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Sample records for quinquefasciatus electronic resource

  1. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  2. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  3. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  4. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  5. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  6. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  7. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  8. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  9. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  10. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  11. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  12. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  13. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  14. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  15. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  16. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  17. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  18. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  19. Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for three detoxification gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liangzhen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of three major mosquito vectors of human diseases, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, have been previously sequenced. C. p. quinquefasciatus has the largest number of predicted protein-coding genes, which partially results from the expansion of three detoxification gene families: cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450, glutathione S-transferases (GST, and carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCE. However, unlike An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, which have large amounts of gene expression data, C. p. quinquefasciatus has limited transcriptomic resources. Knowledge of complete gene expression information is very important for the exploration of the functions of genes involved in specific biological processes. In the present study, the three detoxification gene families of C. p. quinquefasciatus were analyzed for phylogenetic classification and compared with those of three other dipteran insects. Gene expression during various developmental stages and the differential expression responsible for parathion resistance were profiled using the digital gene expression (DGE technique. Results A total of 302 detoxification genes were found in C. p. quinquefasciatus, including 71 CCE, 196 P450, and 35 cytosolic GST genes. Compared with three other dipteran species, gene expansion in Culex mainly occurred in the CCE and P450 families, where the genes of α-esterases, juvenile hormone esterases, and CYP325 of the CYP4 subfamily showed the most pronounced expansion on the genome. For the five DGE libraries, 3.5-3.8 million raw tags were generated and mapped to 13314 reference genes. Among 302 detoxification genes, 225 (75% were detected for expression in at least one DGE library. One fourth of the CCE and P450 genes were detected uniquely in one stage, indicating potential developmentally regulated expression. A total of 1511 genes showed different expression levels between a parathion-resistant and a

  20. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  1. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  2. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  3. Olfactory memory in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, P J; Eaton, G

    2001-06-01

    The cosmotropical urban mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) uses chemical cues to locate suitable water pools for oviposition. Although gravid females are innately attracted to or repelled by certain compounds, this study found that an individual mosquito's preferences for these odours could be altered greatly by prior experience. Mosquitoes reared in water containing skatole, at a level normally repellent to ovipositing females, preferred to oviposit in water containing that compound rather than in water with an otherwise attractive odour compound (P-cresol). This behaviour occurred regardless of whether mosquitoes were tested individually or in groups of up to 50 per cage. The F1 progeny of conditioned mosquitoes did not exhibit the parental preference, but were as susceptible to conditioning as their parents. Moreover, rearing mosquitoes in infusions of hay or animal (guinea-pig) faeces produced a similar although less dramatic change, such that the innate propensity for hay infusion could be cancelled by rearing in guinea-pig faeces infusion. The results demonstrated a change in odour preference by Cx. quinquefasciatus following exposure to the odour during development or pupal eclosion, suggesting that some form of larval conditioning or early adult imprinting occurred. Precisely when that conditioning occurred remains to be determined.

  4. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  5. An impossible journey? The development of Plasmodium falciparum NF54 in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Knöckel

    Full Text Available Although Anopheles mosquitoes are the vectors for human Plasmodium spp., there are also other mosquito species-among them culicines (Culex spp., Aedes spp.-present in malaria-endemic areas. Culicine mosquitoes transmit arboviruses and filarial worms to humans and are vectors for avian Plasmodium spp., but have never been observed to transmit human Plasmodium spp. When ingested by a culicine mosquito, parasites could either face an environment that does not allow development due to biologic incompatibility or be actively killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the latter case, the molecular mechanism of killing must be sufficiently powerful that Plasmodium is not able to overcome it. To investigate how human malaria parasites develop in culicine mosquitoes, we infected Culex quinquefasciatus with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 and monitored development of parasites in the blood bolus and midgut epithelium at different time points. Our results reveal that ookinetes develop in the midgut lumen of C. quinquefasciatus in slightly lower numbers than in Anopheles gambiae G3. After 30 hours, parasites have invaded the midgut and can be observed on the basal side of the midgut epithelium by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Very few of the parasites in C. quinquefasciatus are alive, most of them are lysed. Eight days after the mosquito's blood meal, no oocysts can be found in C. quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that the mosquito immune system could be involved in parasite killing early in development after ookinetes have crossed the midgut epithelium and come in contact with the mosquito hemolymph.

  6. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  7. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  8. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  9. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  10. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  11. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  12. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  13. Zika virus replication in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Duschinka Rd; Paiva, Marcelo Hs; Donato, Mariana Ma; Barbosa, Priscilla P; Krokovsky, Larissa; Rocha, Sura W Dos S; Saraiva, Karina LA; Crespo, Mônica M; Rezende, Tatiana Mt; Wallau, Gabriel L; Barbosa, Rosângela Mr; Oliveira, Cláudia Mf; Melo-Santos, Maria Av; Pena, Lindomar; Cordeiro, Marli T; Franca, Rafael F de O; Oliveira, André Ls de; Peixoto, Christina A; Leal, Walter S; Ayres, Constância Fj

    2017-08-09

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has recently been associated with an increased incidence of neonatal microcephaly and other neurological disorders. The virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito bite, although other routes of infection have been implicated in some cases. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is considered to be the main vector to humans worldwide; however, there is evidence that other mosquito species, including Culex quinquefasciatus, transmit the virus. To test the potential of Cx. quinquefasciatus to transmit ZIKV, we experimentally compared the vector competence of laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Interestingly, we were able to detect the presence of ZIKV in the midgut, salivary glands and saliva of artificially fed Cx. quinquefasciatus. In addition, we collected ZIKV-infected Cx. quinquefasciatus from urban areas with high microcephaly incidence in Recife, Brazil. Corroborating our experimental data from artificially fed mosquitoes, ZIKV was isolated from field-caught Cx. quinquefasciatus, and its genome was partially sequenced. Collectively, these findings indicate that there may be a wider range of ZIKV vectors than anticipated.

  14. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  15. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  16. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  17. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  18. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  19. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  20. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  1. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  2. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  3. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  4. Entomopathogenic fungus generated Nanoparticles for enhancement of efficacy in Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SONI, S. PRAKASH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate to efficacy of silver and gold generated larvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungus Chrysosporium tropicum against the Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi larvae. Methods: The silver and gold nanoparticles were quantified and observed by the Micro-scan reader and X-ray diffraction technique. The micrographs of silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained by the Transmission electron microscope and Scanning electron microscope. The larvicidal efficacy was then performed at six different log concentrations by the probit analysis. Results: The characterization study confirmed the spherical shaped and sized (20-50 and 2-15 nm of silver and gold nanoparticles. The all larval stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found more susceptible to the synthesized silver nanoparticles. Whereas, the larvae of An. stephensi were found more susceptible to larvicide synthesized with gold nanoparticles. Conclusions: The results suggested that the silver and gold nanoparticles generated by the entomopathogenic fungus C. tropicum is an environmentally safer and greener approach for mosquito control and new possibility in vector control strategy.

  5. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  6. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae From Florida Transmitted Zika Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea T. Smartt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a laboratory colony of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were experimentally able to salivate Zika virus (ZIKV, Flaviviridae; Flavivirus at 16 days post infection (dpi. ZIKV RNA was detected in bodies and in saliva deposited on filter paper cards with subsequent studies demonstrating the presence of live ZIKV in saliva.

  7. Toxic Response of Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae to some Agricultural Pesticides (Butachlor and Pertilachlor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Hedayati*

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The expansion of herbicide used in aquatic ecosystems as well as in terrestrial if is not properly controlled may produce harmful effects on freshwater fisheries. Residue limits of these agricultural chemicals in tropical fishery waters should be established. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of butachlor and pertilachlor as potential dangerous herbicides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: This study was carried out in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran at summer 2013. Culex samples were exposed to different concentrations of butachlor and pertilachlor (0-200ppm for butachlor and pertilachlor for 96 h. Results: The low toxicity of LC50s obtained for butachlor (23.81±0.04 and pertilachlor (27.97±0.05 indicate that butachlor and pertilachlor were lowly toxic to Mosquito Cu. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Although pretilachlor and butachlor are low toxic but pretilachlor is less toxic in field conditions, these data are useful to potential ecosystem risk assessment.

  8. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  9. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  10. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  11. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  12. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  13. Larvicidal potential of Cyathea species against Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Marimuthu alias Antonysamy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to insecticides has persuaded researchers to find new methods to control Culex quinquefasciatus proliferation. Plants may be a source of alternative agents for mosquito control due to ever-growing insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors and environmental imbalance caused by synthetic insecticides. The present study was intended to study the larvicidal activity of selected Cyathea species against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvicidal potential of different extracts were evaluated and larval mortality were recorded. The larvae were more sensitive to ethanolic extracts of studied three Cyathea species when compared to other extracts. Acetone, chloroform and petroleum ether extracts were considered to be less effective. The LC50 values of different extracts ranged from 320.72 to 657.03 µg/ml. The results exhibited that the tested three Cyathea species showed concentration dependent potential larvicidal effects and also provide an indication of possible bioactive properties.

  14. Associative learning of odor with food- or blood-meal by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Rains, Glen C.; Allan, Sandy A.; Sanford, Michelle R.; Lewis, W. Joe

    2006-11-01

    The ability of many insects to learn has been documented. However, a limited number of studies examining associative learning in medically important arthropods has been published. Investigations into the associative learning capabilities of Culex quinquefasciatus Say were conducted by adapting methods commonly used in experiments involving Hymenoptera. Male and female mosquitoes were able to learn a conditioned stimulus that consisted of an odor not normally encountered in nature (synthetic strawberry or vanilla extracts) in association with an unconditioned stimulus consisting of either a sugar (males and females) or blood (females) meal. Such information could lead to a better understanding of the ability of mosquitoes to locate and select host and food resources in nature.

  15. Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. indicum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. indicum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 68.73 μg/mL; LC90, 121.07 μg/mL) followed by A. aegypti (LC50, 72.72 μg/mL; LC90, 126.86 μg/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 78.74 μg/mL; LC90, 134.39 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 18.40 and 32.45 μg/mL, A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 35.97 μg/mL, and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.84 and 38.10 μg/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the

  16. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  17. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  18. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  19. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  20. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  1. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  2. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  3. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  4. Comparative efficacy and pathogenicity of keratinophilic soil fungi against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Suman Sundar; Prakash, Soam

    2010-09-01

    Out of seven fungal species belonging to four genera isolated from pond and wallow soils using feathers of Pavo cristatus as bait, four species viz., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium and Trichophyton ajelloi were most frequent. Chrysosporium and Trichophyton spp. were more pathogenic on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae than Aspergillus and Penicillium. The bioefficacy tests conducted as per the protocol of World Health Organization and the LC(50) values calculated by the Probit analysis showed that 3(rd)-instar C. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the conidia of above fungi. Highest mortality was observed in the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus when exposed to T. ajelloi. The density of fungal conidia was greatest on the ventral brush, palmate hair and anal region of the mosquito larvae after exposing for 72 hours. The potentiality of these fungi for use in the control of C. quinquefasciatus is discussed which can be exploited as a suitable biocontrol agent in the tropics.

  5. Transmission of West Nile virus by Culex quinquefasciatus say infected with Culex Flavivirus Izabal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah J Kent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The natural history and potential impact of mosquito-specific flaviviruses on the transmission efficiency of West Nile virus (WNV is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not prior infection with Culex flavivirus (CxFV Izabal altered the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus Say for transmission of a co-circulating strain of West Nile virus (WNV from Guatemala. METHODS AND FINDINGS: CxFV-negative Culex quinquefasciatus and those infected with CxFV Izabal by intrathoracic inoculation were administered WNV-infectious blood meals. Infection, dissemination, and transmission of WNV were measured by plaque titration on Vero cells of individual mosquito bodies, legs, or saliva, respectively, two weeks following WNV exposure. Additional groups of Cx. quinquefasciatus were intrathoracically inoculated with WNV alone or WNV+CxFV Izabal simultaneously, and saliva collected nine days post inoculation. Growth of WNV in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells or Cx. quinquefasciatus was not inhibited by prior infection with CxFV Izabal. There was no significant difference in the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus for WNV between mosquitoes uninfected or infected with CxFV Izabal across multiple WNV blood meal titers and two colonies of Cx. quinquefasciatus (p>0.05. However, significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus from Honduras that were co-inoculated simultaneously with both viruses transmitted WNV than those inoculated with WNV alone (p = 0.0014. Co-inoculated mosquitoes that transmitted WNV also contained CxFV in their saliva, whereas mosquitoes inoculated with CxFV alone did not contain virus in their saliva. CONCLUSIONS: In the sequential infection experiments, prior infection with CxFV Izabal had no significant impact on WNV replication, infection, dissemination, or transmission by Cx. quinquefasciatus, however WNV transmission was enhanced in the Honduras colony when mosquitoes were inoculated simultaneously with

  6. Asymmetrical Competition between Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae Coexisting in Breeding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Santana-Martínez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are mosquito vectors for several tropical diseases that represent a current public health problem. The ecological requirements for each species are different, however, both species show high biological adaptability, which promotes their coexistence in the same breeding sites. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of larval association between Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus under different laboratory conditions of food supply and temperature, and under field simulated conditions like peridomestic containers. Our findings showed that under field simulated conditions there was no asymmetrical competition in mixed cultures with the different Cx. quinquefasciatus/Ae. aegypti ratios tested. However, under laboratory conditions in which different doses of food supply were evaluated, it was observed that competition between the two species takes place. Larval coexistence under food scarcity conditions (0.95 mg/larva showed that Ae. aegypti had a greater adult emergence than Cx. quinquefasciatus and was capable of depriving Cx. quinquefasciatus of the food needed to complete metamorphosis. In an intermediate dose of food (1.9 mg/larva, the dry weight of Cx. quinquefasciatus adults decreased, and their larval development time increased when Cx. quinquefasciatus/Ae. aegypti ratio was low. Also, a temperature effect was assessed demonstrating that Cx. quinquefasciatus was more vulnerable to changes in temperature. We suggest that Ae. aegypti is more successful in exploiting microhabitats when food is scarce, due to its scrape active feeding habitats and fast larval development times. Therefore, in conditions of food paucity both species will compete, and Ae. aegypti larvae will prevail.

  7. Adulticidal activity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan M; Sivakumar R; Rajeswary M; Yogalakshmi K

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the adulticidal efficacy of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Sucrose-fed and blood starved mosquitoes were released into the tube, and the mortality effects of the extracts were observed every 10 min for 3 h exposure period. At the end of 1, 2, and 3 h exposure periods, the mosquitoes were placed in the holding tube. Cotton pads soaked in 10% sugar ...

  8. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  9. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  10. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  11. Insecticidal activity of some citrus oils against culex quinquefasciatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, H. M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the larvicidal potency of peel oils of grapefruit (Citrus paradise), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) on 4''th instar larvae of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Orange oil was the most effective followed by grapefruit oil and then lime oil. The toxicity of the oils applied to the 4''th instar larval stage was extended to pupal and adult stages. All oils produced deleterious effects on fecundity of survivors of sublethal doses. By the aid of chemical analysis of oils, the active compound was found to be limonene, a monoterpene compound. The percentages limonene were 97.15%, 92.46% and 32.29% for orange, grapefruit and lime respectively.(Author)

  12. Comparative insecticidal efficacy of a new pyrethroid, metofluthrin, against colonies of Asian Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pallens

    OpenAIRE

    Argueta, Tamara Belzabel Obispo; Kawada, Hitoshi; Shimabukuro, Kozue; Kubota, Shunichi; Shono, Yoshinori; Tsushima, Kazunori; Takagi, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    Comparative insecticidal efficacy of metofluthrin, a newly synthesized pyrethroid, and other pyrethroids against several colonies of Asian Culex quinquefas-ciatus (from Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia) was evaluated by topical application. Metofluthrin was the most effective against the four colonies of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The LD50-based relative effective ratio of metofluthrin against d-allethrin was higher in Cx. quinquefasciatus (33.3 to 78.8) than in Cx. pipiens pallens (27.8)...

  13. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan Marimuthu; Rajeswary Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005). The larval mor...

  14. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  15. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  16. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 11.56 and 20.56 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 13.13 and 23.12 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 14.19 and 24.30 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C

  17. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  18. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  19. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  20. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  1. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal low genetic diversity in Culex quinquefasciatus from residential areas in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, V L; Lim, P E; Chen, C D; Lim, Y A L; Tan, T K; Norma-Rashid, Y; Lee, H L; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-06-01

    The present study explored the intraspecific genetic diversity, dispersal patterns and phylogeographic relationships of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malaysia using reference data available in GenBank in order to reveal this species' phylogenetic relationships. A statistical parsimony network of 70 taxa aligned as 624 characters of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and 685 characters of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene revealed three haplotypes (A1-A3) and four haplotypes (B1-B4), respectively. The concatenated sequences of both COI and COII genes with a total of 1309 characters revealed seven haplotypes (AB1-AB7). Analysis using tcs indicated that haplotype AB1 was the common ancestor and the most widespread haplotype in Malaysia. The genetic distance based on concatenated sequences of both COI and COII genes ranged from 0.00076 to 0.00229. Sequence alignment of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Malaysia and other countries revealed four haplotypes (AA1-AA4) by the COI gene and nine haplotypes (BB1-BB9) by the COII gene. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that Malaysian Cx. quinquefasciatus share the same genetic lineage as East African and Asian Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study has inferred the genetic lineages, dispersal patterns and hypothetical ancestral genotypes of Cx. quinquefasciatus. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus say from different regions of Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis

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    Ahid Silvia Maria Mendes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus from five localities in Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis was evaluated experimentally. Females from each locality were fed on an infected dog (~ 6 microfilariae/µl blood. A sample of blood fed mosquitoes were dissected approximately 1 h after blood meal. These results demonstrated that all had ingested microfilariae (mean, 4.8 to 24.6 microfilariae/mosquito. Fifteen days after the infected blood meal, the infection and infective rates were low in all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The mean number of infective larvae detected in the head and proboscis of these mosquitoes was 1-1.5. The vector efficiency, the number of microfilariae ingested/number of infective larvae, was low for all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the survival rate for all populations was high (range 50-75%. The survival rate of Aedes aegypti assayed simultaneously for comparison was low (24.7%, while the vector efficiency was much higher than for Cx. quinquefasciatus. These data suggest that the vector competence of all assayed populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus to D. immitis in Brazil is similar and that this species is a secondary vector due to its low susceptibility. Nevertheless, vector capacity may vary between populations due to differences in biting frequency on dogs that has been reported in Brazil.

  4. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  5. Impact of bifenthrin on honeybees and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De; Zhong, He

    2010-06-01

    The impact of bifenthrin on honeybees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was evaluated in both laboratory and semifield assays. Ten serial dilutions of bifenthrin and an acetone control using the bottle bioassay protocol were used in the laboratory to determine killing time after 15-, 30-, and 60-min honeybee exposure. Both dose and exposure time significantly affected honeybee mortality (df = 6, F = 10.9, P Bifenthrin was applied at 9.7 ml/liter, 19.5 ml/liter, and 29.5 ml/liter of water to common landscape vegetation, Melampodium paludosum Melanie (show star) and Duranta erecta L. (golden dewdrop); a water control was also used. Bee mortality was significantly higher (P < 0.05, df = 2, F = 20.8) at 29.5 ml/liter compared to the mortality at 19.5-ml/liter and 9.7-ml/liter application rates after 24-h exposure to the treated vegetation. Mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to treated vegetation was significantly (P < 0.05, df = 10, F = 114) different by week and by application rate.

  6. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

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    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  7. A first note on Japanese encephalitis virus isolation from Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Northern West Bengal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Thenmozhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is endemic in many parts of India including the state of West Bengal. In West Bengal, the first major outbreaks of JE occurred in the districts of Bankura and Burdwan in 1973. The Culex vishnui subgroup of mosquitoes has been implicated as major vectors of JE. However in India, JE virus (JEV has been isolated from 16 species of mosquitoes. During September 2011, JE cases were reported from four districts -Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Dinajpur and Cooch Behar of West Bengal (North. Adult mosquitoes were collected, identified, pooled and screened for JEV using antigen capture ELISA. Out of 279 mosquito pools tested, one pool of Cx. pseudovishnui and three pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found positive for JEV. The ELISA positive pools were further confirmed as JEV by insect bioassay (Toxo-IFA. Two pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were confirmed as JEV. This represents the first report of JEV isolation from Cx. quinquefasciatus in West Bengal.

  8. Environmental and biological factors influencing Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence for West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Lord, Cynthia C; Pesko, Kendra N; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2010-07-01

    Interactions between environmental and biological factors affect the vector competence of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for West Nile virus. Three age cohorts from two Cx. p. quinquefasciatus colonies were fed blood containing a low- or high-virus dose, and each group was held at two different extrinsic incubation temperatures (EIT) for 13 days. The colonies differed in the way that they responded to the effects of the environment on vector competence. The effects of mosquito age on aspects of vector competence were dependent on the EIT and dose, and they changed depending on the colony. Complex interactions must be considered in laboratory studies of vector competence, because the extent of the genetic and environmental variation controlling vector competence in nature is largely unknown. Differences in the environmental (EIT and dose) and biological (mosquito age and colony) effects from previous studies of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus vector competence for St. Louis encephalitis virus are discussed.

  9. Identification of Blood Meal Sources in Aedes vexans and Culex quinquefasciatus in Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jacob A.; Lujan, Daniel A.; DiMenna, Mark A.; Wearing, Helen J.; Hofkin, Bruce V.

    2013-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes vexans Meigen are two of the most abundant mosquitoes in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, USA. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction based methodology was used to identify the sources of blood meals taken by these two species. Ae. vexans was found to take a large proportion of its meals from mammals. Although less specific in terms of its blood meal preferences, Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to feed more commonly on birds. The results for Ae. vexans are similar to those reported for this species in other parts of their geographic range. Cx. quinquefasciatus appears to be more variable in terms of its host feeding under different environmental or seasonal circumstances. The implications of these results for arbovirus transmission are discussed. PMID:24224615

  10. Culex quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro Is Not Competent to Transmit the Local Zika Virus.

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    Rosilainy Surubi Fernandes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Americas have suffered a dramatic epidemic of Zika since May in 2015, when Zika virus (ZIKV was first detected in Brazil. Mosquitoes belonging to subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti, are considered the primary vectors of ZIKV. However, the rapid spread of the virus across the continent raised several concerns about the transmission dynamics, especially about potential mosquito vectors. The purpose of this work was to assess the vector competence of the house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus from an epidemic Zika area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for local circulating ZIKV isolates.Culex quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti (positive control of ZIKV infection from Rio de Janeiro were orally exposed to two ZIKV strains isolated from human cases from Rio de Janeiro (Rio-U1 and Rio-S1. Fully engorged mosquitoes were held in incubators at 26 ± 1°C, 12 h:12 h light:dark cycle and 70 ± 10% humidity. For each combination mosquito population-ZIKV strain, 30 specimens were examined for infection, dissemination and transmission rates, at 7, 14 and 21 days after virus exposure by analyzing body (thorax plus abdomen, head and saliva respectively. Infection rates were minimal to completely absent in all Cx. quinquefasciatus-virus combinations and were significantly high for Ae. aegypti. Moreover, dissemination and transmission were not detected in any Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes whatever the incubation period and the ZIKV isolate. In contrast, Ae. aegypti ensured high viral dissemination and moderate to very high transmission.The southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro was not competent to transmit local strains of ZIKV. Thus, there is no experimental evidence that Cx. quinquefasciatus likely plays a role in the ZIKV transmission. Consequently, at least in Rio, mosquito control to reduce ZIKV transmission should remain focused on Ae. aegypti.

  11. Bionomics of Culex quinquefasciatus within urban areas of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

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    Mariana Rocha David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate density, parity rates, daily survival and longevity of natural populations of Culex quinquefasciatus in three neighborhoods with distinct socio-economic and infrastructure profiles. METHODS: Mosquito collections of the Culex quinquefasciatus species were performed weekly during two four month periods, from August to November 2008 (spring and March to June 2009 (fall, in a favela (slum, a suburban area and a middle class area of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Collections were performed with backpack aspirators, in 20 randomly selected houses in each area per week, during 15-20 minutes per house. Ovaries were removed from captured females and classified as initial, intermediary or final stage. Furthermore, females were dissected for determination of parity based on the condition of the tracheal system. Mosquito survival rate and longevity were estimated on a per month basis for each neighborhood. RESULTS: We collected a total of 2,062 Culex quinquefasciatus, but monthly vector density was not correlated with temperature and rainfall. We dissected the ovaries of 625 Culex quinquefasciatus, and overall, there was a higher proportion of nulliparous females during the dryer months, while gravid females were more frequent in rainy months. In the middle class neighborhood, the parity rate reached up to 93.75% with survivorship of 0.979. Lower parity and survival rates were obtained in the suburban area (as low as 36.4% parity and 0.711 daily survival. Up to 84.7% of Culex quinquefasciatus females could survive the eight day period needed to complete West Nile Virus incubation. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus varied significantly between the neighborhoods. This suggests that vectorial capacity and disease transmission risk may vary greatly between different urban areas, which is potentially useful information for vector control programs.

  12. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

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    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  13. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

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    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  14. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  15. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  16. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  17. Toxicity of seaweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and its impact on predation efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Ayyappan, Suganya; Dinesh, Devakumar; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-06-01

    Nearly 1.4 billion people in 73 countries worldwide are threatened by lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic infection that leads to a disease commonly known as elephantiasis. Filariasis is vectored by mosquitoes, with special reference to the genus Culex. The main control tool against mosquito larvae is represented by treatments with organophosphates and insect growth regulators, with negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, green-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective larvicidals against mosquito vectors. In this research, we attempted a reply to the following question: do green-synthesized nanoparticles affect predation rates of copepods against mosquito larvae? We proposed a novel method of seaweed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the frond extract of Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The toxicity of the seaweed extract and silver nanoparticles was assessed against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Then, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus against larval instars of C. quinquefasciatus in a nanoparticle-contaminated water environment. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, the LC₅₀ values of the C. scalpelliformis extract against C. quinquefasciatus were 31.38 ppm (I), 46.49 ppm (II), 75.79 ppm (III), 102.26 ppm (IV), and 138.89 ppm (pupa), while LC₅₀ of silver nanoparticles were 3.08 ppm, (I), 3.49 ppm (II), 4.64 ppm (III), 5.86 ppm (IV), and 7.33 ppm (pupa). The predatory efficiency of the copepod M. longisetus in the control treatment was 78 and 59% against I and II instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. In a nanoparticle-contaminated environment, predation efficiency was 84 and 63%, respectively. Predation was higher against first instar larvae over other instars

  18. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  19. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

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    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  20. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  2. A MIDGUT DIGESTIVE PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 IN LARVAL MOSQUITOES, AEDES ALBOPICTUS AND CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a secretory digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes ester bond at sn-2 position of dietary phospholipids, creating free fatty acid and lysophopholipid. The free fatty acids (arachidonic acid) are absorbed into midgut cells. Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus digestive PL...

  3. Control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with chlorfenapyr in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Guessan, R.; Boko, P.; Odjo, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Akogbeto, M.; Rowland, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of chlorfenapyr applied on mosquito nets and as an indoor residual spray against populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in an area of Benin that shows problematic levels of pyrethroid resistance. Method Eight-week trial conducted in experimental

  4. Adulticidal activity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say

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    Govindarajan M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the adulticidal efficacy of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Sucrose-fed and blood starved mosquitoes were released into the tube, and the mortality effects of the extracts were observed every 10 min for 3 h exposure period. At the end of 1, 2, and 3 h exposure periods, the mosquitoes were placed in the holding tube. Cotton pads soaked in 10% sugar solution with vitamin B complex were placed in the tube during the holding period of 24 h. Mortality of the mosquitoes was recorded after 24 h. Results: Among five solvent extracts tested, the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract of leaves of P. dulce. The LC50 and LC 90 values of P. dulce leaves and seeds against Cx. quinquefasciatus were 234.97, 309.24 ppm and 464.86, 570.80 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that the crude extract of P. dulce has excellent potential for controlling filariasis vector mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity of the reported P. dulce plant.

  5. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  6. Exploring genetic variation in haplotypes of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) through DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Del Serrone, Paola; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many pathogens and parasites of humans, as well as domestic and wild animals. In urban and semi-urban Asian countries, Cx. quinquefasciatus is a main vector of nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. In the African region, it vectors the Rift Valley fever virus, while in the USA it transmits West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis virus. In this study, DNA barcoding was used to explore the genetic variation of Cx. quinquefasciatus populations from 88 geographical regions. We presented a comprehensive approach analyzing the effectiveness of two gene markers, i.e. CO1 and 16S rRNA. The high threshold genetic divergence of CO1 (0.47%) gene was reported as an ideal marker for molecular identification of this mosquito vector. Furthermore, null substitutions were lower in CO1 if compared to 16S rRNA, which influenced its differentiating potential among Indian haplotypes. NJ tree was well supported with high branch values for CO1 gene than 16S rRNA, indicating ideal genetic differentiation among haplotypes. TCS haplotype network revealed 14 distinct clusters. The intra- and inter-population polymorphism were calculated among the global and Indian Cx. quinquefasciatus lineages. The genetic diversity index Tajima' D showed negative values for all the 4 intra-population clusters (G2-4, G10). Fu's FS showed negative value for G10 cluster, which was significant and indicated recent population expansion. However, the G2-G4 (i.e. Indian lineages) had positive values, suggesting a bottleneck effect. Overall, our research firstly shed light on the genetic differences among the haplotypes of Cx. quinquefasciatus species complex, adding basic knowledge to the molecular ecology of this important mosquito vector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  8. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  9. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  10. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

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    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  11. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

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    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  12. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sida acuta (Malvaceae) leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life-threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management, emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and nontarget organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Sida acuta plant leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The synthesized AgNPs from S. acuta leaf were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of S. acuta for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of S. acuta aqueous leaf extract appeared to be most effective

  14. Effectivity of Sugar-Apple (Annona squamosa) Seed Extract with a Different Length of Storage against Culec quinquefasciatus Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Heni Prasetyowati; Wisnu Satria

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa) seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a r...

  15. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  16. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: Blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds

    OpenAIRE

    Zinser, Margaret; Ramberg, Frank; Willott, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile viru...

  17. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: Blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Zinser

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile virus vectors.

  18. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  19. DAYA LARVASIDA EKSTRAK BIJI SRIKAYA (ANNONA SQUAMOSA DENGAN RENTANG WAKTU PENYIMPANAN YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP LARVA CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Satria A.K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a randomized controlled trial group design approach. The test material was an extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been kept for 0, 1, 2, and 3 week with LC50 (0,47 ppm was used. Each treatment used 25 C. quinquefasciatus larvae from third instar larvae stage and replicated five times. After exposed for 24 hours, dead larvae counted. The result confirmed that the extract of sugar apple’s seeds which has been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week did not showed any significant different on larvae mortality. Extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week have an equal activity as Culex quinquefasciatus larvicide. Key Word: Sugar apple (Annona squamosa, seeds, larvicide, Culex quinquefasciatus, length of storage Abstrak. Insektisida sintetik telah banyak digunakan untuk mengontrol Culex quinquefasciatus, tetapi penggunaan insektisida sintetik terus-menerus berdampak buruk terhadap lingkungan dan mengakibatkan resistensi. Fakta ini menjadi alasan biji srikaya (Annona squamosa yang mengandung alkaloid digunakan sebagai insektisida alternatif yang aman bagi lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh biji srikaya dengan perbedaan lama penyimpanan terhadap larva C. quinquefasciatus. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan desain rancangan acak kelompok. Bahan uji adalah ekstrak biji srikaya yang telah disimpan selama 0, 1, 2, dan 3 minggu. Sampel penelitian ini adalah larva instar ketiga

  20. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangkamon Sritabutra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: On a volunteer’s forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm伊10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results: Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions: The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  1. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun

    2017-01-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies. PMID:28430562

  2. Competence of Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes as Zika Virus Vectors, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Zhou, Tengfei; Lai, Zetian; Zhang, Zhenhong; Jia, Zhirong; Zhou, Guofa; Williams, Tricia; Xu, Jiabao; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lin, Lifeng; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2017-07-01

    In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies.

  3. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  4. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  5. Treatment of horses with cypermethrin against the biting flies Culicoides nubeculosus, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, E; Rowlinson, M; Bartram, D; Carpenter, S; Mellor, P; Wall, R

    2010-04-19

    An in vitro assay was used to assess the efficacy of the proprietary pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin applied to horses (Deosect spray, 5.0%, w/v Fort Dodge Animal Health) against the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti Linneaus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Hair was collected from the back, belly and legs of the horses immediately prior to treatment and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after treatment, and also from untreated controls. In laboratory assays groups of 10 adult female C. nubeculosus, Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to 0.5g of hair for 3min. In all cases, little or no mortality was observed in insects kept in contact with the pre-treatment samples or the untreated controls. With post-treatment samples for C. nubeculosus, mortality was close to 80% 7 days after treatment and then declined gradually; mean mortality was still at around 50% for hair collected 35 days after treatment. In general, Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus appeared to be less susceptible to cypermethrin than C. nubeculosus and the attenuation of the toxic effect declined more quickly with time after treatment. There were differences in the toxicity of hair from different body regions, with hair from the back consistently inducing the highest mortality and hair from the legs the lowest; this effect was more pronounced for C. nubeculosus than Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus. The results demonstrate the potential for topical insecticide treatment to offer protection to horses against biting flies; but highlight the major differences that exist in susceptibility between different insect species.

  6. Effects of blood meal source on the reproduction of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Yost, Samantha A

    2012-06-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were fed blood meals from a live chicken (LC), chicken blood in Alsever's (AC) solution, defibrinated bovine blood (DB), or bovine blood in citrate (CB) and incubated at 28° C. The effects of different blood meal sources were evaluated with respect to rates of blood feeding and reproduction (i.e., fecundity and fertility) over two gonotrophic cycles. Mosquitoes that fed on the first blood meal were subjected to a second blood meal as follows (first blood meal / second blood meal): LC/LC, LC/DB, DB/DB, CB/CB, AC/AC. Fecundity and fertility of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were significantly (P blood; however, fecundity and fertility in different treatment groups varied by gonotrophic cycle. These results contribute to our understanding of the impact of blood meal source on feeding and reproduction in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. The potential impacts of blood meal source on virus transmission experiments are discussed. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Comparative efficacy of IR3535 and deet as repellents against adult Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilek, J E; Petersen, J L; Hallmon, C E

    2004-09-01

    Arm-in-cage laboratory evaluations of 2 proprietary formulations of the mosquito repellents IR3535 and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet; aqueous cream, hydroalcoholic spray) were made with 10 and 20% concentrations of each repellent. Also, 4 commercially available products containing IR3535 (Expedition insect repellent 20.07% active ingredient [AI], Bug Guard Plus with SPF30 sunscreen 7.5% AI, Bug Guard Plus with SPF15 sunscreen 7.5% AI, and Bug Guard Plus 7.5% AI) were tested. All comparisons were made on an equal formulation or concentration basis. Eight volunteers tested all formulations or products 3 times against laboratory-reared, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (6-10 days old). Products were applied to a forearm at the rate of 0.002 g/cm2. The other forearm was not treated and served as a control. Elapsed time to 1st and 2nd consecutive bite was recorded. Mean protection time (i.e., time to 1st bite) with proprietary formulations of IR3535 were comparable to those of deet, with 20% concentrations providing greater protection against Ae. aegypti (3 h) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (6 h). Mean protection time for commercial products containing IR3535 ranged from nearly 90 to 170 min for Ae. aegypti and 3.5 to 6.5 h for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Mean time to the 2nd bite was similar to time to 1st bite for each mosquito species, product, and formulation.

  8. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  9. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  10. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  11. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  12. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  13. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  14. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  15. Insecticides resistance in the Culex quinquefasciatus populations from northern Thailand and possible resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Chamnanya, Saowanee; Lumjuan, Nongkran; Somboon, Pradya

    2015-09-01

    The mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus is known to be resistant to insecticides worldwide, including Thailand. This study was the first investigation of the insecticide resistance mechanisms, involving metabolic detoxification and target site insensitivity in C. quinquefasciatus from Thailand. Adult females reared from field-caught larvae from six provinces of northern Thailand were determined for resistant status by exposing to 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin and 5% malathion papers using the standard WHO susceptibility test. The overall mortality rates were 45.8%, 11.4% and 80.2%, respectively. A fragment of voltage-gated sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced to identify the knock down resistance (kdr) mutation. The ace-1 gene mutation was determined by using PCR-RFLP. The L1014F kdr mutation was observed in all populations, but the homozygous mutant F/F1014 genotype was found only in two of the six provinces where the kdr mutation was significantly correlated with deltamethrin resistance. However, none of mosquitoes had the G119S mutation in the ace-1 gene. A laboratory deltamethrin resistant strain, Cq_CM_R, has been established showing a highly resistant level after selection for a few generations. The mutant F1014 allele frequency was significantly increased after one generation of selection. A synergist assay was performed to assess the metabolic detoxifying enzymes. Addition of bis(4-nitrophenyl)-phosphate (BNPP) and diethyl maleate (DEM), inhibitors of esterases and glutathione S-transferases (GST), respectively, into the larval bioassay of the Cq_CM strain with deltamethrin showed no significant reduction. By contrast, addition of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, showed a 9-fold reduction of resistance. Resistance to pyrethroids in C. quinquefasciatus is widely distributed in northern Thailand. This study reports for the first time for the detection of the L1014F kdr mutation in wild populations

  16. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC 50 =25.6μL·L -1 ), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC 50 =49.8μL·L -1 ) and A. citriodora (LC 50 =65.6μL·L -1 ), while the other essential oils showed LC 50 values higher than 90μL·L -1 . The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC 50 =18.3μL·L -1 ). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC 50 (72.5μL·L -1 ) higher than the LC 50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito

  18. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  19. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effects of heavy metals on population growth and metallothionein gene expression in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, from Calcutta, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Duttagupta, Asish K.; Mal, Tarun K

    2004-01-01

    Major water bodies in and around the city of Calcutta (India) receive heavy metal contaminated effluents from industries, households, and vehicular traffic through sewage or drainage. We quantified concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cd from three water bodies at Kalighat, Tangra, and VIP Road, respectively. The concentrations of these heavy metals were significantly greater in the summer than in monsoon when heavy downpours resulted in reduced metal concentrations. Concentrations of metals in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus also reflected such seasonal fluctuations. Hatchability and survivorship of C. quinquefasciatus significantly differed among the sites and were reduced significantly from the control. Exposure to heavy metals also induced MT-gene expression in C. quinquefasciatus, likely helping them to survive in the water bodies stressed with heavy metals. MT-gene activity demonstrated significant variation among sites and seasons with the highest activity in the summer in the VIP Road population. This study suggests that C. quinquefasciatus could be used as an ecological indicator of heavy metal pollution by monitoring its MT-gene expression. - The mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, might be useful as an indicator of trace metals.

  1. Effects of heavy metals on population growth and metallothionein gene expression in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, from Calcutta, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Duttagupta, Asish K.; Mal, Tarun K.

    2004-01-01

    Major water bodies in and around the city of Calcutta (India) receive heavy metal contaminated effluents from industries, households, and vehicular traffic through sewage or drainage. We quantified concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cd from three water bodies at Kalighat, Tangra, and VIP Road, respectively. The concentrations of these heavy metals were significantly greater in the summer than in monsoon when heavy downpours resulted in reduced metal concentrations. Concentrations of metals in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus also reflected such seasonal fluctuations. Hatchability and survivorship of C. quinquefasciatus significantly differed among the sites and were reduced significantly from the control. Exposure to heavy metals also induced MT-gene expression in C. quinquefasciatus, likely helping them to survive in the water bodies stressed with heavy metals. MT-gene activity demonstrated significant variation among sites and seasons with the highest activity in the summer in the VIP Road population. This study suggests that C. quinquefasciatus could be used as an ecological indicator of heavy metal pollution by monitoring its MT-gene expression. - The mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, might be useful as an indicator of trace metals

  2. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions. Results: The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC 50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  3. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  4. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  5. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  7. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  8. Detection of Wolbachia endobacteria in Culex quinquefasciatus by Gimenez staining and confirmation by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniaraj, M; Paramasivan, R; Sunish, I P; Arunachalam, N; Mariappan, T; Jerald Leo, S Victor; Dhananjeyan, K J

    2012-12-01

    Wolbachia are common intracellular bacteria that are found in arthropods and nematodes. These endosymbionts are transmitted vertically through host eggs and alter host biology in diverse ways, including the induction of reproductive manipulations, such as feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing and sperm-egg incompatibility. Since they can also move horizontally across species boundaries, Wolbachia is gaining importance in recent days as it could be used as a biological control agent to control vector mosquitoes or for paratransgenic approaches. However, the study of Wolbachia requires sophisticated techniques such as PCR and cell culture facilities which cannot be affordable for many laboratories where the diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors are common. Hence, it would be beneficial to develop a simple method to detect the presence of Wolbachia in arthropods. In this study, we described a method of staining Wolbachia endobacteria, present in the reproductive tissues of mosquitoes. The reliability of this method was compared with Gram staining and PCR based detection. The microscopic observation of the Gimenez stained smear prepared from the teased ovary of wild caught and Wolbachia (+) Cx. quinquefasciatus revealed the presence of pink coloured pleomorphic cells of Wolbachia ranging from cocci, comma shaped cells to bacillus and chain forms. The ovaries of Wolbachia (-) cured mosquito did not show any cell. Although Gram's staining is a reliable differential staining for the other bacteria, the bacterial cells in the smears from the ovaries of wild caught mosquitoes did not take the stain properly and the cells were not clearly visible. The PCR amplified product from the pooled remains of wild caught and Wolbachia (+) Cx. quinquefasciatus showed clear banding, whereas, no banding was observed for the negative control (distilled water) and Wolbachia (-) Cx. quinquefasciatus. The Gimenez staining technique applied, could be used to detect the members of

  9. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyse how basic sanitation conditions, water supply and housing conditions affect the concentration of Culex quinquefasciatus METHODS: Populations of C. quinquefasciatus in 61 houses in the municipality of Olinda, PE, were monitored between October 2009 and October 2010. Observations were carried out in homes without the presence of preferred breeding sites in order to identify characteristics that may be aggravating factors for the development of the mosquito. Five aggravating factors were analysed: vegetation cover surrounding the home, number of residents/home, water storage, sewage drainage and water drainage. These characteristics were analysed in terms of presence or absence and as indicators of the degree of infestation, which was estimated through monitoring the concentration of eggs (oviposition traps - BR-OVT and adults (CDC light traps. RESULTS: Sewage drainage to a rudimentary septic tank or to the open air was the most frequent aggravating factor in the homes (91.8%, although the presence of vegetation was the only characteristic that significantly influenced the increase in the number of egg rafts (p = 0.02. The BR-OVT achieved positive results in 95.1% of the evaluations, with the presence of at least one egg raft per month. A total of 2,366 adults were caught, with a mosquito/room/night ratio of 32.9. No significant difference was found in the number of mosquitoes caught in the homes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sanitation and water supply influence the population density of C. quinquefasciatus, residence features that are not usually considered in control measures can be aggravating factors in sustaining the mosquito population.

  10. Larval Habitat Substrates Could Affect the Biology and Vectorial Capacity of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Ali, Qasim; Alam, Mehboob; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Majeed, Shahid; Riaz, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say is an important disease vector throughout much of the world. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different larval habitat substrates on the fitness and biting efficiency of Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Our findings indicate that the development time (egg to adult) of larvae reared in irrigation water was 8.63 d while that of larvae reared in distilled water was 17.10 d (Effect size = 0.95). However, the rate of adult emergence was similar for all the tested treatments. Furthermore, the mean weight of an egg raft varied between larval habitats: distilled water (1.83 mg), rainfall water (1.25 mg), irrigation water (1.52 mg), and sewerage water (2.52 mg) (Effect size = 0.91). But, the fecundity (eggs per female) and hatchability (%) were statistically similar in all the rearing mediums (Effect size = 0.79). Longevity of females in all the tested populations did not differ significantly (Effect size = 0.91). The mean relative growth rates of larvae reared in tap water (0.80) and distilled water (0.86) habitats were lower than growth rates in all other rearing habitats (Effect size = 0.96). The intrinsic rate of natural increase in tap water (0.27) and irrigation water (0.35) was significantly higher than that in distilled water (0.09) and sewerage water (0.16) (Effect size = 0.84). Adults reared in rain water had the highest biting efficiency among all the tested populations. These results provide useful information for the management of Cx. quinquefasciatus. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  12. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  13. Bioactivity of sea grass against the malarial fever mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suburamaniyan Vijayakumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seagrass extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus Methods: Seagrass extracts, Halodule pinifolia (H. pinifolia, Cymodocea serrulata (C. serrulata and Thalasia testudinum (T. testudinum were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01 mg-0.1 mg. After 24 h the mortality rate was identified with the formulae [(% of test mortality - % of control mortality/(100 - % of control mortality]伊100. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of dimethylsulfoxide and 199 mL of distilled water only. Results: The root extract of H. pinifolia showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum concentration of extract of LC 50 value of (0.614依0.006 µg/mL with lower confidence limit-upper confidence limit value of (0.052-0.072 and LC90 value of 0.9120 µg/mL followed by leaf extract of C. serrulata LC 50 value of (0.074依0.008 µg/mL and LC90 value of 0.1487 µg/mL. T. testudinum leaf extract showed LC 50 value of (0.082依0.006 µg/mL. The regression equation of root and leaf extract of H. pinifolia for 4 th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were Y=5.229+1.36x (R2=0.993 and Y=2.369+1.21x (R2=0.878 respectively and analysis of variation was significant at P<0.05 level. The result of the preliminary phytochemical constituents showed the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions: From the present study the ethanolic extracts of seagrass of H. pinifolia possess lead compound for development of larvicidal activity.

  14. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  15. Avaliação da sensibilidade de adultos de Culex quinquefasciatus Say a inseticidas químicos de contato Evaluation of the sensitivity of the adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say to chemical insecticides

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    Carlos Fernando S. de Andrade

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de adultos do pernilongo doméstico Culex quinquefasciatus a 5 inseticidas químicos foi avaliada sob condições de laboratório pelo critério de Tempo Letal Mediano (TL50. Foram utilizados o organofosforado Malathion e quatro piretróides: Bifenthrin, Deltamethrin, Esfenvalerate e Alfamethrin. Foi sugerida uma técnica simples e eficiente para se avaliar adultos de um dia de idade incluindo 5 repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados obtidos mostraram ser o método bastante adequado para avaliações rotineiras. Não ocorreu resistência a esses 5 princípios ativos, na população natural de Culex quinquefasciatus estudada.The sensitivity of the adult house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus to 5 chemical insecticides was evaluated under laboratory condictions, based on the Median Lethal Time (LT50 criterion. The organophosphorous Malathion and four pyrethroids: Bifenthrin, Deltamethrin, Esfenvalerate and Alfamethrin were utilized. An easy and efficient technique was suggested for the testing of one-day-old adults, including five repetitions for each treatment. The results revealed the full adequacy of this method for routine use. Further, no resistance to the 5 chemical compounds was detected among this natural population of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  16. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

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    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Deepak Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million. The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn. has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control.

  18. Isolation and characterization of halotolerant bacteria associated with the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2013-11-01

    We show for the first time that the midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) mosquito larvae harbors halotolerant bacteria. The midgut from field collected Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were dissected under aseptic conditions, homogenized and plated on LB agar medium with 2% (w/v) NaCl. Two different colonies were successfully isolated and bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequences. The halotolerant bacterial isolates were: Halobacillus litoralis (CxH1) and Staphylococcus cohnii (CxH2). The gene sequence of these isolates has been deposited in GenBank (JN016804 and JN183986). These halotolerant bacteria grew in the absence of salt (0%) as well as in the presence of relatively high salt concentrations in culture medium (20%), and grew best in the presence of 8-10% (w/v) NaCl. H. litoralis and S. cohnii showed growth up to 18 and 20% (w/v) NaCl, respectively. Optimum growth temperatures for both the bacteria were between 30-37 degrees C. H. litoralis was resistant to the antibiotics oxacillin, penicillin, polymixin and S. cohnii was resistant to the antibiotic oxacillin.

  19. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Rauvolfia serpentina L. seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipanwita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    To establish the larvicidal activities, if any of solvent extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) L. seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say, 1823 as target species. Seeds of R. serpentina were extracted with five solvents graded according to the polarity [viz. petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and absolute alcohol] continuing one after another with the same seeds. Mortality rate with petroleum ether extract was significantly higher than other extracts. The mortality rates of late 3rd instar larvae were 50.33±5.51, 10.00±1.00, 0.00±0.00, 21.33±1.53 and 0.00±0.00 in 100 ppm concentration of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and absolute alcohol respectively, after 24 h of exposure period. Results of this study show that petroleum ether extract of R. serpentina seed may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal agent. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytonuclear Epistasis Controls the Density of Symbiont Wolbachia pipientis in Nongonadal Tissues of Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kevin J; Glaser, Robert L

    2017-08-07

    Wolbachia pipientis , a bacterial symbiont infecting arthropods and nematodes, is vertically transmitted through the female germline and manipulates its host's reproduction to favor infected females. Wolbachia also infects somatic tissues where it can cause nonreproductive phenotypes in its host, including resistance to viral pathogens. Wolbachia -mediated phenotypes are strongly associated with the density of Wolbachia in host tissues. Little is known, however, about how Wolbachia density is regulated in native or heterologous hosts. Here, we measure the broad-sense heritability of Wolbachia density among families in field populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens , and show that densities in ovary and nongonadal tissues of females in the same family are not correlated, suggesting that Wolbachia density is determined by distinct mechanisms in the two tissues. Using introgression analysis between two different strains of the closely related species C. quinquefasciatus , we show that Wolbachia densities in ovary tissues are determined primarily by cytoplasmic genotype, while densities in nongonadal tissues are determined by both cytoplasmic and nuclear genotypes and their epistatic interactions. Quantitative-trait-locus mapping identified two major-effect quantitative-trait loci in the C. quinquefasciatus genome explaining a combined 23% of variance in Wolbachia density, specifically in nongonadal tissues. A better understanding of how Wolbachia density is regulated will provide insights into how Wolbachia density can vary spatiotemporally in insect populations, leading to changes in Wolbachia -mediated phenotypes such as viral pathogen resistance. Copyright © 2017 Emerson, Glaser.

  1. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae flower extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    R. Raveen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus is the vector responsible for serious disease filariasis among human beings. Plant derived products have received increased attention from scientists as they serve as a rich source for novel natural substances possessing insecticidal properties which are safe to human and ecosystem. During the last decade, various studies on natural plant products against vector mosquito indicate them as possible alternatives to chemical and synthetic insecticides for mosquito control. In the present study, the crude hexane and aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers were reported for larvicidal activity against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Mortality was observed for 24 and 48 hours. Hexane flower extract exhibited highest larvicidal activity with a LC50 value of 102.54 ppm and 61.11ppm after 24 and 48 hours respectively. Further investigations are needed to elucidate this activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredient(s of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity should be identified.

  3. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P; Balakrishnan, N

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control.

  4. Host-Feeding Preference of the Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, in Yucatan State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Loroño-Pino, Maria A.; Chi Chim, Wilberth A.; Flores-Flores, Luis F.; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy; Baak-Baak, Carlos; Perez-Mutul, Jose; Suarez-Solis, Victor; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Beaty, Barry J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the host-feeding preference of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to the availability of human and domestic animals in the city of Merida, Yucatan State, Mexico. Mosquitoes were collected in the backyards of houses using resting wooden boxes. Collections were made five times per week from January to December 2005. DNA was extracted from engorged females and tested by PCR using universal avian- and mammalian-specific primers. DNA extracted from avian-derived blood was further analyzed by PCR using primers that differentiate among the birds of three avian orders: Passeriformes, Columbiformes and Galliformes. PCR products obtained from mammalian-derived blood were subjected to restriction enzyme digestion to differentiate between human-, dog-, cat-, pig-, and horse-derived blood meals. Overall, 82% of engorged mosquitoes had fed on birds, and 18% had fed on mammals. The most frequent vertebrate hosts were Galliformes (47.1%), Passeriformes (23.8%), Columbiformes (11.2%) birds, and dogs (8.8%). The overall human blood index was 6.7%. The overall forage ratio for humans was 0.1, indicating that humans were not a preferred host for Cx. quinquefasciatus in Merida. PMID:20578953

  5. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Mohamed Yacoob Syed Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods: Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa, Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg. Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results: Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC 50 value (0.055 6依0.010 3 µg/mL, (0.067 5依0.136 0 µg/mL and (0.066 1 依0.007 6 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  6. Mosquito repellent properties of Delonix elata (L. gamble (Family: Fabaceae against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Delonix elata (D. elata leaf and seed against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm伊30 cm伊25 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Repellent activity was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of D. elata were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the strength of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided over 150 min and 120 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts of D. elata exhibit the potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of filariasis.

  7. Environmental and social-demographic predictors of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Imelda K; Riegel, Claudia; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2018-04-17

    Understanding the major predictors of disease vectors such as mosquitoes can guide the development of effective and timely strategies for mitigating vector-borne disease outbreaks. This study examined the influence of selected environmental, weather and sociodemographic factors on the spatial and temporal distribution of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Adult mosquitoes were collected over a 4-year period (2006, 2008, 2009 and 2010) using CDC gravid traps. Socio-demographic predictors were obtained from the United States Census Bureau, 2005-2009 American Community Survey and the City of New Orleans Department of Code Enforcement. Linear mixed effects models and ERDAS image processing software were used for statistical analysis and image processing. Only two of the 22 predictors examined were significant predictors of Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance. Mean temperature during the week of mosquito collection was positively associated with Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance while developed high intensity areas were negatively associated with Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance. The findings of this study illustrate the power and utility of integrating biophysical and sociodemographic data using GIS analysis to identify the biophysical and sociodemographic processes that increase the risk of vector mosquito abundance. This knowledge can inform development of accurate predictive models that ensure timely implementation of mosquito control interventions.

  8. Synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles from Morinda tinctoria leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Ramesh; Nattuthurai, N; Gopinath, Ponraj; Mariappan, Tirupathi

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis, and they accounted for global mortality and morbidity with increased resistance to common insecticides. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the acetone leaf extracts of Morinda tinctoria and synthesized silver nanoparticles against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have also been tested against the third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The leaf extract and the AgNPs high mortality values were 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) = 8.088 and 1.442 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results recorded from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. These results suggest that the leaf extract of M. tinctoria and synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of C. quinquefasciatus. By this approach, it is suggestive that this rapid synthesis of nanoparticles would be proper for developing a biological process for mosquito control.

  9. Sampling gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with traps baited with synthetic oviposition pheromone and grass infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Takken, W.; Mdira, K.Y.; Pickett, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of traps baited with (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (the synthetic oviposition pheromone) and grass infusions in sampling a population of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say was conducted in Muheza, Northeast Tanzania. A counterflow geometry (CFG) trap baited with pheromone and

  10. Effect of photoperiod on blood feeding activity of female hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Kenji; Yoshii, Manabu; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Uchida, Keikichi; Eshita, Yuki; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Ogawa, Yasunori

    2004-01-01

    Blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids (F1) between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in long and short photoperiods at 2l℃ to examine the effect of photoperiod on blood feeding rate. Blood feeding rates (F1) were lower in short photoperiods than in long photoperiods. From this, it seems that the hybrids show diapause.

  11. Effectivity of Sugar-Apple (Annona squamosa Seed Extract with a Different Length of Storage against Culec quinquefasciatus Larvae

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    Heni Prasetyowati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a randomized controlled trial group design approach. The test material was an extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been kept for 0, 1, 2, and 3 week with LC50 (0,47 ppm was used. Each treatment used 25 C. quinquefasciatus larvae from third instar larvae stage and replicated five times. After exposed for 24 hours, dead larvae counted. The result confirmed that the extract of sugar apple’s seeds which has been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week did not showed any significant different on larvae mortality. Extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week have an equal activity as Culex quinquefasciatus larvicide.

  12. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  13. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  14. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  16. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  17. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

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    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  18. Baseline Susceptibility of Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Cu-licidae to Five Insecticides with Different Modes of Action in Southeast of Iran

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    Yaser Salim-Abadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae is an important vector for many human diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility level of larval and adult stages of Cu. quinquefasciatus to different groups of WHO recommended insecticides for vector control.Methods: Larval stages of the Culex mosquitoes were collected from their natural habitats in Rafsanjan County at Kerman Province, southeast of Iran in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility status of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus against DDT (4%, deltamethrin (0.05%, malathion 5%, and bendiocarb (0.1% were determined using WHO stand­ard insecticide susceptibility test. Additional test was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to temephos. Bioassay data were analyzed by Probit program.Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus adults showed resistance to all four groups of the tested insecticides according to the WHO criteria for resistance evaluation. The lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (LC50 and 90% mortality (LC90 of temephos against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were 0.18mg/l and 0.78mg/l, respectively. This finding also con­firms resistance to temephos based on the WHO recommended instructions for resistance evaluation.Conclusion: Resistance to all groups of the tested insecticides should be considered for future vector control investi­gations in the study area.

  19. Larvicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves extract on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus.

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    K. Dass

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic and chemical insecticides to control mosquitoes result in environment hazards and development of resistance in vector species. This research work is about an alternative mosquito control method that is considered as safe to environment and non-target species and also bio-degradable. Hence an attempt was made to study the larvicidal effect of the extract of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves on III and IV instar larva and pupa of Culex quinquefasciatus. The LC50 value of Murraya exotica for III and IV instar larvae and pupae is 135.539 ppm, 154.361 ppm and 178.571 ppm respectively. Likewise for Lawsonia inermis it is 139.057 for III instar, 163.630 for IV instar and 188.151 for the pupa. Of these, two plants Murraya exotica plant extract is more effective than the Lawsonia inermis.

  20. Larvicidal potential of Asteraceae family endophytic actinomycetes against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is blessed with plants of Asteraceae family with known medicinal background used for centuries by Hakims (traditional physicians). Keeping in mind the background of their anti-larval potential, a total of 21 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from four Asteraceae plants and screened against the first and fourth instar stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito larvae. Of the 21 isolates, 6 of them gave strong larvicidal activity (80-100% mortality) in the screening results and 4 isolates gave a potent larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at the fourth instar stage. These isolates belonged to different species within the actinomycetes group, namely Streptomyces albovinaceus and Streptomyces badius. This communication reports the larvicidal potential of endophytic actinomycetes residing within the native Asteraceae plants in Pakistan. The study suggests further exploration through large-scale productions leading to the identification of the larvicidal compounds.

  1. Multiple insecticide resistances in the disease vector Culex p. quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean.

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    Pocquet, Nicolas; Milesi, Pascal; Makoundou, Patrick; Unal, Sandra; Zumbo, Betty; Atyame, Célestine; Darriet, Frédéric; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Thiria, Julien; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Iyaloo, Diana P; Weill, Mylène; Chandre, Fabrice; Labbé, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines (OC), Organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PYR) families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure. In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides, enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families (OC, OP and PYR) is widespread at a regional scale. However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. Moreover, two resistance alleles displayed clinal distributions in Mayotte and La Réunion, probably as a result of a heterogeneous selection due to local treatment practices. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies (e.g. insecticide rotation). In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used. It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to control populations

  2. Multiple insecticide resistances in the disease vector Culex p. quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pocquet

    Full Text Available Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines (OC, Organophosphates (OP and pyrethroids (PYR families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure. In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides, enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families (OC, OP and PYR is widespread at a regional scale. However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. Moreover, two resistance alleles displayed clinal distributions in Mayotte and La Réunion, probably as a result of a heterogeneous selection due to local treatment practices. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies (e.g. insecticide rotation. In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used. It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to

  3. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandhan, Perumal; Kavitha, Thangaraj; Karthi, Sengodan; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2018-03-03

    Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana -28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana -22 extract. The LC 50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae) values of B. bassiana -28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus . Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana -28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm -1 . Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm -1, assigned to N-H stretching, 2927.94 cm -1 assigned to C-H bonding and 1595.13 cm -1 assigned to C-O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N -hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%); Z,Z -9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%); 9-eicosyne (10.832%); heptacosane (5.148%); tetrateracontane (5.801%); and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%). Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana -28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana -28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  4. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Perumal Vivekanandhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana-28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana-22 extract. The LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae values of B. bassiana-28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana-28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm−1. Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm−1, assigned to N–H stretching, 2927.94 cm−1 assigned to C–H bonding and 1595.13 cm−1 assigned to C–O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N-hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%; Z,Z-9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%; 9-eicosyne (10.832%; heptacosane (5.148%; tetrateracontane (5.801%; and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%. Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana-28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana-28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  5. Biological control of Anopheles darlingi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae using shrimps

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    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes can act as vectors of important diseases such as malaria, dengue, Zika virus, yellow fever, Chikungunya and Mayaro fever, in addition to filariasis. The use of insecticides, larvicides, bed nets and repellents, besides the use of drugs as chemoprevention and the treatment of the sick are currently the pillars of the control of these vectors. We studied the biological control against of Anopheles darlingi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae using shrimps of the species M. pantanalense, M. amazonicum, M. brasiliense and M. jelskii. Larvae of mosquitoes were collected from the breeding environment and placed in a 500 and 1000 l tank containing 60 shrimps/m2. The predatory activity was evaluated for 30 days and, in all groups it was observed that 100% of the larvae were consumed in few minutes. In the environment, these same species of crustaceans were released in water bodies with the presence of larvae of these insects. In just 72 h there was a marked reduction of the larvae in the release sites of shrimps. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of adult mosquitoes caught near the breeding sites, allowing to infer that, in places where the crustaceans were released, the predatory activity on the larvae of mosquitoes was sufficient to reduce the number of adult mosquitoes p ≤ 0,05. This is the first description of the predatory activity of M. pantanalense, M. amazonicum, M. brasiliense and M. jelskii on An. darlingi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus larvae, constituting an important tool of biological control of these parasites-vectors.

  6. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

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    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  7. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

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    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  8. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

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    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  9. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  10. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

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    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  11. Pengaruh Pengasapan (Thermal Fogging Insektisida Piretroid (Malation 95% Terhadap Nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Culex quinquefasciatus di Pemukiman

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    Hasan Boesri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts. The evaluation of piretroid insecticide (active ingredient Malation 95% was con­ducted in Sub district Tengarang, Semarang Segency, Central Java Province. The insecti­cide was applied using thermal fogging method for dosages of 125, 250, 375, 500 and 625 ml/ha (diluted in diesel to 10 litters. The evaluation of the efficacy was conducted against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (the main dengue haemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus (the urban lymphatic fil­ariasis vector. Result of the evaluation was revealed that dosages of 500 and 625 ml/ha were effective against both tested mosquito species indoor and outdoor.Key Word: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, insecticide Piretroid (Malation 95%, thermal fogging.

  12. Polymeric nanoencapsulation of insect repellent: Evaluation of its bioefficacy on Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito population and effective impregnation onto cotton fabrics for insect repellent clothing

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    A.P.B. Balaji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diethylphenylacetamide (Bulk-DEPA, an organic insect repellent was subjected to Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG polymerization followed by Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT emulsification method to yield the polymeric nanodroplets of DEPA (Nano-DEPA. The mean hydrodynamic diameter was found to be 149 ± 1.06 nm. The efficacy of Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA was comparatively investigated on the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito population. The larvicidal bioassay was performed on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and the median lethal indices (LC50 of was found to be 0.055, 0.208, 1.397 mg/L and 0.023, 0.144, 0.260 mg/L for Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA respectively. The histopathological studies were found to be corroborative with the larvicidal bioassay. The median knockdown indices (KD50 on 2–3 day old sucrose fed adult mosquitoes determined by WHO cone bioassay and was found to be 55.168 and 33.277 mg/L for Bulk-DEPA and Nano-DEPA. The obtained results indicate the improved efficacy possessed by the Nano-DEPA as comparative to Bulk-DEPA even at lower concentrations. Further, the Nano-DEPA was impregnated onto the alginate cross-linked (ACL and Plain (PL cotton fabrics, and the Washing resistance index (WRI was determined. The obtained results indicate the higher WRI possessed by the ACL cotton fabric than the PL cotton fabric. This was owing to the effective physical entrapment of Nano-DEPA onto the alginate matrices, which was further substantiated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopic (HR-SEM studies. Overall, the present study has emphasized the benefit of formulating Bulk-DEPA into Nano-DEPA to exert higher efficacy on the mosquito population. In addition, study has provided the methodology for the effective impregnation of Nano-DEPA onto the cotton fabrics for the reliable application in long lasting insect repellent clothing.

  13. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  14. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  15. Loss of genetic diversity in Culex quinquefasciatus targeted by a lymphatic filariasis vector control program in Recife, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaxo, Marina F S; Ayres, Constância F J; Weetman, David

    2011-09-01

    Recife is one of the largest cities in north-eastern Brazil and is endemic for lymphatic filariasis transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus. Since 2003 a control program has targeted mosquito larvae by elimination of breeding sites and bimonthly application of Bacillus sphaericus. To assess the impact of this program on the local vector population we monitored the genetic diversity and differentiation of Cx. quinquefasciatus using microsatellites and a B. sphaericus-resistance associated mutation (cqm1(REC)) over a 3-year period. We detected a significant but gradual decline in allelic diversity, which, coupled with subtle temporal genetic structure, suggests a major impact of the control program on the vector population. Selection on cqm1(REC) does not appear to be involved with loss of neutral diversity from the population, with no temporal trend in resistant allele frequency and no correlation with microsatellite differentiation. The evidence for short-term genetic drift we detected suggests a low ratio of effective population size: census population size for Cx. quinquefasciatus, perhaps coupled with strong geographically-restricted population structure. Spatial definition of populations will be an important step for success of an expanded vector control program. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicity of Boswellia dalzielii (Burseraceae) Leaf Fractions Against Immature Stages of Anopheles gambiae (Giles) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younoussa, Lame; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of several human pathogens, and great attention has recently been placed on insecticides from plant-derived products, in search for mosquito control agents. This study, thus, investigated the potency of Boswellia dalzielii methanol leaf extract and its four fractions as mosquito ovicide, larvicide, and pupicide against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant products were tested at the following concentrations: 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm on eggs and 312.5, 625, 1250, and 2500 ppm on the larvae and pupae of the mosquitoes. For results, hatchability of A. gambiae eggs was reduced to 5% with n-hexane fraction at 2000 ppm. Among the plant products tested, n-hexane fraction was most toxic against A. gambiae (LC50 = 385.9 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 3394.9 ppm). The n-hexane fraction of B. dalzielii might be used as a mosquitocidal agent in the breeding sites of A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:27279752

  17. Evaluación de la actividad insecticida de un producto granulado a base de Bacillus sphaericus sobre larvas de Anopheles albimanus y Culex quinquefasciatus en condiciones experimentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cárdenas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus causa alergias por las picaduras y ha sido asociado con la encefalitis equina, mientras que Anopheles albimanus es vector de malaria. El objetivo fue evaluar la toxicidad de un producto granulado a base de Bacillus sphaericus sobre larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus. El estudio fue realizado sobre larvas de C. quinquefasciatus (Sibaté y Villavicencio y An albimanus (Cartagena y Barranquilla. Las concentraciones ensayadas de B. sphaericus fueron: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 y 500 ppm para larvas de An. albimanus y para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus fueron: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 y 16 ppm. Se utilizaron 20 larvas en tres repeticiones por cada concentración del producto y el tiempo de exposición fue de 48 horas. El producto de B. sphaericus mostró alta mortalidad (entre 80 y 100% a bajas concentraciones (8 y 12 ppm para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus; mientras que para larvas de An. albimanus a concentraciones más altas (entre 40 y 200 ppm la mortalidad no superó el 50%. La CL50 Logit fue 176 ppm y la Probit fue 192 ppm de B. sphaericus para larvas de An. albimanus; mientras que para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus la CL50 Logit fue 1, 9 ppm y la Probit fue 2, 2 ppm. Se concluye que las larvas de C. quinquefasciatus fueron más susceptibles a bajas concentraciones (2 a 12 ppm de B. sphaericus, mientras que las larvas de An. albimanus mostraron alta toxicidad a concentraciones de 500 ppm.

  18. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  19. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  20. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Bolling, Bethany G; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Moore, Chester G; Martinez-Munoz, Jorge P; Padilla-Viveros, America A; Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Diaz-Perez, Alfonso; Beaty, Barry J; Munoz, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-05-09

    Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio) of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were also collected and identified. The

  1. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Perez Alfonso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p

  2. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  3. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  4. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  5. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  6. Feeding patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from eastern Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; de Oliveira, Luis Claudio Motta; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Morone, Fernanda; Lorosa, Elias Seixas

    2012-07-01

    Blood-feeding sources of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the eastern region of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina were analyzed by precipitin technique. One hundred fifty-four female mosquitoes collected by CDC traps in the Navegantes municipality 13-15 February 2005 reacted to one or more of eight antisera, including chicken, dog, goat, sheep, horse, opossum, human and rodent antisera. One hundred thirty-seven specimens (89%) reacted to only one source, and 17 (11%) specimens reacted to two sources. Among the 137 specimens reacting to only one source, reactions to rodent (50.4%), sheep (5.8%), chicken (5.1%), goat (5.1%), dog (2.2%), horse (3.6%), and human (3.6%) antisera were observed. The analyzed species demonstrated a high degree of opportunistic feeding behavior in relation to host preference. Results are compared with results from similar studies, and the low proportion of reactions to human antisera is discussed.

  7. Impact of climate change on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and control using bacterial pesticide, spinosad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareshkumar Arjunan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To show the effect of temperature on the biology of Culex quinquefasciatus and also to show the effect of the bacterial pesticide, spinosad on developmental stages of the filarial vector. Methods: A laboratory colony of mosquito larvae was used for the larvicidal activity of temperature and spinosad. Twenty-five numbers of first, second, third, fourth instar larvae were introduced into the 500 mL glass beaker containing 250 mL of de-chlorinated water with desired temperatures (16 °C, 20 °C, 24 °C, 28 °C, 32 °C, 36 °C, similarly spinosad, at different concentrations. The development was observed for every 24 h. Results: The results showed that the rise in temperature acts as a growth inhibiting factor for mosquitoes. And no development was found in the temperature below 16 °C and above 36 °C. The hatchability was increased as the temperature was increased up to 32 °C, after which eclosion rates dropped gradually. Conclusions: 32 °C was obtained as the maximum sustainable temperature and after which the developmental rate was gradually reduced. The optimal temperature for development was lower than the temperatures at which development was quickest. The bacterial pesticide spinosad showed that it is an effective mosquito control agent and can be used for further integrated pest management programmes.

  8. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Susceptibilidade larval de populações de Aedes aegypti e Culex quinquefasciatus a inseticidas químicos Larval susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus populations to chemical insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Campos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a susceptibilidade a inseticidas químicos de larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus e Aedes aegypti, provenientes de áreas sujeitas ou não a tratamentos de controle. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas larvas de mosquitos em uma área não sujeita a tratamentos com inseticidas (Campinas, SP e em áreas sujeitas a esses tratamentos (Campo Grande, MS e Cuiabá, MT. Foram usados bioensaios com concentrações diagnóstico e concentrações múltipla de inseticidas organofosforados e piretróides, segundo padrão da Organização Mundial de Saúde, para avaliar a susceptibilidade dessas larvas. RESULTADOS: Ensaios com larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus de Campinas, SP, permitiram a suspeita de resistência à cipermetrina e evidenciaram resistência à ciflutrina. Larvas dessa espécie coletadas em Campo Grande, MS, e Campinas, SP, apresentaram resistência ao temephos. Para a colônia campineira desta espécie, foram estabelecidas as razões de resistência: RR50=6,36 e RR95=4,94, com base em linhagem susceptível padrão. Adicionalmente, os testes com Aedes aegypti mostraram susceptibilidade similar ao temephos em uma população de campo (Cuiabá, MT e uma de laboratório. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicam resistência a organofosforado e piretróides em Culex quinquefasciatus, evidenciando a necessidade de avaliações e monitoramento da efetividade dos inseticidas a serem usados nos programas de controle de mosquitos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to chemical insecticides of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypt larvae from areas subjected to control treatments or not. METHODS: Bioassays for diagnostic concentration and multiple concentration were performed for organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides according to World Health Organization parameters. The susceptibility was assessed for mosquito larvae collected from an area not subjected to chemical control (Campinas, State of São Paulo, SP and from other areas (Campo

  10. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  11. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  12. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

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    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  13. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MAN-BITING POPULATION OF FILARIAL VECTOR Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae BETWEEN TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL AREAS OF BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available West Bengal, India is endemic for filariasis and the number of patients infected with bancroftian filariasis is increasing. There are no observation on the potential vector of filariasis from the tribal areas that make up considerable part in this state. This study investigate population of Cx. quinquefasciatus in tribal and non-tribal areas of Bankura district. Species composition of mosquitoes, per man-hour density, hourly densities of night biting Cx. quinquefasciatus, number of Cx. quinquefasciatus biting per man per day and per man per night. Preferential biting site and peak period of filarial transmission were recorded from both the study areas. Infection rate, infectivity rate of man-landing vector population and annual transmission potential were observed to be 0.31%, 0.00% and 0.00 in tribal areas and 0.73%, 0.23% and 359.71 in non-tribal areas respectively.

  15. Mammalophilic feeding behaviour of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in the cities of Chetumal and Cancun, Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Nele; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Díaz González, Esteban Eduardo; Gaytan-Burns, Alejandro; Medina-de la Garza, Carlos E; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa María; Börstler, Jessica; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jöst, Hanna

    2015-11-01

    The studie describes the blood-feeding behaviour of mosquitoes in Mexico, to understand host-vector relationships and dynamics of disease transmission. From September 2012 to November 2012 and in November 2013, 911 blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected with aspirators inside houses in Chetumal and Cancun. Blood meals were analysed by PCR and subsequent Sanger sequencing of the cytochrome b gene. 93.3% of mosquitoes fed on mammals, 6.5% on birds and 0.2% on reptiles. The most frequent vertebrate hosts were humans (65.4%), dogs (23.2%), chicken (5.4%), cattle (2.2%) and cats (1.8%). Cx. quinquefasciatus most frequently fed on humans and dogs in both studied cities, which is in contrast to a previous study that demonstrated lower prevalence of mammalian blood in engorged Cx. quinquefasciatus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Larvicidal activity of the methanol extract and fractions of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae against the vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Matias Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The larvicidal activity of Solanum lycocarpum against Culex quinquefasciatus is unknown. Methods We evaluated the larvicidal activity of extracts of the green fruits of Solanum lycocarpum against third and fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Results Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions showed the greatest larvicidal effect at 200mg/L (83.3% and 86.7%, respectively. The methanol and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanolic fractions demonstrated larvicidal effects against C. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 126.24, 75.13, 83.15, and 207.05mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Thus, when considering new drugs with larvicidal activity from natural products, S. lycocarpum fruits may be good candidate sources.

  17. Genetic diversity based on 28S rDNA sequences among populations of Culex quinquefasciatus collected at different locations in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelkumar, S; Ramaraj, P; Veeramani, V; Janarthanan, S

    2015-09-01

    The basis of the present study was to distinguish the existence of any genetic variability among populations of Culex quinquefasciatus which would be a valuable tool in the management of mosquito control programmes. In the present study, population of Cx. quinquefasciatus collected at different locations in Tamil Nadu were analyzed for their genetic variation based on 28S rDNA D2 region nucleotide sequences. A high degree of genetic polymorphism was detected in the sequences of D2 region of 28S rDNA on the predicted secondary structures in spite of high nucleotide sequence similarity. The findings based on secondary structure using rDNA sequences suggested the existence of a complex genotypic diversity of Cx. quinquefasciatus population collected at different locations of Tamil Nadu, India. This complexity in genetic diversity in a single mosquito population collected at different locations is considered an important issue towards their influence and nature of vector potential of these mosquitoes.

  18. Synthesis of some novel phosphorylated and thiophosphorylated benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles and their evaluation for larvicidal potential to Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prabal; Sathe, Manisha; Tikar, Sachin N; Yadav, Ruchi; Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Ashok; Kaushik, M P

    2014-07-01

    Series of benzimidazole and benzothiazole linked phosphoramidates and phosphoramidothioates (5a-j) and benzimidazole linked phenylphosphoramidates and phenylphosphoramidothioates (10a-e) were synthesized. The title compounds were preliminary screened for mosquito larvicidal properties against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentration from 40 to 5 mg/L. Among the screened compounds three compounds revealed potential larvicidal effects with 100% mortality in the order of 10e>5j>5e. Compound 10e was found to be the most toxic compound to Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The LC50 of 10e against Ae. albopictus was found to be 6.42 and 5.25 mg/L at 24 and 48 h, respectively, whereas it was 7.01 and 3.88 mg/L, respectively in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Temephos was used as positive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  20. How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Donald A; Kaufman, Michael G; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F

    2015-01-01

    Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar

  1. Larvicidal activity of oils, fatty acids, and methyl esters from ripe and unripe fruit of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae against the vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Cássia Bicalho Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:The larvicidal activity of oils, fatty acids, and methyl esters of Solanum lycocarpum fruit against Culex quinquefasciatus is unknown.METHODS:The larvicidal activity of samples of ripe and unripe fruit from S. lycocarpum was evaluated against third and fourth instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus .RESULTS:The oils, fatty acids, and methyl esters of S. lycocarpum showed the greatest larvicidal effect (57.1-95.0% at a concentration of 100mg/L (LC 50values between 0.70 and 27.54mg/L.CONCLUSIONS:Solanum lycocarpum fruit may be a good source of new natural products with larvicidal activity.

  2. Differential effect of human ivermectin treatment on blood feeding Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.; Simonsen, Paul Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread and large scale use of ivermectin in humans and domestic animals can have unexpected effects on non-target organisms. As a search for a possible explanation for an observed longitudinal decline in density of anopheline vector mosquitoes, but not in Culex quinquefasciatus...... to receive either ivermectin or placebo. Twenty four hours after treatment, one volunteer from each group was concurrently exposed to 50 laboratory reared An. gambiae on one arm and 50 laboratory reared Cx. quinquefasciatus on the other arm for 15-30 minutes. Engorged mosquitoes were maintained on 10...

  3. Protection against mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus using a novel insect repellent, ethyl anthranilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Johirul; Zaman, Kamaruz; Tyagi, Varun; Duarah, Sanjukta; Dhiman, Sunil; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2017-10-01

    Growing concern on the application of synthetic mosquito repellents in the recent years has instigated the identification and development of better alternatives to control different mosquito-borne diseases. In view of above, present investigation evaluates the repellent activity of ethyl anthranilate (EA), a non-toxic, FDA approved volatile food additive against three known mosquito vectors namely, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions following standard protocols. Three concentration levels (2%, 5% and 10% w/v) of EA were tested against all the three selected mosquito species employing K & D module and arm-in-cage method to determine the effective dose (ED 50 ) and complete protection time (CPT), respectively. The repellent activity of EA was further investigated by modified arm-in-cage method to determine the protection over extended spatial ranges against all mosquito species. All behavioural situations were compared with the well-documented repellent N,N-diethylphenyl acetamide (DEPA) as a positive control. The findings demonstrated that EA exhibited significant repellent activity against all the three mosquitoes species. The ED 50 values of EA, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to be 0.96%, 5.4% and 3.6% w/v, respectively. At the concentration of 10% w/v, it provided CPTs of 60, 60 and 30min, respectively, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Again in spatial repellency evaluation, EA was found to be extremely effective in repelling all the three tested species of mosquitoes. Ethyl anthranilate provided comparable results to standard repellent DEPA during the study. Results have concluded that the currently evaluated chemical, EA has potential repellent activity against some well established mosquito vectors. The study emphasizes that repellent activity of EA could be exploited for developing effective, eco

  4. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  5. Pengaruh Pengasapan (Thermal Fogging Insektisida Piretroid (Malation 95% Terhadap Nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Culex quinquefasciatus di Pemukiman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Boesri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of piretroid insecticide (active ingredient Malation 95% was con-ducted in Sub district Tengarang, Semarang Segency, Central Java Province. The insecti-cide was applied using thermal fogging method for dosages of 125, 250, 375, 500 and 625 ml/ha (diluted in diesel to 10 litters. The evaluation of the efficacy was conducted against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (the main dengue haemorrhagic fever and Culex quinquefasciatus (the urban lymphatic fil-ariasis vector. Result of the evaluation was revealed that dosages of 500 and 625 ml/ha were effective against both tested mosquito species indoor and outdoor.

  6. Attractiveness of botanical infusions to ovipositing Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nigripalpus, and Cx. erraticus in San Antonio, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhatter, Lee P; Debboun, Mustapha

    2009-12-01

    Field experiments were conducted on the Fort Sam Houston Military Reservation, San Antonio, TX, in fall 2008 to observe the attractiveness of selected botanical infusions to ovipositing female mosquitoes. The following infusions were tested in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gravid traps: Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), oak leaf (Quercus virginiana), acacia leaf (Acacia schaffneri), rabbit chow (alfalfa pellets), and algae (Spirogyra sp.). Four (Bermuda, acacia, oak, and algae) of the 5 infusions were effective in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nigripalpus, and Cx. erraticus. Of the 4 infusions, Bermuda collected the greatest number of the mosquitoes sampled. Female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were collected in moderate numbers during this study.

  7. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  8. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  9. Genetic diversity of Wolbachia endosymbionts in Culex quinquefasciatus from Hawai`i, Midway Atoll, and Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Watcher-Weatherwax, William; Lapointe, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Incompatible insect techniques are potential methods for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus and avian disease transmission in Hawai‘i without the use of pesticides or genetically modified organisms. The approach is based on naturally occurring sperm-egg incompatibilities within the Culex pipiens complex that are controlled by different strains of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wPip). Incompatibilities can be unidirectional (crosses between males infected with strain A and females infected with strain B are fertile, while reciprocal crosses are not) or bidirectional (reciprocal crosses between sexes with different wPip strains are infertile). The technique depends on release of sufficient numbers of male mosquitoes infected with an incompatible wPip strain to suppress mosquito populations and reduce transmission of introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and Avipoxvirus in native forest bird habitats. Both diseases are difficult to manage using more traditional methods based on removal and treatment of larval habitats and coordination of multiple approaches may be needed to control this vector. We characterized the diversity of Wolbachia strains in C. quinquefasciatus from Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, Midway Atoll, and American Samoa with a variety of genetic markers to identify compatibility groups and their distribution within and between islands. We confirmed the presence of wPip with multilocus sequence typing, tested for local genetic variability using 16 WO prophage genes, and identified similarities to strains from other parts of the world with a transposable element (tr1). We also tested for genetic differences in ankyrin motifs (ank2 and pk1) which have been used to classify wPip strains into five worldwide groups (wPip1–wPip5) that vary in compatibility with each other based on experimental crosses. We found a mixture of both widely distributed and site specific genotypes based on presence or absence of WO prophage and transposable

  10. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil Características agravantes por infestación residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, en una región del Noreste de Brasil Características agravantes por infestação residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, em Olinda, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyse how basic sanitation conditions, water supply and housing conditions affect the concentration of Culex quinquefasciatus METHODS: Populations of C. quinquefasciatus in 61 houses in the municipality of Olinda, PE, were monitored between October 2009 and October 2010. Observations were carried out in homes without the presence of preferred breeding sites in order to identify characteristics that may be aggravating factors for the development of the mosquito. Five aggravating factors were analysed: vegetation cover surrounding the home, number of residents/home, water storage, sewage drainage and water drainage. These characteristics were analysed in terms of presence or absence and as indicators of the degree of infestation, which was estimated through monitoring the concentration of eggs (oviposition traps - BR-OVT and adults (CDC light traps. RESULTS: Sewage drainage to a rudimentary septic tank or to the open air was the most frequent aggravating factor in the homes (91.8%, although the presence of vegetation was the only characteristic that significantly influenced the increase in the number of egg rafts (p = 0.02. The BR-OVT achieved positive results in 95.1% of the evaluations, with the presence of at least one egg raft per month. A total of 2,366 adults were caught, with a mosquito/room/night ratio of 32.9. No significant difference was found in the number of mosquitoes caught in the homes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sanitation and water supply influence the population density of C. quinquefasciatus, residence features that are not usually considered in control measures can be aggravating factors in sustaining the mosquito population.OBJETIVO: Analizar como las condiciones de saneamiento básico, abastecimiento de agua y habitaciones afectan la densidad de Culex quinquefasciatus MÉTODOS: se monitoreó la población de C. quinquefasciatus en 61 residencias del municipio de Olinda, PE, Brasil, de octubre de 2009 a octubre de

  11. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonç alves; Albaina, A.; Alpermann, Tilman J.; Apkenas, Vanessa E.; Bankhead-Dronnet, Sté phanie; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L.; Cho, Changhung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Auré lie; De Feraudy, D.; Estonba, Andone; Hankeln, Thomas M A; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsaiwen; Huang, Tsurngjuhn; Irigoien, Xabier; Iriondo, Mikel; Kay, Kathleen M.; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; Le Hé nanff, Maxime; Lieutier, Franç ois; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, Carmen; Martin, Carine; Morris, Veronica Ruth Franco; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Pardo, D.; Plieske, Jö rg; Pointeau, Sophie; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M.; Schwarcz, Kaiser D.; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L.; Solferini, Vera Nisaka; Stevens, Virginie M.; Veith, Michael W.; Wen, Meijuan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jenn M.; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  14. Repellency of essential oils extracted from Thai native plants against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukerd, Ubol; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Repellent activity of essential oils derived from 10 Thai native plants, belonging to three families were evaluated against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and to compare them with a commercial chemical repellents (DEET; N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide 20% w/w; Sketolene Shield). Each test repellent was applied at 1, 5, and 10% concentrations for testing by arm in cage method. The results showed significant differences in repellency among the repellents by mosquito species. The protection time of the essential oils against Ae. aegypti ranged from 3 to 30 min. According to the Culex mosquito, it showed the protection time ranged from 3 to 260 min. 10 % Boesenbergia rotunda essential oil provided the best efficiency, in which protection time was 4.3 h as equal as DEET. The essential oils which exhibited protection time more than 2 h were those of 10% Zingiber zerumbet, Litsea petiolata, Curcuma zedoaria, and Zingiber cassumunar essential oils (3.1, 2.8, 2.6, and 2.3 h, respectively). The biting percentage ranged from 0.9 to 18.0% and 0.8 to 3.6% against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results revealed that the potential of essential oil extracted from B. rotunda, Z. zerumbet, L. petiolata, C. zedoaria, and Z. cassumunar had attributes of good repellent and deterred biting. We recommend the five essential oils for further study to develop as commercial repellents.

  15. Iron and iron oxide nanoparticles are highly toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus with little non-target effects on larvivorous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nataraj, Devaraj; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Amuthavalli, Pandiyan; Madhavan, Jagannathan; Rajasekar, Aruliah; Rajan, Mariappan; Thiruppathi, Kulandhaivel Palani; Kumar, Suresh; Higuchi, Akon; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    The control of filariasis vectors has been enhanced in several areas, but there are main challenges, including increasing resistance to insecticides and lack of cheap and eco-friendly products. The toxicity of iron (Fe 0 ) and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated yet. We studied the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Fe 0 and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles against Culex quinquefasciatus. Fe 0 and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles produced by green (using a Ficus natalensis aqueous extract) and chemical nanosynthesis, respectively, were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD analysis, SEM, and EDX assays. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments on Cx. quinquefasciatus, LC 50 of Fe 0 nanoparticles ranged from 20.9 (I instar larvae) to 43.7 ppm (pupae) and from 4.5 (I) to 22.1 ppm (pupae) for Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles synthesized chemically. Furthermore, the predation efficiency of the guppy fish, Poecilia reticulata, after a single treatment with sub-lethal doses of Fe 0 and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles was magnified. Overall, this work provides new insights about the toxicity of Fe 0 and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles against mosquito vectors; we suggested that green and chemical fabricated nano-iron may be considered to develop novel and effective pesticides.

  16. Role of G-protein-coupled receptor-related genes in insecticide resistance of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Liu, Lena; Zhang, Lee; Liu, Nannan

    2014-09-29

    G-protein-coupled receptors regulate signal transduction pathways and play diverse and pivotal roles in the physiology of insects, however, the precise function of GPCRs in insecticide resistance remains unclear. Using quantitative RT-PCR and functional genomic methods, we, for the first time, explored the function of GPCRs and GPCR-related genes in insecticide resistance of mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. A comparison of the expression of 115 GPCR-related genes at a whole genome level between resistant and susceptible Culex mosquitoes identified one and three GPCR-related genes that were up-regulated in highly resistant Culex mosquito strains, HAmCq(G8) and MAmCq(G6), respectively. To characterize the function of these up-regulated GPCR-related genes in resistance, the up-regulated GPCR-related genes were knockdown in HAmCq(G8) and MAmCq(G6) using RNAi technique. Knockdown of these four GPCR-related genes not only decreased resistance of the mosquitoes to permethrin but also repressed the expression of four insecticide resistance-related P450 genes, suggesting the role of GPCR-related genes in resistance is involved in the regulation of resistance P450 gene expression. This results help in understanding of molecular regulation of resistance development in Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Five Apiaceae Taxa and Some of Their Main Constituents Against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Maggi, Filippo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Bruno, Maurizio; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Apiaceae are aromatic herbs producing essential oils which are used on an industrial scale for various purposes. Notably, Apiaceae essential oils may replace synthetic insecticides keeping most of their efficacy and avoiding environmental pollution and human poisoning. In the present work, we explored the insecticidal potential of the essential oils from five Apiaceae taxa, namely Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sphondylium, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. ternatum, and Trachyspemum ammi, as well as their major constituents (sabinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, myristicin, and thymol), against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. For the purpose, the essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their composition was achieved by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their acute toxicity on third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus was determined. The two most active essential oils were those from T. ammi fruits and E. spinosa roots, showing LC 50 below 20 μl/l and LD 90 below 50 μl/l. These oils were dominated by the monoterpene phenol thymol and the phenylpropanoid myristicin, respectively, which showed the strongest larvicidal activity (LC 50 of 15.1 and 16.3 μl/l, respectively) among the pure compounds tested. These results showed that Apiaceae may be useful as source of larvicidal compounds to be used for the development of cheap, effective and eco-friendly insecticidal formulations. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  19. Permethrin induction of multiple cytochrome P450 genes in insecticide resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Li, Ting; Zhang, Lee; Gao, Xiwu; Liu, Nannan

    2013-01-01

    The expression of some insect P450 genes can be induced by both exogenous and endogenous compounds and there is evidence to suggest that multiple constitutively overexpressed P450 genes are co-responsible for the development of resistance to permethrin in resistant mosquitoes. This study characterized the permethrin induction profiles of P450 genes known to be constitutively overexpressed in resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. The gene expression in 7 of the 19 P450 genes CYP325K3v1, CYP4D42v2, CYP9J45, (CYP) CPIJ000926, CYP325G4, CYP4C38, CYP4H40 in the HAmCqG8 strain, increased more than 2-fold after exposure to permethrin at an LC50 concentration (10 ppm) compared to their acetone treated counterpart; no significant differences in the expression of these P450 genes in susceptible S-Lab mosquitoes were observed after permethrin treatment. Eleven of the fourteen P450 genes overexpressed in the MAmCqG6 strain, CYP9M10, CYP6Z12, CYP9J33, CYP9J43, CYP9J34, CYP306A1, CYP6Z15, CYP9J45, CYPPAL1, CYP4C52v1, CYP9J39, were also induced more than doubled after exposure to an LC50 (0.7 ppm) dose of permethrin. No significant induction in P450 gene expression was observed in the susceptible S-Lab mosquitoes after permethrin treatment except for CYP6Z15 and CYP9J39, suggesting that permethrin induction of these two P450 genes are common to both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes while the induction of the others are specific to insecticide resistant mosquitoes. These results demonstrate that multiple P450 genes are co-up-regulated in insecticide resistant mosquitoes through both constitutive overexpression and induction mechanisms, providing additional support for their involvement in the detoxification of insecticides and the development of insecticide resistance.

  20. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  1. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  2. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  3. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  4. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  5. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  6. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  7. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  8. Environmental and biological factors influencing Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Lord, Cynthia C; Pesko, Kendra; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2009-08-01

    Complex interactions between environmental and biological factors influence the susceptibility of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to St. Louis encephalitis virus and could affect the epidemiology of virus transmission. Similar interactions could have epidemiologic implications for other vector-virus systems. We conducted an experiment to examine four such factors in combination: mosquito age, extrinsic incubation temperature (EIT), virus dose, and colony. The proportion of mosquitoes with body infections or disseminated infections varied between colonies, and was dependant on age, EIT, and dose. We also show that the probability of a body or leg infection interacted in complex ways between colonies, ages, EITs, and doses. The complex interactive effects of environmental and biological factors must be taken into account for studies of vector competence and epidemiology, especially when laboratory studies are used to generalize to natural transmission dynamics where the extent of variation is largely unknown.

  9. Effect of temperature on life history traits during immature development of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Marta G; Sartor, Paolo D; Almirón, Walter R; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated how ambient temperature under fluctuating conditions affects the larval-pupal immature traits of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Córdoba city, Argentina, and established each species development threshold and physiological time. Based on life tables, three cohorts of each mosquito species were reared in the laboratory under small fluctuating temperatures conditions of 15.2±1.7°C, 17.9±1.6°C, 21.6±0.7°C and 25.3±0.4°C for Ae. aegypti, and 16.6±1.7°C, 18.7±1.7°C and 25.2±0.3°C for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Immature development time and survival values, and also thermal development threshold and physiological time were estimated. Development times of all larval and pupal stages of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly affected by the rearing temperatures, decreasing when temperature increased. Mean Ae. aegypti total (larva+pupa) development time ranged from 21.9 to 8.6 days, at 15.2 and 25.3°C, whereas, for Cx. quinquefasciatus varied between 23.5 to 9.2 days at 16.6 and 25.2°C, respectively. Larval and pupal survival of both species was affected by different rearing temperatures, increasing in general as temperature increased. For Ae. aegypti the total immature survival ranged from 26% at 15.2°C to 92% at 21.6°C; however, temperature did not have significant effect on this variable. The total immature survival of Cx. quinquefasciatus was significantly and positively affected by temperatures, ranging from 32 to 88%, at 16.6 and 25.2°C. The temperature development threshold and the physiological time estimated for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 11.11°C and 93.74 degree-days, and 10.96°C and 136.87 degree-days, respectively. The results of the present study showed that temperature significantly affects the larval-pupal immature traits of these mosquito species of sanitary importance, from the central region of Argentina. All the parameters recorded are useful for the development of

  10. Relationships between infection, dissemination, and transmission of West Nile virus RNA in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Lord, Cynthia C; Smartt, Chelsea T; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say fed blood containing 6.8 +/- 0.3 logs (mean +/- SE) plaque-forming units of West Nile virus (WNV)/ml were maintained at 28 degrees C for incubation periods (IP) of 7, 14, or 21 d. Several attributes of vector competence were determined at each IP using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to estimate plaque forming unit equivalents including: infection rate (WNV-positive abdomens), dissemination rate (WNV-positive legs or thoraces), combined dissemination rate (WNV-positive legs and thoraces), transmission rate (WNV-positive saliva), and WNV titers in abdomens, legs, thoraces, and saliva. Each rate increased or was equivalent with increasing IP. Mosquitoes transmitting WNV in saliva also had significantly higher IP-dependent WNV titers in abdomens, legs, and thoraces. Titers of WNV in abdomens were significantly correlated with titers in legs and thoraces, but the degree of association changed with IP. However, titers of abdomens, legs, and thoraces were not correlated with WNV presence or titer in the saliva. The results show that WNV presence or titer in the saliva of infected Cx. p. quinquefasciatus was not directly influenced by processes involved in WNV replication in other tissues. The processes controlling midgut infection and escape are, in part, independent from the infection processes in other tissues. The relationship between infection, dissemination, and transmission varied over time. The infection and replication of WNV in different tissues is likely influenced by different barriers encountered during the extrinsic incubation period. The significance of these observations for understanding vector competence is discussed.

  11. Larvicidal potential of some plants from West Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azokou, Alain; Koné, Mamidou W; Koudou, Benjamin G; Tra Bi, Honora F

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes increased resistance to insecticides, and environmental concerns about the use of insecticides, pose a major challenge in the search for new molecules to deplete and incapacitate mosquito populations. Plants are the valuable source as practices consisting in exploiting plant materials as repellents, and are still in wide use throughout developing countries. The aim of the present study was to screen plants from Cτte d'Ivoire for larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Resistant and sensitive larvae (III and IV instar) of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to crude ethanol extracts (90%) of 45 plants and viability observed after 30 min, 6, 12 and 24 h postincubation. After partition of active extracts, each fraction (hexane and chloroform washed with NaCl 1%, tannins and aqueous) was tested using the same protocol at various concentrations (1000- 31.2 ppm). Of 49 extracts tested, 7 exhibited high potential (LC50 = 80 to 370 ppm) against resistant and sensitive III and IV instar larvae of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. These extracts were from Cissus populnea, Cochlospermum planchonii, Heliotropium indicum, Phyllanthus amarus, Vitex grandifolia and Alchornea cordifolia. However, three most active plant species (LC50 = 80- 180 ppm) were Cs. populnea, Cm. planchonii and P. amarus Their hexane and chloroform fractions showed high larvicidal activity. This study demonstrated that plants from Cτte d'Ivoire have a real potential for malaria, yellow fever, filarial and dengue vector control. Those could be used as sources or provide lead compounds for the development of safe plant-based biocides.

  12. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  13. The effect of three environmental conditions on the fitness of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated permethrin resistance in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzaro Brian P; Hardstone Melissa C; Scott Jeffrey G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The evolution of insecticide resistance and persistence of resistance phenotypes are influenced by the fitness of resistance alleles in the absence of insecticide pressure. Experimental determination of fitness is difficult, but fitness can be inferred by measuring changes in allele frequencies in appropriate environments. We conducted allele competition experiments by crossing two highly related strains of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. One strain (ISOP450) wa...

  14. Studies on effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) and Andrographis lineata nees (Family: Acanthaceae) extracts against two mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renugadevi, G; Ramanathan, T; Shanmuga, priya R; Thirunavukkarasu, P

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the studies on effects of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) (Burm.f.) and Andrographis lineata (A. lineata) nees (Family: Acanthaceae) extracts against two mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (Linn.). The aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of two plant species, A. paniculata and A. lineate were examined against the larvae of A. aegypti (L.) and Cx. quinquefasciatus with gradually increasing concentration ie. from 50 to 200 ppm of solvent extracts and to test their activity in combination with each other. In a 24 h bioassay experiment with plant extracts, highest mortalities were recorded at 200 ppm of concentrations for leaves of A. lineta and A. paniculata individually. For combination effect, only 150 ppm of the mixture of solvent extracts of petroleum ether: aqueous (1:1) extracts showed 100% mortality after 24 h of exposure. The results show that, insecticides of plant combination is ecofriend and has better larvicidal activity compared to individual extracts. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of extrinsic incubation temperature and virus exposure on vector competence of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Mores, Christopher N; Lord, Cynthia C; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes from a laboratory colony were exposed to artificial blood meals containing West Nile virus (WNV) and held at incubation temperatures approximating average daily temperatures that occur during Florida arboviral periods. Mosquitoes fed blood meals containing 6.2 logs plaque-forming units (pfu) WNV/mL and held at 25 degrees C, 28 degrees C, or 30 degrees C for 13 days exhibited significantly different rates of infection (30%, 52%, 93%) and dissemination (33%, 22%, 81%) across temperatures. In a separate experiment, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were provided artificial blood meals with graded doses of WNV from 3.7 to 5.8 logs pfu/mL and maintained at 28 degrees C for 13 days. Rates of infection increased as a function of virus dose, but neither body titers nor dissemination rates were significantly different for mosquitoes that were infected by ingesting different amounts of WNV. Our findings indicate that efficiency of WNV infection and dissemination, and thereby transmission, in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations similar to our tested colony may also be diminished when fed blood meals containing less than 5.8 logs pfu WNV/mL and when environmental temperature falls below 30 degrees C. The relationship between the infection rate and dissemination rate changed at different temperatures. This relationship is likely complex and dependent on diverse interactions between factors such as incubation temperature and viremia, which should also be assessed for field populations.

  16. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours.

  17. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

  18. Larvicidal potentiality, longevity and fecundity inhibitory activities of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV on vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjunan Nareshkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervention measures to control the transmission of vector-borne diseases include control of the vector population. In mosquito control, synthetic insecticides used against both the larvae (larvicides and adults (adulticides create numerous problems, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and toxic hazards to humans. In the present study, a bacterial pesticide, Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV, was used to control the dengue and filarial vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV was very effective against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, showing significant larval mortality. Evaluated lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 were age-dependent, with early instars requiring a lower concentration compared with later stages of mosquitoes. Culex quinquefasciatus was more susceptible to Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV than was Aedes aegypti. Fecundity rate was highly reduced after treatment with different concentrations of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV. Larval and pupal longevity both decreased after treatment with Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV, total number of days was lower in the B. sphaericus treatments compared with the control. Our results show the bacterial pesticide Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV to be an effective mosquito control agent that can be used for more integrated pest management programs.

  19. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  20. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  1. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  2. Ciclo de vida de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae bajo condiciones no controladas en Bogotá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Janeth Salazar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar varios aspectos del crecimiento y el desarrollo de los estadios inmaduros de Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1826 (Diptera: Culicidae, especie antropofílica frecuentemente encontrada en Bogotá. Con este fin, se realizaron dos experimentos en diferentes épocas del año 2001 (enero-febrero y septiembre-octubre, bajo condiciones no controladas (luz, temperatura y humedad relativa. Se colocaron recipientes plásticos transparentes con agua de charca a la que se le adicionó concentrado para perro; se tomaron cuatro balsas al azar para estudiar el ciclo de vida utilizando los parámetros de la tabla de vida: mortalidad y supervivencia. Las hembras ovipositaron entre cinco y ocho días después de la ingestión de sangre. El número de huevos por balsa varió entre 152 y 203. La eclosión de larvas L1 fue de 50% en el primer experimento y de 75% en el segundo. Se destacó la naturaleza no sincrónica de la eclosión de las L1, la menor duración proporcional del estadio de pupa (11% del tiempo del desarrollo total y la eficiencia del cambio pupa-adulto (98,61%. Se reporta una menor duración del ciclo de lo informado previamente. Además, los altos porcentajes de eclosión (83,58%, pupación (86,63% y emergencia (98,61% con las condiciones presentes para estos experimentos (temperatura media 14,8°C y 15,1°C y humedad relativa del 72,5% y 74,1%, respectivamente indican el alto grado de adaptación de C. quinquefasciatus al ambiente bogotano. Estas características, más la capacidad vectorial y la resistencia a los insecticidas, hacen de esta especie un problema de salud pública.

  3. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  4. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  5. Effects of West Nile virus dose and extrinsic incubation temperature on temporal progression of vector competence in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sheri L; Richards, Stephanie L; Tabachnick, Walter J; Smartt, Chelsea T

    2010-03-01

    Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were fed blood containing either 7.0 +/- 0.1 logs plaque-forming units (pfu)/ml (high dose) or 5.9 +/- 0.1 logs pfu/ml (low dose) of West Nile virus and held at extrinsic incubation temperatures (EIT) of 28 degrees C or 25 degrees C. Approximately 20 mosquitoes per dose were collected after incubation periods (IP) of 4, 6, 8, and 12 days postinfection (dpi). Infection rates were influenced by EIT and virus dose but not by IP. Body titer was significantly higher for mosquitoes fed the high dose and held at 28 degrees C at the later IPs (6, 8, and 12 dpi). However, leg titer was significantly higher for mosquitoes at the later IPs but did not differ between EITs or doses. Because infection rates varied with EIT and dose, there is likely a midgut infection barrier influenced by these factors that is not influenced by IP. Dissemination rates were influenced by all 3 factors consistent with the presence of a midgut escape barrier. Dissemination rate, body titer, and leg titer were dependent on IP, indicating the need to investigate multiple time points in vector competence studies to elucidate critical events in infection and dissemination.

  6. Larvicidal effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna alata on Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Ubulom Peace Mayen; Nyiutaha, Imandeh Godwin; Essien, Akpabio Eno; Nnamdi, Opara Kenneth; Sunday, Ekanem Mfon

    2013-05-01

    Senna alata is locally used in South Eastern Nigeria in the treatment of several infections which include ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases.The larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf and stem extracts of S. alata were evaluated in static bioassays, on fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, at extract concentrations of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% w/v, for 72 hours. Mortality of larvae exposed to the different extracts increased with increase in extract concentration and time of exposure. This study revealed a differential potency of the extracts used and a difference in susceptibility of larvae to the extracts as evident by the 72hLC₅₀ values obtained. The leaf extract proved to be more lethal to the larvae than the stem extract as judged by the 72hLC₅₀ values obtained both for the aqueous as well as the ethanolic extracts assayed. Phytochemical screening of the plant parts investigated revealed the presence of some plant metabolites, which have been reported in separate studies to be lethal to mosquito larvae. Results obtained from this study suggest that the leaf and stem extracts of S. alata possess a promising larvicidal potential which can be exploited in mosquito vector control.

  7. Comparative Bio-Efficacy and Synergism of New Generation Polyfluorobenzyl and Conventional Pyrethroids Against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Manas; Akulwad, Ambadas; Kshirsagar, Rajendra; Muthukrishnan, Siva

    2018-05-28

    Intensive exposure to insecticides has resulted in the evolution of insecticide resistance in the mosquitoes. We tested the bio-efficacy of two Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory strains differentially bio-responsive to pyrethroids to understand the comparative efficacy of different polyfluorobenzyle and conventional pyrethroid molecules and the role of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in synergizing these molecules in increased tolerance of mosquitoes to these molecules. We have taken deltamethrin (α-cyano pyrethroid with phenoxybenzyl moiety); permethrin (phenoxybenzyl pyrethroid without an α-cyano group); transfluthrin, dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin (polyfluorinated benzyl compounds); and prallethrin (modified cyclopentadienone compound) for this study. We found higher bio-efficacy in dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin compared with transfluthrin against tested mosquito strains. We found that transfluthrin exhibited synergism with PBO, which supports the hypothesis that P450 enzymes could play a role in the detoxification process of transfluthrin, which was earlier not believed. However, other polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with a 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl capping in the tetrafluorobenzyl ring (dimefluthrin, metofluthrin, and meperfluthrin) exhibit greater synergism with PBO compared with transfluthrin. Further study is required to understand the mechanism for higher synergistic ratios in polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids with 4-(methoxymethyl) phenyl moiety and ascertain the possible involvement of novel mechanisms that may involve in developing resistance. This is the first report of comparative bio-efficacy of multiple polyfluorobenzyl pyrethroids and PBO synergism against mosquitoes.

  8. Vapor toxicity of five volatile pyrethroids against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Tsikolia, Maia; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Bernier, Ulrich R; Xue, Rui-De; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2018-05-25

    Mosquito mortality has been documented in numerous studies of spatial repellents but the concentration-dependent toxicity of spatial repellent vapors has not been documented. To address this issue, prallethrin, flumethrin, metofluthrin, transfluthrin, and meperfluthrin were selected for comparative study against Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Ae. aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Mosquito were exposed to vapors of each chemical for 2h, 4h, and 24h with mortality recorded at each time point. A second experiment involved exposing mosquitoes to vapors for 2h, then transferring them to untreated holding containers and held for 24h. For these mosquitoes, readings were only taken after 24h to allow for metabolic detoxification and recovery. The LC 50 and LC 90 data indicated that transfluthrin and meperfluthrin had the greatest toxicity across all species, followed by metofluthrin, prallethrin, and flumethrin. Our findings, through the direct comparison of these compounds, suggest that transfluthrin, meperfluthrin, and metofluthrin be considered for further development. The vapor toxicity for the aforementioned compounds significantly exceeds prallethrin, which is currently market available as an adulticidal active ingredient in public health pest control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  10. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  11. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  12. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  13. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  14. Olyset Duo® (a pyriproxyfen and permethrin mixture net: an experimental hut trial against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF, an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen.The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN. Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts.Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01. Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001. The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets.Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and management of pyrethroid resistant vectors by

  15. The Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) in the Biochemistry and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Activity of Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lilian N D; Ribeiro-Neto, José A; Valadares, Jéssica M M; Costa, Mariana M; Lima, Luciana A R S; Grillo, Luciano A M; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Alves, Stênio N; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2016-08-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis and combating this insect is of great importance to public health. There are reports of insects that are resistant to the products currently used to control this vector, and therefore, the search for new products has increased. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) that showed larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, on glucose, total protein, and triacylglycerol contents and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in mosquito larvae. The exposure of the fourth instar larvae to the compounds caused a decrease in the total protein content and an increase in the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, the direct effect of FAMEs on cell membrane was assessed on purified pig kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase membranes, erythrocyte ghost membranes, and larvae membrane preparation. No modifications on total phospholipids and cholesterol content were found after FAMEs 20 min treatment on larvae membrane preparation, but only 360 µg/mL FAME 2 was able to decrease total phospholipid of erythrocyte ghost membrane. Moreover, only 60 and 360 µg/mL FAME 3 caused an activation of purified Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, that was an opposite effect of FAMEs treatment in larvae membrane preparation, and caused an inhibition of the pump activity. These data together suggest that maybe FAMEs can modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase on intact larvae for such mechanisms and not for a direct effect, one time that the direct effect of FAMEs in membrane preparation decreased the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The biochemical changes caused by the compounds were significant and may negatively influence the development and survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae.

  16. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal

  17. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  18. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  19. Multiple Cytochrome P450 genes: their constitutive overexpression and permethrin induction in insecticide resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nannan; Li, Ting; Reid, William R; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Four cytochrome P450 cDNAs, CYP6AA7, CYP9J40, CYP9J34, and CYP9M10, were isolated from mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus. The P450 gene expression and induction by permethrin were compared for three different mosquito populations bearing different resistance phenotypes, ranging from susceptible (S-Lab), through intermediate (HAmCq(G0), the field parental population) to highly resistant (HAmCq(G8), the 8(th) generation of permethrin selected offspring of HAmCq(G0)). A strong correlation was found for P450 gene expression with the levels of resistance and following permethrin selection at the larval stage of mosquitoes, with the highest expression levels identified in HAmCq(G8), suggesting the importance of CYP6AA7, CYP9J40, CYP9J34, and CYP9M10 in the permethrin resistance of larva mosquitoes. Only CYP6AA7 showed a significant overexpression in HAmCq(G8) adult mosquitoes. Other P450 genes had similar expression levels among the mosquito populations tested, suggesting different P450 genes may be involved in the response to insecticide pressure in different developmental stages. The expression of CYP6AA7, CYP9J34, and CYP9M10 was further induced by permethrin in resistant mosquitoes. Taken together, these results indicate that multiple P450 genes are up-regulated in insecticide resistant mosquitoes through both constitutive overexpression and induction mechanisms, thus increasing the overall expression levels of P450 genes.

  20. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  1. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  2. Acute and chronic activity of perchlorate and hexavalent chromium contamination on the survival and development of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Mary A.; Jensen, Peter D.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of water contamination with perchlorate and hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] on the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus were assessed. The chronic (10-day) LC 5 s values for perchlorate and chromium were 74 ± 8.0 mg/L and 0.41 ± 0.15 mg/L, respectively. Relative Growth Index, a measure of growth and mortality rates in a population, was significantly reduced within 5 days for levels of perchlorate as low as 25 mg/L and for levels of chromium as low as 0.16 mg/L. Neither compound altered wing length of surviving adults. In combination, contaminants were synergistic, causing 14% more mortality than predicted. Acute (24-h) LC 5 values for perchlorate and Cr (VI) were 17,000 ± 3200 and 38 ± 1.3 mg/L, respectively. Effects on mosquito larvae in contaminated environments are likely to be observed for Cr (VI) but not for perchlorate, which generally does not occur at levels as high as those shown here to affect larval mosquitoes. - While pollution with hexavalent chromium may adversely affect Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, levels of perchlorate currently in the environment will not impact these insects

  3. Acute and chronic activity of perchlorate and hexavalent chromium contamination on the survival and development of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Mary A. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)]. E-mail: mary.sorensen@email.ucr.edu; Jensen, Peter D. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Walton, William E. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Effects of water contamination with perchlorate and hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] on the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus were assessed. The chronic (10-day) LC{sub 5}s values for perchlorate and chromium were 74 {+-} 8.0 mg/L and 0.41 {+-} 0.15 mg/L, respectively. Relative Growth Index, a measure of growth and mortality rates in a population, was significantly reduced within 5 days for levels of perchlorate as low as 25 mg/L and for levels of chromium as low as 0.16 mg/L. Neither compound altered wing length of surviving adults. In combination, contaminants were synergistic, causing 14% more mortality than predicted. Acute (24-h) LC{sub 5} values for perchlorate and Cr (VI) were 17,000 {+-} 3200 and 38 {+-} 1.3 mg/L, respectively. Effects on mosquito larvae in contaminated environments are likely to be observed for Cr (VI) but not for perchlorate, which generally does not occur at levels as high as those shown here to affect larval mosquitoes. - While pollution with hexavalent chromium may adversely affect Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, levels of perchlorate currently in the environment will not impact these insects.

  4. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  5. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  6. Genome analysis of cytochrome P450s and their expression profiles in insecticide resistant mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available Here we report a study of the 204 P450 genes in the whole genome sequence of larvae and adult Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The expression profiles of the P450 genes were compared for susceptible (S-Lab and resistant mosquito populations, two different field populations of mosquitoes (HAmCq and MAmCq, and field parental mosquitoes (HAmCq(G0 and MAmCq(G0 and their permethrin selected offspring (HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6. While the majority of the P450 genes were expressed at a similar level between the field parental strains and their permethrin selected offspring, an up- or down-regulation feature in the P450 gene expression was observed following permethrin selection. Compared to their parental strains and the susceptible S-Lab strain, HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6 were found to up-regulate 11 and 6% of total P450 genes in larvae and 7 and 4% in adults, respectively, while 5 and 11% were down-regulated in larvae and 4 and 2% in adults. Although the majority of these up- and down-regulated P450 genes appeared to be developmentally controlled, a few were either up- or down-regulated in both the larvae and adult stages. Interestingly, a different gene set was found to be up- or down-regulated in the HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6 mosquito populations in response to insecticide selection. Several genes were identified as being up- or down-regulated in either the larvae or adults for both HAmCq(G8 and MAmCq(G6; of these, CYP6AA7 and CYP4C52v1 were up-regulated and CYP6BY3 was down-regulated across the life stages and populations of mosquitoes, suggesting a link with the permethrin selection in these mosquitoes. Taken together, the findings from this study indicate that not only are multiple P450 genes involved in insecticide resistance but up- or down-regulation of P450 genes may also be co-responsible for detoxification of insecticides, insecticide selection, and the homeostatic response of mosquitoes to changes in cellular environment.

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  8. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa

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    Howard Annabel FV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. Methods The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. Results In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. Conclusions This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

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    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  10. Larvicidal, Histopathological Efficacy of Penicillium daleae against Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti Plus Biotoxicity on Artemia nauplii a Non-target Aquatic Organism

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    C. Ragavendran

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes can transmit the terrible diseases to human beings. Soil-borne fungal products act as potential source for low-cost chemicals, used for developing eco-friendly control agents against mosquito-vector borne diseases. The prime aim of study was to check the larvicidal potential of fungus mycelia (by ethyl acetate solvent extract from Penicillium daleae (KX387370 against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti and to test the toxicity of brine shrimp Artemia nauplii, by observing the physiological activity. The ethyl acetate extract of P. daleae mycelia (after 15 days from Potato dextrose broth (PDB medium revealed better result with least LC50 and LC90 values of I-IV instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 127.441, 129.087, 108.683, and 93.521; LC90 = 152.758, 158.169, 139.091, and 125.918 μg/ml and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 105.077, 83.943, 97.158, and 76.513; LC90 = 128.035, 106.869, 125.640, and 104.606 μg/ml respectively. At higher concentration (1000 μg/ml of extracts, mortality begins at 18 h of exposure and attained 100% mortality after 48 h exposure. Overall, the activity was depends on the dose and time of exposure to the extracts. The stereomicroscopic and histopathological analysis of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae treated with mycelium ethyl acetate extract showed complete disintegration of abdominal region, particularly the midgut and caeca, loss of cuticular parts and caudal hairs. Morphological characterization of the fungi was performed and taxonomically identified through 5.8s rDNA technique. The phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequence was carried out to find out the taxonomic and the evolutionary sketch of isolate in relation to earlier described genus Penicillium. Behavior and swimming speed alteration was analyzed together with mortality. The results of the experiment indicates that swimming behavior recorder (SBR is a appropriate tool to detect individual swimming speed of the A. nauplii organisms

  11. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

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    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  12. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappan, Raja

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation.

  14. Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae to Spondweni Virus.

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    Andrew D Haddow

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has extended its known geographic distribution to the New World and is now responsible for severe clinical complications in a subset of patients. While substantial genetic and vector susceptibility data exist for ZIKV, less is known for the closest related flavivirus, Spondweni virus (SPONV. Both ZIKV and SPONV have been known to circulate in Africa since the mid-1900s, but neither has been genetically characterized by gene and compared in parallel. Furthermore, the susceptibility of peridomestic mosquito species incriminated or suspected in the transmission of ZIKV to SPONV was unknown.In this study, two geographically distinct strains of SPONV were genetically characterized and compared to nine genetically and geographically distinct ZIKV strains. Additionally, the susceptibility of both SPONV strains was determined in three mosquito species. The open reading frame (ORF of the SPONV 1952 Nigerian Chuku strain, exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity of 97.8% and 99.2%, respectively, when compared to the SPONV 1954 prototype South African SA Ar 94 strain. The ORF of the SPONV Chuku strain exhibited a nucleotide and amino acid identity that ranged from 68.3% to 69.0% and 74.6% to 75.0%, respectively, when compared to nine geographically and genetically distinct strains of ZIKV. The ORF of the nine African and Asian lineage ZIKV strains exhibited limited nucleotide divergence. Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus susceptibility and dissemination was low or non-existent following artificial infectious blood feeding of moderate doses of both SPONV strains.SPONV and ZIKV nucleotide and amino acid divergence coupled with differences in geographic distribution, ecology and vector species support previous reports that these viruses are separate species. Furthermore, the low degree of SPONV infection or dissemination in Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus following exposure to two

  15. Evaluation of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi for Control of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Underground Storm Drains in the Coachella Valley, California, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, David A; Henke, Jennifer A; Mullens, Bradley A; Walton, William E

    2017-12-22

    Commercially available formulations of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), were assessed for control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in underground storm drain systems (USDS) in the Coachella Valley of southern California. Each of three treatments, the two fungi or a water control, was applied to 1 m2 of vertical wall at eight USDS sites in spring and autumn of 2015. Fungal infectivity and lethality were assessed at 1 d and 1, 2, and 4 wk post-application. Overnight bioassays using adult lab-reared female mosquitoes were carried out on the treated USDS wall areas and then mosquitoes were held in the laboratory for up to 21 d to allow fungal infections to be expressed. Postmortem fungal sporulation was assessed up to 2 wk at 100% humidity. Mosquito-fungal interactions also were assessed in bioassays of the three treatments on filter paper exposed to USDS conditions during autumn. Metarhizium anisopliae killed mosquitoes faster than B. bassiana; nevertheless, both freshly applied formulations caused greater than 80% mortality. Fungal persistence declined significantly after 1 wk under USDS conditions, but some infectivity persisted for more than 4 wk. Beauveria bassiana was more effective against Cx. qinquefasciatus in the spring, while M. anisopliae was more effective in the cooler conditions during autumn. USDS environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, standing water) influenced fungal-related mortality and infection of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The utility of these fungal formulations for mosquito abatement in the Coachella Valley and implications for fungal control agents in USDS environments are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Global spread and genetic variants of the two CYP9M10 haplotype forms associated with insecticide resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, K; Komagata, O; Kasai, S; Kawada, H; Mwatele, C; Dida, G O; Njenga, S M; Mwandawiro, C; Tomita, T

    2013-09-01

    Insecticide resistance develops as a genetic factor (allele) conferring lower susceptibility to insecticides proliferates within a target insect population under strong positive selection. Intriguingly, a resistance allele pre-existing in a population often bears a series of further adaptive allelic variants through new mutations. This phenomenon occasionally results in replacement of the predominating resistance allele by fitter new derivatives, and consequently, development of greater resistance at the population level. The overexpression of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP9M10 is associated with pyrethroid resistance in the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Previously, we have found two genealogically related overexpressing CYP9M10 haplotypes, which differ in gene copy number (duplicated and non-duplicated). The duplicated haplotype was derived from the non-duplicated overproducer probably recently. In the present study, we investigated allelic series of CYP9M10 involved in three C. quinquefasciatus laboratory colonies recently collected from three different localities. Duplicated and non-duplicated overproducing haplotypes coexisted in African and Asian colonies indicating a global distribution of both haplotype lineages. The duplicated haplotypes both in the Asian and African colonies were associated with higher expression levels and stronger resistance than non-duplicated overproducing haplotypes. There were slight variation in expression level among the non-duplicated overproducing haplotypes. The nucleotide sequences in coding and upstream regions among members of this group also showed a little diversity. Non-duplicated overproducing haplotypes with relatively higher expression were genealogically closer to the duplicated haplotypes than the other non-duplicated overproducing haplotypes, suggesting multiple cis-acting mutations before duplication.

  17. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

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    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  18. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  19. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

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    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  20. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  1. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  2. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  3. EFICACIA DEL BACILLUS SPHAERICUS 2362 EN EL CONTROL DE LARVAS DE ANOPHELES PSUDOPUNCTIPENNIS (THEOBALD, 1901 Y CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS (SAY, 1823 EN BIOENSAYO DE LABORATORIO

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    Diana Nongrados

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se probó la actividad del Bacillus sphaericus 2362 en formulación líquida contra larvas de Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Theobald, 1901 y Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823 en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se utilizó agua destilada y agua de criadero, con concentraciones de 1 x 10 11, 1,5 x 10 11, 2,5 x 10 11, 3,9 x 10 11 esporas/mL. La población blanco se mantuvo en condiciones de laboratorio, usándose agua y flora nativa de criadero. Se vertieron dosis de 1 mL en vasos de prueba que contenían 25 larvas del II y III estadio y 150 mL de agua de criadero o agua destilada respectivamente; se usaron vasos con igual cantidad de agua y larvas como controles para cada concentración, tipo de agua y especie de larva probada. Las pruebas fueron realizadas tres veces para cada concentración, en condiciones de laboratorio. Se realizaron 12 réplicas divididas en 6 para cada especie, usándose un total de 4,800 larvas por especie. Las lecturas de la mortalidad de larvas fueron a las 12, 24, 48 y 72 h después de añadido Bacillus sphaericus. Se observó la elevada susceptibilidad de Culex quinquefasciatus a Bacillus sphaericus 2362, con una mortalidad mayor al 90% cuando se compararon los grupos tratados y controles (valor de p = 0,031 y 0,012 para cada tipo de agua respectivamente a las 48 h y con una concentración de 1,5 x 10 11 esporas/mL. Se demostró ampliamente que Anopheles pseudopunctipennis no es susceptible a Bacillus sphaericus 2362 en bioensayos de laboratorio y no se encontraron diferencias significativas en los tratamientos con diferentes tipos de agua (valor de p > 0,05.

  4. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  5. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  6. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  7. Cis-acting mutation and duplication: History of molecular evolution in a P450 haplotype responsible for insecticide resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Kentaro; Komagata, Osamu; Kasai, Shinji; Masada, Masahiro; Tomita, Takashi

    2011-07-01

    A cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp9m10, is more than 200-fold overexpressed in a pyrethroid resistant strain of Culex quinquefasciatus, JPal-per. The haplotype of this strain contains two copies of Cyp9m10 resulted from recent tandem duplication. In this study, we discovered and isolated a Cyp9m10 haplotype closely related to this duplicated Cyp9m10 haplotype from JHB, a strain used for the recent genome project for this mosquito species. The isolated haplotype (JHB-NIID-B haplotype) shared the same insertion of a transposable element upstream of the coding region with JPal-per strain but not duplicated. The JHB-NIID-B haplotype was considered to have diverged from the JPal-per lineage just before the duplication event. Cyp9m10 was moderately overexpressed in larvae with the JHB-NIID-B haplotype. The overexpressions in JHB-NIID-B and JPal-per haplotypes were developmentally regulated in similar pattern indicating both haplotypes share a common cis-acting mutation responsible for the overexpressions. The isolated moderately overexpressed haplotype conferred resistance, however, its efficacy was relatively small. We hypothesized that the first cis-acting mutation modified the consequence of the subsequent duplication in JPal-per lineage to confer stronger phenotypic effect than that if it occurred before the first cis-acting mutation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  9. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  10. Field evaluation of the biolarvicide, spinosad 20 per cent emulsifiable concentrate in comparison to its 12 per cent suspension concentrate formulation against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanandane, Candasamy; Gunasekaran, Kasinathan; Boopathi Doss, Ponnusamy Sivagnana; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2018-01-01

    Biolarvicides may offer alternatives to chemical larvicides as these are known to be safe to environment and selective against the target species. However, only a limited number of biolarvicides have been approved for mosquito larval control. In the current study, a new formulation of spinosad, 20 per cent emulsifiable concentrate (EC) was tested for its efficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus, in comparison to its 12 per cent suspension concentrate (SC). Spinosad 20 per cent EC was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus immature at 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg active ingredient (ai)/m [2] in cesspits, drains and abandoned wells in comparison with spinosad 12 per cent SC at the optimum field application dosage of 50 mg ai/m [2] . The 20 per cent EC caused 90-100 per cent reduction of pupal density for 7-14 days in cesspits, 10-17 days in drains and 14-30 days in abandoned wells at all dosages tested. At lower dosages of 25 and 50 mg ai/m [2] , >90 per cent reduction of pupal density was observed for one week in cesspits and street drains and for two weeks in abandoned wells. The effective duration of control provided by the higher dosages, 100 and 150 mg ai/m [2] was 1.4 to 2 times greater than the lower dosages, 25 and 50 mg ai/m [2] . The findings showed that the spinosad 20 per cent EC can be used for larval control against Cx. quinquefasciatus, at the dosage of 25 mg ai/m [2] at weekly interval in cesspits and drains and at fortnightly interval in abandoned wells. Spinosad 20 per cent EC could be one of the options to be considered for larval control under integrated vector management.

  11. Estudio comparativo de métodos de extracción, en la obtención de extractos promisorios con actividad larvicida contra el mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a partir de residuos frutícolas

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Barbosa, Jenny Paola

    2014-01-01

    Un total de 23 residuos entre semillas y epicarpios de frutas tropicales, fueron sometidos a extracción Soxhlet a presión reducida con metanol. Con los extractos obtenidos se realizó el tamizaje respecto a la actividad larvicida, contra Culex quinquefasciatus. Se definió como biomasa más promisoria al cáliz de uchuva (Physalis peruviana), cuyo extracto presentó un CL50= 395,6 ppm en 24 h (6,8% de rendimiento). Dicha biomasa fue sometida a extracción con fluidos supercríticos (CO2 a 40°C, 200 ...

  12. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  13. Hepatozoon cf. terzii (Sambon & Seligman, 1907 infection in the snake Boa constrictor constrictor from north Brazil: transmission to the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and the lizard Tropidurus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paperna I.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Hepatozoon-infected Boa constrictor constrictor were obtained from localities in Pará State, north Brazil. Gametocytes in erythrocytes of the peripheral blood measured 10 x 2.5-16.2 x 3.7 µm. They were similar to those described as Haemogregarina terzii by Sambon & Seligmann (1907 in B. c. constrictor, in that they did not distort the infected erythrocyte, and their dimensions approximated those given by Carini (1947. Lungs and liver of infected snakes contained actively dividing meronts of a single type, and cysts containing two to six cystozoites were also present in the liver. Our initial feeding of Culex quinquefasciatus on infected snakes consistently resulted in a heavy death-rate of the engorged mosquitoes, with only a few surviving till the 9th day post feeding. These contained numerous oocysts which were undivided or in early stages of division. A fifth and final experiment, however, provided a few mosquitoes surviving up to 21 days post infection (dpi, and these contained fully sporulated oocysts measuring 190-200 µm in diameter and containing over 60 sporocysts of 19-30 µm in diameter. The number of sporozoites in each sporocyst was estimated as approximately 50. The nature of the parasite's sporogonic cycle in the mosquito thus justifies inclusion of this haemogregarine in the genus Hepatozoon. Two wild-caught specimens of the lizard Tropidurus torquatus were fed with mosquitoes containing fully developed oocysts (21 dpi. When sacrificed, three months later, large numbers of dizoic, tetrazoic and hexazoic cysts were demonstrated in their livers. Cystozoites released from these cysts were shown to possess a conspicuous refractile body.

  14. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies.

  15. Regulation of P450-mediated permethrin resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus by the GPCR/Gαs/AC/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Liu, Nannan

    2017-12-01

    This study explores the role of G-protein-coupled receptor-intracellular signaling in the development of P450-mediated insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus , focusing on the essential function of the GPCRs and their downstream effectors of Gs alpha subunit protein (Gαs) and adenylyl cyclase (ACs) in P450-mediated insecticide resistance of Culex mosquitoes. Our RNAi-mediated functional study showed that knockdown of Gαs caused the decreased expression of the downstream effectors of ACs and PKAs in the GPCR signaling pathway and resistance P450 genes, whereas knockdown of ACs decreased the expression of PKAs and resistance P450 genes. Knockdown of either Gαs or ACs resulted in an increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to permethrin. These results add significantly to our understanding of the molecular basis of resistance P450 gene regulation through GPCR/Gαs/AC/cAMP-PKA signaling pathways in the insecticide resistance of mosquitoes. The temporal and spatial dynamic analyses of GPCRs, Gαs, ACs, PKAs, and P450s in two insecticide resistant mosquito strains revealed that all the GPCR signaling pathway components tested, namely GPCRs, Gαs, ACs and PKAs, were most highly expressed in the brain for both resistant strains, suggesting the role played by these genes in signaling transduction and regulation. The resistance P450 genes were mainly expressed in the brain, midgut and malpighian tubules (MTs), suggesting their critical function in the central nervous system and importance for detoxification. The temporal dynamics analysis for the gene expression showed a diverse expression profile during mosquito development, indicating their initially functional importance in response to exposure to insecticides during their life stages.

  16. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  17. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  18. An operational utility assessment [electronic resource]: measuring the effectiveness of the Joint Concept Technology Demonstration (JCTD), Joint Forces Protection Advance Security System (JFPASS)

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...

  19. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  20. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Vector-Host Contact (VHC) Ratios and Ecological Niche Modeling of the West Nile Virus Mosquito Vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, in the City of New Orleans, LA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mohamed F; Michaels, Sarah R; Riegel, Claudia; Pereira, Roberto M; Zipperer, Wayne; Lockaby, B Graeme; Koehler, Philip G

    2017-08-08

    The consistent sporadic transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the city of New Orleans justifies the need for distribution risk maps highlighting human risk of mosquito bites. We modeled the influence of biophysical and socioeconomic metrics on the spatio-temporal distributions of presence/vector-host contact (VHC) ratios of WNV vector, Culex quinquefasciatus , within their flight range . Biophysical and socioeconomic data were extracted within 5-km buffer radii around sampling localities of gravid female Culex quinquefasciatus . The spatio-temporal correlations between VHC data and 33 variables, including climate, land use-land cover (LULC), socioeconomic, and land surface terrain were analyzed using stepwise linear regression models (RM). Using MaxEnt, we developed a distribution model using the correlated predicting variables. Only 12 factors showed significant correlations with spatial distribution of VHC ratios ( R ² = 81.62, p < 0.01). Non-forested wetland (NFWL), tree density (TD) and residential-urban (RU) settings demonstrated the strongest relationship. The VHC ratios showed monthly environmental resilience in terms of number and type of influential factors. The highest prediction power of RU and other urban and built up land (OUBL), was demonstrated during May-August. This association was positively correlated with the onset of the mosquito WNV infection rate during June. These findings were confirmed by the Jackknife analysis in MaxEnt and independently collected field validation points. The spatial and temporal correlations of VHC ratios and their response to the predicting variables are discussed.

  1. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  2. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  3. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  4. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  5. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex Willd. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Bancroftian filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Vincent, Savariar

    2012-02-01

    The leaf extract of Acalypha alnifolia with different solvents - hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol - were tested for larvicidal activity against three important mosquitoes such as malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Bancroftian filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Kallar Hills near the Western Ghats, Coimbatore, India. A. alnifolia plant was washed with tap water and shade dried at room temperature. The dried leaves were powdered mechanically using commercial electrical stainless steel blender. The powder 800 g of the leaf material was extract with 2.5 litre of various each organic solvents such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol for 8 h using Soxhlet apparatus, and filtered. The crude plant extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The yield of extracts was hexane (8.64 g), chloroform (10.74 g), ethyl acetate (9.14 g), acetone (10.02 g), and methanol (11.43 g). One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 50, 150, 250, 350 and 450 ppm, was prepared. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone was moderate considerable mortality; however, the highest larval mortality was methanolic extract observed in three mosquito vectors. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The early fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 197.37, 178.75, 164.34, 149.90 and 125.73 ppm and LC(90) = 477.60, 459.21, 435.07, 416.20 and 395.50 ppm, respectively. The A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 202.15, 182.58, 160.35, 146.07 and 128.55 ppm and LC(90) = 476.57, 460.83, 440.78, 415.38 and 381.67 ppm, respectively. The C. quinquefasciatus had values of LC(50) = 198.79, 172.48, 151.06, 140.69 and 127.98 ppm and LC(90) = 458.73, 430

  6. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  7. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  8. Experimental infection of Hawai'i 'Amakihi (hemignathus virens) with West Nile virus and competence of a co-occurring vector, culex quinquefasciatus: potential impacts on endemic Hawaiian avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Atkinson, C.T.; Porter, R.E.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne avian disease is a major limiting factor in the recovery and restoration of native Hawaiian forest birds. Annual epizootics of avian pox (Avipoxvirus) and avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) likely led to the extinction of some species and continue to impact populations of susceptible Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). The introduction of a novel pathogen, such as West Nile virus (WNV), could result in further population declines and extinctions. During September and October 2004, we infected Hawai'i' Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with a North American isolate of WNV by needle inoculation and mosquito bite to observe susceptibility, mortality, and illness in this endemic passerine, and to determine the vector competence of the co-occurring, introduced mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. All experimentally infected Hawai'i ;Amakihi became viremic, with a mean titer >10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml, and they experienced clinical signs ranging from anorexia and lethargy to ataxia. The fatality rate among needle-inoculated Hawai'i' Amakihi (n=16) was 31.3%, but mortality in free-ranging birds is likely to increase due to predation, starvation, thermal stress, and concomitant infections of avian malaria and pox. Surviving Hawai'i' Amakihi seem to clear WNV from the peripheral blood by 7-10 days postinfection (DPI), and neutralizing antibodies were detected from 9 to 46 DPI. In transmission trials, Hawaiian Cx. quinquefasciatus proved to be a competent vector and Hawai'i Amakihi an adequate amplification host of WNV, suggesting that epizootic WNV could readily become an additional limiting factor of some native Hawaiian bird populations.

  9. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  10. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  11. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  12. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  13. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  14. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  15. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  16. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  17. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  18. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  19. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  20. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  1. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  2. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  3. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  4. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  6. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather...outside world, through public relations and through marketing information products or services, to its own competitive advantage (Davenport 1997: 193-217... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town

  7. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  8. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  9. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  10. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  11. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  12. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  13. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Social Studies Online Resources. Media Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeri, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that three types of social studies activities are found on the information highway: (1) electronic mail; (2) information; and (3) conferencing. Describes examples of each. Discusses commercial services and resource materials and provides references to online services. (CFR)

  15. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  17. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  18. GENDER ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of internet Search engines such as google, yahoo and other free internet resources was found ... empirical studies are undertaken to examine the influence of gender ... H3: Perceived ease of use is positively related to the use of electronic.

  19. Experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin alone and in combination against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbel Vincent

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethroids for use on treated nets. Certain compounds of an earlier generation of insecticides, the organophosphates may have potential as net treatments. Methods Comparative studies of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM, an organophosphate with low mammalian toxicity, and lambdacyhalothrin (L, a pyrethroid, were conducted in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from the area are resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates (kdr and insensitive acetylcholinesterase Ace.1R. Several treatments and application rates on intact or holed nets were evaluated, including single treatments, mixtures, and differential wall/ceiling treatments. Results and Conclusion All of the treatments were effective in reducing blood feeding from sleepers under the nets and in killing both species of mosquito, despite the presence of the kdr and Ace.1R genes at high frequency. In most cases, the effects of the various treatments did not differ significantly. Five washes of the nets in soap solution did not reduce the impact of the insecticides on A. gambiae mortality, but did lead to an increase in blood feeding. The three combinations performed no differently from the single insecticide treatments, but the low dose mixture performed encouragingly well indicating that such combinations might be used for controlling insecticide resistant mosquitoes. Mortality of mosquitoes that carried both Ace.1R and Ace.1S genes did not differ significantly from mosquitoes that carried only Ace.1S genes on any of the treated nets, indicating that the Ace.1R allele does not confer effective resistance to chlorpyrifos-methyl under the realistic conditions of an experimental hut.

  20. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...

  1. Shaping the Electronic Library--The UW-Madison Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Charles W., Ed.; Frazier, Ken; Pope, Nolan F.; Gorman, Peter C.; Dentinger, Sue; Boston, Jeanne; Phillips, Hugh; Daggett, Steven C.; Lundquist, Mitch; McClung, Mark; Riley, Curran; Allan, Craig; Waugh, David

    1998-01-01

    This special theme section describes the University of Wisconsin-Madison's experience building its Electronic Library. Highlights include integrating resources and services; the administrative framework; the public electronic library, including electronic publishing capability and access to World Wide Web-based and other electronic resources;…

  2. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  3. 研究/電子資源使用統計標準與規範之探討/陳雪華;許嘉珍;朱雅琦 | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳雪華、許嘉珍、朱雅琦

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    近年來,由於資訊科技的進步,圖書館中的電子資源數量快速增加,所佔預算金額比例也大幅增長。圖書館希望能夠透過評鑑電子資源的使用,以便能夠在電 子資源館藏發展等方面做出正確的決策。由於體認到電子資源使用統計之重要性,圖書館界與相關組織紛紛發展或修訂圖書館統計標準,增列電子資源使用統計的項 目以充分反映圖書館電子資源使用之狀況。本文主要採用文獻分析法以及內容分析法,收集探討並比較近軍來國內外電子資源使用統計之相關規範及標準,包含 ISO 2789、 ICOLC Guidelines、州ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrlcs、E-Measures Project、以及Project COUNTER等。

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 、ICOLC Guidelines、ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrics、E-Measures Project、and Project COUNTER etc.

    頁次:89-102

  4. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  5. World resources: engineering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The proceedings include 10 papers that contribute to population environment; fossil fuel resources and energy conservation; nuclear and solar power; production of ores and manufacture and use of metallic resources; resources of manufactured and natural nonmetallic materials; water as a reusable resource; and timber as a replaceable resource.

  6. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  7. Innovations in electronic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summarry Existence in electronic business has become increasingly difficult. High competition and considerable financial resources needed to enter electronic market are the problems of most micro and small sized enterprises, starting or developing their business. Nevertheless, there is a market niche for them, which can ensure success and grant partial financing of the business. This niche are small web projects, providing the customer with personalized service, hitting his tastes and meeting immediate needs. A projects that large websites are unable to perform. Financial sourcing of those projects comes from EU subsidies, in the framework of the Działanie 8.1. PO IG, 2007-2013.

  8. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  9. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  10. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  11. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  12. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  13. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  14. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  15. Building the electronic industry's roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    JTEC panelists found a strong consistency among the electronics firms they visited: all the firms had clear visions or roadmaps for their research and development activities and had committed resources to ensure that they achieve targeted results. The overarching vision driving Japan's electronics industry is that of achieving market success through developing appealing, high-quality, low-cost consumer goods - ahead of the competition. Specifics of the vision include improving performance, quality, and portability of consumer electronics products. Such visions help Japanese companies define in detail the roadmaps they will follow to develop new and improved electronic packaging technologies.

  16. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  17. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  18. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  19. Network resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The invention provides real time dynamic resource management to improve end-to-end QoS by mobile devices regularly updating a resource availability server (RAS) with resource update information. Examples of resource update information are device battery status, available memory, session bandwidth,

  20. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  1. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  2. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  3. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  4. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  5. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  6. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  7. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  8. Human Resource Development in Hybrid Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...

  9. Students developing resources for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michael; Evans, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    The development of new technologies has provided medical education with the ability to enhance the student learning experience and meet the needs of changing curricula. Students quickly adapt to using multimedia learning resources, but these need to be well designed, learner-centred and interactive for students to become significantly engaged. One way to ensure that students become committed users and that resources become distinct elements of the learning cycle is to involve students in resource design and production. Such an approach enables resources to accommodate student needs and preferences, but also provides opportunities for them to develop their own teaching and training skills. The aim of the medical student research project was to design and produce an electronic resource that was focused on a particular anatomical region. The views of other medical students were used to decide what features were suitable for inclusion and the resulting package contained basic principles and clinical relevance, and used a variety of approaches such as images of cadaveric material, living anatomy movies and quizzes. The completed package was assessed using a survey matrix and found to compare well with commercially available products. Given the ever-diversifying arena of multimedia instruction and the ability of students to be fully conversant with technology, this project demonstrates that students are ideal participants and creators of multimedia resources. It is hoped that such an approach will help to further develop the skill base of students, but will also provide an avenue of developing packages that are student user friendly, and that are focused towards particular curricula requirements. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  10. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  11. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  12. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  13. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  14. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  15. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  16. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  17. Electronic Publishing Approaches to Curriculum: Videotex, Teletext and Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumente, Jerome

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Journalism Resources Institute (JRI) of Rutgers University in terms of its administrative organization, computer resources, computer facilities use, involvement in electronic publishing, use of the Dow Jones News/Retrieval Database, curricular options, and professional continuing education. (AYC)

  18. When resources get sparse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    resources through positive cognitive reappraisals of their circumstances, the consequences of those circumstances and their coping possibilities. Nine main coping strategies were identified constituting transformative pathways in resource-creation. A theory of resource-creation is proposed as an addition...... coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were...... to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed....

  19. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  20. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  1. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  2. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  3. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  4. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the�Natural Resources Atlas�is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  5. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  6. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Crain, John M. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  7. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  8. Morphometric studies on Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are difficult to identify based solely on examination of adult females using the available morphological keys. In this study, adult mosquitoes were collected ... ures) it is necessary to identify the species of adult females which are found near ... M. africana is known to transmit Rift Valley fever. (Meegan & Bailey, 1988; Fontenille ...

  9. Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CR cultural resource CRM cultural resource management CRPM Cultural Resource Predictive Modeling DoD Department of Defense ESTCP Environmental...resource management ( CRM ) legal obligations under NEPA and the NHPA, military installations need to demonstrate that CRM decisions are based on objective...maxim “one size does not fit all,” and demonstrate that DoD installations have many different CRM needs that can and should be met through a variety

  10. Bancroftian filariasis in Belém, Pará State: possibilities for eradication by introducing modern methods of control for Culex quinquefasciatus A filariose bancroftiana em Belém, Pará: possibilidades atuais de erradicação mediante a integração à campanha de novos métodos de controle da população de Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Fraiha Neto

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available For the past four decades, Belém has been considered to be the largest focus of Bancroftian filariasis in the Amazon region and one of the most important ones in Brazil. In 1952, practically one-fifth of the population was infected and it was estimated that there were 2,500 cases of Bancroftian elephantiasis. The major factor considered to be responsible for this situation was the high density of the main vector species: it was calculated that in April 1943 there was a mean of 67 infected mosquitoes per house. A control campaign was initiated in 1952, involving treatment of patients with diethylcarbamazine, as well as control of the vector. In 1956, vector control was discontinued because of a lack of efficient insecticides and financial limitations. Even so, the campaign was very successful and the incidence was reduced from 19.9% to 0.03%. Total eradication could be achieved if new methods of vector control were introduced, such as the use of Reiter's expanded polystyrene balls in cesspits and pit latrines, biological control using pathogenic bacteria, and improvement of basic sanitation.Há mais de quatro décadas Belém é considerada o maior foco de bancroftose da região amazônica e um dos mais importantes do Brasil. Em 1952, praticamente um quinto de sua população apresentava microfilárias no sangue, estimando-se em 2.500 os casos de elefantíase. O fator considerado o maior condicionante de tão extraordinária freqüência era a alta densidade local do principal vetor, Culex quinquefasciatus. Em abril de 1943 calculava-se uma média de 67 fêmeas da espécie infectadas por domicílio. Uma campanha de controle foi deflagrada em 1952, incluindo busca ativa e tratamento dos casos com dietilcarbamazina, além medidas de combate ao vetor. Estas foram abandonadas em 1956, por força da ineficácia ou do alto custo dos inseticidas. Ainda assim, a campanha foi muito bem sucedida, reduzindo a incidência de 19,9 para 0,03%. Hoje, a erradica

  11. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  12. Save Our Water Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  13. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  14. Ohio Water Resources Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio.gov State Agencies | Online Services Twitter YouTube EPA IMAGE Ohio Water Resources Committee Ohio enjoys abundant water resources. Few states enjoy as many streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands as Ohio. Numerous agencies and organizations are involved in protecting Ohio's valuable water resources

  15. Electronic Information – Threat or Challenge to Librarians and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic Information – Threat or Challenge to Librarians and Library Buildings. ... electronic resources because as new things and methods emerge, they exist ... that world trends in the paper industry and Internet use do not justify the fears ...

  16. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to…

  17. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  18. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  19. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  20. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  1. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  2. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  3. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  4. Self managing experiment resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagni, F; Ubeda, M; Charpentier, P; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Romanovskiy, V; Roiser, S; Graciani, R

    2014-01-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  5. Resource Structuring and Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yucheng; Li, Peter Ping

    -shaped effect on organizational ambidexterity in new ventures. Further, because of the traditional culture and economic transition characteristics, new ventures actively leverage managerial ties as key social relations to obtain special resources or nurture business transactions. We propose that ties with other......Focusing on how resource structuring mechanisms and managerial ties influence organizational ambidexterity of new ventures in emerging economy, this study explores the effects of resource structuring mechanisms (i.e., resource acquiring and resource accumulating) on organizational ambidexterity....... It further examines the moderating effects of managerial ties, (i.e., ties with other firms and ties with the government) on the above relationships. Survey data from China¡¯s 202 new ventures demonstrates that the resource acquiring has an inverted U-shaped effect whereas the resource accumulating has a U...

  6. Looking for Guidelines for the Production of Electronic Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies of electronic book production, including production on the World Wide Web, and explains EBONI (Electronic Books On-screen Interface) that focuses on the evaluation of electronic resources and compiling guidelines for publishing electronic materials on the Internet for the United Kingdom higher education…

  7. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  9. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.

  10. Electron Emitters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2002-01-01

    When two carbon-nanotube coated electrodes are placed at a small distance from each other, electron emission from carbon nanotubes allows a DC or AC electrical current to flow between these two electrodes...

  11. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  12. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  13. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Zvolánková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  14. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jessica; Hollis, Joseph Razzell; Wood, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    The combination of printing technology with manufacturing electronic devices enables a new paradigm of printable electronics, where 'smart' functionality can be readily incorporated into almost any product at low cost. Over recent decades, rapid progress has been made in this field, which is now emerging into the industrial andcommercial realm. However, successful development and commercialisation on a large scale presents some significant technical challenges. For fully-printable electronic systems, all the component parts must be deposited from solutions (inks), requiring the development of new inorganic, organic and hybrid materials.A variety of traditional printing techniques are being explored and adapted forprinting these new materials in ways that result in the best performing electronicdevices. Whilst printed electronics research has initially focused on traditional typesof electronic device such as light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photovoltaics, it is increasingly apparent that a much wider range of applications can be realised. The soft and stretchable nature of printable materials makes them perfect candidates forbioelectronics, resulting in a wealth of research looking at biocompatible printable inks and biosensors. Regardless of application, the properties of printed electronicmaterials depend on the chemical structures, processing conditions, device architecture,and operational conditions, the complex inter-relationships of which aredriving ongoing research. We focus on three particular 'hot topics', where attention is currently focused: novel materials, characterisation techniques, and device stability. With progress advancing very rapidly, printed electronics is expected to grow over the next decade into a key technology with an enormous economic and social impact.

  15. Where Doctors Read Health Information Resources and Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resources Media Preferences. Obianuju E. ... The survey research design was adopted for the study. ... media of assessing health information are the internet, electronic databases, textbooks, journals and .... for Social Sciences (SPSS).

  16. Improving the Status of Human and Material Resources in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the Status of Human and Material Resources in Public Primary School in Oyo States ... the Millennium Development Goals project in the State. ... libraries, well-equipped first aid centres, adequate electronically projected instructional ...

  17. Lightning Safety Tips and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Safety National Program Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Weather.gov > Safety > Lightning Safety Tips and Resources Lightning Resources Lightning strikes ...

  18. Numerical simulation of transient moisture and temperature distribution in polycarbonate and aluminum electronic enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of developing a reliable electronic product requires huge amounts of resources and knowledge. Temperature and thermal features directly affect the life of electronic products. Furthermore, moisture can be damaging for electronic components. Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics (CF...

  19. Risk Profile May Affect Search Process but Not Results. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, Douglas B. Fridsma, and Rebecca S. Crowley. “How Primary Care Physicians’ Attitudes Toward Risk and Uncertainty Affect Their Use of Electronic Information Resources.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 95.2 (2007: 138‐46, e49‐50. 10 Nov. 2007 .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale G. Hannigan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To compare the use, in terms of process and outcomes, of electronic information resources by primary care physicians with different risk profiles and comfort with uncertainty.Design – Survey, and observation using “think‐aloud” method.Setting – Physicians’ offices.Subjects – Canadian and U.S. primary carephysicians who report seeing patients in clinic settings.Methods – Volunteers were recruited from personal contacts and the list of physicianswho rate current studies for the McMaster Online Rating of Evidence (MORE project. Physicians completed the Pearson scale to measure attitude toward risk and the Gerrity scale to measure comfort with uncertainty, and those who scored at the extremes of each of these two scales were included in the study (n=25, resulting in four groups (risk‐seeking, risk‐avoiding, uncertainty‐stressed, uncertainty unstressed. One researcher observed each of these physicians in their offices for an hour during which they completed questionnaires about their computer skills and familiarity with resources, answered multiple‐choice clinical questions, and indicated level of certainty with regard to those answers (scale of 0 to 100%. Physicians also chose two of the clinical questions to answer using their own resources. The think‐aloud method was employed, and transcripts were coded and analyzed.Main results – The study analysis included two comparisons: risk‐seeking (11 subjects versus risk‐avoiding (11 subjects physicians,and uncertainty‐stressed (11 subjects versus uncertainty‐unstressed (10 subjects physicians. Most physicians were included in both sets of analyses. The researchers found no association of risk attitude and uncertainty stress with computer skills nor with familiarity and use of specific information resources (Internet, MEDLINE, PIER, Clinical Evidence, and UpToDate. No differences were found for the following outcomes: time spent searching, answers correct

  20. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  1. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  2. Sharing network resources

    CERN Document Server

    Parekh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications. We start from the fun

  3. 2005 resource options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  4. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  5. Utilisation of Online Resources among Undergraduates in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic book (e-book) was mostly utilized as against Ejournals and E-thesis, while mobile phones and cybercafés remain the channels used in accessing online resources. it was discovered that incessant power supply, slow Internet connectivity and lack of time to access the information resources are constraints to ...

  6. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  7. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  8. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  9. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  10. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  11. Electronic cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As we know E-cigarette is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. It is a new product that the most of smoking people would like to buy and use. However, we are not realizing advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarette clearly. My objective was to research the development of electronic cigarette whether it is under control or a good way of marketing. The thesis has two main parts. They include answers to questions what is electronic cigarette and how to manage the whole industry...

  12. Gaseous Electronics Tables, Atoms, and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2011-01-01

    With the constant emergence of new research and application possibilities, gaseous electronics is more important than ever in disciplines including engineering (electrical, power, mechanical, electronics, and environmental), physics, and electronics. The first resource of its kind, Gaseous Electronics: Tables, Atoms, and Molecules fulfills the author's vision of a stand-alone reference to condense 100 years of research on electron-neutral collision data into one easily searchable volume. It presents most--if not all--of the properly classified experimental results that scientists, researchers,

  13. Reliability criteria selection for integrated resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiu, D.; Ye, C.; Billinton, R.; Lakhanpal, D.

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted on the selection of a generating system reliability criterion that ensures a reasonable continuity of supply while minimizing the total costs to utility customers. The study was conducted using the Institute for Electronic and Electrical Engineers (IEEE) reliability test system as the study system. The study inputs and results for conditions and load forecast data, new supply resources data, demand-side management resource data, resource planning criterion, criterion value selection, supply side development, integrated resource development, and best criterion values, are tabulated and discussed. Preliminary conclusions are drawn as follows. In the case of integrated resource planning, the selection of the best value for a given type of reliability criterion can be done using methods similar to those used for supply side planning. The reliability criteria values previously used for supply side planning may not be economically justified when integrated resource planning is used. Utilities may have to revise and adopt new, and perhaps lower supply reliability criteria for integrated resource planning. More complex reliability criteria, such as energy related indices, which take into account the magnitude, frequency and duration of the expected interruptions are better adapted than the simpler capacity-based reliability criteria such as loss of load expectation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  15. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  16. Physical resources and infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the main physical characteristics as well as the main physical and social infrastructure features of Kenya's coastal region. Physical resources include relief, soils, rainfall, agro-ecological zones and natural resources. Aspects of the physical infrastructure discussed are

  17. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  18. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  19. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  20. Resources for blueberry growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local extension agents and USDA-ARS research scientists are excellent resources for various aspects of blueberry production, but several print and web-based resources are also available to help commercial blueberry growers. Growers are encouraged to consider the source for all web-based information....

  1. Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2017-01-01

    While digital products have made significant inroads into the educational resources market, textbooks and other print materials still command about 60 percent of sales. But whether print or digital, all of these commercial offerings now face threats from a burgeoning effort to promote "open" resources for education--that is, materials…

  2. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  3. Resources in Technology 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This volume of Resources in Technology contains the following eight instructional modules: (1) "Processing Technology"; (2) "Water--A Magic Resource"; (3) "Hazardous Waste Disposal--The NIMBY (Not in My Backyard) Syndrome"; (4) "Processing Fibers and Fabrics"; (5) "Robotics--An Emerging…

  4. Supplier Resource Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    theoretical perspectives. This review, synthesis, and resultant discussion allow us to propose that future research should look closer at the resource activation process on the supplier side, the role of the buyer-supplier relationship in resource mobilization, and the approach of the buying company...

  5. Electronic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "The Electronic School" features a special forum on computer networking. Articles specifically focus on network operating systems, cabling requirements, and network architecture. Tom Wall argues that virtual reality is not yet ready for classroom use. B.J. Novitsky profiles two high schools experimenting with CD-ROM…

  6. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  7. Electronics department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in 1978 of some of the groups within the Electronics Department. The work covered includes plant protection and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  8. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  9. Electron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G A; Schriber, S O [ed.

    1976-11-01

    A study was made of the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field. These machines were classified according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for x-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. Industrial machines discussed include linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a c-w, 1 GeV, 100..mu..A electron linac is raised, and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of rf superconductivity is summarized. A review is given of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e/sup +-/ storage rings, and recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC, is described.

  10. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  11. Electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic seal is presented for a volume such as container for fissile materials. The seal encloses a lock for barring the space as well as a device for the detection and the recording of the intervention of the lock. (AF)

  12. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  13. Electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    To study the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field, we have classified these machines according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for X-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. The section on industrial machines includes linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a C.W., 1 GeV, 100 μA electron linac is raised and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of RF superconductivity is summarized. Following, there is a review of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e +- storage rings. The paper ends with a description of recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC. (author)

  14. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, T.

    2005-01-01

    Under the combined effect of various factors, such as interrogations related to facing the climatic changes, the increasing prices of oil versus announced decrease of its resources, the major geopolitical evolution and the remarkable development of Asia, we live nowadays a revival of nuclear power in the very front of stage. In tis context, the following question is posed: could the nuclear fission be a sustainable source of energy when taking into consideration the availability of uranium resources? The article aims at pinpointing the knowledge we have about the world uranium resources, their limits of uncertainty and the relation between knowledge resources and market evolution. To conclude, some susceptible tracks are proposed to improve the using process of uranium resources particularly in softening the impact of high prices

  15. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  16. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The controversy about the extend of the uranium resources worldwide is still important, this article sheds some light on this topic. Every 2 years IAEA and NEA (nuclear energy agency) edit an inventory of uranium resources as reported by contributing countries. It appears that about 4.6 millions tons of uranium are available at a recovery cost less than 130 dollars per kg of uranium and a total of 14 millions tons of uranium can be assessed when including all existing or supposed resources. In fact there is enough uranium to sustain a moderate growth of the park of nuclear reactors during next decades and it is highly likely that the volume of uranium resources can allow a more aggressive development of nuclear energy. It is recalled that a broad use of the validated breeder technology can stretch the durability of uranium resources by a factor 50. (A.C.)

  17. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  18. Space and Planetary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    2018-02-01

    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  19. The Frustrated Nerds Project--Resources for Systems Administrators in Higher Education: A Resource Webliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Jessamyn; Aber, Susan Ward

    2010-01-01

    Systems Architects and Information Technology administrators working in higher education help faculty, staff, and student computer users. Yet, who helps them? What resources do these professionals value? A case study was conducted using purposeful sampling and data collection through electronic interview to gather the preferred information-seeking…

  20. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  1. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  2. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This requires that libraries must automate their services to be able to operate using the Internet platform with all the advantages that it offers. Using the Internet libraries can own websites through which links can be provided for their users to numerous open source materials considering that most of them are unable to ...

  3. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is guided by five Objectives and five research questions. Literatures on ... registered students in Ramat Library, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. A sample of 170 ... text collections, digital collections of data sets. He further ... The developments of new technologies ..... this result proves that the management of.

  4. Use of electronic information resources among the undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... among the undergraduate students in academic libraries in a recessed economy. ... and simple percentages were used to analyze the data for the research question. ... it also promoted their learning abilities and enhanced the development of research ... It was recommended that the management should make available ...

  5. Databases and Electronic Resources - Betty Petersen Memorial Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    references and PDFs, and create bibliographies in most any bibliographic citation style. EndNote Web requires literature on computer and information science. Provides automated citation indexing and citation linking the user to create an account, but allows for increased collaboration through the sharing of citation

  6. Leveraging the Libguides Platform for Electronic Resources Access Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Rachel A.; Erb, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This case study offers an alternative use of LibGuides beyond its intended purpose to offer course and subject guides. LibGuides have become an integral part of the virtual instruction landscape at Colorado State University (CSU) Libraries. We discovered that the LibGuides platform can also be effectively harnessed to provide support for…

  7. Electronic Resources in Science and Technology: Gopher and Its Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Suzanne T., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    An Associate Head of Information Services and the Internet Gopher project leader discuss the future of Gopher with the arrival of the World Wide Web. Strengths and weaknesses of both systems are addressed. One expert sees a future with new versions of both; the other predicts a next generation of information systems combining their features. (PEN)

  8. Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All of the UG students viewed the TAH programme; 82% (130) of the KNUST students viewed the PCR animations. All students who viewed the programmes at both institutions indicated that the e-learning pro-grammes were “more effective” in comparison to other methods of learning. Conclusion: Computer ownership or ...

  9. EDUCATIONAL NETWORK RESOURCES IN JOURNALISM AND PUBLISHING: FEATURES OF THE SITES' CONTENT AND DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna A. Zenzina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of electronic educational resource, its importance for the orientation of students in cyberspace, the basic requirements for the design and content of educational resources eligibility criteria standards. Filed benefits of having their own educational resource for high school. Singled out the importance of the interaction of educational resources with social networks. Detected differences and similarities of design and content of educational resources of Kyiv Universities in journalism and publishing.

  10. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  11. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    countries in developing market nations in Asia (such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia , China and Vietnam). The competition for the knowledge, economic...Intel, Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, Samsung Electronics, Texas Instruments, AMD Spansion, Philips Semiconductor, Freescale... Samsung ($19.7B), #5 Toshiba ($9.8B), #6 TSMC ($9.7B), #7 Hynix ($8.0B) and #8 Renesas ($7.9B) (McGrath, 2007, p. 3). Samsung , headquartered in

  12. Electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  13. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  14. Implementating Information Technology in E-Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Dana Popescu (Mitu

    2016-01-01

    More and more organizations have been replacing face-to-face human resource managementactivities with electronic human resource management, which is considered as one of the keyfactors that every organization needs to focus. Considering that human resource management isone of the necessary needs of today’s business, the goal of this article is to establish the importanceof human resource management (HRM, to examine recent research in e-HRM in order to evaluatethe cumulated evidence on the relationship between HRM and e-HRM and to outline the impact ofe-HRM on human resource. Many specialists underlined the fact that human resource requiresmore attention and careful management than any other resource of an organization. This paperalso deals with the influence of Internet and information technology on work and human resourcemanagement.

  15. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  16. Electronic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic sputtering covers a range of phenomena from electron and photon stimulated desorption from multilayers to fast heavy ion-induced desorption (sputtering) of biomolecules. In this talk the author attempted. Therefore, to connect the detailed studies of argon ejection from solid argon by MeV ions and keV electrons to the sputtering of low temperatures molecular ices by MeV ions then to biomolecule ejection from organic solids. These are related via changing (dE/dx) e , molecular size, and transport processes occurring in materials. In this regard three distinct regions of (dE/dx) e have been identified. Since the talk this picture has been made explicit using a simple spike model for individual impulsive events in which spike interactions are combined linearly. Since that time also the molecular dynamics programs (at Virginia and Uppsala) have quantified both single atom and dimer processes in solid Ar and the momentum transport in large biomolecule sputtering. 5 refs

  17. Reciprocal Relationships between Job Resources, Personal Resources, and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we hypothesized that job resources, personal resources, and work engagement are reciprocal over time. The study was conducted among 163 employees, who were followed-up over a period of 18…

  18. Resources, constraints and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Schröder, A.

    2018-01-01

    Human and financial resources as well as organisational capabilities are needed to overcome the manifold constraints social innovators are facing. To unlock the potential of social innovation for the whole society new (social) innovation friendly environments and new governance structures

  19. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  20. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...