WorldWideScience

Sample records for quinoa chenopodium quinoa

  1. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  2. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    The global interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is rapidly increasing, both as a result of its nutritional qualities but also due to its potential as an alternative crop in regions, such as the Mediterranean and Western Australia, where increasing soil salinity and extended periods...... of drought are the major constraints on agricultural productivity. However, quinoa originates from the Andean region and the majority of available cultivars are facultative short day plants and exhibit severely reduced, or completely disrupted, seed production under day lengths longer than 12 hours....... The inherent photoperiod sensitivity poses a challenge to future success of quinoa in regions outside its centre of origin. The existence of day length neutral quinoa cultivars provide an attractive alternative for cultivation in regions outside the tropical zone, as well as a valuable tool to compare adaptive...

  3. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    KAUST Repository

    Jarvis, David E.

    2017-02-08

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  4. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, David E; Ho, Yung Shwen; Lightfoot, Damien J; Schmöckel, Sandra M; Li, Bo; Borm, Theo J A; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Michell, Craig T; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M; Rupper, Ryan R; Sharp, Aaron R; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A; Woo, Yong H; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque A; Negrão, Sónia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, C Gerard van der; van Loo, Eibertus N; Jellen, Eric N; Maughan, Peter J; Tester, Mark

    2017-02-16

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  5. Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Charrondière, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an ancient crop which can play an important role for worldwide food security. The current review aimed at evaluating existing compositional data which were compiled according to international standards. A limited number of data were found that met the dataset quality criteria. In general, high variations in nutrient contents of quinoa were observed per 100g edible portion on fresh weight basis, for example: protein (9.1-15.7g), total fat (4.0-7.6g) and dietary fiber (8.8-14.1g). The variations of nutrient values among different varieties and among different data sources were considerable. The results show the nutritional potential of quinoa but they also demonstrate that more high-quality analytical data of quinoa are needed, especially for minerals and vitamins.

  6. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch James, Lilian E

    2009-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is considered a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to its protein quality. It has remarkable nutritional properties; not only from its protein content (15%) but also from its great amino acid balance. It is an important source of minerals and vitamins, and has also been found to contain compounds like polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids with possible nutraceutical benefits. It has some functional (technological) properties like solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), gelation, emulsifying, and foaming that allow diversified uses. Besides, it has been considered an oil crop, with an interesting proportion of omega-6 and a notable vitamin E content. Quinoa starch has physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, freeze stability) which give it functional properties with novel uses. Quinoa has a high nutritional value and has recently been used as a novel functional food because of all these properties; it is a promising alternative cultivar.

  7. Quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alandia Robles, Gabriela Renee

    Until 2013, Bolivia has been the first quinoa world exporter. Quinoa for export is produced in a semi-arid region: the Bolivian southern highlands. Bolivians have now to face the challenge to keep competitive producing in a region with low levels of soil fertility and scarce water in a new scenario...... and is followed by two experimental studies focused to approach two issues of concern. Wind erosion was assessed for the first time in Bolivia with Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) samplers under different management practices related to quinoa production. A pot experiment under controlled conditions was carried...... that includes more countries producing this crop. The overall objective of this thesis was to analyze challenges for quinoa production in the Bolivian southern highlands. This analysis was performed from different perspectives. A critical analysis of information presents the context of quinoa production...

  8. Quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alandia Robles, Gabriela Renee

    Until 2013, Bolivia has been the first quinoa world exporter. Quinoa for export is produced in a semi-arid region: the Bolivian southern highlands. Bolivians have now to face the challenge to keep competitive producing in a region with low levels of soil fertility and scarce water in a new scenario...... that includes more countries producing this crop. The overall objective of this thesis was to analyze challenges for quinoa production in the Bolivian southern highlands. This analysis was performed from different perspectives. A critical analysis of information presents the context of quinoa production...... and is followed by two experimental studies focused to approach two issues of concern. Wind erosion was assessed for the first time in Bolivia with Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) samplers under different management practices related to quinoa production. A pot experiment under controlled conditions was carried...

  9. Nutritional evaluation and functional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbenle, H N

    2003-03-01

    The proximate analysis, evaluation of nutritionally valuable minerals, sugars, chemical properties of the oil and functional properties of the seed flour of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) were studied. The results showed that the quinoa flour contained 11.2% moisture, 13.5% crude protein, 6.3% ether extract, 9.5% crude fibre, 1.2% total ash and 58.3% carbohydrate. The quinoa has a high proportion of D-xylose (120.0 mg in 100 g sample) and maltose (101.0 mg in 100 g sample), and a low content of glucose (19.0 mg in 100 g sample) and fructose (19.6 mg in 100 g sample), suggesting that it would be useful in malted drink formulations. The values for the chemical properties of the oil extracted were: acid value, 0.50%; iodine value, 54.0%; peroxide value, 2.44%; and saponification value, 192.0%. Quinoa has a high water absorption capacity (147.0%) and low foaming capacity and stability (9.0%, 2.0%). The flour has a least gelation concentration of 16% w/v. Protein solubility of the flour was also evaluated and found to be pH dependent, with minimum solubility at about pH 6.0.

  10. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  11. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  12. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Brittany L.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical prod...

  13. Variability of traits quinoa introduced genotypes (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dražić, Slobodan; ŽIVANOVIĆ, Tomislav; Maletić, Radojka; Glamočlija, Đorđe; Žarković, Branka; Dražić, Milena

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed variability and influence of investigated factors on grain yield of quinoa during three year period (2009, 2010, 2011). The experiment was conducted at two locations (Nova Pazova and Surduk), using two introduced genotypes of quinoa: KVL 37 and KVL 52. We detected that location and genotype had important impact. Grain yield varied according to years of study (1224 kg/ha to 1671 kg/ha). Results of regression and correlation analysis indicate on variation of the impact of plant heig...

  14. INNOVATIVE CULTURE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA) – THE PROSPECTS OF GROWING IN THE KRASNODAR REGION TO PRODUCE FOODS HIGH NUTRITIONAL VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Shchekoldina T. V.; Rodionova L. Y.; Chernigovets E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is the foundation of the nation and the most important factor affecting the length of human life. Therefore, the search and the use of new sources of food are important. One of such source is the ancient culture of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), known as a "qinoa", "quinva" or "rice quinoa. The uniqueness of the quinoa is its chemical composition, the absence of anti-nutritional substances and unpretentious in growing and harvesting. Currently quinoa is grown in more than 70 c...

  15. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition.

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies.

  17. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    The global interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is rapidly increasing, both as a result of its nutritional qualities but also due to its potential as an alternative crop in regions, such as the Mediterranean and Western Australia, where increasing soil salinity and extended periods...... of drought are the major constraints on agricultural productivity. However, quinoa originates from the Andean region and the majority of available cultivars are facultative short day plants and exhibit severely reduced, or completely disrupted, seed production under day lengths longer than 12 hours...

  18. Nysius cymoides (Spinola on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Family: Amaranthaceae – APG classification is an Andean grain recently introduced on the European market and cultivated in experimental fields. In one of these experimental fields, in San Giorgio Piacentino (Italy, a heavy bug infestation was observed. The species was identified as Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Heteroptera Lygaeidae, a polyphagous species known as a pest of different crops. It occurs in the Mediterranean area from the sea level to the alpine meadows.

  19. Characterization of diferuloylated pectic polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Gmeiner, Bianca M; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    In plants belonging to the order of Caryophyllales, pectic neutral side chains can be substituted with ferulic acid. The ability of ferulic acid to form intra- and/or intermolecular polysaccharide cross-links by dimerization was shown by the isolation and characterization of diferulic acid oligosaccharides from monocotyledonous plants. In this study, two diferulic acid oligosaccharides were isolated from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of seeds of the dicotyledonous pseudocereal quinoa by gel permeation chromatography and preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by LC-MS(2) and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated oligosaccharides are comprised of 5-5- and 8-O-4-diferulic acid linked to the O2-position of the nonreducing residue of two (1→5)-linked arabinobioses. To get insight into the structure and the degree of phenolic acid substitution of the diferuloylated polysaccharides, polymeric sugar composition, glycosidic linkages, and polysaccharide-bound monomeric phenolic acids and diferulic acids were analyzed. This study demonstrates that diferulic acids are involved into intramolecular and/or intermolecular cross-linking of arabinan chains and may have a major impact on cell wall architecture of quinoa and other dicotyledonous plants of the order of Caryophyllales.

  20. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the grad......Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted...... or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment...... in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na+, K+, and Cl–) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K+ and lower Na+ levels were found in young...

  1. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil Reação de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) a resíduos de herbicida em um solo de cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos; Carlos Roberto Spehar; Lucio Vivaldi

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox). Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana wa...

  2. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis; Mejoramiento genetico de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, M

    1992-02-15

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  3. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa.

  4. Triterpene saponins from Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljanabhagavad, Tiwatt; Thongphasuk, Piyanut; Chamulitrat, Walee; Wink, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Twenty triterpene saponins (1-20) have been isolated from different parts of Chenopodium quinoa (flowers, fruits, seed coats, and seeds) and their structures have been elucidated by analysis of chemical and spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR. Four compounds (1-4) were identified: 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3beta-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-27-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), 3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 3-O-beta-d-glucuronopyranosyl serjanic acid 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl ester (4). The following known compounds have not previously been reported as saponin constituents from the flowers and the fruits of this plant: two bidesmosides of serjanic acid (5,6), four bidesmosides of oleanolic acid (7-10), five bidesmosides of phytolaccagenic acid (11-15), four bidesmosides of hederagenin (16-19), and one bidesmoside of 3beta,23,30-trihydroxy olean-12-en-28-oic acid (20). The cytotoxicity of these saponins and their aglycones was tested in HeLa cells. Induction of apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by bidesmosidic saponins 1-4 and their aglycones I-III was determined by flow cytometric DNA analysis. The saponins with an aldehyde group were most active. The relationships between structure and cytotoxic activity of saponins and their aglycones are discussed.

  5. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd. as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all cases, the contents of total and insoluble dietary fiber decreased during the extrusion process. At the same time, the content of soluble dietary fiber increased. The content of total phenolic compounds and the radical scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the case of all 4 varieties. There were significant differences between the varieties and the content of total polyphenols. The in vitro protein digestibility of quinoa varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5% and the in vitro starch digestibility was between 65.1 and 68.7%. Our study demonstrates that quinoa can be considered a good source of dietary fiber, polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds and that extrusion improves the nutritional value.

  6. A genetic linkage map of quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa) based on AFLP, RAPD, and SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Bonifacio, A; Jellen, E N; Stevens, M R; Coleman, C E; Ricks, M; Mason, S L; Jarvis, D E; Gardunia, B W; Fairbanks, D J

    2004-10-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an important seed crop for human consumption in the Andean region of South America. It is the primary staple in areas too arid or saline for the major cereal crops. The objective of this project was to build the first genetic linkage map of quinoa. Selection of the mapping population was based on a preliminary genetic similarity analysis of four potential mapping parents. Breeding lines 'Ku-2' and '0654', a Chilean lowland type and a Peruvian Altiplano type, respectively, showed a low similarity coefficient of 0.31 and were selected to form an F(2) mapping population. The genetic map is based on 80 F(2) individuals from this population and consists of 230 amplified length polymorphism (AFLP), 19 simple-sequence repeat (SSR), and six randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The map spans 1,020 cM and contains 35 linkage groups with an average marker density of 4.0 cM per marker. Clustering of AFLP markers was not observed. Additionally, we report the primer sequences and map locations for 19 SSR markers that will be valuable tools for future quinoa genome analysis. This map provides a key starting point for genetic dissection of agronomically important characteristics of quinoa, including seed saponin content, grain yield, maturity, and resistance to disease, frost, and drought. Current efforts are geared towards the generation of more than 200 mapped SSR markers and the development of several recombinant-inbred mapping populations.

  7. Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Vergara, Judith; Uribe, Elsa; Puente, Luis; Martínez, Enrique A

    2010-12-01

    Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., is an Amaranthacean, stress-tolerant plant cultivated along the Andes for the last 7000 years, challenging highly different environmental conditions ranging from Bolivia, up to 4.500 m of altitude, to sea level, in Chile. Its grains have higher nutritive value than traditional cereals and it is a promising worldwide cultivar for human consumption and nutrition. The quinoa has been called a pseudo-cereal for botanical reasons but also because of its unusual composition and exceptional balance between oil, protein and fat. The quinoa is an excellent example of 'functional food' that aims at lowering the risk of various diseases. Functional properties are given also by minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and antioxidants that can make a strong contribution to human nutrition, particularly to protect cell membranes, with proven good results in brain neuronal functions. Its minerals work as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, adding higher value to its rich proteins. Quinoa also contains phytohormones, which offer an advantage over other plant foods for human nutrition.

  8. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000 mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000 mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition.

  9. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu;

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the grad......Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted......Cl-induced activation of H+-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K+ leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na...

  10. INNOVATIVE CULTURE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA – THE PROSPECTS OF GROWING IN THE KRASNODAR REGION TO PRODUCE FOODS HIGH NUTRITIONAL VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy nutrition is the foundation of the nation and the most important factor affecting the length of human life. Therefore, the search and the use of new sources of food are important. One of such source is the ancient culture of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, known as a "qinoa", "quinva" or "rice quinoa. The uniqueness of the quinoa is its chemical composition, the absence of anti-nutritional substances and unpretentious in growing and harvesting. Currently quinoa is grown in more than 70 countries. In Russia, quinoa is not cultivated, although the presence of different agro-ecological zones of the plains to the highlands allows it to grow. In April 2014 quinoa was first planted in the Krasnodar region. In September, quinoa whisk acquired red and yellow. The seeds have a size of between 1 and 2.5 mm. Preliminary calculations yield was approximately 39hundredweight / hectare, which is the basis for the introduction of quinoa in a mass planting. Thus, quinoa can be grown in Russia in the Krasnodar region, thereby ensuring its own raw material base for development of new specialized foods (gluten-free and prophylactic (high nutritional value destination

  11. Seed and Saponin Production of Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. for different Tillage and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and fertilization on growth, yield and quality of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, two main plots [conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT] and three sub-plots (fertilization treatments: control, cow manure and compost. The soil porosity (45.5-49.75% and total nitrogen (0.144-0.173% were higher in soils subjected to MT system than under CT. In soil porosity, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was found. The highest leaf area index (4.47-5.03, dry weight (8650-9290 kg ha-1 and root density (1.03-1.21 cm cm-3 were also found in MT. Moreover, there were significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments concerning the LAI, dry weight and root density. The highest seed yield (2485-2643 kg ha-1 and saponin content (0.42-0.45% were found in cow manure and compost treatments. Also, the highest saponin yield (7.70-12.05 kg ha-1 was found in the MT system. Saponin yield had positive and significant correlation with total N (r=0.866. In quinoa measurements, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was not found. The present results indicated that MT and organic fertilization increase saponin yield of quinoa.

  12. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  13. Ecophysiological Analysis of Drought and Salinity Stress Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosque Sanchez, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the relative influence of drought and salinity stress, with similar soil water potentials on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., testing at the same time certain techniques of stress physiology studies. As treatments, we have imposed two levels of salinity stress (S1 = 3852, 8 mg. V-1 NaCI and S2 = 8051.2 mg. V-1 NaCI and two of levels of drought stress with-0.159 MPa (D1 and -0, 279 MPa (D2 of soil water potentials (f^, and the control (c treatment without stress (65 % of volumetric soil water content, i. e. ¥m = -0.059 MPa. Our results of the greenhouse experiment have shown that quinoa has better relative and absolute growth rate in saline conditions, and the plant have developed adaptations mechanisms to drought through higher water use efficiency and high root/shoot ratio. The stomatal resistance and leaf water potential were higher as higher were the stress conditions. The variable chlorophyll fluoresence to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence-ratio (Fv/Fm and the fluorescence quenching analysis (photochemical : qP and non-photochemical : qN have shown the plants under drought stress are less protected against photoinhibition. Finally the use of Dynamic Diffusion Porometer has limitations for studies of plants species with salt bladders as quinoa.

  14. Water relations and transpiration of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under salinity and soil drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the two major factors limiting crop growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions. The separate and combined effects of salinity and progressive drought in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied in a greenhouse experiment. Stomatal conductance (gs), leaf...... water potential (Wl), shoot and root abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) and transpiration rate were measured in full irrigation (FI; around 95 % of water holding capacity (WHC)) and progressive drought (PD) treatments using the irrigation water with five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1......); the treatments are referred to as FI0, FI10, FI20, FI30, FI40; PD0, PD10, PD20, PD30, PD40, respectively. The measurements were carried out over 9 days of continuous drought. The results showed that increasing salinity levels decreased the total soil water potential (WT) and consequently decreased gs and Wl...

  15. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  16. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E

  17. Diferenças entre Chenopodium quinoa e a planta daninha Chenopodium album Differences between Chenopodium quinoa and the weed Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A experimentação pioneira com Chenopodium quinoa Willd tem demonstrado sua adaptabilidade à produção de grãos no cerrado. Seus frutos, do tipo aquênio, são cilíndricos, achatados e germinam rapidamente na presença de umidade, após a maturação fisiológica. Na fase inicial do seu desenvolvimento, a quinoa pode ser confundida com a planta daninha Chenopodium album, conhecida no Brasil como ançarinha-branca. As diferenças básicas entre as duas espécies se tornam mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificação profusa, com rácemos axilares e terminais em C. album, em contraste com C. quinoa, na qual as panículas são terminais, à semelhança do sorgo; o pericarpo é claro e contrasta com o preto em C. album. A quinoa BRS Piabiru, primeiro cultivar para o Brasil, apresenta plantas com 190 cm, nas quais a panícula ocupa 45 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 145 dias; resistência ao acamamento; peso de grãos de 2,42 g 1.000-1; rendimento de 2,8 t ha-1; e biomassa total de 6,6 t ha-1. As sementes de C. album são muito pequenas (0,52 g 1.000-1, germinam gradativamente e permanecem no solo por muitos anos, infestando os cultivos. As diferenças no número de cromossomos, impedindo a polinização cruzada entre as duas espécies e as morfológicas, detectadas na experimentação, mostram que estas são distinguíveis e asseguram que a quinoa apresenta características de adaptação ao cultivo comercial, contrapondo-se às características de invasora em C. album.Pioneer experimentation with Chenopodium quinoa Willd has shown its adaptability to grain production in the Brazilian savannah. Its fruits (achene type are cylindrical, flat and germinate quickly in the presence of moisture, after reaching physiological maturity. At its early phase of development, quinoa can be confounded with the weed Chenopodium album, known in Brazil as 'ançarinha- branca'. Their basic differences become more visible after flowering: profuse branching

  18. RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 Artículo original Biologist (Lima. Vol. 6, Nº1, ene-jun 2008, 13-21 RESPUESTAS DE LA QUINUA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. A DOS CONDICIONES DE RIEGO EN COSTA RESPONSES OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD. TO TWO CONDITIONS OF IRRIGATION IN COAST Rafael La Rosa1, Yesenia Macabilca2, Augusto Mendoza3 & Ana Gutiérrez 3 1 Laboratorio de Ecofisiología Vegetal; 2 Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular3; Centro de Investigaciones Agroecológicas Oquendo. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática. Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal. Calle San Marcos 351, Pueblo Libre, Lima – Perú. Teléfono 2193600 anexo 8373. Correo electrónico: rafolarosa@yahoo.es ABSTRACT Responses of Chenopodium quinoa Willd “quinoa” under two coast conditions of irrigation and its effects in production and quality of proteins were evaluated. In the current research we used seeds of variety “huancayo”, from Experimental Station “Santa Ana” of INIA (Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias– Huancayo. Irrigation was for drip, obtaining two treatments, i irrigation with 3 m3 of water, weekly, and ii without irrigation, while evaluations were done. Soil humidity, transpiration, relative water content (RWC, anatomy of mesophyll of leaves, quantification of proteins and starch, acid phosphatase activity and amilolytic activity were evaluated. Soil humidity is significant different after a month of irrigation. Transpiration was related with wind strength; hence this is not a good way to measure drought stress. RWC was similar in both treatments, it means that decrease in soil water not affect water level in leaves. Mesophylls were very similar in both conditions. Dry matter in vegetative period show no significant differences, but there were a tendency to accumulate more assimilates in irrigated plants. Therefore there were no difference in photosynthetic activity, so seeds received same quantity of assimilates; this fact means seeds

  19. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  20. Construction of a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) BAC library and its use in identifying genes encoding seed storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M R; Coleman, C E; Parkinson, S E; Maughan, P J; Zhang, H-B; Balzotti, M R; Kooyman, D L; Arumuganathan, K; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D J; Jellen, E N; Stevens, J J

    2006-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to the harsh environments of the Andean Altiplano region. Its seeds have a well-balanced amino acid composition and exceptionally high protein content with respect to human nutrition. Quinoa grain is a staple in the diet of some of the most impoverished people in the world. The plant is an allotetraploid displaying disomic inheritance (2n=4x=36) with a di-haploid genome of 967 Mbp (megabase pair), or 2C=2.01 pg. We constructed two quinoa BAC libraries using BamHI (26,880 clones) and EcoRI (48,000 clones) restriction endonucleases. Cloned inserts in the BamHI library average 113 kb (kilobase) with approximately 2% of the clones lacking inserts, whereas cloned inserts in the EcoRI library average 130 kb and approximately 1% lack inserts. Three plastid genes used as probes of high-density arrayed blots of 73,728 BACs identified approximately 2.8% of the clones as containing plastid DNA inserts. We estimate that the combined quinoa libraries represent at least 9.0 di-haploid nuclear genome equivalents. An average of 12.2 positive clones per probe were identified with 13 quinoa single-copy ESTs as probes of the high-density arrayed blots, suggesting that the estimate of 9.0x coverage of the genome is conservative. Utility of the BAC libraries for gene identification was demonstrated by probing the library with a partial sequence of the 11S globulin seed storage protein gene and identifying multiple positive clones. The presence of the 11S globulin gene in four of the clones was verified by direct comparison with quinoa genomic DNA on a Southern blot. Besides serving as a useful tool for gene identification, the quinoa BAC libraries will be an important resource for physical mapping of the quinoa genome.

  1. Combining ability for seed yield traits of Chenopodium quinoa breeding lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastebroek, H.D.; Loo, van E.N.; Dolstra, O.

    2002-01-01

    For a better understanding of the inheritance of seed yield traits in Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa) Willd., a half-diallelic crossing experiment with six diverse but uniform breeding lines was conducted. True hybrid plants were detected by means of differences in panicle colour in 14 out of the 15 cr

  2. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil Reação de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa a resíduos de herbicida em um solo de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox. Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and soil samples were collected at 15, 38, 100, 145 and 206 days after treatment and stored at -5ºC. Bioassays were conducted in greenhouse, using quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin was the most harmful to quinoa seedlings, up to 206 days after application, followed by clomazone 15-38 days after application; trifluralin and pendimethalin had no residual effect. These results suggest that a broad-base screening should be conducted.O cultivo da quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., um dos mais promissores em sucessão à soja ou ao milho, depende do controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a reação da quinoa a resíduos de herbicidas num solo de cerrado. Seis tratamentos com herbicidas, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin e testemunha, foram aplicados, antes da semeadura de soja, cultivar BR 9 Savana, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro. Amostras de solo foram coletadas aos 15, 38, 100, 145 e 206 dias após a aplicação e armazenadas sob temperatura de -5ºC. Bioensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, usando a quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin mostrou-se o mais prejudicial à quinoa até os 206 dias, seguido por clomazone entre 15 e 38 dias após a aplicação; trifluralin e pendimethalin não mostraram efeito residual. Estes resultados sugerem ampliar a triagem, com a inclusão de novos produtos.

  3. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach.

  4. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background.

  5. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0-500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K(+) and lower Na(+) levels were found in young, as compared with old leaves, for all salinity treatments. The shoot sap K(+) progressively increased with increased salinity in old leaves; this is interpreted as evidence for the important role of free K(+) in leaf osmotic adjustment under saline conditions. A 5-fold increase in salinity level (from 100 mM to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na(+) content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na(+) loading or an efficient Na(+) removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K(+) and H(+) fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid NaCl-induced activation of H(+)-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K(+) leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, control of Na(+) and K(+) xylem loading, and their transport to the shoot.

  6. Molecular and cytological characterization of ribosomal RNA genes in Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Kolano, B A; Maluszynska, J; Coles, N D; Bonifacio, A; Rojas, J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Fairbanks, D J; Parkinson, S E; Jellen, E N

    2006-07-01

    The nucleolus organizer region (NOR) and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are valuable as chromosome landmarks and in evolutionary studies. The NOR intergenic spacers (IGS) and 5S rRNA nontranscribed spacers (NTS) were PCR-amplified and sequenced from 5 cultivars of the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., 2n = 4x = 36) and a related wild ancestor (C. berlandieri Moq. subsp. zschackei (Murr) A. Zobel, 2n = 4x = 36). Length heterogeneity observed in the IGS resulted from copy number difference in subrepeat elements, small re arrangements, and species-specific indels, though the general sequence composition of the 2 species was highly similar. Fifteen of the 41 sequence polymorphisms identified among the C. quinoa lines were synapomorphic and clearly differentiated the highland and lowland ecotypes. Analysis of the NTS sequences revealed 2 basic NTS sequence classes that likely originated from the 2 allopolyploid subgenomes of C. quinoa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that C. quinoa possesses an interstitial and a terminal pair of 5S rRNA loci and only 1 pair of NOR, suggesting a reduction in the number of rRNA loci during the evolution of this species. C. berlandieri exhibited variation in both NOR and 5S rRNA loci without changes in ploidy.

  7. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON THE GRAIN YIELD AND SOME YIELD COMPONENTS OF QUINOA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) UNDER MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    GEREN, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), is a pseudo-cereal crop that has been cultivated in the Andean region in South America. The quinoa as a field crop has a great potential in the improvement of food for humans and animals even under the conditions of marginal lands. For getting high crop yields, nutrients in balanced amount are a basic requirement. Experiments were carried out at the Bornova experimental fields of Field Crops Dept. of Agriculture Fac., Ege Univ., Turkey during 2013 ...

  8. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross

    OpenAIRE

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jellen, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and p...

  9. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to salinity and temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    and a number of physiological traits were assessed. The Mediterranean region increasingly suffers from soil salinization, and could therefore benefit from quinoa cultivation. However, highly salt tolerant quinoa cultivars originate in the cool Andean highland. Hence, for a successful production of quinoa...... on salt affected soils in the Mediterranean region, it is necessary to evaluate whether these cultivars are also able to thrive under warmer temperatures. Temperatures of the Bolivian highland and Morocco were simulated in climate chambers to evaluate the performance of a very salt tolerant Bolivian...

  10. The global expansion of quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as "Indian food." After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then...

  11. Development of active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) starch containing gold nanoparticles and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagno, Carlos H; Costa, Tania M H; de Menezes, Eliana W; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Hertz, Plinho F; Matte, Carla R; Tosati, Juliano V; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2015-04-15

    Active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, W.) starch were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles stabilised by an ionic silsesquioxane that contains the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride group. The biofilms were characterised and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus. The presence of gold nanoparticles produces an improvement in the mechanical, optical and morphological properties, maintaining the thermal and barrier properties unchanged when compared to the standard biofilm. The active biofilms exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens with inhibition percentages of 99% against E. coli and 98% against S. aureus. These quinoa starch biofilms containing gold nanoparticles are very promising to be used as active food packaging for the maintenance of food safety and extension of the shelf life of packaged foods.

  12. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  13. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing.

  14. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to salinity and temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    Water scarcity, soil salinity and high temperatures are the major causes of yield losses worldwide. The halophytic crop quinoa that originates in the South American Andes, provides very nutritious seeds and can tolerate high levels of soil salinity. It is therefore considered an option to sustain...... crop production in other salt affected areas worldwide. The large genetic variability within the species may allow the selection of varieties for cultivation under various climatic conditions. In the study, intra-species differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity in terms of biomass production...... and a number of physiological traits were assessed. The Mediterranean region increasingly suffers from soil salinization, and could therefore benefit from quinoa cultivation. However, highly salt tolerant quinoa cultivars originate in the cool Andean highland. Hence, for a successful production of quinoa...

  15. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  16. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions.

  17. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants.

  18. Purification, partial characterization and antimicrobial activity of Lectin from Chenopodium Quinoa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    POMPEU,Dávia Guimarães; Marcelo Augusto MATTIOLI; Ribeiro, Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja; Gonçalves,Daniel Bonoto; MAGALHÃES,Juliana Teixeira de; Marangoni, Sérgio; Silva,José Antônio da; Paulo Afonso GRANJEIRO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A novel lectin was isolated from the seeds of Chenopodium quinoa. To achieve this end, the crude extract from the quinoa was submitted to two purification steps, Sephadex G50 and Mono Q. The hemagglutinating activity showed that this lectin agglutinates human erythrocytes. Its activity is inhibited by glucose and mannose, and remained stable under a wide range of pH levels and temperatures. The quinoa lectin was found to be a heterodimeric lectin of approximately 60 kDa, consisting o...

  19. Optimization of levels of seaweed japonica saccharine and chenopodium quinoa wild in developing cereal bar

    OpenAIRE

    Ana LÃvia Brasil Silva

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed japonica saccharine, popularly known as "Kombu" is a food rich in protein, fiber and micronutrients. This algae has antioxidant properties, anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is considered a pseudocereal whose main characteristic is the quality of its protein and is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an ideal food for its nutritional composition is higher than most cereals. The addition of these two ingredien...

  20. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall.

  1. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r(2) = 0.88 (p quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  2. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity.

  3. Agronomical and nutritional evaluation of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as an ingredient in bread formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stikic, Radmila; Glamoclija, Djordje; Demin, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    had higher contents of most essential amino acids, especially lysine, than wheat flour. Dehulled quinoa seeds, devoid of saponins, were included into wheat bread formulations, with up to 20%, which resulted in a positive effect on the rheological characteristics of dough. Furthermore, protein content...... in bread was increased by around 2%. Sensory characteristics of breads were excellent also at the 20% supplementation level. The study of bread supplemented with quinoa seeds could enable the development of a range of new baking products with enhanced nutritional value....

  4. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Changes in water availability are responsible for a variety of biochemical stress responses in plant organisms. Stress induced by this factor may be associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations, which cause oxidative damage. In the present study we investigated the activities...... of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  5. Chromosomal localization of two novel repetitive sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, B; Gardunia, B W; Michalska, M; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D; Maughan, P J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Jellen, E N; Maluszynska, J

    2011-09-01

    The chromosomal organization of two novel repetitive DNA sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome was analyzed across the genomes of selected Chenopodium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the repetitive DNA clone 18-24J in the closely related allotetraploids C. quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. (2n = 4x = 36) evidenced hybridization signals that were mainly present on 18 chromosomes; however, in the allohexaploid Chenopodium album L. (2n = 6x = 54), cross-hybridization was observed on all of the chromosomes. In situ hybridization with rRNA gene probes indicated that during the evolution of polyploidy, the chenopods lost some of their rDNA loci. Reprobing with rDNA indicated that in the subgenome labeled with 18-24J, one 35S rRNA locus and at least half of the 5S rDNA loci were present. A second analyzed sequence, 12-13P, localized exclusively in pericentromeric regions of each chromosome of C. quinoa and related species. The intensity of the FISH signals differed considerably among chromosomes. The pattern observed on C. quinoa chromosomes after FISH with 12-13P was very similar to GISH results, suggesting that the 12-13P sequence constitutes a major part of the repetitive DNA of C. quinoa.

  6. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  7. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity, seed set and final yield of field-grown quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, S. H.; Jacobsen, S.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters...... to investigate the effect of salinity and soil–drying on radiation use efficiency, yield and water productivity of quinoa. Quinoa was exposed to five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1) of irrigation water from flower initiation onwards. During the seed-filling phase the five salinity levels were...... matter. Increasing salinity from 20 to 40 dS m)1 did not further decrease the seed number per m2 and seed yield, which shows that quinoa (cv. Titicaca) acclimated to saline conditions when exposed to salinity levels between 20 and 40 dS m)1....

  8. Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Małuszyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa Wild. and Amaranthus caudatus L., two plant species from South America, have small and numerous chromosomes. Looking for chromosome markers to distinguish pairs of homologous chromosomes double fluorescence staining, in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA and silver staining were applied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA has shown two sites of hybridization occurring on one pair of chromosomes in qunion genre (lines PQ-1, PQ-8. The number of RDA loci in Amaranth's caudate L. genre depends on the accession. Kiwicha 3 line has one pair of chromosomes with signals and Kiwicha Molinera cultivar two pairs. All observed rDNA loci were active. After chromomycin/DAPI staining in all cases, except Kiwicha Molinera cultivar, the CMA3 positive bands co-localized with signals of in situ hybridization with rDNA. In Kiwicha Molinera the number of CMA+ bands was higher than the number of 45S rDNA signals after FISH.

  9. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - goosefoot; Healthy snacks - quinoa; Weight loss - quinoa; Healthy diet - quinoa; Wellness - quinoa ... Quinoa is rich in protein . It has almost twice the amount of protein found in oats, and ...

  10. A crossing method for quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Adam; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Bonifacio, Alejandro;

    2015-01-01

    As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding wor...

  11. Quantitative determinations of chemical compounds with nutritional value from Inca crops: Chenopodium quinoa ('quinoa').

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J A; Roldán, A; Gallardo, M; Escudero, T; Prado, F E

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative determinations of total and soluble proteins, total and free sugars, starch, total lipids, tanins, ash (Ca, Na, K, Fe, and P), and caloric value were carried out on quinoa flour. Results show that the amount of soluble proteins was higher than the standard value for wheat and maize and was very close to that of barley's. The yield of free sugars like glucose (4.55%), fructose (2.41%) and sucrose (2.39%) were also of importance. Iron and calcium levels were higher than the reported values for maize and barley. The same occurred for the caloric value (435.5 Kcal/100 g). The content of saponins was also examined since its effect on red blood cells of group A and O has been related as a potential problem of the Andes population. From the chemical analysis a more complete view about quinoa as human food was presented.

  12. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality.

  13. Lysine biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa): study of enzymes and nitrogen-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisi, Vanderlei A; Camargos, Liliane S; Aguiar, Leandro F; Christofoleti, Renata M; Medici, Leonardo O; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2008-01-01

    Aspartate kinase (AK, EC 2.7.2.4), homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH, EC 1.1.1.3) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, EC 4.2.1.52) were isolated and partially purified from immature Chenopodium quinoa Willd seeds. Enzyme activities were studied in the presence of the aspartate-derived amino acids lysine, threonine and methionine and also the lysine analogue S-2-aminoethyl-l-cysteine (AEC), at 1 mM and 5 mM. The results confirmed the existence of, at least, two AK isoenzymes, one inhibited by lysine and the other inhibited by threonine, the latter being predominant in quinoa seeds. HSDH activity was also shown to be partially inhibited by threonine, whereas some of the activity was resistant to the inhibitory effect, indicating the presence of two isoenzymes, one resistant and another sensitive to threonine inhibition. Only one DHDPS isoenzyme highly sensitive to lysine inhibition was detected. The results suggest that the high concentration of lysine observed in quinoa seeds is possibly due to a combined effect of increased lysine synthesis and accumulation in the soluble form and/or as protein lysine. Nitrogen assimilation was also investigated and based on nitrate content, nitrate reductase activity, amino acid distribution and ureide content, the leaves were identified as the predominant site of nitrate reduction in this plant species. The amino acid profile analysis in leaves and roots also indicated an important role of soluble glutamine as a nitrogen transporting compound.

  14. Genetic diversity and comparison of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd. genotypes cultivated in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the analysis of agronomical, nutritional, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of six genetically different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd genotypes cultivated in three distinctive geographical zones of Chile. Ancovinto and Cancosa genotypes from the northern Altiplano (19 ºS, Cáhuil and Faro from the central region (34 ºS, and Regalona and Villarica from the southern region (39 ºS are representative of high genetic differentiation among the pooled samples, in particular between Altiplano and the central-southern groups. A Common-Garden Assay at 30 ºS showed significant differences among seed origins in all morphometric parameters and also in yields. Altiplano genotypes had larger panicule length but no seed production. A significant influence of the different quinoa genotypes on chemical composition and functional properties was also observed. Protein concentration ranged from 11.13 to 16.18 g.100 g-1 d.m., while total dietary fiber content ranged from 8.07-12.08 g.100 g-1 d.m., and both were the highest in Villarrica ecotype. An adequate balance of essential amino acids was also observed. Sucrose was the predominant sugar in all genotypes. Antioxidant activity was high in all genotypes, and it was highest in Faro genotype (79.58% inhibition.

  15. Simple sequence repeat marker development and genetic mapping in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. E. Jarvis; O. R. Kopp; E. N. Jellen; M. A. Mallory; J. Pattee; A. Bonifacio; C. E. Coleman; M. R. Stevens; D. J. Fairbanks; P. J. Maughan

    2008-04-01

    Quinoa is a regionally important grain crop in the Andean region of South America. Recently quinoa has gained international attention for its high nutritional value and tolerances of extreme abiotic stresses. DNA markers and linkage maps are important tools for germplasm conservation and crop improvement programmes. Here we report the development of 216 new polymorphic SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers from libraries enriched for GA, CAA and AAT repeats, as well as 6 SSR markers developed from bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences (BES-SSRs). Heterozygosity (H) values of the SSR markers ranges from 0.12 to 0.90, with an average value of 0.57. A linkage map was constructed for a newly developed recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population using these SSR markers. Additional markers, including amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), two 11S seed storage protein loci, and the nucleolar organizing region (NOR), were also placed on the linkage map. The linkage map presented here is the first SSR-based map in quinoa and contains 275 markers, including 200 SSR. The map consists of 38 linkage groups (LGs) covering 913 cM. Segregation distortion was observed in the mapping population for several marker loci, indicating possible chromosomal regions associated with selection or gametophytic lethality. As this map is based primarily on simple and easily-transferable SSR markers, it will be particularly valuable for research in laboratories in Andean regions of South America.

  16. Simple sequence repeat marker development and genetic mapping in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, D E; Kopp, O R; Jellen, E N; Mallory, M A; Pattee, J; Bonifacio, A; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Fairbanks, D J; Maughan, P J

    2008-04-01

    Quinoa is a regionally important grain crop in the Andean region of South America. Recently quinoa has gained international attention for its high nutritional value and tolerances of extreme abiotic stresses. DNA markers and linkage maps are important tools for germplasm conservation and crop improvement programmes. Here we report the development of 216 new polymorphic SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers from libraries enriched for GA, CAA and AAT repeats, as well as 6 SSR markers developed from bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences (BES-SSRs). Heterozygosity (H) values of the SSR markers ranges from 0.12 to 0.90, with an average value of 0.57. A linkage map was constructed for a newly developed recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population using these SSR markers. Additional markers, including amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), two 11S seed storage protein loci, and the nucleolar organizing region (NOR), were also placed on the linkage map. The linkage map presented here is the first SSR-based map in quinoa and contains 275 markers, including 200 SSR. The map consists of 38 linkage groups (LGs) covering 913 cM. Segregation distortion was observed in the mapping population for several marker loci, indicating possible chromosomal regions associated with selection or gametophytic lethality. As this map is based primarily on simple and easily-transferable SSR markers, it will be particularly valuable for research in laboratories in Andean regions of South America.

  17. Universally Primed-PCR indicates geographical variation of Peronospora farinosa ex. Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette

    2010-02-01

    In the Andean region of South America downy mildew, caused by Peronospora farinosa, is the most important disease of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Peronospora farinosa, a highly polyphyletic species, occurs on quinoa and wild relatives on all continents. However, very little is known about the geographic diversity of the pathogen. As the interest in quinoa as a novel crop is increasing worldwide, geographical differences in the population structure of the downy mildew pathogen must be taken into consideration in order to design appropriate control strategies under a variety of circumstances. As a step towards understanding the geographic diversity of P. farinosa from quinoa, 40 downy mildew isolates from the Andean highlands and Denmark were characterized using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Eight UP-PCR primers were tested. A combined analysis of markers separated the Danish and Andean isolates in two distinct clusters. This study raises new questions about the origin and spread of P. farinosa on quinoa, its geographic diversity and host specificity.

  18. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment.

  19. Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, pquinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, pQuinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, pquinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level.

  20. Study of some physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian E; Romero, Nalda; Tapia, Cristián A; Silva, Jorge; Rivera, Mónica

    2008-06-25

    The amino acid composition and the physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa protein isolates were evaluated. Protein isolates were prepared from quinoa seed by alkaline solubilization (at pH 9, called Q9, and at pH 11, called Q11) followed by isoelectric precipitation and spray drying. Q9 and Q11 had high levels of essential amino acids, with high levels of lysine. Both isolates showed similar patterns in native/SDS-PAGE and SEM. The pH effect on fluorescence measurements showed decreasing fluorescence intensity and a shift in the maximum of emission of both isolates. Q9 showed an endotherm with a denaturation temperature of 98.1 degrees C and a denaturation enthalpy of 12.7 J/g, while Q11 showed no endotherm. The protein solubility of Q11 was lower than that of Q9 at pH above 5.0 but similar at the pH range 3.0-4.0. The water holding capacity (WHC) was similar in both isolates and was not affected by pH. The water imbibing capacity (WIC) was double for Q11 (3.5 mL of water/g isolate). Analysis of DSC, fluorescence, and solubility data suggests that there is apparently denaturation due to pH. Some differences were found that could be attributed to the extreme pH treatments in protein isolates and the nature of quinoa proteins. Q9 and Q11 can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children. Q9 may be used as an ingredient in nutritive beverages, and Q11 may be used as an ingredient in sauces, sausages, and soups.

  1. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yao; Zhenxing Shi; Guixing Ren

    2014-01-01

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results s...

  2. Características de grãos e amido de diferentes cultivares de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Os grãos de quinoa possuem excelente balanço nutricional além das propriedades funcionais, comparativamente superior à dos cereais. A quinoa é cultivada em diversos países e, devido às suas características, têm aumentado o interesse de pesquisadores e consumidores. A quinoa contém pericarpo branco, no entanto, existem grãos com pericarpo vermelho e preto, e todos os tipos são utilizados como alimento em diferentes preparações. Com o objetivo de avaliar as características de grãos de quinoa, a...

  3. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. seeds stored under different germination temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Strenske

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we assessed the germination and vigor of quinoa seeds packed in paper bags and stored at room temperature for 36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days. The seeds were harvested under experimental conditions in Marechal Candido Rondon, Paraná, during the 2012/13 growing seasons. Four replicates of 100 seeds each were established for each storage time, and the seeds were evaluated, on paper, based on the BOD under the following experimental temperature conditions: alternating temperatures of 20 and 30°C and a constant temperature of 25°C. The seeds from both treatments were subject to seven-hour photoperiods and 25°C under continuous darkness. The germinated seeds were counted daily for eight days after sowing, and we evaluated the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings and the germination index. The experimental design was completely randomized using a split-plot design. Increasing the storage time decreased the percentage of germinated seeds and seed vigor due to the increased number of abnormal seedlings. Over the 430-day study period, quinoa seed germination completely declined under the experimental conditions. The final number of germinating seeds should be evaluated 7 days after the beginning of the germination test.

  4. A crossing method for quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Adam; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Bonifacio, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work...... will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, emasculation of male flowers, and subsequent pairing of the emasculated female parent with a male parent undergoing...... to generate crosses between quinoa cultivars, as well as interspecific crosses between quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri. This technology will help pave the way for the introduction and sustainable expansion of quinoa on a global scale across a wide range of target environments and diverse farming systems....

  5. The global expansion of quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as "Indian food." After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then......, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing...... the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010...

  6. Detection and subcellular localization of dehydrin-like proteins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carjuzaa, P; Castellión, M; Distéfano, A J; del Vas, M; Maldonado, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the dehydrin content in mature embryos of two quinoa cultivars, Sajama and Baer La Unión. Cultivar Sajama grows at 3600-4000 m altitude and is adapted to the very arid conditions characteristic of the salty soils of the Bolivian Altiplano, with less than 250 mm of annual rain and a minimum temperature of -1 degrees C. Cultivar Baer La Unión grows at sea-level regions of central Chile and is adapted to more humid conditions (800 to 1500 mm of annual rain), fertile soils, and temperatures above 5 degrees C. Western blot analysis of embryo tissues from plants growing under controlled greenhouse conditions clearly revealed the presence of several dehydrin bands (at molecular masses of approximately 30, 32, 50, and 55 kDa), which were common to both cultivars, although the amount of the 30 and 32 kDa bands differed. Nevertheless, when grains originated from their respective natural environments, three extra bands (at molecular masses of approximately 34, 38, and 40 kDa), which were hardly visible in Sajama, and another weak band (at a molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa) were evident in Baer La Unión. In situ immunolocalization microscopy detected dehydrin-like proteins in all axis and cotyledon tissues. At the subcellular level, dehydrins were detected in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, dehydrins were found associated with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, and proplastid membranes. The presence of dehydrins was also recognized in the matrix of protein bodies. In the nucleus, dehydrins were associated with the euchromatin. Upon examining dehydrin composition and subcellular localization in two quinoa cultivars belonging to highly contrasting environments, we conclude that most dehydrins detected here were constitutive components of the quinoa seed developmental program, but some of them (specially the 34, 38, and 40 kDa bands) may reflect quantitative molecular differences

  7. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched

  8. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöckel, Sandra M; Lightfoot, Damien J; Razali, Rozaimi; Tester, Mark; Jarvis, David E

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  9. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2017-06-21

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  10. Sensitivity of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) varieties to progressive drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yujie; Liu, Fulai; Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    2014-01-01

    in Achachino was significantly higher than CL and CT, which indicated that stomatal conductance declined before transpiration and leaf water potential were reduced. Such difference was found in Titicaca where reduction of leaf area had more effect on transpiration than stomatal closure. Slower growth rate......Quinoa (ChenopodiumquinoaWilld.) is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of hostile environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences of drought tolerance of a Bolivian (Achachino) and a Danish (Titicaca) variety......, and especially drought-related adaption strategies. Soil water status was expressed as the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW). Relative stomatal conductance (RSC), relative transpiration (RT) and relative leaf water potential (RLW) were calculated by determining stomatal conductance, transpiration rate...

  11. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity of polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-10-23

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  12. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-extractable (QWP and the alkali-extractable (QAP polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2, were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  13. APROVEITAMENTO, COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL E ANTINUTRICIONAL DA FARINHA DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Oliveira LOPES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa é um pseudocereal originário dos Andes, cultivado há milênios e amplamente distribuído ao mundo. No Brasil, foi introduzido na década de 90 e, através de modifi cações genéticas, desenvolveu-se a variedade BRS Piabiru, adaptada para cultivos em solos brasileiros. Nutricionalmente, destaca-se em relação a muitos cereais, como o trigo, o milho e a cevada, por apresentar qualidade protéica comparável à caseína do leite e pela ausência de proteínas formadoras de glúten. Além disso, possui elevado teor de lisina, vitaminas (como tiamina, ribofl avina, niacina e piridoxina e minerais (como magnésio, zinco, cobre, ferro manganês e potássio. É essencial a realização de estudos dos nutrientes e antinutrientes da quinoa, de utilizá-la no preparo e desenvolvimento de receitas isentas de glúten. Diante disso, o presente estudo objetivou elaborar uma farinha de quinoa (FQ, caracterizar a sua composição nutricional e antinutricional, além de aproveitá-la na formulação de bolinhos fritos e avaliar sua aceitabilidade. Para a obtenção da farinha, os grãos de quinoa foram secos em estufa com circulação de ar forçada a 60-65oC, triturados e peneirados. A FQ foi submetida às avaliações da composição centesimal, de alguns minerais (potássio, cálcio, ferro e zinco e antinutricional (nitrato, ácido oxálico e inibidor de tripsina, sendo ainda formuladas e avaliadas a aceitabilidade de três preparações de bolinhos fritos com diferentes adições de FQ em escala hedônica de 5 pontos. Observou-se que a FQ destacou-se em proteínas, fi bras, cinzas, potássio, ferro, cálcio e zinco. Os valores (mg/100g dos antinutrientes encontrados na FQ foram de 63,26 para o nitrato, 380 para o ácido oxálico e 2,11UTI/mg para inibidor de tripsina, sendo considerados teores menores aos de outros alimentos vegetais comumente utilizados na alimentação humana. O bolinho de formulação com 12,61% de FQ

  14. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  15. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  16. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases Consumo de barras de cereais com quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. para reduzir fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.A quinoa é considerada um pseudocereal com proteínas de alto valor biológico, carboidratos de baixo índice glicêmico, fitosteróis e ácidos graxos ômega 3 e 6. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da quinoa no perfil bioquímico e antropométrico e pressão arterial em humanos, parâmetros dos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Vinte e dois estudantes com 18 a 45 anos de idade foram tratados diariamente, por 30 dias, com quinoa sob a forma de barra de cereal. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes e após os 30 dias do tratamento para determinar o perfil glicêmico e bioquímico do grupo. Os resultados mostraram efeitos positivos do uso da quinoa já que se observou redução significativa nos valores de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e LDL-c. Conclui-se que o uso da quinoa na alimentação pode ser considerado

  17. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliro, Moses F A; Guwela, Veronica F; Nyaika, Jacinta; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi. Plant height, panicle length, days to maturity, harvest index, and seed yield were recorded for each variety under irrigation at Bunda and Bembeke, and under rainfed conditions at Bunda. Plant height was significantly influenced by both genotype and environment. There were also significant differences between the two locations for panicle length whereas genotype and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were not significantly different. Differences were found for genotype and G × E interaction for harvest index. Notably, differences for genotype, environment and G × E were found for grain yield. Seed yield was higher at Bunda (237-3019 kg/ha) than Bembeke (62-692 kg/ha) under irrigated conditions. The highest yielding genotype at Bunda was Titicaca (3019 kg/ha) whereas Multi-Hued was the highest (692 kg/ha) at Bembeke. Strong positive correlations between seed yield and (1) plant height (r = 0.74), (2) days to maturity (r = 0.76), and (3) biomass (r = 0.87) were found under irrigated conditions. The rainfed evaluations at Bunda revealed significant differences in seed yield, plant biomass, and seed size among the genotypes. The highest yielding genotype was Black Seeded (2050 kg/ha) followed by Multi-Hued (1603 kg/ha) and Bio-Bio (1446 kg/ha). Ecuadorian (257 kg/ha) was the

  18. Biochemical and immunochemical evidences supporting the inclusion of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a gluten-free ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Uberti, Francesca; di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ballabio, Cinzia; Brandolini, Andrea; Restani, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    To date, the only acceptable therapeutic approach for celiac disease (CD) is a strict elimination from the diet of gluten-containing foods, but this diet does not always guarantee an adequate nutritional intake. Pseudocereals are receiving considerable attention as interesting alternatives for the formulation of gluten-free products, and quinoa grains arise as nutritive substitutes of conventional cereals. The aim of this study was the characterization of different quinoa samples corresponding to 11 quinoa varieties, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting techniques to assess their suitability for celiac subjects. Some of these varieties were grown in Italy to assess if the reproduction in a new habitat can guarantee the retention of the "safe" protein pattern. None of the quinoa varieties studied presented protein bands with electrophoretic mobility comparable with those of wheat gliadins, the toxic protein for celiac subjects. All the quinoa samples showed a low binding affinity for both specific anti-gliadin antibodies and IgAs from celiac subjects, confirming that quinoa can be considered as a safe ingredient for celiac patients. However, reliable varieties should be previously selected since the immuno cross-reactivity with anti-gliadin antibodies can vary significantly.

  19. Effect of processing for saponin removal on fungal contamination of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappier, Ursula; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Larumbe, Gabriela; Vaamonde, Graciela

    2008-07-15

    Incidence of fungal contamination of quinoa seeds from three locations (Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; Salta and Tucumán provinces, Argentina) was analyzed in samples with and without treatment to remove saponins (wet method). In processed samples, the percentage of infection was reduced. Distribution of the different fungal genera was not homogeneous in the three locations (p<0.05), although Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most prevalent contaminants, regardless the geographic origin of the samples. Other genera, such as Eurotium, Fusarium, Phoma, Ulocladium, Mucor and Rhizopus were less frequently isolated. Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Dreschlera, Epicoccum and Monascus were sporadically encountered. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of fungal genera in samples with and without saponins from each location were observed. In all cases, processing caused a decrease of Aspergillus incidence, while increased the proportion of Penicillium, Eurotium, Mucor and Rhizopus indicating that these genera were part of the internal mycota. A. flavus and A. niger were the dominating species of genus Aspergillus. A similar pattern of prevalent Penicillium species was observed in samples with and without saponins, since P. aurantiogriseum, P.chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. crustosum were always present in high number, although their relative density was variable according to the geographic origin of samples. Mycotoxin-producing ability of most representative species was also determined. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), P. citrinum (citrinin) and P. griseofulvum (cyclopiazonic acid) were found. None of the A. niger isolates was ochratoxin A producer. The above mentioned mycotoxins were not detected in the samples analyzed.

  20. Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to physicochemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Poulev, Alexander; Calfio, Camila; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among seventeen distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physicochemical characteristics (seed color, 100-seed weight, protein content, oil content). RESULTS PE and FG concentrations exhibited over 4-fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 μg/g to 570 ± 124 μg/g total PE content and 192 ± 24 μg/g to 804 ± 91 μg/g total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 μg/g) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 μg/g) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t-test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). CONCLUSION FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food. PMID:25683633

  1. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  2. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.

  3. Improving abiotic stress tolerance of quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Aizheng

    that quinoa has the potential to grow under a range of abiotic stresses, tolerating levels regarded as stresses in other crop species. Therefore cultivation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) could be an alternative option in such regions. Even though quinoa is more tolerant to abiotic stress than most...... growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and priming seed (such as with saponin) were involved to improve drought and salinity stress and climate adaptability in quinoa. During PhD research, the effect of theses strategies on physiological and agronomic characteristics of quinoa were studied in detail....

  4. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  5. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%.

  6. Phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under different saline and nonsaline irrigation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Iafelice, Giovanna; Lavini, Antonella; Pulvento, Cataldo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-05-09

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and saponin profiles of quinoa. It was observed that irrigation with 25% of full water restitution, with and without the addition of salt, was associated with increases in free phenolic compounds of 23.16 and 26.27%, respectively. In contrast, bound phenolic compounds were not affected by environmental stresses. Saponins decreased if samples were exposed to drought and saline regimens. In situations of severe water deficit, the saponins content decreased 45%, and 50% when a salt stress was added. The results suggest that irrigation and salinity may regulate the production of bioactive compounds in quinoa, influencing its nutritional and industrial values.

  7. Molecular and cytogenetic evidence for an allotetraploid origin of Chenopodium quinoa and C. berlandieri (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; McCann, Jamie; Orzechowska, Maja; Siwinska, Dorota; Temsch, Eva; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cultivated chenopods are polyploids, but their origin and evolutionary history are still poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of four plastid regions, nrITS and nuclear 5S rDNA spacer region (NTS) of two tetraploid chenopods (2n=4x=36), Andean C. quinoa and North American C. berlandieri, and their diploid relatives allowed inferences of their origin. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed allotetraploid origin of both tetraploids involving diploids of two different genomic groups (genomes A and B) and suggested that these two might share very similar parentage. The hypotheses on the origin of the two allopolyploid species were further tested using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Several diploid Chenopodium species belonging to the two lineages, genome A and B, suggested by phylogenetic analyses, were tested as putative parental taxa. GISH differentiated two sets of parental chromosomes in both tetraploids and further corroborated their allotetraploid origin. Putative diploid parental taxa have been suggested by GISH for C. quinoa and C. berlandieri. Genome sizes of the analyzed allotetraploids fit nearly perfectly the expected additive values of the putative parental taxa. Directional and uniparental loss of rDNA loci of the maternal A-subgenome was revealed for both C. berlandieri and C. quinoa.

  8. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; van Boekel, Martinus; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E8), 9 (E9), 10 (E10) and 11 (E11)), followed by acid precipitation. The obtained protein isolates were freeze dried. The protein isolates E8 and E9 resulted in a lower protein yield as well as less protein denaturation. These isolates also had a higher protein purity, more protein bands at higher molecular weights, and a higher protein solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5, compared to the isolates E10 and E11. Heating the 10%w/w protein isolate suspensions E8 and E9 led to increased aggregation, and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. The isolate suspensions E10 and E11, on the other hand, aggregated less, did not form self-supporting gels and had loose particle arrangements. We conclude that extraction pH plays an important role in determining the functionality of quinoa protein isolates.

  9. The p19 protein of Grapevine Algerian latent virus is a determinant of systemic infection of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyeok-Geun; Park, Sang-Ho; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-04-01

    A previous study showed that both Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) and Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) systemically infect Nicotiana benthamiana, but GALV causes systemic infection whereas TBSV causes only local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa (C. quinoa). We recently isolated GALV strain Naju (GALV-N) from Limonium sinense and TBSV strain Sacheon (TBSV-S) from tomato. Both viruses belong to the genus Tombusvirus and have a similar genome organization. To identify determinants of systemic infection of GALV-N in C. quinoa in the current study, we generated infectious clones and capsid protein (CP)-deletion clones for the two viruses and confirmed that CP of GALV-N is required for systemic infection of C. quinoa due to its primary structural role in virus assembly. Through the use of chimeras, we identified a viral factor in addition to CP that contributes to systemic infection by GALV-N. Inactivation of the p19 demonstrated that host-specific activities of p19 are necessary for efficient systemic infection of C. quinoa by GALV-N. Our study is the first report to determine the viral factors required for systemic infection of GALV in C. quinoa.

  10. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Benlhabib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654 and coastal (NL-6 germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant, while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively. Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. UPGMA based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially

  11. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J; Jacobsen, Sven E; Jellen, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean-based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high-yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to

  12. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of a complex triterpene saponin mixture of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tobias; Sterk, Heinz; Mittelbach, Martin; Rechberger, Gerald N

    2006-06-01

    A nano-HPLC electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) approach was applied to a complex crude triterpene saponin extract of Chenopodium quinoa seed coats. In ESI-MS/MS spectra of triterpene saponins, characteristic fragmentation reactions are observed and allow the determination of aglycones, saccharide sequences, compositions, and branching. Fragmentation of aglycones provided further structural information. The chemical complexity of the mixture was resolved by a complete profiling. Eighty-seven triterpene saponins comprising 19 reported and 68 novel components were identified and studied by MS. In addition to four reported, five novel triterpene aglycones were detected and characterized according to their fragmentation reactions in ESI-MS/MS and electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS). As a novelty fragmentation pathways were proposed and analyzed based upon quantum chemical calculations using a hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional method. Accuracy of the assignment procedure was proven by isolation and structure determination of a novel compound. As the relative distribution and composition of saponins varies between different cultivars and soils, the presented strategy allows a rapid and complete analysis of Chenopodium quinoa saponin distribution and composition, and is particularly suitable for quality control and screening of extracts designated for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial applications.

  13. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses. PMID:28337209

  14. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  15. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G

    2012-04-01

    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  16. Changes in soluble carbohydrates and related enzymes induced by low temperature during early developmental stages of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2004-06-01

    Low temperature represents one of the principal limitations in species distribution and crop productivity. Responses to chilling include the accumulation of simple carbohydrates and changes in enzymes involved in their metabolism. Soluble carbohydrate levels and invertase, sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-6-phosphate synthase (SPS) and alpha-amylase activities were analysed in cotyledons and embryonic axes of quinoa seedlings grown at 5 degrees C and 25 degrees C in the dark. Significant differences in enzyme activities and carbohydrate levels were observed. Sucrose content in cotyledons was found to be similar in both treatments, while in embryonic axes there were differences. Invertase activity was the most sensitive to temperature in both organs; however, SS and SPS activities appear to be less stress-sensitive. Results suggest that 1) metabolism in germinating perispermic seeds would be different from endospermic seeds, 2) sucrose futile cycles would be operating in cotyledons, but not in embryonic axes of quinoa seedlings under our experimental conditions, 3) low temperature might induce different regulatory mechanisms on invertase, SS and SPS enzymes in both cotyledons and embryonic axes of quinoa seedlings, and 4) low temperature rather than water uptake would be mainly responsible for the changes observed in carbohydrate and related enzyme activities.

  17. A Crossing Method for Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Peterson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, emasculation of male flowers, and subsequent pairing of the emasculated female parent with a male parent undergoing anthesis. Various traits, such as plant color, seed color, and axil pigmentation can be used to confirm the successful production of F1 plants. The manual hybridization technology provides a significant advantage over pairing plants and relying on chance cross-pollination, and has been successfully used to generate crosses between quinoa cultivars, as well as interspecific crosses between quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri. This technology will help pave the way for the introduction and sustainable expansion of quinoa on a global scale across a wide range of target environments and diverse farming systems.

  18. Atahualpa’s Revenge: The Spread of Quinoa Downy Mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Testen, Anna L.; Backman, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record The Andean crop quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa, has gained popularity in recent years due to its nutritious seed and desirable agricultural traits, such as its tolerance to drought and high saline soils. Prized by the Inca, quinoa is now highly desirable to health conscious consumers in North America and Europe. Quinoa also has interesting applications to plant pathology, including being a “universal” virus host as well as its production of antimicrobial compounds. Quinoa ...

  19. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods.

  20. Chromosomal localization of a novel repetitive sequence in the Chenopodium quinoa genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; Plucienniczak, Andrzej; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Maluszynska, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a novel repetitive sequence pTaq10 was isolated from the Taq I digest of the genomic DNA of the pseudocereal Chenopodium quinoa. Sequence analysis indicated that this 286-bp monomer is not homologous to any known retroelement sequence. FISH and Southern blot analysis showed that this sequence is characterized by an interspersed genomic organization. After FISH, hybridization signals were observed as small dots spread throughout all of the chromosomes. pTaq hybridization signals were excluded from 45S rRNA gene loci, but they partly overlapped with 5S rDNA loci. pTaq10 is not a species-specific sequence, as it was also detected in C. berlandieri.

  1. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Chenopodium quinoa leaves extracts - in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Sułkowski, Maciej; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara; Czyż, Jarosław

    2013-07-01

    The nutraceutical potential of Chenopodium quinoa Leaves (ChL) was assessed through analyses of their phenolic content, elucidation of the effect of ChL phenolic compounds on cancer cell properties and estimation of their antioxidative activity, bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro. Considerable amounts of ferulic, sinapinic and gallic acids, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and rutin were observed in the chemical ChL extract and were linked with its inhibitory effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation, motility and cellular competence for gap junctional communication. Both extracts, chemical and obtained after simulated digestion, exerted an inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase activity, paralleled by their considerable chelating, antioxidative, antiradical and reducing power. These observations indicate that phenolic ChL compounds may exert a chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effect on oxidative stress and ROS-dependent intracellular signaling via synergic effects. The relatively high potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the compounds probably responsible for these effects demonstrates the suitability of ChL for dietary supplementation.

  2. Determination of heat-set gelation capacity of a quinoa protein isolate (Chenopodium quinoa) by dynamic oscillatory rheological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspchak, Elaine; Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Schüler de; Simas, Fernanda Fogagnoli; Franco, Célia Regina Cavicchiolo; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2017-10-01

    This work aimed to study the influence of pH (3.5 and 7.0) and CaCl2 and MgCl2 addition on heat-set gelation of a quinoa protein isolate at 10% and 15% (w/w). The protein isolate obtained was composed mainly of 11S globulin as was observed by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis. Heat-set gelation occurred at both pH values studied. Nevertheless, the gels formed at pH 3.5 were more viscoelastic and denser than those formed at pH 7.0, that was coarser and presented syneresis. The CaCl2 and MgCl2 addition increased the gel strength during rheological analysis at pH 3.5, possibly due to the formation of fiber-like connections in the gel network. At pH 7.0, the divalent salts resulted in weaker gels formed by agglomerates, suggesting a neutralization of the protein surface charges. The differences in quinoa protein gelation were attributed to solubility, and the flexibility of proteins secondary structure at the pH studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution.

  4. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE UNA COLECCIÓN DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd

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    ANA CRUZ MORILLO CORONADO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (C. quinoa W. is considered a cereal with excellent nutritional properties, including high protein contein, because it has all amino acids, trace elements and significant amounts of vitamins. In Colombia more accurately in the department of Nariño, Cauca, Cundinamarca y Boyacá currently has had a huge boost due to their agronomic potential and different benefits derived from the production, processing and marketing of its products. Therefore, the objective of this research was to characterize the genetic diversity of a collection of 55 materials quinoa with seven microsatellite markers RAMs. The analysis by the coefficient of Nei-Li at the level of similarity of 0,65 divided the population into four groups according the site origin materials. The value of average heterozygosity was 0,34 which is considered low compared to other studied of genetic diversity in Chenopodium. Molecular Analysis of Variance (AMOVA and Fst demonstrate the existence of genetic variability at the intraspecific level. The parameters of genetic diversity found in this study show that the quinoa materials of the Boyacá governance collection are very homogeneous, however the variability that exists must be exploited in the breeding programs of the species leading to the production of new and better quinoa materials.

  5. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer activities of a novel bioactive polysaccharide from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichen; Zhang, Jinming; Zou, Liang; Fu, Chaomei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Chenopodium quinoa, a promising nutraceutical cereal, has attracted increasing research interest, yet its polysaccharides remains to get few systematic studies. In this study, we employed orthogonal experimental design to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction process for highest yield of C. quinoa polysaccharides. A novel C. quinoa polysaccharide (CQP) fraction with high content and low molecular weight (8852Da) was subsequently purified by column chromatography, constituted by galacturonic acid and glucose monosaccharides. The purified CQP exhibited significantly antioxidant effect against DPPH(+) and ABTS(+), with even higher efficiency than some other reported polysaccharides. Moreover, CQP could promote the RAW264.7 macrophage proliferation, while suppress the nitri oxide production on inflammatory RAW264.7 macrophage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In view of the pathological correlation of free radical, inflammation and carcinogenesis, the anticancer effect of CQP was further investigated on human liver cancer SMMC 7721 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, CQP displayed cytotoxicity against cancer cells, while none proliferation inhibition on normal cells. These results suggest that the bioactive polysaccharide from C. quinoa provided the promising potential as a natural antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer candidate for food and even drug application.

  6. Immunoadjuvant activity, toxicity assays, and determination by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS of triterpenic saponins from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, Simone G; Silveira, Fernando; Cibulski, Samuel; Kaiser, Samuel; Ferreira, Fernando; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo M; Ortega, George G

    2012-03-28

    The adjuvant activity of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) saponins on the humoral and cellular immune responses of mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) was evaluated. Two quinoa saponin fractions were obtained, FQ70 and FQ90, and 10 saponins were determined by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA alone or adjuvanted with Quil A (adjuvant control), FQ70, or FQ90. FQ70 and FQ90 significantly enhanced the amount of anti-OVA-specific antibodies in serum (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b) in immunized mice. The adjuvant effect of FQ70 was significantly greater than that of FQ90. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses were higher in mice immunized with OVA adjuvanted with FQ90 than mice treated with FQ70. Concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were measured, and FQ90 significantly enhanced the Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation. The results suggested that the two quinoa saponin fractions enhanced significantly the production of humoral and cellular immune responses to OVA in mice.

  7. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

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    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  8. Pasting and rheological properties of quinoa-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium, quinoa) flour, known for its essential amino acids, was composited with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. Quinoa-oat composites were developed and evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid ...

  9. Identification and quantification of even and odd chained 5-n alkylresorcinols, branched chain-alkylresorcinols and methylalkylresorcinols in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Svelander, Cecilia; Karlsson, Göran; Savolainen, Otto I

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal grown in the Andean region of South America that is of increasing interest worldwide as an alternative staple food. We have detected a complex mixture of both odd- and even-alkyl chain alkylresorcinols (AR), branched-chain alkylresorcinols (bcAR) and methylalkylresorcinols (mAR) in ethyl acetate extracts of quinoa. We quantified the content of AR in 17 commercial samples of quinoa, and found that the mean±SD content of AR was 58±16μg/g, bcAR was 182±52μg/g, and mAR was 136±40μg/g. AR from quinoa could also be detected in plasma after eating quinoa, indicating that some of these unique AR could be used as biomarkers of quinoa intake in humans. Further work is required to understand the role of these ARs in the quinoa plant and whether any of the novel ARs may be of particular interest in human nutrition.

  10. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE DNA POLYMORPHISM OF SIX VARIETIES OF CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD, USING AFLP

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    Nolasco, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The grain of Chenopodium quinoaWilld. (Quinua is important worldwide for its high nutritional value, being the principal source of proteins of the settlers of the Peruvian Bolivian altiplano. In the process of the care and maintenance of the species in the germplasm banks for quinua there have been programs developed to allow the evaluation of genetic variation to increase the quality of the grain, the resistance to diseases, and dryness tolerance and to modulate the content of saponins. A current question is to discriminate among the varieties using molecular sensitive technologies like the RAPDs, microsatellites, RFLP; our aim was to evaluate the polymorphism of six varieties of quinua using AFLP's technology (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. Varieties of quinua: Quillahuaman INIA (Q, Mantaro (M, Hualhuas (H, Real Boliviana (B, Salcedo INIA(S and Illpa INIA(I, were evaluated in combinations of five pairs of primers using adapters for EcoRI and MseI to determine their polymorphisms. Our results found three combinations of major polymorphism E33/M60, E32/M48 and E32/M61, that we were able to discriminate against the variety Mantaro (M as a variety removed from the others of the southern Peruvian altiplano – Bolivian, according to UPGMAanalysis. This combination of primers also discriminate the varieties Illpa INIA and Salcedo INIA as being varieties obtained by crossings for genetic improvement.

  12. Heat-denaturation and aggregation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) globulins as affected by the pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    The influence of heating (100 °C; 0-15 min) on the relative molecular mass, protein unfolding and secondary structure of quinoa globulins was studied at pH 6.5 (low solubility), 8.5 and 10.5 (high solubility). The patterns of denaturation and aggregation varied with pH. Heating triggered the disruption of the disulfide bonds connecting the acidic and basic chains of the chenopodin subunits at pH 8.5 and 10.5, but not at pH 6.5. Large aggregates unable to enter a 4% SDS-PAGE gel were formed at pH 6.5 and 8.5, which became soluble under reducing conditions. Heating at pH 10.5 lead to a rapid dissociation of the native chenopodin and to the disruption of the subunits, but no SDS-insoluble aggregates were formed. No major changes in secondary structure occurred during a 15 min heating, but an increase in hydrophobicity indicated unfolding of the tertiary structure in all samples.

  13. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

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    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  14. [Chemical and biological evaluation of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Effect of the extraction of saponins by heat treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería Rios, M L; Sgarbieri, V C; Amaya, J

    1978-09-01

    The changes in proximate composition, amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER) caused by hot-water extraction of the saponins were studied in four Bolivian varieties of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd). Detectable saponin was eliminated with an extraction at 70 degrees C. Extraction at 87 degrees C also eliminated the saponins but, in addition, had the tendency of slightly increasing the protein amino acid content. The maximum PER obtained was 2.99 for the Blanca variety, followed by 2.72 for the Sajama variety, also extracted at 87 degrees C (casein gave a PER value of 3.21).

  15. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-03

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  17. Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrasco, Karina; Antognoni, Fabiana; Coulibaly, Amadou Konotie; Lizardi, Susana; Covarrubias, Adriana; Martínez, Enrique A; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Biondi, Stefania; Zurita-Silva, Andrés

    2011-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) is an Andean plant showing a remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses. In Chile, quinoa populations display a high degree of genetic distancing, and variable tolerance to salinity. To investigate which tolerance mechanisms might account for these differences, four genotypes from coastal central and southern regions were compared for their growth, physiological, and molecular responses to NaCl at seedling stage. Seeds were sown on agar plates supplemented with 0, 150 or 300mM NaCl. Germination was significantly reduced by NaCl only in accession BO78. Shoot length was reduced by 150mM NaCl in three out of four genotypes, and by over 60% at 300mM (except BO78 which remained more similar to controls). Root length was hardly affected or even enhanced at 150mM in all four genotypes, but inhibited, especially in BO78, by 300mM NaCl. Thus, the root/shoot ratio was differentially affected by salt, with the highest values in PRJ, and the lowest in BO78. Biomass was also less affected in PRJ than in the other accessions, the genotype with the highest increment in proline concentration upon salt treatment. Free putrescine declined dramatically in all genotypes under 300mM NaCl; however (spermidine+spermine)/putrescine ratios were higher in PRJ than BO78. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of two sodium transporter genes, CqSOS1 and CqNHX, revealed that their expression was differentially induced at the shoot and root level, and between genotypes, by 300mM NaCl. Expression data are discussed in relation to the degree of salt tolerance in the different accessions.

  18. Characterization of the acetohydroxyacid synthase multigene family in the tetraploide plant Chenopodium quinoa

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    Camilo Mestanza

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The presence of multiple copies of the gene AHAS shows that gene duplication is a common feature in polyploid species during evolution. In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the interaction of sub-genomes in quinoa.

  19. EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO DEL PROCESO DE EXTRUSIÓN EN HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd NORMAL Y GERMINADA

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    CRISTHIAN EMILIO TOVAR HERNÁNDEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd germinated seeds shows nutritional value and body assimilation differences respect to normal seeds, therefore, sought to identify the extrusion process effect over flour from normal and germinated quinoa. Proximal analysis, pasting curves, Water Absorption Index (WAI and Water Solubility Index (WSI. After extrusion process, proximal analysis, WAI and WSI performed to flours. Changes in germinated flour was found respect to normal flour like protein increase (15,06 g/100 g sample to 15,74 g/100 g sample, gelation properties, WAI and WSI variations. Significant differences was found on germinated flour due to extrusion process applied, over WSI and WAI (2,5274 g gel/g D.M. in normal quinoa flour increased to 5,8761 g gel/g D.M. in extruded quinoa flour. Thus, 2,5829 g gel/g D.M. for no extruded germinated quinoa flour, increased to 5,4197 g gel/g D.M. for extruded germinated quinoa flour.

  20. Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

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    Edgar Bonales-Alatorre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV and fast (FV tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013 Plant Physiology. This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  1. Differential activity of plasma and vacuolar membrane transporters contributes to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zeng, Fanrong; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-04-29

    Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  2. 藜麦研究现状与发展前景%Research Status and Development Prospect of Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜娜; 裴艳婷; 宫永超; 蒲艳艳; 刘保民; 辛富刚; 刘世华; 丁汉凤

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.),belonging to Chenopodiaceae,is an annual herba-ceous crop,originates from the Andes Mountains of South America,and is a staple food of the Incas aborigi-nal.In recent years,quinoa has been commonly concerned due to its nutrition and many utility values.The biological characteristics,nutritional value and the progress on saline -alkaline tolerance,drought resistance and chemical component of quinoa at home and abroad were summarized.The status of introduction and plant-ing and problems existed in popularization of quinoa at home were pointed out.The development and applica-tion prospects were outlooked.It could provide the reference for research and development of quinoa.%藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)是一种一年生的藜科草本作物,发源于南美洲的安第斯山脉,是印加土著居民的主要传统食物。近年来,藜麦以其极高的营养价值和多种利用价值引起了人们的普遍关注。本文概述了藜麦的生物学特性、营养价值和国内外对藜麦耐盐碱、抗旱、化学成分等方面的研究进展,阐述了国内藜麦引种种植现状及推广存在的问题,并对其发展应用前景进行展望,以期为藜麦研究开发提供参考依据。

  3. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE IOGURTE À BASE DE PITAIA (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS, ENRIQUECIDO COM QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA E SUCRALOSE

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    Antônio Thiago Matos Carvalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O mercado para alimentos que visam determinado benefício à saúde tem se mostrado promissor, aliado a esse fato é crescente o número de estudos na área de alimentos derivados do leite, como o iogurte, produto de alto valor biológico, com propriedades benéficas a saúde e de fácil comercialização. O iogurte se adicionado de polpa de pitaia (Hylocereus undatus, fruta exótica de potencial sensorial e pouco explorada, tende a ser um produto de fácil aceitação pelos consumidores, adicionalmente é possível aumentar seu valor nutricional adicionando quinoa, cereal de elevado teor protéico e conteúdos significativos em ácidos graxos, e não obstante a utilização da sucralose que é considerado um edulcorante sem restrições de uso, torna o produto ainda mais atrativo. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar sensorialmente iogurtes acrescidos de polpa de pitaia em diferentes concentrações e verificar qual foi a de maior aceitação. Foram feitas as análises microbiológicas de coliformes a 30ºC, 45ºC e presença de Salmonella sp. para verificar a qualidade do produto. O modelo adotado para a análise sensorial foi o teste de ordenação de preferência, para comparação do iogurte em suas diferentes concentrações de polpa. As análises microbiológicas encontradas para os iogurtes nas concentrações de 20%, 30% e 40% de polpa foram satisfatórias de acordo com a legislação vigente para esse tipo de produto. Os resultados obtidos para o teste sensorial apontaram à preferência do consumidor a amostra com maior concentração de polpa de pitaia (40%.

  4. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-10-26

    A new liquid chromatography methodology coupled to a diode array detector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). This method has allowed the simultaneous determination of these two families of compounds with the same analytical method for the first time. A fused-core column C18 has been used, and the analysis has been performed in less than 27 min. Both chromatographic and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry parameters have been optimized to improve the sensitivity and to maximize the number of compounds detected. A validation of the method has also been carried out, and free and bound polar fractions of quinoa have been studied. Twenty-five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the free polar fraction, while five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the bound polar fraction. It is important to highlight that 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucoside, acacetin, protocatechuic acid 4-O-glucoside, penstebioside, ethyl-m-digallate, (epi)-gallocatechin, and canthoside have been tentatively identified for the first time in quinoa. Free phenolic compounds have been found to be in the range of 2.746-3.803 g/kg of quinoa, while bound phenolic compounds were present in a concentration that varies from 0.139 and 0.164 g/kg. Indeed, saponins have been found to be in a concentration that ranged from 5.6 to 7.5% of the total composition of whole quinoa flour.

  5. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD: DIGESTIBILIDADE IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. A. CASTRO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou não ao tratamento térmico. As amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente através de um teste de aceitação utilizando a escala hedônica nominal de 9 pontos. O método utilizado na análise da digestibilidade protéica in vitro foi o da queda de pH após 10 minutos, com a adição das enzimas tripsina e pancreatina às amostras de quinoa, tratadas e não tratadas termicamente. Das sete preparações testadas, seis foram bem aceitas, já que apresentaram um Índice de Aceitabilidade maior que 70%. Os flocos e grãos de quinoa, após serem testados termicamente, tiveram sua digestibilidade otimizada. Portanto, a quinoa e seus derivados podem ser considerados uma boa opção para a alimentação dos indivíduos portadores da doença celíaca.

  6. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols.

  7. Research on Alloletroploid Segregation Phenomena of Single-gene Morphological Characters in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)%高原藜米(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)单基因性状的异源四倍体分离现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡布扎西; 吉万泉; 昌西; 白玛曲宗

    2014-01-01

    高原藜米(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)是一个异源四倍体作物,但有些研究报道该作物在单个基因位点上的分离行为有二倍体分离特征.本研究在多年观察试验的基础上,2011-2012年两年在西藏不同海拔(南木林县:海拔4 000m;林芝:海拔2 800 m)条件下对雄性不育植株进行杂交所得的F1和F2代中分离产生了3种不同的单基因控制的性状特征进行了较大群体的观测试验.等位基因分离分析结果显示,在F1和F2的分离范围内出现了二体双基因和四体的遗传性状,在F2代减数分裂中出现的一定比例的畸变现象也显示了其不定的多价体形态,这些结果都表明了藜米的异源四倍体特征.这一特征产生的根本原因是某些基因位点重复和至少在有些同源染色体之间发生了联会现象.本研究发现,藜米某些基因位点发生的四倍体分离现象可能导致了藜米育种和遗传研究中的复杂性,对于指导该作物育种或生产都有一定的实际意义.四倍体分离,特别是其飘忽不定的现象,可能会使将来藜米基因图谱研究分析变的更加复杂,这一点在今后的研究中应给予足够的重视.

  8. Methyl jasmonate differentially affects tocopherol content and tyrosine amino transferase activity in cultured cells of Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognoni, F; Faudale, M; Poli, F; Biondi, S

    2009-03-01

    Tocopherols are lipid-soluble compounds synthesised exclusively by photosynthetic organisms. In this study, in vitro callus cultures were established from two plants that are naturally rich in tocopherols, Amaranthus caudatus and Chenopodium quinoa, in order to examine whether callus cultures were able to produce these compounds at levels comparable to those observed in planta. In both species, cotyledon explants produced the best callus induction and, once established, callus cultures were grown under two different hormonal treatments to check for effects of growth and to induce chloroplast differentiation in the cells. A rapid differentiation of chloroplasts occurred only in C. quinoa cell aggregates grown in the presence of benzyladenine, leading to the production of a homogeneous green callus. In both species, only alpha-tocopherol was produced by callus cultures, although levels were much lower than in planta, and the production was not influenced by the hormonal conditions. Interestingly, cell cultures of the two species responded in different ways to methyl jasmonate (MJ). In A. caudatus cultures, treatment with 100 mum MJ increased the production of alpha-tocopherol up to fivefold, and the inductive effect was influenced by the hormonal composition of the medium. This increase in alpha-tocopherol was associated with a proportional increase in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity, one of the key enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis. By contrast, in C. quinoa cultures, elicitation with MJ did not have any effect, neither on tocopherol production, nor on TAT activity. These results are discussed in relation to chloroplast differentiation and the interplay between jasmonates and phytohormones.

  9. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to increasing concentrations of trivalent chromium in the Andean crop species Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccianti, Valeria; Bucchini, Anahi E; Iacobucci, Marta; Ruiz, Karina B; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean seed crop, exhibits exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to abiotic stress. The species' tolerance to heavy metals has, however, not yet been investigated nor its ability to take up and translocate chromium (Cr). This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments occurring upon exposure of quinoa to several concentrations (0.01-5mM) of CrCl3. Young hydroponically grown plants were used to evaluate Cr uptake, growth, oxidative stress, and other biochemical parameters three and/or seven days after treatment. Leaves accumulated the lowest amounts of Cr, while roots and stems accumulated the most at low and at high metal concentrations, respectively. Fresh weight and photosynthetic pigments were reduced only by the higher Cr(III) doses. Substantially increased lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and proline levels were observed only with 5mM Cr(III). Except for a significant decrease at day 7 with 5mM Cr(III), total polyphenols and flavonoids maintained control levels in Cr(III)-treated plants, whereas antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum polyamine accumulation was observed in 1mM CrCl3-treated plants. Even though α- and γ-tocopherols also showed enhanced levels only with the 1mM concentration, tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, EC 2.6.1.5) activity increased under Cr(III) treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, results suggest that polyamines, tocopherols, and TAT activity could contribute to tolerance to 1mM Cr(III), but not to the highest concentration that, instead, generated oxidative stress.

  10. Development and Utilization of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.%藜麦及其资源开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖正春; 张广伦

    2014-01-01

    藜麦Chenopodium quinoa Willd.英文名:quinoa,原产于南美洲安第斯山区,是印加土著居民的主要传统食物,至今已有5000~7000多年的利用和种植历史.古代印加人将它称之为“粮食之母”.藜麦在20世纪80年代,被美国宇航局用于宇航员的太空食品.联合国粮农组织认为藜麦是唯一的单一植物即可满足人体基本营养需求的食物,正式推荐藜麦为最适宜人类的完美的全营养食品.本文对藜麦的植物形态、生态特性、营养价值以及在我国种植展望作了综合报道.

  11. Salt Tolerance Analysis and Nutritional Evaluation of Golden Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)%金藜麦耐盐性分析及营养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜奇彦; 牛风娟; 胡正; 张辉

    2015-01-01

    对我国沿海地区新收集种质资源金藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)进行了耐盐性及营养品质评价.结果表明:金藜麦在对盐胁迫相对敏感的芽期和苗期表现出相对较高的耐盐性;子粒蛋白质含量为14.2%,蛋白营养价值优于牛奶以及小麦、水稻、玉米、大豆等作物;子粒中富含维生素B、E等以及钙、锰、铁、铜、锌等矿质元素,特别是钙含量高这190.16 mg/100g,是小米钙含量的35倍;且金藜麦子粒含有丰富的必需脂肪酸,如亚油酸(3.58 g/100g)和亚麻酸(0.44 g/100g),天然抗氧化剂维生素E含量为7.66 mg/100g.这些研究结果表明,新收集的金藜麦种质资源具有较高的营养价值和耐盐性,将为我国藜麦研究和种植提供重要的种质资源.

  12. The Global Expansion of Quinoa: Trends and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as "Indian food." After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010, and to 75 in 2014. A further 20 countries have sown quinoa for the first time in 2015. In this paper, we analyze this trend and discuss the limits of quinoa's expansion. As commercial production of quinoa is expected to develop, changes in international regulatory frameworks on genetic resources are needed in order to facilitate plant breeding for the most adaptive varieties for each region.

  13. EFECTO DE LA EXTRUSIÓN SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA LORENA CERÓN FERNANDEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD is a pseudocereal produced for many years in Andean regions and allows different transformations taking advantage of their nutritional qualities becoming it a food agribusiness alternative. Objective of this study was to observe physical and chemical changes from two quinoa flour varieties (Blanca dulce de Jericó and Tunkahuan during extrusion process and determine conditions (flour moisture, temperature and screw speed that allow obtain an extruded similar to precooked functional properties. Water absorption index (IAA, water solubility index (ISA and swelling power (PH was response variables. Two flour extrusion at 105°C degrees, 150 rpm screw speed and 25 to 30% moisture improved functional properties (IAA increased from 1,81 g gel/g D.M to 4,22 g gel/g D.M in Tunkahuan extruded quinoa flour and 2,00 g gel/g to 4,27 g gel MS/MS g flour in Blanca dulce de Jericó but nutriotional properties decreased as digestibility except for a carbohydrate content increase.

  14. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  15. Aspects of participatory plant breeding for quinoa in marginal areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinny, E.; Peralta, E.; Mazon, N.; Danial, D.L.; Thiele, G.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out in Ecuador with two indigenous communities, Ninín Cachipata and La Esperanza, to determine farmers¿ preferences for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivars and to improve PPB processes. More women than men participated, reflecting that quinoa, a primarily subsisten

  16. Differential activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana

    2013-01-01

    Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow...... (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two....... These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce...

  17. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    . The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated......, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated...

  18. 藜麦基因组DNA提取方法的比较%Comparison of Genomic DNA Extraction Methods for Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏佳; 莫秀芳; 王勤; 陆国权; 蒋玉蓉

    2015-01-01

    To rapidly obtain high-quality genomic DNA from Chenopodium quinoa Wil d, the genomic DAN in different tissues (leaves, stems and roots) of Chenopodi-um quinoa Wil d was extracted by modified CTAB method, SDS method and high-salt low-pH method, respectively. The quality and yield of extracted DNA was deter-mined using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometry. At the same time, the PCR-SSR and SSCP molecular detection was also performed. The results showed that the gel test strips, without obvious decomposition, of al the extraction methods were relatively obvious; the genomic DNA yield extracted by modified CTAB method was highest, fol owed by that by SDS method, and the genomic DNA extracted by high-salt low-pH method was lowest; the genomic DNA yields extracted by different methods from Chenopodium quinoa Wil d leaves were al high-er than those from roots and stems; the quality of Chenopodium quinoa Wil d ge-nomic DNA extracted by modified CTAB method and high-salt low-pH method was better, and polyphenols, polysaccharides and other impurities were removed more completely. The PCR-SSR and SSCP detection results showed that the genomic DNA extracted by different methods from different tissues of Chenopodium quinoa Wil d al could be better amplified, and high-quality strips could be obtained. So the Chenopodium quinoa Wil d genomic DNA extracted by the three methods al can be used for subsequent molecular biology research.%为了快速获取高质量的藜麦基因组DNA,采用改良的 CTAB法、SDS法和高盐低pH值法等3种方法分别提取藜麦不同组织(叶、茎、根部)的基因组 DNA。通过琼脂糖凝胶电泳和紫外分光光度法测定比较所提 DNA的质量和产量,同时进行了 PCR-SSR、SSCP等分子检测。用不同方法提取藜麦不同组织部位DNA的结果表明:不同提取方法的凝胶检测条带均比较清晰,且无明显降解;改良的CTAB法所提取的 DNA产率最高, SDS

  19. The global expansion of quinoa: trends and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier eBAZILE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd. was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as Indian food. After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the twentieth century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010 and to 75 in 2014. A further 20 countries have sown quinoa for the first time in 2015. In this paper, we analyze this trend and discuss the limits of quinoa’s expansion. As commercial production of quinoa is expected to develop, changes in international regulatory frameworks on genetic resources are needed in order to facilitate plant breeding for the most adaptive varieties for each region.

  20. Quinoa: Nutritional, functional, and antinutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Antonio Manoel Maradini; Pirozi, Mônica Ribeiro; Borges, João Tomaz Da Silva; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Coimbra, Jane Sélia Dos Reis

    2017-05-24

    We have prepared a review of the physical-chemical composition and the functional and anti-nutritional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). It is a plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, originally from the Andean regions, adaptable to different types of soils and climatic conditions. Its composition has attracted the attention of scientific community for its high nutritional value, being rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, vitamins, and minerals, with an extraordinary balance of essential amino acids. It is also gluten-free, a characteristic that enables its use by celiac patients. In spite of all these attributes, quinoa is not widely used by consumers due to the high cost of imported grain and little knowledge of its benefits. More studies are required to increase knowledge about this "pseudo-cereal" to demonstrate its functional and nutritional benefits and to study its anti-nutritional effects, since it presents high commercial value and excellent nutritional quality.

  1. Semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willdenow: composición química y procesamiento. Aspectos relacionados con otras áreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es un cultivo con alto potencial para contribuir con la seguridad alimentaria en todas las regiones del mundo. El cultivo posee notable capacidad de adaptación a diferentes regiones agroecológicas y gradiente altitudinal. Aunque los principales países productores son Perú, Bolivia y Ecuador, la producción de quinoa se está expandiendo a otros continentes y actualmente se cultiva en varios países. En Venezuela no se cultiva. La semilla de quinua es reconocida como nutritiva gracias a la cantidad y calidad de su contenido de proteína, especialmente por su alto contenido en lisina, como también en hierro, potasio, vitaminas B2, B5 y E, entre otros constituyentes. Quinoa tiene una variedad de usos en la industria procesadora de alimentos. En este trabajo se compiló información de la literatura que fue revisada, con el propósito de aportar una visión general sobre la composición química y el procesamiento de semillas de quinua. Nuevas investigaciones han reafirmado la cantidad, calidad de sus componentes químicos y nuevos fitoquímicos se han descubierto. Existe considerable desarrollo e innovación tecnológica que ha dado valor agregado a la quinua.

  2. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 μg g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 μg g and died at 200 μg Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 μg g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required.

  3. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    OpenAIRE

    Percy Arapa Carcasi; Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue deter...

  4. Extracción, cuantificación y purificación de saponinas de semilla de Chenopodium quinoa Willd provenientes del noroeste argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Gianna, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2013 Presenta por un lado determinar las condiciones óptimas de extracción de las saponinas de los frutos de chenopodium quinoa willd, por dos métodos originales: la extracción asistida con microondas y la extracción de esta sustancia a alta presión, que permiten una extracción eficiente en un tiempo breve comparado con los métodos tradicionales, como ser el de Soxhlet, reflujo, etc. Por otro lado se estableció un método para cuantificar el contenido de saponinas....

  5. Elaboración y valoración del hierro en el pan enriquecido con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa w.) y soja (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Pérez, Diana Gloria; Palacios Morales, Félix Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar y valorar el hierro en el pan enriquecido con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa W.) y soja (Glycine max); para este fin se enriqueció el pan, planteando dos formulaciones. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluó la cantidad de hierro en la harina de quinua y soja, prueba de aceptabilidad y la valoración de la cantidad de hierro en el producto final, se realizó también a los panes elaborados el análisis proximal, en el Laboratorio Calidad Total de la Universidad Nacional Agraria ...

  6. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    OpenAIRE

    Percy Arapa Carcasi; Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue deter...

  7. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2013-08-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm--a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue--were highlighted and discussed.

  8. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters.

  9. Efecto de la temperatura y salinidad sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de dos variedades de Chenopodium quinoa Temperature and salinity effects on germination and seedling growth on two varieties of Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chilo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la temperatura y salinidad sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de dos variedades de Chenopodium quinoa. Se diseñó un experimento factorial con tres factores: 1 variedad, con dos niveles (Cica y Real; 2 temperatura, con tres niveles (5 ºC, 10 ºC y 20 ºC; y 3 salinidad, con cinco niveles (0,0; 0,1; 0,2; 0,3 y 0,4M de cloruro de sodio. Los ensayos se realizaron según normas ISTA, las variables de respuesta fueron: poder germinativo como porcentaje de plántulas normales, velocidad de germinación y crecimiento de plántulas. Se determinaron porcentajes de plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas; además, peso seco y contenido de sodio y potasio. En las variedades Cica y Real el descenso de temperatura y aumento de salinidad produjeron una disminución del poder germinativo, de la velocidad de germinación y del crecimiento de las plántulas; además, afectaron el peso seco y los porcentajes de plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas. Las variedades acumularon solutos en las vacuolas de las células epidérmicas del tallo y hojas. La variedad Cica presentó mejor respuesta a la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas en comparación con la variedad Real.The effect of temperature and salinity on germination and seedling growth was studied in two varieties of Chenopodium quinoa. A factorial experiment with three factors was designed: 1 variety (two levels: Cica and Real; 2 temperature, (three levels: 5 ºC, 10 ºC and 20 ºC and 3 salinity (five levels: 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4M of sodium chloride. The tests were carried out according to ISTA rules. The response variables were: germination rate as a percentage of normal seedlings; germination speed and seedling growth. Percentage of normal seedlings, abnormal and dead seeds, together with dry weight and sodium and potassium content were determined. In Cica and Real varieties, decreasing temperature and increasing salinity caused a

  10. Bornova Ekolojik Koşullarında Farklı Sıra Arası Uzaklıkların Kinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)'da Tane Verimi ve Bazı Verim Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    GEREN, Hakan; KAVUT, Yaşar Tuncer; ALTINBAŞ, Metin

    2015-01-01

    his study was conducted to determine the effects of different row spacings (17.5 cm, 35 cm, 52.5 cm, 70 cm) on the grain yield and some other yield characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under T

  11. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a native Andean crop that gained worldwide popularity over the last few decades due to its outstanding nutritional properties. The plant is characterized by an exceptional adaptation and is able to produce decent yields despite harsh environmental conditions...... like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia’s Salar region...... with the intention to push agricultural development – with obvious success. The cultivation of quinoa is today the most important land use, with a continued increase in production volume and areal extent. We here trace back land-use changes from 1972 to 2013 in one of the most important areas of quinoa production...

  12. Development Prospect and Research Progress of Chenopodium quinoa%藜麦研究进展及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾娴; 黄杰; 魏玉明; 金茜; 杨发荣

    2015-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa),苋科藜属植物,原产于南美洲安第斯山脉高原地区,具有大约5000~7000年的种植历史,是当地印加人备受推崇的主要粮食作物之一,近些年因为其全面的营养价值和均衡的氨基酸比例以及药用保健价值收到追捧,引起了许多科研工作者的兴趣.为了给科研工作者提供一些研究方向的参考,通过对国内外对藜麦的研究文献进行汇总,归纳了在藜麦的引种栽培、营养成分分析、产品开发利用、遗传谱系研究、抗逆性研究、抗病虫害研究等方面的最新研究进展,提出了一些在研究中尚未解决的问题,如藜麦在低海拔地区产量和品质降低、藜麦的多种药用保健作用、藜麦副产物的利用等,将成为未来研究的重点方向,并分析了藜麦作为一种杂粮作物在中国西北地区的引种栽培以及发展潜力.

  13. 藜麦的主要营养成分、矿物元素及植物化学物质含量测定%Determination of main nutritional component,mineral element and phytochemical in Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文杰; 董吉林; 孙永敢

    2015-01-01

    Three South America Chenopodium quinoa Willd (black,red and ivory Chenopodium quinoa Willd)and a domestic Chenopodium quinoa Willd were used as experimental materials,and the main nutri-tional components,eight kinds of mineral elements(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)and phytochemicals (polyphenols,flavonoids,saponins)content of them were measured.The results showed that the nutritional composition of these four kinds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd was slightly different.Compared with common grains(wheat,rice,corn and millet),Chenopodium quinoa Willd contains lower starch,richer protein and fat,and was a good source of dietary fiber,polyphenols and flavonoids.%以黑色、红色、乳白色3种进口南美藜麦和国产乳黄色藜麦为实验材料,对其所含主要营养素、8种矿物元素(K,Na,Ca,Mg,Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn)和植物化学物质(多酚、黄酮、皂苷)的含量进行测定。结果显示,4种藜麦的营养组成稍有差异;与常见谷物(小麦、稻米、玉米、小米)相比,藜麦中淀粉含量较低,蛋白质、脂肪含量丰富,可以作为膳食纤维、多酚、黄酮物质的良好来源。

  14. Utilização de farinha de soja (Glycine max e de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa no preparo de macarrão caseiro sem glúten
    Using of soy bean (Glycine max and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa fl our to make homemade pasta without gluten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. KIRINUS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Sabendo da reduzida disponibilidade de produtos específi cos e indispensáveis para a melhoria da qualidade de vida de pacientes celíacos, este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar dois tipos de massa para macarrão caseiro como alternativa alimentar para indivíduos que apresentam restrição ao consumo de glúten. Os macarrões foram elaborados por meio das seguintes etapas: homogeneização parcial, hidratação, amassamento e moldagem da massa, seccionamento em macarrão tipo talharim e cozimento em água e sal. Para realização da análise sensorial, participaram 40 provadores não treinados e não portadores de doença celíaca, os quais receberam três amostras de macarrão de farinha de trigo, macarrão de soja e macarrão de quinoa. A massa elaborada com farinha de soja foi mais bem aceita do que a elaborada com farinha de quinoa, podendo então ser sugerida como alternativa para a não privação de alimentos à base de glúten. Com o presente estudo, pôde-se concluir que existe a viabilidade de elaboração de macarrão caseiro do tipo talharim com farinha de soja ou de quinoa. Contudo, a massa elaborada com farinha de soja sugere características sensoriais mais promissoras.

  15. Development of a Worldwide Consortium on Evolutionary Participatory Breeding in Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin M; Bazile, Didier; Kellogg, Julianne; Rahmanian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa's wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude, and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in 2013 in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ). Promoting the use of improved homogeneous quinoa varieties standardized to comply with applicable norms on seeds or suited to intensified conventional agriculture farming systems may not generate the necessary resilience needed to respond to current and future global challenges. Maintaining and increasing quinoa biodiversity is imperative, as the dynamics of the global expansion of quinoa may constitute a threat to farmers if the spread is generated with a narrow genetic base. In this article, we propose that the method of evolutionary participatory breeding could be a useful tool to develop new quinoa genetic material in cooperation with farmers. We introduce preliminary results on quinoa population development with farmers in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. We conclude that a global collaborative network on quinoa (GCN-Quinoa) could be the baseline for participatory plant breeding programs originating in developing or developed countries to meet the needs of farmers across a diversity of agronomic systems and a wide range of physical environments.

  16. [Development of a cookie formulation for celiac people using defatted Chilean hazel nut (Gevuina avellana. Mol) flour and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Mario; Huiriqueo, Carolina; Hazbun, Julia; Carrillo, Diego

    2009-06-01

    The present investigation deals with the optimization of a cookie formulation based on deffated chilean hazel nut flour (DCHF) and quinoa flour (QF) characterized for being gluten free resources, aimed to increment the nutritional options of the celiac population using Taguchi methodology. Four independent variables DCHF, QF, ammonium bicarbonated (AB) and baking time (BT) at three levels each one were considered in orden to evaluate their effects on the sensory quality (SQ) and signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the optimized product. To determine the optimun levels and relative magnitude of the effects of each parameter L9 3(4) orthogonal array with nine design points and two replications each totalizing eighteen experimental runs was used. Results were analyzed using differences between the average values of each factor according to the working level and also analysis of variance (ANOVA). The desired characteristics were the maxima SQ and S/R responses, so Taguchi "the larger the better" performance formula was used. Optimun conditions turn out to be DCHF 24.3%; QF 7.1%; AB 0.6%; BT 22 minutes. Among the chemical characteristics highlighted components such as protein (8.9%) and fiber (12.7%). Regarding the prolamine content of 1.5 ppm its result was under the limit considered for CODEX (20 ppm) classifying this product as gluten free. On the other hand, the shelf life study expressed as conjugated dienes (CD) was 3.6% after 45 days at 30 degrees C storage conditions proving this product is stable to rancidness. Hedonic test data shown 100% approval, splitted as follow 75% (like very much) and 25% (like). Finally 100% of celiac peoples inquired in this study were well disposed to buy this product.

  17. Genetic diversity and comparison of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd. genotypes cultivated in Chile Diversidade genética e comparação das características físico-químicas e nutricionais de seis genótipos de quinoa (Chenopodiumquinoa Willd. cultivados no Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the analysis of agronomical, nutritional, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of six genetically different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd genotypes cultivated in three distinctive geographical zones of Chile. Ancovinto and Cancosa genotypes from the northern Altiplano (19 ºS, Cáhuil and Faro from the central region (34 ºS, and Regalona and Villarica from the southern region (39 ºS are representative of high genetic differentiation among the pooled samples, in particular between Altiplano and the central-southern groups. A Common-Garden Assay at 30 ºS showed significant differences among seed origins in all morphometric parameters and also in yields. Altiplano genotypes had larger panicule length but no seed production. A significant influence of the different quinoa genotypes on chemical composition and functional properties was also observed. Protein concentration ranged from 11.13 to 16.18 g.100 g-1 d.m., while total dietary fiber content ranged from 8.07-12.08 g.100 g-1 d.m., and both were the highest in Villarrica ecotype. An adequate balance of essential amino acids was also observed. Sucrose was the predominant sugar in all genotypes. Antioxidant activity was high in all genotypes, and it was highest in Faro genotype (79.58% inhibition.O presente estudo teve como objetivo a análise das propriedades agronômicas, físicas, nutricionais e antioxidantes de seis genótipos diferentes de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, cultivados em três distintas zonas geográficas do Chile. Ancovinto e Cancosa, provenientes do norte do Altiplano (19 ºS, Cahuil e Faro, originários do centro (34 ºS, e Regalona e Villarica, do sul (39 ºS, foram representativos da alta diferenciação genética das amostras combinadas, em particular entre Altiplano e os grupos centro-sul. O ensaio do jardim de coleção a 30 ºS mostrou diferenças significativas entre as origens das sementes em todos os parâmetros morfom

  18. Desenvolupament de begudes a base de farina de quinoa i sucs de fruites

    OpenAIRE

    Saubi Oriol, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal and is a native plant in the Andean region. Is known for its protein quality with a well balanced amino acids; also, it contains a considerable amount of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and others nutrients. The main objective of this Bachelor's thesis Degree in Food Engineering has been make a previous develop of a soft drink pasteurized mixed, stable and acceptable organoleptically, with quinoa flour and fruits juices, that could preserv...

  19. Nederlandse quinoa in de winkel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, J.; Timmer, R.D.

    2015-01-01

    Dit jaar ligt er voor het eerst quinoa van vaderlandse bodem in de winkel. Wageningen leverde de geschikte rassen, en helpt boeren met de teelt. Interview met onder andere Ruud Timmer van PPO-agv te Lelystad

  20. Quinoa, Version 0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-06

    Quinoa is a set of computational tools that enables research and numerical analysis in fluid dynamics. At this time it is a test-bed to experiment with various algorithms using fully asynchronous runtime systems.

  1. Development of a Worldwide Consortium on Evolutionary Participatory Breeding in Quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin M.; Bazile, Didier; Kellogg, Julianne; Rahmanian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa’s wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude, and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in 2013 in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ). Promoting the use of improved homogeneous quinoa varieties standardized to comply with applicable norms on seeds or suited to intensified conventional agriculture farming systems may not generate the necessary resilience needed to respond to current and future global challenges. Maintaining and increasing quinoa biodiversity is imperative, as the dynamics of the global expansion of quinoa may constitute a threat to farmers if the spread is generated with a narrow genetic base. In this article, we propose that the method of evolutionary participatory breeding could be a useful tool to develop new quinoa genetic material in cooperation with farmers. We introduce preliminary results on quinoa population development with farmers in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. We conclude that a global collaborative network on quinoa (GCN-Quinoa) could be the baseline for participatory plant breeding programs originating in developing or developed countries to meet the needs of farmers across a diversity of agronomic systems and a wide range of physical environments. PMID:27242815

  2. Olgunlaşma Döneminin Kinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)’da Ot Verimi ve Kalitesi ile Gaz ve Metan Üretimine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    KAPLAN, Mahmut; ÜKE, Özlem; KALE, Hasan; KAMALAK, Adem

    2016-01-01

    Çalışmanın amacı farklı olgunlaşma dönemlerinde (çiçeklenme öncesi, tam çiçeklenme ve tohum bağlama) hasat edilen kinoa bitkisinin (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) yeşil ve kuru ot verimi, besleme değeri, in vitro gaz ve metan üretimi, metabolik enerji (ME) ve organik madde sindirim derecesine (OMS) etkisini belirlemektir. Kinoa bitkisinin olgunlaşması araştırmada incelenen tüm parametreleri etkilemiştir (P≤0.01). Çalışma sonuçlarına göre olgunlaşma döneminin ilerlemesiyle yeşil ve kuru ot verimle...

  3. Heeft de teelt van quinoa een toekomst in België? : Interview met Ruud Timmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillen, L.; Timmer, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is een gewas dat al eeuwenlang in Zuid-Amerika wordt geteeld en gegeten en tegenwoordig aan populariteit wint bij de Europese consument. Maar is het mogelijk om dit gewas ook in België te telen? We vroegen aan Ruud Timmer, onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Wageningen, o

  4. Quinoa seed quality response to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal which has high protein content, but also provides high quality protein. The essential amino acids are balanced; protein efficiency ratio and true protein digestibility are comparable to those of casein, which considered as a good protein resource....

  5. Effect of irrigation, intercrop and cultivar on agronomic and nutritional characteristics of quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of three irrigation regimes and three intercrop treatments on emergence, plant height, seed yield, protein and mineral concentration of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties. The experiment was carried out using a strip plot, randomized co...

  6. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing ...

  7. Quinoa ancient whole grain gluten-free snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain gluten-free low fat and salt quinoa snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. In the Asian cuisines ginger and turmeric are very common. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmer...

  8. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkel T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa in Bolivia: an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with " organic fair-trade " labeling. This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drought and cold. The present knowledges on quinoa physiology, though fragmentary, show a high cold resistance of the plants, and the capacity to recover high photosynthetic activity after drought. Under field conditions, the genetic diversity in local landraces and the crop practices also contribute notably to the adaptation of quinoa to climatic hazards.

  9. Characteristics and Utilization of Chenopodium quinoa%“粮食之母”、“超级食物”——藜麦“落户”青海

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 熊国富; 闫殿海; 毛玉金

    2014-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa)为藜科(Chenopodiaceae)藜属(Chenopodium)的1年生草本植物,原产于南美洲的安第斯山脉,以其极高的营养价值和多种开发利用价值近年来引起人们的普遍关注.2014年,在青海西宁、乌兰、德令哈和格尔木市进行了适应性种植,长势良好,丰收在望.

  10. Quinoa Well Tolerated in Patients with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quinoa Well Tolerated in Patients with Celiac Disease Quinoa Well Tolerated in Patients with Celiac Disease FOR ... 263-9000 Bethesda, Maryland (January 21, 2014) – Adding quinoa to the gluten-free diet of patients with ...

  11. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  12. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid Fghire; Fatima Anaya; Oudou Issa Ali; Ouafae Benlhabib; Ragab Ragab; Said Wahbi

    2015-01-01

    Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed). The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in ...

  13. Rural Women organized around the Cultivation of Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Paola Oyola Carvajal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural women have always participated in the reproductive and productive spheres of family systems. Today they are continuously participating in organizational spaces beyond the household, where they play a determinant role in the welfare of their family members by generating income that increases the possibility of the household’s economic sustainability. The article illustrates this phenomenon through the experience of a group of women from the municipality of Soracá (Boyacá, Colombia, who have started to cultivate quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

  14. A full-length infectious clone of beet soil-borne virus indicates the dispensability of the RNA-2 for virus survival in planta and symptom expression on Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, François; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Gilmer, David; Bragard, Claude

    2009-12-01

    For a better understanding of the functionality and pathogenicity of beet soil-borne virus (BSBV), full-length cDNA clones have been constructed for the three genomic RNAs. With the aim of assessing their effectiveness and relative contribution to the virus housekeeping functions, transcripts were inoculated on Chenopodium quinoa and Beta macrocarpa leaves using five genome combinations. Both RNAs-1 (putative replicase) and -3 (putative movement proteins) proved to be essential for virus replication in planta and symptom production on C. quinoa, whereas RNA-2 (putative coat protein, CP, and a read-through domain, RT) was not. No symptoms were recorded on B. macrocarpa, but viral RNAs were detected. In both host plants, the 19 kDa CP was detected by Western blotting as well as a 115 kDa protein corresponding to the CP-RT.

  15. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by diverse members of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are motile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their high catalase activities and superoxide contents the bacteria potentially manipulate the host's redox status. Superoxide-driven cell expansion enables quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment. Quinoa's immediate confrontation with "foreign" reactive oxygen species and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase) and cosmetics (catalase) industry. This work also discusses the potential of transferring quinoa's microbiome to improve stress resistance in other plant species.

  16. Optimization of the Callus Induction System of Chenopodium quinoa Willd%藜麦愈伤组织诱导体系优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞涵译; 蒋玉蓉; 毛泽阳; 陆国权; 陈国林; 毛前

    2015-01-01

    Cal us induction effects of nine varieties of Chenopodium quinoa Wil d. were compared by taking stem segments and cotyledons of C. quinoa as the ex-plants. At the same time, cal us induction of stem segments was optimized, as wel as the cal us proliferation system. Research results showed that the optimal explant for cal us induction was stem segment. The average cal us induction rate of nine varieties reached 90% in culture medium MS + 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D. In the cal us opti-mization test, treatment Ⅵ (MS + 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D + 0.5 mg/L KT + 0.5 mg/L NAA) and treatment Ⅱ (MS + 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D) had close induction rate, but the cal us morphology was greatly different. The latter had loose, glossy and yel owish white cal uses. Therefore, culture medium MS + 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-D was the optimal for cal us induction. And using 2, 4-D together with KT and NAA could significantly increase the proliferation rate of cal uses.%以9个藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)品种为材料,对藜麦茎段、子叶不同外植体的愈伤组织诱导效果进行比较,同时对茎段的愈伤组织诱导以及愈伤组织增殖体系进行优化试验。结果表明:诱导愈伤组织最佳外植体为茎段,9个品种在培养基 MS+0.5 mg/L 2,4-D中用茎段诱导愈伤组织的平均诱导率达90%;在愈伤组织诱导优化试验中,处理Ⅵ(MS+0.5 mg/L 2,4-D+0.5 mg/L KT+0.5 mg/L NAA)和处理Ⅱ(MS+0.5 mg/L 2,4-D)对藜麦愈伤组织的诱导率相近,但是愈伤形态差别较大,后者诱导形成疏松、有光泽、黄白色愈伤组织,因此 MS+0.5 mg/L 2,4-D培养基为最佳愈伤组织诱导培养基;2,4-D与 KT、NAA搭配使用时,愈伤组织增殖速率明显上升。

  17. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  18. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  19. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Martinus; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  20. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  1. Quinoa biodiversity and sustainability for food security under climate change. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Biondi, Stefania; Oses, Rómulo

    2014-01-01

    . To keep pace with population growth, food production must increase dramatically despite the limited availability of cultivable land and water. Here, we review the benefits of quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a seed crop that has endured the harsh bioclimatic conditions of the Andes since ancient times....... Although the crop is still mainly produced in Bolivia and Peru, agronomic trials and cultivation are spreading to many other countries. Quinoa maintains productivity on rather poor soils and under conditions of water shortage and high salinity. Moreover, quinoa seeds are an exceptionally nutritious food...... source, owing to their high protein content with all essential amino acids, lack of gluten, and high content of several minerals, e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, and health-promoting compounds such as flavonoids. Quinoa has a vast genetic diversity resulting from its fragmented and localized production over...

  2. Molecular detection of Peronospora variabilis in quinoa seed and phylogeny of the quinoa downy mildew pathogen in South America and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testen, Anna L; del Mar Jiménez-Gasco, María; Ochoa, José B; Backman, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important export of the Andean region, and its key disease is quinoa downy mildew, caused by Peronospora variabilis. P. variabilis oospores can be seedborne and rapid methods to detect seedborne P. variabilis have not been developed. In this research, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection method was developed to detect seedborne P. variabilis and a sequencing-based method was used to validate the PCR-based method. P. variabilis was detected in 31 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the PCR-based method and in 32 of 33 quinoa seed lots using the sequencing-based method. Thirty-one of the quinoa seed lots tested in this study were sold for human consumption, with seed originating from six different countries. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX2) phylogenies were examined to determine whether geographical differences occurred in P. variabilis populations originating from Ecuador, Bolivia, and the United States. No geographical differences were observed in the ITS-derived phylogeny but the COX2 phylogeny indicated that geographical differences existed between U.S. and South American samples. Both ITS and COX2 phylogenies supported the existence of a Peronospora sp., distinct from P. variabilis, that causes systemic-like downy mildew symptoms on quinoa in Ecuador. The results of these studies allow for a better understanding of P. variabilis populations in South America and identified a new causal agent for quinoa downy mildew. The PCR-based seed detection method allows for the development of P. variabilis-free quinoa seed, which may prove important for management of quinoa downy mildew.

  3. ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA EM CONDIÇÕES DE IRRIGAÇÃO SUPLEMENTAR E SEU EFEITO NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) NO PLANALTO DA BOLÍVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Miranda Casas

    2012-01-01

    A quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) é um grão andino, com elevado valor proteico (14%), sendo um dos principais cultivos que geram rendas para os agricultores do Planalto Boliviano. A cultura desenvolve-se em condições de baixa temperatura, precipitação pluvial e fertilidade e, embora tenha um bom desenvolvimento em condições com limitações ambientais e de solo, os rendimentos usualmente observados no Planalto Boliviano são baixos. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividad...

  4. 青海藜麦的发展现状与发展中存在的问题%The Current Situation and Problems in Development of Chenopodium quinoa in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 闫殿海; 张玉清; 党斌; 姚有华; 毛玉金; 张宏亮; 迟德钊

    2015-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa)是青海新兴的作物,虽引进种植时间不长但种植面积迅速上升,加之其营养丰富,有望成为新的主粮作物.分析了藜麦在青海的发展优势,并对藜麦的大面积生产中存在一些问题进行了分析探讨,展望了藜麦在青海的发展.

  5. Extraction and gelatinization characteristics of Chenopodium quinoa Willd starch based on ridge analysis%基于岭脊分析的藜麦淀粉提取及糊化特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丽红; 李晓斌

    2016-01-01

    为优化藜麦淀粉碱法提取工艺,以藜麦为试验材料,采用岭脊分析法研究料液比、NaOH 质量分数和浸提时间对淀粉提取率的影响,并对藜麦淀粉的颗粒形貌、化学结构及淀粉糊化特性进行研究。结果表明,碱法提取藜麦淀粉的优化工艺参数为料液比1:5 g/mL、NaOH质量分数0.2%和浸提时间5.5 h,淀粉提取率为98.94%±0.26%;藜麦淀粉为限制性膨胀淀粉,形态多呈不规则形,具有-OH、-CH2、-CHO、C-O-C和吡喃环典型淀粉分子官能团;随静置时间增加,淀粉透光率降低,凝沉体积增加,12 h后基本稳定;藜麦淀粉糊第四次冻融循环后达到稳定状态;对淀粉凝胶质构特性分析,硬度、内聚性、弹性、胶黏性和咀嚼性5个指标都随藜麦淀粉糊浓度增加而增大;流变性分析表明藜麦淀粉糊为假塑性流体,其弹性优于黏性。该文系统研究藜麦淀粉提取工艺和糊化特性,拓展了新的淀粉资源,同时也为藜麦淀粉的生产和应用提供一定的借鉴和参考。%Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to high nutritional value. Recently, quinoa has attracted more and more attention. Starch is main nutritional constituent of quinoa. In order to understand the gelatinization characteristics of starch, quinoas were collected from Xinzhou City in Shanxi Province. The granule morphology, functional group, swelling power, transparencies, freezing thawing stability, texture and rheological characteristics of starch granules were investigated in this study. Firstly, the quinoa starches were obtained by alkali extraction method. The cardinal parameters of extracting technique have been studied including solid-liquid ratio, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration and extraction time. The ridge analysis was used to find the condition on a set of design variables that maximize or

  6. Development of a Worldwide Consortium on Evolutionary Participatory Breeding in Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Murphy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa’s wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ, 2013. Promoting the use of improved homogeneous quinoa varieties standardized to comply with applicable norms on seeds or suited to intensified conventional agriculture farming systems may not generate the necessary resilience needed to respond to current and future global challenges. Maintaining and increasing quinoa biodiversity is imperative, as the dynamics of the global expansion of quinoa may constitute a threat to farmers if the spread is generated with a narrow genetic base. In this article, we propose that the method of evolutionary participatory breeding (EPB could be a useful tool to develop new quinoa genetic material in cooperation with farmers. We introduce preliminary results on quinoa population development with farmers in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. We conclude that a global collaborative network for quinoa (GCN-Quinoa could be the baseline for participatory plant breeding programs originating in developing or developed countries to meet the needs of farmers across a diversity of agronomic systems and a wide range of physical environments.

  7. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  8. Ionic and photosynthetic homeostasis in quinoa challenged by drought and salinity – mechanisms of tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under field conditions was exposed to five irrigation water salinities (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m–1; 4 : 1 NaCl : CaCl2 molar ratio) from flowering, and divided between full irrigation and progressive drought (PD) during seed filling. Quinoa demonstrated...... homeostatic mechanisms which contributed to quinoa’s extraordinary tolerance. Salinity increased K+ and Na+ uptake by 60 and 100 kg ha–1, respectively, resulting in maintenance of cell turgor by osmotic adjustment, and a 50% increase of the leaf’s fresh weight (FW) : dry weight (DW) ratio and non...

  9. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwinder S. Kahlon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41–0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6–3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3–4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70–79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  10. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Arapa Carcasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar características físicas en semillas de quinua mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes. Se usaron computadoras, cámaras digitales y un escáner. Se utilizaron dos muestras de quinua procesada. Con la primera muestra se ensayaron los programas PHOTO-PAINT, Photoshop, Paint, SmartGrain y GrainScan para comparación. Con Photoshop se determinó el color en porción de granos y de harina. Con la segunda muestra se midieron dimensiones con PHOTO-PAINT, que no ofreció diferencias con Photoshop y Paint, para la determinación de las características físicas. Hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas (p 0,05 entre los programas (PHOTO-PAINT, SmartGrain y GrainScan. Los valores de las coordenadas colorimétricas en la muestra de semillas de quinua fueron L* 70, a* 8 y b* 44 y en la harina L* 71, a* 3 y b* 34. La segunda muestra presentó valores promedios de largo 2,3638; ancho 2,0129 y espesor 1,0605 mm.

  11. Determinación de características físicas en semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Arapa Carcasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas de las semillas influencian parámetros de trabajo en los equipos y son esenciales para el diseño de estos y de instalaciones para la recolección, cosecha, transporte, separación, secado, aireación, almacenamiento y procesamiento. En la determinación de propiedades físicas algunas dependen o se originan de las dimensiones ortogonales. Los granos o semillas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. se caracterizan por su pequeño tamaño. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar características físicas en semillas de quinua mediante procesamiento digital de imágenes. Se usaron computadoras, cámaras digitales y un escáner. Se utilizaron dos muestras de quinua procesada. Con la primera muestra se ensayaron los programas PHOTO-PAINT, Photoshop, Paint, SmartGrain y GrainScan para comparación. Con Photoshop se determinó el color en porción de granos y de harina. Con la segunda muestra se midieron dimensiones con PHOTO-PAINT, que no ofreció diferencias con Photoshop y Paint, para la determinación de las características físicas. Hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas (p 0,05 entre los programas (PHOTO-PAINT, SmartGrain y GrainScan. Los valores de las coordenadas colorimétricas en la muestra de semillas de quinua fueron L* 70, a* 8 y b* 44 y en la harina L* 71, a* 3 y b* 34. La segunda muestra presentó valores promedios de largo 2,3638; ancho 2,0129 y espesor 1,0605 mm.

  12. PROCESAMIENTO POST-COSECHA DE GRANOS DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA, CHENOPODIACEAE EN EL PERÍODO PREHISPÁNICO TARDÍO EN EL NORTE DE LÍPEZ (POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laura López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del estudio etnoarqueológico del tratamiento post-cosecha de granos de quinoa entre los habitantes del altiplano de Lípez (Potosí, Bolivia, se describen algunos rasgos diagnósticos de cada actividad y forma de procesamiento observables en los granos desecados. El potencial de estas observaciones para investigar las antiguas prácticas de procesamiento y consumo de este pseudocereal es ilustrado mediante el análisis de granos recuperados en cuatro sitios arqueológicos cercanos al Salar de Uyuni. Las quinoas examinadas se encontraban en distintas etapas de procesamiento; algunas no habían sido aún desaponificadas, por lo que inferimos que habían sido almacenadas inmediatamente después de la cosecha, mientras que otras muestras exhibían rastros de desaponificación comparables a los observados en contextos actuales, sugiriendo su preparación para distintos modos de consumo.

  13. Developmental peculiarities and seed-borne endophytes in quinoa: Omnipresent, robust bacilli contribute to plant fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ePitzschke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. A seed-borne microbiome was discovered and its potential role in early development and stress resistance investigated.Methods involved germination and drought exposure assays, histochemical detection of reactive oxygen species, and diverse tests with seed(ling material to assess microbial occurrence, release and proliferation. Quinoa´s microbial partners were biochemically, microscopically and taxonomically characterized.Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by bacteria of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are mobile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their strong catalase activity and high superoxide contents they can modify host redox properties. One outcome is cell expansion, enabling quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment.Quinoa´s immediate confrontation with foreign ROS and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase and cosmetics (catalase industry. An exciting question arising from this work is: Can quinoa´s microbiome be transferred to improve stress resistance in other plant species?

  14. Effect of different types of processing on the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content of Chenopodium quinoa Willd grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Júlia; Spanier, Luciana Pio; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; Gularte, Márcia Arocha; Helbig, Elizabete

    2016-10-15

    The effects of five processing forms on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content in quinoa grains were evaluated. The processes included washing, washing followed by hydration, cooking (with or without pressure), and toasting. The highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained after cooking under pressure; however, these compounds also increased with grain washing. The toasting process caused the greatest loss. The antioxidant capacity of the grains was similarly affected by the processing techniques. According to the amount of saponins, the grains were classified as bitter. Washing caused a reduction in these compounds, but the levels remained unchanged after cooking (with and without) pressure and toasting; however, they significantly increased after hydration. Cooking, especially with pressure, had greater effects than the other processes, and potentiated the functional properties of quinoa grains.

  15. Enhancing the Sustainability of Quinoa Production and Soil Resilience by Using Bioproducts Made with Native Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gutiérrez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are involved in a network of interactions with plants, promoting growth and acting as biocontrol agents against diseases. In this work, we studied native microorganisms associated with quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa and the application of these organisms to the organic production of quinoa in the Andean Altiplano. Quinoa is a non-cereal grain native to the Andean highlands and is highly nutritious and gluten-free. As such, the international demand for quinoa has increased substantially in recent years. We isolated native endophytic bacteria that are able to fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and synthesize a phytohormone and native strains of Trichoderma, a fungus typically used for increasing plant growth and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Greenhouse assays and field trials allowed for selecting promissory bacterial isolates, mostly belonging to Bacillus and Paenibacillus genera, that increased plant length, panicle weight and grain yield. Selected microbial isolates were large-scale multiplied in simple and inexpensive culture media and then formulated to obtain bioproducts that were distributed among local farmers. Thus, we developed a technology for the exploitation of beneficial microbes, offering promising and environmentally friendly strategies for the organic production of quinoa without perturbing the native microbial diversity of Andean soils and making them more resilient to the adverse effects of climatic change and the over-production of quinoa.

  16. Nutritional Components, Health-promoting Effects of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and Its Application in the Food Industry%藜麦的营养成分、健康促进作用及其在食品工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文杰; 董吉林; 相启森

    2016-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa)是一种营养丰富的假谷物,具有多种保健作用,被誉为“超级谷物”.藜麦突出的营养保健作用成为国内外学者关注的热点.详细综述了藜麦的宏量营养素、微量营养素和植物化学物质的组成特点;抗氧化、抗癌、降糖降脂、抗炎抗菌等多种健康促进作用;藜麦在食品工业中的应用前景,目的是为我国藜麦的全面利用以及相关产品研发提供科学依据.

  17. Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção de grãos Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Spehar; Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2002-01-01

    A diversificação da agricultura possibilita implementar a renda, reduzir custos, disponibilizar nutrientes, proteger o solo, reduzir impacto ambiental negativo e ofertar alimentos. A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), uma Chenopodiaceae originária dos Andes, destaca-se por tolerância à seca, elevada qualidade da proteína, baixo colesterol, ausência de glúten (útil a pacientes celíacos), e uso na alimentação animal. A espécie apresenta diversidade, com ciclo variável entre 80 e 150 dias no Br...

  18. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Fghire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in these transients to changes in biophysical parameter's allowing quantification of the energy flow through the photosynthetic apparatus. Drought stress induced a significant decrease in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Φpo = Fv/Fm, and the quantum yield of electron transport (Φeo. The amount of active Photosystem II (PSII reaction centers (RC per excited cross section (RC/CS also decreased when exposed to the highest drought stress. The effective antenna size of active RCs (ABS/RC increased and the effective dissipation per active reaction centers (DIo/RC increased by increasing drought stress during the growth season in comparison to the control. However the performance index (PI, was a very sensitive indicator of the physiological status of plants. Leaf area index, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased as the drought increased. These results indicate that, in quinoa leaf, JIP-test can be used as a sensitive method for measuring drought stress effects.

  19. Quinoa: An emerging new crop with potential for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Greg; Bubenheim, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is being considered as a new crop for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) because of its high protein values (12 - 18%) and unique amino acid composition. Lysine, and essential amino acid that is deficient in many grain crops, is found in quinoa approaching Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) standards set for humans. This 'new' crop, rich in protein and with desirable proportions of important amino acids, may provide greater versatility in meeting the needs of humans on long-term space missions. Initially, the cultivars CO407 x ISLUGA, CO407 Heat Tolerant Population 1, and Real' (a Bolivian variety) were examined. The first cultivar showed the most promise in greenhouse studies. When grown hydroponically in the greenhouse, with no attempt to maximize productivity, this cultivar produced 202 g m(exp -2) with a harvest index of 37%. None of the cultivars were greater than 70 cm in height. Initial results indicate that quinoa could be an excellent crop for CELSS because of the high concentration of protein, ease of use, versatility in preparation, and potential for greatly increased yields in controlled environments.

  20. EFECTO DE LA GERMINACIÓN SOBRE EL CONTENIDO DE HIERRO Y CALCIO EN AMARANTO, QUINUA, GUANDUL Y SOYA EFEITO DA GERMINAÇÃO SOBRE CONTEUDO DA FERRO E CÁLCIO PRESENTES EM QUINOA, AMARANTO, GUANDU E SOJA GERMINATION EFFECT ON IRON AND CALCIUM CONTENT IN AMARANTH, QUINOA, PIGEON PEA AND SOYBEAN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DIANA C CHAPARRO; REMIGIO Y PISMAG; ANA DE DIOS ELIZALDE C

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluaron los cambios en la cantidad de hierro y calcio durante el proceso germinativo en semillas de amaranto (Amaranthus sp), quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), guandul (Cajanus cajan) y soya (Glycine maxy...

  1. Morphological and physiological responses of two varieties of a highland species (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) growing under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar UV-B in a lowland location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan A; Rosa, Mariana; Parrado, María F; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-08-03

    Morphological and physiological responses of seedlings to different solar UV-B irradiances were evaluated in two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a crop species from Andean region of South America. Cristalina and Chucapaca varieties were grown at 1965m a.s.l in a glasshouse under natural light conditions for 18 days, and then transferred to outdoors under near-ambient (+UV-B) and strongly reduced (-UV-B) solar UV-B radiation. Exposition to -UV-B increased cotyledon area and seedling height in Cristalina variety whereas leaf number decreased compared to +UV-B. By contrast Chucapaca variety was not affected by UV-B treatments. Seedling fresh weight (FW), root length and leaf thickness did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Mesophyll tissue was slightly affected by solar UV-B reduction. Chlorophyll content was differentially affected by UV-B treatments. Under +UV-B the highest value was observed in Cristalina variety, while in Chucapaca it was observed under -UV-B treatment. Chlorophyll content was slightly higher in leaves than in cotyledons, but there was no difference in the distribution pattern. Chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid content did not show significant differences between UV-B treatments. Leaf UVB-absorbing compounds showed significant differences between UV-B treatments in Chucapaca only, while there were no significant differences in Cristalina variety. UVB-absorbing compounds of cotyledons did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Sucrose, glucose and fructose showed different distribution patterns in cotyledons and leaves of the two varieties under near-ambient and strongly reduced UV-B. Results demonstrated that varieties of quinoa exhibit different morphological and physiological responses to changes in solar UV-B irradiance, but these responses cannot be used to predict the sensitivity to solar UV-B during a short-term exposition. Also, this study can be useful to

  2. Optimization of lactic ferment with quinoa flour as bio-preservative alternative for packed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Andrea Micaela; Pescuma, Micaela; Rollán, Graciela; Torino, María Inés; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    2015-05-01

    The consumers' demand for food with high nutritional quality and free of chemical additives increases the need to look for new products and preservation strategies. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean pseudocereal highly appreciated because of its nutritional properties. Moreover, it is an optimal substrate for growing and production of improved amounts of antifungal compounds by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778. The aim of this work was to optimize a lactic ferment for packaged breads with improved nutritional value and prolonged shelf life by applying a statistical experimental design model. The addition of 30 % quinoa to the wheat semiliquid ferment (QWF) could highly improve the amino acids release (4.3 g/L) during fermentation. Moreover, this quinoa proportion was sufficient to obtain the same concentration of the antifungal compounds, phenyllactic and hydroxiphenyllactic acids (PLA and OH-PLA) as with 100 % quinoa (ca. 36 and 51 mg/L, respectively). Statistical model analysis showed that citrate and skimmed milk enhanced significantly all evaluated parameters specially PLA (ca. 71 mg/L), HO-PLA (ca. 75 mg/L), and lactate (27 g/L) with a p value <0.005. The synergic effects of higher antifungal compounds production, acid release, and pH decrease allowed lowering the amount (about 50 %) of the chemical preservative calcium propionate commonly added to bread. Moreover, these breads show increased shelf life.

  3. Quinoa seeds leach phytoecdysteroids and other compounds with anti-diabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Grace, Mary H; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-11-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) contains high levels of biologically active phytoecdysteroids, which have been implicated in plant defense from insects, and have shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects in mammals. We demonstrated that the most prevalent phytoecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), was secreted (leached) from intact quinoa seeds into water during the initial stages of seed germination. Leaching efficiency was optimized by ethanol concentration (70% ethanol), temperature (80°C), time (4h), and solvent ratio (5 ml/g seed). When compared to extraction of macerated seeds, the leaching procedure released essentially all the 20HE available in the seeds (491 μg/g seed). The optimized quinoa leachate (QL), containing 0.86% 20HE, 1.00% total phytoecdysteroids, 2.59% flavonoid glycosides, 11.9% oil, and 20.4% protein, significantly lowered fasting blood glucose in obese, hyperglycemic mice. Leaching effectively releases and concentrates bioactive phytochemicals from quinoa seeds, providing an efficient means to produce a food-grade mixture that may be useful for anti-diabetic applications.

  4. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  5. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    allowed the plant to be able to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation. Stress during seed filling recorded the lowest yields. The influence of organic matter on yield was more important under deficit irrigation than under full irrigation. The interaction between relative water content...... and leaf water potential indicated that regulating cellular water deficit and volume is a powerful mechanism for conserving cellular hydration under drought. In all climatic conditions, drought and use of irrigation water with salinity up to 30 dS m-1 caused slightly reduced yield as compared to full...... irrigation with fresh water. Highest values of water conductivity resulted in higher seed weight, and as a consequence, an increase in fibre and total saponin content, and a small decrease in free phenolic compounds in quinoa seeds. The yield increase in quinoa accessions was less at the highest level...

  6. Eten als de Inca's : Quinoa verovert de wereld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.; Timmer, R.D.; Loo, van E.N.; Minor, M.

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa is immens populair. Dit van oorsprong Zuid-Amerikaanse voedselgewas is wereldwijd aan een opmars bezig. Mede dankzij Wageningse veredelaars is er nu ook quinoa uit Frankrijk, Engeland en Duitsland. En binnenkort misschien ook uit Nederland. ‘Dit wordt een beslissend jaar.’

  7. The salt tolerance of Quinoa measured under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    Plant growth and economic yield decreases when high salt concentrations build-up in the root zone. Quinoa is a facultative halophyte crop, which can withstand saline conditions. There is no documentation of the threshold soil electrical conductivity that cause yield reduction in quinoa under field...... conditions. In this study the threshold electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract (ECe) and maximum ECe corresponding to no economic yield of quinoa (cv. Titicaca) were determined. The experimental factors were five levels of saline solution (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1) imposed during flowering...... and the minimum relative yield was 47% observed at 40 dS m-1 saline solution (FI40). The results showed that quinoa can grow under highly saline conditions although the seed yield decreases with increased ECe. The threshold ECe of quinoa was estimated to be between 3-6 dS m-1. There was 50% reduction in seed...

  8. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  9. Caracterização físico-química, nutricional e fatores antinutricionais de quinoa da variedade brasileira BRS Piabiru

    OpenAIRE

    Maradini Filho, Antônio Manoel

    2014-01-01

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) é uma planta pertencente à família Chenopodiaceae que se destaca pela sua alta resistência às condições adversas de clima e do solo e, sobretudo, pelo seu alto valor nutricional. Supera a maioria dos cereais na quantidade de proteínas, gorduras, fibras, vitaminas e minerais, apresentando maior equilíbrio na distribuição de aminoácidos essenciais. Além de conter alta qualidade nutricional, a quinoa é também caracterizada por ser isenta de glúten, possibilit...

  10. 藜麦新品种陇藜1号的选育及应用前景%Breeding and Application Prospects of New Variety Chenopodium quinoa cv. Longli 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨发荣

    2015-01-01

    陇藜1号是甘肃省农业科学院畜草与绿色农业研究所采用系统育种和栽培驯化相结合的方法选育而成的国内首个藜麦新品种。在2013—2014年进行的多点区域试验中,陇藜1号2 a 10点(次)平均折合产量为2100.0 kg/hm2,比对照品种静乐藜麦增产9.6%。陇藜1号属中晚熟品种,植株呈扫帚状,株高181.2~223.6 cm,生育期128~140 d,分枝数23~27个。种子为圆形药片状,千粒重2.40~3.46 g。籽粒含粗蛋白171.5~187.8 g/kg、脂肪56.5~59.3 g/kg、赖氨酸5.5~6.9 g/kg、全磷4.5~6.8 g/kg。陇藜1号在田间表现为抗霜霉病和叶斑病,总体抗病能力强。陇藜1号植株抗倒伏,再生能力强。具有耐寒、耐旱、耐盐碱、耐瘠薄等特性,适应性广。适宜在甘肃省无霜期大于120 d,降水量250 mm以上,海拔1500~3000 m的山地、川地及灌溉区域种植。并对藜麦的应用前景进行了展望。%Chenopodium quinoa cv. Longli 1 is the first new variety in China,which is bred by pasture and green Agriculture Institute of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences through the methods of line breeding,cultivation and domestication. In multiple locations of regional tests,the average yields of Longli 1 are 2 100.00 kg/hm2,which is increased 9.6%compared with control. Longli 1 is mid-late maturing quinoa variety. The plant likes brooms,which plant height is 181.2~223.6 cm,growth period is 128~140 d,and the numbers of branch are 23~27. The seeds are round pill shaped,the weight of a thousand seeds is 2.40~3.46 g. Crude protein,fat, proline,total phosphorus contents in seeds are 171.5~187.8 g/kg,56.5~59.3 g/kg,5.5%~6.9 g/kg and 4.5~6.8 g/kg,respectively. Longli 1 displays the strong disease-resistant ability. Longli 1 shows lodging resistance and strong regeneration. It has some physiological characteristics,such as cold-resistant,drought-resistant and salty-resistant. It is suitable for planting in hilly and irrigation areas in

  11. Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção de grãos Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da agricultura possibilita implementar a renda, reduzir custos, disponibilizar nutrientes, proteger o solo, reduzir impacto ambiental negativo e ofertar alimentos. A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., uma Chenopodiaceae originária dos Andes, destaca-se por tolerância à seca, elevada qualidade da proteína, baixo colesterol, ausência de glúten (útil a pacientes celíacos, e uso na alimentação animal. A espécie apresenta diversidade, com ciclo variável entre 80 e 150 dias no Brasil central. Os frutos, do tipo aquênio, são pequenos, achatados e sem dormência. BRS Piabiru, primeira recomendação de quinoa ao cultivo no Brasil, originou-se da linhagem EC 3, selecionada em uma população procedente de Quito, Equador. Após dois anos de ensaios, foi uniformizada em suas características agronômicas a partir de 1998. Em sucessão à soja (safrinha e na entressafra, sob irrigação, apresentou produção média de 2,8 t/ha de grãos, com 145 dias da emergência à maturação. Constitui um potencial componente do sistema plantio direto.Diversification of production systems contributes to improve income, to reduce costs, to improve nutrient availability, to protect the soil, to reduce negative environmental impact, and, to provide raw material. The Andean crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a Chenopodiaceae, presents outstanding characteristics of drought tolerance, high quality of kernel protein, low cholesterol content, absence of gluten (suitable to celiac patients, utilisation as animal feed. The species presents variability, with days from emergence to maturity varying between 80 to 150, under savannah conditions. The fruit, achene type, is small and flat in shape, without dormancy. The BRS Piabiru, the first recommended quinoa for cropping system in Brazil, was a selection of breeding line EC 3, originating from a plant population of Quito, Ecuador. After being tested for two years in variety trials, in Central

  12. Análise de imagem para determinação do teor de saponina em quinoa Image analysis to determinate the saponin content in quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grupo de sementes lavadas e 35 acessos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd foram avaliados pelo método de coluna de espuma e sua coloração foi decomposta pelo modelo RGB (R, vermelho; G, verde; B, azul com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do teor de saponina na cor do grão. Sementes amarelas apresentaram alto teor de saponina. Houve correlação negativa (p£0,05 entre o teste de coluna de espuma e as bandas R (r = -0,751, G (r = -0,660 e B (r = -0,594. Estabeleceram-se quatro grupos de similaridade. Foram considerados amargos os acessos do grupo 4 (sementes amarelas e doces os acessos do grupo 1 (sementes brancas. A dispersão observada representa provável diferença na freqüência gênica, refletida pela cor e teor de saponina.A group of washed seeds and thirty five genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd were screened by soap column method and were classified by RGB Color Model (R, red; G, green; B, blue with the objective to determine the influence of the saponin content in the grain color. Yellow seeds presented high levels of saponin. There was negative correlation (p£0.05 among soap column method and bands R (r = -0.751, G (r = -0.660 and B (r = -0.594. Four groups were fixed. Tests confirmed the access of group 4 as bitter (yellow seeds and the access of group 1 as sweet (white seeds. The dispersion represents probable difference in gene frequency, reflected by the color and rate of saponin.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of aquatic flora and quinoa with manures from Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, René; Lidén, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 degrees C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process.

  14. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  15. Actividad de la fitasa y comparación en la composición química, contenido de ácido fítico en cuatro variedades de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rosero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. es una planta que ha sido cultivada en las regiones andinas de Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. Su importancia se debe al alto contenido de proteínas y de aminoácidos esenciales en su grano. El objetivo principal en la investigación fue encontrar la relación entre el ácido fítico y la actividad de la fítasa en las variedades de quinua Nariño procedente de Colombia (QC, quinua Anapquis (QBA y quinua -IICA 020 Oruro (QB procedentes de Bolivia, y quinua Huancavelica de Perú (QP. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las proporciones de proteína, grasa, fibra y ceniza entre las cuatro variedades. El análisis de los aminoácidos esenciales mostró que las variedades de quinua tienen altas concentraciones de arginina, leucina, fenilalanina y lisina, y tirosina como aminoácidos semi-esenciales. La fracción de grasa presentó concentraciones altas de ácido oleico, linoleico, a-linolénico y ácido palmítico. Las variedades presentaron altos contenidos de P y Ca. El ácido fítico en QC (19.64% fue significativamente más bajo que en las otras variedades. En la variedad QC (1052 FTU/kg se encontraron altas proporciones de actividad de la fítasa. Se encontró relación significativa y negativa (r = -0.89 entre la actividad de la fítasa y el ácido fítico en todas las variedades.

  16. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  17. Invloed oogsttijdstip, stikstofbemesting en ras op kwaliteit Quinoa-GPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooten, van H.A.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    De eenvoudige teelt, groeisnelheid, conservering en opname werden als positief ervaren. Om te onderzoeken in hoeverre de kwaliteit kan worden beonvloed door managementfactoren als oogsttijdstip, bemesting en rassenkeuze is in 2001 het onderzoek met quinoa

  18. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was determined using relevant AOAC methods. Chemical composition of supplemented bread with an increase in protein, oil and crude fiber was superior in comparison with control wheat bread. Sensory properties of supplemented bread such as specific volume, appearance, crust and crumb texture, aroma-odor and color were evaluated and found excellent. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31006, TR 31034 and EU FP7 project 316004, project acronym: AREA

  19. AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO E RECOMENDAÇÕES PARA CULTIVO DE QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA NO CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., native to the South American Andes, has been adapted for cultivation in Brazil, via progeny selection. Originating from the Q4 population, from Ecuadorian valleys, Q4.5 has shown outstanding performance. During the trials, it was standardized for agronomic traits and named BRS Syetetuba. In the summer and winter, it reached 2.3 t ha-1 and 7.5 t ha-1, respectively for grain and biomass yield, in 120 days, from emergence to maturity. These results were higher than those reached by the BRS Piabiru and Kancolla check cultivars. The grains are saponin-free and have a mean weight of 2.9 g 1000-1. The results reveal that the BRS Syetetuba meets the desirable characteristics for commercial yield in Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: Chenopodium quinoa; grain weight; biomass; plant height.A Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., originária dos Andes, tem sido adaptada ao cultivo no Brasil, via seleção de progênies. Entre as progênies avaliadas, tem-se destacado a Q4.5, proveniente da população Q4, originária dos vales equatorianos. O genótipo foi uniformizado em suas características agronômicas, recebendo o nome de BRS Syetetuba. Em experimentos de verão e entressafra, apresentou rendimentos de 2,3 t ha-1 de grãos e 7,5 t ha-1 de biomassa total, em 120 dias, da emergência à maturação. Estes resultados superaram aqueles alcançados pelas cultivares padrões BRS Piabiru e Kancolla. Os grãos são livres de saponina e têm peso médio de 2,9 g 1000-1. Os resultados indicam que a BRS Syetetuba reúne características favoráveis para desencadear a produção comercial de quinoa no Brasil.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Chenopodium quinoa; peso de grãos; biomassa; altura de planta.

  20. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-02-26

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that the essential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also with potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. Summary Quinoa and amaranth are pseudocereal grains rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. This paper reviews recent advances in research related to phytochemical composition of the two grains, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the bioactives and their role in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases. Bioactives in these two grains are indeed beneficial. Future research needs were identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Quinoa Seed Quality Response to Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Peterson, Adam J; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an Andean crop with an edible seed that both contains high protein content and provides high quality protein with a balanced amino acid profile in embryonic tissues. Quinoa is a halophyte adapted to harsh environments with highly saline soil. In this study, four quinoa varieties were grown under six salinity treatments and two levels of fertilization, and then evaluated for quinoa seed quality characteristics, including protein content, seed hardness, and seed density. Concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 dS m(-1) of NaCl and Na2SO4, were applied to the soil medium across low (1 g N, 0.29 g P, 0.29 g K per pot) and high (3 g N, 0.85 g P, 0.86 g K per pot) fertilizer treatments. Seed protein content differed across soil salinity treatments, varieties, and fertilization levels. Protein content of quinoa grown under salinized soil ranged from 13.0 to 16.7%, comparable to that from non-saline conditions. NaCl and Na2SO4 exhibited different impacts on protein content. Whereas the different concentrations of NaCl did not show differential effects on protein content, the seed from 32 dS m(-1) Na2SO4 contained the highest protein content. Seed hardness differed among varieties, and was moderately influenced by salinity level (P = 0.09). Seed density was affected significantly by variety and Na2SO4 concentration, but was unaffected by NaCl concentration. The samples from 8 dS m(-1) Na2SO4 soil had lower density (0.66 g/cm(3)) than those from 16 dS m(-1) and 32 dS m(-1) Na2SO4, 0.74 and 0.72g/cm(3), respectively. This paper identifies changes in critical seed quality traits of quinoa as influenced by soil salinity and fertility, and offers insights into variety response and choice across different abiotic stresses in the field environment.

  2. 藜麦功能成分综合研究与利用%Comprehensive Research and Utilization of Functional Components in Quinoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁云双; 曾亚文; 闵康; 易斌

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an annual herb of Chenopodium genus in the Chenopodiaceae familia, which attracts the attention of the researchers for its unique nutritional value and potential health functions.This article summarized the research progress for growth, nutritive value, functional components, gene analysis and physiological function of quinoa. According to the progress of comprehensive research and utilization of functional components in Quinoa at home and abroad, we put forward to countermeasures of germplasm innovation, health food, pharmaceutical research, new functional food development and industrialization for quinoa, which had important reference value for quinoa industry, health food, pharmaceutical development and other fields.%藜麦( Chenopodium quinoa Willd)为藜科藜属一年生草本植物,因独特的营养价值和潜在的保健功能引起研究者们的关注。概述了藜麦的生长发育、营养价值、功能成分、基因分析及其生理功能的研究进展。针对国内外藜麦功能成分综合研究利用进展,提出藜麦的种质创新、食品保健、医药研发及其新型功能食品研制与产业化对策,对藜麦产业、食品保健和医药研发等领域具有重要的参考价值。

  3. Growth and ionic content of quinoa under saline irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Pulvento, C.; Lavini, A.

    2014-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the most important abiotic stresses that affect plant's growth and productivity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salt and water deficit on water relations, growth parameters and capacity to accumulate inorganic solutes in quinoa plants. An irriga......Drought and salinity are the most important abiotic stresses that affect plant's growth and productivity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salt and water deficit on water relations, growth parameters and capacity to accumulate inorganic solutes in quinoa plants....... Actual evapotranspiration (ETa), water productivity (WP), biomass allocation, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area, leaf area ratio and ions accumulation of quinoa plants were evaluated. WP and plant growth were not influenced by saline irrigation, as quinoa plants...... incorporated salt ions in the tissues (stems, roots, leaves) preserving seed quality. Treatment with a reduction in the irrigation water to 25 % of full irrigated treatment (Q25) caused an increase in WP and a reduced dry matter accumulation in the leaves. Quinoa plants (Q25) were initially negatively affected...

  4. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pquinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop.

  5. Non-polar lipids characterization of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization/mass spectrometry detection and non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Beccaria, Marco; Salivo, Simona; Tranchida, Peter; Tripodo, Giusy; Farnetti, Sara; Dugo, Laura; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-08

    A chemical characterization of major lipid components, namely, triacylglycerols, fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction, in a Quinoa seed lipids sample is reported. To tackle such a task, non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was employed. The latter was interfaced with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the analysis of triacylglycerols. The main triacylglycerols (>10%) were represented by OLP, OOL and OLL (P = palmitoyl, O = oleoyl, L = linoleoyl); the latter was present in the oil sample at the highest percentage (18.1%). Furthermore, fatty acid methyl esters were evaluated by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. 89% of the total fatty acids was represented by unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters with the greatest percentage represented by linoleic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 48 and 28%, respectively. An extensive characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction of Quinoa seed lipids was performed for the first time, by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. Overall, 66 compounds of the unsaponifiable fraction were tentatively identified, many constituents of which (particularly sterols) were confirmed by using gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

  6. Influence of contrasting environments on seed composition of two quinoa genotypes: nutritional and functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Chile represents a source of germplasm with high nutritional value. However, there is little information available related to quinoa seed quality grown under contrasting environments. In this study we evaluated the changes on seed composition of seeds of two lowland/coastal quinoa genotypes grown under arid (Vicuna and cold-temperate (Temuco conditions in Chile. Results showed that in the case of 'Regalona Baer' and 'Villarrica' genotypes the arid location (with irrigation led to a significant increase (P < 0.05 in grain yield (4.2 and 5.1 t ha-1, respectively, soluble dietary fiber (16.8 ± 0.4 and 28.9 ± 2.1 g kg-1 DM, respectively, vitamin B3 (2.44 ± 0.005 and 2.26 ± 0.04 mg 100 g-1 DM, respectively, saponins (3.22 ± 0.38 mg 100 g-1 DM, 'Regalona Baer', phenolic compounds (19.2 ± 5.48 and 31.92 ± 1.14 mg gallic acid 100 g-1 DM, respectively and components of proximate analysis, except protein content. The cold-temperate climate (rainfed affected positively seed size (2.22 ± 0.17 mm 'Villarrica' and 1000 seed weight (3.08 ± 0.08 and 3.29 ± 0.08 g, respectively, as well as insoluble dietary fiber content (112.3 ± 23.8 g kg-1 DM, 'Regalona Baer'. Furthermore, vitamin C was higher in 'Regalona Baer' genotype at arid locality (31.22 ± 4.2 mg 100 g-1 DM, but much higher content was registered in 'Villarrica' genotype at cold-temperate climate (49.3 ± 5.36 mg 100 g-1 DM. The environment-induced relationship among variables and genotypes was consistent with principal component analysis (PCA. The arid region of Vicuna in Chile represents a potential area for quinoa cultivation for lowland/coastal quinoa genotypes, whose nutritional and functional features were affected positively, due to the much more stressing climatic conditions.

  7. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia’s Salar region......, and rapid drainage during precipitation and snow melt events. It appears that many of the first quinoa fields were established on flood plain deposits, where good yields could be anticipated despite the apparent risk of erosion. The subsequent expansion of production areas was paralleled by an increase...

  8. Diversity of Quinoa in a Biogeographical Island: a Review of Constraints and Potential from Arid to Temperate Regions of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier BAZILE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chile, isolated by a hyper-arid desert in the north, the Andes Range to the east and the Pacific and Antarctic waters (west and south, has a highly endemic flora. This hotspot of biodiversity is in danger not only due to increasing desertification, but also because human activities can diminish agrobiodiversity. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is an Andean species producing highly nutritious grains, which almost disappeared from Chile during the Spanish colonization. Today less than 300 small-scale and highly isolated farmers still grow it as a rain-fed crop. This review describes the biogeographical-social context of quinoa in Chile, and its high genetic diversity as a product of a long domestication process, resulting in numerous local landraces whose conservation and use for breeding improved varieties is of paramount importance. We suggest the term “lighthouse crop” to emphasize its contribution to small scale ecological and bio diverse agriculture, particularly in stressful environments, to promote a healthier nutrition and more equitable markets in the world. Furthermore this crop and its exceptional nutritional properties were invoked by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO to promote its use worldwide, and to declare 2013 the International Year of Quinoa.

  9. Characterization of quinoa seed proteome combining different protein precipitation techniques: Improvement of knowledge of nonmodel plant proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Ventura, Salvatore; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-03-01

    A shotgun proteomics approach was used to characterize the quinoa seed proteome. To obtain comprehensive proteomic data from quinoa seeds three different precipitation procedures were employed: MeOH/CHCl3 /double-distilled H2 O, acetone either alone or with trichloroacetic acid; the isolated proteins were then in-solution digested and the resulting peptides were analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. However, since quinoa is a nonmodel plant species, only a few protein sequences are included in the most widely known protein sequence databases. To improve the data reliability a UniProt subdatabase, containing only proteins of Caryophillales order, was used. A total of 352 proteins were identified and evaluated both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. This combined approach is certainly useful to increase the final number of identifications, but no particular class of proteins was extracted and identified in spite of the different chemistries and the different precipitation protocols. However, with respect to the other two procedures, from the relative quantitative analysis, based on the number of spectral counts, the trichloroacetic acid/acetone protocol was the best procedure for sample handling and quantitative protein extraction. This study could pave the way to further high-throughput studies on Chenopodium Quinoa.

  10. A review of characteristics and utilization of Chenopodium quinoa%藜麦特性及开发利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨静; 赵习武; 陆国权; 毛前

    2014-01-01

    藜麦Chenopodium quinoa为藜科Chenopodiaceae藜属Chenopodium的1年生草本植物,原产于南美洲的安第斯山脉,已有5 000多年的栽植历史.藜麦品种多样,资源丰富,以其极高的营养价值和多种开发利用价值近年来引起人们的普遍关注.根据国内外相关研究,概述了藜麦喜湿热强光、稍耐冻、短日照,穗状花序、自花授粉、种子繁殖及生长期等生物学特性,耐盐碱、干旱、霜冻、病虫害等生理学特性和总多酚、皂甙、黄酮类、多糖、蛋白质与氨基酸、矿质营养素及其他化学成分等方面的研究进展,并阐述了藜麦在食用、工业、农用、药用、观赏价值等的开发利用现状及其存在的问题.建议加强藜麦品种资源、抗逆性、化学成分等方面的研究,发掘藜麦潜在的利用价值.

  11. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano - linking geomorphology, erosion and spatial production patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a native Andean crop that gained worldwide popularity over the last few decades due to its outstanding nutritional properties. The plant is characterized by an exceptional adaptation and is able to produce decent yields despite harsh environmental conditions like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia's Salar region with the intention to push agricultural development - with obvious success. The cultivation of quinoa is today the most important land use, with a continued increase in production volume and areal extent. We here trace back land-use changes from 1972 to 2013 in one of the most important areas of quinoa production. Using Landsat images, SRTM elevations and field survey data, we investigate the relationship of field areas to erosion patterns and large-scale geomorphology. The soils of the southern Bolivian Altiplano are highly susceptible to particle entrainment due to a loose and sandy substrate, strong winds, and rapid drainage during precipitation and snow melt events. It appears that many of the first quinoa fields were established on flood plain deposits, where good yields could be anticipated despite the apparent risk of erosion. The subsequent expansion of production areas was paralleled by an increase in field density. Locally, this implied a reduction of fallowing length and the incorporation of marginal lands. The almost complete removal of natural (i.e. protecting) vegetation over large and continuous areas, results in increased wind erosion and partial crop failure. While production extended by approx. 1,6 % per year between 1985 and 2003, an average annual increase of 8,4 % could be observed for the last decade, when many new fields were established at lower elevations

  12. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Texture differences of cooked quinoa were studied among 13 different varieties. Correlations between the texture parameters and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking quality, flour pasting properties, and flour thermal properties were determined. The results showed that texture of cooked quinoa was significantly differed among varieties. 'Black,' 'Cahuil,' and 'Red Commercial' yielded harder texture, while '49ALC,' '1ESP,' and 'Col.#6197' showed softer texture. '49ALC,' '1ESP,' 'Col.#6197,' and 'QQ63' were more adhesive, while other varieties were not sticky. The texture profile correlated to physical--chemical properties in different ways. Protein content was positively correlated with all the texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters. Seed hardness was positively correlated with TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness at P ≤ 0.09. Seed density was negatively correlated with TPA hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness, whereas seed coat proportion was positively correlated with these TPA parameters. Increased cooking time of quinoa was correlated with increased hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. The water uptake ratio was inversely related to TPA hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Rapid Visco Analyzer peak viscosity was negatively correlated with the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (P quinoa.

  13. Nutrient Composition of Amaranth, Kamut, Quinoa, Spelt and Teff

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends eating at least three servings of whole grain products per day. In the Food and Drug Administration's guidance for Whole Grain Label Statements, amaranth, quinoa and teff are listed as examples of cereal grains. In order to provide up-to-date nutr...

  14. Quinoa Beverages: Formulation, Processing and Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Intelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.

  15. Quinoa-geheleplantensilage in het rantsoen van melkkoeien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.; Schooten, van H.; Pinxterhuis, I.

    2002-01-01

    Er kan worden geconcludeerd dat quinoa-GPS goed wordt opgenomen maar dat de voederwaarde laag is, hetgeen zich uit in een lagere melk(eiwit)productie. Toekomstig onderzoek zal gericht moeten zijn op verbetering van het eiwitgehalte en de verteerbaarheid met behoud van de goede eigenschappen zoals ee

  16. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  17. Calling for a reappraisal of the impact of quinoa expansion on agricultural sustainability in the Andean highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Thierry; Alvarez-Flores, R.; Bertero, D.; Cruz, P.; Del Castillo, C.; Joffre, R.; Peredo Parada, S.; Sáez Tonacca, L.

    2014-01-01

    The debate on the environmental and social sustentainability of quinoa in its area of major world production (southern highlands of Bolivia) revived with the acceptance by the United Nations of the Bolivian proposal to declare in 2013 as the Year of the Quinoa. Public debate focused on local impacts of quinoa expansion in the Southern highlands of Bolivia, denouncing several negative impacts of quinoa culture such as land degradation, socioeconomic disrupts and biodiversity loss. However, the...

  18. Lexicon Development, Consumer Acceptance, and Drivers of Liking of Quinoa Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Ross, Carolyn F; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-03-07

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of commercially available varieties. To compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needs to be developed. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a lexicon of cooked quinoa and examine consumer acceptance of diverse varieties. A trained panel (n = 9) developed aroma, taste/flavor, texture, and color descriptors to describe the sensory properties of 21 quinoa varieties. In addition, texture of the cooked quinoa was determined using a texture analyzer. Results indicated that the developed lexicon could distinguish among these quinoa varieties, showing significant differences in aromas, taste/flavors, and texture attributes. Specifically, quinoa variety effects were observed for the aromas of caramel, nutty, buttery, grassy, earthy, and woody; taste/flavor of sweet, bitter, grain-like, nutty, earthy, and toasty; and firm, cohesive, pasty, adhesive, crunchy, chewy, astringent, and moist textures. Three varieties, "QQ74," "Linares," and "CO407D," exhibited an adhesive texture that has not been described in other commercialized quinoa. Subsequent consumer evaluation (n = 100) on 6 selected samples found that the "Commercial Red" sample was the most accepted overall whereas the least accepted was the field variety "QQ74." For all consumers, overall acceptance of quinoa was driven by higher intensities of grassy aroma, and firm and crunchy texture. Segmentation of the consumers into 4 groups was explored and showed that consumers varied in their acceptance of specific attributes, particularly texture. From the present study, the quinoa lexicon and key drivers of consumer acceptance can be utilized in the industry to evaluate quinoa varieties, product quality and processing procedures.

  19. Verkenning haalbaarheid glutenvrije keten : focus op graansoorten amaranth, quinoa en teff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.R.M.; Berg, van den I.; Leeuwen, van M.A.E.; Jukema, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Verkenning haalbaarheid glutenvrije keten Focus op graansoorten amaranth, quinoa en teff Dit rapport bevat een verkenning naar de haalbaarheid van glutenvrije ketens. In de verkenning staan de granen amaranth, quinoa en teff centraal. Naast de mogelijkheden voor de teelt van deze oergranen in Nederl

  20. Physiological Effects Associated with Quinoa Consumption and Implications for Research Involving Humans: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simnadis, Thomas George; Tapsell, Linda C; Beck, Eleanor J

    2015-09-01

    Quinoa is a pseudo-grain consumed as a dietary staple in South America. In recent years, consumer demand for quinoa in the developed world has grown steadily. Its perceived health benefits have been cited as a driving force behind this trend, but there are very few human studies investigating the impact of quinoa consumption. The aim of this review was to identify physiological effects of quinoa consumption with potential for human health. A critical evaluation of animal model studies was conducted. The quality of identified studies was assessed using a methodological quality assessment tool and summative conclusions were drawn to guide the direction of future human research. The majority of studies were of fair quality. Purported physiological effects of quinoa consumption included decreased weight gain, improved lipid profile and improved capacity to respond to oxidative stress. These physiological effects were attributed to the presence of saponins, protein and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the quinoa seed. The implications of these findings are that human studies should investigate the impact of quinoa consumption on weight gain and lipid levels. The role of quinoa as an antioxidant is still unclear and requires further elucidation in animal models.

  1. Lexicon development, consumer acceptance, and drivers of liking of quinoa varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of varieties being commercially available. In order to compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needed to be developed. Thus, the objective of this paper was to develop a lexicon describing ...

  2. Isotherms and isosteric heat of sorption of two varieties of Peruvian quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pumacahua-Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isosteric heats of sorption of two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld. grain were determined by the static gravimetric method at four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C andin relative humidity environments provided by six saturated salt solutions. Six mathematical equations were used to model the experimental data: GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg, Smith and Halsey. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined using the parameters of the GAB model. All the equations were shown to be appropriate by the coefficients of determination (R2 and the mean absolute error (MA%E. The influence of temperature was observed because the adsorption of water by the grains was lower at highertemperatures. The equilibrium moisture contents for security of storage, for long periods of time at water activity lower than 0.65, were 12 -13%. The effect of temperature on the parameters of the GAB model was analysed using the exponential Arrhenius equation. The isosteric heats of sorption were determined by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation as a function of humidity. The isosteric heat at 5% moisture for grains of the Blanca de Juli variety was 3663 kJ/kg and for the Pasankalla variety it was 3393 kJ/kg. The experimental data for isosteric heat as a function of humidity were satisfactorily modelled using three mathematical equations.

  3. Quinoa in Morocco - effect of sowing dates on development and yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa is a highly nutritious food product, being cultivated for several thousand years in South America, and it is recently introduced in Morocco and showed a high potential of adaptation in Morocco. A field study was carried out in the south of Morocco in order to investigate the effects...... of sowing date on quinoa performance in a series of experiments conducted for adaptation of quinoa. The experiment took place in Agadir, with a test of 10 sowing dates, each 15 days from 1st November to 15th March. Sowing dates affected the growth and productivity due to differences in temperature......, precipitation and radiation over the year. Highest seed yield and dry matter yield were obtained when quinoa sown in November and early December. The growing season length has been affected by accumulated radiation. In addition to abiotic factors (temperature, radiation, rainfall) affecting quinoa growth...

  4. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Isabel [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Gómez-Gómez, Milagros [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Palacios, M. Antonia, E-mail: palacor@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person{sup −1} day{sup −1}) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person{sup −1} day

  5. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na(+) loading and stomatal density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Hariadi, Yuda; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Quinoa is regarded as a highly salt tolerant halophyte crop, of great potential for cultivation on saline areas around the world. Fourteen quinoa genotypes of different geographical origin, differing in salinity tolerance, were grown under greenhouse conditions. Salinity treatment started on 10 day old seedlings. Six weeks after the treatment commenced, leaf sap Na and K content and osmolality, stomatal density, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and xylem sap Na and K composition were measured. Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties. All cultivars had substantially increased K(+) concentrations in the leaf sap, but the most tolerant cultivars had lower xylem Na(+) content at the time of sampling. Most tolerant cultivars had lowest leaf sap osmolality. All varieties reduced stomata density when grown under saline conditions. All varieties clustered into two groups (includers and excluders) depending on their strategy of handling Na(+) under saline conditions. Under control (non-saline) conditions, a strong positive correlation was observed between salinity tolerance and plants ability to accumulate Na(+) in the shoot. Increased leaf sap K(+), controlled Na(+) loading to the xylem, and reduced stomata density are important physiological traits contributing to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa, a halophyte species from Chenopodium family.

  6. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.

  7. Study on the distribution of callose and β-1,3-D-glucanase in Chenopodium quinoa by immuno-gold labeling%免疫胶体金标记定位昆诺藜中的胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云琴; 王华; 谢礼; 洪健

    2014-01-01

    运用免疫胶体金技术研究了感染蚕豆萎蔫病毒2号以及健康昆诺藜细胞中胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶的分布情况。电镜观察发现胶体金特异性标记在含有VP37小管的胞间运动通道周围,其余区域感病和健康细胞的胼胝质及胼胝质降解酶分布差别不大,胼胝质主要分布于细胞间隙的大块电子致密物质以及细胞壁结构发生较大变化的区域,胼胝质降解酶主要分布于筛板、维管束细胞紧贴细胞壁区域的大块电子致密物质上,在细胞壁结构发生较大改变的区域也有胼胝质降解酶的分布。推测胼胝质在昆诺藜细胞中的积累和降解可能与细胞壁结构成分改变有关。%The distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase in the Broad bean wilt virus 2 ( BBWV 2 ) infected and the healthy Chenopodium quinoa was investigated by using immuno⁃gold labeling with the antibody against callose and β⁃1, 3⁃D⁃glucanase, respectively. The results show that, except for the VP37 intercellular moving cell wall pathways, there is no obvious difference on the distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase between the infected and healthy cells. Callose is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the electron condensed material which located in the intercellular space, the structural altered region of cell wall and the cell wall broken region. Glucanase is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the sieve plate, the electron condensed material attached to cell wall in the vascular bundle and the structural altered region of cell wall. From these results, it can be deduced that the accumulation and degradation of callose in C. quinoa is related to the cell wall structural and component alteration.

  8. Discussion on the Characteristics and Development Strategies of Cheuopodium quinoa%藜麦的特性及其发展建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志敏; 李顺国; 夏雪岩; 刘斐; 刘猛; 赵宇; 周汉章

    2016-01-01

    藜麦(Cheuopodium quinoa)是藜科(Chenopodiaceae)藜属(Cheuopodium)1 a生草本双子叶植物,原产于南美洲的安第斯山脉,有5000 a以上的种植历史。近年来藜麦因自身特性而引起了人们的广泛关注。对藜麦的生物学特性、营养价值、利用途径、经济效益进行了详细论述,并提出了我国藜麦产业发展过程中存在的主要问题及其解决方案。%Che nop odium q uinoa (quinoa), an annual herb of multiple species belonging to the genus Chenopodium,is native to the Andes in south America,where it has been planted for more than 5 000 years. In recent years,quinoa had been caused attention because it has its own characteristics. This arti-cle carefully discusses quinoa from its biological characteristics, nutritional value, use, perspective of e-conomic benefits,to find out the existing problems of quinoa industry in China now and propose a solu-tion to the problem.

  9. Quinoa seed coats as an expanding and sustainable source of bioactive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2017-01-01

    . This research aims to characterise saponins of seed coat waste products from six different quinoa varieties for their potential use as a saponin source. Gas chromatography (GC)- and Liquid chromatography (LC)- with mass spectrometry (MS) were applied for qualitative and relative quantitative analysis....... Saponin distribution and relative abundances are discussed in the light of genotype provenance and agronomic features. Improved knowledge on the phytochemicals present in quinoa varieties might help in finding valuable and sustainable uses for quinoa SAPs in agroindustry as biopesticides as well...

  10. Effect of saline water irrigation on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panuccio, M.R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Saleem Akhtar, Saqib;

    2014-01-01

    been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its develop- ment. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds...... of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germi- nated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which...... parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity...

  11. Cellular and molecular aspects of quinoa leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Burrieza, Hernán Pablo; Rizzo, Axel Joel; Martínez-Tosar, Leandro Julián; Maldonado, Sara

    2015-09-01

    During leaf senescence, degradation of chloroplasts precede to changes in nuclei and other cytoplasmic organelles, RuBisCO stability is progressively lost, grana lose their structure, plastidial DNA becomes distorted and degraded, the number of plastoglobuli increases and abundant senescence-associated vesicles containing electronically dense particles emerge from chloroplasts pouring their content into the central vacuole. This study examines quinoa leaf tissues during development and senescence using a range of well-established markers of programmed cell death (PCD), including: morphological changes in nuclei and chloroplasts, degradation of RuBisCO, changes in chlorophyll content, DNA degradation, variations in ploidy levels, and changes in nuclease profiles. TUNEL reaction and DNA electrophoresis demonstrated that DNA fragmentation in nuclei occurs at early senescence, which correlates with induction of specific nucleases. During senescence, metabolic activity is high and nuclei endoreduplicate, peaking at 4C. At this time, TEM images showed some healthy nuclei with condensed chromatin and nucleoli. We have found that DNA fragmentation, induction of senescence-associated nucleases and endoreduplication take place during leaf senescence. This provides a starting point for further research aiming to identify key genes involved in the senescence of quinoa leaves.

  12. Genetic Variation in Response to Salt Stress of Quinoa Grown under Controlled and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the change in response of quinoa genotypes to divers salinity stress conditions e.g in controlled (net-house and in the different saline fields. The pot experiment was conducted in a net-house at Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam in spring cropping season to characterize the growth and yield of six quinoa genotypes under four NaCl concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1. At the same time, in Nam Dinh and Hai Phong provinces, two coastal provinces that are most affected by seawater intrusion in the North of Vietnam, same genotypes were studied under two plant densities (20 x 5cm and 50 x 5cm. The results showed that salinity stresses reduced growth and yield characteristics of quinoa plant and varying due to different saline conditions. Plant density of quinoa grown under saline fields was not associated with difference in morphological traits but might relate to the change in yield characteristics. Salinity stresses reduced plant height, the number of leaves on main stem, the number of branches on plant, head panicle length, the number of branches per panicle, dry matter accumulation, 1000-seed weight, individual and grain yield of all quinoa genotypes. However, most of quinoa genotypes produced acceptable yield even under high salt conditions in the field. Among quinoa genotypes, Moradas and Verde adapted well to salt stress conditions with high potential for the number of leaves on main stem, the number of branches on plant, dry matter accumulation and yield than others. These should be recommended varieties for cultivation in saline areas in Vietnam as well as be useful to improve genetic resources in breeding program for salt tolerant quinoa varieties.

  13. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M Antonia

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017-0.021μg As person(-1)day(-1)) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50μg As person(-1)day(-1). Therefore, no

  14. Salares versus coastal ecotypes of quinoa: Salinity responses in Chilean landraces from contrasting habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Karina B; Aloisi, Iris; Del Duca, Stefano; Canelo, Valentina; Torrigiani, Patrizia; Silva, Herman; Biondi, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly salt-tolerant species subdivided into five ecotypes and exhibiting broad intra-specific differences in tolerance levels. In a greenhouse study, Chilean landraces belonging either to the salares (R49) or coastal lowlands (VI-1, Villarrica) ecotype with contrasting agro-ecological origins were investigated for their responses to high salinity. The effects of two levels of salinity, 100 (T1) and 300 (T2) mM NaCl, on plant growth and on some physiological parameters were measured. Leaf and root Na(+) accumulation differed among landraces. T2 reduced growth and seed yield in all landraces with maximum inhibition relative to controls in R49. Salinity negatively affected chlorophyll and total polyphenol content (TPC) in VI-1 and Villarrica but not R49. Germination on saline or control media of seeds harvested from plants treated or not with NaCl was sometimes different; the best performing landrace was R49 insofar as 45-65% of seeds germinated on 500 mM NaCl-containing medium. In all landraces, average seedling root length declined strongly with increasing NaCl concentration, but roots of R49 were significantly longer than those of VI-1 and Villarrica up to 300 mM NaCl. Salt caused increases in seed TPC relative to controls, but radical scavenging capacity was higher only in seeds from T2 plants of R49. Total SDS-extractable seed proteins were resolved into distinct bands (10-70 kDa) with some evident differences between landraces. Salt-induced changes in protein patterns were landrace-specific. The responses to salinity of the salares landrace are discussed in relation to its better adaptation to an extreme environment.

  15. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pablo Burrieza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses.

  16. Agronomic performance of quinoa selected in the Brazilian Savannah Desempenho agronômico de quinoa selecionada no Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six breeding lines, selected from individual plant progenies of hybrids among varieties Amarilla de Marangani, Blanca de Junín, Chewecca, Faro 4, Improved Baer, Kancolla, Real, and Salares-Roja, had their agronomic characters evaluated, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil (15º36'S and 47º12'W, 1,000 masl, in randomized complete blocks, on a Ferralsol, previously limed and fertilized. Grain yield was positively associated with plant height, inflorescence length and diameter, and plant cycle. Genetic gain can be attained by selection based in these characters for commercial production of quinoa in tropical regions.Vinte e seis linhagens, selecionadas em progênies de plantas individuais de híbridos entre as variedades Amarilla de Marangani, Blanca de Junín, Chewecca, Faro 4, Improved Baer, Kancolla, Real e Salares-Roja, foram avaliadas quanto ao desempenho agronômico, em Planaltina, DF, Brasil (15º36'S e 47º12'W, 1.000 m de altitude, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, previamente corrigido e adubado. O rendimento foi associado positivamente com altura de plantas, comprimento e diâmetro da inflorescência e ciclo da planta. Ganho genético pode ser obtido na seleção baseada nessas características, para o cultivo comercial da quinoa em regiões tropicais.

  17. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks Mudanças nas propriedades físicas de snacks extrusados de misturas de polvilho azedo e farinha de quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.Dada a ampla aceitação do biscoito de polvilho azedo no Brasil e a qualidade nutricional da farinha de quinoa, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da temperatura de extrusão, rotação da rosca, umidade e porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre as propriedades físicas de snacks expandidos. O processo foi realizado em extrusor monorrosca, seguindo o delineamento central composto rotacional para quatro fatores. Foi observado o efeito da umidade e da porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre o índice de expansão e volume específico. Houve um aumento pronunciado na solubilidade das misturas com o processo de extrusão, com efeitos significativos de todos os parâmetros de processo no ISA. Maior índice de absorção de água (IAA foi observado em alta temperatura, baixa umidade e menor porcentagem de farinha de quinoa. Temperatura e porcentagem de farinha de

  18. Influence of quinoa roasting on sensory and physiochemical properties of allergen-free, gluten-free cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa is a valuable source of quality protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and micronutrients. The objective of this study was to roast quinoa and characterize it with regard to particle size, proximate, fatty acid, starch digestion, and total phenolics analyses, as well as pasting propert...

  19. Using chemometric techniques to characterize gluten-free cookies containing the whole flour of a new quinoa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagamunici, Lilian M.; Gohara, Aline K.; Souza, Aloisio H.P. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Bittencourt, Paulo R.S.; Torquato, Alex S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Batiston, Weliton P.; Gomes, Sandra T.M.; Visentainer, Jesui V.; Matsushita, Makoto, E-mail: mmakoto@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Nilson E. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Celiac disease is defined as intolerance to the gluten proteins present in certain cereals used to prepare foodstuffs. We developed and performed physico-chemical, sensory, and nutritional assessments of three formulations of gluten-free cookies containing Linum usitatissimum L. and different levels of whole Chenopodium quinoa BRS Piabiru flour. No gluten was detected in the prepared cookie formulations. The crude protein and total lipid contents ranged from 85.58 to 97.55 and 121.69 to 166.19 g per kg of sample, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios ranged from 0.85:1 to 0.92:1 and 3.08:1 to 4.38:1, respectively. Formulation C had the best alpha-linolenic acid content, lipid fraction nutritional indices and mineral content per portion, with excellent sensory characteristics. Multivariate analysis highlighted the effect of the concentration of quinoa on the nutritional and sensory qualities of the product. (author)

  20. Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2013-03-01

    Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of α-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low α-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation.

  1. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz y lupino (Lupinus albus L., provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficiencias nutricionales. La formulación se definió por Programación Lineal, se determinó su composición por análisis proximal y se realizaron pruebas físicas, microbiológicas y de aceptación sensorial. Al concluir los 90 días de almacenamiento la bebida obtuvo un contenido de proteínas de 1,36%, siendo el triptófano el aminoácido limitante; por su parte, las coordenadas de cromaticidad del espacio de color CIEL*a*b* no presentaron diferencias significativas (p This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz and lupine (Lupinus albus L., native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05 maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  2. Functional properties of gluten-free pasta produced from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenlechner, Regine; Drausinger, Julian; Ottenschlaeger, Veronika; Jurackova, Katerina; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2010-12-01

    The use of amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat for the production of gluten-free pasta was investigated in the present study. The aim of the work was to produce pasta of good textural quality, in particular, low cooking loss, optimal cooking weight and texture firmness. The results demonstrated that pasta produced from amaranth had decreased texture firmness and cooking time, while pasta from quinoa mainly showed increased cooking loss. In buckwheat pasta the least negative effects were observed. By combination of all three raw materials to one flour blend in the ratio of 60% buckwheat, 20% amaranth and 20% quinoa, dough matrix was improved. After decreasing dough moisture to 30%, addition of an increased amount of egg white powder of 6% and addition of 1.2% emulsifier (distilled monoglycerides) texture firmness as well as cooking quality of gluten-free pasta produced from such a flour blend reached acceptable values comparable to wheat pasta.

  3. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  4. Quinoa for marginal environments: Towards future food and nutritional security in MENA and Central Asia regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane eChoukr-allah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a means to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries.

  5. Amylopectin molecular structure in relation to physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-05-15

    Structure-function relationships of starch components remain a subject of research interest. Quinoa starch has very small granules (∼2μm) with unique properties. In this study, nine quinoa starches varied greatly in composition, structure, and physicochemical properties were selected for the analysis of structure-function relationships. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the properties related to gelatinization such as swelling power, water solubility index, crystallinity, pasting, and thermal properties are much affected by the amylopectin chain profile and amylose content. The parameters of gel texture and amylose leaching are much related to amylopectin internal structure. Other properties such as enzyme susceptibility and particle size distribution are also strongly correlated with starch composition and amylopectin structure. Interesting findings indicate the importance of amylopectin internal structure and individual unit chain profile in determining the physicochemical properties of starch. This work highlights some relationships among composition, amylopectin structure and physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

  6. Improved quinoa growth, physiological response, and seed nutritional quality in three soils having different stresses by the application of acidified biochar and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Shan, Lin; Anjum, Shazia; Khan, Waqas-Ud-Din; Ronggui, Hu; Iqbal, Muhammad; Virk, Zaheer Abbas; Kausar, Salma

    2017-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a traditional Andean agronomical resilient seed crop having immense significance in terms of high nutritional qualities and its tolerance against various abiotic stresses. However, finite work has been executed to evaluate the growth, physiological, chemical, biochemical, antioxidant properties, and mineral nutrients bioavailability of quinoa under abiotic stresses. Depending on the consistency in the stability of pH, intended rate of S was selected from four rates (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% S) for the acidification of biochar and compost in the presence of Thiobacillus thiooxidans by pH value of 4. All three soils were amended with 1% (w/w) acidified biochar (BCA) and compost (COA). Results revealed that selective plant growth, yield, physiological, chemical and biochemical improved significantly by the application of BCA in all stressed soils. Antioxidants in quinoa fresh leaves increased in the order of control > COA > BCA, while reactive oxygen species decreased in the order of control stressed soils with the application of BCA. Moreover, incorporation of COA and BCA reduced the pH of rhizosphere soil by 0.4-1.6 units in all stressed soils, while only BCA in bulk soil decreased pH significantly by 0.3 units. These results demonstrate that BCA was more effective than COA to enhance the bioavailability, translocation of essential nutrients from the soil to plant and their enhanced bioavailability in the seed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Genetic Variation in Response to Salt Stress of Quinoa Grown under Controlled and Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Long

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the change in response of quinoa genotypes to divers salinity stress conditions e.g in controlled (net-house) and in the different saline fields. The pot experiment was conducted in a net-house at Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam in spring cropping season to characterize the growth and yield of six quinoa genotypes under four NaCl concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1). At the same time, in Nam Dinh and Hai Phong provin...

  8. Economic assessment at farm level of the implementation of deficit irrigation for quinoa production in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cusicanqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms, simulated quinoa production with and without irrigation using AquaCrop model, and calculated yield response functions for four different climate scenarios (wet, normal, dry and very dry years. Results from the hydro-economic model demonstrate that maximum profit is achieved with less applied irrigated water than for maximum yield, and irrigated quinoa earned more profit than rainfed production for all farms types and climate scenarios. As expected, the benefits of irrigation under dry and very dry climate conditions were higher than those under normal and wet years, and benefits among farms types were higher for quinoa farms. In fact, profit of irrigated quinoa might be stabilized at around BOB 6500 ha-1 (about USD 920 compared with the huge differences found for rainfed conditions for all climate scenarios. Interestingly, the economic water productivity, expressed in terms of economic return for amount of applied irrigated water (BOB mm-1, reached the highest values with intermediate and low level of water availability schemes of deficit irrigation for all climate scenarios.

  9. Effects of quinoa hull meal on piglet performance and intestinal epithelial physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Fernández, José Adalberto; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard;

    2012-01-01

    of South American (SA) origin (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg) and one dosage of Danish (DK) quinoa (300 mg/kg). In addition, the effect of dietary SA-QHM and SA-QHM-extract on jejunal epithelial physiology was studied ex vivo in Ussing chambers. The experiment included 400 piglets weaned at 28 ± 2 days of age...

  10. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p amaranth (p amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

  11. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  12. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  13. Can quinoa, a salt-tolerant Andean crop species, be used for phytoremediation of chromium-polluted soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Cicatelli, Angela; Guarino, Francesco; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Biondi, Stefania; Castiglione, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean halophytic seed crop, exhibits exceptional resistance to salinity, drought, and cold. Consistent with the notion that such a resilient plant is likely to tolerate toxic levels of heavy metals as well and could, therefore, be employed for the clean-up of polluted soil (via phytoextraction or phytostabilization), the species' ability to take up, translocate, and tolerate chromium (CrIII) was investigated in a greenhouse pot experiment. A cultivar adapted to European conditions (cv. Titicaca) was grown on soil spiked with 500 mg kg-1 DW of Cr(NO3)3•9H2O, combined (or not) with 150 mM NaCl, or on soil grown with 150 mM NaCl alone. Plants were grown up to maturity (four months after sowing), and then plant biomass and concentrations of Na, Cr, and other elements (e.g., Fe and P) were evaluated in the plant organs. Soil Cr content (total and available fractions) was analysed at the start of the experiment, one week after the last addition of Cr and/or NaCl, and at the end of the trial. No visible toxic effects were observed under the different culture conditions. Results revealed that Cr was mainly accumulated in roots, while Na+ was translocated to the aerial parts. In order to compare plant stress responses under the different treatments (Cr, NaCl, Cr+NaCl), expression levels of several stress-related genes, together with those of a potential Cr transporter, were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

  14. Flavonoid extraction and flavonoid content with genotypic variation from Chenopodium quinoa leaves%藜麦叶片黄酮类物质的提取及基因型差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏佳; 蒋玉蓉; 陈国林; 毛前; 陆国权

    2014-01-01

    为了优化藜麦Chenopodium quinoa叶片黄酮的乙醇提取工艺和分析基因型间的差异,为藜麦黄酮的开发和高黄酮的品种筛选提供理论依据,采用3因子3水平正交试验设计,探讨了乙醇体积分数、料液比和浸提时间等因素对藜麦叶片黄酮提取率的影响;并采用最佳提取条件,对10个不同基因型品种藜麦的叶片黄酮得率进行了比较分析.结果表明:藜麦叶片黄酮最佳提取条件为体积分数70%乙醇,1∶40料液比,80℃水浴下回流浸提0.5 h.在优化条件下,1次提取工艺得率达85%以上.各因素对叶片黄酮提取率的影响程度依次为:浸提时间>乙醇体积分数>料液比.比较结果发现:藜麦叶片黄酮得率存在明显基因型差异,其中品种PI814932的叶片黄酮类物质得率最高,达0.933%.所测藜麦品种的叶片黄酮平均得率为0.619%,变异系数为34.44%.研究表明:乙醇回流法适于提取藜麦总黄酮类化合物.

  15. Structure stabilization in starch-quinoa bran doughs: The role of water availability and gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föste, Maike; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    Bran is a promising ingredient for nutritional fortification in starch-based dough systems. However its incorporation is a technological challenge favoring a shift in dough functionality. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of bran on baking performance independent of dough firmness and start of gelatinization. Therefore, corn starch was replaced by quinoa bran (10% to 50%) and water addition (80-110g/100g flour) was standardized on a fixed complex shear modulus (G*) and start of gelatinization (TOnset) based on a corn starch reference dough. A destabilizing effect by bran particles was counteracted in corn starch dough by adjusting the water content up to 110 g/100g flour. Moreover, a negative correlation between TOnset and loaf volume was determined (r=- 0.9042), thus an early TOnset should be aspired in order to prevent gas release and to stabilize corn starch- quinoa bran dough. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Hernandez, Marta; Draves, Jamie; Marcone, Massimo F; Tsao, Rong

    2016-02-10

    Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa seeds and related functional foods with increased benefits.

  17. Partial Fat Replacement by Boiled Quinoa on the Quality Characteristics of a Dry-Cured Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Diez, Ana; Caro, Irma; Castro, Amaya; Salvá, Bettit K; Ramos, Daphne D; Mateo, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have been previously studied in order to reduce the fat content of dry-cured sausages. Among them, the use of polysaccharides, such as fiber, gums, or starch, have been proposed for fat replacing. Although scarcely studied, it is likely that starchy grains and vegetables might also be used as potential fat replacers in those sausages. Quinua is a starchy seed with high nutritive value, which contains substances of technological interest in dry-cured manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of replacing fat by quinoa on the quality characteristics of a small diameter dry-cured sausage. Three types of sausages were prepared: a control (C; no fat replacement; 30% of pork back-fat), a quinoa half-fat (50% of fat replacement; 15% of pork back-fat), and a quinoa low-fat (LF; 85% of fat replacement; 4.5% of pork back-fat) sausage. Sausages were analyzed for proximate and microbial composition, volatile compounds, and instrumental texture and color. Descriptive and hedonic sensory analyses were also performed. Fat reduction resulted in higher aw , protein content, hardness, chewiness and redness values and spice-derived volatile levels, and in lower cohesiveness values (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the descriptive sensory analysis showed a higher pungent flavor and lower juiciness in LF sausages than in C sausages (P < 0.05). In spite of those differences, fat reduction did not result in a decreased overall acceptance of the sausages by consumers.

  18. Cytogenetic analysis of quinoa chromosomes using nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangquanwei, Zhong; Neethirajan, Suresh; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a high-resolution chromosomal spectral map derived from synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy applied to quinoa species. The label-free characterization of quinoa metaphase chromosomes shows that it consists of organized substructures of DNA-protein complex. The analysis of spectra of chromosomes using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and its superposition of the pattern with the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images proves that it is possible to precisely locate the gene loci and the DNA packaging inside the chromosomes. STXM has been successfully used to distinguish and quantify the DNA and protein components inside the quinoa chromosomes by visualizing the interphase at up to 30-nm spatial resolution. Our study represents the successful attempt of non-intrusive interrogation and integrating imaging techniques of chromosomes using synchrotron STXM and AFM techniques. The methodology developed for 3-D imaging of chromosomes with chemical specificity and temporal resolution will allow the nanoscale imaging tools to emerge from scientific research and development into broad practical applications such as gene loci tools and biomarker libraries.

  19. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE QUINOA COM DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE ARMAZENAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Strenske

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage periods and the number of days to the germination of quinoa seeds. The seeds were obtained from plants cultivated under field conditions in the agricultural year of 2012/2013, in the municipality of Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. The survey was conducted in the Seeds Technology Laboratory, at the State University of West Paraná - UNIOESTE. The treatments consisted of the association between six storage periods (36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days and eight days of germinated seeds counting, kept at 25 °C without photoperiod in four replicates of 100 seeds each. Germinating boxes (Gerbox were used, containing germination paper on which the seeds were disposed. The quinoa seeds germination decreases with storage time increase, which also slows the germination. The count of the number of germinated seeds has to be performed on the eighth day after the assembly of the Standard Germination Test in quinoa.

  20. Improving the antioxidant properties of quinoa flour through fermentation with selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Russo, Vito; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-01-16

    Lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from the same matrix, were used to ferment quinoa flour aiming at exploiting the antioxidant potential. As in vitro determined on DPPH and ABTS radicals, the scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from fermented doughs was significantly (Pquinoa dough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10. The corresponding WSE was subjected to Reverse Phase Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, and 32 fractions were collected and subjected to in vitro assays. The most active fraction was resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Five peptides, having sizes from 5 to 9 amino acid residues, were identified by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra. The sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. As shown by determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity (MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively), the purified fraction showed antioxidant activity on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrated the capacity of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through proteolysis of native quinoa proteins. Fermentation of the quinoa flour with a selected starter might be considered suitable for novel applications as functional food ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparations.

  1. Cytogenetic analysis of quinoa chromosomes using nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangquanwei, Zhong; Neethirajan, Suresh; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2013-11-01

    Here we present a high-resolution chromosomal spectral map derived from synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy applied to quinoa species. The label-free characterization of quinoa metaphase chromosomes shows that it consists of organized substructures of DNA-protein complex. The analysis of spectra of chromosomes using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and its superposition of the pattern with the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images proves that it is possible to precisely locate the gene loci and the DNA packaging inside the chromosomes. STXM has been successfully used to distinguish and quantify the DNA and protein components inside the quinoa chromosomes by visualizing the interphase at up to 30-nm spatial resolution. Our study represents the successful attempt of non-intrusive interrogation and integrating imaging techniques of chromosomes using synchrotron STXM and AFM techniques. The methodology developed for 3-D imaging of chromosomes with chemical specificity and temporal resolution will allow the nanoscale imaging tools to emerge from scientific research and development into broad practical applications such as gene loci tools and biomarker libraries.

  2. EXPANDING THE RANGE OF GLUTEN-FREE FLOUR CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS BASED ON BUCKWHEAT AND QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanding the range of flour confectionery products for people suffering from intolerance to wheat protein is relevant in the circumstances of import substitution. The domestic market of gluten-free confectionery products fully meets the demand of this category of people, which are dominated by sweet tooth children, requiring constant variety of confectionery. Therefore, the purpose of the work, which consists in expanding the range of pastry products based on buckwheat and quinoa, is relevant. The study presents a shortbread recipe based on buckwheat flour with different dosages of quinoa, a block diagram of the production and evaluation of the quality of the finished confectionery. Sensory evaluation of quality was carried out by a tasting analysis by a special system of scores: quantified indicators of quality - color, taste, smell, surface, shape and form in a break - is presented in the form of balls, followed by mathematical processing. We have defined physical and chemical indicators of quality biscuits, including moisture, alkalinity, absorption, fat and sugar content. Based on the assessment of quality of gluten-free shortbread we have set the optimal ratio of buckwheat flour and quinoa is equal to 70:30. The developed formulation will expand the range of gluten-free flour confectionery and can be adapted to the process and the equipment installed on the existing confectionery businesses

  3. EFECTO DE LA GERMINACIÓN SOBRE EL CONTENIDO DE HIERRO Y CALCIO EN AMARANTO, QUINUA, GUANDUL Y SOYA EFEITO DA GERMINAÇÃO SOBRE CONTEUDO DA FERRO E CÁLCIO PRESENTES EM QUINOA, AMARANTO, GUANDU E SOJA GERMINATION EFFECT ON IRON AND CALCIUM CONTENT IN AMARANTH, QUINOA, PIGEON PEA AND SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA C CHAPARRO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los cambios en la cantidad de hierro y calcio durante el proceso germinativo en semillas de amaranto (Amaranthus sp, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, guandul (Cajanus cajan y soya (Glycine maxy. Se utilizaron semillas producidas por agricultores del departamento del Cauca; las cuatro especies fueron seleccionadas para asegurar un grado óptimo en su calidad física y un porcentaje de germinación mayor al 90%. Inicialmente se estandarizó el método para la obtención de semillas germinadas, mediante la definición de variables como uso o no de desinfectante, tipo de sustrato, tiempo de germinación y temperatura de germinación. Para el desarrollo del estudio se aplicó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres réplicas por día de germinación (días cero, uno, dos y tres; para cuantificación de hierro y calcio se utilizó absorción atómica. Los resultados encontrados permiten concluir que la germinación indujo cambios en la disponibilidad de hierro y calcio de forma particular en la semilla de cada especie; el hierro disponible, en semillas de amaranto soya y quinua, tendió a disminuir a medida que avanzó el proceso de germinación; sin embargo, la germinación no afectó significativamente el contenido de hierro en semillas de amaranto y guandul. El calcio disponible se incrementó significativamente en semillas de amaranto y quinua a partir del segundo día de germinación, la germinación generó un incremento porcentual, en el contenido de calcio, de 169.1% en amaranto y de 24.75% en quinua, mientras que en guandul y soya el calcio disponible disminuyó con la germinación.Foram avaliadas as alterações na quantidade disponível de ferro e cálcio durante o processo de germinação das sementes de amaranto (Amaranthus sp, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, guandu (Cajanus cajan e soja (Glycine max y. Empregaram- se sementes produzidas por agricultores da região; as quatro espécies foram selecionadas para assegurar um

  4. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  5. New Insight into Quinoa Seed Quality under Salinity: Changes in Proteomic and Amino Acid Profiles, Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Protein Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Iris; Parrotta, Luigi; Ruiz, Karina B.; Landi, Claudia; Bini, Luca; Cai, Giampiero; Biondi, Stefania; Del Duca, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage) were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activity (AA) of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace. VR had the

  6. New insight into quinoa seed quality under salinity: changes in proteomic and amino acid profiles, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of protein extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eAloisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa seeds. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49 and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR, exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins. The composition of the resulting protein fractions was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results confirmed a high polymorphism in seed storage proteins; the two most representative genotype-specific bands of the albumin/globulin fraction were the 30- and 32-kDa bands, while the 11S globulin showed genotype-specific polymorphism for the 40- and 42-kDa bands. Spot analysis by mass spectrometry followed by in silico analyses were conducted to identify the proteins whose expression changed most significantly in response to salinity in VR. Proteins belonging to several functional categories (i.e., stress protein, metabolism, and storage were affected by salinity. Other nutritional and functional properties, namely amino acid profiles, total polyphenol (TPC and flavonoid (TFC contents, and antioxidant activity (AA of protein extracts were also analyzed. With the exception of Ala and Met in R49, all amino acids derived from protein hydrolysis were diminished in seeds from salt-treated plants, especially in landrace VI-1. By contrast, several free amino acids were unchanged or increased by salinity in R49 as compared with VR and VI-1, suggesting a greater tolerance in the salares landrace

  7. Antifungal sourdough lactic acid bacteria as biopreservation tool in quinoa and rice bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Claudia; Brosnan, Brid; Zannini, Emanuele; Furey, Ambrose; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-12-19

    The use of sourdough fermented with specific strains of antifungal lactic acid bacteria can reduce chemical preservatives in bakery products. The main objective of this study was to investigate the production of antifungal carboxylic acids after sourdough fermentation of quinoa and rice flour using the antifungal strains Lactobacillus reuteri R29 and Lactobacillus brevis R2Δ as bioprotective cultures and the non-antifungal L. brevis L1105 as a negative control strain. The impact of the fermentation substrate was evaluated in terms of metabolic activity, acidification pattern and quantity of antifungal carboxylic acids. These in situ produced compounds (n=20) were extracted from the sourdough using a QuEChERS method and detected by a new UHPLC-MS/MS chromatography. Furthermore, the sourdough was applied in situ using durability tests against environmental moulds to investigate the biopreservative potential to prolong the shelf life of bread. Organic acid production and TTA values were lowest in rice sourdough. The sourdough fermentation of the different flour substrates generated a complex and significantly different profile of carboxylic acids. Extracted quinoa sourdough detected the greatest number of carboxylic acids (n=11) at a much higher concentration than what was detected from rice sourdough (n=9). Comparing the lactic acid bacteria strains, L. reuteri R29 fermented sourdoughs contained generally higher concentrations of acetic and lactic acid but also the carboxylic acids. Among them, 3-phenyllactic acid and 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid were present at a significant concentration. This was correlated with the superior protein content of quinoa flour and its high protease activity. With the addition of L. reuteri R29 inoculated sourdough, the shelf life was extended by 2 days for quinoa (+100%) and rice bread (+67%) when compared to the non-acidified controls. The L. brevis R2Δ fermented sourdough bread reached a shelf life of 4 days for quinoa (+100%) and

  8. 酶-热水浸提法提取藜麦麸水溶性非淀粉多糖工艺研究%Extraction process of water-soluble non-starch polysaccharides from Chenopodium quinoa willd bran by enzyme-water method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 张文杰; 董吉林

    2016-01-01

    Using Cheopodium quinoa willd bran,the extraction process of water-soluble non-starch polysaccha-rides (NSP)was studied by enzyme-water method.Phenol-sulfate method was used to measure the yield of NSP.The optimal extraction conditions were determinated through single factor assay and orthogonal assay.The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were material-liquid ratio(w /v)1 16,the addition of viscozyme 2.0 mg/g,extraction temperature 90 ℃,extraction time 100 min.Under the experiment conditions, the yield of NSP was 7.55%.Compared with other extraction methods,the extraction yield of water-soluble NSP was higher,to the use of Cheopodium quinoa willd bran more fully.And because extraction solvent was water,there was no strong acid alkali waste liquid generated in extraction process,which would not cause en-vironmental pollution.%以藜麦麸为原料,采用酶-热水浸提法对藜麦麸水溶性非淀粉多糖(NSP)提取工艺进行研究.利用苯酚-硫酸法测定 NSP 的得率,通过单因素试验和正交试验确定最佳提取工艺条件:料液比(w /v)为116,复合多糖酶添加量为2.0 mg/g,浸提温度为90℃,浸提时间为100 min.该试验条件下藜麦麸水溶性 NSP 得率为7.55%.与其他提取方法相比,该法提取水溶性 NSP 的得率较高,对藜麦麸的利用更加充分,且浸提溶剂为水,在提取过程中没有强酸强碱性废液产生,不会造成环境污染.

  9. Agronomic, nutritional and medicinal properties of quinoa, a new alternative grain

    OpenAIRE

    Glamočlija, Đorđe; Dražić, Slobodan; Popović, Vera; Filipović, Vladimir; id_orcid 0000-0002-7081-8217

    2012-01-01

    The experiments were carried with two introduced quinao cultivars, KVL 37 and KVL 52, during the years 2010, 2011. and 2012., established at the experimental field in Stara Pazova. Three-year average yield of the grains of quinoa cultivars was 1322 kg ha-1, and expressed per cultivar ha-1 it accounted 1297 kg for KVL 37 and 1347 kg ha-1 for KVL 52. Highest variability of the yields per cultivar was observed in the first experimental year; cultivar KVL 52 achieved a higher yield by about 20%. ...

  10. Possibilities in the International Trade of Quinoa: An Analysis from the Perspective of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Andrea Cely Torres

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the role and importance of the production and marketing of quinoa in the international market, due to the immense possibilities of processing it into finished products and the benefits offered by this crop. In the light of theoretical references such as competitiveness and competitive advantages, it was possible to carry out a descriptive study which evidenced the importance of this issue in exports realized mainly by countries like Bolivia and Peru, and imports from the EU and Asia. Thus, Andean countries could play an important role if they take advantage of their traditions and turn them into business and welfare opportunities for the world population.

  11. Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz HIRICH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir during two seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on several crops (quinoa, sweet corn, faba bean and chickpeas. During the first season (2010 three crops were tested, quinoa, chickpeas and sweet corn applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments during all crop stages alternating 100% of full irrigation as non-stress condition and 50% of full irrigation as water deficit condition applied during vegetative growth, flowering and grain filling stage. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season (2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of full irrigation during vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity.

  12. Functional soy food based on flaxseed and quinoa and enriched with iron and Vitamin B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Braga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in food derived from vegetables reduces the risk of developing chronic and degenerative diseases and provides the essential nutrients for human consumption. Besides soybean, other foods of vegetal origin have been studied and incorporated in healthy formulations, such as quinoa and linseed. Current assay comprises a sensorial analysis of a product of vegetable origin, a soy product, based on quinoa and flaxseed, considered to be functional food, for its organoleptic characteristics acceptable by a sample group of 80 individuals. Several tests were conducted to reach an adequate formulation for the product, characterized by 11.1 g of protein content, 9.6 g of dietary fiber and low levels of lipids, since it had only 1.4 g. The resulting product revealed adequate microbiological conditions when subjected to microbiological analysis (coliforms at 45ºC; coliforms at 35ºC and Staphylococcus aureus. According to scores in the sensory analysis, it may be assumed that the product was accepted by the sample group. The favorable results indicate the possibility of consumers adhering to a processed diet rich in food derived from vegetables, with functional properties, to replace animal-derived food which is rich in saturated fats and low in fiber.

  13. Genetic parameters and productivity of quinoa in western Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Soares de Vasconcelos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa has been gaining attention because of its nutritional quality, low cholesterol and lack of gluten; in Brazil, the cultivation efforts in the different regions are mainly related to breeding. This study aimed to determine the genetic parameters and evaluate the productivity of the different genotypes of quinoa for detecting genotypes amenable to selection. The experiment was conducted in crop years 2010/11 and 2011/12 in environment 1 and environment 2, respectively. In environment 1, the evaluation of 61 genotypes was performed, and in environment 2, 31 genotypes were evaluated. The experimental design was a randomized block with two replications; each plot measured 2.0 x 5.0 m (10 m² and consisted of four rows spaced at 0.45 m. Data collected on the productivity, plant height at maturation and growth cycle were analyzed using an analysis of variance, average tests and estimates of the genetic parameters. The genotypes N24 and N08 were the only genotypes more productive than the other 46 genotypes, with values of productivity of 1446.23 and 1428.93 kg ha-1 and with a growth cycle of 117 and 111 days, respectively. The heritability values determined demonstrate the possibility of genetic gain using joint selection that involves two environments.

  14. Effect of quinoa and potato flours on the thermomechanical and breadmaking properties ofwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodriguez-Sandoval

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical properties of dough and the physical characteristics of bread from quinoa-wheat and potato-wheat composite flours at 10 and 20% substitution level were evaluated. The functional properties of flours were measured by the water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and swelling power (SP. The thermomechanical properties of wheat and composite flours were assessed using a Mixolab and the baking quality characteristics of breads were weight, height, width, and specific volume. The results showed that the higher values of WAI (4.48, WSI (7.45%, and SP (4.84 were for potato flour. The quinoa-wheat composite flour presented lower setback and cooking stability data, which are a good indicator of shelf life of bread. On the other hand, the potato-wheat composite flour showed lower stability, minimum torque and peak torque, and higher water absorption. Weight, height, width, and specific volume of wheat bread were most similar to samples of potato-wheat composite flour at 10% substitution level.

  15. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m(-2), i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  16. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  17. Acceptability and nutritional value of dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to formulate dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa (9% in replacement of chocolate, as well as assess the acceptability (global acceptance, appearance and purchase intent and the nutritional value of the formulations. The various chocolate samples were considered accepted and showed good levels of purchase intent, except for the variation enriched with flaxseed. The chocolate samples showed high content of fiber (27 to 40 g/100g, and lower energy value (385 to 413 kcal/100g compared to conventional dark chocolates with almonds (7 to 11 g of dietary fiber/100g and 500 to 550 kcal/100g, thus providing a healthier alternative for consumers.

  18. Deficit irrigation and organic compost improve growth and yield of quinoa and pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Supplying organic matter under deficit irrigation conditions could be a practical solution to compensate the negative effect of water stress. For this purpose, studies in pea as a legume and quinoa as a new drought-tolerant crop were conducted in the south of Morocco between October 2011 and March...... and biomass production better under deficit irrigation conditions than under full irrigation. Combining deficit irrigation and organic amendment led to the maximization of crop water productivity....... 2012. Three organic matter levels (0, 5 and 10 t ha-1) were supplied as compost amendment combined with 2 irrigation levels (50 and 100% of full irrigation). The results indicate that stomatal conductance and dry matter have been affected significantly (P irrigation, while...

  19. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  20. Photoperiodic effects on short-pulse 14C assimilation and overall carbon and nitrogen allocation patterns in contrasting quinoa cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Further understanding of the range of environmental influence on source-sink relationships in quinoa is important to streamlining future crop improvement and efforts concerning geographic expansion of cultivation areas. In the present study a photoperiod sensitive quinoa cv. 'Achachino......' and photoperiod neutral cv. 'Titicaca' were studied under short (10h) and long (17.5h) days, with respect to C and N distribution as well as partitioning of newly assimilated C to plant organs. An extended photoperiod resulted in 14C decreasingly being allocated to stem growth and lower leaves in 'Titicaca...... with an immediate increase in carbon allocation to upper leaves, and over time to the reproductive structures, resulting in a more than 50% increase in final yield. Collectively the results indicate that even though the photoperiod sensitive cultivar flowered under long photoperiod it did not develop seeds, whereas...

  1. Perda de pressão estática em uma coluna de grãos de quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana T. da S. Gratão

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os efeitos do fluxo de ar sobre a queda da pressão estática em massa granular de quinoa, cultivar Real, com diferentes teores de impurezas; ajustar os modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais obtidos e selecionar o modelo que melhor represente o fenômeno. Inicialmente, o produto estava isento de impurezas e com teor de água de 17% base seco. Foram feitas adições de impurezas nos percentuais de 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5. Utilizando-se um equipamento devidamente projetado e construído e fluxos de ar variando de 0,1 a 0,4 m³ s-1 m-2, foram determinadas as pressões estáticas da quinoa limpa e com impurezas. Os dados experimentais de perda de carga foram ajustados às equações comumente utilizadas para descrever o fenômeno. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: a a pressão estática em uma coluna com grãos de quinoa aumenta com o incremento de fluxo de ar; b O aumento do nível de impureza provocou redução da queda de pressão estática; c As equações que melhor representam os dados experimentais da queda de pressão no interior do leito com grãos de quinoa, sem e com impurezas, foram as equações de Shedd e de Guimarães, respectivamente.

  2. Distribution of phenolic antioxidants in whole and milled fractions of quinoa and their inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, P; Bomzan, Dikki Pedenla; Sathyendra Rao, B V; Sreerama, Yadahally N

    2016-05-15

    Whole grain quinoa and its milled fractions were evaluated for their phenolic composition in relation to their antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Compositional analysis by HPLC-DAD showed that the distribution of phenolic compounds in quinoa is not entirely localised in the outer layers of the kernel. Milling of whole grain quinoa resulted in about 30% loss of total phenolic content in milled grain. Ferulic and vanillic acids were the principal phenolic acids and rutin and quercetin were predominant flavonoids detected in whole grain and milled fractions. Quinoa milled fractions exhibited numerous antioxidant activities. Despite having relatively lower phenolic contents, dehulled and milled grain fractions showed significantly (p ⩽ 0.05) higher metal chelating activity than other fractions. Furthermore, extracts of bran and hull fractions displayed strong inhibition towards α-amylase [IC50, 108.68 μg/ml (bran) and 148.23 μg/ml (hulls)] and α-glucosidase [IC50, 62.1 μg/ml (bran) and 68.14 μg/ml (hulls)] activities. Thus, whole grain quinoa and its milled fractions may serve as functional food ingredients in gluten-free foods for promoting health.

  3. 加拿大产藜麦可溶性酚类物质组成及抗氧化活性%Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities in Canada's quinoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凯; 张文涛; 汤尧; 李喜宏; RONG Tsao

    2016-01-01

    藜麦(Chenopodium quinoa willd.)的营养价值和潜在的健康功效日益引起人们重视,文中借助HPLC/LC-MS等技术方法对不同品种加拿大产藜麦的酚类物质组成及抗氧化能力进行比较研究.鉴定的23种游离态酚类和19种结合态酚类中主要成分是酚酸,如香草酸、阿魏酸及其衍生物,也有部分黄酮类化合物存在.其中红色品种藜麦的总酚和总黄酮含量及其抗氧化活性显著高于白色品种.

  4. Elaboração de produtos com características funcionais à base de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaida Giovanna Viza Salas

    2011-01-01

    A tendência a uma alimentação saudável vem fazendo surgir oportunidades no desenvolvimento de alimentos, criando diversos produtos que ofereçam benefícios fisiológicos e nutricionais aos consumidores. Esses produtos têm por finalidade atender consumidores que procuram alimentos para dietas especiais e/ou com características funcionais. Seguindo a isso, neste trabalho, foram formulados produtos com características funcionais, agregando valor nutricional, utilizando-se como um dos ingredientes ...

  5. Differentiation of photoperiod-induced ABA and soluble sugar responses of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    and Titicaca (day-length neutral), were subjected to continuous long (17.5 h) and short (10 h) photoperiod conditions as well as a shift between the two to trigger possible adaptive mechanisms initiated by changes in leaf soluble sugar and ABA concentration. Our findings show both cultivars responding...... to an increase in photoperiod with significant increases in soluble sugar concentrations and a simultaneous increase in ABA. However, Titicaca exhibited a much stronger ABA response to increase in photoperiod, whereas the increase for Achachino falls within the range of natural diurnal variation. Achachino also......-dependent chlorosis of the lower leaves of Titicaca was observed under long photoperiods compared to short photoperiods, implying multi-faceted adaptive responses to changes in photoperiod which may also involve nitrogen and carbon dynamics. Both ABA and sugar signals are possibly involved in regulating...

  6. Desenvolvimento e produtividade de quinoa semeada em diferentes datas no período safrinha Development and productivity of quinoa sown on different dates the during off-season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Soares de Vasconcelos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de Quinoa variedade BRS-Piabiru semeada em diferentes datas dentro do período safrinha, em Campo Mourão, PR. Foram avaliadas seis datas de semeadura, a saber: 18/03/08, 02/04/08, 17/04/08, 02/05/08, 17/05/08 e 10/06/08. Os índices da cultura avaliados foram número de dias para a floração; número de dias para a maturação; altura das plantas na maturação e produtividade. O experimento foi realizado no delineamento experimental em blocos completos com os tratamentos ao acaso e em quatro repetições. Os resultados indicam que a data de semeadura teve influência no número de dias para a floração; número de dias para a maturação; altura das plantas na maturação e produtividade. A maior altura de plantas juntamente à maior produtividade de quinoa foram obtidas em 18 de março.This work was carried out with the aim of evaluating the development and productivity of the BRS-Piabiru variety of quinoa when sown on different dates during the off-season at Campo Mourao, PR. Six sowing dates were evaluated, namely: March 18, 2008; April 2, 2008; April 17, 2008; May 2, 2008; May 17, 2008; and June 10, 2008. The culture indices evaluated were the number of days to flowering, the number of days to maturity, plant height at maturity, and productivity. The experiment was conducted in a complete-block design with random treatments and four replications. The results indicate that the seeding date had an influence on the number of days to flowering, number of days to maturity, plant height at maturity, and productivity. The greatest plant height, together with the highest productivity for quinoa were obtained on March 18.

  7. Determination of Trace Elements in Quinoa by Microwave Digestion and ICP-OES%微波消解-ICP-OES法测定藜麦中的微量元素∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文聪; 王妮; 付治国; 范建凤

    2016-01-01

    建立了电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法( ICP-OES)测定藜麦皮、带皮藜麦、去皮藜麦中微量元素含量测定的分析方法。采用HNO3+HCl混合酸为消解体系,用微波消解法对藜麦皮、带皮藜麦、去皮藜麦样品进行前处理, ICP-OES法测定其中Mn、 Cu、 K、 Ca、 Fe、 Zn、 Mg的含量。结果表明:藜麦皮、带皮藜麦、去皮藜麦中含有大量的人体必需的微量元素,藜麦皮中微量元素的含量大于去皮藜麦中的含量。对照GBW08503B-小麦成分分析标准, Mg、 K、 Ca在带皮藜麦、藜麦皮、去皮藜麦中的含量远远高于其在小麦中的含量, Mn、 Fe、 Zn的含量与小麦中的接近,而Cu的含量略低于其小麦中的含量。该方法操作简便、准确,可用于藜麦中微量元素含量的测定。%A method was established for the determination of trace elements content in quinoa oatmeal, the quinoa with skin and peeled quinoa by inductively coupled plasma Atomic emission spectrometry ( ICP-OES) . The sample was digested with HNO3+HCl mixed system by microwave digestion pre-treatment. The contents of seven elements ( Mn, Cu, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Mg) were determined by ICP-OES. Results showed that quinoa oatmeal, the quinoa with skin and peeled quinoa rich in essential trace elements and quinoa oatmeal was greater than the content of trace elements than the peeled quinoa. Compared with GBW08503B-wheat ingredients analysis standard, the contents of Mg, K and Ca in quinoa oatmeal, the quinoa with skin and peeled quinoa were much higher than that of wheat, the contents of Mn, Fe and Zn closed to wheat, and the content of Cu was slightly lower than that of wheat. The method is simple and accurate, can perform simultaneous multi-elements determination of trace elements in quinoa.

  8. Caracterização de enzimas envolvidas na síntese de lisina de milho e quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlei Aparecido Varisi

    2007-01-01

    O aspartato é o precursor comum dos aminoácidos essenciais lisina, treonina, metionina e isoleucina. Devido à deficiência em lisina, a via metabólica do ácido aspártico tem sido estudada em cereais e os resultados obtidos indicaram a importância da aspartato quinase (AK), da homoserina desidrogenase (HSDH) e da dihidrodipicolinato sintase (DHDPS) como enzimas chave na regulação da síntese de lisina. Considerando-se a importância do milho e da quinoa como fontes de proteínas para humanos e ani...

  9. Produção de cervejas com teor reduzido de etanol, contendo quinoa malteada como adjunto

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Henrique Hendges

    2014-01-01

    A legislação brasileira permite a substituição parcial do malte de cevada por adjuntos, malteados ou não, para produção de cervejas. Esses adjuntos proporcionam redução de custos de produção e a obtenção de bebidas com diferentes características sensoriais. A proposta deste trabalho foi a de produzir uma bebida com teor reduzido de etanol, utilizando quinoa malteada como adjunto. Foram avaliadas três linhagens de levedura, duas comerciais, S-23 e W-3470 (Fermentis - França) e uma do banco de ...

  10. Lipids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of amaranth and quinoa cultivars and a new approach to overall evaluation of nutritional quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2014-12-31

    Composition of lipophilic phytochemicals including fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of 6 quinoa and 14 amaranth cultivars was analyzed. The oil yields in quinoa and amaranth leaves were only 2.72-4.18%, which contained mainly essential fatty acids and had a highly favorable ω-3/ω-6 ratio (2.28-3.89). Pro-vitamin A carotenoids, mainly α- and β-carotenes, and xanthophylls, predominantly lutein and violaxanthin, were found in all samples. The primary tocopherol isomers present in both quinoa and amaranth leaves were α- and β-tocopherols. Added to the discussion on the lipophilic nutrients was the normalization of ω-3/ω-6 ratio, α-tocopherol equivalents, and carotenoids, in an attempt to establish a novel system for evaluation of the overall quality attributes of lipophilic nutrients (NQ value). The NQ value, but not the individual components, was highly correlated with all the antioxidant activities, supporting the ranking order of the potential nutritional quality of quinoa and amaranth leaves based on this new method.

  11. The influence of serial repitching of Saccharomyces pastorianus on its karyotype and protein profile during the fermentation of gluten-free buckwheat and quinoa wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deželak, Matjaž; Gebremariam, Mekonnen M; Cadež, Neža; Zupan, Jure; Raspor, Peter; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas; Košir, Iztok Jože

    2014-08-18

    Gluten-free beer-like beverages from malted buckwheat and quinoa are somehow close to their commercial production, but rather high expenses are expected due to the relatively high price of grain, some technological adaptations of process and the need for external enzyme supplementation during mashing. One of the common and efficient cost reduction measures in the industrial scale is serial repitching of the yeast biomass, which has not been studied for the buckwheat and quinoa wort fermentation before. In that manner we have monitored possible changes in yeast's proteins and chromosomal DNA during eleven serial repitchings of the yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain TUM 34/70 for fermentation of the barley, buckwheat and quinoa wort. Karyotypes showed changes in regard to the raw materials used and many responsible candidate proteins are suggested which could cause these differences. Different relative expressions of some protein bands were also linked to the proteins involved in yeast stress response and proteins involved in fermentation performance. Results suggest that serial repitching of the strain TUM 34/70 seems suitable for the production of gluten-free beer-like beverages from buckwheat and quinoa.

  12. Evaluation of quality of quinua seed (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) improved by mutagenesis; Evaluacion de calidad de semilla de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) mejorada por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila R, S.; Reyes G, A. [UAEM, Facultad de Quimica, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cruz T, E. De la [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It was carried out the physical and bromatological characterization of the seed of quinua of the varieties Sajama Barandales and Amarilla de Marangani; mutant lines 20R{sub 1}10, 94, 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 2}27, 20R{sub 3}42 and 20R{sub 3}7 as well as of the advanced line obtained by conventional improvement 640304. The evaluated variables were seed size (diameter and thickness in mm), weight in grams of 100 seeds and density in grams by liter, finding that the genotype 20R{sub 3}33 present excellent characteristics respect with these variables. In the bromatological analysis it was determined the percentage of humidity, ashy, raw fiber, ethereal extract, proteins and carbohydrates, highlighting that the genotypes 20R{sub 3}33, 20R{sub 3}42 and witness present good values of protein content (16.8%, 15.57% and 15.9% respectively), overcoming to the cereals (corn, wheat and rice). (Author)

  13. Aceitabilidade e valor nutricional de chocolate amargo enriquecido com amêndoa de baru, linhaça e quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de formular chocolate amargo enriquecido com amêndoa de baru, linhaça e quinoa (9% em substituição ao chocolate e avaliar a aceitabilidade (aceitação global, aparência e intenção de compra e o valor nutricional das formulações. Todos os chocolates, exceto o chocolate enriquecido com linhaça, foram considerados aceitos e apresentaram bons níveis de intenção de compra. Os chocolates apresentaram altos teores de fibras alimentares (27 a 40 g/100 g, e menor valor energético (385 a 413 kcal/100 g comparados a chocolates amargos convencionais contendo amêndoas (7 a 11 g de fibras alimentares /100 g e 500 a 550 kcal/100 g, constituindo uma alternativa mais saudável para os consumidores.

  14. ISOTERMAS E CALOR ISOSTÉRICO DE ADSORÇÃO DA ÁGUA DO AMIDO DE QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTO PUMACAHUA RAMOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A quinoa possui mais de 60% de amido, sendo uma alternativa de extração e comercialização. Para isto é necessário conhecer o comportamento do amido frente à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as isotermas de adsorção do amido de quinoa em cinco temperaturas (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60ºC e dez atividades de água (0,036 a 0,907. Os pontos experimentais foram ajustados aos modelos matemáticos GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg e Ferro-Foltan. Foram determinadas as energias de ativação da adsorção da água pelas constantes do modelo GAB e o calor isostérico pelo modelo de Peleg. As isotermas mostraram ser do tipo II na classificação de Brunauer. Os teores de água da monocamada (Xm determinados pelo modelo de GAB variaram de 7,90% a 10,38% base seca (b.s. para temperaturas de 60 e 20°C e as energias de ativação obtidas pelas constantes Xm, C e K do modelo de GAB foram de 300; 160 e 6 kJ/kg, respectivamente. O calor isostérico de adsorção foi de 3732 kJ/kg para umidade de equilíbrio de 0,5% b.s. e diminuiu com o aumento da umidade até valor próximo ao calor latente de vaporização da água pura a 36% b.s. As propriedades determinadas são características de amidos com elevado teor de amilopectina.

  15. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone protects mice from diet-induced obesity and modulates adipokines expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Mathé, Véronique; Lafont, René; Even, Patrick; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2012-02-01

    Besides their well-known effect in the molting control in insects, ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that display potential pharmacologic and metabolic properties in mammals. The most common ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is found in many plants such as quinoa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of quinoa extract (Q) enriched in 20E supplementation to prevent the onset of diet-induced obesity and to regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in mice. Mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by 20E-enriched Q or pure 20E for 3 weeks. Supplementation with Q reduced adipose tissue development in HF mice without modification of their body weight gain. This adipose tissue-specific effect was mainly associated with a reduced adipocyte size and a decrease in the expression of several genes involved in lipid storage, including lipoprotein lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, Q-treated mice exhibited marked attenuation of mRNA levels of several inflammation markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, CD68) and insulin resistance (osteopontin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) as compared to HF mice. Q supplementation also reversed the effects of HF-induced downregulation of the uncoupling protein(s) (UCP(s)) mRNA levels in muscle. Similar results were obtained in mice fed a HF diet supplemented with similar amounts of pure 20E, suggesting that the latter accounted for most of the Q effects. Our study indicates that Q has an antiobesity activity in vivo and could be used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.

  16. Exploration and Transferability Evaluation of EST-SSRs in Quinoa%藜麦EST-SSR的开发及通用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张体付; 戚维聪; 顾闽峰; 张晓林; 李坦; 赵涵

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa draws more and more attentions from people, since quinoa seed as grain has comprehensive nutrients. But the fundamental research on quinoa just starts and remains in a moderated level. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) development in qui-noa will enhance the resource for its genetic analysis. Here, the available RNA based sequencing (RNA-Seq) and expressed se-quence tag (EST) data of quinoa deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) were engaged in EST-SSR development. Totally, 1862 non-mononucleotide EST-SSRs were identified. Among the EST-SSRs, the dinucleotide type was the most abundant (38.3%), and the hexanucleotide was the minimal (11.7%). The amount of the EST-SSR showed the declined trend along with the increase in its motif nucleotide length. Among 119 EST-SSR primers randomly chosen for validation, 66 (55.9%) primers could give clear amplification bands and 39 showed polymorphisms in four quinoa accessions. Further analy-sis showed that the polymorphisms of EST-SSRs had no significant correlation with their motif nucleotide length. In addition, t-test demonstrated that the significant difference of EST-SSR polymorphisms was not occurred between quinoa accessions and other Chenopodiaceae germplasm. These results indicating EST-SSRs developed in quinoa could be transferable in Chenopodi-aceous genus and applied in genetic relationship analysis.%藜麦因营养均衡受到越来越多的关注,但尚未深入开展其基础研究。开发微卫星序列重复 SSR 分子标记将为藜麦的遗传分析提供重要资源。本研究利用NCBI数据库中藜麦RNA测序RNA-Seq及表达序列标签EST数据挖掘、验证及评价藜麦EST-SSR,共发现1862个藜麦非单核苷酸EST-SSR。其中,二核苷酸重复最多(38.3%),六核苷酸重复最少(11.7%)。不同重复类型SSR的数量随着核苷酸数目的增加呈下降趋势。在随机选取验证的119个EST-SSR标记中,66(55.9%)个能够扩增出清晰条带,39个在4

  17. Non-destructive evaluation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves by simple and multiple regression analysis of RGB image components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Mele, G.; Pulvento, C.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content provides valuable information about physiological status of plants; it is directly linked to photosynthetic potential and primary production. In vitro assessment by wet chemical extraction is the standard method for leaf chlorophyll determination. This measurement...... is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Over the years alternative methods, rapid and non-destructive, have been explored. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of a fast and non-invasive field method for estimation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves based on RGB...... components analysis of digital images acquired with a standard SLR camera. Digital images of leaves from different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth were acquired directly in the field. Mean values of each RGB component were evaluated via image analysis software and correlated to leaf chlorophyll provided...

  18. Non-destructive evaluation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves by simple and multiple regression analysis of RGB image components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, M; Mele, G; Pulvento, C; Lavini, A; d'Andria, R; Jacobsen, S-E

    2014-06-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content provides valuable information about physiological status of plants; it is directly linked to photosynthetic potential and primary production. In vitro assessment by wet chemical extraction is the standard method for leaf chlorophyll determination. This measurement is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Over the years alternative methods, rapid and non-destructive, have been explored. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of a fast and non-invasive field method for estimation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves based on RGB components analysis of digital images acquired with a standard SLR camera. Digital images of leaves from different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth were acquired directly in the field. Mean values of each RGB component were evaluated via image analysis software and correlated to leaf chlorophyll provided by standard laboratory procedure. Single and multiple regression models using RGB color components as independent variables have been tested and validated. The performance of the proposed method was compared to that of the widely used non-destructive SPAD method. Sensitivity of the best regression models for different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth was also checked. Color data acquisition of the leaves in the field with a digital camera was quick, more effective, and lower cost than SPAD. The proposed RGB models provided better correlation (highest R (2)) and prediction (lowest RMSEP) of the true value of foliar chlorophyll content and had a lower amount of noise in the whole range of chlorophyll studied compared with SPAD and other leaf image processing based models when applied to quinoa and amaranth.

  19. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole grain sorghums, millet, quinoa and amaranth flours, as affected by starch and non-starch constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Curti, Delphine; Austin, Sean; King, Roberto; Lamothe, Lisa; Gloria-Hernandez, Hugo

    2017-10-15

    Minor grains such as sorghum, millet, quinoa and amaranth can be alternatives to wheat and corn as ingredients for whole grain and gluten-free products. In this study, influences of starch structures and other grain constituents on physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole flours made from these grains were investigated. Starches were classified into two groups according to their amylopectin branch chain-length: (i) quinoa, amaranth, wheat (shorter chains); and (ii) sorghum, millet, corn (longer chains). Such amylopectin features and amylose content contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties as well as starch digestibility of the flours. Non-starch constituents had additional impacts; proteins delayed starch gelatinization and pasting, especially in sorghum flours, and high levels of soluble fibre retarded starch retrogradation in wheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was restricted by the presence of associated protein matrix and enzyme inhibitors, but accelerated by endogenous amylolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efecto de la inclusión de harina de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa wild) en la elaboración de galletas / Adding effect of quinoa flour (Chenopodium wild quinoa) on cookies preparation

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El presente proyecto se basó en la elaboración de galletas tipo base, en las que se reemplazó un porcentaje de harina de trigo por harina de quinua con el fin de conferirle al producto mayor aporte nutricional. Para esto se realizaron mezclas 15%-85%, 35%-65%, y 50%-50% de harina de quinua y de trigo respectivamente. Se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos, microbiológicos, y finalmente una evaluación sensorial. Los análisis fisicoquímicos arrojaron que la adición de harina de quinua en el prod...

  1. 促进山西藜麦种植规模化及产业链形成的建议%Suggestion to Promote Scale Cultivation and Formation of Production Chain of Quinoa in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锁荣; 范文虎

    2011-01-01

    Quinoa is one of the traditional main grain for Indians in South America and Inca ancestral take it as "mother of all grains". Because of historical reasons, it's high nutrition value has not been rediscovered until 1980 by two American scientists. Then it has appeared in health food stores and spreaded to the developed countries. NASA has paid great efforts to study quinoa for it's practical usage in future space development. Quinoa has been listed as candidate food for CELESS. Shanxi Jiaqi Agri tech Co. Ltd introduced quinoa to Shanxi region and commenced studing on it's suitable cultivar for this region. Especially in some dry, barren land, quinoa has more advantages to the local grains. According to it's characteristic quinoa is a better choice for Shanxi climate and ecological situation. So this valuable grain will improve the local agricultural products to high level and even more the complete production chain will bring benefit for local farmers.%藜麦是南美洲印加入的传统粮食,在北美及欧洲市场作为保健品被逐渐推开.引进藜麦并对其进行了品种试验及种植方面的研究,由于藜麦的生长特性符合山西气候及生态特性,尤其在一些气候干旱、土壤瘠薄的地区,与种植地方小杂粮相比具有比较高的竞争优势,在山西省推广种植藜麦,逐步形成完整产业链及具有山西地标特色的高档农产品,对提升山西精品农业、提高农民收入具有一定的促进作用.

  2. Embutidos fortificados con proteína vegetal a base de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maldonado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Español:El objetivo de esta investigación es substituir la mayor cantidad de proteína animal, por proteína vegetal a base de quinua, sin disminuir la calidad y aceptabilidad del producto, se optó por este pseudocereal ya que posee características nutricionales muy importantes para la alimentación humana. En la actualidad el país atraviesa por una crisis en la disponibilidad de alimentos y por una dependencia crítica de materia prima importada, por lo cual necesita de alternativas propias, que fomenten el consumo de productos nativos y autóctonos. Al elaborar productos con materia prima disponible en el país logramos disminuir la dependencia externa y promover el trabajo interno y por ende contribuir a garantizar la Soberanía Alimentaria. La Soberanía Alimentaria es el derecho de los pueblos a definir sus propias políticas y estrategias sustentables de producción, distribución y consumo de alimentos que garanticen el derecho a la alimentación para toda la población, con base en la pequeña y medi

  3. Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternativos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grã...

  4. Bread enriched with quinoa leaves - the influence of protein-phenolics interactions on the nutritional and antioxidant quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieca, Michał; Sęczyk, Lukasz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the functional and potential biological properties of bread fortified with quinoa leaves (QL) in the light of protein-phenolic interactions. The addition of QL changed the textural properties of bread crumb. With the replacement of wheat flour by QL (1-5%), a linear increase in crumb hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess was observed. Fortification positively affected antioxidant properties and phenolic contents; however, in some cases experimental values were significantly lower than those predicted. The QL addition affected nutrient content and digestibility. The starch digestibility of the bread investigated in this study was inversely proportional to the percentage content of QL (the changes in protein digestibility were not so pronounced). Increasing peak areas of extracts obtained after digestion of fortified bread and the significant reduction of free amino groups confirm the presence of interactions between phenolics and proteins. The quality of fortified bread is strongly affected by phenolic compounds and food matrix interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modélisation des dynamiques spatiales liées à la culture du quinoa dans le Nord chilien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Bazile

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La modélisation graphique des dynamiques spatiales permet d’appréhender le rôle joué par le développement de la culture du quinoa au niveau régional et de visualiser les transformations futures. Cette plante cultivée depuis plus de cinq mille ans sur l’Altiplano par les Indiens Aymaras a été redécouverte récemment pour ses qualités nutritionnelles. Elle suscite aujourd’hui de nouveaux enjeux économiques, écologiques et scientifiques, sans oublier l’intérêt du tourisme international friand d’éthique, d’équité et d’authenticité culturelle. Ces nouveaux enjeux se traduisent par des changements de comportements et des mutations spatiales. La représentation graphique des modes d’organisation du territoire au Nord du Chili par la méthode des chorèmes permet de nous représenter les dynamiques spatiales passées et de nous questionner sur les évolutions à venir.

  6. The combined effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater and organic amendment on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important factors that limits crop production is the availability of water. Deficit irrigation is the most important irrigation strategy to increase water use efficiency and crop water productivity. Organic amendment combined with deficit irrigation can be practical solution to co...

  7. 影响西藏南美藜粒重因素的初步研究%A preliminary study on influencing factors of quinoa thousand-grain weight in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玛群宗; 贡布扎西

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies Tibetan quinoa , particularly the thousand-grain weight quinoa gathered from Tibet Shigatse Mulin County Emma Heung Pilot land in the past two years .The results show that:1 ) the Tibetan quinoa thousand-grain weight is not related to its color , the plant height , the ear height , the stem height , the ear number , the grain weight , but related to valid branch height;2 ) the mature time makes up the biggest factor for the size and weight of quinoa , with the proportion of big grains being larger in premature qui-noa than in mid-mature or late-mature one;3 ) harvest time also constitutes a big factor affecting the weight of thousand-grain quinoa in that the proportion of big grains of quinoa gathered in September , 2012 is larger than that gathered in 2011 , and the proportion of small grains of quinoa gathered in September 2012 is smaller than that gathered in 2011 , and lots of extremely small grains are found in quinoa gathered in 2011 .%研究了西藏南美藜,特别是通过对近两年在西藏日喀则南木林县艾玛乡试验示范地中采集来的西藏南美藜籽粒千粒重的研究与鉴定发现:(1)西藏南美藜千粒重跟它自身的颜色、株高、穗高、穗数、秆径高、整株重、籽粒重无关,与有效分枝高度有关;(2)西藏早熟南美藜大型籽粒占的比例多于西藏中、晚熟南美藜,西藏早熟南美藜小型籽粒占的比例少于西藏中、晚熟南美藜,即籽粒的早熟或中、晚熟是影响籽粒千粒重的因素;(3)2012年9月采集的西藏南美藜大型籽粒占的比例多于2011年采集的,2012年9月采集的西藏南美藜小型籽粒占的比例少于2011年采集的,2011年采集的西藏南美藜还出现了比例不小的极小型籽粒,即籽粒收获的年限是影响籽粒千粒重的因素。

  8. Study on Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Quinoa Polyphenols and Its Antioxidant Capability%超声波辅助提取藜麦多酚及其活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂林; 董晶; 弓志花; 李志英

    2016-01-01

    通过单因素试验优化超声波辅助提取藜麦多酚的工艺研究,并对藜麦多酚提取液的活性、对自由基和亚硝酸根的清除作用进行研究。结果表明:藜麦多酚的最佳提取工艺为70%乙醇做溶剂、料液比1∶25(g/mL)、超声温度为50℃、以320 W功率超声波辅助提取20 min,藜麦多酚的得率为0.215%,藜麦多酚提取液对亚硝酸根离子的清除能力达到88.4%,对羟自由基的清除能力达到90.4%,对DPPH·的清除率为84.3%。%The ultrasonic-assisted extraction process for polyphenols from the quinoa was performed using sin-gle factor experiments,The antioxidant capability , scavenging capability for NO2-and free radicals were inves-tigated with the extracts of quinoa .The results showed that the optimum extraction condition were:extraction solvent of 70%ethanol,the radio of materials to liquid 1∶25 (g/mL),temperature of 50℃, time of 20 min, power of 320 W. The yield of quinoa polyphenols was 0.215 %;and the scavenging rate to NO2-,OH· and DPPH·were 88.4%, 90.4%and 84.3%, respectively ,with polyphenols extraction of quinoa.

  9. Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Júlia de Miguel Amistá

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Em função de sua versatilidade e indicativos de alto valor nutritivo, a quinoa tem despertado crescente interesse dos pesquisadores das áreas de ciências nutricionais e de alimentos, bem como dos consumidores, que visam cada vez mais ao consumo de produtos associados à promoção da saúde ou alternativos para aqueles com necessidades específicas, como os celíacos, que encontram na quinoa uma possibilidade de consumo. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se alterações relativas à qualidade proteica dos grãos, nos seguintes aspectos: a atividade de inibição de proteases e a digestibilidade proteica in vitro, em função de modificações sofridas por processo de germinação de 2, 4 e 6 dias, além de diferentes tipos de processamentos térmicos, incluindo-se aquecimentos brandos, a 40 ºC e 45 ºC, e cozimento sob fervura. O processo de germinação não proporcionou melhorias na digestibilidade proteica dos grãos de quinoa, embora tenha sido possível verificar uma redução na atividade de inibição de tripsina ao longo da germinação. Diversamente, os processos envolvendo tratamento térmico se mostraram efetivos em melhorar a qualidade proteica dos grãos, ainda quando as temperaturas de 40 ºC e 45 ºC foram utilizadas. Utilizando-se temperatura de apenas 45 ºC para tratamento dos grãos, seus valores de digestibilidade proteica foram aumentados a ponto de serem equivalentes ao observado para o cozimento tradicional dos grãos, realizado sob fervura, o que pode ser uma observação positiva aos que optam por consumo de grãos minimamente processados.Due its versatility and indications concerning its high nutritive value, quinoa has attracted growing interest from food and nutrition researchers, as also from consumers who seek healthier or alternative food products. These foods are of particular relevance for people with specific needs such as those suffering from celiac disease. In this study changes occurring in some of the

  10. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.

  11. [Effect of the extrusion process on the functional characteristics and protein quality of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Bacigalupo, A; Bressani, R

    1985-03-01

    In order to have available a human food of high nutritive value, and conscious of the protein quality of the quinua, as well as its carbohydrate, vitamin and mineral content, its behavior during the extrusion process was tested in the present study. To eliminate saponins, a simple method was developed which consisted of washing the seeds through an aluminum container, using a wooden stirrer. Seven treatments were studied: washed quinua, washed and cooked quinua, washed and expanded quinua No. 1 and No. 2, and washed and texturized quinua No. 1 and No. 2; casein was used as control. Biological evaluation trials were carried out in Holtzman rats, following the PER method. To detect the possible effects of the processed quinua on the experimental animals, hematological as well as histopathological studies of the vital organs were performed. A maximum PER of 2.43 was obtained for the texturized quinua, 2.16 for the expanded quinua, 2.6 for the cooked quinua, while the casein control yielded a PER of 3.00. The physico-chemical characteristics of the quinua flour were determined, as well as those of the expanded and texturized products. The product obtained was subjected to an organoleptic trial and it can be stated that the results obtained were satisfactory. The product can be consumed directly without major modifications and has an acceptable flavor. The nutritive value of quinua was not impaired; it compared favorably with the best diets recommended for the population, especially of those with a lower income. The results obtained in the present study suggest the possibility of increasing the nutritional value of the product, as well as its acceptability.

  12. [Digestibility and protein quality of quinua: comparative study of quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa) seed and flour in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Romaña, G; Graham, G G; Rojas, M; MacLean, W C

    1981-09-01

    Based on the hypothesis that the digestibility of quinua seed is the limiting factor in the utilization of nutrients from this staple, two quinua-based diets were prepared using quinua seeds and quinua flour. Theses diets were offered to children recovering from malnutrition. The digestibility and protein quality of the quinua diets were compared to those of a casein control diet by analyzing the children's metabolic balance. Results showed that digestibility of the quinua diets were compared to those of a casein control diet by analyzing the children's metabolic balance. Results showed that digestibility of the quinua seed is the limiting factor in the protein and energy utilization, and that milling improves significantly the digestibility of fat and carbohydrates. Findings also confirmed that the protein quality of quinua seeds is adequate for human consumption.

  13. 基于近红外光谱法快速检测藜麦纤维含量%Rapid Detection on Quinoa Fiber Based on the Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓宁; 田翔; 王君杰; 刘思辰; 穆志新; 陆平; 陶梅; 乔治军

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] To explore a rapid determination method for fiber content in grains of quinoa .[Method] Near infrared spectra of 100quinoa samples were collected. The predicted models for quantitative analysis of fiber contents in the grains was built using near infrared transmittancespectroscopy (NITS).[Result] In the wavelength range of 10 000 -4 000 cm -1 , we set up near infrared quantitative model of quinoacrude fiber via first derivative +vector normalization preprocessing and combining with the data from chemical methods.Meanwhile, calibrationand prediction effect were the best, and then the cross validation decision coefficient (R2 cv) and external validation decision coefficient(R2 val) of fiber by near infrared quantitative model were 0.884 8 and 0.876 1, respectively.[Conclusion] The model of NITS aboutcomplete grains quinoa fiber can be available for fast detecting quinoa fiber content.%[目的]探索一种快速测定完整藜麦籽粒纤维含量的方法。[方法]采集100个藜麦样品的近红外光谱,运用近红外光谱分析技术建立数学模型并进行预测。[结果]在10000~4000 cm -1波长范围内,运用一阶导数+矢量归一化光谱方法进行预处理,结合化学方法所得数据建立藜麦粗纤维近红外定量模型,校正和预测效果最佳,所得的粗纤维近红外定量模型的交叉验证决定系数为0.8848,外部验证决定系数为0.8761。[结论]以完整藜麦籽粒为样品所建立的纤维NITS模型可用于藜麦纤维含量的快速检测。

  14. Modifying the Cold Gelation Properties of Quinoa Protein Isolate: Influence of Heat-Denaturation pH in the Alkaline Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-09-01

    Heat-denaturation of quinoa protein isolate (QPI) at alkali pH and its influence on the physicochemical and cold gelation properties was investigated. Heating QPI at pH 8.5 led to increased surface hydrophobicity and decreases in free and bound sulfhydryl group contents. Heating at pH 10.5 caused a lesser degree of changes in sulfhydryl groups and surface hydrophobicity, and the resulting solutions showed drastically increased solubility. SDS PAGE revealed the presence of large aggregates only in the sample heated at pH 8.5, suggesting that any aggregates present in the sample heated at pH 10.5 were non-covalently bound and disintegrated in the presence of SDS. Reducing conditions partially dissolved the aggregates in the pH 8.5 heated sample indicating the occurrence of disulphide bonding, but caused no major alterations in the separation pattern of the pH 10.5 heated sample. Denaturation pH influenced the cold gelation properties greatly. Solutions heated at pH 8.5 formed a coarse coagulum with maximum G' of 5 Pa. Heat-denaturation at 10.5 enabled the proteins to form a finer and regularly structured gel with a maximum G' of 1140 Pa. Particle size analysis showed that the pH 10.5 heated sample contained a higher level of very small particles (0.1-2 μm), and these readily aggregated into large particles (30-200 μm) when pH was lowered to 5.5. Differences in the nature of aggregates formed during heating may explain the large variation in gelation properties.

  15. Control de Sitophilus zeamais con polvos vegetales de tres especies del género Chenopodium Control of Sitophilus zeamais with vegetable powders of three species of Chenopodium genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ivan Silva-Aguayo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron polvos vegetales de Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Chenopodium album L. y Chenopodium quinoa Willd. para el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los parámetros evaluados fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos, pérdida de peso y germinación de los granos, efecto ovicida y larvicida, fumigación, repelencia y residualidad de los polvos. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial y tres repeticiones. La mayor mortalidad de insectos se obtuvo con los polvos de la inflorescencia y la mezcla de hojas y tallos de Chenopodium ambrosioides L., al 2% (p/p con valores de 69,4% y 67,9% respectivamente. La menor emergencia de adultos se obtuvo con los mismos tratamientos. La pérdida de peso de granos, en todos los tratamientos de C. ambrosioides, no superó el 3%. Para el tratamiento inflorescencia de C. ambrosioides al 2% (p/p, la residualidad de los polvos se mantuvo hasta los 15 días, con una mortalidad de 98,3%. Esta misma especie presentó una mortalidad de huevos y larvas de 100%, además de presentar un efecto fumigante con una mortalidad de adultos de 100%, en todos los tratamientos evaluados. El polvo de C. ambrosioides es repelente para S. zeamais.Powders of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Chenopodium album L. and Chenopodium quinoa Willd. were evaluated under laboratory conditions for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky control. Evaluated parameters were insect mortality and adult emergence, grain weight loss, grain germination and the following effects of powders: ovicide and larvicide, fumigant, repellent and residual. A completely randomized experimental design with factorial arrangement and three replicates was used. The highest levels of insect mortality were obtained with the powders of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. inflorescence and the mixture of leaves and stems at 2% (w/w, with values of 69.4% and 67.9% respectively. Best emergence reductions were

  16. Progress in Research on Nutritional and Functional Components and Bioactivity of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)%藜麦营养功能成分及生物活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏爱春; 杨修仕; 么杨; 刘浩; 秦培友; 赵德刚; 李怡; 任贵兴

    2015-01-01

    藜麦是适宜人类食用的全营养食品,不仅含有丰富的蛋白质、淀粉、VB1、叶酸、矿物质(Ca、Zn、Fe)等营养物质,还含有多酚、黄酮、芦丁、槲皮素、异槲皮素、皂苷等功能成分,具有抗氧化、抗炎、降血糖、减肥等生理活性.本文综述藜麦的营养功能成分及其生物活性的国内外研究进展,并对其发展应用前景进行展望.

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment and the Phenylpropanoid Pathway Precursors Feeding Improve Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Sprouts via an Induction of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyases Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Świeca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide treatment and the phenylpropanoid pathway precursors feeding affected the antioxidant capacity of quinoa sprouts. Compared to the control, total phenolics content was significantly increased by treatment of control sprouts with 50 mM and 200 mM H2O2—an elevation of about 24% and 28%, respectively. The highest increase of flavonoids content was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with shikimic acid. All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts (at least by 50% compared to control. The highest reducing power was found for the sprouts treated with 200 mM H2O2 obtained by phenylalanine feeding (5.03 mg TE/g DW and those obtained from the seeds fed with tyrosine (5.26 mg TE/g DW. The activities of L-tyrosine (TAL and L-phenylalanine (PAL ammonia-lyases were strongly affected by germination time as well as the applied modification of sprouting. On the 3rd day the highest PAL activity was determined for both untreated and induced with 50 mM H2O2 sprouts obtained by phenylalanine feeding. H2O2 induced TAL activity; the highest TAL activity was determined for 3-day-old sprouts induced with 200 mM H2O2 obtained from seeds fed with phenylalanine.

  18. Optimization of polysaccharides extraction by response surface methodology and genotypic variation in quinoa%藜麦多糖提取工艺的响应面法优化及其品种差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊杰; 蒋玉蓉; 孙雪婷; 陈琪; 周伟; 陆国权; 毛前

    2016-01-01

    研究藜麦种子多糖的最佳提取工艺条件及其品种间的多糖得率差异.采用水浴加热回流法,在单因素试验的基础上,选取提取温度、料液比、浸提时间进行3因素3水平的Box-Behnken中心组合研究,并运用Design Expect 8.0软件对试验数据进行分析,通过响应面分析法对提取条件进行了优化.结果表明,藜麦种子多糖的最佳提取工艺为:提取温度91℃,浸提时间1.5 h,料液比1∶34,在此条件下,多糖得率在理论上可达15.81 g/100 g.各因素对多糖提取率的影响程度依次为:料液比>提取温度>浸提时间;同时发现藜麦种子多糖得率存在明显的品种间差异,其中品种“QuinoaB.Rain Sow”的多糖得率最高,达到15.889 g/100 g.

  19. Příprava těstovin s různým podílem merlíkové mouky a jejich kvalitativní hodnocení

    OpenAIRE

    BIGASOVÁ, Věra

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a very nutritionally valuable crop with versatility. The aim of this work was a practical experiment to test the possibility of pasta production with different proportions of quinoa flour and evaluate their selected qualitative properties. The thesis includes also photos of pasta production and the results of questionnaires summarizing the views of consumers on pasta containing quinoa flour. We can advise to use of quinoa flour up to 30% share for the production...

  20. Sustitución parcial de la harina de trigo (Triticum aestivum) por las harinas de quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Wild); cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule); y chía (Salvia hispanica L.) en la elaboracion de pan Chuta.

    OpenAIRE

    Apaza Morocco, Bety Daysi; E. P. Ingeniería de Alimentos Universidad Peruana Unión - Juliaca; Hayqui Betancur, Haydee; Sumire Qquenta, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los problemas en la región de Puno en la actualidad es la desnutrición infantil, esto se debe al bajo consumo de alimentos ricos en proteínas y otros nutrientes, además, existe un bajo consumo de cultivos andinos queson una fuente rica de proteínas y aminoácidos esenciales para la salud del niño. El objetivo de este trabajo de investigación es realizar un pan chuta tradicional de alta demanda con sustitución parcial de quinua y cañihuaincrementando la fuente de proteínas, fibra, etc. E...

  1. Unstable infectivity and abundant viral RNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Schoen, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    A not yet identified virus (SMoV) associated with the strawberry mottle syndrome was mechanically transmitted from infected Fragaria vesca UC-5 to Chenopodium quinoa and from C. quinoa to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. occidentalis 37B and N. hesperis 67A. C. quinoa, N. benthamiana, and N. occidentalis

  2. Preliminary evaluation of adaptability of 13 Quinoa varieties in the Linxia Arid re-gion of Gansu Province,China%13个藜麦材料在甘肃临夏旱作区适应性的初步评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄杰; 杨发荣; 李敏权; 魏玉明; 顾娴; 漆永红

    2016-01-01

    本研究以13个藜麦引选品种为材料,测定记录其出苗率、物候期、植物学特征、产量、品质及抗性等指标,并应用聚类分析法对其主要性状的相关性进行评价,探究供试品种在甘肃临夏旱作区的适应性表现。结果表明,13个藜麦供试品种在试验区域均可以成熟,并且这些品种在株高、分枝数、有效分枝率、主枝穗长度、主枝穗直径、千粒重、产量、粗蛋白、粗纤维含量等指标上差异显著;通过聚类分析发现品种 Q7、Q8属于矮化早熟品种,品种 Q9经济性状最好,产量达4246.6 kg/hm2,较对照增产1252.1 kg/hm2,品种 Q1、Q7、Q8、Q9、Q10均属于抗病品种;不同藜麦品种表型性状与产量性状、品质性状无显著相关性,但产量和品质呈负相关。综合产量性状、品质性状和抗性评价,品种 Q9的经济性状最优,具有在甘肃临夏旱作区大面积推广种植的潜力。%In order to study adaptive performance of quinoa varieties in the Linxia arid region of Gansu province, we tested 13 different quinoa varieties (designated CK,Q1 to Q12 ),to determine seedling emergence rate,phe-nology,botanical characters,yield,quality and disease resistance.Cluster analysis was applied to evaluate the relationships among selected traits.It was found that all 13 quinoa varieties are able to reach maturity in the test region.There were significant differences among varieties for plant height,branching index,effective branching rate,inflorescence spike length,inflorescence spike diameter,thousand kernel weight,and crude protein and crude fiber content.In addition,cluster analysis revealed Q7 and Q8 are dwarf early varieties,while varieties Q1 ,Q7 ,Q8 ,Q9 ,Q10 show disease resistance.Q9 is high yielding (4247 kg/ha,1252 kg/ha higher than control).There were no phenology characters of obvious relevance to variety choice.Considering all fac-tors measured,Q9 had the best all round

  3. Improving abiotic stress tolerance of quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Aizheng

    Global food security faces the challenges of rapid population growth and shortage of water resources. Drought, heat waves and soil salinity are becoming more frequent and extreme due to climatic changes in many regions of the world, and resulting in yield reduction of many crops. It is hypothesized...... other crops, its productivity declines under severe drought, high salt conditions and harsh climate conditions. Different management approaches including water-saving irrigation methods (such as deficit irrigation, DI and alternate root-zone drying irrigation, ARD), inoculating crop seeds with plant...

  4. 藜麦在青海的引种及适应性鉴定方法探讨%Introduction and Investigate Some Methods for Evaluating the Adaptability of Chenopodium quinoa in Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 闫殿海; 毛玉金; 张玉清; 姚有华; 党斌; 迟德钊

    2016-01-01

    藜麦原产南美洲因其全营养特性广受关注.青海海西州进行了藜麦引种,获得成功,但能否在青海省内各地都种植,需进行适应性鉴定,因此对适应性鉴定的方法进行了探讨,期望为藜麦在青海育种、引种及品种布局提供依据.

  5. Larval description of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last-instar larva of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) is described for the first time. Specimens in this study were reared from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Chenopodiaceae), Bolivia, La Paz, 4 km S Viacha, Quipaquipani, 3880 m. The larva of Copitarsia incommoda is compared with larvae of Copi...

  6. Biological characteristics of tomato mild mottle potyvirus isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological characteristics of tomato mild mottle potyvirus isolated from tomato and thorn ... (Datura stramonium) and tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) Karst. ... Solanum demissum L., while the PVY isolate infected Chenopodium quinoa ...

  7. 贮藏时间和温度对藜种子萌发的影响%Effect of Storage Time and Temperature on Seed Germination of Chenopodium album L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠文森

    2012-01-01

    研究了贮藏时间和温度对藜种子萌发的影响,结果表明:在-10℃条件下存放90 d后,藜种子发芽率下降了3.50%,发芽势上升了6.75%,与刚采集时的种子萌发无显著差异(P〉0.05).室温和4℃条件下存放90 d后发芽率和发芽势显著降低(P〈0.01).随贮存时间的延长,藜种子发芽率和发芽势呈下降趋势,发芽率和发芽势变化趋势是:-10℃〉常温和4℃;贮藏温度对藜胚根和胚芽生长无显著影响,贮存2年后则根长和芽长明显降低.%The effects of storage time and temperature on seed germination of Chenopodium album L. was studied in the present thesis. The result showed that seed germination rate of Chenopodium album L. dropped 3.50%, the germination potential rose 6.75 % when storage 90 days at - 10 ℃, but had no significant difference(P 〉0.05) compared to freshly harvested seeds. The germination rate and germination potential decreased (P 〈0.01) of storage temperature at room temperature and 4℃ after 90 days. With the extention of the storage time, the germination rate and germination of quinoa seed decreased, and the trends of germination rate and germination axe - 10℃ room temperature and 4℃. The storage temperature had no significant effect on the radicle and plumule growth of Chenopodium album L. However, the root length and bud length reduced significantly after storage for 2 years.

  8. 五彩藜麦沙拉QUINOA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOYO食色空间

    2014-01-01

    五彩藜麦沙拉,这道美白瘦身五彩饭,材料丰富做法简单。这道菜富含植物甾醇、天然维生素E等营养成分,刺激胆汁分泌,激化胰酶的活力,使油脂降解,被肠黏膜吸收以减少肠道的负担。  藜麦,也叫奎藜,具有极高而且全面的营养价值,蛋白质、矿物质、氨基酸、纤维素、维生素等含量较高。藜麦作为植物,却含有动物才具有的完全蛋白,蛋白质的含量平均为16%,品质和含量可以与脱脂牛奶及肉类媲美。

  9. Studies on Gene Sequence of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus in Chenopodium quinoa and Pear%梨树苹果褪绿叶斑病毒在昆诺藜与梨树上的基因序列比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓燕; 牛建新; 刘宏; 樊新民; 戴志新

    2006-01-01

    以已知带苹果褪绿叶斑病毒的梨树叶片和皮层及昆诺藜为实验材料,对两种植物总RNA的提取、RT-PCR、目的片断的克隆及其酶切鉴定、基因序列进行了分析比较.结果表明,从两种植物中均可以获得高纯度的总RNA及RT-PCR特异性产物,序列分析结果表明,从梨树中提取的病毒目的片断基因序列与从昆诺藜中提取的病毒基因序列之间存在着差异,但差异不大.

  10. [Chemical constituents from Chenopodium ambrosioides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Kang, Jie; Li, Bao-Ming; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the herb of Chenopodium ambrosioides, and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods as kaempferol-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol-3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), patuletin (3), quercetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), grasshopper ketone (5), 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (6), syringaresinol (7), benzyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), dendranthemoside B (9), N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (10), N-trans-feruloyl 4'-O-methyldopamine (11), and 4-hydroxy-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl] benzamide (12). Among them,compounds 3, 6-8,10, and 12 were isolated from the genus Chenopodium for the first time, and compounds 2-12 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  11. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  12. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  13. Molecular cloning of dsRNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, C.D.; Miglino, R.; Jelkmann, W.; Leone, G.

    1998-01-01

    Strawberry mottle virus was transmitted from Fragaria vesca to Chenopodium quinoa and Nicotiana occidentalis 37B. In all plants, SMoV infection-associated dsRNA was detected but dsRNA patterns showed some differences between the herbaceous hosts. The differences were more evident when the dsRNA prep

  14. Toward Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part 1. Analysis of the Primary Links of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Swaving Dijkstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinusspp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium qu

  15. Diurnal Patterns of Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and PRI to Evaluate Water Stress in the Invasive Species, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    effective quantum yield of pho- tosystem II: DF=F0m ¼ F0m Fs =F0m 238 Trees (2010) 24:237–245 123 Leaf xylem pressure potentials (W) were...with ontogenic changes in water limited Chenopodium quinoa leaves. Photosynthetica 40:227–232 Yates ED, Levia DP Jr, Williams CL (2004) Recruitment of

  16. First report of seed-borne cherry leaf roll virus in wild potato, Solanum acaule, from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    A virus, designated JCM-79, was isolated from wild potato (Solanum acaule Bitt.) plants grown from true seed received at USDA-APHIS Potato Quarantine Program from Peru. JCM-79 was mechanically transmissible to Nicotiana clevelandii, N.tabacum cv. Samsun NN, and Chenopodium quinoa. Symptoms in the ...

  17. Toward Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part 1. Analysis of the Primary Links of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Swaving Dijkstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinusspp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium qu

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05093-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T304 cqseed Chenopodium quinoa cDNA clone S02... 48 2e-06 3 ( GN101825 ) Sequence 6606 from Patent WO2009037...PvM16_D10 Pistacia male and female panicles Pista... 44 2e-06 2 ( CN782208 ) ES00

  19. Chemical compounds from Chenopodium album Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive components from Chenopodium album Linn. were isolated and identified in this research. Light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH were firstly applied to partition the 75% EtOH extract of Chenopodium album Linn. which were then subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. By the employment of NMR method in this study, chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated. Three known compounds were isolated from Chenopodium album Linn., and identified as Isolariciresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7’S, 8R, 8’R)-Isolariciresinol (2) and (7’S, 8R, 8’S)-Isolariciresinol (3) by comparison of their spectral data with references. This is the first time that isolation of the compounds mentioned above from Chenopodium album Linn. was achieved.

  20. Effect of saline water irrigation on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panuccio, M.R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Saleem Akhtar, Saqib;

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Inves- tigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screen- ing the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has...... with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects...

  1. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  2. Determination of Quinoa Saponins%藜麦皂甙的测定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任卓伟; 倪文杰; 刘森

    2015-01-01

    用高氯酸比色法对藜麦中皂甙的测定进行了研究,并且测定了水洗后藜麦皂甙的含量变化.结果表明,用香草醛-高氯酸比色法测定藜麦中的皂甙含量是一种方便快捷、结果稳定的方法.测定藜麦皂甙选用齐墩果酸为标准品,波长为560 nm,标准曲线方程为y=0.196 6x-0.013 7,并且R2显示在此范围内有良好的线性关系.提取样品皂甙的条件为:提取液乙醇的体积分数为70%,料液比为1∶30,提取湿度为50℃.结果测定的藜麦皂甙含量为10.709 mg/g,水洗之后藜麦中皂甙含量有所减少,清洗的次数越多,藜麦中皂甙的含量越少,清洗3次后藜麦中总皂甙含量由原来的10.709 mg/g降低为6.077 mg/g,减少了43.25%.并且水洗去除藜麦种皮中的皂甙占总去除皂甙的87%.

  3. Current Situation of Quinoa Industry in China%中国藜麦产业现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任贵兴; 杨修仕; 么杨

    2015-01-01

    藜麦是原产于南美洲的一种粮食作物,具有非常高的营养价值.近年来,我国山西、吉林、青海、甘肃、河北等地开始较大面积地种植藜麦.通过科企结合,初步形成了适合不同生态区域的栽培方法,获得了一批性状稳定的育种材料,认定了藜麦品种1个.然而,我国藜麦生产加工企业数量较少,专用生产加工设备较为缺乏,加工产品多为藜麦米,缺乏高附加值产品.同时,国内藜麦产品的销售以电商为主,缺乏实体销售,藜麦市场有待进一步完善.但国际市场藜麦需求强劲,藜麦发展前景十分广阔.随着玉米种植面积的政策性调减,藜麦迎来了重要的发展契机.通过加快品种培育和生产加工设备研发,丰富产品种类,藜麦必将在“调结构,转方式,保增收”的农业政策落实中发挥重要作用.

  4. Desenvolvimento de um chocolate meio amargo com maior percentual de proteína

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Bordin Schumacher

    2008-01-01

    O chocolate tem apresentado crescente consumo, boa digestibilidade devido a sua composição e tem sido amplamente estudado por suas propriedades antioxidantes. Por outro lado, este alimento possui altos percentuais de carboidratos e gordura e baixo conteúdo de proteínas. Neste contexto, foram desenvolvidas formulações de chocolate meio amargo com objetivo de aumentar o valor protéico deste produto. Para isto foi utilizado o pseudocereal quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild) como adição ao chocolate...

  5. Highly oxygenated monoterpenes from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A A

    2000-07-01

    Three new monoterpenes (3-5) were isolated from an organic extract of the aerial parts of Chenopodium ambrosioides. Structures were established on the basis of MS and NMR spectroscopic ((1)H, (13)C, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC and HMBC) data.

  6. Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2015-05-01

    Five new bioactive compounds, chenopodiumamines A-D (1-4) and chenopodiumoside A (5), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic means (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 had moderate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  7. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm y Quiquijana (3100 msnm. Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los parasitoides adultos. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae fue la principal especie parasitoide con 19,8% de parasitismo de larvas provenientes de ambas localidades. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, incluyendo Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, representó el 27,8% y Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae el 5,6%. Braconidae presentó mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en Quiquijana que en Izcuchaca. Se discute el efecto de la diversidad de plantas asociadas, cultivadas y silvestres, sobre las poblaciones de insectos parasitoides.Quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa is an important economic activity at Cusco. The quinoa moth: Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the main insect pest recorded from Cusco in quinoa fields and it has a complex of natural enemies. This research reports parasitoid insects and percentage of parasitized larvae of quinoa moth from two localities of Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 masl and Quiquijana (3100 masl. Collected larvae were reared at room conditions up to emergence of adult parasitoids. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae was the main parasitoid with 19,8% of parasitized larvae from both localities. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, including Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, accounted for 27,8% and Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae the 5,6%. Braconidae showed a greater percentage of parasitism at Quiquijana than Izcuchaca. We discuss if diversity of associated plants, both cultivated and wild plants, influence parasitoid populations.

  8. Linking Physiological Responses, Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Hyperspectral Imagery to Detect Salinity Stress Using the Physiological Reflectance Index in the Coastal Shrub, Myrica cerifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    fluorescence prior to any saturating pulse (Fs) was used to estimate the effective quantum yield of photosystem II: ΔF=F Vm ¼ F Vm−Fs½ =F Vm After gas...1989). Photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, photon yield of O2 evolution, photosynthetic capacity, and carotenoid composition during the midday...use efficiency, chlorophyll fluorescence, and reflectance indices associated with ontogenic changes in water- limited Chenopodium quinoa leaves

  9. Characterization symptomatology and molecular from papaya ringspot (PRSV) that infects Carica papaya L. in northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrama, Shirley; Universidad Nacional de Trujillo; Cedano, Carolina; Tenorio, Jorge; Romero, Javier; Carbajal, Segundo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present study was symptomatic and molecular characterization of the virus that infects Carica papaya L. in areas of northern Peru. To do this, of different fields were collected leaves of C. papaya with mosaic symptoms, chlorosis and distortion the leaf. Sap of these leaves was inoculated mechanically onto virus-free plants of C. papaya, Chenopodium murale, Ch. amaranticolor, Ch. quinoa, Cucumis melo, C. sativus and Cucurbita pepo; which they were kept at room temperature for...

  10. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. extract prevents bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ciro Dantas; Carvalho, Maria Goretti Freire de; Carvalho, Rejane Andrade de; Trindade, Sérgio Rodrigo Pereira; Rêgo, Amália Cinthia Meneses do; Araújo-Filho, Irami; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of the Chenopodium ambrosioides L (mastruz) extract for preventing bone loss and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. Twelve rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy for inducing osteoporosis. After surgery, they were divided into two groups: Ovariectomy-control group (G1, n=6), receiving 0.5 ml distilled water by gavage for 30 days, and Ovariectomy plus mastruz group (G2, n=6), receiving 0.5 ml of the hydroalcoholic extract of mastruz at 10% concentration (50mg) daily, for the same period. Then, the blood of the animals was collected for further biochemical analysis (liver function) and tibia and liver were removed for histological and histomorphometric analyses. The cortical bone was significantly larger in the G2 than G1, whereas G1 presented the highest amount of adipocytes in the bone marrow (pbone metabolism by changing blood proteins and enzymes and preventing both bone loss and the substitution of bone marrow cells by.

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of Chenopodium murale in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of drugs has its roots in medicinal plants that appeal researchers to identify new therapeutical entities from plants. The current study was conducted to determine its hepatoprotective activity. The results showed that aqueous methanolic extract of Chenopodium murale (200 and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.001 decrease in paracetamol induced increased levels of liver enzymes (alanin transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These findings were further supported by histopathological investigations by microscope and detection of phytoconstituents having hepatoprotective potential e.g. qurecetin, kaempferol and gallic acid by HPLC. Conclusively aqueous methanolic extract of C. murale possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

  12. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Hariadi, Yuda; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    old seedlings. Six weeks after the treatment commenced, leaf sap Na and K content and osmolality, stomatal density, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and xylem sap Na and K composition were measured. Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties. All cultivars had substantially...

  13. 藜麦生物活性物质研究进展%Research Advance of Quinoa Biologically Active Substance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宇; 张美莉

    2015-01-01

    藜麦是唯一一种单体植物就可基本满足人体基本营养要求的食物,不仅含有丰富的蛋白质、脂肪酸和矿物质,而且具有大量的多酚、类黄酮和皂苷等生物活性物质,被列为全球十大健康营养食物之一.近年来,藜麦所具有的营养价值引起了人们的广泛关注,但我国对藜麦的研究甚少.概述了国外对藜麦营养成分和生物活性物质的研究内容与研究现状,并展望了我国藜麦的研究发展方向,旨在为藜麦的开发与利用提供参考.

  14. 藜麦耐盐机制研究进展%Research Progress on Salt Tolerance Mechanisms in Quinoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽丽; 姜奇彦; 牛风娟; 胡正; 张辉

    2016-01-01

    藜麦是一种兼性盐生植物,多数品种具有较高耐盐性,有些品种甚至可以耐受海水一样高的盐胁迫.藜麦的耐盐性及耐盐机理已得到广泛研究.综述了藜麦耐盐机制相关研究进展,藜麦耐盐关键特点包括:Na+的木质部装载和液泡区隔化、耐受高活性氧、较好的K+保持,气孔发育的有效控制等,并讨论了藜麦在盐渍土壤上的利用潜力,以期为藜麦的推广应用、盐碱地改良及植物耐盐机理研究提供理论基础.

  15. Polyol monoterpenes isolated from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shu-Qun; Li, Yan-Hong; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Li, Rong; Lu, Huai; Tian, Kai; Ruan, Rong-Sheng; Li, Yu-Kui

    2017-04-12

    Phytochemical study on the 95% ethyl alcohol extract of stems of Chenopodium ambrosioides resulted in the isolation of two new polyol monoterpenes, 4-hydroxy-4(α or β)-isopropyl-2-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1) and 1-methyl-4β- isopropyl-1-cyclohexene-4α,5α,6α-triol (2), together with five known compounds, (1S,2S,3R,4S)-1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexane-1,2,3,4-tetrol (3), (1R,2S,3S,4S)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-p-menthane (4), (1R,2S)-3-p-menthen-1,2-diol (5), (1R,4S)-p- menth-2-en-1-ol (6) and 1,4-dihydroxy-p-menth-2-ene (7). The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic evidence including extensive 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1-7 were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity, and compound 1 showed moderate ability to inhibit NO production of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages with an IC50 value of 16.83 μM.

  16. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was achieved using extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides as a reducer and coating agent at room temperature (25°C. Two molar solutions of AgNO3 (1 mM and 10 mM and five extract volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 mL were used to assess quantity, shape, and size of the particles. The UV-Vis spectra gave surface plasmon resonance at 434–436 nm of the NPs synthesized with AgNO3 10 mM and all extract volumes tested, showing a direct relationship between extract volumes and quantity of particles formed. In contrast, the concentration of silver ions was related negatively to particle size. The smallest (4.9 ± 3.4 nm particles were obtained with 1 mL of extract in AgNO3 10 mM and the larger amount of particles were obtained with 2 mL and 5 mL of extract. TEM study indicated that the particles were polycrystalline and randomly oriented with a silver structure face centered cubic (fcc and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR indicated that disappearance of the –OH group band after bioreduction evidences its role in reducing silver ions.

  17. Protect Your Heart: Make Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain barley, bulgur, brown rice, wild rice, or quinoa. J Try whole-wheat pasta instead of regular ... whole-wheat couscous (a quick- cooking grain), or quinoa instead of white rice. Making smart food choices ...

  18. Celiac Disease Diet: How Do I Get Enough Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you. These include brown, black or wild rice, quinoa, amaranth, pure buckwheat, corn, cornmeal, popcorn, millet, gluten- ... from corn (hominy, grits), rice, pure buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa or gluten-free oats Gluten-free puffed rice ...

  19. Quick Start Gluten Free Diet Guide for Celiac Disease and Non Celiac Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cassava, corn (maize), soy, potato, tapioca, beans, sorghum, quinoa, millet, buckwheat, arrowroot, amaranth, teff, flax, chia, yucca, ... free bread for lunch; and rice, corn or quinoa pasta for dinner. Include lean meats and proteins, ...

  20. 4-Week Gluten-Free Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and jam Grapes with 1-2 boiled eggs Quinoa Fiesta Salad Glazed Meatloaf with baked beans Side ... green bell peppers (Su, Tu, W) Scallions (Su) Quinoa (Su) Vanilla extract (dessert) White sugar (Sa) Sweet ...

  1. Gluten-Free Diet Guide for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and seeds Millet Montina™ Potato starch Potato flour Quinoa Rice rice bran Sago Sorghum Soy (soya) Tapioca ... poultry, nuts, seeds, legumes, dried fruit, eggs, amaranth, quinoa Folate Broccoli, asparagus, orange juice, liver, legumes, bean ...

  2. Characterization and evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruth T. Degenhardt; Ingrid V. Farias; Liliane T. Grassi; Gilberto C. Franchi Jr; Alexandre E. Nowill; Christiane M. da S. Bittencourt; Theodoro M. Wagner; Marcia M. de Souza; Alexandre Bella Cruz; Angela Malheiros

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Amaranthaceae, was obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger apparatus and characterization was performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic assays...

  3. [Fatal poisoning caused by oil of epazote, Chenopodium graveolens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Cabrera, M A; Escalante-Galindo, P; Meckes-Fisher, M; Sánchez-Vaca, G; Flores-Alvarez, E; Reynoso-García, M

    1996-01-01

    We present a case of acute lethal poisoning by oil of "epazote" (oil of chenopodium), in a 2 y 9 m female. The volatile oil was administered according to the advice of a "curandera" (female healer), in a total quantity of 40 ml. Clinical features of the poisoning were: vomiting, deep coma, seizures, mydriasis, apnea, metabolic acidosis, neurogenic shock and death. The EEG suggested a diffuse encephalopathy, the CT scan with an image of severe brain edema and ventricular collapse. Relevant postmortem findings were brain edema and neuronal necrosis, pneumonia, enteritis, pericholangitis, mild pancreatitis and tubular necrosis. The phytochemical analysis of volatile oil identified ascaridol, the main active compound of the chenopodium herbs, in a quantity of 39 mg/ml (1,560 mg in the dose administered), and Chenopodium graveolens as the plant employed to prepare it. According to the age of the patient, 60 mg of ascaridol would be the recommended dose formerly used in the treatment of parasitic disease. Thus 1,560 mg was 26 times higher than the recommended dose, and exceeded by 56% the dose of 1,000 mg reported as lethal in humans.

  4. 40 CFR 180.1287 - Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides... Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the residues of Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides...

  5. Phytochemical characterisation of an important medicinal plant, Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hameed; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2017-03-14

    The project was intended to the phytochemical characterisation from the rudimentary methanolic extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn., which escorts to the isolation of stigmasterol (1), β-sitosterol (2), octadecanoic acid (3), scopoletin (4) and 1-piperoylpiperidine (5). Literature validates the medicinal authentication of these compounds extorted from other sources, while our previous findings regarding microbial activities of different solvent systems fractions are favouring the presence of medicinally important compounds in this species. Herein, however, we report these natural products for the first time from this species.

  6. Application of the techniques of Multivariate analysis in the characterization of germplasm of Quinua; Aplicacion de tecnicas de Analisis multivariado en la caracterizacion de germoplasma de Quinua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Torres de la Cruz, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jmga@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Its were evaluated 20 lines of Chenopodium quinoa respect characters of agronomical interest finding that nine lines overcame the witness highlighting the lines: 20R1-41, 20R1-10, 20R2-27 that presented near yield to 1.5 ton/ha. The multivariate analysis of main components generated a dendrogram in that is appreciated that at an Euclidean distance of 0.75 its were formed seven groups according to its morphological characteristics and of yield, it highlights the formation of two big groups at a distance of 1.125, that they separate according to the radiation dose (200 and 250 Gy). (Author)

  7. Allelopathy in two species of Chenopodium -inhibition of germination and seedling growth of certain weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C. Datta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of washed leaf and inflorescence material of Chenopodium ambrosioides and C. murale, decaying leaves and inflorescences, and field soils collected beneath Chenopodium plants were examined in terms of the inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of five weeds, viz. Abutilon indicum, Cassia sophera var. purpurea, C. tora, Evolvulus numularius and Tephrosia hamiltonii. The allelopathic pattern varied in each of the two test species and this depended on the type of test matter. However, the germination as well as the root and hypocotyl growth of A. indicum and E. nummularius were more hampered by phytotoxins or inhibitors from Chenopodium than were the other weeds. Since the leaf and inflorescence of Chenopodium formed the source of inhibitors, the respective plant-parts from the two species were chemically analysed and the presence of three terpenes (p-cymene, ascaridole and aritazone from C. ambrosioides and an organic acid (oxalic acid from C. murale were implicated in the allelopathic effect.

  8. A New Acylated Flavonol Glycoside from Chenopodium foliosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new acylated flavonol glycoside, namely gomphrenol-3-O-( 5 '''-O-E-feruloyl-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 was isolated from the aerial parts of Chenopodium foliosum Asch. The structure of 1 was determined by means of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and HRESIMS. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of 1 were established using DPPH and ABTS radicals, FRAP assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LP in linoleic acid system by the ferric thiocyanate method. Compound 1 showed low activity (DPPH and ABTS or lack of activity (FRAP and LP. In combination with CCl 4, 1 reduced the damage caused by the hepatotoxic agent and preserved cell viability and GSH level, decreased LDH leakage and reduced lipid damage. Effects were concentration dependent, most visible at the highest concentration (100 µg/m L , and similar to those of silymarin .

  9. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo(z)ena (S)ER(A); Vitězslav STRA(NA)K; Michal (S)ER(Y); Milan TICH(Y); Petr (S)PATENKA

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  10. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Será, Bozena; Stranák, Vitezslav; Serý, Michal; Tichý, Milan; Spatenka, Petr

    2008-08-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  11. Chemical composition of Chenopodium botrys L. (Chenopodiaceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Adji Andov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of essential oil isolated from aerial parts of Chenopodium botrys L. (Chenopodiaceae collected from five different locations in the Republic of Macedonia was analysed by GC/FID/MS. Seventy five compounds were identified representing 90.02- 91.24% of the oil. The analysis has shown that the oils were rich in sesquiterpenе components (83.18-87.54% comprising elemol acetat (9.88%-21.98%, seline-11-en-4α-ol (9.81%-13.5%, selina-3,11-dien-6α-ol (6.42%-9.71% and elemol (5.57%-9.49% as major oxygen containing sesquiterpenes, followed by lower content of α-eudesmol acetat (3.24%-4.11%, α-chenopodiol (2.42%-5.43%, botrydiol (1.87-5.73% and α-chenopodiol-6-acetat (1.9%-4.73%.

  12. Local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aper, J; De Riek, J; Mechant, E; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2011-01-01

    Molecular markers can provide valuable information on the spread of resistant weed biotypes. In particular, tracing local spread of resistant weed patches will give details on the importance of seed migration with machinery, manure, wind or birds. This study investigated the local spread of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album L. patches in the southwest region of the province West-Flanders (Belgium). During the summer of 2009, leaf and seed samples were harvested in 27 patches, distributed over 10 sugar beet fields and 1 maize field. The fields were grouped in four local clusters. Each cluster corresponded with the farmer who cultivated these fields. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) procedure identified the Ser264 to Gly mutation in the D1 protein, endowing resistance to metamitron, a key herbicide applied in sugar beet. The majority of the sampled plants within a patch (97% on average) carried this mutation. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was performed with 4 primer pairs and yielded 270 molecular markers, polymorphic for the whole dataset (303 samples). Analysis of molecular variance revealed that a significant part of the genetic variability was attributed to variation among the four farmer locations (12 %) and variation among Chenopodium album patches within the farmer locations (14%). In addition, Mantel tests revealed a positive correlation between genetic distances (linearised phipt between pairs of patches) and geographic distances (Mantel-coefficient significant at p = 0.002), suggesting isolation-by-distance. In one field, a decreased genetic diversity and strong genetic relationships between all the patches in this field supported the hypothesis of a recent introduction of resistant biotypes. Furthermore, genetic similarity between patches from different fields from the same farmer and from different farmers indicated that seed transport between neighbouring fields is likely to have an important impact on the

  13. Effect of nitrogen and water availability of three soil types on yield, radiation use efficiency and evapotranspiration in field-grown quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    in field lysimeters with sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil. Despite application of the same amount of nitrogen (120 kg N ha−1) to all plots, there were large differences in crop nitrogen-uptake for sandy clay loam (134 kg ha−1), sandy loam (102 kg ha−1) and sand (77 kg ha−1) under full irrigation...

  14. Exploring novel food proteins and processing technologies : a case study on quinoa protein and high pressure –high temperature processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Foods rich in protein are nowadays high in demand worldwide. To ensure a sustainable supply and a high quality of protein foods, novel food proteins and processing technologies need to be explored to understand whether they can be used for the development of high-quality protein foods. Therefore, th

  15. 苋菜籽和昆诺阿黎籽淀粉的性质%Characterization of Amaranth and Quinoa Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱建亚; 赵培城

    2000-01-01

    对由苋菜籽和昆诺阿黎籽分离的淀粉采用酶法、快速糊粘度分析(RVA)、差示扫描量热分析(DSC)、扫描电镜(SEM)和X-射线衍射分析(XRD)的方法进行了研究.酶法测得苋菜籽淀粉和昆诺阿黎籽淀粉中直链淀粉的含量分别是7.8%和11.2%;RVA结果表明昆诺阿黎籽淀粉的糊粘度高于苋菜籽淀粉,而糊化温度较低;DSC发现苋菜籽淀粉的糊化温度(20.6℃)范围较昆诺阿黎籽淀粉(11.1℃)宽;SEM观察说明这两种淀粉的颗粒都是多边形的形状;XRD图谱揭示这两种淀粉的衍射形式都是典型的A型,计算得的结晶度分别为苋菜籽淀粉45.5%,昆诺阿黎籽淀粉35.4%.

  16. 藜麦在张家口地区试种的表现与评价%Evaluation of Agronomic and Quality Characters of Quinoa Cultivated in Zhangjiakou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海涛; 刘浩; 么杨; 杨修仕; 高文杰; 杨才; 任贵兴

    2014-01-01

    本研究对在张家口地区进行试种的4份藜麦材料进行了农艺性状与品质性状评价.试种藜麦株高范围为119.27 ~ 180.51 cm,生育期范围为103 ~118 d.子粒饱满,产量可达3 637.32 kg/hm2,蛋白质含量为14.79±0.72%,脂肪含量为7.57±1.17%,天冬氨酸、赖氨酸和精氨酸含量分别为1.37±0.06%、1.00±0.03%、1.47±0.08%,皂苷含量为2.12±0.50%.以上结果与文献对比结果表明,藜麦富含多种营养成分,且蛋白质含量丰富、氨基酸比例平衡、增产潜力大等特点能够充分表现,适宜在张家口地区以及生态条件类似的地区种植.

  17. 苋菜籽和昆诺阿藜籽的营养和利用%NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND UTILIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH AND QUINOA SEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱建亚; Manfred Kuhn

    1999-01-01

    介绍了欧洲人在食用谷物时产生的过敏反应的背景及针对谷物过敏症进行的无面筋食品原料资源-假谷物的开发情况,特别是苋菜籽和昆诺阿藜籽的营养价值和性质.

  18. The Chemical Composition and Nutrition of Quinoa%南美藜的化学组成和营养价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱剑宏

    2002-01-01

    本文介绍了正被现代人重新认识的南美洲古老作物南美藜的基本情况,通过对我国西藏地区种植的南美藜种子的化学成份及营养特点的分析,并与禾谷类作物在营养方面进行的比较,发现南美藜具有很高的营养价值.

  19. Current Situation and Development Strategy of Quinoa Industry in Gansu Province%甘肃省藜麦产业现状及发展思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉明; 黄杰; 顾娴; 金茜; 刘文瑜; 杨发荣

    2016-01-01

    藜麦营养全面,其抗旱、抗寒、耐盐碱的生物学特性符合甘肃气候及生态特性,值得加大力度大范围推广.通过分析甘肃不同地区试种藜麦表现的植物学特性和藜麦所具有的营养价值,结合甘肃省自然条件优势,对甘肃省藜麦产业的发展现状进行概述,并对存在的问题进行剖析,旨在探讨甘肃藜麦产业发展的新思路.

  20. Primary study on the adaptability of Quinoa in Beijing%藜麦在北京地区适应性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓万云; 周继华; 黄琴; 梅丽; 郭自军; 徐学欣; 韩美坤; 王志敏

    2016-01-01

    为探究藜麦在北京地区的适应性及其适宜播期范围,利用引进的藜麦种植材料设置不同地域适应性观察和不同播期试验,进行农艺性状、干物质积累及其产量表现的评价.结果表明,2年不同试验点藜麦均正常成熟:2014年产量为1 764.7 kg/hm2;2015年3个试验点平均产量为1 880.1 kg/hm2,其中房山大安山获得最高产量为2 235.2 kg/hm2.不同播期藜麦生育期在117~127 d,株高在185.1~197.5 cm,茎粗在19.8~24.8 mm,单株主茎一级分枝数在20~27个,产量1 363.78~2 029.26 kg/hm2,单株粒重27.86~33.20 g/株,千粒重2.29~2.70g.综上结果,藜麦适宜在北京地区种植,尤其在房山大安山气候冷凉、昼夜温差大的地区表现较好;其适宜播期在4月底.

  1. 藜麦的营养价值及其应用前景%Nutritional properties of quinoa and its application prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎明; 马宁; 李颂; 王春玲; 刘晶鑫

    2014-01-01

    藜麦是一种营养价值极高的“类全谷物”,不仅富含蛋白质及钙、铁、锌和维生素E等微量营养素,而且含有全部必需氨基酸,并富含植物化学物质,具有提高人群营养水平、预防多种疾病发生的潜在功效,近30年来得到了国外多家农业及食品科研机构的广泛关注,而国内目前关于藜麦的报道甚少.随着国内消费者对养生和保健的需求不断攀升,藜麦作为一种“健康食品”具有非常广阔的市场前景.本文综述了藜麦的营养组成、健康功效及其在食品中的应用现状,为今后相关产品的研发提供科学依据.

  2. Determination of the in vitro antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds extracts%藜麦提取物体外抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相启森; 张丽华; 姜亭亭; 张文杰; 李银丽; 申瑞玲

    2016-01-01

    以产自山西的藜麦为研究对象,以对DPPH·和ABTS+·的清除能力、铁还原力等为指标,评价了其提取物的体外抗氧化活性.结果表明,藜麦提取物对DPPH·和ABTS+·均有较强的清除能力,其IC50分别为(43.13-±2.41) mg/mL和(27.91±1.46) mg/mL;FRAP法测得藜麦抗氧化能力为(1.90±0.10) mg FeSO4/g;此外,藜麦提取物能够有效抑制自由基引发的亚油酸过氧化和牛血清白蛋白氧化降解.藜麦提取物具有较强的体外抗氧化活性,为其体内抗氧化活性的研究奠定了基础.

  3. 利用SSR标记分析藜麦品种的遗传多样性%Genetic Diversity of Quinoa Germplasm Assessed by SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏佳; 蒋玉蓉; 陆国权; 陈国林; 毛前

    2015-01-01

    为了解藜麦种质资源的多样性,本研究利用SSR引物对所搜集的41个藜麦种质的多态性及其亲缘关系进行了分析.结果表明,从54对SSR引物中筛选出了16对能明显扩增出稳定的多态性条带的引物,共检测出139个等位基因条带,每一对引物的等位基因个数为3 ~13,平均为8.7;16对引物的多态信息含量(PIC)变幅为0.208 ~0.432,平均为0.366.UPGMA聚类分析显示,41份材料的遗传相似系数(GS)在0.374 ~0.906之间,平均相似系数为0.626.在阀值(GS)约为0.665时,41份材料可分为4大类.其中614929与B.B.Quinoa浙Ⅰ间的遗传相似系数最小,为0.374,表明来源于不同地区的遗传距离较远,遗传基础较广泛.藜麦品种资源间的亲缘关系的揭示为藜麦资源保存和新品种选育提供了理论依据.

  4. 藜麦粉对小麦面团流变学特性的影响%Effect of quinoa flour on wheat dough rheological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张园园; 卢宇; 阿荣; 张美莉

    2016-01-01

    以内蒙古种植的藜麦为试验材料,利用粉质仪和拉伸仪研究了藜麦粉添加量对小麦粉面团粉质特性和拉伸特性的影响.试验结果表明,当藜麦粉添加量为35%时,不能准确测量粉质参数;随着藜麦粉添加量的增加,吸水率先减小后增大,当藜麦粉添加量为10%时吸水率最小,为60.6%;面团的形成时间在藜麦粉添加量为10%时最大,为6.8 min;面团的稳定时间随藜麦粉添加量的增加显著减少,而弱化度则显著增加,藜麦粉添加量为30%时,面团的稳定时间为5.9 min,弱化度为111 FU,不适合制作面包.拉伸度、最大拉伸阻力、拉伸阻力、拉伸比值和拉伸曲线面积随藜麦粉添加量的增加整体呈逐渐下降趋势;醒面90 min和135 min后,拉伸阻力和拉伸比值在藜麦粉添加量为10%时最大;随着醒面时间的延长,最大拉伸阻力、拉伸阻力、拉伸比值和拉伸曲线面积均逐渐增加,而拉伸度逐渐减少.以拉伸度为指标,醒面45 min的面团拉伸特性较好.藜麦粉添加量在5%~25%时的混粉适合制作藜麦面制品.

  5. The study of photosynthetic characreristics of Quinoa%南美藜叶片光合作用特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    旺姆; 卓嘎; 次卓嘎

    2006-01-01

    对南美藜叶片光合特性的研究表明,南美藜叶片的光合日变化呈单峰曲线,不同生育期南美藜光合日变化有一定差异,灌浆初期与后期的最大净光合速率(Pmax)不同,南美藜叶净光合速率Pmax一般为13.6~27.2μmol CO2m-2s-1.根据田间的观测资料,南美藜叶片光-光合速率响应曲线符合直角双曲线方程,南美藜叶片光饱和点为1901~2383μmolm-2s-1,光补偿点为29~39μmolm-2s-1.不同温度、不同施肥水平对南美藜光饱和点、光补偿点没有明显影响.

  6. Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane extracts of three Chenopodium species against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Arshad; Amin, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane leaf, stem, root and inflorescence extracts (1, 2, 3 and 4% w/v) of three Chenopodium species (family Chenopodiaceae) namely Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was investigated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) G. Goid., a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that has a broad host range and wide geographical distribution. All the extracts of the three Chenopodium species significantly suppressed the test fungal growth. However, there was marked variation among the various extract treatments. Methanol inflorescence extract of C. album exhibited highest antifungal activity resulting in up to 96% reduction in fungal biomass production. By contrast, methanol leaf extract of the same species exhibited least antifungal activity where 21-44% reduction in fungal biomass was recorded due to various employed extract concentrations. The various methanol extracts of C. murale and C. ambrosioides decreased fungal biomass by 62-90 and 50-84%, respectively. Similarly, various n-hexane extracts of C. album, C. murale and C. ambrosioides reduced fungal biomass by 60-94, 43-90 and 49-86%, respectively.

  7. Monoterpene hydroperoxides with trypanocidal activity from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Itano, Yoshiaki; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Honda, Gisho; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Aoki, Takashi

    2002-04-01

    Four monoterpene hydroperoxides were isolated from aerial parts of Chenopodium ambrosioides along with ascaridole (1), the anthelmintic principle of this plant, as anti-trypanosomal compounds. The structures of these monoterpenes were determined to be (-)-(2S,4S)- and (-)-(2R,4S)-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-hydroperoxide (2a and 3a) and (-)-(1R,4S)- and (-)-(1S,4S)-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-hydroperoxide (4a and 5a) on the basis of spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations. In vitro trypanocidal activities of ascaridole (1) and these hydroperoxides (2a-5a) against epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were 23, 1.2, 1.6, 3.1, and 0.8 microM, respectively. Fresh leaves of C. ambrosioides also contained isomeric hydroperoxides 6a and 7a, and the content ratio of 2a-7a suggested that these hydroperoxides were formed through the singlet-oxygen oxidation of limonene.

  8. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekem, Marie Stéphanie Goka; Lunga, Paul Keilah; Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tane, Pierre; Vilarem, Gerard; Cerny, Muriel

    2010-09-01

    The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem) of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%), p-cymene (23.4%) and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%). The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  9. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Vilarem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%, p-cymene (23.4% and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%. The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  10. Antimalarial potential of leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysne, Dalila Nunes; Fortes, Thiare Silva; Reis, Aramys Silva; de Paulo Ribeiro, Bruno; Dos Santos Ferreira, Amália; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles; Marinho, Claudio Romero Farias; Nicolete, Roberto; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    In an effort to identify novel therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of malaria, the present study evaluated the antimalarial effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (HCE) from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. For this purpose, the molecular affinity between the total proteins from erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum and HCE or chloroquine was evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Subsequently, the plasmodicidal potential of HCE was assessed in a P. falciparum culture. Using BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei intraperitoneally (ip.), we evaluated the effects of ip. treatment, for three consecutive days (day 7, 8, and 9 after infection), with chloroquine (45 mg/kg) or HCE (5 mg/kg), considering the survival index and the parasitaemia. The groups were compared to an untreated control group that receives only PBS at the same periods. The results indicated that HCE could bind to the total proteins of infected erythrocytes and could inhibit the parasite growth in vitro (IC50 = 25.4 g/mL). The in vivo therapeutic treatment with HCE increased the survival and decreased the parasitaemia in the infected animals. Therefore, the HCE treatment exhibited a significant antiplasmodial effect and may be considered as a potential candidate for the development of new antimalarial drugs.

  11. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of chenopodium album extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Baldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chenopodium album (Bathua, a native Indian herb, has been used for treatment of abdominal pain, eye disease, throat troubles and cardiovascular disorders. The present study was carried out to explore antioxidant and hepatoprotective efficacy of C. album extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of C. album seeds was evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity using three established models (diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging method, 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation decolorization assay and nitric oxide radical scavenging method and hepatoprotective activity was also assessed against CCl 4 induced hepatic damage in rats at the doses of 300 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg. Results: C. album extract was found to exhibit excellent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, when compared with ascorbic acid during in vitro studies. C. album extract at a dose of 450 mg/kg showed inhibition of elevation of the biochemical parameters comparable with silymarin (100 mg/kg and hence shown remarkable protection in hepatic injury induced by free radicals generated due to administration of CCl 4 as toxicant. The observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Conclusion: This study establish scientific evidences to folklore use of C. album in treatment of hepatic disorders and also suggests that free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of phytoconstituents may be the possible mechanisms of its hepatoprotective potential.

  12. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kolano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18 and hexaploid (2n=6x=54, were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.

  13. Heteroplasmy and atrazine resistance in Chenopodium album and Senecio vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Michaela; Bogenrieder, Arno; Sandermann, Heinrich; Ernst, Dieter

    Atrazine-resistant weeds are well known, and the resistance is primarily caused by a point mutation in the psbA chloroplast gene encoding the photosystem II D1 protein. Heteroplasmy, the presence of different types of chloroplasts in an individual plant, is also very common. Thus, atrazine-resistant weeds may also partly possess the atrazine-binding sequence and vice versa. The region of the psbA gene containing the mutation was sequenced from atrazine-resistant and atrazine-sensitive Chenopodium album and Senecio vulgaris plants. In atrazine-sensitive C. album plants, the expected AGT triplet was found. The atrazine-resistant plants contained the expected base substitution (AGT to GGT); however, in addition the AGT triplet was found. The atrazine-resistant S. vulgaris plants contained the expected GGT sequence, whereas the atrazine-sensitive plants contained both the AGT and GGT sequences. This clearly indicates that in addition to Gly264 also Ser264 is present in atrazine-resistant plants, and vice versa in atrazine-sensitive plants, indicating heteroplasmy in these weeds.

  14. Morphological and molecular analyses support the existence of host-specific Peronospora species infecting Chenopodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Denchev, Cvetomir M; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2008-03-01

    About 20 species of Peronospora have been reported to cause downy mildew on Chenopodium, but, particularly in plant pathology literature, only one species, P. farinosa, is considered to be involved. We performed sequence analysis of the ITS rDNA to reveal the phylogenetic relationships of Peronospora specimens from five species of Chenopodium, viz. C. album, C. ambrosioides, C. bonus-henricus, C. hybridum, and C. polyspermum. The five clades corresponded to particular Chenopodium species, and showed a high level of sequence divergence. Differences in the morphology of the conidia and ultimate branchlets also supported the separation of the five groups at the host species level. These results suggest that the names P. variabilis, P. boni-henrici, P. chenopodii, and P. chenopodii-polyspermi should be used for the four downy mildew pathogens specific to C. album, C. bonus-henricus, C. hybridum, and C. polyspermum, respectively. The Peronospora on C. ambrosioides was found to be an independent species.

  15. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs.

  16. Evaluation of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Dubey, N K; Tripathi, Y B

    2007-04-10

    Essential oil extracted from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae) was tested against the aflatoxigenic strain of test fungus Aspergillus flavus Link. The oil completely inhibited the mycelial growth at 100 microg/ml. The oil exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Helminthosporium oryzae and Pythium debaryanum at 100 microg/ml. The oil showed significant efficacy in inhibiting the aflatoxin B1 production by the aflatoxigenic strain of A. flavus. During in vivo investigation it protected stored wheat from different storage fungi for one year. Chenopodium oil also exhibited potent antioxidant activity when tested by ABTS method. All these observations suggest the possible exploitation of the Chenopodium oil as potential botanical fungitoxicant in ecofriendly control of post harvest biodeterioration of food commodities from storage fungi.

  17. Antiphytoviral Activity of Satureja montana L. ssp. variegata (Host P. W. Ball Essential Oil and Phenol Compounds on CMV and TMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Cukrov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Satureja montana L. ssp. variegata (Host P. W. Ball (Lamiaceae was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes (71.3%, among which carvacrol (19.4% and thymol (16.6% were the major compounds. When the essential oil was applied on local hosts Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste & Reyn. and Chenopodium quinoa Willd. simultaneously with the infecting virus, the number of local lesions on both Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV infected plants was reduced for 29.2% and 24.1%, respectively. When applied individually for each virus, thymol was more effective in reducing CMV infection (33.2%, while carvacrol was more effective in reducing the TMV infection (34.3%. No synergistic effect of both monoterpenes was observed in the antiviral activity of the oil.

  18. Hypotensive property of Chenopodium ambrosioides in anesthetized normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaidi, Asmae; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Berrichi, Abdelbasset; Aziz, Mohammed; Mekhfi, Hassane; Bnouham, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

    2014-02-20

    The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) are widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine to treat diabetes and hypertension. The goal of the present work is to investigate the hypotensive properties of different extract and fractions of the plant in anesthetized normotensive rats and to elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. The hypotensive effect of aqueous extract (AqE) of the leaves of C. ambrosioides L., methanolic (MF), ethyl acetate (AcF), and aqueous (AqF) Soxhlet fractions, administrated intravenously, was evaluated in anesthetized rats. The recorded signals of blood pressure and heart rate were visualized and analyzed by using an acquisition card "National Instrument" and software Labview 6.1. Intravenous administration of AqE of the leaves of C. ambrosioides L. induces a dose-dependent hypotension. A similar effect was obtained with MF, AcF, and AqF. Atropine (1 mg/kg), used to block cholinergic system, significantly reduced the hypotensive response to MF and AcF suggesting the presence of the cholinomimetic-muscarinic components in these fractions. However, the blood pressure lowering effect of MF and AcF in rats pretreated with L-NAME 20 mg/kg was unchanged showing that the release of NO is not implicated in the hypotensive action of this plant. The present study demonstrates that extracts from leaves of C. ambrosioides induce hypotensive effect that may be partially associated with its cardiac effects. These results may partly explain the traditional use of leaves of C. ambrosioides L. for the treatment of disorders such as hypertension.

  19. Insecticidal properties of a Chenopodium-based botanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, H; Vincent, C; Bostanian, N J

    2004-08-01

    The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 based on an essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety near ambrosioides, a North American herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae), western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorium (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Side effects on the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) also were determined. With green peach aphid, UDA-245 at 0.5% concentration was significantly more effective than the control (water) treatment in a laboratory bioassay and significantly more effective than neem oil and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap in a greenhouse assay. With the western flower thrips, UDA-245 at 0.5% was significantly more effective than neem oil, insecticidal soap and the control treatment in a laboratory bioassay, whereas in a greenhouse assay, UDA-245 at 1.0% was the only treatment that maintained control of the western flower thrips 2 wk after the last treatment period. UDA-245 at 0.5% (laboratory bioassay) was significantly more effective in managing greenhouse whitefly than neem oil, endosulfan, and the control treatment and as effective as insecticidal soap. Insecticidal soap proved to be toxic to the parasitoid E. formosa (71.9% mortality), whereas UDA-245 at 0.5% was not significantly more toxic than the control (11.2 and 4.6% mortality, respectively). Our results suggest that a greenhouse integrated pest management (IPM) program using a botanical such as UDA-245 could effectively control infestations of major pests present while having a negligible effect on biological control agents.

  20. Acaricidal properties of a Chenopodium-based botanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, H; Bostanian, N J; Vincent, C

    2004-08-01

    The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 [25% EC (vol:vol)], based on an essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety ambrosioides, a North American herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control the adult stage and egg hatch of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). After a laboratory bioassay with adult twospotted spider mites, a 0.5% concentration of UDA-245 was more effective than 0.7% (AI) of neem oil (Neem Rose Defense). After a similar bioassay with the European red mite, a 0.5% concentration UDA-245 was as effective as 0.006% (AI) of abamectin (Avid). UDA-245 at 0.5% significantly reduced egg hatch of the twospotted spider mite, 5 and 9 d after treatment and of the European red mite 6 d after treatment. Egg hatch was significantly lower using 0.006% (AI) of abamectin, 0.7% of neem oil, and 1.0% insecticidal soap than UDA-245. Residual tests indicated that UDA-245 may be persistent in the environment only for a few hours. Only 23% mortality was noted when mites were introduced on bean leaves 1 h after treatment with a 2% concentration of UDA-245. At the recommended dose of 0.5%, UDA-245 was not considered phytotoxic for most plants tested, i.e., lettuce, roses, and tomatoes. Results suggest that a greenhouse integrated pest management program using UDA-245 could effectively and selectively control mite infestations by treating "hot spots" with negligible effect on biological control agents when treating before introduction or when natural enemies are absent.

  1. Experiments on the extraction and photoconversion of chenopodium chlorophyll protein CP 668

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willemke

    1966-01-01

    1. 1. The amount of extractable, photoconvertible, protein-chlorophyll complex CP 668 from Chenopodium album leaves was found to be very variable, depending on site and day of leaf collection. 2. 2. Photoconversion of CP 668 into a 740-nm absorbing form probably does not occur in intact leaves;

  2. 75 FR 39450 - Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides... establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Terpene Constituents of the... the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of Terpene Constituents of the...

  3. Study on the nutrients change rules during germination of quinoa and quinoa malted milk pulping process%藜麦萌发过程中营养物质变化规律及藜麦芽乳制浆工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡洁; 陈树俊; 庞震鹏; 刘晓娟; 徐晓霞; 仪鑫; 石玥; 李乐

    2016-01-01

    为进一步开发利用藜麦芽类产品,以藜麦为原料,经一定条件萌发,分别测定藜麦萌发后蛋白质、粗脂肪、淀粉、还原糖含量、α-淀粉酶、β-淀粉酶活性、维生素B1、B2含量、多酚、黄酮以及γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)含量的变化规律,并确定最佳萌发时间.在单因素的基础上采用正交实验优化,以原料利用率和多酚提取率的综合水平值作为评价指标,探寻藜麦芽乳最佳磨浆工艺.结果表明,最佳萌发时间为第3d,磨浆温度为60℃,磨浆时间为3 min,磨浆液料比为6∶1 mL/g,磨浆pH为6.5时工艺最佳.此条件下原料利用率达到70.91%,多酚提取率为79.79%,综合水平值为77.13%.

  4. Effect of ozone on the interference of Urtica urens L. and Chenopodium album L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, R.; Markan, K.

    1984-01-01

    Interference between two annual species (Urtica urens L. and Chenopodium album L.) was tested in a replacement experiment. Interactions between the plants were additionally described by their life-cycle and reproductory success. Influence of ozone on the development of pure stands and mixtures was tested by fumigations under field conditions. Chenopodium proved to be non-sensitive to ozone. Due to its ruderal population strategy which is well adapted to disturbance, Urtica could cope very well with ozone induced necroses of its leaves. Fumigation modified the interference between the two species. Leaves of the annual species Impatiens parviflora DC. showed high sensitivity to ozone which could be demonstrated by fumigations with different concentrations.

  5. Óleo essencial de Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: estado da arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Damasceno Sá

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium ambrosioides L. é uma erva aromática amplamente distribuída ao longo da América, África e também em países da Europa. No Brasil, a planta é popularmente conhecida como mastruz. Tem sido utilizada pela população como anti-helmíntica e para tratamentos de gripe. O óleo essencial das folhas é o componente mais conhecido da planta e de grande importância científica. As propriedades terapêuticas da planta são geralmente atribuídas ao óleo essencial pelos investigadores. Este trabalho traz uma revisão da literatura sobre o óleo essencial de C. ambrosioides, com ênfase nos seus constituintes químicos, atividade biológica e aspectos toxicológicos.Palavras-chave: Ascaridol. Chenopodicaeae. Chenopodium ambrosioides. Mastruz. Óleo essencial. ABSTRACT Chenopodium ambrosioides L. is an aromatic herb widely distributed throughout the Americas, Africa and also in European countries. In Brazil, the plant is popularly known as mastruz. It has been used by the population as anthelmintic and in the treatment of influenza. The essential oil of the leaves is the most familiar component of the plant and of great scientific importance. The therapeutic properties of the plant are generally attributed to the essential oil. This paper reviews the literature on the essential oil of C. ambrosioides, with emphasis on its chemical constituents, biological activity and toxicological aspects.Keywords: Ascaridole. Chenopodiaceae. Chenopodium ambrosioides. Essential Oil. Mastruz.

  6. Bioactivity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: antioxidant and antitumour potential, and detailed characterization in bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Eliana; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are recognized as important sources of novel biomolecules, which theoretically can be used in the treatment of diverse diseases. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae; syn: Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants) is an example of a plant formerly used in Portuguese traditional medicine, normally consumed as infusion of its dried leaves and flowering stems. lt has diverse pharmacological applications in the treatment of influenza, cold or gastroint...

  7. The antioxidant epazote effect (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) on raw ground beef

    OpenAIRE

    Luz H. Villalobos-Delgado; Edith G. Gonzalez-Mondragon; Alma Yadira Salazar-Govea; Joaquin T. Santiago-Castro; Juana Ramirez-Andrade

    2016-01-01

    For this paper, solid-liquid extractions of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) were carried out using water (IE) and ethanol (EtOHE) as solvents, with the objective of evaluating its antioxidant effect on raw ground beef stored at 4 °C for 9 days. The analysis was carried out under the following treatments: CTL (meat without antioxidants), CIE (meat with infusion of epazote), CEtOHE (meat with ethanolic extract of epazote) and ASC (meat with sodium ascorbate solution). The characteristics ...

  8. Nematicidal Constituents from the Essential Oil of Chenopodium Ambrosioides Aerial Parts

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of Chinese medicinal herb, Chenopodium ambrosioides aerial parts was found to possess nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita. The essential oil of C. ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 27 components of the essential oil were identified. The principal compounds in C. ambrosioides essential oil were (Z)-ascaridole (27.27%), ρ-cymene (19.05%), isoascaridole (14....

  9. Corrosion inhibition of steel in sulfuric acidic solution by the Chenopodium Ambrosioides Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bammou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of natural occurring extract of Chenopodium Ambrosioides (CAE on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in sulfuric acid solution is studied by the weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The experimental results reveal that extract has a good inhibiting effect on the metal tested in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The protection efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration to attain 94% at 4 g/l. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that it acts essentially as a cathodic inhibitor. EIS results show that the change in the impedance parameters (Rt and Cdl with concentration of extract of Chenopodium Ambrosioides is indicative of the adsorption of molecules leading to the formation of a protective layer on the surface of carbon steel. The efficiency decreases with temperature. The adsorption of Chenopodium Ambrosioides extract is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The activation energies and enthalpies of the corrosion process of carbon steel in acidic medium were determined.

  10. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  11. Efficacy of the intralesional treatment with Chenopodium ambrosioides in the murine infection by Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, Fernando J; Costa, Graciomar C; Pereira, Paulo V S; Aragão-Filho, Walmir C; Sousa, Sanara M; Frazão, Josias B; Pereira, Wanderson S; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Amaral, Flávia M M; Rebêlo, José M M; Guerra, Rosane N M; Ribeiro, Maria Nilce S; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2008-01-17

    Leishmaniasis, caused by protozoan from Leishmania genus, is an endemic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The chemotherapy to this disease is not always effective and can cause several side effects. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) is used by the native people in the treatment of cutaneous ulcers caused by different species of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the treatment with a hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides on the murine infection with Leishmania amazonensis. The mice were treated for 4-6 weeks post-infection (p.i.) with HCE (5 mg/kg) or meglumine antimoniate (Sb(v)) (28 mg/kg) either by the oral route, once a day, for 15 days or by five intralesional (IL) injections at intervals of 4 days. The thickness of the infected paws was determined weekly and the parasite load evaluated in the draining lymph nodes (LN), the spleen and in the footpad after 7 weeks of infection. The nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated in cultures with cells from peritoneum or LN. The IL treatment increased the NO production in the LN and peritoneum cultures and reduced the parasite load from the footpad, spleen and LN. On the other hand, the oral treatment decreased did alter neither the NO production nor the parasite load. IL HCE treatment was more efficient than the oral HCE treatment since the former was able to control the dissemination of infection. This effect can be due to either a direct leishmanicidal effect of HCE or the improvement in the NO production by HCE-stimulated macrophages. The results could justify the topical use of the Chenopodium ambrosioides' leaves in the treatment of the ulcers caused by Leishmania.

  12. Volatile constituents and antibacterial screening of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. growing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N; Palazzo, Maria C; Olowu, Rasaq A; Ogundajo, Akintayo

    2009-07-01

    The essential oil of the aerial parts of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. has been isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-MS. The major components were found to be alpha-terpinene (63.1%), p-cymene (26.4%) and ascaridole (3.9%). The oil displayed no antibacterial activity against either Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus or Staphylococcus aureus, or the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (MIC=1250 microg/mL). A cluster analysis of C. ambrosioides essential oils reveals at least seven distinct chemotypes: ascaridole, alpha-terpinene, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and limonene.

  13. Involvement of NFκB in the antirheumatic potential of Chenopodium album L., aerial parts extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sumit K; Itankar, Prakash R; Verma, Prashant R; Bharne, Ashish P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-08-08

    Chenopodium album L. (C. album) is commonly known as Bathua in Hindi (Family: Chenopodiaceae). Traditionally, the plant is used as a laxative, diuretic, sedative and the infusion of the plant is used for the treatment of rheumatism. However, no scientific validation is available on the antirheumatic potential of the plant. In the present investigation, role of NF kappa B (NFκB) in the antiarthritic potential of extracts of aerial parts of Chenopodium album was explored and evaluated. The defatted aerial parts of Chenopodium album were successively extracted with ethylacetate, acetone, methanol and 50% methanol to study their antioxidant capacity followed by antiarthritic potential using Complete Freund׳s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model in rats. The polyphenol, flavonoid and flavanone contents of different extracts were quantified and correlated with their antioxidant capacity, antiarthritic activity and NFκB inhibition potential. The experimental data indicated that the acetone extract of Chenopodium album (ACCA) has shown significant reduction in rat paw edema (80.13%) at dose level of 200 mg/kg per oral in 21 days of this study. On 22nd day, hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated and it was observed that the altered hematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR), biochemical parameters (Serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) and loss in body weight in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal level by the ACCA extract. ACCA extract significantly decreased the NFκB expression in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and this effect is comparable with standard indomethacine in CFA treated rats. The polyphenolic and flavonoid content of different extracts were in the range of 14.56±0.21-42.00±0.2 mg (gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and 2.20±0.003-7.33±0.5 mg (rutin equivalent/g extract) respectively. The antiarthritic activity possessed by ACCA extract can be correlated directly to its

  14. Propiedades nutricionales y antioxidantes de la cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen)

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo Estrella, Dolly Elisa

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta revisión fue detallar las propiedades nutricionales y antioxidantes de la cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen). La cañihua es uno de los granos andinos menos estudiados y más nutritivos, debido a su contenido y calidad proteica. Esta planta a causa de su crecimiento en condiciones climáticas extremas, como en el altiplano (4000 m.s.n.m.), probablemente ha desarrollado una protección natural contra la oxidación. Los reportes indican que la cañihua tiene una calidad pro...

  15. Coffee ringspot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, C M; Kitajima, E W; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Coffee ringspot is characterized by conspicuous ringspot symptoms on leaves, berries, and less frequently on twigs. It is caused by coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV), a short, bacilliform virus (40 nm x 100-110 nm). The virus is not seed borne and is transmitted by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). Transovarial transmission within the mite does not occur. CoRSV has been mechanically transmitted to Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reynaud, C. quinoa Wildenow, Beta vulgaris L., and Alternanthera tenella Colla resulting in local lesions. Systemic infection within both C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa occurs. Virions are found in the nucleus or cytoplasm of infected cells, commonly associated with membranes. Occasionally, membrane bounded particles are found within the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. A characteristic electron lucent, nuclear inclusion is commonly found in many infected cells. These cytopathic effects place CoRSV among the nuclear type of Brevipalpus-borne viruses. The disease has been reported in several Brazilian states (São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, and Federal District) and recently found in Costa Rica. A similar disease is known in the Philippines, but no information exists about its relationship to CoRSV. Coffee ringspot had no economical significance until recently when a large scale infection was reported in Minas Gerais that resulted in yield loss.

  16. Preliminary attempts to biolistic inoculation of grapevine fanleaf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valat, L; Mode, F; Mauro, M C; Burrus, M

    2003-03-01

    Biolistics has been studied to inoculate grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a Nepovirus, to its natural woody host, Vitis sp., and its herbaceous host, Chenopodium quinoa. At first, bombardment conditions for in vitro and greenhouse grown plants were set using the uidA reporter gene. The infectious feature of the cartridges was then evaluated by studying infection of C. quinoa plants. Systemic infection was obtained with either GFLV particles or RNA extracts in experimental conditions which gave also the highest transient uidA gene expression. Concerning grapevine, our results indicate that extrapolation to this plant is difficult. In only 1 out of 8 independent bombardment experiments done with GFLV and 41B, we were able to detect the virus in freshly bombarded leaves. Similarly, later after bombardment, Pol mRNAs were detected once, at days 7 and 14 only. Incubating the plants in darkness, as suggested in the literature, or using Rupestris Saint Georges, an indicator for GFLV presence, did not yield any improvement. Finely, our observations suggest that detection of GFLV in bombarded grapevine tissues by immunological or molecular techniques remains a limiting factor, probably due to an excess of inhibitory compounds released during the biolistic process.

  17. Inclusion of ancient Latin-American crops in bread formulation improves intestinal iron absorption and modulates inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, José Moisés; Haros, Monika

    2016-02-01

    This study compares iron (Fe) absorption in Fe-deficient animals from bread formulations prepared by substitution of white wheat flour (WB) by whole wheat flour (WWB), amaranth flour (Amaranthus hypochondriacus, 25%) (AB) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa, 25%) (QB), or chia flour (Salvia hispanica L, 5%) (ChB). Hematological parameters of Fe homeostasis, plasmatic active hepcidin peptide production (LC coupled to Ms/Ms), and liver TfR-2 and IL-6 expression (RT-qPCR) were determined. The different bread formulations increased Fe content between 14% and 83% relative to white bread. Only animals fed with WWB, AB and ChB increased haemoglobin concentrations significantly. Feeding the different bread formulations did not increase hepcidin levels, but down-regulated transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) (apart from WWB) and IL-6 (apart from QB) expression levels. Only AB and ChB had a significant influence on Fe bioavailability at the investigated level of substitution. The potential contribution of these flours would not differ considerably from that of WWB.

  18. Low resistance against novel 2-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazine herbicides in atrazine-resistant Chenopodium album plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohno, H.; Ohki, A.; Koizumi, K.; Noort, van den M.E.; Rodrigues, G.C.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of nine novel 2-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazines on photosynthetic reactions were measured in thylakoids isolated from wild-type and atrazine-resistant plants of Chenopodium album. The resistant plants have a mutation of serine for glycine at position 264 of the D1 protein. The measurement of

  19. Germination responses of Cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) to temperature and sowing depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Calle, Juan Pablo; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Sørensen, Marten;

    2016-01-01

    Cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule) is grown in the Altiplano of Bolivia and Peru, between 3810 and 4200 m a.s.l. Rural indigenous households have cultivated the cañahua as a subsistence crop for millennia. The seeds have a high content and quality of protein. We studied the relation between the f...

  20. Low resistance against novel 2-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazine herbicides in atrazine-resistant Chenopodium album plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohno, H.; Ohki, A.; Koizumi, K.; Noort, van den M.E.; Rodrigues, G.C.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of nine novel 2-benzylamino-1,3,5-triazines on photosynthetic reactions were measured in thylakoids isolated from wild-type and atrazine-resistant plants of Chenopodium album. The resistant plants have a mutation of serine for glycine at position 264 of the D1 protein. The measurement of

  1. Comparative chemical, cytotoxicity and antileishmanial properties of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Nance, Marcelina R; García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Setzer, William N

    2011-02-01

    In countries where leishmaniasis is endemic, there are not very many treatment alternatives and most options have problems associated with their use. Plants and their natural products constitute good sources of interesting lead compounds that could be potentially active against Leishmania. Chenopodium ambrosioides is a plant that is widely used in popular medicine and its antiparasitic effects have been documented, including the antileishmanial potentialities of Chenopodium oil. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, in-vitro cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of essential oils extracted from C. ambrosioides, which received different treatments prior to extraction. The chemical characterization by GC-MS of the three essential oil samples showed similar composition and the major components were alpha-terpinene (17.0-20.7%), p-cymene (20.2-21.1%) and ascaridole (30.5-47.1%). The essential oils exhibited similar antileishmanial activities against intracellular amastigote form, with IC50 values between 4.7 and 12.4 microg/mL. However, a lower cytotoxicity was displayed by the essential oil extracted from fresh green vegetable material, which was statistically different (P ambrosioides but did change their cytotoxicity, which should be taken into account in further studies.

  2. Toxic effects of carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole from essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides on mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Stamberg, Werner; Staniek, Katrin; Gille, Lars

    2009-11-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides have been used for centuries in the Americas as a popular remedy for parasitic diseases. The essential oil of this plant possesses anthelmintic activity and is still used in some regions to treat parasitosis and leishmaniasis. However, the Chenopodium oil caused also some fatalities, leading to its commercial disuse. In this work, we studied the mechanism of toxicity of the essential oil and its major pure ingredients (carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole, which was synthesized from alpha-terpinene) with respect to mammalian cells and mitochondria. We observed that all products, but especially caryophyllene oxide, inhibited the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This effect for carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide was mediated via direct complex I inhibition. Without Fe2+, ascaridole was less toxic to mammalian mitochondria than other major ingredients. However, evidence on the formation of carbon-centered radicals in the presence of Fe2+ was obtained by ESR spin-trapping. Furthermore, it was shown that Fe2+ potentiated the toxicity of ascaridole on oxidative phosphorylation of rat liver mitochondria. The increase of the alpha-tocopherol quinone/alpha-tocopherol ratio under these conditions indicated the initiation of lipid peroxidation by Fe2+-mediated ascaridole cleavage. Further ESR spin-trapping experiments demonstrated that in addition to Fe2+, reduced hemin, but not mitochondrial cytochrome c can activate ascaridole, explaining why ascaridole in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice exhibited a higher toxicity than in isolated mitochondria.

  3. Composition of essential oil of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides and insecticidal activity against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sha Sha; Feng Hu, Jin; Liu, Zhi Long

    2011-06-01

    In a screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was found to possess strong fumigant activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Essential oil of C. ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation, and the constituents were determined by GC-MS analysis. The active compounds were isolated and identified by bioassay-directed fractionation. Five active compounds [(Z)-ascaridole, 2-carene, ρ-cymene, isoascaridole and α-terpinene] were isolated and identified from the essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides. The LC₅₀ values (fumigation) of the crude essential oils and the active compound (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 3.08 and 0.84 mg L⁻¹ air respectively. The LD₅₀ values (contact toxicity) of the crude essential oil and (Z)-ascaridole against S. zeamais adults were 2.12 and 0.86 µg g⁻¹ body weight respectively. The findings suggested that the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides and its main active constituent, (Z)-ascaridole, may be explored as a natural potential fumigant. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. In vitro bactericidal activity of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its individual herb Chenopodium ambrosioides L. against antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xue-Zhi; Li, Ning; Cheng, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal effects of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its major component Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Four clinical antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains were isolated and incubated in liquid medium containing Jinghua Weikang Capsule or Chenopodium ambrosioides L. By means of time-kill curve method, the average colony counts and bactericidal rate were calculated at time points of 0, 4, 8 and 24 h after the incubation and the time-kill curves were charted. Both Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. at a concentration of 0.64 g/L showed obvious bactericidal effect against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori after 4 h of incubation. Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. are considered to be active against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori in vitro.

  5. Ascaridole-less infusions of Chenopodium ambrosioides contain a nematocide(s) that is(are) not toxic to mammalian smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D; VanCrey, K; Harrison, P; Rangachari, P K; Rosenfeld, J; Warren, C; Sorger, G

    2004-06-01

    Infusions of Chenopodium ambrosioides (L.) have been used for centuries in the Americas as a popular remedy against intestinal worm infections. The essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides contains high levels of ascaridole, which is a potent anthelmintic, but which has also been responsible for human fatalities, leading to its disuse. Almost 90% of the nematocidal activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides infusions was due to a hydrophilic component different from ascaridole. Synthetic ascaridole and the ascaridole from infusions, extracted into hexane, caused a reduction of carbachol-induced contractions in rat gastrointestinal smooth muscle at concentrations required to kill Caenorhabditis elegans (L.). The herbal infusion and the ascaridole-free hexane-extracted aqueous residue of the above infusion, at nematocidal concentrations, had no detectable effect on smooth muscle contraction in the above system. It would appear that the traditional form of usage of Chenopodium ambrosioides infusions as a vermifuge is safer than the use of the herb's essential oil.

  6. Characterization of a new potyvirus causing mosaic and flower variegation in Catharanthus roseus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Conceição Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.

  7. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  8. Differences in root uptake of radiocaesium by 30 plant taxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadley, M.R.; Willey, N.J. [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The concentration of Cs was measured in the shoots of 30 taxa of plants after exposing the roots for 6 h to 0.1 {mu}g radiolabelled Cs g{sup -1} soil. There were maximum differences between Chenopodium quinoa and Koeleria macrantha of 20-fold in Cs concentration and 100-fold in total Cs accumulated. There was a weak relationship between Rb(K) and Cs concentration across the 30 taxa, but a strong relationship within the Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae. Taxa in the Chenopodiaceae discriminated approximately nine times less between Rb and Cs during uptake than did those in the Gramineae. The lowest Cs concentrations occurred in slow growing Gramineae and the highest in fast growing Chenopodiaceae. If radiocaesium uptake by the Chenopodiaceae during chronic exposures shows similar patterns to those reported here after acute exposure, then the food contamination implications and the potential for phytoremediation of radiocaesium contaminated soils using plants in this family may be worth investigating. (author).

  9. Manutenção da infectividade de Tymovírus em extratos de plantas Maintenance of infectivity of Tymovirus in plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mércia Barradas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Quatro isolados do vírus do mosaico da berinjela (EMV - "eggplant mosaic virus" - grupo tymovírus foram armazenados a partir de extratos foliares de hospedeiras com sintomas sistêmicos. Os virus EMV-Al (isolado de Abelia, EMV-Sc (isolado da Escócia, -ts (estirpe-padrão e VNBT (vírus da necrose branca do tomateiro, que induzem sintomas em Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa (Família Chenopodiaceae Datura stramonium, Lycopersicon esculentum e Nicotiana glutinosa (Solanaceae, foram conservados em extratos destas plantas, à temperatura ambiente, em geladeira e em congelador. A infectividade dos vírus, em diferentes períodos de armazenamento, foi testada em plantas de datura e glutinosa, para se determinar a longevidade in vitro. Constatou-se que, quando guardados em baixas temperaturas,os extratos preservam por mais tempo a infectividade dos vírus. No caso de datura e glutinosa, por exemplo, resultados positivos foram obtidos até 413 e 282 dias de armazenamento, respectivamente, em congelador. Entretanto, com relação às espécies de Chenopodium testadas, mesmo alguns extratos recém-preparados conduziram a resultados negativos, confirmando a presença de inibidores de infecção viral nestas plantas. Das três espécies, é sugerida a utilização apenas de C.quinoa para o preparo de extratos visando preservar estes vírus e, assim mesmo, por um período relativamente curto (entre 53 e 80 dias. A avaliação geral dos resultados mostra que, para os tymovírus estudados neste trabalho, é possível conservar a infectividade através da técnica de armazenamento de extratos foliares de plantas sistemicamente infectadas.Four isolates of EMV (eggplant mosaic virus - tymovirus group were preserved in crude extracts from systemically-infected plants. EMV-Al (Abelia strain, EMV-Sc (Scottish strain, EMV-ts (type-strain and TWNV (tomato white necrosis virus which induce symptoms in Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. murale, C. quinoa

  10. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  11. Antiphytoviral Activity of Sesquiterpene-Rich Essential Oils from Four Croatian Teucrium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franko Burčul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the essential oil profiles of four Croatian Teucrium species (Lamiaceae, as determined by GC and GC/MS, with their antiphytoviral efficiency. A phytochemical analysis showed that T. polium, T. flavum, T. montanum and T. chamaedrys are characterized by similar essential oil compositions. The investigated oils are characterized by a high proportion of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons β-caryophyllene (7.1–52.0% and germacrene D (8.7–17.0%. Other important components were β-pinene from T. montanum and α-pinene from T. flavum. The investigated essential oils were proved to reduce lesion number in the local host Chenopodium quinoa Willd. infected with Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, with reductions of 41.4%, 22.9%, 44.3% and 25.7%, respectively.

  12. Evaluation of indigenous grains from the Peruvian Andean region for antidiabetes and antihypertension potential using in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Genovese, Maria Ines; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-08-01

    The health-relevant functionality of 10 thermally processed Peruvian Andean grains (five cereals, three pseudocereals, and two legumes) was evaluated for potential type 2 diabetes-relevant antihyperglycemia and antihypertension activity using in vitro enzyme assays. Inhibition of enzymes relevant for managing early stages of type 2 diabetes such as hyperglycemia-relevant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase and hypertension-relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were assayed along with the total phenolic content, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activity based on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) (cereal) exhibited high free radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activity (77%) and had the highest total phenolic content (8 +/- 1 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample weight) and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (51% at 5 mg of sample weight). The major phenolic compound in this cereal was protocatechuic acid (287 +/- 15 microg/g of sample weight). Pseudocereals such as Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and Kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) were rich in quercetin derivatives (1,131 +/- 56 and 943 +/- 35 microg [expressed as quercetin aglycone]/g of sample weight, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity (86% and 75%, respectively). Andean legumes (Lupinus mutabilis cultivars SLP-1 and H-6) inhibited significantly the hypertension-relevant ACE (52% at 5 mg of sample weight). No alpha-amylase inhibitory activity was found in any of the evaluated Andean grains. This in vitro study indicates the potential of combination of Andean whole grain cereals, pseudocereals, and legumes to develop effective dietary strategies for managing type 2 diabetes and associated hypertension and provides the rationale for animal and clinical studies.

  13. Activity of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides grown in Cuba against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Montalvo, Ana M; Almanonni, Salah; Scull, Ramón; Miranda, Migdalia; Abreu, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Current therapy against leishmaniasis is unsatisfactory. Efficacious and safe new drugs are needed. In this study, we show the leishmanicidal effect of an essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides against Leishmania amazonensis. The tested product had a potent inhibitory action against promastigote and amastigote forms, with 50% effective dose values of 3.7 and 4.6 microg/ml, respectively. The essential oil showed a moderate toxicity on macrophages from BALB/c mice. An optimal dose of 30 mg/kg/day was effective when administered during 15 days by intraperitoneal route to BALB/c mice infected experimentally. These studies revealed a potential source for the discovery of novel drugs to combat the leishmaniasis based on the traditional medicine.

  14. Chenopodium ambrosioides associated with whole body vibration exercises alters the feed intake in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, André Luiz Bandeira Dionizio; Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Almeida, Lívia Pinto; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Dionello, Carla de Fontoura; Morel, Danielle Soares; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-08-31

    The consequences of treatment involving the use of a natural product and whole body vibration (WBV) exercise have been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the joint treatment with an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and WBV on physiological parameters in rats. Wistar rats (n=20) were divided equally into four groups: control group (CG), treated with C. ambrosioides (CHE) group, exposed to 50 Hz of mechanial vibration (VBR), and treated with C. ambrosioides and exposed to 50 Hz of mechanical vibration (VBR + CHE) daily for 6 weeks. The body mass of the animals was determined weekly, the feed intake and the stool consistency were measured daily. One day after the 6 weeks of treatment, samples of blood were collected and used for biochemical analysis. Along 6 weeks, there was an increase (Pambrosioides caused alteration in the enzymatic activity of AST. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; López, P; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2002-06-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae) is an anthelmintic herb used in Latin-America's folk medicine. The aim of this work is to evaluate genetic damage induced by decoction and infusion of this plant which were assayed in different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000 microg/ml), by addition of the extract to human lymphocyte cell cultures. The endpoints evaluated were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) and mitotic indexes (MI). The repeated measure analysis of variance was used for statistic evaluation of the results. The results showed (a) a statistical increase in the percentage of cells with CA and in the frequency of SCE when cultures were exposed to both preparations of Paico, (b) a decrease in MI of both preparations assayed, although no modification in the CPK values either in the infusion or in the decoction was observed. These results suggest a possible genotoxic effect of both preparations, probably due to different active principles.

  16. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of Conyza linifolia and Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Hammoda, Hala M; El Ghazouly, Maged G; Farag, Mohamed A; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Bassam, Samar M

    2015-01-01

    Two essential oil-containing plants growing wildly in Egypt: Conyza linifolia (Willd.) Täckh. (Asteraceae) and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) were subjected to essential oil analysis and biological investigation. The essential oils from both plants were prepared by hydrodistillation, and GC/MS was employed for volatiles profiling. This study is the first to perform GC/MS analysis of C. linifolia essential oil growing in Egypt. C. linifolia essential oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes, while that of C. ambrosioides was rich in monoterpenes. Ascaridole, previously identified as the major component of the latter, was found at much lower levels. In addition, the oils were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and one fungus. The insecticidal activities of both oils, including mosquitocidal and pesticidal potentials, were also evaluated. The results of biological activities encourage further investigation of the two oils as antimicrobial and insecticidal agents of natural origin.

  17. Morpho-histological studies in the aromatic species of Chenopodium from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzani, N E; Barboza, G E; Bugatti, M A; Ariza Espinar, L

    2003-04-01

    A morpho-histological study of the vegetative organs (stem and leaf) of the aromatic species of Chenopodium L. from Argentina [C. ambrosioides L., C. burkartii (Aellen) Vorosch., C. carinatum R. Br., C. chilense Schrad., C. graveolens Willd. var. bangii (Murr) Aellen, C. haumanii Ulbr., C. multifidum L., C. oblanceolatum (Speg.) Giusti, C. pumilio R. Br., C. retusum (Moq.) Moq., and C. venturii (Aellen) Cabrera] was carried out. Classifications for the glandular and non-glandular trichomes are established and their presence among species is presented. A variant in both the dorsiventral and isobilateral mesophyll is reported; some data are valuable for systematic purposes and for the identification of dried and smashed material used as vegetal drug.

  18. Which factors support the occurrence of Chenopodium album in maize fields in Northern Germany?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Redwitz, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The area cultivated with maize in Germany is continuously increasing throughout the last years. Nevertheless weeds in maize get small notice, probably since they are still easy to control. If maize cropping frequency and intensity continue to increase, problems with adapted weeds are likely to occur. To face these effects, it is worthwhile to know more about the appearance of typical maize weeds. In 2011 and 2012 a weed survey took place in four regions of Northern Germany. Weed species were identified and counted on 169 fields cropped with maize. Data about management of these fields was collected. One of the most wide spread weeds was Chenopodium album, which can also cause high yield losses. With a generalized linear mixed model five parameters were identified which influence the emergence of C. album: precipitation, cropping maize in the previous year, fertilizing with manure, soil organic matter and plant available phosphorous.

  19. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of oral treatment with Chenopodium ambrosioides in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wanderson S; Ribeiro, Bruno P; Sousa, Anildes I P; Serra, Izabel C P B; Mattar, Nadia S; Fortes, Thiare S; Reis, Aramys S; Silva, Lucilene A; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2010-02-17

    The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) have been used by native people to treat many diseases. Recently, we showed that the treatment with small dose (5mg/kg) of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) from Chenopodium ambrosioides' leaves has immunestimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the subchronic toxicity of the oral treatment with this HE in preclinical assays. Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups (n=10/group). They received the HE daily at the doses of 5, 50 and 500 mg/kg by gavage during 15 days. The control group received only water. They were observed each hour for 24h and each day for 15 days, when the blood was collected. The serum was used to perform the biochemical analysis. The mice were then killed and the vital and lymphoid organs were collected and evaluated. There was neither death nor alterations in the body weight in the HE-treated groups, but there were alterations in the weight of some organs. There was an increase in the lymph node cells number in the highest two doses. The number of cells in the bone marrow was high in the HE-treated groups, but the number of peritoneal cells was smaller in the HE-treated groups when compared to the control. There was no alteration in the AST, but there was a reduction in the albumin levels in the HE500 group and in the triglycerides and VLDL in the highest doses. The subchronic treatment with HE induced punctual alterations in the groups treated with the highest doses. However, the HE treatment was not lethal and did not induce toxic alterations using the therapeutic dose, suggesting that it is safe to use this product in the adequate dose. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Socio-economic vulnerability, adaptation to agro-climatic risk and the potential of user-tailored climate services for the Andean Highlands: The case of quinoa production in the region of Puno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flubacher, Moritz; Sedlmeier, Katrin; Lechthaler, Filippo; Rohrer, Mario; Cristobal, Lizet; Vinogradova, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    In the semi-arid Altiplano in Peru, smallholder farmers are extremely exposed to climatic hazards like drought, frost and hail. These unfavorable weather and climate events can lead to significant crop losses and thereby provoke periods of food insecurity for subsistence farmers. The use of specific climate information can serve as an adaptation strategy to reduce the impact of these natural hazards. In this context, the Climandes project (a project of the Global Framework for Climate Services led by WMO) aims at developing user-tailored seasonal forecast products for the agricultural sector in the Peruvian Andes such as indices on increased frost risk, the occurrence of long dry periods, or the start of the rainy season. In order to develop such user-tailored climate information and link it efficiently to the existing implementation context, it is important to understand the complex interrelation between climate variability and change, socio-economic vulnerability and adaptation limits. Moreover, as it has been widely shown, the process of making climate information useful for end-users, in particular for smallholder farmers in developing countries, remains a considerable challenge due to existing cognitive, cultural and institutional constraints. In this sense, it is necessary to identify these constraints and formulate strategies to overcome them. While there exist different studies about climate change and anomalies in Puno, there is no consolidated evidence on the corresponding socio-economic vulnerabilities in the specific agricultural context of Puno. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a field survey collecting primary data in the Andean highlands based on a representative sample of 726 smallholder farmers in the region of Puno (Peru). The assessment primarily focused on exploring smallholders' agro-climatic risk exposure, socio-economic profiles, existing coping strategies as well as prevailing barriers to utilization of science-based climate information. The study was complemented with an artefactual experimental game performed with 176 smallholders to identify and describe their risk preferences. The existing economic literature shows that farmers' risk preferences generally play a decisive role for agricultural decision-making indicating the importance of understanding farmer's risk profile when evaluating the potential use of climate information at the individual level. First results indicate that smallholders in the region are regularly exposed to extreme weather events such as frost, hailstorms and droughts. Under these conditions, farmers often do not have the capacity and sufficient resources to prevent periods of food insecurity at the end of the growing period. Hereby climate information can support the agricultural production decisions and improve food security but only if developed in close collaboration with the end-users.

  2. 不同盐胁迫对藜麦种子发芽和幼苗生长的影响%Effects of Different Salt Stress on Quinoa Seed Vigor and Seedling Physiological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊杰; 蒋玉蓉; 吕柯兰; 陆国权; 毛前

    2015-01-01

    以藜麦品种“Temuco”、“634920”和“23”为材料,研究了不同盐浓度对藜麦种子活力和幼苗生理生化的影响.结果表明,品种“23”的耐盐性最好,“634920”其次,而“Temuco”最差.幼苗叶片的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、过氧化物酶(POD)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量测定结果表明,随盐浓度增加,3个藜麦品种幼苗叶片的SOD、POD活性均呈先增加后降低的趋势.品种“23”幼苗的SOD和POD活性在1.5% NaCl时达到最大值,分别为154.95 U/(g·min)(FW)和96.24 U/(g·min) (FW),而品种“634920”和“Temuco”幼苗的SOD、POD活性则在1.0% NaCl浓度时达到最大值.参试品种幼苗叶片的MDA含量随着盐浓度的增加均呈逐渐上升的趋势.本研究为揭示藜麦的耐盐机制提供了理论依据.

  3. Ecological Adaptability of Quinoa in Northern Foot of Yinshan in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古阴山北麓区藜麦生态适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任永峰; 王志敏; 赵沛义; 宋洁; 栗艳芳; 骆红; 邓万云

    2016-01-01

    藜麦具有较高的营养价值和广泛的适应性,但目前尚未有在内蒙古阴山北麓区藜麦种植的报道.针对内蒙古阴山北麓干旱半干旱区年降水量小、马铃薯连作导致病虫害频发等问题,为调整种植结构,进行了藜麦引种播期试验.结果表明:藜麦从播种至收获全生育期为127~135d,2015年5月3日播种处理开花至成熟时间较长,达65d,有利于子粒的物质积累;藜麦株高较高,平均为172.5cm,各处理间有效分枝数和单株干物质量均呈极显著差异,5月3日播期处理单株干物质量表现最高;不同处理间产量呈极显著差异,以5月3日播期处理产量最高,实测产量为5 106.3kg/hm2.因此,藜麦适宜在阴山北麓区种植,具有较高的产量潜力,其最适播期为5月初.当地发展藜麦生产需要解决抗旱播种和后期倒伏问题.

  4. Study on extraction process of quinoa total flavonoids and purification process of macroporous resin%藜麦总黄酮提取及大孔树脂纯化工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董施彬; 宁亚萍; 杨喆; 张乔会; 董洁琼; 王丰俊; 王建中

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究藜麦总黄酮的提取工艺与大孔树脂纯化工艺.方法:在单因素实验的基础上,通过正交实验法,研究藜麦总黄酮的最佳提取和纯化工艺.结果:最佳提取工艺条件为:超声时间25 min、温度90℃、料液比1∶10(g/mL)、回流时间为2h、乙醇浓度90%.此条件下,藜麦总黄酮提取量为3.861 mg/g.盐析除蛋白,选择NaCl添加量为15%.最佳大孔树脂纯化工艺为:pH2、流速2 BV/h、0.3 mg/mL的黄酮水溶液上样、8 BV水洗、丙酮洗脱.此条件下,纯化黄酮吸附率为80.91%.纯度可由初提物的7.12%提高到28.53%.

  5. Optimum Extraction of Quinoa Leaf Polyphenols and Its Antioxidant Activity%藜麦叶片多酚最佳提取工艺及其抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏佳; 蒋玉蓉; 袁俊杰; 王颖; 陆国权; 毛前

    2016-01-01

    以藜麦叶为原料,研究藜麦叶片多酚的最佳提取工艺及体外抗氧化活性.在单因素试验的基础上,选取乙醇浓度、料液比、提取时间进行三因素三水平的Box-Behnken中心组合研究,并运用Design Expect8.0软件进行分析,通过响应面分析法对提取条件进行了优化,并对藜麦叶片多酚类物质的DPPH·和·OH清除能力进行分析.结果表明,藜麦叶片多酚的最佳提取条件为:乙醇体积分数83%,物料比1∶20,80℃水浴条件下浸提1.12h;藜麦叶片多酚类物质具有很强的清除DPPH·和·OH清除能力,其IC50分别为1.876 μg/mL和6.520 μg/mL;同时发现藜麦叶片多酚的含量存在明显的品种间差异,其中品种Temuco的多酚含量最高,达到0.675 g/100 g.

  6. 基于近红外光谱法快速检测藜麦纤维含量%Rapid Detection on Quinoa Fiber Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓宁; 田翔; 王君杰; 刘思辰; 穆志新; 陆平; 陶梅; 乔治军

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探索一种快速测定完整藜麦籽粒纤维含量的方法.[方法]采集100个藜麦样品的近红外光谱,运用近红外光谱分析技术建立数学模型并进行预测.[结果]在10 000~4 000cm-1波长范围内,运用一阶导数+矢量归一化光谱方法进行预处理,结合化学方法所得数据建立藜麦粗纤维近红外定量模型,校正和预测效果最佳,所得的粗纤维近红外定量模型的交叉验证决定系数(R2cv)为0.884 8,外部验证决定系数(R2val)为0.876 1.[结论]以完整藜麦籽粒为样品所建立的纤维NITS模型可用于藜麦纤维含量的快速检测.

  7. 藜麦幼苗对水氮耦合变化的可塑性响应%Plastic Responses of Quinoa Seedling to Change of Water and Nitrogen Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪瑞军; 张永清; 庞春花; 武如心; 张紫薇; 田烨; 刘丽雯

    2015-01-01

    采用盆栽试验方法,研究了不同水氮条件对藜麦幼苗生长指标、根系生长指标及其生理指标的影响.结果表明:藜麦各测试指标与氮肥用量、灌水控制水平关系极为密切.在同一灌溉水平下,藜麦叶面积、生物量、根系总体积等幼苗及根系生长指标均随氮肥用量的增加呈先增加后下降趋势,而根系过氧化物酶(POD)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量等生理指标均随氮肥用量的增加呈先下降后增加的趋势;施氮量相同时,叶面积、生物量、根系总体积等形态指标均随灌水量的增加而增大,而POD活性、MDA含量等生理指标均随灌水量的增加而减小,且各处理间差异均达到显著水平;水氮交互作用对各指标均有影响,对叶面积、生物量、根系总体积、POD活性的影响均达到显著水平.在试验设置的水氮范围内,藜麦均表现出不同程度的表型可塑性;在中度或重度干旱胁迫下,施肥均能缓解干旱对藜麦的胁迫.综合考虑,土壤含水量为田间持水量的75%~ 85%、施氮量为1~ 2g/kg的组合最优.

  8. Determination of 3 Flavonoid C-glycosides in Quinoa by Ultrasonic Extraction and RP-HPLC%超声波辅助提取RP-HPLC法测定藜麦中的3种碳苷黄酮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马麟; 彭镰心; 曹靖; 赵江林; 赵钢

    2016-01-01

    基于超声波辅助提取藜麦中碳苷黄酮类化合物的工艺研究,建立了反相高效液相色谱法同时检测荭草素、异荭草素和牡荆素的方法.藜麦种子打粉过筛后,以90%的甲醇为提取溶剂,采用3因素3水平正交试验考察,得出超声波提取的最佳工艺条件为:超声功率80 W,超声时间30 min,超声温度55℃;在Diamonsil-C18分离柱,酸性甲醇-水流动相体系,合适梯度洗脱程序下以恒流速1.0 mL/min,35 ℃柱温条件分离测定藜麦样品中的荭草素、异荭草素和牡荆素;结果显示,3种碳苷黄酮类物质分别在5.6~90 μg/mL、2.66~42.5 μg/mL和3.28~52.5 μg/mL的范围内线性关系良好,定量限分别为0.519,0.416和0.322 μg/mL,精密度和重复性的RSD分别为0.76%~1.63%、0.57%~1.78%,加样平均回收率为93.73%~101.68%,RSD为0.51%~2.55%;该方法精密度、重复性和稳定性良好,可用于藜麦样品中3种碳苷黄酮的分离检测.

  9. Research Progress on Nutritional Components and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenol of Quinoa%藜麦营养成分及多酚抗氧化活性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树俊; 胡洁; 庞震鹏; 刘晓娟; 徐晓霞; 仪鑫

    2016-01-01

    藜麦是一种全营养完全蛋白“假谷物”,其不仅含有丰富的蛋白质、脂肪、淀粉、维生素和矿物质等常规营养成分,还含有多酚、黄酮、皂苷、槲皮素、凝集素等生物活性营养成分.据报道,藜麦提取物中的多酚类物质具有良好的体外抗氧化性,其中,藜麦种子、芽和叶片中含量很高.因此,藜麦是一种难得的抗氧化食物.综述了藜麦营养成分及其多酚抗氧化性研究进展,为今后相关研究提供科学依据.

  10. Optimization of extraction technology of quinoa polyphenols by response surface methodology%响应面法优化藜麦多酚提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宇; 阿荣; 张园园; 张美莉

    2016-01-01

    为优化藜麦多酚提取工艺,以内蒙古种植的藜麦为实验材料,多酚得率为考察指标,研究乙醇浓度、料液比、提取温度和提取时间四个因素对藜麦多酚得率的影响.在单因素实验基础上,通过Box-Behnken实验设计方案优化藜麦多酚的最佳提取条件.实验结果表明,藜麦多酚的最佳提取工艺条件为:乙醇浓度49%,料液比1∶26 (g/mL),提取温度73℃,提取时间62 min.在此条件下,藜麦多酚得率为(226.77±1.94) mg/100 g,优化后的提取工艺对藜麦多酚的提取有一定的指导意义.

  11. Chemical Constituents of Flavonoids in Chenopodium album L.%藜中黄酮类的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松艳; 张沐新; 吴月红; 杨晓虹

    2011-01-01

    采用正、反相硅胶和葡聚糖凝胶柱色谱技术对藜(Chenopodium album L.)的黄酮类化学成分进行分离和纯化,得到4个黄酮类化合物,分别为槲皮素3-O-芸香糖苷(1)、芹菜素6,8-二-C-β-D-葡萄糖苷(2)、槲皮素3-O-[α-L-鼠李糖(1→4)-α-L-鼠李糖(1→6)-β-D-葡萄糖](3)、异鼠李素3-O-[α-L-鼠李糖(1→4)-α-L-鼠李糖(1→6)-β-D-葡萄糖](4).其中化合物2、3、4为首次从该属植物中分离得到.%Active constituents in Chenopodium album L.were studied by means of various chromatographic techniques, and four known flavonoids were isolated from Chenopodium album L.Their structures were elucidated as quercetin 3-O-rutinoside ( 1 ), apigenin 6,8-di-C-β-D-glucopyranoside ( 2 ), quercetin 3-O- [α-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1→4 ) -α-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1 →6 ) -β-D-glucopyranoside]( 3 ) , and isorhamne tin 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl( 1 →4 ) -α-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1 →6 ) -β-D-glucopyranoside]( 4 ).Compound 2,3 and 4 were isolated from Chenopodium for the first time.

  12. Increase of cellular recruitment, phagocytosis ability and nitric oxide production induced by hydroalcoholic extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gustavo V B; Pereira, Paulo Vitor S; Patrício, Fernando J; Costa, Graciomar C; Sousa, Sanara M; Frazão, Josias B; Aragão-Filho, Walmir C; Maciel, Márcia C G; Silva, Lucilene A; Amaral, Flávia M M; Barroqueiro, Elizabeth S B; Guerra, Rosane N M; Nascimento, Flávia R F

    2007-04-20

    The leaves and the oil from the seeds of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae), a plant known in Brazil as 'mastruz', have been used by native people to treat parasitic diseases. Experimentally it was shown that Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibits the Ehrlich tumor growth, what could be due to an immunomodulatory effect of this product. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) from leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides on macrophage activity and on lymphoid organs cellularity. C3H/HePas mice received the HCE (5mg/kg) by intraperitoneal via and were sacrificed 2 days later. HCE treatment did not alter the cell number in bone marrow, but it increased the cell number in peritoneal cavity, spleen and lymph node. The spreading and phagocytosis activity, the PMA-induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) release and the nitric oxide (NO) production were also increased when compared to control group. Similar results were obtained with concanavalin A (Con A), used as a positive control, with exception of the NO production that was only detected in HCE-derived macrophages. The in vitro treatment with HCE induced a dose-dependent NO production by resident macrophages, but did not enhance the NO production by HCE-derived macrophage, which however, was enhanced by Con A, suggesting that HCE and Con A induce NO production by different routes. In conclusion, HCE-treatment was able to increase the macrophages activity and also the cellular recruitment to secondary lymphoid organs, what could explain the previously related anti-tumor activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides.

  13. Occurrence and clinical profile of the sensitization to Chenopodium in the province of Córdoba (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F; Galán, C; Miguel, R; Infante, F; Arenas, A; Sánchez Guijo, P

    1990-01-01

    The sensitization to pollen from the Amarantaceae and Chenopodiaceae families is responsible for some pollinoses according to various authors. Following an aeropalynological carried out by the Botany Division of our University, we investigated the sensitization to Chenopodium in our pollinic patients in order to establish their clinical patterns. We evaluated 14 variables in Chenopodium-sensitive (CHE +) and nonsensitive (CHE -) patients; the results were analysed by using a computerized statistical programme. Of the 1,000 records reviewed, 38% corresponded to pollinic patients, of whom 8.42% were sensitive to pollen from this family. We found no significant differences between the two groups in the parameters representative of atopic features (e.g. eosinophilia, IgE). However, marked differences were indeed found in the age of appearance of symptoms, frequency of clinical pictures, origin of the patients, duration of the symptoms and evolution upon immunotherapeutic treatment not involving this antigen. These findings endow the sensitization to Chenopodium with special features which should be taken into account in choosing a specific treatment.

  14. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcel Gianni C; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson L; Câmara, Carlos C; Fontenele Neto, José Domingues; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg of aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves by gavage. To analyze sub-chronic toxicity, rats were treated by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 g/kg of extract of C. ambrosioides leaves. No animals from either trial exhibited any signs of toxicity. In the acute study, the highest dose of the extract led to an increase in the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and a decrease in the serum levels of urea. In the sub-chronic test, rats treated with 1.0 g/kg for 15 days exhibited increased serum ALT activity and creatinine levels and mild cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. The results indicate that aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves produce slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats.

  15. Study of the Performance of the Organic Extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides for Ag Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to obtain metal nanoparticles: biological, physical, and chemical ways and combinations of these approaches. Synthesis assisted with plant extracts has been widely documented. However, one issue that is under discussion refers to the metabolites responsible for reduction and stabilization that confine nanoparticle growth and prevent coalescence between nanoparticles in order to avoid agglomeration/precipitation. In this study, Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using organic extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides with different polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol. Each extract was phytochemically characterized to identify the nature of the metabolites responsible for nanoparticle formation. With methanol extract, the compounds responsible for reducing and stabilizing silver nanoparticle were associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins, while, with dichloromethane and hexane extracts, the responsible compounds were mainly terpenoids. Large part of the reducing activity of secondary metabolites in C. ambrosioides is closely related to compounds with antioxidant capacity, such as phenolic compounds (flavone glycoside and isorhamnetin, which are the main constituents of the methanol extracts. Otherwise, terpenoids (trans-diol, α-terpineol, monoterpene hydroperoxides, and apiole are the central metabolites present in dichloromethane and hexane extracts.

  16. Analysis of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Chenopodium ambrosioides: An Ethnomedicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ajaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was explored. Antimicrobial potential was investigated through zone of inhibition and minimum inhibition concentration whereas antioxidant potential of selected plant was evaluated through different techniques, that is, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids content, DPPH assay, ABTS assay, and metal chelating. It is concluded that both parts showed good to satisfactory antimicrobial and antioxidant results. The maximum antibacterial potential is exhibited by bark macerated in petroleum ether against Bacillus subtilis (33±1.5 mm and maximum antifungal potential exhibited by methanol extracts of fruit against Aspergillus niger (16±1.5 mm. Aqueous extracts failed to show any activity against selected organisms. The minimum (significant MIC value exhibited by fruit extract against Staphylococcus aureus was 0.009±0.02 at 0.7 mg/mL. Aqueous extracts of bark and fruit exhibited maximum antioxidant potential in all assays except DPPH assay. Petroleum ether bark extract showed maximum % DPPH value.

  17. Nematicidal Constituents from the Essential Oil of Chenopodium Ambrosioides Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Qi Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Chinese medicinal herb, Chenopodium ambrosioides aerial parts was found to possess nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita. The essential oil of C. ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 27 components of the essential oil were identified. The principal compounds in C. ambrosioides essential oil were (Z-ascaridole (27.27%, ρ-cymene (19.05%, isoascaridole (14.75%, α-pinene (6.33% and α-terpinene (5.12%. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation of the essential oil on repeated silica gel columns led to isolate three volatile components ((Z-ascaridole, ρ-cymene and isoascaridole from the essential oil. The essential oil and (Z-ascaridole exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita with LC50 values of 49.55 μg/mL and 32.79 μg/mL, respectively. ρ-Cymene and isoascaridole also possessed nematicidal activity against M. incognita with LC50 values of 435.89 μg/mL and 1323.51 μg/mL, respectively but weaker than the crude essential oil.

  18. Essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: secretory structures, antibacterial and antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andrade Santiago

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and to determine its secretory structures. The essential oil was extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours and chemically characterized by GC/MS and GC-FID. The antioxidant activity was determined by monitoring the reduction of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and by the oxidation of the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. The evaluation of antibacterial activity was performed by the agar cavity diffusion technique using the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Cholerasuis. The characterization of trichomes was accomplished by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and histochemical tests with Nadi and Sudan IV reagents. The antioxidant activity demonstrated by the β-carotene/acid linoleic test, with IC50 = 455.7 µg mL-1. This oil also presented antibacterial activity for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration ranged 62.5 to 250 µL mL-1. The presence of terpenes in the glandular trichomes was observed, suggesting that the essential oil is secreted by these structures.

  19. Essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and main components: activity against Leishmania, their mitochondria and other microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; García, Marley; Pastor, Jacinta; Gil, Lizette; Scull, Ramón; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Gille, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides is an aromatic herb used by native people to treat parasitic diseases. The aim of this work is to compare the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of the essential oil (EO) from C. ambrosioides and its major components (ascaridole, carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide) and study their mechanism of action and activity against a panel of microorganism. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the EO and major components was study. In addition, experiments to elucidate the mechanism of action were perform and activities against other microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and protozoa) were evaluate. All products were active against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania. Ascaridole exhibited the better antileishmanial activity and the EO the highest selectivity index. The exploration of the mechanism suggests that the products cause a breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential and a modification of redox indexes. Only EO showed antiprotozoal effect against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei; while no activity against bacteria and fungi was observed. Our results demonstrate the potentialities of EO in cellular and molecular system, which could be consider in future studies to develop new antileishmanial drugs with a wide anti-parasitic spectrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Zulane Lima; de Oliveira, Fernando Faustino; da Conceição, Aline Oliveira; Silva, Luiz Alberto Mattos; Rossi, Maria Helena; Santos, Juliana da Silva; Andrioli, João Luciano

    2012-07-28

    Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and ethanol (EtOH) and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH) and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH) showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL). By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50%) with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300), with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine.