptoms and overall severity (rs=0.29 for both), as well as working memory and global cognition (rs=-0.41 and rs=-0.40, respectively). These findings suggest that PROs should be interpreted with caution in patients with schizophrenia with prominent disorganization and cognitive impairment.

  7. Evaluation of soil erosion rates in the southern half of the Russian Plain: methodology and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosov, Valentin; Gusarov, Artem; Litvin, Leonid; Yermolaev, Oleg; Chizhikova, Nelly; Safina, Guzel; Kiryukhina, Zoya

    2017-03-01

    The Russian Plain (RP) is divided into two principally different parts. The northern half of the RP is a predominantly forested area with a low proportion of arable fields. In contrast, the southern half of the RP has a very high proportion of arable land. During the last 30 years, this agricultural region of the RP has experienced considerable land use transformation and changes in precipitation due to climate change have altered soil erosion rates. This paper describes the use of erosion model calculations and GIS spatial analytical methods for the evaluation of trends in erosion rates in the RP. Climate change (RIHMI World Data Center, 2016), land use transformation and crop rotation modification (Rosstat, 2016; R Core Team, 2016) are the main factors governing erosion rates in the region during recent decades. It was determined that mean annual erosion rates have decreased from 7.3 to 4.1 t ha-1 yr-1 in the forest zone mostly because of the serious reduction in the surface runoff coefficient for periods of snowmelt. At the same time, the erosion rates have increased from 3.9 to 4.6 t ha-1 yr-1 in the steppe zone due to the increasing frequency of heavy rain-storms.

  8. Physical weathering and regolith behaviour in a high erosion rate badland area at the Pyrenees: research design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regües, D.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on badland areas in the Vallcebre basin (High Llobregat suggested that the erosion rates are controlled by weathering rate of mudrocks. The present work was started to characterize the physical weathering processes and rates in relationship with thermal and moisture conditions.
    The method used consists of the continuous monitoring of regolith temperatures at different conditions of aspect, depth and lithology (color, and the periodical sampling of regolith moisture and bulk density, the last taken as an indicator of the weathering status. Besides this quantitative information, the changes of the surface of the regolith have been monitored with the help of photographic techniques, using a especially designed tripod. To complete the field observations, a laboratory experiment is being performed, analyzing the volumetric changes suffered by undisturbed rock samples subject to thermal and moisture oscillations.
    The results obtained emphasize the role of frost action, especially during wet conditions. Aspect and lithologic differences introduce significant nuances in thermal regime and volumetric changes respectively.

    [es] Estudios anteriores en zonas acarcavadas de la cuenca de Vallcebre (Alto Llobregat sugieren que las tasas de erosión están limitadas por la meteorización de las rocas arcillosas que las constituyen. El presente trabajo ha sido planteado para caracterizar y evaluar los procesos de meteorización física en relación con los regímenes térmico e hídrico.
    El método empleado consiste en la monitorización continua de temperaturas del aire y del regolito en diversas condiciones de profundidad, exposición y litología (color, así como el muestreo periódico de humedad y densidad aparente, considerada ésta última como indicadora del grado de meteorización. Además de esta información cuantitativa, se ha realizado un seguimiento de los cambios en la micromorfología superficial, mediante

  9. The role of pain in quitting among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Carrie J; Gritz, Ellen R; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Baum, George P; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2017-01-01

    Smoking rates among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS; PLWHA) are at least twice as high as rates in the general population. Consistent with the reciprocal model of pain and smoking, PLWHA with pain who smoke may use smoking as a means of coping with pain, thus presenting a potential barrier to quitting. The aim of this study is to better understand how pain relates to smoking cessation among 474 HIV-positive adults enrolled in a cell phone-delivered smoking cessation trial. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care (cessation advice and self-help materials) or 11 sessions of cell phone-delivered smoking cessation treatment. Pain, as assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), and point prevalence abstinence were collected at the 3-month treatment end and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Self-reported abstinence was biochemically verified by expired carbon monoxide (CO) level of <7 ppm. Using multilevel modeling for binary outcome data, the authors examined the relationship between pain and abstinence, from treatment end through the 12-month follow-up. Consistent with the authors' hypothesis, less pain was associated with greater likelihood of 24-hour (β = .01, t(651) = 2.53, P = .01) and 7-day (β = .01, t(651) = 2.35, P = .02) point prevalence abstinence, controlling for age, gender, baseline pain, nicotine dependence, and treatment group. No pain × treatment group interaction was observed. These results can help us to better identify PLWHA at greater risk for relapse in smoking cessation treatment. Future research may examine the effectiveness of more comprehensive smoking cessation treatment that incorporates aspects of pain management for PLWHA who smoke and have high pain and symptom burden.

  10. Investigating the Potential Contribution of Patient Rating Sites to Hospital Supervision: Exploratory Results From an Interview Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, S.M.; Zandbelt, L.C.; Borghans, I.; Haes, H.J. de; Kool, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, the patient perspective on health care quality has been unconditionally integrated into quality management. For several years now, patient rating sites have been rapidly gaining attention. These offer a new approach toward hearing the patient's perspective on the

  11. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  12. Rates and Correlates of Undetermined Deaths among African Americans: Results from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National…

  13. Influence of the experience of operator and assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations: two-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Kemoli; W.E. van Amerongen; G. Opinya

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the experience of the operator and the assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART- restorations after 2 years when placed using two methods of tooth-isolation and three glass ionomer cement-brands. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical interve

  14. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  15. Investigating the Potential Contribution of Patient Rating Sites to Hospital Supervision: Exploratory Results From an Interview Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, S.M.; Zandbelt, L.C.; Borghans, I.; Haes, H.J. de; Kool, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, the patient perspective on health care quality has been unconditionally integrated into quality management. For several years now, patient rating sites have been rapidly gaining attention. These offer a new approach toward hearing the patient's perspective on the q

  16. Standard gamble, time trade-off and rating scale: Experimental results on the ranking properties of QALYs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); M. Johannesson (Magnus)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper compares the relative performance of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) based on quality weights elicited by rating scale (RS), time trade-off (TTO) and standard gamble (SG). The standard against which relative performance is assessed is individual preference elicited by dire

  17. Rates and Correlates of Undetermined Deaths among African Americans: Results from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National…

  18. Recurrent selection with reduced herbicide rates results in the rapid evolution of herbicide resistance in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Paul; Powles, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    There has been much debate regarding the potential for reduced rates of herbicide application to accelerate evolution of herbicide resistance. We report a series of experiments that demonstrate the potential for reduced rates of the acetyl-co enzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide diclofop-methyl to rapidly select for resistance in a susceptible biotype of Lolium rigidum. Thirty-six percent of individuals from the original VLR1 population survived application of 37.5 g diclofop-methyl ha(-1) (10% of the recommended field application rate). These individuals were grown to maturity and bulk-crossed to produce the VLR1 low dose-selected line VLR1 (0.1). Subsequent comparisons of the dose-response characteristics of the original and low dose-selected VLR1 lines demonstrated increased tolerance of diclofop-methyl in the selected line. Two further rounds of selection produced VLR1 lines that were resistant to field-applied rates of diclofop-methyl. The LD50 (diclofop-methyl dose required to cause 50% mortality) of the most resistant line was 56-fold greater than that of the original unselected VLR1 population, indicating very large increases in mean population survival after three cycles of selection. In vitro ACCase inhibition by diclofop acid confirmed that resistance was not due to an insensitive herbicide target-site. Cross-resistance studies showed increases in resistance to four herbicides: fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, clethodim and imazethapyr. The potential genetic basis of the observed response and implications of reduced herbicide application rates for management of herbicide resistance are discussed.

  19. Taking actions to quit chewing betel nuts and starting a new life: taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Can Tongue Acupuncture Enhance Body Acupuncture? First Results from Heart Rate Variability and Clinical Scores in Patients with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue acupuncture (TA is a method which is not used in western medicine and even in China it is applied very rarely in clinical practice. This study aimed at investigating whether additional TA can improve the efficacy of body acupuncture (BA in patients with depression. Twenty patients with a mean age of ± SD of 42.9±11.2 years were randomly divided into two groups (n=10 patients each, one group receiving BA (Zusanli, Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Shenting, Yintang, and Baihui and the other receiving BA and TA (Liver, Heart, and Brain. The quantitative and qualitative outcome measures were heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, and different clinical scores. We found that in both groups all scores and HR improved significantly, whereas HRV increased partly significantly. It seems that TA can enhance acute and treatment effects of BA in patients with depression. The investigation of de qi sensation in TA needs further attention.

  1. Enhancement and degradation of the R2* relaxation rate resulting from the encapsulation of magnetic particles with hydrophilic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Hendrick W; Paquet, Chantal

    2011-12-01

    The effects of including a hydrophilic coating around the particles are studied across a wide range of particle sizes by performing Monte Carlo simulations of protons diffusing through a system of magnetic particles. A physically realistic methodology of implementing the coating by cross boundary jump scaling and transition probabilities at the coating surface is developed. Using this formulation, the coating has three distinct impacts on the relaxation rate: an enhancement at small particle sizes, a degradation at intermediate particle sizes, and no effect at large particles sizes. These varied effects are reconciled with the underlying dephasing mechanisms by using the concept of a full dephasing zone to present a physical picture of the dephasing process with and without the coating for all sizes. The enhancement at small particle sizes is studied systemically to demonstrate the existence of an optimal ratio of diffusion coefficients inside/outside the coating to achieve maximal increase in the relaxation rate.

  2. Rates of Delirium Diagnosis Do Not Improve with Emergency Risk Screening: Results of the Emergency Department Delirium Initiative Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendts, Glenn; Love, Jennefer; Nagree, Yusuf; Bruce, David; Hare, Malcolm; Dey, Ian

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether a bundled risk screening and warning or action card system improves formal delirium diagnosis and person-centered outcomes in hospitalized older adults. Prospective trial with sequential introduction of screening and interventional processes. Two tertiary referral hospitals in Australia. Individuals aged 65 and older presenting to the emergency department (ED) and not requiring immediate resuscitation (N = 3,905). Formal ED delirium screening algorithm and use of a risk warning card with a recommended series of actions for the prevention and management of delirium during the subsequent admission MEASUREMENTS: Delirium diagnosis at hospital discharge, proportion discharged to new assisted living arrangements, in-hospital complications (use of sedation, falls, aspiration pneumonia, death), hospital length of stay. Participants with a positive risk screen were significantly more likely (relative risk = 6.0, 95% confidence interval = 4.9-7.3) to develop delirium, and the proportion of at-risk participants with a positive screen was constant across three study phases. Delirium detection rate in participants undergoing the final intervention (Phase 3) was 12.1% (a 2% absolute and 17% relative increase from the baseline rate) but this was not statistically significant (P = .29), and a similar relative increase was seen over time in participants not receiving the intervention CONCLUSION: A risk screening and warning or action card intervention in the ED did not significantly improve rates of delirium detection or other important outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. High-dose-rate intraluminal brachytherapy prior to external radiochemotherapy in locally advanced esophageal cancer: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Afsaneh Maddah; Ghalehtaki, Reza; Khanjani, Nezhat; Farazmand, Borna; Babaei, Mohammad; Esmati, Ebrahim

    2017-02-01

    Dysphagia is a common initial presentation in locally advanced esophageal cancer and negatively impacts patient quality of life and treatment compliance. To induce fast relief of dysphagia in patients with potentially operable esophageal cancer high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was applied prior to definitive radiochemotherapy. In this single arm phase II clinical trial between 2013 to 2014 twenty patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (17 squamous cell and 3 adenocarcinoma) were treated with upfront 10 Gy HDR brachytherapy, followed by 50.4 Gy external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. Tumor response, as measured by endoscopy and/or computed tomography scan, revealed complete remission in 16 and partial response in 4 patients (overall response rate 100%). Improvement of dysphagia was induced by brachytherapy within a few days and maintained up to the end of treatment in 80% of patients. No differences in either response rate or dysphagia resolution were found between squamous cell and adenocarcinoma histology. The grade 2 and 3 acute pancytopenia or bicytopenia reported in 4 patients, while sub-acute adverse effects with painful ulceration was seen in five patients, occurring after a median of 2 months. A perforation developed in one patient during the procedure of brachytherapy that resolved successfully with immediate surgery. Brachytherapy before EBRT was a safe and effective procedure to induce rapid and durable relief from dysphagia, especially when combined with EBRT.

  4. Quit4U: The Effectiveness of Combining Behavioural Support, Pharmacotherapy and Financial Incentives to Support Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormston, R.; van der Pol, M.; Ludbrook, A.; McConville, S.; Amos, A.

    2015-01-01

    The "quit4u" stop smoking service (SSS) was developed by National Health Service (NHS) Tayside for smokers in deprived areas of Dundee (UK). quit4u combined behavioural support and pharmacotherapy with financial incentives for each week that participants remained quit. A quasi-experimental study was undertaken with smokers using quit4u…

  5. Effects of daily hemodialysis on heart rate variability: results from the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christopher T; Chertow, Glenn M; Daugirdas, John T; Greene, Tom H; Kotanko, Peter; Larive, Brett; Pierratos, Andreas; Stokes, John B

    2014-01-01

    End-stage renal disease is associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), components of which generally are associated with advanced age, diabetes mellitus and left ventricular hypertrophy. We hypothesized that daily in-center hemodialysis (HD) would increase HRV. The Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily Trial randomized 245 patients to receive 12 months of six versus three times per week in-center HD. Two hundred and seven patients had baseline Holter recordings. HRV measures were calculated from 24-h Holter electrocardiograms at both baseline and 12 months in 131 patients and included low-frequency power (LF, a measure of sympathetic modulation), high-frequency power (HF, a measure of parasympathetic modulation) and standard deviation (SD) of the R-R interval (SDNN, a measure of beat-to-beat variation). Baseline to Month 12 change in LF was augmented by 50% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 6.1-112%, P =0.022] and LF + HF was augmented by 40% (95% CI 3.3-88.4%, P = 0.03) in patients assigned to daily hemodialysis (DHD) compared with conventional HD. Changes in HF and SDNN were similar between the randomized groups. The effects of DHD on LF were attenuated by advanced age and diabetes mellitus (predefined subgroups). Changes in HF (r = -0.20, P = 0.02) and SDNN (r = -0.18, P = 0.04) were inversely associated with changes in left ventricular mass (LVM). DHD increased the LF component of HRV. Reduction of LVM by DHD was associated with increased vagal modulation of heart rate (HF) and with increased beat-to-beat heart rate variation (SDNN), suggesting an important functional correlate to the structural effects of DHD on the heart in uremia.

  6. Discrepancy between self- and proxy-rated pain in Alzheimer's disease: results from the danish Alzheimer intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, C.; Vogel, A.; Waldorff, F.B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of self- and proxy-reported pain in a cohort with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify characteristics of individuals with AD reporting pain. DESIGN: Data were collected at the baseline visit of the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study. SETTING......: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred twenty-one community-living individuals with AD (MMSE >/= 20) and their primary caregivers. MEASUREMENTS: Pain was assessed as part of the EuroQol EQ-5D (caregiver- and self-rated). The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease...

  7. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Paul M; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A; Horton, Edward S; Jakicic, John M; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W; Knowler, William C; Stewart, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45-76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR.

  8. A spectroscopic study of M rate at C{sub 82} metallofullerenes: Raman, far-infrared, and neutron scattering results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedkin, S.; Renker, B.; Rietschel, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). INFP; Heid, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Schober, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    1998-03-01

    Polycrystalline samples of M rate at C{sub 82} metallofullerenes have been studied at room temperature by Raman (for M=La, Y, Ce, Gd), far-infrared (FIR) (for M=La, Y, Ce), and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) (for M=La, Y) spectroscopy. Raman and FIR spectra suggest that these metallofullerenes have a common dominant, if not a single, structure of the C{sub 82} cage and a similar bonding of the encapsulated metal ion, i.e. the bonding is primarily electrostatic and the metal atoms are in the same oxidation state (+3). The metal ion vibrations are located around 160 and 50 cm{sup -1}. INS reveals no gap between internal vibrational and external vibrational and rotational modes in the range {proportional_to}50-200 cm{sup -1} as is typically observed for other fullerides and also predicted by our model calculations. Presumably this is due to strong intermolecular interactions between M rate at C{sub 82} units in the bulk sample. The studied metallofullerenes are air sensitive, and degradation in air could be followed by changes in the Raman spectra. (orig.) With 6 figs., 2 tabs., 47 refs.

  9. Evolutionary loss of the rdar morphotype in Salmonella as a result of high mutation rates during laboratory passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Carla J; White, Aaron P; Surette, Michael G

    2008-03-01

    Rapid evolution of microbes under laboratory conditions can lead to domestication of environmental or clinical strains. In this work, we show that domestication due to laboratory passage in rich medium is extremely rapid. Passaging of wild-type Salmonella in rich medium led to diversification of genotypes contributing to the loss of a spatial phenotype, called the rdar morphotype, within days. Gene expression analysis of the rdar regulatory network demonstrated that mutations were primarily within rpoS, indicating that the selection pressure for scavenging during stationary phase had the secondary effect of impairing this highly conserved phenotype. If stationary phase was omitted from the experiment, radiation of genotypes and loss of the rdar morphotype was also demonstrated, but due to mutations within the cellulose biosynthesis pathway and also in an unknown upstream regulator. Thus regardless of the selection pressure, rapid regulatory changes can be observed on laboratory timescales. The speed of accumulation of rpoS mutations during daily passaging could not be explained by measured fitness and mutation rates. A model of mutation accumulation suggests that to generate the observed accumulation of sigma 38 mutations, this locus must experience a mutation rate of approximately 10(-4) mutations/gene/generation. Sequencing and gene expression of population isolates indicated that there were a wide variety of sigma 38 phenotypes within each population. This suggests that the rpoS locus is highly mutable by an unknown pathway, and that these mutations accumulate rapidly under common laboratory conditions.

  10. The spin rates of O stars in WR + O binaries. I. Motivation, methodology and first results from SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Shara, Michael M; Vanbeveren, Dany; Moffat, Anthony F J; Zurek, David; Crause, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable observation that many single O stars spin very rapidly can be explained if they accreted angular momentum from a mass-transferring companion before that star blew up as a supernova. To test this hypothesis we have measured the spin rates of eight O stars in Wolf-Rayet (WR) + O binaries, increasing the total sample size of such O stars' measured spins from two to ten. The average v sin i for the sample of 10 O stars in these binaries is a strongly super-synchronous rate of 237 km/s, with individual star's values ranging from 129 to 331 km/s. Polarimetric and other determinations of these systems' sin i allow us to determine an average equatorial rotation velocity of 290 km/s for these 10 O stars, with individual star's velocities ranging from 140 to 496 km/s. This is strong observational evidence that Roche lobe overflow mass transfer from a WR progenitor companion has played a critical role in the evolution of WR+OB binaries. While theory predicts that this mass transfer rapidly spins-up the O-...

  11. Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Arab Americans: Application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Essien, E James; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to quit water pipe smoking by using an observational, survey-based, cross-sectional study design with a convenient sample of Arab American adults in Houston, Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of intention to quit water pipe smoking in the next year. A total of 340 participants completed the survey. Behavioral evaluation, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply were significant predictors of an intention to quit water pipe smoking adjusting for age, gender, income, marital status, and education. Interventions and strategies that include these constructs will assist water pipe smokers in quitting.

  12. Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late To Quit | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Smoking and Lung Cancer: It's Never Too Late to Quit Past Issues / ... Table of Contents Because most people who get lung cancer were smokers, you may feel that doctors and ...

  13. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jaam, M.; Al-Marridi, W.; Fares, H.; Izham, M.; Kheir, N; Awaisu, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics...

  14. Heart rate distribution and predictors of resting heart rate after initiation of beta-blocker treatment in patients with coronary artery disease: REsults of Sympathetic Evaluation And Research of China(RESEARCH) study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying-xin; LI Yue-ping; GAO Fei; MA Han-ying; WANG Zhi-jian; HAN Hong-ya; SHEN Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of heart rate as secondary prevention strategies for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is emphasized by multiple guidelines.However,limited information is available on the heart rate distribution and the change patterns of resting heart rate when initiating beta-blocker therapy among Chinese patients with CAD.Methods The REsults of Sympathetic Evaluation And Research of China (RESEARCH) study is a multi-centre,prospective,observational study involving 147 centers in 23 cities across China.All eligible beta-blocker naive patients were prescribed with metroprolol succinate.Initial dosage and target heart rate were selected at the discretion of their physicians in charge according to their usual institutional practice.The heart rate distribution and the change patterns of resting heart rate after initiation of beta-blocker therapy were observed.Results The majority of patients (63.6%) were prescribed with 47.5 mg metroprolol succinate.At baseline,there were only 17.4% of patients whose heart rate was less than 70 beats per minute,and the proportion reached 42.5% and 79.1%,one month and two months after initiation of beta-blockers,respectively.Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that baseline heart rate (B=0.900,SE=0.006,t=141.787,P<0.0001) and the dosage (B=-0.007,SE=0.002,t=-3.242,P=0.001) were independent predictors of resting heart rate 2 months after beta-blocker therapy.Conclusions Resting heart rate is not optimally controlled in a broadly representative cohort of Chinese outpatients with CAD even after initiation of β-blocker therapy,and baseline heart rate and the dosage of beta-blocker are both independent predictors of resting heart rate after β-blocker therapy.

  15. Mortality rates are lower in SIAD, than in hypervolaemic or hypovolaemic hyponatraemia: Results of a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Martín; Garrahy, Aoife; Slattery, David; Gupta, Saket; Hannon, Anne Marie; McGurren, Karen; Sherlock, Mark; Tormey, William; Thompson, Christopher J

    2017-06-02

    Hyponatraemia is associated with increased mortality, but the mortality associated specifically with SIAD is not known. We hypothesized that mortality in SIAD was elevated, but that it was less than in hypervolaemic (HEN) or hypovolaemic (HON) hyponatraemia. Mortality rates are presented as risk ratios (RR),with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and compared to normonatraemic controls (NN). Prospective, single centre, noninterventional study of all patients with hyponatraemia (≤130 mmol/L) admitted to hospital. A total of 1323 admissions with hyponatraemia were prospectively evaluated and 1136 contemporaneous NN controls. 431(32.6%) hyponatraemic patients had HON, 573(43.3%) had SIAD and 275(20.8%) patients had HEN. In patient mortality was higher in hyponatraemia than NN (9.1% vs 3.3%, P<.0001). The RRs for in-hospital mortality compared to NN were: SIAD, 1.76 (95% CI 1.08-2.8, P=.02), HON 2.77 (95% CI 1.8-4.3, P<.0001) and HEN, 4.9 (95% CI 3.2-7.4, P<.0001). The mortality rate was higher in HEN (RR 2.85; 95% CI 1.86-4.37, P<.0001) and in HON, (RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.04-2.52; P=.03), when compared to SIAD. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was lower in SIAD than in eunatraemic patients (P<.0001). 9/121(7.4%) patients died with plasma sodium <125 mmol/L and 4(3.3%) with plasma sodium <120 mmol/L. However, 69/121(57%) patients died with a plasma sodium above 133 mmol/L. We confirmed higher all-cause mortality in hyponatraemia than in NN. Mortality was higher in SIAD than in normonatraemia and was not explained on the basis of co-morbidities. Mortality was higher in HON and HEN than in SIAD. Mortality rates reported for all-cause hyponatraemia in the medical literature are not applicable to SIAD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Predict Smoking Cessation: Moderating Effects of Experienced Failure to Control Smoking and Plans to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with high levels of experienced failure to control smoking, but only if they had a plan to quit. Because smoking cessation involves both controlled and automatic processes, interventions may need to consider attitude change interventions that focus on both implicit and explicit attitudes. PMID:21198227

  17. Ductile failure of steel HY80 under high strain rates and triaxial stress states, experimental results and damage description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Malek, S.; Halle, Th.; Meyer, L. W.

    2003-09-01

    Ductile fracture investigations are an important part in current research. The simulation of fracture by means of numerical codes needs precise material data that may be reached from accurate mechanical testing. In order to predict failure processes, the stress state history as a function of strain development has to be known. In this work tensile tests on HY80 steel were performed under quasistatic and high strain rate loading conditions at room temperature using smooth and notched specimens. The force-time and displacement-time behaviour was measured during testing. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the fractured surfaces. Furthermore, different models were applied to describe the failure process. FE-calculations were used to receive the stress state in the material in the region of the notch as a function of strain development.

  18. Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingall, Georgina; Cropley, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during pregnancy. Electronic databases and journals were searched with seven articles included in this review. The findings demonstrated that women were aware of the health risks to the foetus associated with smoking; however knowledge of potential health risks was not sufficient to motivate them to quit. Several barriers to quitting were identified which included willpower, role, and meaning of smoking, issues with cessation provision, changes in relationship interactions, understanding of facts, changes in smell and taste and influence of family and friends. A further interesting finding was that cessation service provision by health professionals was viewed negatively by women. It was concluded that there is a shortage of qualitative studies that concentrate on the specific difficulties that pregnant women face when trying to quit smoking.

  19. Predictors of intention to quit waterpipe smoking: a survey of arab americans in houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Essien, E James; Abughosh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking has been described as "the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette." Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  20. Predictors of Intention to Quit Waterpipe Smoking: A Survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqa Athamneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe smoking has been described as “the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette.” Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  1. Lifestyle Intervention Improves Heart Rate Recovery from Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Ribisl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aims of this paper were (1 to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI compared with diabetes support and education (DSE upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR from graded exercise testing (GXT and (2 to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45–76 years who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI with (DSE upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P<0.001 while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P<0.001. At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P<0.0001 versus DSE: heart rate (HR at rest was lower (72.8±11.4 versus 77.7±11.7 b/min, HR range was greater (57.7±12.1 versus 53.1±12.4 b/min, HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3±21.8 versus 93.0±12.1 b/min, and HRR was greater (41.25±22.0 versus 37.8±12.5 b/min. Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR.

  2. Preliminary results on the deformation rates of the Malatya Fault (Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sançar, Taylan; Zabcı, Cengiz; Akçar, Naki; Karabacak, Volkan; Yazıcı, Müge; Akyüz, Hüsnü Serdar; Öztüfekçi Önal, Ayten; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2016-04-01

    The complex tectonic architecture of the eastern Mediterranean is mainly shaped by the interaction between the Eurasian, African, Arabian plates and smaller Anatolian Scholle. Ongoing post-collisional convergence between Eurasian and Arabian plates causes; (1) the westward motion of the Anatolia and and (2) the formation of four neo-tectonic provinces in Turkey: (a) East Anatolian Province of Shortening (b) North Anatolian Province (c) Central Anatolian "Ova" Province (d) West Anatolian Extensional Province. The Central "Ova" Province, which defines a region between the Aegean extensional regime in the west, the North Anatolian Shear Zone (NASZ) in the north and the East Anatolian Shear Zone (EASZ) in the east, is deformed internally by a series of NW-striking dextral and NE-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. The Malatya-Ovacık Fault Zone (MOFZ) is one the sinistral faults of the "Ova" province, located close to its eastern boundary. In order to understand not only the spatio-temporal behaviour of the MOFZ, but also its role in the internal deformation of the Anatolian Scholle we started to study the southern section, the Malatya Fault (MF), of this strike-slip fault zone in the framework of the TÜBITAK project no. 114Y580. The scope of the study is to calculate (a) the horizontal geologic slip rate, (b) the uplift rate, and (c) the cumulative displacement of the Malatya Fault (MF) that constitute the southwest part of MOFZ. Offset streams between 20-1700 m, pressure ridges, hot springs and small pull-apart basin formations are clear geological and geomorphological evidences for fault geometry along the MF. Among them the ~1700 m offset of the Tohma River (TR) presents unique site to understand deformational characteristics of the MF. Three levels of strath terraces (T1 to T3) identified along the both flanks of the TR by analyses of aerial photos and the field observations. The spatial distribution of these terraces are well-constrained by using the high

  3. Association between very low PTH levels and poor survival rates in haemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G; Lataillade, D; Genet, L; Legrand, E; Kuentz, F; Moreau-Gaudry, X; Fouque, D

    2011-01-01

    A very low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (VLPL) is associated with an increased risk of adynamic bone disease, vascular calcification, and mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency, the associated factors, and the prognosis of non-surgical VLPL in a cohort of prevalent HD patients. In July 2005, a cross-sectional study was performed on the French ARNOS cohort in 1,348 prevalent HD patients from 24 dialysis centres in the Rhône-Alpes area. Patients with a baseline intact PTH level <50 pg/ml (VLPL, Group 1) and ≥ 50 pg/ml (Group 2) were compared and a 42-month survival analysis was performed. Patients with prevalent or incident parathyroidectomy were excluded. We studied 1,138 prevalent HD patients. As compared to patients of Group 2 (n = 1,019), patients with VLPL (Group 1, n = 119) had lower serum albumin levels (34.5 ± 5 vs. 36.4 ± 5 g/l, p < 0.0001), less protein intake (nPCR 0.99 ± 0.28 vs. 1.1 ± 0.28 g/kg/day, p = 0.01), higher calcaemia (2.30 ± 0.2 vs. 2.26 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.01) and were more frequently treated with calcium carbonate (67 vs. 54%, p < 0.001). Patients with VLPL had a higher mortality rate (HR: 1.4 (1.07-1.8), p = 0.006) after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and dialysis vintage. The odds ratios of mortality for patients with VLPL remained higher in all calcaemia and serum albumin quartiles. Only 3/119 patients in Group 1 did not receive any PTH-lowering therapies (i.e. calcium carbonate (67%), alfacalcidol (38%), cinacalcet (10.1%), and dialysate calcium ≥ 1.5 mmol/l (94%)). In this observational French cohort, VLPL was observed in 10% of prevalent HD patients and was associated with poor survival rates. An inadequate therapeutic strategy could be responsible for this observation. The real consequences of this iatrogenic adynamic bone disease remain hypothetical, but it may be related to the risk of developing vascular calcification. It is hypothesized that a more adequate

  4. Tobacco Usage in Uttarakhand: A Dangerous Combination of High Prevalence, Widespread Ignorance, and Resistance to Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan John Grills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly one-third of adults in India use tobacco, resulting in 1.2 million deaths. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP related to smoking in the impoverished state of Uttarakhand. Methods. A cross-sectional epidemiological prevalence survey was undertaken. Multistage cluster sampling selected 20 villages and 50 households to survey from which 1853 people were interviewed. Tobacco prevalence and KAP were analyzed by income level, occupation, age, and sex. 95% confidence intervals were calculated using standard formulas and incorporating assumptions in relation to the clustering effect. Results. The overall prevalence of tobacco usage, defined using WHO criteria, was 38.9%. 93% of smokers and 86% of tobacco chewers were male. Prevalence of tobacco use, controlling for other factors, was associated with lower education, older age, and male sex. 97.6% of users and 98.1% of nonusers wanted less tobacco. Except for lung cancer (89% awareness, awareness of diseases caused by tobacco usage was low (cardiac: 67%; infertility: 32.5%; stroke: 40.5%. Conclusion. A dangerous combination of high tobacco usage prevalence, ignorance about its dangers, and few quit attempts being made suggests the need to develop effective and evidence based interventions to prevent a health and development disaster in Uttarakhand.

  5. Aboriginal health workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2012-05-23

    Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff) and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants) with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy level barriers. The normalisation of smoking in Aboriginal

  6. Increased respiration rate as a result of adaptation to copper in confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasik, P; Laskowski, R

    2007-09-01

    Multi-generation exposure of organisms to toxicants may lead to adaptations increasing their resistance to a chemical. However, the increased tolerance may have a negative effect on fitness in uncontaminated environments due to increased maintenance costs in adapted individuals. Herein we present results of a multi-generation experiment on the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, showing that animals bred for ca. 10-13 generations in copper-contaminated medium had higher maintenance costs then their counterparts originating from uncontaminated medium. The results show that significant changes in energy budgets may occur even after relatively short selection in small laboratory cultures.

  7. Which adverse effects influence the dropout rate in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment? Results for 50,824 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostev, Karel; Rex, Juliana; Eith, Thilo; Heilmaier, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Hintergrund: Heutzutage sind Serotonin-Wiederaufnahmehemmer (SSRI) aufgrund ihrer verglichen mit trizyklischen Antidepressiva oder Monoamino-Oxidase-Inhibitoren überlegenen klinischen Wirksamkeit, Verträglichkeit und Sicherheit die meistverschriebenen Antidepressiva. Dennoch sind trotz dieser Vorteile SSRIs mit einer Vielzahl an unerwünschten Arzneimittelnebenwirkungen verbunden, insbesondere im frühen Stadium der Behandlung, was in manchen Fällen zu einem verfrühtem Therapieabbruch führen kann. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es die meisten unerwünschten Arzneimittelnebenwirkungen von SSRIs zu erfassen sowie die Auswirkung auf die Behandlungsabbruchrate in einer großen Population zu ermitteln.Patienten und Methoden: Daten von 50.824 Patienten mit einer SSRI-Erstbehandlung einer schweren depressiven Störung wurden über die IMS (R) Disease Analyzer Datenbank (IMS Health) retrospektiv analysiert, wobei Informationen über unerwünschte SSRI-Nebenwirkungen und deren Einfluss auf einen verfrühten Therapieabbruch über Regressionsanalysen ermittelt wurden. Das Auftreten von bestimmten Co-Morbiditäten wurden ebenfalls registriert.Ergebnisse: Das mittlere Alter war 54.5 (±19) Jahre, zwei Drittel der Population waren weiblich. Die meist dokumentierten unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen waren: Beschwerden des Verdauungssystems (10%), Schlafstörung (8.6%) und Herzrhythmusstörung (4%); diese waren allerdings von erträglichem Ausmaß, da dadurch die Drop-Out-Rate nicht signifikant beeinflusst wurde. Hingegen erhöht insbesondere Somnolenz als Nebenwirkung und jüngeres Alter (≤50 Jahre) die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines vorzeitigen Therapieabbruchs, während Patienten mit kardiovaskulären Risikofaktoren oder Osteoporose die Tendenz aufweisen die Therapie aufrechtzuerhalten. Schlussfolgerung: Insgesamt wurde eine gute Verträglichkeit der SSRI-Behandlung nachgewiesen, wohingegen das Auftreten von Somnolenz zu einem Therapieabbruch führte.

  8. The possibility to increase the rated output as a result of index tests performed in Iron Gates II- Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novac, D; Pantelimon, D [Hidroelectrica - SH Portile de Fier, Str. I.G. Bibicescu Nr.2, Drobeta Turnu Severin, RO - 220103 (Romania); Popescu, E, E-mail: dragos.novac@hidroelectrica.r [Hidroelectrica Bucuresti, Str. C-tin Nacu Nr.3, Bucuresti, RO - 020995 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    The Index Tests have been used for many years to obtain the optimized cam correlation between wicket gates and runner blades for double regulated turbines (Kaplan, bulb). The cam is based on homologous model tests and is verified by site measurements, as model tests generally do not reproduce the exact intake configuration. Index Tests have also a considerable importance for checking of the relative efficiency curve of all type of turbines and can demonstrate if the prototype efficiency curve at plant condition has the shape expected from the test of the homologues model. During the Index Tests measurements the influence of all losses at multiple points of turbine operation can be proved. This publication deals with an overview on the Index Tests made after modernization of large bulb units in Iron Gates II - Romania. These field tests, together with the comparative, fully homologous tests for the new hydraulic shape of the runner blades have confirmed the smooth operational behavior and the guaranteed performance. Over the whole 'guaranteed operating range' for H = 8m, the characteristic of the Kaplan curve (enveloping curve to the propeller curves), agreed very well to the predicted efficiency curve from the hydraulic prototype hill chart. The new cam correlation have been determined for different head and realised in the governor, normally based on model tests. The guaranteed, maximum turbine output for H = 7,8m is specified with 32, 5 MW. The maximum measured turbine output during the Index Tests on cam operation was 35,704 MW at the net head of 7,836 m. This corresponds to 35,458 MW for the specified head H= 7, 8 m. All these important improvements ensure a significant increase of annual energy production without any change of the civil construction and without increasing the runner diameter. Also the possibility to increase the turbine rated output is evident.

  9. Rapid diagnosis and treatment of TIA results in low rates of stroke, myocardial infarction and vascular death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocho, D; Monell, J; Planells, G; Ricciardi, A C; Pons, J; Boltes, A; Espinosa, J; Ayats, M; Garcia, N; Otermin, P

    2016-01-01

    The 90-day risk of cerebral infarction in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is estimated at between 8% and 20%. There is little consensus as to which diagnostic strategy is most effective. This study evaluates the benefits of early transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with carotid and transcranial Doppler ultrasound in patients with TIA. Prospective study of patients with TIA in an emergency department setting. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, and ABCD(2) score were analysed. TIA aetiology was classified according to TOAST criteria. All patients underwent early vascular studies (<72hours), including TTE, carotid ultrasound, and transcranial Doppler. Primary endpoints were recurrence of stroke or TIA, myocardial infarction (MI), or vascular death during the first year. We evaluated 92 patients enrolled over 24 months. Mean age was 68.3±13 years and 61% were male. The mean ABCD(2) score was 3 points (≥5 in 30%). The distribution of TIA subtypes was as follows: 12% large-artery atherosclerosis; 30% cardioembolism; 10% small-vessel occlusion; 40% undetermined cause; and 8% rare causes. Findings from the early TTE led to a change in treatment strategy in 6 patients (6.5%) who displayed normal physical examination and ECG findings. At one year of follow-up, 3 patients had experienced stroke (3.2%) and 1 patient experienced MI (1%); no vascular deaths were identified. In our TIA patients, early vascular study and detecting patients with silent cardiomyopathy may have contributed to the low rate of vascular disease recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, Helmut; Grabovac, Igor; Schalk, Horst; Degen, Olaf; Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00) and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79) were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07) and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17) were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05) and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94), were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99), with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking and Readiness to Quit Smoking in People Living with HIV in Austria and Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Brath

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of smoking in people living with HIV (PLWHIV in Germany and Austria and their readiness to quit. A total of 447 consecutive patients with confirmed positive HIV status who were treated in different outpatient HIV centres in Austria and Germany were included. Nicotine dependence and stages of change were assessed by standardized questionnaires, and this was confirmed by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. Prevalence of smoking was 49.4%. According to a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher age (for each year of life OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.00 and tertiary education level (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.15-0.79 were associated with a lower chance, and occasional (OR = 3.75; 95% CI 1.74-8.07 and daily smoking of the partner (OR 8.78; 95% CI 4.49-17.17 were significantly associated with a higher chance of smoking. Moderate (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.30-9.05 and higher nicotine dependency level (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.46-7.94, were significantly associated with higher chance, and older age (for each year of life OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99, with lower chance for readiness to quit smoking. Those results may be used to address preventive measures to quit smoking aimed at PLWHIV and the importance of addressing smoking habits.

  12. Beliefs and perceptions toward quitting waterpipe smoking among cafe waterpipe tobacco smokers in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Saif M; Marhoon, Zaid A; Whitford, David L

    2013-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of waterpipe smoking worldwide, but still a paucity of information on perceptions toward quitting waterpipe use. We set out to establish the beliefs and perceptions of café waterpipe smokers toward quitting waterpipe smoking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A cross-sectional study. A random sample of 20 of 91 cafés serving waterpipe tobacco in Bahrain was taken. A questionnaire was administered in each café to 20 participants aged 18 and above. Three hundred eighty participants completed questionnaires from waterpipe smokers. Eighty-four percent of participants were Bahraini and 71% had a university degree. Mean age was 28.9 years. Average age of waterpipe smoking initiation was 20.3 years. The majority of waterpipe users chose flavored tobacco. Sixty-one percent smoked waterpipe tobacco daily with a mean smoking time of 2.6hr/day. Seventy-two percent considered waterpipe tobacco as harmful as or more harmful than cigarettes, but 67% considered cigarettes as more addictive. Eighty-two percent stated that they could quit waterpipe at any time, but only 40% were interested in quitting. Interest in quitting smoking was related to 4 variables: a physician mentioning the need to quit smoking, being non-Bahraini, having a family with a hostile attitude toward waterpipe smoking, and not considering oneself "hooked" on waterpipe tobacco. Waterpipe smokers in Bahrain cafés are frequent and high users. Health professionals must consider waterpipe smoking in all consultations and health promotion messages. A partnership between health professionals and disapproving members of families may be an effective strategy in encouraging waterpipe smokers to quit.

  13. Just blowing smoke? Social desirability and reporting of intentions to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Nelson, Wendy L

    2013-12-01

    Do cigarette smokers really want to quit smoking or do they simply say they do in order to placate others and avoid criticism? In surveys of smokers, stated quit intentions and reports of quit attempts may be biased by social desirability concerns. This makes it difficult to interpret large-scale state and national surveys of smoking behavior that collect data through telephone and face-to-face interviews, methods that tend to evoke high levels of socially desirable responding. The 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey used a dual-frame design to query smokers' quit intentions and past quit attempts in 1 of 2 ways: A self-administered mail survey (low pressure for socially desirable responding; n = 563), or an interviewer-administered telephone survey (high pressure for socially desirable responding; n = 499). Estimates derived from the 2 formats were compared to test for social desirability effects. In both survey modes, approximately two thirds of smokers reported seriously considering quitting in the next 6 months (mail: 64.9%; telephone: 68.9%), and approximately half reported making a quit attempt in the past year (mail: 54.9%; telephone: 52.3%). Neither difference approached significance in logistic regressions controlling for demographics (ps > .24). It appears that a large proportion of smokers in the United States aspire to live smoke-free lives and are not simply responding in a socially desirable manner to deflect criticism in an antismoking social climate. Future research should (1) replicate this study with greater statistical power, (2) examine the possible effects of survey context (e.g., health survey vs. smoking pleasure survey), and (3) explore survey mode effects in specific subpopulations.

  14. Early Results Show Reduced Infection Rate Using No-touch Technique for Expander/ADM Breast Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Henry B. Wilson, MD, FACS

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Infection is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction that often leads to device removal, a result emotionally devastating to the patient and frustrating for her surgeon. “No-touch” techniques have been used in other surgical disciplines and plastic surgery, but they have not been reported for breast reconstruction with tissue expanders or implants and acellular dermis. We report a novel technique of tissue expander and acellular dermis placement using no-touch princi...

  15. The spin rates of O stars in WR + O binaries - I. Motivation, methodology, and first results from SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Crawford, Steven M.; Vanbeveren, Dany; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Zurek, David; Crause, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The black holes (BH) in merging BH-BH binaries are likely progeny of binary O stars. Their properties, including their spins, will be strongly influenced by the evolution of their progenitor O stars. The remarkable observation that many single O stars spin very rapidly can be explained if they accreted angular momentum from a mass-transferring, O-type or Wolf-Rayet (WR) companion before that star blew up as a supernova. To test this prediction, we have measured the spin rates of eight O stars in WR + O binaries, increasing the total sample size of such O stars' measured spins from 2 to 10. Polarimetric and other determinations of these systems' sin i allow us to determine an average equatorial rotation velocity from He I (He II) lines of ve = 348 (173) km s-1 for these O stars, with individual star's ve from He I (He II) lines ranging from 482 (237) to 290 (91) km s-1. We argue that the ˜100 per cent difference between He I and He II speeds is due to gravity darkening. Supersynchronous spins, now observed in all 10 O stars in WR + O binaries where it has been measured, are strong observational evidence that Roche lobe overflow mass transfer from a WR progenitor companion has played a critical role in the evolution of WR + OB binaries. While theory predicts that this mass transfer rapidly spins up the O-type mass gainer to a nearly breakup rotational velocity of ve ˜ 530 km s-1, the observed average ve of the O-type stars in our sample is 65 per cent of that speed. This demonstrates that, even over the relatively short WR-phase time-scale, tidal and/or other effects causing rotational spin-down must be efficient. A challenge to tidal synchronization theory is that the two longest period binaries in our sample (with periods of 29.7 and 78.5 d) unexpectedly display supersynchronous rotation.

  16. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP, and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P<0.0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P<0.0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8.5% of specimens without such exposures (P=0.0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet, and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. PMID:24617520

  17. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  18. Increasing ablation distance peripheral to the saphenofemoral junction may result in a diminished rate of endothermal heat-induced thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Mikel; Kabnick, Lowell S; Rockman, Caron B; Berland, Todd L; Zhou, Di; Chasin, Cara; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Adelman, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of venous insufficiency using endovenous laser ablation or radiofrequency ablation may result in endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT), a form of deep venous thrombosis. This study sought to assess whether increasing the ablation distance peripheral to the deep venous junction would result in a reduction in the incidence of EHIT II. This study was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database from April 2007 to December 2011. Consecutive patients undergoing great saphenous vein (GSV) or small saphenous vein (SSV) ablation were evaluated. Previous to February 2011, all venous ablations were performed 2 cm peripheral to the saphenofemoral or saphenopopliteal junction (group I). Subsequent to February 2011, ablations were performed greater than or equal to 2.5 cm peripheral to the respective deep system junction (group II). The primary outcome was the development of EHIT II or greater (ie, thrombus protruding into the deep venous system but comprising less than 50% of the deep vein lumen). Secondary outcomes included procedure-site complications such as thrombophlebitis and hematomas. χ(2) tests were performed for all discrete variables, and unpaired Student's t-tests were performed for all continuous variables. P result was significant (group I: 2.6% ± 0.9% vs group II: 2.8% ± 1.0%; P = .006). The incidence of EHIT II was 76 in group I and 13 in group II. This represented a trend toward diminished frequency in group II as compared with group I (group I: 2.3% vs group II: 1.3%; P = .066). There were no reported cases of EHIT III or IV in this patient cohort. Patients who developed an EHIT II in group I were treated using anticoagulation 54% of the time, and patients who developed an EHIT II in group II were treated using anticoagulation 100% of the time. This study suggests that changing the treatment distance from 2 cm to greater than or equal to 2.5 cm peripheral to the deep venous junction may result in a diminished

  19. Early Results Show Reduced Infection Rate Using No-touch Technique for Expander/ADM Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry B. Wilson, MD, FACS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Infection is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction that often leads to device removal, a result emotionally devastating to the patient and frustrating for her surgeon. “No-touch” techniques have been used in other surgical disciplines and plastic surgery, but they have not been reported for breast reconstruction with tissue expanders or implants and acellular dermis. We report a novel technique of tissue expander and acellular dermis placement using no-touch principles with a self-retaining retractor system that holds promise to decrease infectious complications of breast reconstruction.

  20. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaam, M; Al-Marridi, W; Fares, H; Izham, M; Kheir, N; Awaisu, A

    2016-03-21

    To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed for data analyses, with P ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. About 44% of the respondents believed that waterpipe smoking was safer than cigarette smoking, and more than 70% would not mind if their children became involved in waterpipe smoking. More than half of the current smokers wanted to quit smoking shisha at some point, and 17% identified health concerns as the main motivating factor for their intention to quit. A large proportion of shisha smokers viewed shisha as a safer alternative to cigarettes, yet they admitted to intending to quit. These findings underscore the need to design educational interventions and awareness campaigns as well as impose stringent laws on waterpipe smoking in public places in Qatar.

  1. Analysis of the influencing factors of smoker's intention to quit smoking in the community%社区吸烟人群戒烟意愿影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱跃华; 徐玲英; 吴丽红; 李凡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the influencing factors of smoker's intention to quit smoking in community. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire was applied to investigate the smoker' s intention to quit smoking, involving the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, period of smoking, period of quitting smoking, reason for restarting smoking. Results A total of 809 smokers in two communities participated in the survey, of which 260 used to have intention to quit smoking, including 190 male smokers and 70 female smokers, with the average age of (31.67±5.64) years. The period of quitting smoking of the 260 smokers was 3-531 days, (48.42±54.89) d in average, 15 (5.8%) of which exceed 180 days. The main reasons for restarting smoking included friends' offer (98 cases, accounting for 37.6%) and work stress (93 cases, 35.8%). Other reasons were getting bored of work, social needs and all kinds of social pressures. According to the tobacco addiction level, it was found that the higher the tobacco addition level, the longer the period of quitting smoking (P<0.001). Correlation analysis showed a positive association between the tobacco addiction level and period of quitting smoking, number of complicated diseases. Conclusion To enhance success rate of quitting smoking, the community health service center needs to provide more publication & education on quitting smoking and more standardized diagnosis & treatment.%目的 分析影响社区吸烟人群戒烟意愿的因素.方法 横断面问卷调查,内容包括:Fagerstrom 尼 古丁依赖性评分表、吸烟时间、停止吸烟时间、再次吸烟原因等.结果 两个居民社区809 名吸烟者参加了调 查.曾经有戒烟意愿者260 人,其中男性190 人,女性70 人,年龄平均(31.67±5.64)岁.260 名吸烟者停止吸烟时 间3~531 d,超过180 d 仅15 人(占总人数的5.8%),平均(48.42±54.89)d.再次吸烟原因主要包括:朋友劝导98 人(37.6%)、工作紧张93 人(35.8%),其他原因包括工作无聊

  2. Numerical modeling of carbon dioxide sequestration on the rate of pressure solution creep in limestone: Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Renard, Francois; Hellmann, Roland; Collombet, Marielle; Guen, Yvi Le

    2008-01-01

    When carbon dioxide (CO2) is injected into an aquifer or a depleted geological reservoir, its dissolution into solution results in acidification of the pore waters. As a consequence, the pore waters become more reactive, which leads to enhanced dissolution-precipitation processes and a modification of the mechanical and hydrological properties of the rock. This effect is especially important for limestones given that the solubility and reactivity of carbonates is strongly dependent on pH and the partial pressure of CO2. The main mechanism that couples dissolution, precipitation and rock matrix deformation is commonly referred to as intergranular pressure solution creep (IPS) or pervasive pressure solution creep (PSC). This process involves dissolution at intergranular grain contacts subject to elevated stress, diffusion of dissolved material in an intergranular fluid, and precipitation in pore spaces subject to lower stress. This leads to an overall and pervasive reduction in porosity due to both grain indent...

  3. New methods to constrain the radio transient rate: results from a survey of four fields with LOFAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, D; van der Horst, A J; Wijers, R A M J; Swinbank, J D; Rowlinson, A; Broderick, J W; Cendes, Y N; Stewart, A J; Bell, M E; Breton, R P; Corbel, S; Eislöffel, J; Fender, R P; Grießmeier, J-M; Hessels, J W T; Jonker, P; Kramer, M; Law, C J; Miller-Jones, J C A; Pietka, M; Scheers, L H A; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Wijnands, R; Wise, M; Zarka, P

    2016-07-01

    We report on the results of a search for radio transients between 115 and 190 MHz with the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR). Four fields have been monitored with cadences between 15 min and several months. A total of 151 images were obtained, giving a total survey area of 2275 deg(2). We analysed our data using standard LOFAR tools and searched for radio transients using the LOFAR Transients Pipeline. No credible radio transient candidate has been detected; however, we are able to set upper limits on the surface density of radio transient sources at low radio frequencies. We also show that low-frequency radio surveys are more sensitive to steep-spectrum coherent transient sources than GHz radio surveys. We used two new statistical methods to determine the upper limits on the transient surface density. One is free of assumptions on the flux distribution of the sources, while the other assumes a power-law distribution in flux and sets more stringent constraints on the transient surface density. Both of these methods provide better constraints than the approach used in previous works. The best value for the upper limit we can set for the transient surface density, using the method assuming a power-law flux distribution, is 1.3 × 10(-3) deg(-2) for transients brighter than 0.3 Jy with a time-scale of 15 min, at a frequency of 150 MHz. We also calculated for the first time upper limits for the transient surface density for transients of different time-scales. We find that the results can differ by orders of magnitude from previously reported, simplified estimates.

  4. The impact of exchange rate uncertainty on exports: the case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan KARACA; Saatcioğlu, Cem

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we examined the relationship between exchange rate uncertainty and exports in Turkey. Sample period of the study is 1981, May 1, the date Turkey introduced flexible exchange rate system after quiting fixed exchange rate system, and 2001, February 22 when exchange rates were left floating. The results of this study, in which quarterly data are used, indicate that exchange rate uncertainty affects exports negatively in Turkey. This finding is valid both for long-run and short-run.

  5. New methods to constrain the radio transient rate: results from a survey of four fields with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, D; Wijers, R A M J; Swinbank, J D; Rowlinson, A; Broderick, J W; Cendes, Y N; Stewart, A J; Bell, M E; Breton, R P; Corbel, S; Eislöffel, J; Fender, R P; Grießmeier, J M; Hessels, J W T; Jonker, P G; Kramer, M; Law, C J; Miller-Jones, J C A; Pietka, M; Scheers, L H A; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Wijnands, R; Zarka, P

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results of a search for radio transients between 115 and 190\\,MHz with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR). Four different fields have been monitored with observational cadences between 15 minutes and several months. These fields have been chosen among the Medium Deep fields observed by the optical survey PanSTARRS. A total of 15 observing runs were performed giving a total survey area of 2275 deg$^2$. We analysed our data using standard LOFAR tools and searched for radio transients using the LOFAR Transient Pipeline (TraP). No credible radio transient candidate has been detected in our survey; however, it enables us to set upper limits on the surface density of radio transient sources at low radio frequencies, where little is yet known compared to frequencies above 1 GHz. To do this we used two new statistical methods. One is free of assumptions on the flux distribution of the sources, while the other assumes a power-law distribution in flux and sets more stringent constraints on the snapshot su...

  6. Impact of the 1998 football World Cup on suicide rates in France: results from the national death registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Contrand, Benjamin; Leffondré, Karen; Queinec, Raphaëlle; Aouba, Albertine; Jougla, Eric; Miras, Alain; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-04-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in 1998 had a short-term impact on the number of suicides in France. Exhaustive individual daily data on suicides from 1979 to 2006 were obtained from the French epidemiological center on the medical causes of death (CepiDC-INSERM; France). These data were analyzed using the seasonal ARIMA model. The overall effect of the World Cup was tested together with potential specific impact on days following the French team games. Between 11th June and 11th July, a significant decline of 95 suicides was observed (-10.3%), this effect being the strongest among men and people aged between 30 and 44. A significant decrease was also observed for the days following French team games (-19.9%). Our results are in favor of an effect of nationwide sport events on suicidal behaviors and are consistent with other studies. Many of the theories explaining the relationship between sports and suicide are related to sense of belongingness and social integration, highlighting the importance of social link reinforcement in suicide prevention.

  7. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  8. Spatiotemporal Changes in Atmospheric Deposition Rates Across The Czech Republic Estimated in The Selected Biomonitoring Campaigns. Examples of Results Available For Landscape Ecology and Land Use Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchara Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several large-scale and fine-scale biomonitoring surveys were carried out in the Czech Republic to estimate current and long-term accumulated atmospheric deposition rates using moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus as bioindicators since the end of 1980s. The results of the bioindicator analyses significantly correlated with available figures of deposition rates detected at the EMEP or Czech national measurement stations.

  9. Methodology for determining whether an increase in a state's child poverty rate is the result of the TANF program--Administration for Children and Families, HHS. Proposed rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-23

    The Administration for Children and Families is proposing a methodology to determine the child poverty rate in each State. If a State experiences an increase in its child poverty rate of 5 percent or more as a result of its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, the State must submit and implement a corrective action plan. This requirement is a part of the new welfare reform block grant program enacted in 1996.

  10. A randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of offering study results as an incentive to increase response rates to postal questionnaires [ISRCTN26118436

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgerson David J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postal questionnaires are widely used to collect outcome data on participants. However, a poor response to questionnaires will reduce the statistical power of the study and may introduce bias. A meta analysis of ten trials offering study results, largely in the fields of education and marketing, was shown to be ineffective, with the odds ratio for response with offering research findings is 0.92 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.11. However uncertainty still exists as it is uncertain whether results from such trials can be extrapolated to that of a health care setting. The aim of this study was to assess whether offering participants study results increases the response rates to postal questionnaires. Methods 1038 women aged over 70 years were remotely randomised by computer in a 3:1 ratio. 250 participants did not receive the offer of knowing the results of the trial and 788 participants were offered the results of the trial in a postal questionnaire. The main outcome measure was response rate. Chi square test was used to evaluate the overall differences in response rate between the two groups. An adjusted analysis, adjusting for whether the participant was taking calcium and age was also undertaken. Results The response rates were not significantly different Odds Ratio 0.88 (95% confidence intervals 0.48 to 1.63 p = 0.69. Conclusion Offering study results to women living in the community aged over 70 does not increase response rates to postal questionnaires. Although researchers have an ethical obligation to offer participants study results, since 10% of women did not wish to receive the results, investigators should give participants the option to opt out of receiving the study's results.

  11. [A need to implement new tools for diagnosing tobacco-addition syndrome and readiness/motivation to quit smoking in the working-age population in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broszkiewicz, Marzenna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    High rates of tobacco use is still observed in working-age population in Poland. The present level of the state tobacco control has been achieved through adopting legal regulations and population-based interventions. In Poland a sufficient contribution of health professionals to the diagnosis of the tobacco-addition syndrome (TAS) and the application of the 5A's (ask, advice, assess, assist, arrange follow-up) brief intervention, has not been confirmed by explicit research results. Systemic solutions of the health care system of the professional control, specialist health care, health professional trainings and reference centres have not as yet been elaborated. The tools for diagnosing tobacco dependence and motivation to quit smoking, developed over 30 years ago and recommended by experts to be used in clinical and research practice, have not met the current addiction criteria. In this paper other tools than those previously recommended - tests developed in the first decade of the 21st century (including Cigarette Dependence Scale and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale), reflecting modern concepts of nicotine dependence are presented. In the literature on the readiness/motivation to change health behaviors, a new approach dominates. The motivational interviewing (MI) by Miller and Rollnick concentrates on a smoking person and his or her internal motivation. Motivational interviewing is recommended by the World Health Organization as a 5R's (relevance, risks, rewards, roadblocks, repetition) brief motivational advice, addressed to tobacco users who are unwilling to make a quit attempt. In Poland new research studies on the implementation of new diagnostic tools and updating of binding guidelines should be undertaken, to strengthen primary health care in treating tobacco dependence, and to incorporate MI and 5R's into trainings in TAS diagnosing and treating addressed to health professionals.

  12. Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour.

  13. “Hike up yer Skirt, and Quit.” What Motivates and Supports Smoking Cessation in Builders and Renovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Bercovitz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction-related occupations have very high smoking prevalence rates and are an identified priority population for efforts to promote cessation. This study sought to identify the smoking cessation supports and services which best suited this workforce group, and to identify gaps in reach of preventive health services. We performed qualitative text analysis on pre-existing conversations about smoking cessation among workers in this sector. The material appeared on a discussion forum about residential construction from 1998 and 2011. Roughly 250 unique user names appeared in these discussions. The qualitative analysis addressed knowledge, motivation, environmental influences, and positive and negative experiences with supports for cessation. Self-identified smokers tended to want to quit and described little social value in smoking. Actual quit attempts were attributed to aging and tangible changes in health and fitness. Peer-to-peer social support for cessation was evident. Advice given was to avoid cigarettes and smokers, to focus on personal skills, personal commitment, and the benefits of cessation (beyond the harms from smoking. Many discussants had received medical support for cessation, but behavioural counselling services appeared underutilized. Our findings support efforts toward more complete bans on workplace smoking and increased promotion of available behavioural support services among dispersed blue-collar workers.

  14. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  15. Exploration of the Affecting Factors on the Quit Intentions of Online-Game Players in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online-games are products of hedonic information technology. Players’ addiction will lead to seriously negative consequences. That how to prevent online-game addiction exclusively becomes a problem concerned by whole society. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence factors and its mechanism that can weaken or even eliminate online-game addiction. On the basis of the theory of planned behaviour, anticipated guilt and past behaviour are introduced into the model to explain players’ quit intention of online-game. Data collected from 393 online-game players around China mainland indicate that negative attitude, negative-subjective norm and perceived behavioural control significantly affect the quit intention of online-game players, while the anticipated guilt plays a mediator role. Past behaviour can moderate the relations between the anticipated guilt and the quit intention of online-game players. The more the past game behaviour the player owns, the stronger the positive effects of anticipated guilt on game quit intention he/she will harbor. Conclusions are helpful to the intervention of player’s game behaviour and strengthen the self-control ability of players.

  16. High School Students Who Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes: United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarcher, A.; Jones, S. E.; Morris, E.; Kann, L.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, cigarette use is the leading cause of preventable death, and most adult smokers started before the age of 18 years. Nicotine dependence maintains tobacco use and makes quitting difficult. Despite their relatively short smoking histories, many adolescents who smoke are nicotine dependent, and such dependence can lead to daily…

  17. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses’ demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses’ job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses’ job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service.

  18. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See; Wanke, Peter; Arslan, Özgün

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses' demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses' job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses' job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service.

  19. Employee perceptions of management relations as influences on job satisfaction and quit intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, S.; Sanders, K.; Bednall, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use a relational approach to investigate how employee perceptions of their relationships with three types of managers—senior, line, and human resource managers—are related to employees’ job satisfaction and intention to quit. Based on an employee survey (n = 1,533), and manager netw

  20. Job satisfaction and intention to quit: an empirical analysis of nurses in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See; Wanke, Peter; Arslan, Özgün

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facets influencing job satisfaction and intention to quit of nurses employed in Turkey. Using a non-probability sampling technique, 417 nurses from six large private hospitals were surveyed from March 2014 to June 2014. The nurses’ demographic data, their job-related satisfaction and turnover intentions were recorded through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to explore data, and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Nurses’ job satisfaction was found at a moderate level with 61% of the nurses intended to quit. Nevertheless, nurses reported a high satisfaction level with work environment, supervisor support, and co-workers among the selected nine facets of job satisfaction. They also reported a low satisfaction level with contingent reward, fringe benefits, and pay. The impact of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction and intention to quit was also examined. The study revealed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and intention to quit the existing employment. Moreover, satisfaction with supervisor support was the only facet that significantly explained turnover intent when controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and experience. The implications for nurse management were also described for increasing nurses’ job satisfaction and retention. This study is beneficial for hospital management to ensure proper nursing care that would lead to a better quality healthcare service. PMID:27168960

  1. Control perceptions moderate attitudinal and normative effects on intention to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with behavioral theory such as the theory of planned behavior, numerous studies on determinants of smoking cessation confirmed that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control each can correlate with intention to quit smoking. However, such main effect findings indicate additive

  2. Effects of Teachers' Organizational Justice Perceptions on Intention to Quit: Mediation Role of Organizational Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Ufuk; Sigri, Ünsal

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to discover the effects of teachers' organizational justice perceptions on intention to quit as well as the mediation role of teachers' organizational identification in this process. Interactions between research variables were measured using structural equation models. The sample used comprised teachers working at primary and…

  3. Principal Self-Efficacy: Relations with Burnout, Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, burnout, job satisfaction and principals' motivation to quit. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a recently developed multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Burnout was measured by a modified version of the Maslach Burnout…

  4. Blogging to Quit Smoking: Sharing Stories from Women of Childbearing Years in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; Noormohamed, Aliya; Dragonetti, Rosa; Maher, Julie; Lessels, Christina; Selby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which the pregnant or postpartum women, in the process of quitting smoking, felt that writing in a blog about their smoking cessation journeys helped them in their efforts to become or remain smoke free. Five women who blogged for Prevention of Gestational and Neonatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (a website designed to help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking) were interviewed about their experiences as bloggers. Participants were asked to complete an online survey, which had closed-ended questions regarding their sociodemographic and smoking characteristics. Once they completed the survey, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted over the phone. Findings suggest that blogging might combine several evidence-based behavioral strategies for tobacco cessation, such as journaling and getting support from others who use tobacco. Being part of a blogging community of women who have experienced or are experiencing similar challenges can be therapeutic and help women gain confidence in their ability to quit smoking. In conclusion, blogging may help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking by increasing their social support and promoting self-reflection.

  5. Foraging in groups affects giving-up densities: solo foragers quit sooner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    The giving-up density framework is an elegant and widely adopted mathematical approach to measuring animals' foraging decisions at non-replenishing artificial resource patches. Under this framework, an animal should "give up" when the benefits of foraging are outweighed by the costs (e.g., predation risk, energetic, and/or missed opportunity costs). However, animals of many species may forage in groups, and group size is expected to alter perceived predation risk and hence influence quitting decisions. Yet, most giving-up density studies assume either that individuals forage alone or that giving-up densities are not affected by group foraging. For animals that forage both alone and in groups, differences in giving-up densities due to group foraging rather than experimental variables may substantially alter interpretation. However, no research to date has directly investigated how group foraging affects the giving-up density. We used remote-sensing cameras to identify instances of group foraging in two species of Rattus across three giving-up density experiments to determine whether group foraging influences giving-up densities. Both Rattus species have been observed to vary between foraging alone and in groups. In all three experiments, solo foragers left higher giving-up densities on average than did group foragers. This result has important implications for studies using giving-up densities to investigate perceived risk, the energetic costs of searching, handling time, digestion, and missed opportunity costs, particularly if groups of animals are more likely to experience certain experimental treatments. It is critically important that future giving-up density studies consider the effects of group foraging.

  6. Rate of force development: physiological and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J; Folland, Jonathan; Tillin, Neale; Duchateau, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way. Therefore, we provide evidence-based practical recommendations for rational quantification of rate of force development in both laboratory and clinical settings.

  7. Radiation and Reason Why radiation at modest dose rates is quite harmless and current radiation safety regulations are flawed

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Data on the impact of ionising radiation on life are examined in the light of evolutionary biology. This comparison confirms that fear of nuclear radiation is not justified by science itself; rather it originates in a failure of public trust in nuclear science, a relic of the international politics of the Cold War era. Current ionisation safety regulations appease this fear but without scientific support and they need fundamental reformulation. This should change the reaction to accidents like Fukushima, the cost of nuclear energy and the application of nuclear technology to the supply of food and fresh water. Such a boost to the world economy would require that more citizens study and appreciate the science involved – and then tell others -- not as much fun as the Higgs, perhaps, but no less important! www.radiationandreason.com

  8. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layoun, Nelly; Salameh, Pascal; Waked, Mirna; Aoun Bacha, Z; Zeenny, Rony M; El Hitti, Eric; Godin, Isabelle; Dramaix, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to the textual warnings effects. A higher motivation to quit cigarette smoking was seen among the following groups of smokers: males (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, P=0.02), who had stopped smoking for at least 1 month during the last year due to textual warning (OR =2.79, Pshocking images on the pack (OR =1.95, P=0.004). Low-dependent smokers and highly motivated to quit smokers appeared to be more hypothetically susceptible to shocking pictorial warnings. Motivation to quit was associated with sensitivity to warnings, but not with the presence of all chronic respiratory symptoms.

  9. Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Maggie M.; Geier, Charles F.; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika E.; Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F.J.; Donny, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt. Objective We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money. Methods Thirty-six non-treatment seeking smokers participated in two fMRI sessions, one following 24-hr abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt. Results As previously reported, 24-hr abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p<.05), even when controlling for other predictors of lapse outcome (e.g., craving); no association was seen for smoking reward. Conclusions These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence, and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation. PMID:26660448

  10. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Wing-Yee; de Kwaadsteniet, Marjolein CE; Harmsen, Mirjam; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette WA; Schellevis, François G; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2006-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. Method During one calendar year, 195 general practitioners in 104 practices in the Netherlands registered all their patient contacts. This study was performed by the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL) in 2001. Of 82,053 children aged 0 to 18 years, the following variables were collected: number of episodes per patient, number of contacts per episode, month of the year in which the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made, age, gender, urbanisation level, drug prescription and referral. Results The overall incidence rate was 19 episodes per 1000 person years. The incidence rate in girls was 8 times as high as in boys. The incidence rate in smaller cities and rural areas was 2 times as high as in the three largest cities. Throughout the year, incidence rates varied with a decrease in summertime for children at the age of 0 to 12 years. Of the prescriptions, 66% were in accordance with current guidelines, but only 18% of the children who had an indication were actually referred. Conclusion This study shows that incidence rates of urinary tract infections are not only related to gender and season, but also to urbanisation. General practitioners in the Netherlands frequently do not follow the clinical guidelines for urinary tract infections, especially with respect to referral. PMID:16584577

  11. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. Method During one calendar year, 195 general practitioners in 104 practices in the Netherlands registered all their patient contacts. This study was performed by the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL in 2001. Of 82,053 children aged 0 to 18 years, the following variables were collected: number of episodes per patient, number of contacts per episode, month of the year in which the diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made, age, gender, urbanisation level, drug prescription and referral. Results The overall incidence rate was 19 episodes per 1000 person years. The incidence rate in girls was 8 times as high as in boys. The incidence rate in smaller cities and rural areas was 2 times as high as in the three largest cities. Throughout the year, incidence rates varied with a decrease in summertime for children at the age of 0 to 12 years. Of the prescriptions, 66% were in accordance with current guidelines, but only 18% of the children who had an indication were actually referred. Conclusion This study shows that incidence rates of urinary tract infections are not only related to gender and season, but also to urbanisation. General practitioners in the Netherlands frequently do not follow the clinical guidelines for urinary tract infections, especially with respect to referral.

  12. Northern Latitude but Not Season Is Associated with Increased Rates of Hospitalizations Related to Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Results of a Multi-Year Analysis of a National Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Adam C.; Gaetano, John Nick; Jacobs, Jeffrey; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh; Bissonnette, Marc; Pekow, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims There is growing evidence that the incidence and severity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be geographically and seasonally related. Why these associations are observed remains unclear. We assessed the impact of geographic location, season, and exposure to ultraviolet light on disease severity by measuring national hospital IBD-related discharge rates. Methods Utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), we identified all patients with IBD-related discharges from 2001–2007. Patients were included if they were discharged from states above the 40th parallel (north) or at or below the 35th parallel (south); and their discharge fell within the winter (January, February, and March) or summer (July, August, and September). Groups of patients were assessed comparing north to south within each season, and summer to winter within each region. UV index was recorded from the National Weather Service data and compared to monthly discharge rates. Results There was a consistent pattern of increased IBD-related hospitalization rates in northern states compared to southern states for both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Differences in IBD-related hospitalization rates by season, however, were not uniform across the years studied. UV index was significantly inversely associated although not proportional to discharge rates for both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Conclusions In the US, there is a significant increased rate of IBD-related hospitalizations in the northern compared to southern states, which not fully explained by differences in UV exposure. PMID:27579718

  13. The views and experiences of smokers who quit smoking unassisted. A systematic review of the qualitative evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Smith

    Full Text Available Unassisted cessation - quitting without pharmacological or professional support - is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted.We systematically searched for peer-reviewed qualitative studies reporting on smokers who quit unassisted. We identified 11 studies and used a technique based on Thomas and Harden's method of thematic synthesis to discern key themes relating to unassisted cessation, and to then group related themes into overarching concepts.The three concepts identified as important to smokers who quit unassisted were: motivation, willpower and commitment. Motivation, although widely reported, had only one clear meaning, that is 'the reason for quitting'. Willpower was perceived to be a method of quitting, a strategy to counteract cravings or urges, or a personal quality or trait fundamental to quitting success. Commitment was equated to seriousness or resoluteness, was perceived as key to successful quitting, and was often used to distinguish earlier failed quit attempts from the final successful quit attempt. Commitment had different dimensions. It appeared that commitment could be tentative or provisional, and also cumulative, that is, commitment could be built upon as the quit attempt progressed.A better understanding of what motivation, willpower and commitment mean from the smoker's perspective may provide new insights and direction for smoking cessation research and practice.

  14. Autobiographical narratives can be used with confidence to collect information about ex-smokers' reasons for quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuc, Alex; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark Barry; Ruiz, Jessica Joy; Voluse, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Although autobiographical narratives (ABNs) provide rich descriptions of how people change addictive behaviors, psychometric evaluations of such reports are rare. 27 ex-smokers who had quit for 1 to 5 years were interviewed twice about why they quit. Participants' ABN reasons for why they quit smoking were compared with their answers on the Reasons For Quitting (RFQ) scale and found to be similar. Ex-smokers' ABNs are reliably reported for number and types of reasons given for quitting. Reasons ex-smokers gave in their ABNs were similar to their RFQ subscale answers. ABNs, a qualitative measure of quitting smoking, captured more information about how people quit smoking than quantitative scales.

  15. Improving Web searches: case study of quit-smoking Web sites for teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Malcolm; Skinner, Harvey

    2003-11-14

    The Web has become an important and influential source of health information. With the vast number of Web sites on the Internet, users often resort to popular search sites when searching for information. However, little is known about the characteristics of Web sites returned by simple Web searches for information about smoking cessation for teenagers. To determine the characteristics of Web sites retrieved by search engines about smoking cessation for teenagers and how information quality correlates with the search ranking. The top 30 sites returned by 4 popular search sites in response to the search terms "teen quit smoking" were examined. The information relevance and quality characteristics of these sites were evaluated by 2 raters. Objective site characteristics were obtained using a page-analysis Web site. Only 14 of the 30 Web sites are of direct relevance to smoking cessation for teenagers. The readability of about two-thirds of the 14 sites is below an eighth-grade school level and they ranked significantly higher (Kendall rank correlation, tau = -0.39, P =.05) in search-site results than sites with readability above or equal to that grade level. Sites that ranked higher were significantly associated with the presence of e-mail address for contact (tau = -0.46, P =.01), annotated hyperlinks to external sites (tau = -0.39, P =.04), and the presence of meta description tag (tau = -0.48, P =.002). The median link density (number of external sites that have a link to that site) of the Web pages was 6 and the maximum was 735. A higher link density was significantly associated with a higher rank (tau = -0.58, P =.02). Using simple search terms on popular search sites to look for information on smoking cessation for teenagers resulted in less than half of the sites being of direct relevance. To improve search efficiency, users could supplement results obtained from simple Web searches with human-maintained Web directories and learn to refine their searches with

  16. Nicotine patches and quitline counseling to help hospitalized smokers stay quit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins Sharon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitalized smokers often quit smoking, voluntarily or involuntarily; most relapse soon after discharge. Extended follow-up counseling can help prevent relapse. However, it is difficult for hospitals to provide follow-up and smokers rarely leave the hospital with quitting aids (for example, nicotine patches. This study aims to test a practical model in which hospitals work with a state cessation quitline. Hospital staff briefly intervene with smokers at bedside and refer them to the quitline. Depending on assigned condition, smokers may receive nicotine patches at discharge or extended quitline telephone counseling post-discharge. This project establishes a practical model that lends itself to broader dissemination, while testing the effectiveness of the interventions in a rigorous randomized trial. Methods/design This randomized clinical trial (N = 1,640 tests the effect of two interventions on long-term quit rates of hospitalized smokers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The interventions are (1 nicotine patches (eight-week, step down program dispensed at discharge and (2 proactive telephone counseling provided by the state quitline after discharge. Subjects are randomly assigned into: usual care, nicotine patches, telephone counseling, or both patches and counseling. It is hypothesized that patches and counseling have independent effects and their combined effect is greater than either alone. The primary outcome measure is thirty-day abstinence at six months; a secondary outcome is biochemically validated smoking status. Cost-effectiveness analysis is conducted to compare each intervention condition (patch alone, counseling alone, and combined interventions against the usual care condition. Further, this study examines whether smokers’ medical diagnosis is a moderator of treatment effect. Generalized linear (binomial mixed models will be used to study the effect of treatment on abstinence rates. Clustering is accounted

  17. Nicotine patches and quitline counseling to help hospitalized smokers stay quit: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospitalized smokers often quit smoking, voluntarily or involuntarily; most relapse soon after discharge. Extended follow-up counseling can help prevent relapse. However, it is difficult for hospitals to provide follow-up and smokers rarely leave the hospital with quitting aids (for example, nicotine patches). This study aims to test a practical model in which hospitals work with a state cessation quitline. Hospital staff briefly intervene with smokers at bedside and refer them to the quitline. Depending on assigned condition, smokers may receive nicotine patches at discharge or extended quitline telephone counseling post-discharge. This project establishes a practical model that lends itself to broader dissemination, while testing the effectiveness of the interventions in a rigorous randomized trial. Methods/design This randomized clinical trial (N = 1,640) tests the effect of two interventions on long-term quit rates of hospitalized smokers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The interventions are (1) nicotine patches (eight-week, step down program) dispensed at discharge and (2) proactive telephone counseling provided by the state quitline after discharge. Subjects are randomly assigned into: usual care, nicotine patches, telephone counseling, or both patches and counseling. It is hypothesized that patches and counseling have independent effects and their combined effect is greater than either alone. The primary outcome measure is thirty-day abstinence at six months; a secondary outcome is biochemically validated smoking status. Cost-effectiveness analysis is conducted to compare each intervention condition (patch alone, counseling alone, and combined interventions) against the usual care condition. Further, this study examines whether smokers’ medical diagnosis is a moderator of treatment effect. Generalized linear (binomial) mixed models will be used to study the effect of treatment on abstinence rates. Clustering is accounted for with hospital

  18. Effect of preoperative biliary drainage on surgical results after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with distal common bile duct cancer:Focused on the rate of decrease in serum bilirubin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Mee Choi; Seok-Hwan Shin; Kyung Rae Kim; Ze-Hong Woo; Eung-Ho Cho; Keon-Young Lee; Seung-Ik Ahn; Sun Keun Choi; Sei Joong Kim; Yoon Seok Hut; Young Up Cho; Kee-Chun Hang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To examine if the rate of decrease in serum bilirubin after preoperative biliary drainagecan be used as a predicting factor for surgical complications and postoperative recovery after pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with distal common bile duct cancer.METHODS:A retrospective study was performed in 49 consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for distal common bile duct cancer.Potential risk factors were compared between the complicated and uncomplicated groups.Also,the rates of decrease in serum bilirubin were compared pre-and postoperatively.RESULTS:Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) was performed in 40 patients (81.6%).Postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were 46.9% (23/49) and 6.1% (3/49),respectively.The presence or absence of PBD was not different between the complicated and uncomplicated groups.In patients with PBD,neither the absolute level nor the rate of decrease in serum bilirubin was significantly different.Patients with rapid decrease preoperatively showed faster decrease during the first postoperative week (5.5±4.4 μmol/L vs-1.7±9.9μmol/L,P=0.004).CONCLUSION:PBD does not affect the surgical outcome of pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with distal common bile duct cancer.There is a certain group of patients with a compromised hepatic excretory function,which is represented by the slow rate of decrease in serum bilirubin after PBD.

  19. Deterministic Elements of Japanese Stock Prices under Low Interest Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kurihara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses daily data to perform an empirical analysis of the relationship between recent Japanese stock prices and macroeconomic variables under the zero or low interest policy in Japan. The empirical results indicate that short-term interest rates have not impacted Japanese stock prices. On the other hand, long-term interest rates, exchange rates, and foreign stock prices have been significant determinants of Japanese stock prices. This seems counter to traditional economic theory, but interest rates were quite low and other variables, such as exchange rates and other stock prices, play important roles in determining Japanese stock prices.

  20. The effects of midwives’ job satisfaction on burnout, intention to quit and turnover: a longitudinal study in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite working in a challenging environment plagued by persistent personnel shortages, public sector midwives in Senegal play a key role in tackling maternal mortality. A better understanding of how they are experiencing their work and how it is affecting them is needed in order to better address their needs and incite them to remain in their posts. This study aims to explore their job satisfaction and its effects on their burnout, intention to quit and professional mobility. Methods A cohort of 226 midwives from 22 hospitals across Senegal participated in this longitudinal study. Their job satisfaction was measured from December 2007 to February 2008 using a multifaceted instrument developed in West Africa. Three expected effects were measured two years later: burnout, intention to quit and turnover. Descriptive statistics were reported for the midwives who stayed and left their posts during the study period. A series of multiple regressions investigated the correlations between the nine facets of job satisfaction and each effect variable, while controlling for individual and institutional characteristics. Results Despite nearly two thirds (58.9%) of midwives reporting the intention to quit within a year (mainly to pursue new professional training), only 9% annual turnover was found in the study (41/226 over 2 years). Departures were largely voluntary (92%) and entirely domestic. Overall the midwives reported themselves moderately satisfied; least contented with their “remuneration” and “work environment” and most satisfied with the “morale” and “job security” facets of their work. On the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, very high levels of emotional exhaustion (80.0%) and depersonalization (57.8%) were reported, while levels of diminished personal accomplishment were low (12.4%). Burnout was identified in more than half of the sample (55%). Experiencing emotional exhaustion was inversely associated with

  1. The effects of midwives’ job satisfaction on burnout, intention to quit and turnover: a longitudinal study in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau Dominique

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite working in a challenging environment plagued by persistent personnel shortages, public sector midwives in Senegal play a key role in tackling maternal mortality. A better understanding of how they are experiencing their work and how it is affecting them is needed in order to better address their needs and incite them to remain in their posts. This study aims to explore their job satisfaction and its effects on their burnout, intention to quit and professional mobility. Methods A cohort of 226 midwives from 22 hospitals across Senegal participated in this longitudinal study. Their job satisfaction was measured from December 2007 to February 2008 using a multifaceted instrument developed in West Africa. Three expected effects were measured two years later: burnout, intention to quit and turnover. Descriptive statistics were reported for the midwives who stayed and left their posts during the study period. A series of multiple regressions investigated the correlations between the nine facets of job satisfaction and each effect variable, while controlling for individual and institutional characteristics. Results Despite nearly two thirds (58.9% of midwives reporting the intention to quit within a year (mainly to pursue new professional training, only 9% annual turnover was found in the study (41/226 over 2 years. Departures were largely voluntary (92% and entirely domestic. Overall the midwives reported themselves moderately satisfied; least contented with their “remuneration” and “work environment” and most satisfied with the “morale” and “job security” facets of their work. On the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, very high levels of emotional exhaustion (80.0% and depersonalization (57.8% were reported, while levels of diminished personal accomplishment were low (12.4%. Burnout was identified in more than half of the sample (55%. Experiencing emotional exhaustion was inversely

  2. Does a web-based feedback training program result in improved reliability in clinicians' ratings of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støre-Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Pedersen, Geir A F; Pripp, Are H; Jose, Paul E; Karterud, Sigmund

    2015-09-01

    The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale is used in routine clinical practice and research to estimate symptom and functional severity and longitudinal change. Concerns about poor interrater reliability have been raised, and the present study evaluated the effect of a Web-based GAF training program designed to improve interrater reliability in routine clinical practice. Clinicians rated up to 20 vignettes online, and received deviation scores as immediate feedback (i.e., own scores compared with expert raters) after each rating. Growth curves of absolute SD scores across the vignettes were modeled. A linear mixed effects model, using the clinician's deviation scores from expert raters as the dependent variable, indicated an improvement in reliability during training. Moderation by content of scale (symptoms; functioning), scale range (average; extreme), previous experience with GAF rating, profession, and postgraduate training were assessed. Training reduced deviation scores for inexperienced GAF raters, for individuals in clinical professions other than nursing and medicine, and for individuals with no postgraduate specialization. In addition, training was most beneficial for cases with average severity of symptoms compared with cases with extreme severity. The results support the use of Web-based training with feedback routines as a means to improve the reliability of GAF ratings performed by clinicians in mental health practice. These results especially pertain to clinicians in mental health practice who do not have a masters or doctoral degree.

  3. Creating a more quit-friendly national workforce? Individual layoff history and voluntary turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul R; Trevor, Charlie O; Feng, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Although Bureau of Labor Statistics data reveal that U.S. employers laid off over 30 million employees since 1994, virtually no research has addressed the behavior of layoff victims upon reemployment. In a first step, we investigate how layoffs shape voluntary turnover behavior in subsequent jobs. Utilizing a recently developed fixed effects specification of survival analysis, we find that a layoff history is positively associated with quit behavior. This effect is partially mediated by underemployment and job satisfaction in the postlayoff job. The remaining direct effect is consistent with the notion that layoffs produce a psychological spillover to postlayoff employment, which then manifests in quit behavior. We also find that layoff effects on turnover attenuate as an individual's layoffs accumulate and vary in magnitude according to the turnover "path" followed by the leaver.

  4. "After all - It doesn't kill you to quit smoking"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Background: A growing body of literature demonstrates internet-based smoking cessation interventions as a promising aid in helping people quit smoking. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these interventions influence the cessation process are still relatively unknown. Several studies have....... In addition, we examined if blogging could provide social support for people in a smoking cessation process. Method: The study was based on messages posted from 1 January 2012 to 29 February 2012 on the blog of the internet-based smoking cessation programme DDSP, operated by the Danish Cancer Society....... Conclusions: The blog offers a unique platform for informal conversations about quitting smoking and is important in providing social support to people in a smoking cessation process....

  5. Self-related neural response to tailored smoking-cessation messages predicts quitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Ho, S. Shaun; Jasinska, Agnes J.; Polk, Thad A.; Welsh, Robert C.; Liberzon, Israel; Strecher, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    Although tailored health interventions can be more effective in eliciting positive behavior change then generic interventions, the underlying neural mechanisms are not yet understood. Ninety-one smokers participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session and a tailored smoking-cessation program. We found that increases in activations in self-related processing regions, particularly dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, to tailored messages predicted quitting during a 4-month follow-up. PMID:21358641

  6. Perceptions of drugs benefits and barriers to quit by undergraduate health students

    OpenAIRE

    HENRIQUÉZ, Patricia Cid; Carvalho,Ana Maria Pimenta

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have exposed the consumption of drugs by undergraduate students in the health area, who are supposed to be examples of behavior and health educators. This descriptive correlation study aimed to relate the benefits of tobacco consumption and barriers to quit according to the perception of undergraduate students. Eighty third-year students, in three different courses, answered a self-applied questionnaire. The studied variables were: consumption conditions, barriers and benefits...

  7. Efficacy of a smoking quit line in the military: Baseline design and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Richey, Phyllis A.; Klesges, Robert C.; Talcott, Gerald W.; DeBon, Margaret; Womack, Catherine; Thomas, Fridtjof; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Thirty percent of all military personnel smoke cigarettes. Because of the negative health consequences and their impact on physical fitness, overall health, and military readiness, the Department of Defense has identified the reduction of tobacco use as a priority of US military forces. This study aims to evaluate the one-year efficacy of a proactive versus reactive smoking quit line in the US military with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both groups. This paper reports on th...

  8. Does tobacco industry marketing of 'light' cigarettes give smokers a rationale for postponing quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Emery, Sherry; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine further whether tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is perceived by smokers as a health claim. Smokers might view low tar/nicotine brands of cigarettes as a means to reduce the harm to their health from smoking and postpone quitting. Data were from smokers responding to a large, population-based survey of Californians' smoking behavior, conducted in 1996 (8,582 current smokers). Sixty percent of smokers thought the labels light and ultra-light referred to low tar/nicotine cigarettes, or otherwise implied a health claim. This percentage was higher for smokers of low tar/nicotine brands. Among smokers of regular brands, the more highly addicted, those who were trying unsuccessfully to quit, those who had cut consumption or thought about it, and those with health concerns were more likely to have considered switching. While some of these characteristics also were associated with smokers of low tar/nicotine brands, the associations were not as numerous or as strong. We conclude that some smokers appear to view low tar/nicotine brands as one short-term strategy to reduce the harm to their health from smoking without quitting. By implying reduced tar or nicotine exposure, tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is misleading smokers. The use of such labels should be regulated.

  9. Share2Quit: Online Social Network Peer Marketing of Tobacco Cessation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Cutrona, Sarah L; Luger, Tana M; Volz, Erik; Kinney, Rebecca; Rao, Sowmya R; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2017-03-01

    Although technology-assisted tobacco interventions (TATIs) are effective, they are underused due to recruitment challenges. We tested whether we could successfully recruit smokers to a TATI using peer marketing through a social network (Facebook). We recruited smokers on Facebook using online advertisements. These recruited smokers (seeds) and subsequent waves of smokers (peer recruits) were provided the Share2Quit peer recruitment Facebook app and other tools. Smokers were incentivized for up to seven successful peer recruitments and had 30 days to recruit from date of registration. Successful peer recruitment was defined as a peer recruited smoker completing the registration on the TATI following a referral. Our primary questions were (1) whether smokers would recruit other smokers and (2) whether peer recruitment would extend the reach of the intervention to harder-to-reach groups, including those not ready to quit and minority smokers. Overall, 759 smokers were recruited (seeds: 190; peer recruits: 569). Fifteen percent (n = 117) of smokers successfully recruited their peers (seeds: 24.7%; peer recruits: 7.7%) leading to four recruitment waves. Compared to seeds, peer recruits were less likely to be ready to quit (peer recruits 74.2% vs. seeds 95.1%), more likely to be male (67.1% vs. 32.9%), and more likely to be African American (23.8% vs. 10.8%) (p marketing strategy. Smokers on Facebook were willing and able to recruit other smokers to a TATI, yielding a large and diverse population of smokers.

  10. Gender Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions and Motivation to Quit Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2016-09-01

    Considerable gender differences have been previously noted in the prevalence, etiology, and clinical features of problem gambling. While differences in affective states between men and women in particular, may explain differential experiences in the process of gambling, the role of affect in motivations for quitting gambling and recovery has not been thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences within a sample of problem gamblers motivated to quit with or without formal treatment, and further, to explore the interactions between gender, shame and guilt-proneness, and autonomous versus controlled reasons for change. Motivation for change and self-conscious emotional traits were analyzed for 207 adult problem gamblers with an interest in quitting or reducing their gambling (96.6 % not receiving treatment). Overall, gender differences were not observed in clinical and demographic characteristics. However, women exhibited greater shame [F(1,204) = 12.11, p = 0.001] and guilt proneness [F(1,204) = 14.16, p gambling severity, and the preparation stage of change; whereas controlled forms of motivation were significantly associated with higher shame-proneness and greater problem gambling severity. No gender effects were observed for either motivation for change. These findings suggest that the process of change can be different for shame-prone and guilt-prone problem gamblers, which may impact behavioral outcomes.

  11. Testing of super conducting low-beta 704 Mhz cavities at 50 Hz pulse repetition rate in view of SPL- first results

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W; Lollierou, J; Valuch, D; Chel, S; Devanz, G; Desmons, M; Piquet, O; Paparella, R; Pierini, P

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the preparatory phase for the luminosity upgrade of the LHC (SLHC-PP ) it is foreseen to characterize two superconducting RF cavities and demonstrate compliance of the required SPL field stability in amplitude and phase using a prototype LLRF system. We report on the preparation for testing of two superconducting low-beta cavities at 50 Hz pulse repetition rate including the setting-up of the low level RF control system to evaluate the performance of the piezo-tuning system and cavity field stability in amplitude and phase. Results from tests with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate are presented. Simulations of the RF system will be used to predict the necessary specifications for power and bandwidth to control the cavity field and derive specifications for the RF system and its control. Exemplary results of the simulation are presented.

  12. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Test Results for Al-Li 2195 Parent Metal, Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welds and Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Wagner, John A.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2000-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate of aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy 2195 plate and weldments was determined at 200-F, ambient temperature and -320-F. The effects of stress ratio (R), welding process, orientation and thickness were studied. Results are compared with plate data from the Space Shuttle Super Lightweight Tank (SLWT) allowables program. Data from the current series of tests, both plate and weldment, falls within the range of data generated during the SLWT allowables program.

  13. The 'quit' smoker and stillbirth risk: a review of contemporary literature in the light of findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Jane; McCutcheon, Helen

    2011-10-01

    to identify existing literature which addresses the topic of detecting, assessing and intervening when a pregnant woman who has quit smoking relapses. This literature review was conducted in the light of findings of a case-control study which suggest that a quit smoking status is associated with increased risk of late stillbirth (odds ratio 3.03, 95% confidence interval 1.27-7.24, p = 0.01). a structured review was conducted to identify literature related to quitting smoking in early pregnancy, prevalence and likelihood of relapse, possible methods for detecting smoking resumption, potential intervention strategies for the relapsed smoker and the societal burden of continuing to smoke in pregnancy. there is a wide variety of evidence for the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at assisting women to quit smoking during pregnancy. However, few studies have specifically aimed to identify strategies to assist those women who report quitting in early pregnancy to maintain that status throughout pregnancy. in light of the results of the case-control study and this literature review, it is important that changes are made to prenatal care in order to enable midwives to better identify women who are struggling with abstinence or who resume smoking during pregnancy. midwives should discuss and monitor smoking status with women at every prenatal visit. If a midwife finds that a woman has relapsed into smoking, they can be offered a range of quit smoking intervention strategies, including referral to a dedicated cessation service, counselling support, alternative therapies and, perhaps, nicotine replacement therapy. Further research aimed at identifying the extent of relapse among these women and the impact this may have on pregnancy outcome is warranted. Research to ascertain the most appropriate interventions to prevent relapse is also needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Navneet; Shahab, Lion; Britton, John; Ratschen, Elena

    2013-05-03

    Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they 'ought' to quit as opposed to 'wanted' to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence

  15. The Frank Stinchfield Award: Dislocation in revision THA: do large heads (36 and 40 mm) result in reduced dislocation rates in a randomized clinical trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuz, Donald S; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P; Greidanus, Nelson V; Bohm, Eric R; Petrak, Martin J; Della Valle, Craig J; Gross, Allan E

    2012-02-01

    Dislocation after revision THA is a common complication. Large heads have the potential to decrease dislocation rate, but it is unclear whether they do so in revision THA. We therefore determined whether a large femoral head (36 and 40 mm) resulted in a decreased dislocation rate compared to a standard head (32 mm). We randomized 184 patients undergoing revision THA to receive either a 32-mm head (92 patients) or 36- and 40-mm head (92 patients) and stratified patients by surgeon. The two groups had similar baseline demographics. The primary end point was dislocation. Quality-of-life (QOL) measures were WOMAC and SF-36. The mean followup for dislocation was 5 years (range, 2-7 years); the mean followup for QOL was 2.2 years (range, 1.6-4 years). In the 36- and 40-mm head group, the dislocation rate was 1.1% (one of 92) versus 8.7% (eight of 92) for the 32-mm head. There was no difference in QOL outcomes between the two groups. Our observations confirm a large femoral head (36 or 40 mm) reduces dislocation rates in patients undergoing revision THA at short-term followup. We now routinely use large heads with a highly crosslinked polyethylene acetabular liner in all revision THAs. Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Multiple scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates: results from two years of continuous monitoring in a forested headwater stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Brian J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Hill, Walter [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Headwater streams are key sites of nutrient and organic matter processing and retention, but little is known about temporal variability in gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) rates as a result of the short duration of most ecosystem metabolism measurements in lotic ecosystems. We examined temporal variability and controls on ecosystem metabolism by measuring daily rates continuously for two years in Walker Branch, a first-order deciduous forest stream. Four important scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates were identified: (1) seasonal, (2) day-to-day, (3) episodic (storm-related), and (4) inter-annual. Seasonal patterns were largely controlled by the leaf phenology and productivity of the deciduous riparian forest. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic throughout the year with the exception of the open-canopy spring when GPP and ER rates were similar. Day-to-day variability in weather conditions influenced light reaching the streambed, resulting in high day-to-day variability in GPP particularly during spring (daily light levels explained 84% of the variance in daily GPP in April). Episodic storms depressed GPP for several days in spring, but increased GPP in autumn by removing leaves shading the streambed. Storms depressed ER initially, but then stimulated ER to 2-3 times pre-storm levels for several days. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic in both years of the study (NEP = -1156 and -773 g O2 m-2 y-1), with annual GPP being similar (488 and 519 g O2 m-2 y-1) but annual ER being higher in 2004 than 2005 (-1645 vs. -1292 g O2 m-2 y-1). Inter-annual variability in ecosystem metabolism (assessed by comparing 2004 and 2005 rates with previous measurements) was the result of the storm frequency and timing and the size of the spring macroalgal bloom. Changes in local climate can have substantial impacts on stream ecosystem metabolism rates and ultimately influence the carbon source and sink properties of

  17. Continuous Auricular Electroacupuncture Can Significantly Improve Heart Rate Variability and Clinical Scores in Patients with Depression: First Results from a Transcontinental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the impact and acceptability of providing continuous auricular electroacupuncture as an adjunct to conventional medications for patients with depression. Ten patients with a mean age ± SD of 43.3 ± 10.4 years were able to provide informed consent. The quantitative and qualitative outcome measures were heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV, and different clinical scores. The study documented that a special kind of auricular electro acupuncture, applied over a period of three days, can improve various aspects of quality of life significantly but also highlighted the significant increase of HRV whilst having acupuncture treatment. In conclusion, our study shows stimulation-related and quantifiable clinical and physiological alterations in parameters after continuous auricular acupoint stimulation in patients with depression. Improved access to electro acupuncture treatment would be of major benefit for these patients. Further studies are necessary in order to verify the gained results.

  18. Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S. cerevisiae cells in microcolonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Chahal, M S; Bowen, J W

    2002-11-07

    We report preliminary results from studies of biological effects induced by non-thermal levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells grown on dry media were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the 200-350 GHz frequency range at low power density to observe possible non-thermal effects on the microcolony growth. Exposure to the electromagnetic field was conducted over 2.5 h. The data from exposure and control experiments were grouped into either large-, medium- or small-sized microcolonies to assist in the accurate assessment of growth. The three groups showed significant differences in growth between exposed and control microcolonies. A statistically significant enhanced growth rate was observed at 341 GHz. Growth rate was assessed every 30 min via time-lapse photography. Possible interaction mechanisms are discussed, taking into account Frohlich's hypothesis.

  19. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héquet, Valérie; Batault, Frédéric; Raillard, Cécile; Thévenet, Frédéric; Le Coq, Laurence; Dumont, Éric

    2017-03-06

    The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m³ and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10(-3) m³. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm²) and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i) light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm(-2); (ii) air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s(-1); and (iii) initial toluene concentration C₀ (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv). The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I) were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m³·h(-1), were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I), the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  20. Project QUIT (Quit Using Drugs Intervention Trial): A randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based multi-component brief intervention to reduce risky drug use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, Lillian; Andersen, Ronald M.; Afifi, Abdelmonem A.; Leake, Barbara D.; Arangua, Lisa; Vahidi, Mani; Singleton, Kyle; Yacenda-Murphy, Julia; Shoptaw, Steve; Fleming, Michael F.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of a multi-component primary care (PC)-delivered BI for reducing risky drug use (RDU) among patients identified by screening. Design Multicenter single-blind two-arm randomized controlled trial of patients enrolled from February 2011 to November 2012 with 3-month follow-up. Randomization and allocation to trial group were computer-generated. Setting Primary care waiting rooms of 5 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in Los Angeles County (LAC), USA. Participants 334 adult primary care patients (171 intervention; 163 control) with RDU scores (4–26) on the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) self-administered on tablet PCs; 261 (78%) completed follow-up. Mean age was 41.7 years; 63% were male; 38% were Caucasian. Intervention(s) and Measurement Intervention patients received brief (typically 3–4 minutes) clinician advice to quit/reduce their drug use reinforced by a video doctor message, health education booklet, and up to two 20–30 minute follow-up telephone drug use coaching sessions. Controls received usual care and cancer screening information. Primary outcome was patient self-reported use of highest scoring drug (HSD) at follow-up. Findings Intervention and control patients reported equivalent baseline HSD use; at follow-up, after adjustment for covariates in a linear regression model, intervention patients reported using their HSD an average of 2.21 fewer days in the previous month than controls (p0.10). Conclusions A clinician-delivered brief intervention with follow-up counseling calls may decrease drug use among risky users compared with usual care in low-income community health centers of Los Angeles County, USA. PMID:26471159

  1. Money as motivation to quit: a survey of a non-random Australian sample of socially disadvantaged smokers' views of the acceptability of cash incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, B; Bryant, J; Lynagh, M; Paul, C

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to a) assess acceptability of personal financial incentives to socially disadvantaged smokers and non-smokers; b) examine factors associated with acceptability; and c) examine preferred levels of incentive amounts. A cross-sectional touch screen computer survey was conducted between February and October 2010 in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were clients experiencing financial or social hardship and receiving emergency welfare aid from a non-government social and community service organisation. Of 383 participants (69% response rate), 46% believed personal financial incentives were an excellent/good idea, 47% believed personal financial incentives did more good than harm and 61% agreed they would motivate smokers to quit. High acceptability ratings were associated with participants being female, current smokers, living in low socioeconomic areas, experiencing smoking-induced deprivation, making a previous quit attempt and intending to quit in the next 6 months. When asked what amount of incentive they felt would be acceptable, 23% selected amounts between $50 and $500 AUD and 37% selected amounts over $500 AUD. Given high smoking prevalence among socially disadvantaged groups and consequent health disparities, it is imperative novel methods of encouraging smoking cessation are explored and tested. This survey found financial incentives may be an acceptable method. Further research to understand all possible positive and negative effects is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the translational feasibility of pharmacological drug memory reconsolidation blockade with memantine in quitting smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ravi K; Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P; Lazzarino, Antonio I; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2015-09-01

    Preclinical reconsolidation research offers the first realistic opportunity to pharmacologically weaken the maladaptive memory structures that support relapse in drug addicts. N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism is a highly effective means of blocking drug memory reconsolidation. However, no research using this approach exists in human addicts. The objective of this study was to assess the potential and clinical outcomes of blocking the reconsolidation of cue-smoking memories with memantine in quitting smokers. Fifty-nine dependent and motivated to quit smokers were randomised to one of three groups receiving the following: (1) memantine with or (2) without reactivation of associative cue-smoking memories or (3) reactivation with placebo on their target quit day in a double-blind manner. Participants aimed to abstain from smoking for as long as possible. Levels of smoking and FTND score were assessed prior to intervention and up to a year later. Primary outcome was latency to relapse. Subjective craving measures and attentional bias to smoking cues were assessed in-lab. All study groups successfully reduced their smoking up to 3 months. Memantine in combination with smoking memory reactivation did not affect any measure of smoking outcome, reactivity or attention capture to smoking cues. Brief exposure to smoking cues with memantine did not appear to weaken these memory traces. These findings could be due to insufficient reconsolidation blockade by memantine or failure of exposure to smoking stimuli to destabilise smoking memories. Research assessing the treatment potential of reconsolidation blockade in human addicts should focus on identification of tolerable drugs that reliably block reward memory reconsolidation and retrieval procedures that reliably destabilise strongly trained memories.

  3. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-03-15

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated.

  4. VapeTracker: Tracking Vapor Consumption to Help E-cigarette Users Quit

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Abdallah El; Matviienko, Andrii; Feld, Yannick; Heuten, Wilko; Boll, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Despite current controversy over e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid, we present early work based on a web survey (N=249) that shows that some e-cigarette users (46.2%) want to quit altogether, and that behavioral feedback that can be tracked can fulfill that purpose. Based on our survey findings, we designed VapeTracker, an early prototype that can attach to any e-cigarette device to track vaping activity. We discuss our future research on vaping cessation, addressing how to improve our ...

  5. Use of administrative data for surgical site infection surveillance after congenital cardiac surgery results in inaccurate reporting of surgical site infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Krista D; Pappas, Janine M; Kennedy, Andrea T; Coffin, Susan E; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Fuller, Stephanie M; Spray, Thomas L; McCardle, Kenneth; Gaynor, J William

    2014-02-01

    The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) is a safety surveillance system managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that monitors procedure specific rates of surgical site infections (SSIs). At our institution, SSI data is collected and reported by three different methods: (1) the NHSN database with reporting to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; (2) the hospital billing database with reporting to payers; and (3) The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. A quality improvement initiative was undertaken to better understand issues with SSI reporting and to evaluate the effect of different data sources on annual SSI rates. Annual cardiac surgery procedure volumes for all three data sources were compared. All episodes of SSI identified in any data source were reviewed and adjudicated using NHSN SSI criteria, and the effect on SSI rates was evaluated. From January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2011, 2,474 cardiac procedures were performed and reported to The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Billing data identified 1,865 cardiac surgery procedures using the 63 CARD International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes from the NHSN inclusion criteria. Only 1,425 procedures were targeted for NHSN surveillance using the NHSN's CARD operative procedure group in the same period. Procedures identified for NHSN surveillance annually underestimated the number of cardiac operations performed by 17% to 71%. As a result, annual SSI rates potentially differed by 12% to 270%. The NHSN CARD surveillance guidelines for SSI fail to identify all pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. Failure to target all at-risk procedures leads to inaccurate reporting of SSI rates largely based on identifying the denominator. Inaccurate recording of SSI data has implications for public reporting, benchmarking of outcomes, and denial of payment. Use of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery

  6. Factors Associated With Smoking, Quit Attempts and Attitudes towards Total Smoking Bans at University: A Survey of Seven Universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, W.; Stock, C.

    2012-01-01

    degree; and, students who reported binge drinking. Conversely, daily smoking was less likely among students who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate >= 5 portions of fruit or vegetables, and those who had never taken illicit drugs. Previous attempt/s to quit smoking were more likely...... who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate >= 5 portions of fruit or vegetables daily, and those who had never taken illicit drugs, but less likely among daily smokers. Conclusion: Favourable health practices and positive attitudes towards smoking ban were associated with each other...

  7. Making It Harder to Smoke and Easier to Quit: The Effect of 10 Years of Tobacco Control in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Elizabeth A.; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Johns, Michael; Coady, Micaela H.; Perl, Sarah B.; Goodman, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, New York City implemented a comprehensive tobacco control plan that discouraged smoking through excise taxes and smoke-free air laws and facilitated quitting through population-wide cessation services and hard-hitting media campaigns. Following the implementation of these activities through a well-funded and politically supported program, the adult smoking rate declined by 28% from 2002 to 2012, and the youth smoking rate declined by 52% from 2001 to 2011. These improvements indicate that local jurisdictions can have a significant positive effect on tobacco control. PMID:24825232

  8. Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy as the boost in combination with external beam irradiation in base of tongue cancer. Long-term results from a uniform clinical series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Johansson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate long time outcome with regard to local tumour control, side effects and quality of life of combined pulsed dose rate (PDR boost and hyperfractionated accelerated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT for primary base of tongue (BOT cancers. Material and methods: Between 1994 and 2007, the number of 83 patients were treated with primary T1-T4 BOT cancers. Seven patients (8% were T1-2N0 (AJCC stage I-II and 76 (92% patients were T1-2N+ or T3-4N0-2 (AJCC stage III-IV. The mean estimated primary tumour volume was 15.4 (1-75 cm3. EBRT was given with 1.7 Gy bid to 40.8 Gy to primary tumour and bilateral neck lymph nodes in 2.5 weeks. PDR boost of 35 Gy and a neck dissection in clinical node positive case was performed 2-3 weeks later. The patients were followed for a median of 54 (2-168 months. Results: The 2-, 5- and 10-years rates of actuarial local control were 91%, 89% and 85%, overall survival 85%, 65% and 44%, disease free survival 86%, 80% and 76%, respectively. The regional control rate was 95%. Six patients (7% developed distant metastases. A dosimetric analysis showed a mean of 100% isodose volume of 58.2 (16.7-134 cm3. In a review of late complications 11 cases of minor (13% and 5 of major soft tissue necroses (6%, as well as 6 cases of osteoradionecroses (7% were found. The patients median subjective SOMA/LENT scoring at last follow up was as follow: grade 0 for pain and trismus, grade 1 for dysphagia and taste alteration, and grade 2 for xerostomia. Global visual- analogue-scale (VAS scoring of quality of life was 8. Conclusion: Local and regional tumour control rate was excellent in this treatment protocol. The data shows the PDR boost as at least as effective as published continuous low dose rate (CLDR results.

  9. Budesonide Use and Hospitalization Rate in Crohn’s Disease: Results From a Cohort at a Tertiary Care IBD Referral Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Jordan; Venkata, Krishna V. R.; Young, Steven; Xie, Fenglong; Malik, Talha A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Budesonide is generally not used for periods > 90 days in Crohn’s disease (CD). We sought to study the association between cumulative outpatient budesonide use in days and hospitalization rate in CD patients seen at our institution. Methods Using a retrospective cohort study design, we selected CD patients > 19 years old and followed for at least 1 year. Days of outpatient budesonide use were calculated by reviewing outpatient clinic notes. Treatment groups included patients who were not given budesonide, received budesonide from 1 to 90 days, and received budesonide > 90 days. We performed univariate analyses and developed generalized Poisson regression models for rate data to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for CD-related hospitalization. Results Of 767 CD patients, 664 did not receive budesonide, 45 received budesonide from 1 to 90 days, and 58 received budesonide for > 90 days. Incidence rates of hospitalization in patients who received no budesonide vs. 1 - 90 days of budesonide vs. > 90 days of budesonide were 31, 26, and 19 per 100 person-years, respectively. Adjusted models demonstrated that receiving outpatient budesonide from 1 to 90 days and for > 90 days was associated with a lower likelihood of being admitted for a CD exacerbation (1 - 90 days: IRR 0.85; 95% CI 0.65 - 1.10; > 90 days: IRR 0.71; 95% CI 0.56 - 0.91). Conclusions Outpatient budesonide use appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of a CD-related hospitalization, notably when used for > 90 days. This association needs to be further assessed before recommending this agent for routine use for > 90 days. PMID:27635174

  10. Determination of differential dose rates in a mixed beta and gamma field using shielded Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C: results of Monte Carlo modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.C. E-mail: marianne.aznar@risoe.dk; Nathan, R.; Murray, A.S.; Boetter-Jensen, L

    2003-10-01

    Mixed beta and gamma heterogeneous radiation fields are found in many circumstances, ranging from retrospective dosimetry to medical therapy treatments. It can be very important to provide a direct measurement of the contribution to dose rate from beta particles and gamma rays separately, especially when heterogeneity is on a scale comparable to the range of beta particles (a few mm). In the retrospective dosimetry of heterogeneous sites, in situ measurement at a point may be the only practical method of measuring the appropriate dose rate. Only if the beta and gamma contributions are measured separately can the appropriate water content and grain attenuation corrections be applied. Such corrections are also essential if the full potential of direct dose rate measurement in reducing the overall uncertainty in a luminescence age to much below 5% is ever to be realised. In this paper we outline the results of our modelling of the most appropriate encapsulation for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C luminescence dosimeters when used to measure the dose rate from natural radiation fields. We consider a configuration where one Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C chip of a pair is enclosed in a beta-thin light-tight package (which would allow most of the beta radiation to reach the chip); the other in a beta-thick package (which would absorb most beta radiation, hence leaving the chip to record only gamma radiation). The design of the encapsulation is developed using Monte Carlo simulations, and this approach is also used to investigate the sensitivity of the response to the different beta and gamma contributions from uranium, thorium and potassium sources.

  11. The impact of growth rate on the results of growth and slaughter traits of young crossbred boars in Poland in Bydgoszcz Breeding Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy NOWACHOWICZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There was analysed the impact of growth rate on the results of growth and slaughter traits of 3917 young crossbred boars performance tested in years 2004-2008 in Poland in The Bydgoszcz Breeding Region. They came from 8 following crossing variants, where sow’s breed was given in a first position and boar’s breed in a second position: Hampshire x Belgian Landrace (H x BL, Hampshire x Duroc (H x D, Hampshire x Pietrain (H x P, Duroc x Hampshire (D x H, Duroc x Pietrain (D x P, Pietrain x Hampshire (P x H, Pietrain x Duroc (P x D and Line 990 x Pietrain (990 x P. The impact of growth rate on the results’ formation in the range of tested traits noted in different degrees. It was the most visible in the growth traits (age and body weight and the performance test selection index and less visible in the slaughter traits, among which the most visible in case of the backfat thickness measured in P2 and P4 points and then in the meat content and the height of loin eye. In the analyzed years tested young crossbred boars of the high growth rate, i.e. of high daily gain of body weight standardized on the 180th day of life were younger and generally obtained higher body weight and higher performance test selection index and in the majority of cases, where the statistically significant differences were proved, had thinner backfat in the P2 and P4 points and had lower meat content and the higher height of loin eye as compared to the animals of low growth rate.

  12. Demographic characteristics, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit as possible determinants of smoking behaviors and acceptability of shocking warnings in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Conti, Vittoria; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Paone, Gregorino; Cafolla, Maria; Saulle, Rosella; Bulzomì, Vincenzo; Antici, Daniele; Cuccurullo, Pasquale; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Terzano, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the final results of a cross-sectional study started in 2010. It compares the perceived efficacy of different types of tobacco health warning (texts versus shocking pictures) to quit or reduce tobacco use. The study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Italy enrolled adults smokers. Administering a questionnaire demographic data, smokers behaviors were collected. Showing text and graphic warnings (the corpse of a smoker, diseased lungs, etc.) the most perceived efficacy to reduce tobacco consumption or to encourage was quit. 666 subjects were interviewed; 6% of responders referred that they stopped smoking at least one month due to the textual warnings. The 81% of the smokers perceived that the warnings with shocking pictures are more effective in reducing/quitting tobacco consumption than text-only warnings. The younger group (shocking warnings to reduce tobacco consumption of, 76%, 78%, and 43%, respectively with P shock images. The jarring warnings also appear to be supporting those who want to quit smoking. This type of supportive information in Italy may become increasingly important for helping smokers to change their behavior.

  13. GALLEX data can't quite lay the solar neutrino problem to rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzschild, Bertram

    1992-08-01

    The results of the Gallex solar neutrino experiment are examined and compared to theoretical predictions as well as the data from the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment. Attention is given to the instruments' sensitivities to 'pp' neutrinos which result from the proton-proton fusion reaction dominating the sun's energy production. The Gallex results are not unambiguous but give a neutrino capture rate of 63 +/- 16 percent of that predicted by the standard solar model. By reconciling the data from the gallium and chlorine experiments some solar parameters have to be adjusted from the values associated with the standard solar model. Also discussed are the experiment's implications for reexamining the accepted masses of the three solar neutrino types. The Gallex results are examined critically in the light of background contamination by such substances as Ge-68.

  14. Short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health: results from the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Helena; Fransson, Eleonor I; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny A

    2013-10-01

    To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades. Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999. Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group. The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.

  15. Impact of proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate on risk of ischaemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke: a result from the Kailuan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Wang, A; Cai, J; Gao, X; Zhou, Y; Luo, Y; Wu, S; Zhao, X

    2015-02-01

    Persons with chronic kidney disease, defined by a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria, have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease including stroke. However, data from developing countries are limited. Our aim was to assess the relationship between chronic kidney disease and risk of stroke and its subtypes in a community-based population in China. The study was based on 92,013 participants (18-98 years old; 73,248 men and 18,765 women) of the Kailuan study who at baseline were free from stroke and myocardial infarction and had undergone tests for serum creatinine or proteinuria. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula and proteinuria by the urine dipstick result in laboratory databases. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of stroke. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for relevant confounders and results are presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a follow-up of 4 years, 1575 stroke events (1128 ischaemic, 406 intracerebral hemorrhagic and 41 subarachnoid hemorrhagic strokes) occurred. After adjustment for variable confounders, patients with proteinuria were found to have increased HRs for the total and subtypes of stroke events (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.35-1.92 for total stroke; HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.24-1.89 for ischaemic stroke; and HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.35-2.67 for hemorrhagic stroke). However, estimated glomerular filtration rate was not associated with incident stroke after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. Proteinuria increased the risk of stroke in a general Chinese population. © 2014 EAN.

  16. Adult smokers' perception of the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking and association with quitting: a comparison between Thai Buddhists and Malaysian Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Hamann, Stephen L; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, attempts have been made to incorporate religion into tobacco control efforts, especially in countries like Malaysia and Thailand where religion is central to the lives of people. This paper is a prospective examination of the perceived relevance and role of religion and religious authorities in influencing smoking behaviour among Muslims in Malaysia and Buddhists in Thailand. Data were collected from 1482 Muslim Malaysian and 1971 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who completed wave 1 (early 2005) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked about the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking at Wave 1 and among those recontacted, quitting activity at Wave 2. Results revealed that over 90% of both religious groups reported that their religion guides their day-to-day behaviour at least sometimes, but Malaysian Muslims were more likely to report that this was always the case. The majority (79% Muslims and 88% Buddhists) of both groups believed that their religion discourages smoking. About 61% of the Muslims and 58% of the Buddhists reported that their religious leaders had encouraged them to quit before and a minority (30% and 26%, respectively) said they would be an influential source to motivate them to quit. Logistic regression models suggest that these religious factors had a clear independent association with making quitting attempts in both countries and this translated to success for Malaysian Muslims but not for the Thai Buddhists. Taken together, results from this study indicate that religion and religious authorities are both relevant and important drivers of quitting, but whether this is always enough to guarantee success is less clear. Religion can be a culturally relevant vehicle to complement other tobacco control efforts.

  17. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommelé, J.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Straaten, B. van; Wits, E.; Snelleman, M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual

  18. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommelé, J.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Straaten, B. van; Wits, E.; Snelleman, M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or ‘pros and cons’) of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual

  19. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained.

  20. Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO's public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region. METHODS: We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD. We dichotomised each country's per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H and lower-middle/low (T-L. Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class. RESULTS: A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95% CI of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52, 0.33 (0.30-0.36 and 0.21 (0.18-0.23 for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 & HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher

  1. Exchange rate regime choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronized effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. The paper reflects the attempt of critical identification of the key exchange rate performances with emphasis on continuous non-uniformity and (uncertainty of shelf life of a relevant choice.

  2. THE RATE OF THE PREVALENCE OF HIGH-RISK PREGNANCIES AND THE RESULTS ON PREGNANT MOTHERS AND THE EFFECT ON PARAMETERS AFTER THE BIRTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Firozi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes large physiologic changes in most body systems and these changes may lead to ease or harden examining some events. The purpose of this study is to define the rate of risk in pregnant women and the results in mother and fetus and also to define the risk rate of pregnancy in pregnant women and its effect on parameters after birth in patients of Educational and Medical center of Gorgan, Dezyani. This case - control study was performed in Educational and Medical Center Dezyany, of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in 1390. In this study, 1266 pregnant women were enrolled of which 804 cases (63.5% according to the criteria for scoring in the questionnaire with a score greater than or equal to 7 were considered as high risk pregnancies (case group, 462 patients (36.5% were considered as low-risk pregnancies (control group. Parameters after the birth and pregnancy results such as delivery type, infant difficulties, mother health after labor were compared and analyzed by T-test and ANOVA in both groups. About the history of infertility almost 80% of the people who had a 2-year history of infertility were in high-risk group and the difference was significant. (P = 0.02 About the history of abortion also almost 90% of the people who had a 2-year history of abortion were in high-risk group and the difference was significant. (P<0.05 Post-term infant was found in 77 cases that were entirely in high-risk group. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. According to results and comparing them to other studies we can conclude that pregnant mothers who have pregnancy difficulties history such as history of abortion or infertility, visits during pregnancy should be paid attention and warn them about the risk of not being visited and timely pursuits.

  3. It is feasible and effective to help patients with severe mental disorders to quit smoking: An ecological pragmatic clinical trial with transdermal nicotine patches and varenicline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Portilla, Maria P; Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Sarramea, Fernando; Galvan, Gonzalo; Diaz-Mesa, Eva; Bobes-Bascaran, Teresa; Al-Halabi, Susana; Elizagarate, Edorta; Iglesias, Celso; Saiz Martínez, Pilar A; Bobes, Julio

    2016-10-01

    Despite the proven association between smoking and high rates of medical morbidity and reduced life expectancy in people with severe mental disorders (SMD), their smoking rates do not decline as they do in the general population. We carried out a non-randomized, open-label, prospective, 9-month follow-up multicentre trial to investigate the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of a 12-week smoking cessation programme for patients with SMD in the community under real-world clinical conditions. Eighty-two adult outpatients with schizophrenic/bipolar disorder smoking ≥15 cigarettes/day were assigned by shared decision between doctors and patients to transdermal nicotine patches (TNP) [36(46.2%)] or varenicline [39(50%)]. Short-term efficacy: The 12-week 7-day smoking cessation (self-reported cigarettes/day=0 and breath carbon monoxide levels≤9ppm) prevalence was 49.3%, without statistically significant differences between medications (TNP 50.0% vs varenicline 48.6%, chi-square=0.015, p=1.000). Long-term efficacy: At weeks 24 and 36, 41.3 and 37.3% of patients were abstinent, with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Safety and Tolerability: no patients made suicide attempts/required hospitalization. There was no worsening on the psychometric scales. Patients significantly increased weight [TNP 1.1(2.8) vs varenicline 2.5(3.3), p=0.063], without significant changes in vital signs/laboratory results, except significant decreases in alkaline phosphatase and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in the varenicline group. Patients under varenicline more frequently presented nausea/vomiting (p<0.0005), patients under TNP experienced skin reactions more frequently (p=0.002). Three patients under varenicline had elevated liver enzymes. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that in real-world clinical settings it is feasible and safe to help patients with stabilized severe mental disorders to quit smoking.

  4. Reduced expression of aconitase results in an enhanced rate of photosynthesis and marked shifts in carbon partitioning in illuminated leaves of wild species tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrari, Fernando; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Gibon, Yves; Lytovchenko, Anna; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2003-11-01

    Wild species tomato (Lycopersicon pennellii) plants bearing a genetic lesion in the gene encoding aconitase (Aco-1; aconitate hydratase EC 4.2.1.3) were characterized at molecular and biochemical levels. The genetic basis of this lesion was revealed by cloning the wild-type and mutant alleles. The mutation resulted in lowered expression of the Aco-1 transcript and lowered levels of both cytosolic and mitochondrial aconitase protein and activity. After in silico analysis, we concluded that in the absence of a recognizable target sequence, the best explanation for the dual location of this protein is inefficient targeting. Biochemical analysis of leaves of the Aco-1 accession suggested that they exhibited a restricted flux through the Krebs cycle and reduced levels of Krebs cycle intermediates but were characterized by elevated adenylate levels and an enhanced rate of CO2 assimilation. Furthermore, the analysis of both steady-state metabolite levels and metabolic fluxes revealed that this accession also exhibited elevated rates of photosynthetic Suc synthesis and a corresponding increase in fruit yield. Therefore, we conclude that the Krebs cycle normally competes with the Suc synthetic pathway for carbon but is not essential for the supply of energy to fuel the operation of this pathway.

  5. Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS): scale presentation and clinimetric testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G; Tilley, Barbara C; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Stebbins, Glenn T; Fahn, Stanley; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Poewe, Werner; Sampaio, Cristina; Stern, Matthew B; Dodel, Richard; Dubois, Bruno; Holloway, Robert; Jankovic, Joseph; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Lang, Anthony E; Lees, Andrew; Leurgans, Sue; LeWitt, Peter A; Nyenhuis, David; Olanow, C Warren; Rascol, Olivier; Schrag, Anette; Teresi, Jeanne A; van Hilten, Jacobus J; LaPelle, Nancy

    2008-11-15

    We present a clinimetric assessment of the Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS). The MDS-UDPRS Task Force revised and expanded the UPDRS using recommendations from a published critique. The MDS-UPDRS has four parts, namely, I: Non-motor Experiences of Daily Living; II: Motor Experiences of Daily Living; III: Motor Examination; IV: Motor Complications. Twenty questions are completed by the patient/caregiver. Item-specific instructions and an appendix of complementary additional scales are provided. Movement disorder specialists and study coordinators administered the UPDRS (55 items) and MDS-UPDRS (65 items) to 877 English speaking (78% non-Latino Caucasian) patients with Parkinson's disease from 39 sites. We compared the two scales using correlative techniques and factor analysis. The MDS-UPDRS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79-0.93 across parts) and correlated with the original UPDRS (rho = 0.96). MDS-UPDRS across-part correlations ranged from 0.22 to 0.66. Reliable factor structures for each part were obtained (comparative fit index > 0.90 for each part), which support the use of sum scores for each part in preference to a total score of all parts. The combined clinimetric results of this study support the validity of the MDS-UPDRS for rating PD.

  6. Magnetic core test stand for energy loss and permeability measurements at a high constant magnetization rate and test results for nanocrystalline and ferrite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdt, Russell; Curry, Randy D

    2008-09-01

    A test stand was developed to measure the energy losses and unsaturated permeability of toroidal magnetic cores, relevant to applications of magnetic switching requiring a constant magnetization rate of the order of 1-10 T/micros. These applications in pulsed power include linear induction accelerators, pulse transformers, and discharge switches. The test stand consists of a coaxial transmission line pulse charged up to 100 kV that is discharged into a magnetic core load. Suitable diagnostics measure the voltage across and the current through a winding on the magnetic core load, from which the energy losses and unsaturated permeability are calculated. The development of the test stand is discussed, and test results for ferrite CN20 and the nanocrystalline material Finemet FT-1HS are compared to demonstrate the unique properties of a nanocrystalline material. The experimental data are compared with published data in a similar parameter space to demonstrate the efficacy of the experimental methods.

  7. Can contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine explain the high rates of terpene hydroperoxide allergy? - An epidemiological study based on consecutive patch test results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Niels Højsager; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-01-01

    on proteins in mechanistic studies. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that patients sensitized to PPD are at increased risk of concomitant reactivity to either of the terpene hydroperoxides, owing to a 'common pathway' of skin protein oxidation. METHODS: A database study of consecutively patch tested eczema...... patients (n = 3843) from 2012 to 2015, tested concomitantly with PPD, Lim-OOHs and Lin-OOHs, was performed. Associations were examined by level of concordance and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, and contact allergy to fragrance mix I and fragrance mix II. RESULTS: Concomitant reactions to PPD were...... increased risk (OR 2.11, 95%CI:0.92-4.80) of a positive patch test reaction to Lin-OOHs. CONCLUSIONS: PPD sensitization cannot explain the high rates of sensitization to Lin-OOHs and/or Lim-OOHs. Contact allergy to oxidized linalool is more strongly associated with fragrance allergy than with PPD allergy....

  8. The QUIT-PRIMO provider-patient Internet-delivered smoking cessation referral intervention: a cluster-randomized comparative effectiveness trial: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Daniel E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although screening for tobacco use is increasing with electronic health records and standard protocols, other tobacco-control activities, such as referral of patients to cessation resources, is quite low. In the QUIT-PRIMO study, an online referral portal will allow providers to enter smokers' email addresses into the system. Upon returning home, the smokers will receive automated emails providing education about tobacco cessation and encouragement to use the patient smoking cessation website (with interactive tools, educational resources, motivational email messages, secure messaging with a tobacco treatment specialist, and online support group. Methods The informatics system will be evaluated in a comparative effectiveness trial of 160 community-based primary care practices, cluster-randomized at the practice level. In the QUIT-PRIMO intervention, patients will be provided a paper information-prescription referral and then "e-referred" to the system. In the comparison group, patients will receive only the paper-based information-prescription referral with the website address. Once patients go to the website, they are subsequently randomized within practices to either a standard patient smoking cessation website or an augmented version with access to a tobacco treatment specialist online, motivational emails, and an online support group. We will compare intervention and control practice participation (referral rates and patient participation (proportion referred who go to the website. We will then compare the effectiveness of the standard and augmented patient websites. Discussion Our goal is to evaluate an integrated informatics solution to increase access to web-delivered smoking cessation support. We will analyze the impact of this integrated system in terms of process (provider e-referral and patient login and patient outcomes (six-month smoking cessation. Trial Registration Web-delivered Provider Intervention for

  9. Relationship of Smokefree Laws and Alcohol Use with Light and Intermittent Smoking and Quit Attempts among US Adults and Alcohol Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    Full Text Available Light and intermittent smoking (LITS has become increasingly common. Alcohol drinkers are more likely to smoke. We examined the association of smokefree law and bar law coverage and alcohol use with current smoking, LITS, and smoking quit attempts among US adults and alcohol drinkers.Cross-sectional analyses among a population-based sample of US adults (n = 27,731 using restricted data from 2009 National Health Interview Survey and 2009 American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation United States Tobacco Control Database. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship of smokefree law coverage and drinking frequency (1 with current smoking among all adults; (2 with 4 LITS patterns among current smokers; and (3 with smoking quit attempts among 6 smoking subgroups. Same multivariate analyses were conducted but substituted smokefree bar law coverage for smokefree law coverage to investigate the association between smokefree bar laws and the outcomes. Finally we ran the above analyses among alcohol drinkers (n = 16,961 to examine the relationship of smokefree law (and bar law coverage and binge drinking with the outcomes. All models controlled for demographics and average cigarette price per pack. The interactions of smokefree law (and bar law coverage and drinking status was examined.Stronger smokefree law (and bar law coverage was associated with lower odds of current smoking among all adults and among drinkers, and had the same effect across all drinking and binge drinking subgroups. Increased drinking frequency and binge drinking were related to higher odds of current smoking. Smokefree law (and bar law coverage and drinking status were not associated with any LITS measures or smoking quit attempts.Stronger smokefree laws and bar laws are associated with lower smoking rates across all drinking subgroups, which provides further support for these policies. More strict tobacco control measures might help reduce cigarette consumption and

  10. High monetary reward rates and caloric rewards decrease temporal persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Murawski, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Temporal persistence refers to an individual's capacity to wait for future rewards, while forgoing possible alternatives. This requires a trade-off between the potential value of delayed rewards and opportunity costs, and is relevant to many real-world decisions, such as dieting. Theoretical models have previously suggested that high monetary reward rates, or positive energy balance, may result in decreased temporal persistence. In our study, 50 fasted participants engaged in a temporal persistence task, incentivised with monetary rewards. In alternating blocks of this task, rewards were delivered at delays drawn randomly from distributions with either a lower or higher maximum reward rate. During some blocks participants received either a caloric drink or water. We used survival analysis to estimate participants' probability of quitting conditional on the delay distribution and the consumed liquid. Participants had a higher probability of quitting in blocks with the higher reward rate. Furthermore, participants who consumed the caloric drink had a higher probability of quitting than those who consumed water. Our results support the predictions from the theoretical models, and importantly, suggest that both higher monetary reward rates and physiologically relevant rewards can decrease temporal persistence, which is a crucial determinant for survival in many species. PMID:28228517

  11. Preliminary Results From Combined Geomorphic LiDAR Mapping, Radiocarbon Dating, and Slip-rates Along The Central Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, G. P.; Langridge, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    cross the Alpine Fault. One landslide crosses the fault and is massive, clast-supported, a minimum of 30 m thick, with schist, mylonite and cataclasite debris ranging from house-sized boulders to cobbles with a sandy matrix. The landslide does not appear to be faulted, however recent (mature rainforest is growing on the landslide and this supports a relatively young age of this deposit. The landslide is large (>225 m2), and was likely deposited either coseismically or shortly after the most recent event (~1717 AD). Through an analysis of the LIDAR data along this section of the fault, we are able to better constrain slip-rates from offsets of young geomorphic features such as streams, landslides, alluvial fans and terrace deposits - giving better insight into fault dynamics at different temporal scales. These results help us to better understand previous recent surface ruptures along the Alpine fault and by dating these geomorphic surfaces, we are able to obtain new slip-rates along this important plate boundary which will help us better constrain seismic hazards for people and infrastructure of the South Island of New Zealand.

  12. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-04-30

    When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28-68 years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6 months to 2 years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Community, Australia. Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the 'right' or 'better' choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers' beliefs and decisions about quitting. The reasons for smokers' rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers' reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve their choices, and modify brief interventions to support their preference

  13. Smoke-free air laws and quit attempts: Evidence for a moderating role of spontaneous self-affirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Parascandola, Mark; Harris, Peter R

    2015-09-01

    In addition to their primary goal of protecting nonsmokers from secondhand smoke, smoke-free air laws may also encourage intentions to quit smoking, quit attempts, and cessation among smokers. However, laws may not encourage quitting if smokers feel threatened by them and react defensively. This study examined whether spontaneous self-affirmation - the extent to which people think about their values or strengths when they feel threatened - may reduce smokers' reactance to smoke-free laws, enhancing the ability of the laws to encourage quitting. We linked state-level information on the comprehensiveness of U.S. smoke-free laws (compiled in January, 2013 by the American Lung Association) with data from a U.S. health survey (Health Information National Trends Survey) collected from September-December, 2013 (N = 345 current smokers; 587 former smokers). Smoke-free laws interacted with self-affirmation to predict quit attempts in the past year and intentions to quit in the next six months: Smokers higher in self-affirmation reported more quit attempts and quit intentions if they lived in states with more comprehensive smoke-free laws. There was some evidence of a "boomerang" effect (i.e., less likelihood of making a quit attempt) among smokers low in self-affirmation if living in states with more comprehensive smoke-free laws, but this effect was significant only among smokers extremely low in self-affirmation. For quit intentions, there was no evidence for a boomerang effect of smoke-free laws even among smokers extremely low in self-affirmation. More comprehensive smoke-free laws were not associated with smoking status (former vs. current smoker) or average amount smoked per day, nor did they interact with self-affirmation to predict these outcomes. The impact of smoke-free policies on quit attempts and quit intentions may be moderated by psychological characteristics such as the tendency to spontaneously self-affirm. Follow-ups should experimentally manipulate self

  14. Association of exposure to manganese and iron with relaxation rates R1 and R2*- magnetic resonance imaging results from the WELDOX II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Beate; Dydak, Ulrike; Lotz, Anne; Casjens, Swaantje; Quetscher, Clara; Lehnert, Martin; Abramowski, Jessica; Stewig, Christoph; Yeh, Chien-Lin; Weiss, Tobias; van Thriel, Christoph; Herrmann, Lennard; Muhlack, Siegfried; Woitalla, Dirk; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-08-25

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive method that allows the indirect quantification of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) accumulation in the brain due to their paramagnetic features. The WELDOX II study aimed to explore the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to Mn and Fe on the brain deposition using the relaxation rates R1 and R2* as biomarkers of metal accumulation in regions of interest in 161 men, including active and former welders. We obtained data on the relaxation rates R1 and R2* in regions that included structures within the globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra (SN), and white matter of the frontal lobe (FL) of both hemispheres, as well as Mn in whole blood (MnB), and serum ferritin (SF). The study subjects, all male, included 48 active and 20 former welders, 41 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 13 patients with hemochromatosis (HC), and 39 controls. Respirable Mn and Fe were measured during a working shift for welders. Mixed regression models were applied to estimate the effects of MnB and SF on R1 and R2*. Furthermore, we estimated the influence of airborne Mn and Fe on the relaxation rates in active welders. MnB and SF were significant predictors of R1 but not of R2* in the GP, and were marginally associated with R1 in the SN (SF) and FL (MnB). Being a welder or suffering from PD or HC elicited no additional group effect on R1 or R2* beyond the effects of MnB and SF. In active welders, shift concentrations of respirable Mn>100μg/m(3) were associated with stronger R1 signals in the GP. In addition to the effects of MnB and SF, the welding technique had no further influence on R1. MnB and SF were significant predictors of R1 but not of R2*, indicative of metal accumulation, especially in the GP. Also, high airborne Mn concentration was associated with higher R1 signals in this brain region. The negative results obtained for being a welder or for the techniques with higher exposure to ultrafine particles when the blood

  15. Association between serum insulin-like growth factor I or IGF-binding protein 3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate: results of a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmann Kathleen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, which is mostly carried in blood by IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3, was associated to the glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease in a multiethnic study among US adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether serum IGF-I or IGFBP-3 are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in a population-based study of Caucasian adults. Methods Data from 4028 subjects (2048 women aged 20 to 81 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP were analyzed. Total serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassays and categorized into sex- and age-specific quartiles. Results After adjusting for age, waist circumference and type 2 diabetes mellitus, analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed inverse associations between serum IGF-I concentrations and eGFR in men as well as between serum IGFBP-3 concentrations and eGFR in men and women. Logistic regression analyses confirmed these findings and showed that high IGF-I or IGFBP-3 concentrations were associated with an increased risk of decreased eGFR (2 in men or women. These relations became stronger when lower eGFR cut-offs were used for the analyses. Conclusion Our data revealed associations of increased serum IGF-I concentrations and decreased eGFR in men but not in women and an association of increased serum IGFBP-3 concentrations and decreased eGFR in both sexes.

  16. Transarterial embolization for uterine fibroids: clinical success rate and results of magnetic resonance imaging; Transarterielle Embolisation bei Uterus myomatosus: klinische Erfolgsrate und kernspintomographische Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroencke, T.J.; Scheurig, C.; Kluener, C.; Fischer, T.; Klessen, C.; Rudolph, J.; Siara, K.; Zimmermann, E.; Hamm, B. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Gauruder-Burmester, A. [Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Gronewold, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to analyze the clinical success rate and the findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after uterine artery embolization of symptomatic leiomyomas (fibroids) of the uterus. Materials and methods: this is a prospective single-center case study of 80 consecutively treated patients, followed for 3-6 months (group I), 7-12 months, (group II), and 13-25 months (group III). MRI was used to determine the uterine volume and size of the dominant leiomyoma. Symptoms and causes requiring repeat interventions were analyzed. Results: significant (p < 0.01) volume reduction of the uterus (median: 34.95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.41 - 41.76%) and dominant leiomyoma (median: 52.07%, CI: 47.71 - 61.57%) was found. The decrease in uterine volume (I-III: 22.68%, 33.56%, 47.93%) and dominant leiomyoma volume (I-III: 41.86%, 62.16%, 73.96%) progressed with the follow-up time. Bleeding resolved significantly (p < 0.0001) in all three follow-up groups (groups I-III: 92.86%, 95.23%, 96.67%). Furthermore, urinary frequency (groups I-III: 70%, 75%, 82.35%) and sensation of pelvic pressure (groups I-III: 42.86%, 60%, 93.75%) improved, which was statistically significant in group III (p < 0.01). The number of leiomyomas correlated (p < 0.05) with improvement of the bleeding and the pelvic pressure. Repeat therapy was necessary for complications in four patients (5%) and for therapeutic failure in three patients (3.8%). Permanent amenorrhea was observed in four patients (5%) of age 45 years or older. Conclusion: uterine artery embolization of uterine leiomyomas has a high clinical success rate with an acceptable incidence of complications and repeat interventions. (orig.)

  17. Updated results of high-dose rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy for locally and locally advanced prostate cancer using the RTOG-ASTRO phoenix definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Pellizzon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic factors for patients with local or locally advanced prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (RT and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR according to the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The charts of 209 patients treated between 1997 and 2005 with localized RT and HDR as a boost at the Department of Radiation Oncology, AC Camargo Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil were reviewed. Clinical and treatment parameters i.e.: patient's age, Gleason score, clinical stage, initial PSA (iPSA, risk group (RG for biochemical failure, doses of RT and HDR were evaluated. Median age and median follow-up time were 68 and 5.3 years, respectively. Median RT and HDR doses were 45 Gy and 20 Gy. RESULTS: Disease specific survival (DSS at 3.3 year was 94.2%. Regarding RG, for the LR (low risk, IR (intermediate risk and HR (high risk, the DSS rates at 3.3 years were 91.5%, 90.2% and 88.5%, respectively. On univariate analysis prognostic factors related to DSS were RG (p = 0.040, Gleason score ≤ 6 ng/mL (p = 0.002, total dose of HDR ≥ 20 Gy (p < 0.001 On multivariate analysis the only statistical significant predictive factor for biochemical control (bNED was the RG, p < 0.001 (CI - 1.147-3.561. CONCLUSIONS: Although the radiation dose administered to the prostate is an important factor related to bNED, this could not be established with statistical significance in this group of patients. To date , in our own experience, HDR associated to RT could be considered a successful approach in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  18. Multireference - Møller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Results on Levels and Transition Rates in Al-like Ions of Iron Group Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, J A; Ishikawa, Y; Tr�abert, E

    2009-02-26

    Ground configuration and low-lying levels of Al-like ions contribute to a variety of laboratory and solar spectra, but the available information in databases are neither complete not necessarily correct. We have performed multireference Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations that approach spectroscopic accuracy in order to check the information that databases hold on the 40 lowest levels of Al-Like ions of iron group elements (K through Ge), and to provide input for the interpretation of concurrent experiments. Our results indicate problems of the database holdings on the levels of the lowest quartet levels in the lighter elements of the range studied. The results of our calculations of the decay rates of five long-lived levels (3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}p{sup o}{sub 3/2}, 3s3p{sup 2} {sup 4}P{sup o} J and 3s3p3d {sup 4}F{sup o}{sub 9/2}) are compared with lifetime data from beam-foil, electron beam ion trap and heavy-ion storage ring experiments.

  19. Simple Estimation of Incident HIV Infection Rates in Notification Cohorts Based on Window Periods of Algorithms for Evaluation of Line-Immunoassay Result Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpbach, Jörg; Gebhardt, Martin D.; Scherrer, Alexandra U.; Bisset, Leslie R.; Niederhauser, Christoph; Regenass, Stephan; Yerly, Sabine; Aubert, Vincent; Suter, Franziska; Pfister, Stefan; Martinetti, Gladys; Andreutti, Corinne; Klimkait, Thomas; Brandenberger, Marcel; Günthard, Huldrych F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tests for recent infections (TRIs) are important for HIV surveillance. We have shown that a patient's antibody pattern in a confirmatory line immunoassay (Inno-Lia) also yields information on time since infection. We have published algorithms which, with a certain sensitivity and specificity, distinguish between incident (algorithms like other TRIs, i.e., based on their windows, we now determined their window periods. Methods We classified Inno-Lia results of 527 treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1 infection algorithms. The time after which all infections were ruled older, i.e. the algorithm's window, was determined by linear regression of the proportion ruled incident in dependence of time since infection. Window-based incident infection rates (IIR) were determined utilizing the relationship ‘Prevalence  =  Incidence x Duration’ in four annual cohorts of HIV-1 notifications. Results were compared to performance-based IIR also derived from Inno-Lia results, but utilizing the relationship ‘incident  =  true incident + false incident’ and also to the IIR derived from the BED incidence assay. Results Window periods varied between 45.8 and 130.1 days and correlated well with the algorithms' diagnostic sensitivity (R2 = 0.962; Palgorithms, the mean window-based IIR among the 748 notifications of 2005/06 was 0.457 compared to 0.453 obtained for performance-based IIR with a model not correcting for selection bias. Evaluation of BED results using a window of 153 days yielded an IIR of 0.669. Window-based IIR and performance-based IIR increased by 22.4% and respectively 30.6% in 2008, while 2009 and 2010 showed a return to baseline for both methods. Conclusions IIR estimations by window- and performance-based evaluations of Inno-Lia algorithm results were similar and can be used together to assess IIR changes between annual HIV notification cohorts. PMID:23990968

  20. Chemoradiation in cervical cancer with cisplatin and high-dose rate brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy. Results of a phase-II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, H.G.; Laban, C.; Puschmann, D.; Koelbl, H. [Dept. of Gynecology, Martin-Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Kuhnt, T.; Pigorsch, S.; Dunst, J.; Haensgen, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Martin-Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background: In 1999, five randomized studies demonstrated that chemoradiation with cisplatin and low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy has a benefit in locally advanced cervical cancer and for surgically treated patients in high-risk situations. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of concomitant chemoradiation with cisplatin and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Patients and Method: 27 patients were included in our phase-II trial: 13 locally advanced cases (group A) and 14 adjuvant-therapy patients in high-risk situations (group B). A definitive radiotherapy was performed with 25 fractions of external beam therapy (1.8 Gy per fraction/middle shielded after eleven fractions). Brachytherapy was delivered at HDR schedules with 7 Gy in point A per fraction (total dose 35 Gy) in FIGO Stages IIB-IIIB. The total dose of external and brachytherapy was 70 Gy in point A and 52-54 Gy in point B. All patients in stage IVA were treated without brachytherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy was performed with external beam radiotherapy of the pelvis with 1.8 Gy single-dose up to 50.4 Gy. Brachytherapy was delivered at HDR schedules with two fractions of 5 Gy only in patients with tumor-positive margins or tumor involvement of the upper vagina. The chemotherapeutic treatment schedule provided six courses of cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly recommended in the randomized studies GOG-120 and -123. Results: A total of 18/27 patients (66.7%) completed all six courses of chemotherapy. Discontinuation of radiotherapy due to therapy-related morbidity was not necessary in the whole study group. G3 leukopenia (29.6%) was the only relevant acute toxicity. There were no differences in toxicity between group A and B. Serious late morbidity occurred in 2/27 patients (7.4%). 12/13 patients (92.3%) with IIB-IVA cervical cancer showed a complete response (CR). 13/14 adjuvant cases (92.8%) are free of recurrence (median follow up: 19.1 months). Conclusion: Concomitant

  1. Factors associated with adenoma detection rate and diagnosis of polyps and colorectal cancer during colonoscopy in France: results of a prospective, nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilien Barret

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Colonoscopy can prevent deaths due to colorectal cancer (CRC through early diagnosis or resection of colonic adenomas. We conducted a prospective, nationwide study on colonoscopy practice in France. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered to 2,600 French gastroenterologists. Data from all consecutive colonoscopies performed during one week were collected. A statistical extrapolation of the results to a whole year was performed, and factors potentially associated with the adenoma detection rate (ADR or the diagnosis of polyps or cancer were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 342 gastroenterologists, representative of the overall population of French gastroenterologists, provided data on 3,266 colonoscopies, corresponding to 1,200,529 (95% CI: 1,125,936-1,275,122 procedures for the year 2011. The indication for colonoscopy was CRC screening and digestive symptoms in 49.6% and 38.9% of cases, respectively. Polypectomy was performed in 35.5% of cases. The ADR and prevalence of CRC were 17.7% and 2.9%, respectively. The main factors associated with a high ADR were male gender (p=0.0001, age over 50 (p=0.0001, personal or family history of CRC or colorectal polyps (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively, and positive fecal occult blood test (p=0.0005. The prevalence of CRC was three times higher in patients with their first colonoscopy (4.2% vs. 1.4%; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in France, we report nationwide prospective data on colonoscopy practice, including histological results. We found an average ADR of 17.7%, and observed reduced CRC incidence in patients with previous colonoscopy.

  2. Motivation to quit or reduce gambling: Associations between Self-Determination Theory and the Transtheoretical Model of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Godinho, Alexandra; Hodgins, David C; Hendershot, Christian S; Cunningham, John A

    2016-01-01

    Motivation for change and recovery from addiction has been commonly assessed using the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change. Analogous to readiness for change, this measure of motivation may not recognize other elements of motivation relevant to successful change. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between stages of change and reasons for change according to the Self-Determination Theory among problem gamblers motivated to quit. Motivations for change were examined for 200 adult problem gamblers with intent to quit in the next 6 months (contemplation stage) or 30 days (preparation stage). Analyses revealed that higher autonomous motivation for quitting gambling predicted greater likelihood of being in the preparation stage, whereas those with higher external motivation for change were less likely to be farther along the stage of change continuum. The findings suggest that autonomous motivations relate to readiness for quitting gambling, and may predict successful resolution from problem gambling.

  3. 45 CFR 400.77 - Effect of quitting employment or failing or refusing to participate in required services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... receipt of refugee cash assistance, an employable recipient may not, without good cause, voluntarily quit... Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and...

  4. Rates of particle size reduction and passage are faster for legume compared with cool-season grass, resulting in lower rumen fill and less effective fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-06-01

    Effects of forage family on rates of particle size reduction in, and passage from, the rumen and the relationship of these effects with preliminary dry matter intake (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 19.6 to 29.5 kg/d (mean = 25.9 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing either a) alfalfa silage (AL) or b) orchardgrass silage (OG) as the sole forage. Silages were chopped to 10-mm theoretical length of cut and contained 42.3 and 58.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) for alfalfa and orchardgrass, respectively. Both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Feed, orts, rumen, and duodenal samples were wet sieved to fractionate particles above (large) and below (small) 2.36 mm. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) was used as a flow marker. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of forage family and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Approximately 75% of the NDF consumed was large and 25% was small for both treatments, but cows fed AL consumed more iNDF and less potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) than cows fed OG. The AL diet increased the reduction rate (large to small) compared with OG despite less rumination per unit of forage NDF for AL than OG, suggesting alfalfa NDF was more fragile than orchardgrass NDF. Over 55% of particles in the rumen were below 2.36 mm for AL and OG, indicating that particle size was not a limiting constraint to passage. Passage rates (k(p)) of large iNDF and large pdNDF were similar for AL and OG, but AL increased k(p) of large pdNDF and OG decreased it as pDMI increased. The AL diet increased k(p) of small iNDF and small pdNDF compared with OG, resulting in lower rumen fill

  5. Use and Effectiveness of Quitlines for Smokers With Diabetes: Cessation and Weight Outcomes, Washington State Tobacco Quit Line, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Schauer, Gillian L.; Bush, Terry; Cerutti, Barbara; Mahoney, Lisa; Thompson, Juliet R; Zbikowski, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Having diabetes and smoking increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. However, cessation-related weight gain, a common side effect during quitting, can further complicate diabetes. Evidence-based telephone quitlines can support quitting but have not been studied adequately in populations with chronic diseases such as diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of a tobacco quitline among tobacco users with diabetes. Cessation-related weight ...

  6. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Alison J.; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Design Cohort study. Participants A total of 792 sm...

  7. Encouraging smoking cessation during pregnancy in West Virginia: using Fax-to-Quit as a cessation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Cindy; Horn, Kimberly A; Anderson, Robert H; Chertok, Ilana; Danek, Robin L; Holmes, Alan; Adkins, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Despite known dangers of smoking, a majority of pregnant women continue to smoke or relapse following delivery. West Virginia women have high unmet needs for smoking cessation, and the prenatal period presents a critical and unique opportunity for education and quitting assistance. West Virginia's Fax-to-Quit program uses provider-faxed referrals to the Quitline to engage smokers and connect them with cessation services. A 12-month feasibility evaluation of this Fax-to-Quit program for pregnant women was conducted. In February 2009, providers and staff from three OB/GYN clinics in three adjoining West Virginia counties were recruited. All participating sites received an intensive half-day training program. Adult pregnant smokers receiving prenatal care in these OB/GYN clinic sites were eligible to participate. Recruitment sites screened pregnant women for smoking; assessed readiness-to-quit; and enrolled consenting participants in the Fax-to-Quit Program. The Quitline measured cessation attempts with six-month follow-up of enrolled participants. Between March-December 2009, 58 referrals were made at these OB/GYN clinic sites, with 15 women (25.9%) enrolling in Quitline services. These enrolled women account for approximately one-quarter of calls from pregnant smokers to the West Virginia Quitline in the past 12 months. Contact, communication, and cooperation with office staff were relevant and important to successful project implementation. Findings indicate that Fax-to-Quit is feasible to engage providers and pregnant smokers with the West Virginia Quitline. Successful referrals and enrollment demonstrate Fax-to-Quit may support cessation by increasing Quitline use and connecting pregnant women who smoke with quitting services through provider-faxed referrals to the West Virginia Quitline.

  8. The Views and Experiences of Smokers Who Quit Smoking Unassisted. A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrea L.; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M.; Becky Freeman; Simon Chapman

    2015-01-01

    Background Unassisted cessation – quitting without pharmacological or professional support – is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted. Method We systematically searched ...

  9. Genetic Risk Can Be Decreased: Quitting Smoking Decreases and Delays Lung Cancer for Smokers With High and Low CHRNA5 Risk Genotypes — A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Shiun Chen

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7 years for those who develop it. These results: 1 underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2 suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3 have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.

  10. The Effects of Occupational Stress, Work-Centrality, Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction on Intent to Quit Among Long-Term Care Workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongkyu; Yoon, Seokwon; Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Park, Jueun

    2017-01-01

    A large and growing population of elderly Koreans with chronic conditions necessitates an increase in long-term care. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of occupational stress, work-centrality, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction on intent to leave among long-term care workers in Korea. We tested the hypothesized structural equation model predicting the intention to quit among long-term care workers in Korea. Survey data were collected from 532 long-term care workers in Seoul, Korea. Results showed that occupational stress was positively associated with intention to leave the job. The study also identified several possible mediators (self-efficacy, work-centrality, job satisfaction) in the relationship between stress and intent to quit. Evidence-based stress management interventions are suggested to help the workers better cope with stressors. Mentoring programs should also be considered for new workers.

  11. Study of time reversibility/irreversibility of cardiovascular data: theoretical results and application to laser Doppler flowmetry and heart rate variability signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Mahé, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Abraham, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Time irreversibility can be qualitatively defined as the degree of a signal for temporal asymmetry. Recently, a time irreversibility characterization method based on entropies of positive and negative increments has been proposed for experimental signals and applied to heart rate variability (HRV) data (central cardiovascular system (CVS)). The results led to interesting information as a time asymmetry index was found different for young subjects and elderly people or heart disease patients. Nevertheless, similar analyses have not yet been conducted on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals (peripheral CVS). We first propose to further investigate the above-mentioned characterization method. Then, LDF signals, LDF signals reduced to samples acquired during ECG R peaks (LDF_RECG signals) and HRV recorded simultaneously in healthy subjects are processed. Entropies of positive and negative increments for LDF signals show a nonmonotonic pattern: oscillations—more or less pronounced, depending on subjects—are found with a period matching the one of cardiac activity. However, such oscillations are not found with LDF_RECG nor with HRV. Moreover, the asymmetry index for LDF is markedly different from the ones of LDF_RECG and HRV. The cardiac activity may therefore play a dominant role in the time irreversibility properties of LDF signals.

  12. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Zhao

    Full Text Available Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444 was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT. This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival.

  13. The Association of Spousal Smoking Status With the Ability to Quit Smoking: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Laura K.; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; Huxley, Rachel R.; Woodward, Mark; Koton, Silvia; Coresh, Josef; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Studies have shown that smoking status tends to be concordant within spouse pairs. This study aimed to estimate the association of spousal smoking status with quitting smoking in US adults. We analyzed data from 4,500 spouse pairs aged 45–64 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort, sampled from 1986 to 1989 from 4 US communities and followed up every 3 years for a total of 9 years. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to calculate the odds ratio of quitting smoking given that one's spouse is a former smoker or a current smoker compared to a never smoker. Among men and women, being married to a current smoker decreased the odds of quitting smoking (for men, odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29, 0.46; for women, OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.68). Among women only, being married to a former smoker increased the odds of quitting smoking (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.53). In conclusion, spouses of current smokers are less likely to quit, whereas women married to former smokers are more likely to quit. Smoking cessation programs and clinical advice should consider targeting couples rather than individuals. PMID:24699782

  14. Do differences in maternal age, parity and multiple births explain variations in fetal and neonatal mortality rates in Europe? - Results from the EURO-PERISTAT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Jacobusse, G.W.; Pal-De Bruin, K.M. van der; Buitendijk, S.; Zeitlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Perinatal mortality rates differ markedly between countries in Europe. If population characteristics, such as maternal age, parity or multiple births, contribute to these differences, standardised rates may be useful for international comparisons of health status and especially quality of care. This

  15. Results of volume-staged fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large complex arteriovenous malformations: obliteration rates and clinical outcomes of an evolving treatment paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzin, Alberto; Panni, Pietro; Spatola, Giorgio; Vecchio, Antonella Del; Gallotti, Alberto L; Gigliotti, Carmen R; Cavalli, Andrea; Donofrio, Carmine A; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs. METHODS Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm(3). Hemorrhage and seizures were the presenting clinical feature for 6 (30%) and 8 (40%) patients, respectively. The median AVM volume was 15.9 cm(3) (range 10.1-34.3 cm(3)). The mean interval between stages (± standard deviation) was 15 months (± 9 months). The median margin dose for each stage was 20 Gy (range 18-25 Gy). RESULTS Obliteration was confirmed in 8 (42%) patients after a mean follow-up of 45 months (range 19-87 months). A significant reduction (> 75%) of the original nidal volume was achieved in 4 (20%) patients. Engel Class I-II seizure status was reported by 75% of patients presenting with seizures (50% Engel Class I and 25% Engel Class II) after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, 71.5% (5/7) of patients who had presented with a worsening neurological deficit reported a complete resolution or amelioration. None of the patients who presented acutely because of hemorrhage experienced a new bleeding episode during follow-up. One (5%) patient developed radionecrosis that caused sensorimotor hemisyndrome. Two (10%) patients sustained a bleeding episode after GKRS, although only 1 (5%) was symptomatic. High nidal flow rate and a time interval between stages of less than 11.7 months were factors significantly associated with AVM obliteration (p = 0.021 and p = 0.041, respectively). Patient age younger than 44 years was significantly associated with a greater than 75% reduction in AVM volume but not with AVM obliteration (p = 0

  16. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  17. VTD-melphalan is well tolerated and results in very high rates of stringent CR and MRD-negative status in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiminti, Kalyan; Singh Abbi, Kamal Kant; Mott, Sarah L; Dozeman, Lindsay; Tricot, Annick; Schultz, Allyson; Behrends, Sonya; Zhan, Fenghuang; Tricot, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The addition of cytotoxic drugs to high-dose melphalan as a preparative regimen for autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma has not resulted in superior activity. Although novel agents have significantly improved outcome in multiple myeloma, their role in preparative regimens remains largely unknown. We have evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of combining bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone with high-dose melphalan. An institutional review board-approved retrospective analysis was performed on 100 consecutive patients receiving 153 transplants; 53 had tandem transplants; 64 patients received early transplants; and 36 had salvage transplantation. Endpoints were treatment-related toxicity and mortality, and quality of response post-transplantation with assessment of stringent complete remission (sCR) and minimal residual disease (MRD) status. Median age was 61 years, and median follow-up was 16.2 months. At 6 months, sCR was attained in 56% of patients and CR in 20%. An MRD status, assessed by sensitive (10(-4)) multiparameter flow cytometry, was achieved in 85%. The 100-day mortality rate was 2.6% (4/153); 1.8% for early transplants and 4.5% for salvage transplants. Grade 3-5 non-hematologic toxicities were mainly related to metabolism/nutrition; gastrointestinal and infectious problems. Median time to absolute neutrophil count of >500/µL was 12 days for both early and salvage transplantations. No significant differences in quality of response were observed between early and salvage transplantation or between single and tandem autologous stem cell transplantation. Since both sCR and MRD are excellent early surrogate markers for progression-free and overall survival, this regimen will likely be superior to melphalan alone, but it needs to be formally assessed in a randomized study.

  18. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24–36 weeks. Results Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached at different PMAs for different GA groups, but preterm infants were able to initiate breastfeeding at early times, with some delay in infants less than GA 32 weeks. Very preterm infants had lowest mean PMA (35.5 weeks) at first complete breastfeed, and moderate preterm infants had lowest mean PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding (36.4 weeks). Admitting mothers to the NICU together with the infant and minimising the use of a pacifier during breastfeeding transition were associated with 1.6 (95% CI 0.4–2.8) and 1.2 days (95% CI 0.1–2.3) earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding respectively. Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1–7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting mothers together with their infants to the NICU and minimising the use of pacifiers may contribute to earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:25251690

  19. Comparing Results of Five Glomerular Filtration Rate-Estimating Equations in the Korean General Population: MDRD Study, Revised Lund-Malmö, and Three CKD-EPI Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Misuk; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Hyesun; Cho, Han-Ik; Yang, Hyun Suk; Navarin, Silvia; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a widely used index of kidney function. Recently, new formulas such as the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations or the Lund-Malmö equation were introduced for assessing eGFR. We compared them with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in the Korean adult population. Methods The study population comprised 1,482 individuals (median age 51 [42-59] yr, 48.9% males) who received annual physical check-ups during the year 2014. Serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin C (CysC) were measured. We conducted a retrospective analysis using five GFR estimating equations (MDRD Study, revised Lund-Malmö, and Cr and/or CysC-based CKD-EPI equations). Reduced GFR was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results For the GFR category distribution, large discrepancies were observed depending on the equation used; category G1 (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2) ranged from 7.4-81.8%. Compared with the MDRD Study equation, the other four equations overestimated GFR, and CysC-based equations showed a greater difference (-31.3 for CKD-EPICysC and -20.5 for CKD-EPICr-CysC). CysC-based equations decreased the prevalence of reduced GFR by one third (9.4% in the MDRD Study and 2.4% in CKD-EPICysC). Conclusions Our data shows that there are remarkable differences in eGFR assessment in the Korean population depending on the equation used, especially in normal or mildly decreased categories. Further prospective studies are necessary in various clinical settings. PMID:27578504

  20. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  1. The combined effect of behavioral intention and exposure to a smoke-free air law on taking measures to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jay, Stephen J; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2012-07-01

    Because of the large burden of disease attributable to cigarette smoking, a variety of tobacco control interventions, some focused on changing individual behavior and others focused on influencing societal norms, have been introduced. The current study tested the combined effect of behavioral intention and exposure to a comprehensive smoke-free air law as a prospective predictor of taking measures to quit smoking. Participants were 187 adults living in 7 Texas cities, 3 with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and 4 without such a law, who reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and completed a 1-month follow-up interview. Data were collected by telephone administration of a questionnaire. Results showed that, compared with smokers with low behavioral intention to take measures to quit smoking and no exposure to a comprehensive smoke-free air law, the smokers with high behavioral intention and exposure to a comprehensive law had the greatest odds of taking measures to quit smoking. This longitudinal study provides further evidence that the most successful smoking cessation campaigns will be multifaceted addressing individual factors with educational strategies designed to change beliefs and intentions and environmental factors with policy-based interventions.

  2. The influence of in-pregnancy smoking cessation programmes on partner quitting and women's social support mobilization: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN89131885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Olga

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy could influence a woman's social behaviour and her partner's smoking behaviour, but this has not been examined in any published randomized trials. Method 918 women smoking at booking for antenatal care were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial of three interventions: standard care, self-help manual and enhanced stage-based counselling, or self-help manual, enhanced stage-based counselling and use of an interactive computer program. The outcomes were change in social support received by women between booking for maternity care and 30 weeks gestation and 10 days postpartum and reported cessation in the woman's partner at these times. Results Few pregnant women's partners stopped smoking (4.1% at 30 weeks of gestation and 5.8% at 10 days postpartum and the probability of quitting did not differ significantly by trial arm. Women's scores on the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors showed a slight decline from booking to 30 weeks gestation, and a slight increase to 10 days postpartum, but these changes did not differ significantly by trial arm. Conclusion The stage-based interventions tested in this trial aimed partly to influence women's mobilization of support and might have influenced partners' quitting, but there was no evidence that they did so. Given that women and their partners often stopped smoking together, future interventions to prevent smoking in pregnant women could encourage both partners to quit together.

  3. A Text Message Delivered Smoking Cessation Intervention: The Initial Trial of TXT-2-Quit: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth; Heron, Kristin; Jennings, Ernestine; Morrow, Kathleen; Cobb, Victoria; Magee, Joshua; Fava, Joseph; Deutsch, Christopher; Foster, Robert

    2013-07-30

    Mobile technology offers the potential to deliver health-related interventions to individuals who would not otherwise present for in-person treatment. Text messaging (short message service, SMS), being the most ubiquitous form of mobile communication, is a promising method for reaching the most individuals. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a smoking cessation intervention program delivered through text messaging. Adult participants (N=60, age range 18-52 years) took part in a single individual smoking cessation counseling session, and were then randomly assigned to receive either daily non-smoking related text messages (control condition) or the TXT-2-Quit (TXT) intervention. TXT consisted of automated smoking cessation messages tailored to individual's stage of smoking cessation, specialized messages provided on-demand based on user requests for additional support, and a peer-to-peer social support network. Generalized estimating equation analysis was used to assess the primary outcome (7-day point-prevalence abstinence) using a 2 (treatment groups)×3 (time points) repeated measures design across three time points: 8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Smoking cessation results showed an overall significant group difference in 7-day point prevalence abstinence across all follow-up time points. Individuals given the TXT intervention, with higher odds of 7-day point prevalence abstinence for the TXT group compared to the Mojo group (OR=4.52, 95% CI=1.24, 16.53). However, individual comparisons at each time point did not show significant between-group differences, likely due to reduced statistical power. Intervention feasibility was greatly improved by switching from traditional face-to-face recruitment methods (4.7% yield) to an online/remote strategy (41.7% yield). Although this study was designed to develop and provide initial testing of the TXT-2-Quit system, these initial findings provide promising evidence

  4. Improving ISR Radar Utilization (How I quit blaming the user and made the radar easier to use).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-08-01

    In modern multi - sensor multi - mode Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) platforms, the plethora of options available to a sensor/payload operator are quite large, leading to an over - worked operator often down - selecting to favorite sensors an d modes. For example, Full Motion Video (FMV) is justifiably a favorite sensor at the expense of radar modes, even if radar modes can offer unique and advantageous information. The challenge is then to increase the utilization of the radar modes in a man ner attractive to the sensor/payload operator. We propose that this is best accomplished by combining sensor modes and displays into 'super - modes'. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia Natio nal Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL850 00.

  5. Radiation monitoring data of the HTTR rise-to-power test. Results up to 30 MW operation on the rated operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have completed the Rise-to-Power test of 9 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) in the rated operation mode, the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation). After that the Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode (the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC) with a thermal output of 30 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) were performed between October 20, 2001 and March 11, 2002. This report describes the radiation monitoring data carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode with a thermal output of 30 MW. The dose equivalent rate the radioactive air concentration in the working place where the radiation workers enter during the reactor operation were respectively the back ground level and the lower detection limit. There were no release of the radioactive gaseous effluents to the environment through the stack. These radiation monitoring showed clearly the radiation level were very low. This report also describes the part of radiation monitoring data in the HTTR first cycle operation carried out during July 6, 2002 from March 20, 2002. (author)

  6. Radiation monitoring data of the HTTR rise-to-power test. Results up to 30 MW operation on the rated operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have completed the Rise-to-Power test of 9 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) in the rated operation mode, the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation). After that the Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode (the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC) with a thermal output of 30 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) were performed between October 20, 2001 and March 11, 2002. This report describes the radiation monitoring data carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode with a thermal output of 30 MW. The dose equivalent rate the radioactive air concentration in the working place where the radiation workers enter during the reactor operation were respectively the back ground level and the lower detection limit. There were no release of the radioactive gaseous effluents to the environment through the stack. These radiation monitoring showed clearly the radiation level were very low. This report also describes the part of radiation monitoring data in the HTTR first cycle operation carried out during July 6, 2002 from March 20, 2002. (author)

  7. Differences in rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in Europe in 2003: results from the MOSAIC cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Draper, Elizabeth S; Kollée, Louis

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Advances in perinatal medicine increased survival after very preterm birth in all countries, but comparative population-based data on these births are not readily available. This analysis contrasts the rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in 10...... European regions. METHODS: The Models of Organizing Access to Intensive Care for Very Preterm Births (MOSAIC) study collected prospective data on all very preterm births in 10 European regions covering 494,463 total live births in 2003. The analysis sample was live births between 24 and 31 weeks...... of gestation without lethal congenital anomalies (N = 4908). Outcomes were rates of preterm birth, in-hospital mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage grades III and IV or cystic periventricular leukomalacia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Mortality and morbidity rates were standardized for gestational age...

  8. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kleinjan, Marloes; van Straaten, Barbara; Wits, Elske; Snelleman, Michelle; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-02-18

    In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers. We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires. Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight. Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

  9. Very high rate programming in primary prevention patients with reduced ejection fraction implanted with a defibrillator: Results from a large multicenter controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementy, Nicolas; Challal, Farid; Marijon, Eloi; Boveda, Serge; Defaye, Pascal; Leclercq, Christophe; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Sadoul, Nicolas; Klug, Didier; Piot, Olivier; Gras, Daniel; Bordachar, Pierre; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Fauchier, Laurent; Babuty, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    Programming implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) with a high-rate therapy strategy has proven to be effective in reducing shocks and is associated with a reduced mortality. We sought to determine the impact of a very high rate cutoff programming strategy on outcomes in patients with a primary indication for an ICD due to reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Using data from the multicenter French DAI-PP registry, this cohort-controlled study compared outcomes in 500 patients programmed with a very high rate cutoff (VH-RATE group: monitor zone 170-219 beats/min; ventricular fibrillation zone ≥220 beats/min with 13 ± 4 detection intervals) with 1500 matched control patients programmed with 1 or 2 therapy zone. All ICDs were implanted for primary prevention in patients with systolic dysfunction. Risks of events were compared after propensity score matching of sex, age, ejection fraction, New York Heart Association class, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and type of device. After a mean follow-up of 3.6 ± 2.3 years, VH-RATE programming was associated with a reduction of appropriate therapy risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-0.51; P programmed with 2 therapy zones. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the groups. In patients implanted with an ICD in primary prevention with left ventricular dysfunction, very high rate cutoff programming (single therapy zone ≥220 beats/min) was associated with a 60% reduction of appropriate therapies as well as inappropriate shocks, without affecting mortality. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Nonlinear Approach to Tunisian Inflation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouraya Boujelbène Dammak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the properties and the macroeconomic performance of the nonlinearity of the Inflation Rate Set in Tunisia. We developed an inference asymptotic theory for an unrestricted two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR model with an autoregressive unit root. We proposed two types of tests namely asymptotic and bootstrap-based. These tests as well as the distribution theory allow a joint consideration of nonlinear thresholds and non-stationary unit roots. Our empirical results reveal a strong evidence of a threshold effect. This makes clear the possibility of non stationary and nonlinear of the Monthly Inflation Rate in Tunisia for the 1994.01-2011.06 period. While the Perron test found a unit root, our TAR unit root tests are arguably significant. Then, the evidence is quite strong that the inflation rate is not a unit root process.

  11. Start2quit: a randomised clinical controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using personal tailored risk information and taster sessions to increase the uptake of the NHS Stop Smoking Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hazel; Sutton, Stephen; Morris, Richard; Petersen, Irene; Wu, Qi; Parrott, Steve; Galton, Simon; Kale, Dimitra; Magee, Molly Sweeney; Gardner, Leanne; Nazareth, Irwin

    2017-01-01

    -effectiveness of the intervention. RESULTS Eighteen SSSs and 99 practices within the SSS areas participated; 4384 participants were randomised to the intervention (n = 2636) or control (n = 1748). One participant withdrew and 4383 were analysed. The proportion of people attending the first session of a SSS course was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group [17.4% vs. 9.0%; unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75 to 2.57; p effective than the control was up to 27% at 6 months and > 86% over a lifetime horizon. LIMITATIONS Participating SSSs may not be representative of all SSSs in England. Recruitment was low, at 4%. CONCLUSIONS The Start2quit trial added to evidence that a proactive approach with an intensive intervention to deliver personalised risk information and offer a no-commitment introductory session can be successful in reaching more smokers and increasing the uptake of the SSS and quit rates. The intervention appears less likely to be cost-effective in the short term, but is highly likely to be cost-effective over a lifetime horizon. FUTURE WORK Further research could assess the separate effects of these components. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76561916. FUNDING DETAILS This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 21, No. 3. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. PMID:28121288

  12. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, W.Y.; Kwaadsteniet, M.C. de; Harmsen, M.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Wouden, J.C. van der

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. METHOD: During one calendar year, 195 general prac

  13. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, W.Y.; Kwaadsteniet, M.C.E. de; Harmsen, M.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Wouden, J.C. van der

    2006-01-01

    Background: We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. Method: During one calendar year, 195 general prac

  14. High Rates of Pregnancy among Vocational School Students: Results of Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Survey in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Kilmarx, Peter H.; van Griensven, Frits; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Limpakarnjanarat, Khanchi; Uthaiworavit, Wat

    2003-01-01

    Examined prevalence of and factors associated with pregnancy and abortion among vocation school students in northern Thailand. Age, current contraceptive use, early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol and drug use, and sexual coercion were associated with self or partner pregnancy. High rates of pregnancy and abortion indicate the need for…

  15. Variability in caesarean section rates for very preterm births at 28-31 weeks of gestation in 10 European regions: results of the MOSAIC project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Di Lallo, Dominico; Blondel, Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Given the continuing debate about the benefits of caesarean section for very preterm infants, we sought to describe caesarean section rates for infants between 28 and 31 weeks of gestation in European regions and their association with regional mortality and short-term morbidity....

  16. Heart rate at discharge and long-term prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in stable and acute coronary syndromes - results from the BASKET PROVE trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Kaiser, Christoph; Sandsten, Karl Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with mortality in a number of heart diseases. We examined the long-term prognostic significance of HR at discharge in a contemporary population of patients with stable angina (SAP), non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), and ST-segment...

  17. Incidence rates and management of urinary tract infections among children in Dutch general practice: results from a nation-wide registration study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.Y. Kwok (Wing-Yee); M.C. Kwaadsteniet (Marjolein); M. Harmsen (Mirjam); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); F.G. Schellevis (François); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate incidence rates of urinary tract infections in Dutch general practice and their association with gender, season and urbanisation level, and to analyse prescription and referral in case of urinary tract infections. METHOD: During one calendar year, 195

  18. Physical Activity Is not Associated with Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate among Young and Middle-Aged Adults : Results from the Population-Based Longitudinal Doetinchem Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hulsegge, Gerben; Hartman, Linda; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.

    2015-01-01

    There is debate as to whether physical inactivity is associated with reduced kidney function. We studied the prospective association of (changes in) physical activity with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in adult men and women. We included 3,935 participants aged 26 to 65 years from the

  19. Variability in caesarean section rates for very preterm births at 28-31 weeks of gestation in 10 European regions: results of the MOSAIC project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Lallo, D. Di; Blondel, B.; Weber, T.; Schmidt, S.; Kunzel, W.; Kollee, L.A.A.; Papiernik, E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given the continuing debate about the benefits of caesarean section for very preterm infants, we sought to describe caesarean section rates for infants between 28 and 31 weeks of gestation in European regions and their association with regional mortality and short-term morbidity. STUDY DE

  20. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to estimated glomerular filtration rate : results from the population-based longitudinal Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; van Essen, Hanneke; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although coffee consumption and tea consumption have been linked to diabetes, the relation with kidney function is less clear and is underresearched. Objective: We investigated the prospective associations of coffee and tea consumption with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). De