Sample records for quinazolines

  1. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø;


    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives ...

  2. Biotransformation of quinazoline and phthalazine by Aspergillus niger. (United States)

    Sutherland, John B; Heinze, Thomas M; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Freeman, James P; Williams, Anna J


    Cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL-599 in fluid Sabouraud medium were grown with quinazoline and phthalazine for 7 days. Metabolites were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Quinazoline was oxidized to 4-quinazolinone and 2,4-quinazolinedione, and phthalazine was oxidized to 1-phthalazinone.

  3. Advances in Metal-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Halogenated Quinazolinones and Their Quinazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malose Jack Mphahlele


    Full Text Available Halogenated quinazolinones and quinazolines are versatile synthetic intermediates for the metal-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond formation reactions such as the Kumada, Stille, Negishi, Sonogashira, Suzuki-Miyaura and Heck cross-coupling reactions or carbon-heteroatom bond formation via the Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling to yield novel polysubstituted derivatives. This review presents an overview of the application of these methods on halogenated quinazolin-4-ones and their quinazolines to generate novel polysubstituted derivatives.

  4. Behavioural Response of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to Quinazolines

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    E. Zerba


    Full Text Available The behavioural responses of the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans towards some previously identified components of its faeces: 4-methylquinazoline, 2,4- dimethylquinazoline and their mixtures were evaluated using a video tracking system. Fifth instar nymphs and females but not males were significantly attracted to polyethylene glycol formulations of 4-methyl + 2,4-dimethylquinazoline (50 μg each. Fifth instar nymphs were also attracted to 4-methylquinazoline alone (50 μg but females were only attracted by the mixture of both methyl quinazolines (50 μg each. Syntheses of both methyl quinazolines were carried out starting from 2-aminoacetophenone by modifying the conditions of reported procedures.

  5. Synthesis of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives via Pyrimidine ortho-Quinodimethane

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    A. Herrera Fernández


    Full Text Available The [4+2] cycloaddition between 2,4-diphenylpyrimidine ortho-quinodimethane and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate leads to 2,4-diphenylquinazoline-6,7-dicarboxylate (6. 2,4-Diphenylfuro[3,4-g]quinazoline-6,8-dione (7 is also obtained by basic hydrolysis of compound 6, followed by the closure of the resulting diacid in acetic anhydride.

  6. Molecular Docking and Anticonvulsant Activity of Newly Synthesized Quinazoline Derivatives

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    Hatem A. Abuelizz


    Full Text Available A new series of quinazoline-4(3H-ones are evaluated for anticonvulsant activity. After intraperitoneal (ip injection to albino mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, synthesized quinazolin-4(3H-ones (1–24 were examined in the maximal electroshock (MES induced seizures and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ induced seizure models in mice. The Rotarod method was applied to determine the neurotoxicity. Most of the compounds displayed anticonvulsant activity in the scPTZ screen at a dose range of 0.204–0.376 mmol/mL. Out of twenty-four, compounds 8, 13 and 19 proved to be the most active with a remarkable protection (100% against PTZ induced convulsions and four times more potent activity than ethosuximide. The structure-activity relationship concluded valuable pharmacophoric information, which was confirmed by the molecular docking studies using the target enzyme human carbon anhydrase II (HCA II. The studied quinazoline analogues suggested that the butyl substitution at position 3 has a significant effect on preventing the spread of seizure discharge and on raising the seizure threshold. However, benzyl substitution at position 3 has shown a strong anticonvulsant activity but with less seizure prevention compared to the butyl substitution.

  7. Quinazoline antifolates inhibiting thymidylate synthase: 4-thio-substituted analogues. (United States)

    Thornton, T J; Jones, T R; Jackman, A L; Flinn, A; O'Connor, B M; Warner, P; Calvert, A H


    We report the synthesis of four new 4-thio-5,8-dideazafolic acid analogues and a 4-(methylthio) analogue structurally related to the thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid. Three N10-propargyl-4-thio-5,8-dideazafolic acid analogues had C2 amino, hydrogen, and methyl substituents. A 4-thio and a 4-(methylthio) compound each with hydrogen at C2 and ethyl at N10 were also synthesized. In general, the synthetic route involved thionation of the appropriate 4-oxoquinazoline; the sulfur thus introduced was then protected by methylation. Further protection with a pivaloyl group was required for the quinazoline bearing a 2-amino substituent. The protected quinazolines were treated with N-bromosuccinimide and the resulting 6-(bromomethyl) compounds were then coupled to the appropriate N-monoalkylated diethyl N-(4-aminobenzoyl)-L-glutamate in N,N-dimethylacetamide with calcium carbonate as base. The 4-thio-5,8-dideazafolic acids were obtained by removal of the methylthio group with sodium hydrosulfide, followed by deprotection of the carboxyl groups with cold dilute alkali. For the compound containing a pivaloyl protecting group, hot dilute alkali was used. To obtain the 5,8-dideazafolic acid containing a 4-(methylthio) substituent, the corresponding diester was treated with lithium hydroxide which selectively deprotected the carboxyl groups. The five compounds were tested as inhibitors of L1210 TS. It was found that replacement of the 4-oxygen of the quinazoline moiety by sulfur did not alter the TS inhibition. However, the introduction of a methylthio substituent at position 4 severely impaired TS inhibition. All 4-thio compounds were less cytotoxic to L1210 cells in culture than their 4-oxo counterparts.

  8. Crystal structure of 4-meth-oxy-quinazoline. (United States)

    El-Hiti, Gamal A; Smith, Keith; Hegazy, Amany S; Alshammari, Mohammed B; Kariuki, Benson M


    The title compound, C9H8N2O, is almost planar, with the C atom of the meth-oxy group deviating from the mean plane of the quinazoline ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.011 Å) by 0.068 (4) Å. In the crystal, mol-ecules form π-π stacks parallel to the b-axis direction [centroid-centroid separation = 3.5140 (18) Å], leading to a herringbone packing arrangement.

  9. Synthesis of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Quinazoline isothiocyanate 1 reacts with various nucleophiles(nitrogen nucleophiles,oxygen nucleophiles and sulphur nucleophiles)to afford heterocyclic systemes 2-13,Also,the [4+2] cycloaddition reaction of 1 with phenyl isocyanate,benzylidene aryl amine and cinnamic acid derivatives gave novel heterocyclic compounds 14-16,Moreover,the reaction of 1 with active methylene compounds under Michael reaction conditions also was investigated to yield 17 and 18 and it was found that all these reactions proceede via isothiocyanate heterocyclization to furnish non-condensed heterocyclic compoundes,Some of the newly synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities.

  10. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor evaluation of primary amine substituted quinazoline linked benzimidazole. (United States)

    Paul, Kamaldeep; Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay


    By combining the structural features of quinazoline and benzimidazole, new hybrid regioisomeric molecules with substituted primary amines have been synthesized. Evaluation of these molecules over 60 cancer cell line panel has identified three molecules as most potent anticancer agents. Compound 10 showed ten and eleven folds more activity than respective quinazoline and benzimidazole class of compounds with GI50 value of 1.64 μM. Compound 11 (GI50 value of 0.81 μM) showed almost twenty and twenty-two fold more activity than quinazoline and benzimidazole analogue, respectively while compound 12 (GI50 value of 4.52 μM) has four fold more activity than quinazoline and benzimidazole analogue. In vitro evaluation of compound 11 exhibited remarkable anticancer activity towards colon cancer cell lines and prostate cancer cell lines at five dose concentrations with GI50 values of 0.34 and 0.31 μM, respectively.

  11. Synthesis of New 1,2,3-Triazol-4-yl-quinazoline Nucleoside and Acyclonucleoside Analogues

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    Abdelaaziz Ouahrouch


    Full Text Available In this study, we describe the synthesis of 1,4-disustituted-1,2,3-triazolo-quinazoline ribonucleosides or acyclonucleosides by means of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between various O or N-alkylated propargyl-quinazoline and 1'-azido-2',3',5'-tri-O-benzoylribose or activated alkylating agents under microwave conditions. None of the compounds selected showed significant anti-HCV activity in vitro.

  12. Synthesis and Evaluation of 2,4-Disubstituted Quinazoline Derivatives with Potent Anti-Angiogenesis Activities

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    Guangjin Yu


    Full Text Available A series of 2,4-disubstituted quinazoline derivatives were designed and synthesized. The biological results showed that most of quinazoline derivatives exhibited potent antiproliferative activities against a panel of three tumor cell lines and a good inhibitory effect against the adhesion and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Among these compounds, 11d was the most potent agent, that also exhibited the highest anti-angiogenesis activities in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay.

  13. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Substituted Piperazinyl-quinazolin-3(4H-ones

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    N. M. Raghavendra


    Full Text Available Several substituted-quinazolin-3(4H-ones were synthesized by condensation of 2-chloro-N-(4-oxo-substituted-quinazolin-3(4H-yl-acetamides with various substituted piperazines through single step reaction. Elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Synthesized quinazolin-4-one derivatives were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  14. One-pot synthesis of quinazoline derivatives via [2+2+2] cascade annulation of diaryliodonium salts and two nitriles. (United States)

    Su, Xiang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Yong; Chen, Junjie; Lou, Zhenbang; Li, Ming


    An efficient one-pot approach to multiple substituted quinazolines with diaryliodonium salt , and two nitriles has been presented. The reaction enables great flexibility of the substitution patterns on quinazolines and is applicable to two different nitriles to give a regio-selective product.

  15. Synthesis, single crystal and antitumor activities of benzimidazole-quinazoline hybrids. (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay; Paul, Kamaldeep


    A series of novel regioisomeric hybrids of quinazoline/benzimidazole viz. (3-allyl-2-methyl-3H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-(2-substituted-quinazolin-4-yl)-amine and (1-allyl-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-(2-substituted-quinazolin-4-yl)-amine of biological interest were synthesized. All the synthesized compounds were well characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as mass spectroscopy. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antitumor activities against 60 tumor cell lines panel assay. A significant inhibition for cancer cells were observed with compound 9 and also more active against known drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in some tumor cell lines. Compound 9 displayed appreciable anticancer activity against leukemia, colon, melanoma, renal and breast cancer cell lines.

  16. Insights into cardio-oncology:Polypharmacology of quinazoline-based α1-adrenoceptor antagonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvatore; Patanè


    New uses of cardiovascular drugs with proven experience are emerging,including for treating cancer.Quinazoline is a compound made up of two fused six member simple aromatic rings,benzene and pyrimidine rings,with several biological effects.Cardiologists first used quinazoline-based α1-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin,doxazosin,and terazosin; currently available data support their use as safe,well tolerated,and effective add-on therapy in uncontrolled hypertension with additional favourable metabolic effects.Recent findings highlight the anticancer effects of quinazoline-based α1-adrenoceptor antagonists,indicating that they may have a significant role in uncontrolled hypertensive cancer patients without signs of ischemia.

  17. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of substituted quinazoline and quinoxaline derivatives: search for anticancer agent. (United States)

    Noolvi, Malleshappa N; Patel, Harun M; Bhardwaj, Varun; Chauhan, Ankit


    The synthesis of some 2-furano-4(3H)-quinazolinones, diamides (open ring quinazolines), quinoxalines and their biological evaluation as antitumor agents using National Cancer Institute (NCI) disease oriented antitumor screen protocol are investigated. Among the synthesize compounds, seventeen compounds were granted NSC code and screened at National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA for anticancer activity at a single high dose (10(-5) M) in full NCI 60 cell panel. Among the selected compounds, 3-(2-chloro benzylideneamine)-2-(furan-2-yl) quinazoline-4(3h)-one 21 was found to be the most active candidate of the series at five dose level screening against Ovarian OVCAR-4 and Non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H522 with GI50 1.82 & 2.14 μM respectively. Rational approach and QSAR techniques enabled the understanding of the pharmacophoric requirement for quinazoline, diamides and quinoxaline derivatives.

  18. Synthesis and Reactivity of [1,2,4]Triazolo-annelated Quinazolines

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    Rashad A. Al-Salahi


    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of phenyl-substituted 2-alkoxy(methylsulfanyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]quinazolines starting from N-cyanoimidocarbonates and substituted hydrazinobenzoic acids as building blocks. Thionation or chlorination of the inherent lactam moiety in the target compounds followed by treatment with multifunctional nucleophiles provided access to a variety of derivatives.

  19. Synthesis and antihyperlipidemic activity of some novel 4-substituted-2-substitutedmethyltriazino[6,1-b]quinazolin-10-ones and 2,4-disubstituted-6,7-dimethoxy quinazoline

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    M.K. Kathiravan


    Full Text Available The synthesis and antihyperlipidemic activity of some novel 4-substituted-2-substitutedmethyltriazino[6,1-b]quinazolin-10-ones and 2,4-disubstituted-6,7-dimethoxy quinazoline derivatives are described. Among the series 4-chloro-2-acetoxymethyl-3H,11H-[1,2,4]triazino[6,1-b] quinazoline-4,10-dione 5d has shown better activity in case of % reduction in serum cholesterol level while 4-chloro-10-oxo-10H-[1,2,4]triazino[6,1-b]quinazolin-2-yl benzoate 5f in reducing % serum triglyceride level than that of the standard. 4-Hydroxyquinazolin-2-yl nicotinate 6g has significantly increased serum HDL level. Among the series compound 6g has shown promising results over all in lipid profile. These molecules indeed have the potential to be developed as an antihyperlipaemic molecule.

  20. Cytotoxicity and anti-HIV evaluations of some new synthesized quinazoline and thioxopyrimidine derivatives using 4-(thiophen-2-yl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrobenzo[h]quinazoline-2(1H)-thione as synthon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yahia A Mohamed; Abd El-Galil E Amr; Salwa F Mohamed; Mohamed M Abdalla; Mohamed A Al-Omare; Samira H Shfik


    A series of dihydrobenzo[h]quinazoline derivatives 5-19 were synthesized using arylmethylene 2, thiopyrimidine 3 and 2-(4-(thiophen-2-yl)-5,6-dihydrobenzo[h]quinazolin-2-ylthio) acetic acid (4) as a starting materials. The biological screening showed that many of these compounds have good anticancer and antiviral activities. The structure assignments of the new compounds based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data, and pharmacological properties are reported.

  1. Preparation of six quinazoline schiff bases and their inhibitory effect on HHCC and Bcap-37 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 孙晓莉; 刘志红; 张生勇; 药立波


    Objective: To prepare six quinazoline schiff bases by six steps of chemistry organic synthesis and test their inhibitory effect on hepatomacellular carcinoma cells HHCC and mammary cancer cell Bcap-37, furthmore,to compare their antitumor activities on these two kinds of cells. Methods: 2-Amino-5-nitro-benzylcarbonitrile was the initial material, and it was under the reaction of hydrolysis, ring-closing, halogenation, addition, reduction and substitution in turn to get the six quinazoline schiff bases, MTT method was adopted to compare their anticancer activities against the two cancer cells. Result and Conclusion: Six 6-imine-4-halo substituted anilinoquinozolines were prepared. The anticancer activities against both HHCC and Bcap-37were found, furthermore, they have more potency that on HHCC than on Bcap-37. In the six compounds, the schiff base Ⅵ is the most potent compound.

  2. The Reactivity of 2-Ethoxy-4-Chloroquinazoline and Its Use in Synthesis of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives


    El-Hashash, M. A.; Darwish, K. M.; Rizk, S. A.; EL-BASSIOUNY, F.A.


    The behavior of 2-ethoxy-4-chloroquinazoline 2 towards various nitrogen nucleophiles, namely: thiosemicarbazide, sodium azide, glucosamine, ethanol, and hydrazine hydrate has been discussed. Also, the behavior of 4-(2-ethoxyquinazolin-4-yl)thiosemicarbazide towards one-carbon, for example, ethyl chloroformate, and two-carbon donors, for example, ethyl chloroacetate and diethyl oxalate has been investigated. On the other hand, new 5-ethoxy-2-substituted[1,2,4]-triazolo-[1,5-c]quinazoline deriv...

  3. Supercritical water oxidation of quinazoline: Reaction kinetics and modeling. (United States)

    Gong, Yanmeng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Shuzhong; Song, Wenhan; Xu, Donghai


    This paper presents a first quantitative kinetic model for supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of quinazoline that describes the formation and interconversion of intermediates and final products at 673-873 K. The set of 11 reaction pathways for phenol, pyrimidine, naphthalene, NH3, etc, involved in the simplified reaction network proved sufficient for fitting the experimental results satisfactorily. We validated the model prediction ability on CO2 yields at initial quinazoline loading not used in the parameter estimation. Reaction rate analysis and sensitivity analysis indicate that nearly all reactions reach their thermodynamic equilibrium within 300 s. The pyrimidine yielding from quinazoline is the dominant ring-opening pathway and provides a significant contribution to CO2 formation. Low sensitivity of NH3 decomposition rate to concentration confirms its refractory nature in SCWO. Nitrogen content in liquid products decreases whereas that in gaseous phase increases as reaction time prolonged. The nitrogen predicted by the model in gaseous phase combined with the experimental nitrogen in liquid products gives an accurate nitrogen balance of conversion process.

  4. Facile access to potent antiviral quinazoline heterocycles with fluorescence properties via merging metal-free domino reactions (United States)

    Held, Felix E.; Guryev, Anton A.; Fröhlich, Tony; Hampel, Frank; Kahnt, Axel; Hutterer, Corina; Steingruber, Mirjam; Bahsi, Hanife; von Bojničić-Kninski, Clemens; Mattes, Daniela S.; Foertsch, Tobias C.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Marschall, Manfred; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B.


    Most of the known approved drugs comprise functionalized heterocyclic compounds as subunits. Among them, non-fluorescent quinazolines with four different substitution patterns are found in a variety of clinically used pharmaceuticals, while 4,5,7,8-substituted quinazolines and those displaying their own specific fluorescence, favourable for cellular uptake visualization, have not been described so far. Here we report the development of a one-pot synthetic strategy to access these 4,5,7,8-substituted quinazolines, which are fluorescent and feature strong antiviral properties (EC50 down to 0.6+/-0.1 μM) against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Merging multistep domino processes in one-pot under fully metal-free conditions leads to sustainable, maximum efficient and high-yielding organic synthesis. Furthermore, generation of artesunic acid-quinazoline hybrids and their application against HCMV (EC50 down to 0.1+/-0.0 μM) is demonstrated. Fluorescence of new antiviral hybrids and quinazolines has potential applications in molecular imaging in drug development and mechanistic studies, avoiding requirement of linkage to external fluorescent markers.

  5. Synthesis with Nitriles: Synthesis of Some New Mercaptopyridazine, Mercaptopyridazino[1,6-a]quinazoline and Thiophene Derivatives

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    Mariam A. Al-Sheikh


    Full Text Available 2-(1-(4-Bromophenyl-2-thiocyanatoethylidenemalononitrile (3 undergoes azo coupling with diazotized aromatic amines to afford arylhydrazone derivatives, which are readily cyclized to afford the corresponding 3(2H-pyridazinimine derivatives upon reflux in aqueous NaOH. Under similar condition an o-cyanoarylhydrazone derivative was cyclized into 6H-pyridazino[1,6-a]quinazolin-6-imine, which in turn was easily transformed into 6H-pyridazino[1,6-a]quinazolin-6-one on reflux in ethanolic/HCl. Compound 3 afforded substituted 5-acetylthiophene derivatives upon reflux in AcOH/HCl mixtures.

  6. Hg(2+) mediated quinazoline ensemble for highly selective recognition of Cysteine. (United States)

    Anand, Thangaraj; Sivaraman, Gandhi; Chellappa, Duraisamy


    A fluorimetric sensor for Hg(2+) ion and Cysteine based on quinazoline platform was designed and synthesized by one step reaction and characterized by using common spectroscopic methods. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations shows that probe behaves as "ON-OFF" fluorescent quenching sensor via electron transfer/heavy atom effect. Receptor was found to exhibit selective fluorescence quenching behavior over the other competitive metal ions, and also the receptor-Hg(2+) ensemble act as an efficient "OFF-ON" sensor for Cysteine. Moreover this sensor has also been successfully applied to detection of Hg(2+) in natural water samples with good recovery.

  7. Synthesis, anti-inflammatory evaluation and docking studies of some new fluorinated fused quinazolines. (United States)

    Balakumar, C; Lamba, P; Kishore, D Pran; Narayana, B Lakshmi; Rao, K Venkat; Rajwinder, K; Rao, A Raghuram; Shireesha, B; Narsaiah, B


    A series of novel 8/10-trifluoromethyl-substituted-imidazo[1,2-c] quinazolines have been synthesized and evaluated in vivo (rat paw edema) for their anti-inflammatory activity and in silico (docking studies) to recognize the hypothetical binding motif of the title compounds with the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) employing GOLD (CCDC, 4.0.1 version) software. The compounds, 9b and 10b, were found to have good anti-inflammatory activity [around 80% of the standard: indomethacin]. The binding mode of the title compounds has been proposed based on the docking studies.

  8. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 3-(Substituted)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one


    Ramgopal Appani; Baburao Bhukya; Kiran Gangarapu


    A series of novel 3-(substituted)-2-(substituted quinazolinylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized by the reaction of 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazoline-4(3H)-ones with 2-phenyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one. The starting materials 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized from various primary amines by a multistep synthesis. All the title compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity using ciprofloxacin as reference standard. Compounds 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-...

  9. An unexpected copper(II)-catalyzed three-component reaction of quinazoline 3-oxide, alkylidenecyclopropane, and water. (United States)

    An, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Danqing; Wu, Jie


    An unexpected copper(II)-catalyzed three-component reaction of quinazoline-3-oxide, alkylidenecyclopropane and water under mild conditions is reported. This transformation including [3+2] cycloaddition and intramolecular rearrangement leads to N-(2-(5-oxa-6-azaspiro[2.4]hept-6-en-7-yl)phenyl)formamides in good yields.

  10. Apoptosis induction by doxazosin and other quinazoline alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists: a new mechanism for cancer treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kyprianou; T.B. Vaughan; M.C. Michel


    Doxazosin and related, quinazoline-based alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists can induce apoptosis in prostate and various other normal, benign, smooth muscle, endothelial and malignant cells. Such apoptosis-inducing effects occur independently of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism and typically require

  11. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of 1-(3-benzyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazolin-2-yl-4-(substitutedthiosemicarbazide derivatives

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    Alagarsamy Veerachamy


    Full Text Available A series of 1-(3-benzyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazolin-2-yl-4-(substituted thiosemicarbazides (AS1-AS10 were obtained by the reaction of 2-hydrazino- 3-benzyl quinazolin-4(3H-one (6 with different dithiocarbamic acid methyl ester derivatives. The key intermediate 3-benzyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1Hquinazolin-4-one (4 was obtained by reacting benzyl amine (1 with carbon disulphide and sodium hydroxide in dimethyl sulphoxide to give sodium dithiocarbamate, which was methylated with dimethyl sulfate to yield the dithiocarbamic acid methyl ester (2 and condensed with methyl anthranilate (3 in ethanol yielded the desired compound (4 via the thiourea intermediate. The SH group of compound (4 was methylated for the favorable nucleophilic displacement reaction with hydrazine hydrate, which afford 2-hydrazino-3- benzyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (6. The IR, 1H, and 13C NMR spectrum of these compounds showed the presence of peaks due to thiosemicarbazides, carbonyl (C=O, NH and aryl groups. The quinazolin-4-one moiety molecular ion peaks (m/z 144 were observed all the mass spectrum of compounds (AS1-AS10. Elemental (C, H, N analysis satisfactorily confirmed purity of the synthesized compounds and elemental composition. All synthesized compounds were also screened for their antimicrobial activity against selective gram positive and gram negative by agar dilution method. In the present study compounds AS8 and AS9 were emerged as the most active compounds of the series.

  12. Copper-Catalyzed Multicomponent Domino Reaction of 2-Bromoaldehydes, Benzylamines, and Sodium Azide for the Assembly of Quinazoline Derivatives. (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Jia, Feng-Cheng; Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Zheng, Si-Jie; Li, Han; Wu, An-Xin


    An efficient three-component domino reaction of 2-bromoaldehydes, benzylamines, and sodium azide has been developed for the synthesis of quinazoline derivatives. This domino process involves copper-catalyzed SNAr, oxidation/cyclization, and denitrogenation sequences. The mild catalytic system enabled the effective construction of three C-N bonds in one operation.

  13. Binding characteristics and interactive region of 2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline with DNA. (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Zhong, Dandan; Luo, Jinhui; Tan, Hongliang; Chen, Shouhui; Li, Ping; Wang, Li; Wang, Tao


    The interaction between 2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline (PQ) and DNA under physiological conditions was investigated using multi-spectroscopic techniques, atomic force microscopy and gel electrophoresis. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated and were discussed in detail. The results of fluorescence-quenching experiments indicated that the main interactive force between PQ and DNA was a hydrophobic interaction and that it was a static quenching process. Potassium iodide and single-strand (ss)DNA quenching studies, together with circular dichroism spectra implied groove binding of PQ with DNA. Atomic force microscopy and gel electrophoresis experiments suggested that there were no major conformational changes in DNA upon interaction with PQ. In addition, UV/vis absorption titration of DNA bases confirmed that PQ bound with DNA mainly through a minor groove interaction and preferentially interacted with adenine and thymine. We anticipate that this work will provide useful information for the application of quinazoline derivatives in the fields of medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry.

  14. Synthetic approaches, functionalization and therapeutic potential of quinazoline and quinazolinone skeletons: the advances continue. (United States)

    Khan, Imtiaz; Ibrar, Aliya; Ahmed, Waqas; Saeed, Aamer


    The presence of N-heterocycles as an essential structural motif in a variety of biologically active substances has stimulated the development of new strategies and technologies for their synthesis. Among the various N-heterocyclic scaffolds, quinazolines and quinazolinones form a privileged class of compounds with their diverse spectrum of therapeutic potential. The easy generation of complex molecular diversity through broadly applicable, cost-effective, practical and sustainable synthetic methods in a straightforward fashion along with the importance of these motifs in medicinal chemistry, received significant attention from researchers engaged in drug design and heterocyclic methodology development. In this perspective, the current review article is an effort to recapitulate recent developments in the eco-friendly and green procedures for the construction of highly challenging and potentially bioactive quinazoline and quinazolinone compounds in order to help medicinal chemists in designing and synthesizing novel and potent compounds for the treatment of different disorders. The key mechanistic insights for the synthesis of these heterocycles along with potential applications and manipulations of the products have also been conferred. This article also aims to highlight the promising future directions for the easy access to these frameworks in addition to the identification of more potent and specific products for numerous biological targets.

  15. 2-Guanidino-quinazolines as a novel class of translation inhibitors. (United States)

    Komarova Andreyanova, E S; Osterman, I A; Pletnev, P I; Ivanenkov, Y A; Majouga, A G; Bogdanov, A A; Sergiev, P V


    A variety of structurally unrelated organic compounds has been reported to have antibacterial activity. Among these, certain small-molecule translation inhibitors have attracted a great deal of attention, due to their relatively high selectivity against prokaryotes, and an appropriate therapeutic index with minor "off target" effects. However, ribosomes are being considered as poorly druggable biological targets, thereby making some routine computational-based approaches to rational drug design and its development rather ineffective. Taking this into account, diversity-oriented biological screening can reasonably be considered as the most advantageous strategy. Thus, using a high-throughput screening (HTS) platform, we applied a unique biological assay for in vitro evaluation of thousands of organic molecules, especially targeted against bacterial ribosomes and translation. As a result, we have identified a series of structurally diverse small-molecule compounds that induce a reporter strain sensitive to translation and DNA biosynthesis inhibitors. In a cell free system, several molecules were found to strongly inhibit protein biosynthesis. Among them, compounds bearing a 2-guanidino-quinazoline core demonstrated the most promising antibacterial activity. With regard to the preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, we revealed that relatively small substituents at positions 4, 6 and 8 of the quinazoline ring significantly enhance the target activity whereas modification of the guanidine group leads to decrease or loss of antibacterial potency. This novel class of translation inhibitors can properly be regarded as a promising starting point for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutic or screening tools.

  16. Spectroscopic Investigations and DFT Calculations on 3-(Diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one

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    Yusuf Sert


    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental vibrational frequencies of 3-(diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2 were investigated. The experimental Laser-Raman spectrum (4000–100 cm−1 and FT-IR spectrum (4000–400 cm−1 of the newly synthesized compound were recorded in the solid phase. Both the theoretical vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles have for the first time been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP and DFT/M06-2X quantum chemical methods with the 6-311++G(d,p basis set using Gaussian 03 software. The vibrational frequencies were assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED analysis using VEDA 4 software. The calculated vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding reported experimental data. Also, the energies of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, and other related molecular energies for 3-(diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2 have been investigated using the same computational methods.

  17. Synthesis and Antihypertensive Screening of New Derivatives of Quinazolines Linked with Isoxazole

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    Mujeeb Ur Rahman


    Full Text Available A series of 7-substituted-3-(4-(3-(4-substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-ylphenyl-2-substituted quinazolin-4(3H-one (1–30 have been synthesized by the cyclization of (E-3-(4-(3-substitutedphenylacrylolylphenyl-2-(substitutedphenyl-7-substituted quinazolin-4-(3H-one with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The synthesized compounds were examined for their in vivo antihypertensive activity using albino rats. All the titled compounds exhibited good to moderate antihypertensive activity. Compounds 7-Chloro-3-(4-(3-(4-chlorophenyl-4,5- dihydroisoxazol-5-ylphenyl-2-p-tolylquinazolin-4(3H-one (23 and 7-Chloro-3-(4-(3-(4-chlorophenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-ylphenyl-2-(4-methoxyphenylquinazolin-4(3H-one (24 exhibited potent antihypertensive activity through their anticipated α1-adrenergic receptor blocking property similar to its clinically used analogue, prazosin, without affecting heart rate with prolonged duration of action when tested in adrenaline induced hypertension in anaesthetized rats.

  18. Quinazoline derivatives as cathepsins B, H and L inhibitors and cell proliferating agents. (United States)

    Raghav, Neera; Jangra, Suman; Kumar, Ajay; Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli


    Cysteine Cathepsins well known to be involved in cancer, inflammation and regulation of degenerative processes like apoptosis have become specific targets in drug designing. The potential of quinazolines and their derivatives in medicinal chemistry led us to synthesise a novel series of seven compounds of quinazolines to evaluate their effect on cathepsins and cellular aspects of HepG2 cells. In the present work we report the solvent free microwave assisted synthesis of (E)-8-benzylidene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2,4-diarylquinazolines as inhibitors of mammalian hepatic cysteine proteases viz. Cathepsins B, H and L. In vitro inhibition of Cathepsins B, H and L is correlated well with in vitro studies when tested using MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay on HepG2 cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. The studies have been extended to evaluate the type of inhibition exhibited by the individual enzyme. Out of the seven compounds 1g i.e. (E)-8-(4-fluorobenzylidene)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-phenyl-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydroquinazoline has been found to be most inhibitory for Cathepsins B, H and L to a maximum extent with the Ki values of 10(-10)M, 10(-10)M and 10(-9)M order respectively. In silico studies of all compounds have also been done at the active sites of Cathepsin B, H and L. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Supercritical water oxidation of Quinazoline: Effects of conversion parameters and reaction mechanism. (United States)

    Gong, Yanmeng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Shuzhong; Song, Wenhan


    The supercritical water oxidation reaction of quinazoline and a set of related reaction products were investigated in batch reactors by varying the temperature (T, 400-600 °C), time (t, 0-400 s), water density (ρ, 70.79-166.28  kg m(-3)) and oxidation coefficient (OC, 0-4.0). The TOC removal efficiency (CRE) increased significantly as the OC increased, whereas this effect was very limited at high OC (>2.0). Lack of oxygen resulted in low CRE and TN removal efficiency (NRE), also cause coke-formation, and giving high yield of NH3 and nitrogenous organic intermediates. Prolonging reaction time did not provide an appreciable improvement on CRE but remarkably increased NRE at temperature higher than 500 °C. Pyrimidines and pyridines as the nitrogenous intermediates were largely found in GC-MS spectrum. Polymerization among benzene, phenyl radical and benzyl radical played important roles in the formation of PAHs, such as naphthalene, biphenyl, phenanthrene. These collective results showed how the yield of intermediate products responded to changes in the process variables, which permitted the development of a potential reaction network for supercritical water oxidation of quinazoline.

  20. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activity of pyrazolyl-quinazolin-4(3H-one derivatives

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    Navin B. Patel


    Full Text Available A series of pyrazolyl-quinazolin-4(3H-ones 6a-m have been synthesized from 2-[2-(phenylaminophenyl]acetic acid by using efficient methods. An acid chloride of 2-[2-(phenylaminophenyl]acetic acid on cyclization reaction with 5-iodo anthranilic acid yielded benzoxazinone 2, which on condensation reaction with hydrazine hydrate afforded quinazolin-4(3H-one 3. Acetylation of compound 3 and then condensation with aromatic aldehydes led to the formation of chalcones 5a-m which on subjected to reaction with phenyl hydrazine yielded the disired compounds 6a-m. All the synthesized componds have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR and NMR spectra data. The title compounds have been screened against bacterial as well as fungal microorganisms. The potency of these compounds was calculated and compared with standard drugs i.e. Penicillin-G and Fluconazole. Some of the compounds showed very good antimicrobial activity.

  1. Design, synthesis and in vitro antiproliferative activity of novel isatin-quinazoline hybrids. (United States)

    Fares, Mohamed; Eldehna, Wagdy M; Abou-Seri, Sahar M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Aly, Mohamed H; Tolba, Mai F


    Using a molecular hybridization approach, a new series of isatin-quinazoline hybrids 15a-o was designed and synthesized via two different synthetic routes. The target compounds 15a-o were prepared by the reaction of quinazoline hydrazines 12a-e with indoline-2,3-diones 13a-c or by treating 4-chloroquinazoline derivatives 11a-e with isatin hydrazones 14a-c. The in vitro anticancer activity of the newly synthesized hybrids was evaluated against the liver HepG2, breast MCF-7 and colon HT-29 cancer cell lines. A distinctive selective growth inhibitory effect was observed towards the HepG2 cancer cell line. Compounds 15b, 15g and 15l displayed the highest potency, with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 ± 0.2 to 2.4 ± 0.4 μM, and they were able to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as evidenced by enhanced expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, in addition to increased caspase-3 levels.

  2. Synthesis of quinazolines and tetrahydroquinazolines: copper-catalyzed tandem reactions of 2-bromobenzyl bromides with aldehydes and aqueous ammonia or amines. (United States)

    Fan, Xuesen; Li, Bin; Guo, Shenghai; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xinying


    An efficient synthesis of diversely substituted quinazolines and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolines through copper-catalyzed tandem reactions of the readily available 2-bromobenzyl bromides, aldehydes, and aqueous ammonia or amines has been developed. By using ammonia and simple aliphatic amines as the nitrogen source, the present method provides a versatile and practical protocol for the synthesis of quinazolines and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolines.

  3. Synthesis of a new class of pyrrolo[3,4-h]quinazolines with antimitotic activity. (United States)

    Spanò, Virginia; Montalbano, Alessandra; Carbone, Anna; Parrino, Barbara; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Brun, Paola; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Tisi, Silvia; Primac, Irina; Vedaldi, Daniela; Salvador, Alessia; Barraja, Paola


    A new series of pyrrolo[3,4-h]quinazolines was conveniently prepared with a broad substitution pattern. A large number of derivatives was obtained and the cellular cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against 5 different human tumor cell lines with GI₅₀ values reaching the low micromolar level (1.3-19.8 μM). These compounds were able to induce cell death mainly by apoptosis through a mitochondrial dependent pathway. Selected compounds showed antimitotic activity and a reduction of tubulin polymerization in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they showed anti-angiogenic properties since reduced in vitro endothelial cell migration and disrupted HUVEC capillary-like tube network in Matrigel.

  4. Fourier transform microwave and millimeter wave spectroscopy of quinazoline, quinoxaline, and phthalazine (United States)

    McNaughton, Don; Godfrey, Peter D.; Jahn, Michaela K.; Dewald, David A.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe


    The pure rotational spectra of the bicyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycle molecules, quinazoline, quinoxaline, and phthalazine, have been recorded and assigned in the region 13-87 GHz. An analysis, guided by ab initio molecular orbital predictions, of frequency-scanned Stark modulated, jet-cooled millimeter wave absorption spectra (48-87 GHz) yielded a preliminary set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. Subsequent spectral analysis at higher resolution was carried out with Fourier transform microwave (FT-MW) spectroscopy (13-18 GHz) of a supersonic rotationally cold molecular beam. The high spectral resolution of the FT-MW instrument provided an improved set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants together with nitrogen quadrupole coupling constants for all three species. Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory closely predict rotational constants and are useful in predicting quadrupole coupling constants and dipole moments for such species.

  5. The Reactivity of 2-Ethoxy-4-Chloroquinazoline and Its Use in Synthesis of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives

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    M. A. El-Hashash


    Full Text Available The behavior of 2-ethoxy-4-chloroquinazoline 2 towards various nitrogen nucleophiles, namely: thiosemicarbazide, sodium azide, glucosamine, ethanol, and hydrazine hydrate has been discussed. Also, the behavior of 4-(2-ethoxyquinazolin-4-ylthiosemicarbazide towards one-carbon, for example, ethyl chloroformate, and two-carbon donors, for example, ethyl chloroacetate and diethyl oxalate has been investigated. On the other hand, new 5-ethoxy-2-substituted[1,2,4]-triazolo-[1,5-c]quinazoline derivatives have been obtained by ring closure accompanied with Dimroth rearrangement through the interaction of compound 2 with hydrazides of acetic, benzoic, crotonic, cinnamic, 2-furoic, and phthalimidoacetic acids. Structures of the novel products were confirmed by elemental, IR, MS, and 1H-NMR spectral analyses.

  6. Rapid Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of (Quinazolin-4-YlaminoMethyl-Phosphonates Through Microwave Irradiation

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    Baoan Song


    Full Text Available This study describes the simple synthesis of new (quinazolin-4-ylamino methylphosphonates via microwave irradiation. Substituted-2-aminobenzonitrile reacted with 1,1-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethylmethanamine at a reflux condition to obtain N'-(substituted-2-cyanophenyl-N,N-dimethylformamidine (1. The subsequent reaction of this intermediate product with α-aminophosphonate (2 in a solution containing glacial acetic acid in 2-propanol through microwave irradiation resulted in the formation of (quinazolin-4-ylaminomethyl-phosphonate derivatives 3a to 3x, which were unequivocally characterized by the spectral data and elemental analysis. The influence of the reaction conditions on the yield of 3a was investigated to optimize the synthetic conditions. The relative optimal conditions for the synthesis of 3a include a 1:1 molar ratio of N’-(2-cyanophenyl-N,N-dimethylformamidine to diethyl amino(phenylmethylphosphonate and a 4:1 volume ratio of isopropanol to HOAc in the solvent mixture, at a reaction temperature of 150 °C, with a microwave power of 100 W and a corresponding pressure of 150 psi for 20 min in the microwave synthesizer. The yield of 3a was approximately 79%, whereas those of 3b to 3x were approximately 77% to 86%. Some of the synthesized compounds displayed weak to good anti-Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV activity.

  7. Benzimidazole-Based Quinazolines: In Vitro Evaluation, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship, and Molecular Modeling as Aurora Kinase Inhibitors. (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay; Saxena, Sanjai; Paul, Kamaldeep


    A series of benzimidazole-based quinazoline derivatives with different substitutions of primary and secondary amines at the C2 position (1-12) were evaluated for their Aurora kinase inhibitory activities. All compounds except for 3 and 6 showed good activity against Aurora kinase inhibitors, with IC50 values in the range of 0.035-0.532 μM. The ligand efficiency (LE) of the compounds with Aurora A kinase was also determined. The structure-activity relationship and the quantitative structure-activity relationship revealed that the Aurora inhibitory activities of these derivatives primarily depend on the different substitutions of the amine present at the C2 position of the quinazoline core. Molecular docking studies in the active binding site also provided theoretical support for the experimental biological data acquired. The current study identifies a novel class of Aurora kinase inhibitors, which can further be used for the treatment of cancer.

  8. Quinazoline derivatives are efficient chemosensitizers of antibiotic activity in Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant strains. (United States)

    Chevalier, Jacqueline; Mahamoud, Abdallah; Baitiche, Milad; Adam, Elissavet; Viveiros, Miguel; Smarandache, Adriana; Militaru, Andra; Pascu, Mihail L; Amaral, Leonard; Pagès, Jean-Marie


    Amongst the three series of quinazoline derivatives synthesised and studied in this work, some molecules increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria presenting multidrug-resistant phenotypes. N-alkyl compounds induced an increase in the activity of chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and sparfloxacin, which are substrates of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps in clinical isolates. These molecules are able to increase the intracellular concentration of chloramphenicol in efflux pump-overproducing strains. Their activity depends on the antibiotic structure, suggesting that different sites may be involved for the recognition of substrates by a given efflux pump. Quinazoline molecules exhibiting a nitro functional group are more active, and structure-activity relationship studies may be undertaken to identify the pharmacophoric group involved in the AcrB and MexB affinity sites.


    Shah, D R; Lakum, H P; Chikhalia, K H


    In frames of the search for new biological entities to fight against recent drug-resistant microbial strains, we report a library of quinazoline-based thiourea/4-thiazolidinone/chalcone hybrids. The newly synthesized compounds were studied for efficacy against several bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus clavatus) using the broth dilution technique. From the biological evaluation, (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(4-((4-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)quinazolin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one was found to be the most active analogue (microbial inhibition concentration 3.12 μg/mL) to inhibit the bacterial growth. The rest of the compounds showed equipotent efficacy (3.12-12.5 μg/mL) as compared to the standard. Final compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis.

  10. Synthesis and preliminary in vitro kinase inhibition evaluation of new diversely substituted pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives. (United States)

    Zeinyeh, Wael; Esvan, Yannick J; Nauton, Lionel; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Théry, Vincent; Anizon, Fabrice; Giraud, Francis; Moreau, Pascale


    The synthesis of new diversely substituted pyrido[3,4-g]quinazolines is described. The inhibitory potencies of prepared compounds toward a panel of five CMGC protein kinases (CDK5, CLK1, DYRK1A, CK1, GSK3), that are known to play a potential role in Alzheimer's disease, were evaluated. The best overall kinase inhibition profile was found for nitro compound 4 bearing an ethyl group at the 5-position.

  11. Design and synthesis of 4-substituted quinazolines as potent EGFR inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity. (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa; Magdy, Naja


    Cancer is a major health problem to human beings around the world. Many quinazoline derivatives were reported to have potent cytotoxic activity. Our aim in this work is the discovery of potent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity containing 4-substituted quinazoline pharmacophore. Novel series of 4-substituted 6,8-dibromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-quinazoline derivatives have been designed and synthesized. New derivatives were tested against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and screened for their inhibition activity against epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK). Most of the tested compounds show potent antiproliferative activity and EGFR-TK inhibitory activity. Compounds VIIIc and VIIIb exerted powerful cytotoxic activity (IC50 3.1 and 6.3 µM) with potent inhibitory percent (91.1 and 88.4%) against EGFR-TK. Compounds IX, VIIa, X, VIIb, VIc, V, IV, VIa and VIb showed promising cytotoxic effects with IC50 range (12-79 µM) with good activity against EGFR-TK with the inhibitory percent (85.4-60.8%). On the other hand, compounds VIIc, VIIIa exerted low cytotoxic effects as revealed from their IC50 value (124 and 144 µM) with low activity against EGFR-TK with inhibitory percent 30.6 and 29.1% respectively.

  12. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 3-(Substituted)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one. (United States)

    Appani, Ramgopal; Bhukya, Baburao; Gangarapu, Kiran


    A series of novel 3-(substituted)-2-(substituted quinazolinylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized by the reaction of 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazoline-4(3H)-ones with 2-phenyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one. The starting materials 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized from various primary amines by a multistep synthesis. All the title compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity using ciprofloxacin as reference standard. Compounds 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9a) and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9h) emerged as the most active compounds of the series. These compounds have shown most potent antibacterial activity against the tested organisms of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis having zone of inhibition values of 1.1 cm and 1.4 cm for compound 9a 1.2 cm and 1.0 cm for compound 9h, respectively.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and DFT calculations of monohydroxyalkylated derivatives of 1-phenyl-2H,6H-imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione (United States)

    Szyszkowska, Agnieszka; Hęclik, Karol; Trzybiński, Damian; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Klasek, Antonin; Zarzyka, Iwona


    Synthesis of new derivatives with an imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione ring has been presented. Two new alcohols with the imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione ring were obtained and characterized by spectral (1H, 13C NMR, IR and UV) and crystallography methods. A reaction chemoselectivity has been observed with a formation of monohydroxyalkyl derivatives of 1-phenyl-2H,6H-imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione substituted at the 2. nitrogen atom. The absence of derivatives substituted at the 6. nitrogen atom was proven experimentally. The synthesis with chemoselectivity over 99% without control of the substituent effect happens very rarely. The HOMO-LUMO mappings are reported which reveals the different charge transfer possibilities within the molecule of 1-phenyl-2H,6H-imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione in the region of the 2. and the 6. nitrogen atoms. Quantum-mechanical DFT calculations proved to be very useful to explain the reason of selectivity reaction of 1-phenyl-2H,6H-imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione with oxiranes.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activities of Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of a quinazoline-4(3H-one Schiff base

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    Brahman Dhiraj


    Full Text Available Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of a Schiff base derived from quinazoline-4(3H one and 2-formylphenoxy acetic acid were prepared and characterized by elemental and different spectroscopic (IR, UV-Visible and NMR analyses. The elemental analysis indicated the formation of the complexes: [ML(AcO].H2O, where M stands for Zn(II and Cd(II and L stands for quinazoline-4(3H-one Schiff base. The molar conductivities of the prepared complexes revealed their non-electrolytic nature. The complexes were also investigated for their antimicrobial activities by using turbidometric assay method.

  15. DABCO-catalyzed one-pot three component synthesis of dihydropyrano[3,2-c]chromene substituted quinazolines and their evaluation towards anticancer activity. (United States)

    Vodnala, Sumathi; Bhavani, A K D; Kamutam, Ramakrishna; Naidu, V G M; Promila; Prabhakar, Ch


    A facile DABCO promoted one-pot three component synthesis of a new series of C-C linked bis-heterocycle containing dihydropyrano[c]chromene as highly fused oxa-heteryl group at C-2 position of quinazoline was developed. Quinazoline-2-carbaldehyde, substituted 4-hydroxycoumarin and ethyl cyanoacetate were used as key components in the Knoevenagel-Michael addition reaction to get the titled compounds. These compounds were screened for anti-cancer activity against the breast cancer cell lines of MDA-MB 231, and MDA-MB 453. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. One-Pot Cascade Synthesis of Quinazolin-4(3H)-ones via Nickel-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Coupling of o-Aminobenzamides with Alcohols. (United States)

    Parua, Seuli; Das, Siuli; Sikari, Rina; Sinha, Suman; Paul, Nanda D


    In this paper, we report a general, efficient, and environmentally benign method for the one-pot cascade synthesis of quinazolin-4(3H)-ones via acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of o-aminobenzamide with alcohols catalyzed by a simple Ni(II) catalyst, [Ni(MeTAA)], featuring a tetraaza macrocyclic ligand (tetramethyltetraaza[14]annulene (MeTAA)). A wide variety of substituted quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized in high yields starting from readily available benzyl alcohols and o-aminobenzamides. Several controlled reactions along with deuterium labeling studies were carried out to establish the acceptorless dehydrogenative nature of the reactions.

  17. Studies on quinazolines. 5. 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline derivatives: a novel class of potent and selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists and antihypertensive agents. (United States)

    Chern, J W; Tao, P L; Yen, M H; Lu, G Y; Shiau, C Y; Lai, Y J; Chien, S L; Chan, C H


    A series of 2-[(substituted phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]- and 2-[(substituted phenylpiperidin-1-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2- c]quinazolin-5(6H)-ones or -5(6H)-thiones, and 3-[(substituted phenylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinaz oline derivatives were synthesized, as conformationally restricted analogues of SGB-1534 and ketanserin, for evaluation as alpha-antagonists and antihypertensive agents. Most compounds containing a (substituted phenylipiperazinyl)methyl side chain displayed high binding affinity for alpha 1-adrenoceptor with no significant activity at alpha 2-sites. Compounds having a (substituted phenylpiperazinyl)methyl at the 3-position of 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazolin-5(6H)-one ring system had a better activity than those with the same substituent at the 2-position. Structure-activity relationships for alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity are presented and indicate that compounds with substitution at the ortho position on the benzene ring of the phenylpiperazine side chain moiety are more potent than those without substitution and/or substitutions at the 3- and 4-positions. Computer-assisted superimposition of SGB-1534 and 20b showed little structural correspondence between the quinazolinone and 2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-c]quinazoline nucleus, and specific interactions of these molecular fragments with the receptor protein appear unlikely. Antihypertensive activity was evaluated via intravenous administration of each compound to spontaneously hypertensive rats, and compounds (16a, 16b, 20b, and 28b) illustrated similar efficacy to SGB-1534 when assessed after 6 h. The pA2 value for 16a against phenylephedrine in rat aorta was much higher than that of prazosin. On the basis of alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity/selectivity in vitro and duration of antihypertensive action in vivo, compounds 20b and 28b warrant further evaluation.

  18. (E-3-Propoxymethylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-9-one monohydrate

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    Burkhon Zh Elmuradov


    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H16N2O2·H2O, was synthesized via the alkylation of 3-hydroxymethylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-9-one with n-propyl iodide in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The organic molecule and the water molecule both lie on a crystallographic mirror plane. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds link the components into extended chains along [100].

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of novel F-18 labeled quinazoline derivatives with low lipophilicity for tumor PET imaging. (United States)

    Chong, Yan; Chang, Jin; Zhao, Wenwen; He, Yong; Li, Yuqiao; Zhang, Huabei; Qi, Chuanmin


    Four novel F-18 labeled quinazoline derivatives with low lipophilicity, [(18) F]4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline ([(18) F]I), [(18) F]4-(3-((4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)oxy)propyl)morpholine ([(18) F]II), [(18) F]4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-7-methoxy-6-(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazoline ([(18) F]III) and [(18) F]4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazoline ([(18) F]IV), were synthesized via a two-step radiosynthesis procedure with an overall radiochemical yield of 10-38% (without decay correction) and radiochemical purities of > 98%. The lipophilicity and stability of labeled compounds were tested in vitro. The log P values of the four radiotracers ranged from 0.52 to 1.07. We then performed ELISA to measure their affinities to EGFR-TK. ELISA assay results indicated that each inhibitor was specifically bound to EGFR-TK in a dose-dependent manner. The EGFR-TK autophosphorylation IC50 values of [(18) F]I, [(18) F]II, [(18) F]III, and [(18) F]IV were 7.732 μM, 0.4698 μM, 0.1174 μM, and 0.1176 μM, respectively. All labeled compounds were evaluated via cellular uptake and blocking studies in HepG2 cell lines in vitro. Cellular uptake and blocking experiment results indicated that [(18) F]I and [(18) F]III had excellent cellular uptake at 120 min post-injection in HepG2 carcinoma cells (51.80±3.42 %ID/mg protein and 27.31±1.94 %ID/mg protein, respectively). Additionally, biodistribution experiments in S180 tumor-bearing mice in vivo indicated that [(18) F]I had a very fast clearance in blood and a relatively high uptake ratio of tumor to blood (4.76) and tumor to muscle (1.82) at 60 min post-injection. [(18) F]III had a quick clearance in plasma, and its highest uptake ratio of tumor to muscle was 2.55 at 15 min post-injection. These experimental results and experiences were valuable for the further exploration of novel radiotracers of quinazoline derivatives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Novel 3-(6-Substituted-1, 3-benzothiazole-2-yl-2-[{(4-substituted phenyl amino} methyl] quinazolines-4 (3H-ones

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    Manish Srivastav


    Full Text Available A series of novel 3-(6-substituted-1, 3-benzothiazole-2-yl-2-[{(4-substituted phenyl amino} methyl] quinazolines-4(3H-ones were synthesized by treating 2-(chloromethyl-3-(6-substituted-1, 3-benzothiazole-2-yl quinazoline-4-(3H-one (IIa-d with various substituted amine. The compounds (IIa-d prepared by treating 2-[(chloroacetyl amino] benzoic acid with different 2-amino-6-substituted benzothiazole. Elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Synthesized quinazolines-4-one derivative were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity.

  1. Rh(III)- and Zn(II)-Catalyzed Synthesis of Quinazoline N-Oxides via C-H Amidation-Cyclization of Oximes. (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wang, Fen; Yang, Xifa; Zhou, Xukai; Li, Xingwei


    Quinazoline N-oxides have been prepared from simple ketoximes and 1,4,2-dioxazol-5-ones via Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation-amidation of the ketoximes and subsequent Zn(II)-catalyzed cyclization. The substrate scope and functional group compatibility were examined. The reaction features relay catalysis by Rh(III) and Zn(II).

  2. Synthesis and SAR of new pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline-3-carboxamide derivatives as potent and selective MPS1 kinase inhibitors. (United States)

    Caldarelli, Marina; Angiolini, Mauro; Disingrini, Teresa; Donati, Daniele; Guanci, Marco; Nuvoloni, Stefano; Posteri, Helena; Quartieri, Francesca; Silvagni, Marco; Colombo, Riccardo


    The synthesis and SAR of a series of novel pyrazolo-quinazolines as potent and selective MPS1 inhibitors are reported. We describe the optimization of the initial hit, identified by screening the internal library collection, into an orally available, potent and selective MPS1 inhibitor.

  3. Synthesis of quinazolines from N-(2-nitrophenylsulfonyl)iminodiacetate and alpha-(2-nitrophenylsulfonyl)amino ketones via 2H-indazole 1-oxides. (United States)

    Krupková, Sona; Slough, Greg A; Krchnák, Viktor


    Base-catalyzed rearrangement of 2H-indazoles 1-oxides, prepared by tandem carbon-carbon followed by nitrogen-nitrogen bond formations from easily accessible N-alkyl-2-nitro-N-(2-oxo-2-aryl-ethyl)-benzenesulfonamides using glycine, 2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chlorides, and bromo ketones/acetates, yielded high purity quinazolines.

  4. UV-guided isolation of verrucine A and B, novel quinazolines from Penicillium verrucosum structurally related to anacine from P. aurantiogriseum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Franzyk, Henrik; Jensen, Søren Rosendal


    Two novel quinazolines, verrucine A and B, have been isolated as a major and a minor metabolite of Penicillium verrucosum, respectively. Both are condensates of one mole each of anthranilic acid, phenylalanine and glutamine. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and the two...

  5. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization: Highly efficient synthesis of substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones under microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Bakavoli; O. Sabzevari; M. Rahimizadeh


    A highly efficient synthesis of 2-amino-N-substituted-benzamides was performed by the condensation of isatoic anhydride with several amines in solvent-free conditions under microwave irradiation. H-Y-zeolites induced heterocyclization of these products with ortho-esters under similar conditions afforded the relevant substituted-quinazolin-4(3H)ones in high yields.

  6. Silver(I) complexes with phthalazine and quinazoline as effective agents against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. (United States)

    Glišić, Biljana Đ; Senerovic, Lidija; Comba, Peter; Wadepohl, Hubert; Veselinovic, Aleksandar; Milivojevic, Dusan R; Djuran, Miloš I; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina


    Five silver(I) complexes with aromatic nitrogen-containing heterocycles, phthalazine (phtz) and quinazoline (qz), were synthesized, characterized and analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Although different AgX salts reacted with phtz, only dinuclear silver(I) complexes of the general formula {[Ag(X-O)(phtz-N)]2(μ-phtz-N,N')2} were formed, X=NO3(-) (1), CF3SO3(-) (2) and ClO4(-) (3). However, reactions of qz with an equimolar amount of AgCF3SO3 and AgBF4 resulted in the formation of polynuclear complexes, {[Ag(CF3SO3-O)(qz-N)]2}n (4) and {[Ag(qz-N)][BF4]}n (5). Complexes 1-5 were evaluated by in vitro antimicrobial studies against a panel of microbial strains that lead to many skin and soft tissue, respiratory, wound and nosocomial infections. The obtained results indicate that all tested silver(I) complexes have good antibacterial activity with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values in the range from 2.9 to 48.0μM against the investigated strains. Among the investigated strains, these complexes were particularly efficient against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=2.9-29μM) and had a marked ability to disrupt clinically relevant biofilms of strains with high inherent resistance to antibiotics. On the other hand, their activity against the fungus Candida albicans was moderate. In order to determine the therapeutic potential of silver(I) complexes 1-5, their antiproliferative effect on the human lung fibroblastic cell line MRC5, has been also evaluated. The binding of complexes 1-5 to the genomic DNA of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated by gel electrophoresis techniques and well supported by molecular docking into the DNA minor groove. All investigated complexes showed an improved cytotoxicity profile in comparison to the clinically used AgNO3.

  7. Quinazoline antifolate thymidylate synthase inhibitors: nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine substituents in the C2 position. (United States)

    Marsham, P R; Chambers, P; Hayter, A J; Hughes, L R; Jackman, A L; O'Connor, B M; Bishop, J A; Calvert, A H


    The synthesis of 16 new N10-propargylquinazoline antifolates with methylamino, ethylamino, (2-aminoethyl)amino, [2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amino, (2-hydroxyethyl)amino, (carboxymethyl)amino, dimethylamino, imidazol-1-yl, methoxy, ethoxy, phenoxy, 2-methoxyethoxy, 2-hydroxyethoxy, mercapto, methylthio, and chloro substituents at C2 is described. In general, the synthetic route involved the coupling of diethyl N-[4-(prop-2-ynylamino)benzoyl]-L-glutamate (5a) with 6-(bromomethyl)-2-chloro-3,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinazoline in N,N-dimethylformamide with calcium carbonate as the base, displacement of the C2-chloro substituent with nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles, and deprotection using mild alkali. The C2-ether analogues were most conveniently prepared by coupling 5a with 6-(bromomethyl)-2,4-diakoxy(or diphenoxy)quinazolines. In this series the final deprotection step with aqueous alkali gave simultaneous selective hydrolysis of the C4-alkoxy or C4-phenoxy substituent. The compounds were tested as inhibitors of partially purified L1210 thymidylate synthase (TS). As a measure of cytotoxicity, they were examined for their inhibition of the growth of L1210 cells in culture. The C2-methoxy analogue 11a was equivalent to the previously described tight binding TS inhibitor N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (CB3717, ICI 155387, 1a) against the TS enzyme and exhibited enhanced potency in culture. The C2-methoxy substituent also gave a 110-fold enhancement in aqueous solubility relative to the C2-amine. These results suggest that 11a will be an interesting compound for further study as a potential antitumor agent in vivo. A further series of 2-methoxyquinazoline antifolates with modified alkyl substituents at N10 is also described. None of these analogues equalled the activity of 11a. Thus the propargyl group appears to be the optimum N10 substituent in both 2-amino- and 2-methoxyquinazoline antifolates.

  8. Discovery of quinazolin-4-amines bearing benzimidazole fragments as dual inhibitors of c-Met and VEGFR-2. (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhi; Xue, Jia-Yu; Xu, Yun-Gen


    Both c-Met and VEGFR-2 are important targets for the treatment of cancers. In this study, a series of N-(2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)quinazolin-4-amine derivatives were designed and identified as dual c-Met and VEGFR-2 inhibitors. Among these compounds bearing quinazoline and benzimidazole fragments, compound 7j exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against c-Met and VEGFR-2 with IC50 of 0.05μM and 0.02μM, respectively. It also showed the highest anticancer activity against the tested cancer cell lines with IC50 of 1.5μM against MCF-7 and 8.7μM against Hep-G2. Docking simulation supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and suggested a common mode of interaction at the ATP-binding site of c-Met and VEGFR-2, which demonstrates that compound 7j is a potential agent for cancer therapy deserving further researching.

  9. Synthesis and anti-TMV activity of novel β-amino acid ester derivatives containing quinazoline and benzothiazole moieties. (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Li, Pei; Hu, Deyu; Song, Bao-An


    Here, a series of β-amino acid ester derivatives containing quinazoline and benzothiazoles was synthesized and evaluated for anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activity. The compounds 3n, 3o, 3p and 3q showed good antiviral activity against TMV at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, with curative rates of 55.55%, 52.32%, 52.77% and 50.91%, respectively, and protection rates of 52.33%, 55.96%, 54.21% and 50.98%, respectively. These values were close to those of the commercially available antiviral agent ningnanmycin (which has curative and protection rates of 55.27% and 52.16%, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-TMV activity of β-amino acid ester derivatives containing quinazoline and benzothiazoles moieties; the results indicate that these novel compounds can potentially be used as protective agents against TMV diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Insecticidal quinazoline derivatives with (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl and azido substituents as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors and candidate photoaffinity probes. (United States)

    Latli, B; Wood, E; Casida, J E


    Two candidate photoaffinity probes are designed from 4-substituted quinazolines known to be potent insecticides/acaricides and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase inhibitors acting at or near the rotenone site. 4-(11-Azidoundecyl-2-amino)quinazoline, based on the undecylamino analog SAN 548A as a prototype, was synthesized in 18% overall yield from ethyl 10-undecenoate by oxidation of the terminal double bond, reductive amination, coupling to 4-chloroquinazoline, and functional group manipulation of the terminal ethyl ester to an alcohol, a mesylate and finally nucleophilic displacement with azide ions. 4-(4-(3-(Trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenethoxy)quinaz oline [the (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl analog of fenazaquin insecticide/acaricide] was prepared from 4-bromophenethyl alcohol in 31% overall yield by first introducing the trifluoromethylketone moiety followed by its conversion to the (trifluoromethyl)-diazirine and finally coupling to 4-chloroquinazoline as above. Both candidate photoaffinity probes have the inhibitory potency of rotenone (IC50 of 3-4 nM in each case). The azidoundecylamino compound has inadequate photoreactivity whereas that of the (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl analog is ideal at 350 nm. Radiosynthesis of the latter photoaffinity ligand included introduction of the diazirinyl moiety as the carbene precursor, oxidation of (trifluoromethyl)diazirinylphenethyl alcohol to the corresponding acid with Jones' reagent, and reduction of the phenacetyl chloride intermediate with sodium borotritide to incorporate tritium.

  11. Synthesis, Antimicrobial, and Anti-HIV1 Activity of Quinazoline-4(3H-one Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayakumar


    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to synthesize 11 compounds of quinazoline-1 derivatives and to test their antimicrobial and anti-HIV1 activities. A quick-witted method was developed for the synthesis of novel substituted quinazolinone derivatives by summarizing diverse diamines with benzoxazine reactions, and it demonstrated the benefits of typical reactions, handy operation, and outstanding product yields. These compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, I R, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectra. Then antimicrobial and anti-HIV1 activities of the compounds were tested in-vitro. It was found that compounds 7–11 possessed a wide range of anti microbial and anti-HIV1 activity.

  12. Discovery of antibiotic (E)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-cyanostyryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one. (United States)

    Bouley, Renee; Kumarasiri, Malika; Peng, Zhihong; Otero, Lisandro H; Song, Wei; Suckow, Mark A; Schroeder, Valerie A; Wolter, William R; Lastochkin, Elena; Antunes, Nuno T; Pi, Hualiang; Vakulenko, Sergei; Hermoso, Juan A; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar


    In the face of the clinical challenge posed by resistant bacteria, the present needs for novel classes of antibiotics are genuine. In silico docking and screening, followed by chemical synthesis of a library of quinazolinones, led to the discovery of (E)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-cyanostyryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (compound 2) as an antibiotic effective in vivo against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This antibiotic impairs cell-wall biosynthesis as documented by functional assays, showing binding of 2 to penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a. We document that the antibiotic also inhibits PBP1 of S. aureus, indicating a broad targeting of structurally similar PBPs by this antibiotic. This class of antibiotics holds promise in fighting MRSA infections.

  13. Sulfamic acid as energy efficient catalyst for synthesis of flurophores, 1--spiro [isoindoline-1,2′-quinazoline]-3,4′(3′)-diones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mansing M Mane; Dattaprasad M Pore


    An energy efficient synthesis of 1--spiro[isoindoline-1,2′-quinazoline]-3,4′(3′)-diones has been expediently accomplished by a reaction of isatin(s) / cyclic ketone and anthranilamide in ethanol at ambient temprature. Excellent yields of the products in short time duration, operational simplicity, and simple work-up procedure are the attractive features of the present protocol. Synthesized 1--spiro[isoindoline-1,2′-quinazoline]-3,4′(3′)-diones were found to be fluorescent with absorption in UV region (302, 362 nm) and emission in visible region (413-436 nm) with Stokes shift of 44-72 nm.

  14. Synthesis and antiulcer activity of 2-[5-substituted-1--benzo(d) imidazol-2-yl sulfinyl]methyl-3-substituted quinazoline-4-(3) ones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Patil; Swastika Ganguly; Sanjay Surana


    2-[5-substituted-1--benzo(d)imidazol-2-yl sulfinyl]methyl-3-substituted quinazoline-4-(3)-one derivatives were synthesized and tested for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced, aspirin induced and ethanol induced ulcer in rat model. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR, MS and 1H NMR spectral and elemental analysis. The compounds were scramed for their antiulcer activity: compounds 5k and 5n showed higher activity than omeprazole used as standard.

  15. Quinazolin-4-one Coupled with Pyrrolidin-2-iminium Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqin Dai


    Full Text Available Three new alkaloids, including auranomides A and B (1 and 2, a new scaffold containing quinazolin-4-one substituted with a pyrrolidin-2-iminium moiety, and auranomide C (3, as well as two known metabolites auranthine (4 and aurantiomides C (5 were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum. The chemical structures of compounds 13 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including IR, HRESIMS and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 13 were suggested from the perspective of a plausible biosynthesis pathway. Compounds 13 were subjected to antitumor and antimicrobial screening models. Auranomides A–C exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. Auranomides B was the most potent among them with an IC50 value of 0.097 μmol/mL against HEPG2 cells.

  16. Synthesis, anti-microbial and molecular docking studies of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives. (United States)

    Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Al-Har, Munirah S; Barakat, Assem; Aldawsari, Fahad D; Aldalbahi, Ali; Ul-Haq, Zaheer


    In this work, synthesis, antimicrobial activities and molecular docking studies of some new series of substituted quinazolinone 2a-h and 3a-d were described. Starting form 2-aminobenzamide derivatives 1, a new series of quinazolinone derivatives has been synthesized, in high yields, assisted by microwave and classical methods. Some of these substituted quinazolinones were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Esherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis), and anti-fungal activity against (Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cervevisiae, and Candida albicans) using agar well diffusion method. Among the prepared products, 3-benzyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (3a) was found to exhibits the most potent in vitro anti-microbial activity with MICs of 25.6±0.5, 24.3±0.4, 30.1±0.6, and 25.1±0.5 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Esherichia coli, respectively. Compound 3a was found to exhibits the most potent in vitro anti-fungal activity with MICs of 18.3±0.6, 23.1±0.4, and 26.1±0.5 µg/mL against Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cervevisiae, and Candidaal bicans, respectively.

  17. Profiling the Interaction Mechanism of Quinoline/Quinazoline Derivatives as MCHR1 Antagonists: An in Silico Method (United States)

    Wu, Mingwei; Li, Yan; Fu, Xinmei; Wang, Jinghui; Zhang, Shuwei; Yang, Ling


    Melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), a crucial regulator of energy homeostasis involved in the control of feeding and energy metabolism, is a promising target for treatment of obesity. In the present work, the up-to-date largest set of 181 quinoline/quinazoline derivatives as MCHR1 antagonists was subjected to both ligand- and receptor-based three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity (3D-QSAR) analysis applying comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The optimal predictable CoMSIA model exhibited significant validity with the cross-validated correlation coefficient (Q2) = 0.509, non-cross-validated correlation coefficient (R2ncv) = 0.841 and the predicted correlation coefficient (R2pred) = 0.745. In addition, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for further elucidation of the binding modes of MCHR1 antagonists. MD simulations in both water and lipid bilayer systems were performed. We hope that the obtained models and information may help to provide an insight into the interaction mechanism of MCHR1 antagonists and facilitate the design and optimization of novel antagonists as anti-obesity agents. PMID:25257526

  18. Novel 2,3-Dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malose J. Mphahlele


    Full Text Available Herein we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones for in vitro cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines as well as for potential antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The title compounds were prepared via PdCl2-mediated endo-dig cyclization of 2-aryl-8-(arylethynyl-6-bromo-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H-ones. The latter were prepared, in turn, via initial Sonogashira cross-coupling of 2-amino-5-bromo-3-iodobenzamide with aryl acetylenes followed by boric acid-mediated cyclocondensation of the intermediate 2-amino-3-(arylethynyl-5-bromobenzamides with benzaldehyde derivatives. The 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones 4a–k were evaluated for potential in vitro cytotoxicity against the breast (MCF-7, melanoma (B16 and endothelioma (sEnd.2 cell lines. All of the compounds except 4h and 4i were found to be inactive against the three cancer cell lines. Compound 4h substituted with a 4-methoxyphenyl and 4-fluorophenyl groups at the 3- and 5-positions was found to exhibit significant cytotoxicity against the three cancer cell lines. The presence of phenyl and 3-chlorophenyl groups at the 3- and 5-posiitons of the pyrroloquinazolinone 4i, on the other hand, resulted in significant cytotoxicity against vascular tumour endothelial cells (sEnd.2, but reduced activity against the melanoma (B16 and breast cancer (MCF-7 cells except at higher concentrations. The 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones 4a–l were found to be inactive against the chloroquine sensitive 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

  19. Potential of N-aryl(benzyl,heteryl-2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthioacetamides as anticancer and antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksii M. Antypenko


    Full Text Available The death rate from cancer and infectious diseases is still very high, therefore research in this area is extremely important and promising as in medical, so in economic point of view. Thus, potassium salt of tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-thion was modified per alkylation by N-aryl(benzyl,heterylacetamides with proper confirmation of newly synthesized compounds’ structures by FT-IR, LC–MS, 1H NMR and elemental analysis data. The substances were tested for bioluminescence inhibition against Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 (5–50 μg/mL to check their cytotoxicity. Then they were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities (100 μg against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. It was found that compounds 1.1, 1.5, 1.10, 1.31, 1.33 possessed light activity against K. pneumonia. The US National Cancer Institute (NCI has chosen 19 compounds and screened them for ability to inhibit in 10 μM concentration 60 different human tumor cell lines. The LOX IMVI cell line of melanoma appeared to be the most sensitive one, and N-(6-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthioacetamide (1.31 and N-(3-fluorobenzyl-2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthioacetamide (1.19 exhibited high growth inhibition rate, and N-(6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-2-(tetrazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-ylthioacetamide (1.32 showed lethal antitumor activity against it. The latter compound 1.32 showed the best anticancer results, also inhibiting growth of leukemia SR cell line, NCI-H460 of non-small cell lung cancer, KM12 of colon cancer and SF-295 of CNS cancer. The in silico molecular docking studies have predicted the affinity of the synthesized substances to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR.

  20. Metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα-dependent PI4P Is subverted by HCV and is targeted by a 4-anilino quinazoline with antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Bianco

    Full Text Available 4-anilino quinazolines have been identified as inhibitors of HCV replication. The target of this class of compounds was proposed to be the viral protein NS5A, although unequivocal proof has never been presented. A 4-anilino quinazoline moiety is often found in kinase inhibitors, leading us to formulate the hypothesis that the anti-HCV activity displayed by these compounds might be due to inhibition of a cellular kinase. Type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase α (PI4KIIIα has recently been identified as a host factor for HCV replication. We therefore evaluated AL-9, a compound prototypical of the 4-anilino quinazoline class, on selected phosphatidylinositol kinases. AL-9 inhibited purified PI4KIIIα and, to a lesser extent, PI4KIIIβ. In Huh7.5 cells, PI4KIIIα is responsible for the phosphatidylinositol-4 phosphate (PI4P pool present in the plasma membrane. Accordingly, we observed a gradual decrease of PI4P in the plasma membrane upon incubation with AL-9, indicating that this agent inhibits PI4KIIIα also in living cells. Conversely, AL-9 did not affect the level of PI4P in the Golgi membrane, suggesting that the PI4KIIIβ isoform was not significantly inhibited under our experimental conditions. Incubation of cells expressing HCV proteins with AL-9 induced abnormally large clusters of NS5A, a phenomenon previously observed upon silencing PI4KIIIα by RNA interference. In light of our findings, we propose that the antiviral effect of 4-anilino quinazoline compounds is mediated by the inhibition of PI4KIIIα and the consequent depletion of PI4P required for the HCV membranous web. In addition, we noted that HCV has a profound effect on cellular PI4P distribution, causing significant enrichment of PI4P in the HCV-membranous web and a concomitant depletion of PI4P in the plasma membrane. This observation implies that HCV--by recruiting PI4KIIIα in the RNA replication complex--hijacks PI4P metabolism, ultimately resulting in a markedly altered

  1. Discovery of pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives as CMGC family protein kinase inhibitors: Design, synthesis, inhibitory potency and X-ray co-crystal structure. (United States)

    Esvan, Yannick J; Zeinyeh, Wael; Boibessot, Thibaut; Nauton, Lionel; Théry, Vincent; Knapp, Stefan; Chaikuad, Apirat; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Anizon, Fabrice; Giraud, Francis; Moreau, Pascale


    The design and synthesis of new pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives is described as well as their protein kinase inhibitory potencies toward five CMGC family members (CDK5, CK1, GSK3, CLK1 and DYRK1A). The interest for this original tricyclic heteroaromatic scaffold as modulators of CLK1/DYRK1A activity was validated by nanomolar potencies (compounds 12 and 13). CLK1 co-crystal structures with two inhibitors revealed the binding mode of these compounds within the ATP-binding pocket.

  2. Synthesis and anticancer activities of 4-(4-substituted piperazin)-5,6,7-trialkoxy quinazoline derivatives. (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Huang, Yin-Jiu; Xiang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Pei-Yi; Hu, De-Yu; Xue, Wei; Song, Bao-An; Yang, Song


    A series of 4-(4-substituted piperazin)-5,6,7-trialkoxy quinazoline was prepared by conventional heating methods. Among these compounds, the crystal structure of compound 10o (CCDC: 916922) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Bioassay results showed that most target compounds had certain inhibition activities against proliferation of tumor cells, and some compounds even had good broad-spectrum inhibition activities. The ethoxyl series of compounds possessed higher inhibition activities against tumor cells than the methoxyl series of compounds. Bioactivity tests showed that the IC50 values of compound 10s against PC3, MGC803, A375, and A549 cells were 1.8, 2.8, 1.3, and 2.9 μΜ, respectively, which were much higher than those of commercial gefitinib (7.2, 7.6, 7.2, and 9.8 μM, respectively). Conversely, the IC50 values of compound 10s were very low against NH3T3, indicating only weak effect on normal cells as also proven by lactate dehydrogenase and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Analyses of cell configuration and cell cycle revealed that compound 10s possibly caused cells to remain at G0/G1 phase by inhibiting cell proliferation for 24 h. Compound 10s also inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and P38 with obvious concentration dependence. Thus, these compounds can inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells through the interruption of ERK1/2 and P38signaling pathways.

  3. 3d QSAR studies on a series of quinazoline derrivatives as tyrosine kinase (egfr) inhibitor: the k-nearest neighbor molecular field analysis approach. (United States)

    Noolvi, Malleshappa N; Patel, Harun M


    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are known for its role in cancer. Quinazoline have been reported to be the molecules of interest, with potent anticancer activity and they act by binding to ATP site of protein kinases. ATP binding site of protein kinases provides an extensive opportunity to design newer analogs. With this background, we report an attempt to discern the structural and physicochemical requirements for inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase. The k-Nearest Neighbor Molecular Field Analysis (kNN-MFA), a three dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D- QSAR) method has been used in the present case to study the correlation between the molecular properties and the tyrosine kinase (EGFR) inhibitory activities on a series of quinazoline derivatives. kNNMFA calculations for both electrostatic and steric field were carried out. The master grid maps derived from the best model has been used to display the contribution of electrostatic potential and steric field. The statistical results showed significant correlation coefficient r(2) (q(2)) of 0.846, r(2) for external test set (pred_r2) 0.8029, coefficient of correlation of predicted data set (pred_r(2)se) of 0.6658, degree of freedom 89 and k nearest neighbor of 2. Therefore, this study not only casts light on binding mechanism between EGFR and its inhibitors, but also provides hints for the design of new EGFR inhibitors with observable structural diversity.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at C2-position as potential antitumor agents. (United States)

    Ding, Pan-Pan; Gao, Man; Mao, Bei-Bei; Cao, Sheng-Li; Liu, Cui-Huan; Yang, Chao-Rui; Li, Zhong-Feng; Liao, Ji; Zhao, Hongchang; Li, Zheng; Li, Jing; Wang, Hailong; Xu, Xingzhi


    A series of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at the C2-position were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against A549, MCF-7, HeLa, HT29 and HCT-116 cell lines. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited broad spectrum antitproliferative activity against five cell lines, of which 5c was the most potent against HT29 cell line with an IC50 value of 5.53 μM, inducing a G2/M phase arrest in HT29 cells. Treatment of HT29 cells with 5c resulted in BubR1 phosphorylation and an increase of mitotic index in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5c promoted tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results demonstrate that quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at C2-position may be potentially novel antitumor agents targeting tubulin to activate the spindle assembly checkpoint.

  5. Intracellular detection of Cu(2+) and S(2-) ions through a quinazoline functionalized benzimidazole-based new fluorogenic differential chemosensor. (United States)

    Paul, Anup; Anbu, Sellamuthu; Sharma, Gunjan; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Koch, Biplob; Pombeiro, Armando J L


    A new quinazoline functionalized benzimidazole-based fluorogenic chemosensor H3L is synthesized and fully characterized by conventional techniques including single crystal X-ray analysis. It acts as a highly selective colorimetric and fluorescence sensor for Cu(2+) ions in DMF/0.02 M HEPES (1 : 1, v/v, pH = 7.4) medium. Reaction of H3L with CuCl2 forms a mononuclear copper(ii) [Cu(Cl)(H2L)(H2O)] (H2L-Cu(2+)) complex which is characterized by conventional techniques and quantum chemical calculations. Electronic absorption and fluorescence titration studies of H3L with different metal cations show a distinctive recognition only towards Cu(2+) ions even in the presence of other commonly coexisting ions such as Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+). Moreover, H2L-Cu(2+) acts as a metal based highly selective and sensitive chemosensor for S(2-) ions even in the presence of other commonly coexisting anions such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), SO4(2-), SCN(-), AcO(-), H2PO4(-), PO4(3-), NO3(-), ClO4(-), NO2(-), HSO4(-), HSO4(2-), S2O3(2-), S2O8(2-), CN(-), CO3(2-) and HCO3(-) in DMF/0.02 M HEPES (1 : 1, v/v, pH = 7.4) medium. Quantification analysis indicates that these receptors, H3L and H2L-Cu(2+), can detect the presence of Cu(2+) and S(2-) ions at very low concentrations of 1.6 × 10(-9) M and 5.2 × 10(-6) M, respectively. The propensity of H3L as a bio-imaging fluorescent probe for detection of Cu(2+) ions and sequential detection of S(2-) ions by H2L-Cu(2+) in Dalton lymphoma (DL) cancer cells is also shown.

  6. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling study of some new methoxylated 2-benzylthio-quinazoline-4(3H)-ones as nonclassical antifolates. (United States)

    El-Messery, Shahenda M; Hassan, Ghada S; Nagi, Mahmoud N; Habib, El-Sayed E; Al-Rashood, Sarah T; El-Subbagh, Hussein I


    A new series of 2,3,6-substituted-quinazolin-4-ones was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro DHFR inhibition, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Compounds 28 and 61 proved to be active DHFR inhibitors with IC50 0.02 and 0.01μM, respectively. Molecular modeling studies concluded that recognition with the key amino acid Phe34 is essential for binding and hence DHFR inhibition. Compounds 34, 56 and 66 showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity comparable to Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin. Compounds 40 and 64 showed broad spectrum antitumor activity toward several tumor cell lines and proved to be 10 fold more active than 5-FU, with GI50 MG-MID values of 2.2 and 2.4μM, respectively.

  7. A new 2-(2‧-hydroxyphenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one derived acylhydrazone for fluorescence recognition of Al3 + (United States)

    Tang, Lijun; Ding, Shuangli; Zhong, Keli; Hou, Shuhua; Bian, Yanjiang; Yan, Xiaomei


    A new 2-(2‧-hydroxyphenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one derived acylhydrazone (QP) was designed and synthesized as a fluorescent sensor. In Tris • HCl buffer (10 mM, pH 7.4)/ethanol (1/9, v/v) solution, QP exhibits a highly selective fluorescence response to Al3 + over other metal ions with a significant blue-shifted and enhanced emission at 473 nm. QP interacts with Al3 + reversibly through a 1:2 binding ratio with a detection limit of 4.79 × 10- 8 M. Potential applicability of QP for Al3 + detection in tap and lake water samples were also examined by 'proof-of-concept' experiments.

  8. Synthesis of Bioactive 2-(Arylaminothiazolo[5,4-f]-quinazolin-9-ones via the Hügershoff Reaction or Cu- Catalyzed Intramolecular C-S Bond Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Hédou


    Full Text Available A library of thirty eight novel thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazolin-9(8H-one derivatives (series 8, 10, 14 and 17 was prepared via the Hügershoff reaction and a Cu catalyzed intramolecular C-S bond formation, helped by microwave-assisted technology when required. The efficient multistep synthesis of the key 6-amino-3-cyclopropylquinazolin-4(3H-one (3 has been reinvestigated and performed on a multigram scale from the starting 5-nitroanthranilic acid. The inhibitory potency of the final products was evaluated against five kinases involved in Alzheimer’s disease and showed that some molecules of the 17 series described in this paper are particularly promising for the development of novel multi-target inhibitors of kinases.

  9. Novel 2-phenyl-3-{4’-[N-(4”-aminophenylcarbamoyl]-phenyl}-quinazoline-4(3Hone-6-sulphonic acidbased mono azo reactive dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A series of new heterocyclic mono azo reactive dyes 7a–m were prepared by diazotization of 2-phenyl-3-{4’-[N-(4”-aminophenylcarbamoyl]-phenyl}-quinazoline-4(3H-one-6-sulphonic acid (3 and coupling with various cyanurated coupling components 6a–m and their dyeing performance on silk, wool and cotton fibres was assessed. These dyes were found to give a variety of colour shades with very good depth and levelness on the fibres. All the compounds were identified by conventional method (IR and 1H-NMR and elemental analyses. The percentage dye bath exhaustion on different fibres was reasonably good and acceptable. The dyed fibre showed moderate to very good fastness to light, washing and rubbing.

  10. 3-[Benzimidazo- and 3-[benzothiadiazoleimidazo-(1,2-c)quinazolin-5-yl]-2H-chromene-2-ones as potent antimicrobial agents. (United States)

    Kuarm, B Suresh; Reddy, Y Thirupathi; Madhav, J Venu; Crooks, Peter A; Rajitha, B


    A series of 3-[benzimidazo(1,2-c)quinazolin-5-yl]-2H-chromene-2-one (6a-6f) and 3-[benzothiadiazole- imidazo(1,2-c)quinazolin-5-yl]-2H-chromene-2-one derivatives (7a-7f) that incorporate a variety of substituents at the 6- and/or 8-positions of the coumarin moieties have been synthesized utilizing cellulose sulfuric acid as an efficient catalyst under both conventional heating and microwave irradiation procedures. These analogs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium (Gram-negative bacteria), and Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus flavus (Fungi). Two analogs, 6c (a 6,8-dichloro analog, MIC([SA]) = 2.5 μg/mL; MIC([ST]) = 2.5 μg/mL) and 7d (a 6,8-dibromo analog, MIC([ST]) = 2.5 μg/mL) were identified as potent antibacterial agents, and two analogs, 6b (a 6-bromo analog, MIC([AF]) = 10 μg/mL) and 6d (a 6,8-dibromo analog, MIC([AF]) = 15 μg/mL; MIC([CA]) = 15μg/mL), were identified as potent antifungal agents. Based on the MIC data, analogs 6b, 6c, 6d, and 7d were identified as the most potent antimicrobial agents in the series. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined 3D-QSAR modeling and molecular docking study on multi-acting quinazoline derivatives as HER2 kinase inhibitors. (United States)

    Mirzaie, Sako; Monajjemi, Majid; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed; Fathi, Fardin; Jamalan, Mostafa


    A series of new quinazoline derivatives has been recently reported as potent multi-acting histone deacetylase (HDAC), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) inhibitors. HER2 is one of the major targets for the treatment of breast cancer and other carcinomas. Three-dimensional structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) is a well-known technique, which is used to drug design and development. This technique is used for quantitatively predicting the interaction between a molecule and the active site of a specific target. For each 3D-QSAR study, a three-dimensional model is created from a large curve fit to find a fitting between computational descriptors and biological activity. This model could be used as a predictive tool in drug design. The best model has the highest correlation between theoretical and experimental data. Self-Organizing Molecular Field Analysis (SOMFA), a grid-based and alignment-dependent 3D-QSAR method, is employed to study the correlation between the molecular properties and HER2 inhibitory potency of the quinazoline derivatives. Before presentation of inhibitor structures to SOMFA study, conformation of inhibitors was determined by AutoDock4, HyperChem and AutoDock Vina, separately. Overall, six independent models were produced and evaluated by the statistical partial least square (PLS) analysis. Among the several generated 3D-QSARs, the best model was selected on the basis of its statistical significance and predictive potential. The model derived from the superposition of docked conformation with AutoDock Vina with reasonable cross-validated q(2) (0.767), non cross-validated r(2) (0.815) and F-test (97.22) values showed a desirable predictive capability. Analysis of SOMFA model could provide some useful information in the design of novel HER2 kinase inhibitors with better spectrum of activity.

  12. Regioselective Multi-component Synthesis of 7-Aryl-benzo[h][1,2,4]-triazolo[5,1-b]quinazoline-5,6-diones Catalyzed by n-Propylsulfonated γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weilin; Tian, Shuanbao; Wu, Liqiang [Xinxiang Medical Univ., Xinxiang (China)


    We have developed a straightforward method for the synthesis of 7-aryl-benzo[h][1,2,4]-triazolo[5,1-b] quinazoline-5,6-dione derivatives by nano n-propylsulfonated γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyzed three-component reaction of aldehyde, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. A series of 7-aryl-benzo[h][1,2,4]-triazolo[5,1-b]quinazoline-5,6-dione derivatives have been synthesized in excellent yield (85-96%). The catalyst can be recycled up to six cycles without much decrease in catalytic activity. Environment friendly catalyst, high regioselectivity and good yield are the advantages of the method. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on synthesis of 7-aryl-benzo[h][1,2,4]-triazolo[5,1-b]quinazoline-5,6-dione derivatives. We are evaluating anticancer activity of 4, which will be published elsewhere. Naphthoquinones constitute a major class of naturally occurring compounds, and interests in their chemistry continues unabated because of their wide range of biological and therapeutic properties such as antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antiviral, and anticancer activity.

  13. SiO2-NaHSO4as an Efficient Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst for the One-Pot Three-Component Synthesis of Octahydro-quinazolin-2,5-diones in Water%SiO2-NaHSO4 as an Efficient Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst for the One-Pot Three-Component Synthesis of Octahydro-quinazolin-2,5-diones in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadeq Hamood Saleh AZZAM; Aisha SIDDEKHA; Aatika NIZAM; Mohamed Afzal PASHA


    An environmentally benign method for the synthesis of octahydro-quinazolin-2,5-diones by the reaction of aromatic aldehydes,dimedone,and urea in the presence of SiO2-NaHSO4 is reported.SiO2-NaHSO4 acts as an efficient,mild,and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst to give excellent yields within a short reaction time in water at 60-80 ℃.

  14. Design, synthesis, anti-tumor activity, and molecular modeling of quinazoline and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives targeting epidermal growth factor receptor. (United States)

    Hou, Ju; Wan, Shanhe; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Zhonghuang; Tian, Yuanxin; Yu, Yonghuan; Wu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jiajie


    Three series of novel quinazoline and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit EGFR tyrosine kinase and a panel of five human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, A549, BT-474, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231). Bioassay results indicated that five of these prepared compounds (12c-12e and 13c-13d) exhibited remarkably higher inhibitory activities against EGFR and SK-BR-3 cell line. Compounds 12c and 12e displayed the most potent EGFR inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.97 nM and 3.58 nM, respectively) and good anti-proliferative effect against SK-BR-3 cell with the IC50 values of 3.10 μM and 5.87 μM, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies verified that compound 12c and 12e shared similar binding pattern with gefitinib in the binding pocket of EGFR. MM-GBSA binding free energy revealed that the compound 12c and 12e have almost the same inhibitory activity against EGFR as gefitinib, and that the dominating effect of van der Waals interactions drives the binding process.

  15. Synthesis, Modelling, and Anticonvulsant Studies of New Quinazolines Showing Three Highly Active Compounds with Low Toxicity and High Affinity to the GABA-A Receptor. (United States)

    Zayed, Mohamed F; Ihmaid, Saleh K; Ahmed, Hany E A; El-Adl, Khaled; Asiri, Ahmed M; Omar, Abdelsattar M


    Some novel fluorinated quinazolines (5a-j) were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity and their neurotoxicity. Structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their infrared (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) spectra, ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR, and elemental analysis (CHN). The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by a subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure test, while neurotoxicity was evaluated by a rotorod test. The molecular docking was performed for all newly-synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to the GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling was correlated with that obtained from the biological screening. These data showed considerable anticonvulsant activity for all newly-synthesized compounds. Compounds 5b, 5c, and 5d showed the highest binding affinities toward the GABA-A receptor, along with the highest anticonvulsant activities in experimental mice. These compounds also showed low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test compared to the reference drugs. A GABA enzymatic assay was performed for these highly active compounds to confirm the obtained results and explain the possible mechanism for anticonvulsant action. The most active compounds might be used as leads for future modification and optimization.

  16. Design, synthesis, molecular docking and anticonvulsant evaluation of novel 6-iodo-2-phenyl-3-substituted-quinazolin-4(3H-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Kamal Ibrahim


    Full Text Available A new series of 6-iodo-2-phenyl-3-substituted-quinazolin-4(3H-one (5–12a–b derivatives were synthesized, evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures and maximal electroshock test and compared with the reference drugs phenobarbital sodium and methaqualone. The neurotoxicity was assessed using rotarod test. The molecular docking was performed for all the synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling were correlated with those obtained from the biological screening. Compounds 9a, 9b, 12a and 7a showed the highest anticonvulsant activities of this series with relatively low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test when compared with the reference drugs. The obtained results proved that the most active compounds could be a useful model for future design, adaptation and investigation to construct more active analogs.

  17. 3-(Dipropylamino)-5-hydroxybenzofuro[2,3-f]quinazolin-1(2H)-one (DPA-HBFQ-1) plays an inhibitory role on breast cancer cell growth and progression. (United States)

    Rizza, Pietro; Pellegrino, Michele; Caruso, Anna; Iacopetta, Domenico; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Rault, Sylvain; Lancelot, Jean Charles; El-Kashef, Hussein; Lesnard, Aurelien; Rochais, Christophe; Dallemagne, Patrick; Saturnino, Carmela; Giordano, Francesca; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano


    A series of unknown 3-(alkyl(dialkyl)amino)benzofuro[2,3-f]quinazolin-1(2H)-ones 4-17 has been synthesized as new ellipticine analogs, in which the carbazole moiety and the pyridine ring were replaced by a dibenzofuran residue and a pyrimidine ring, respectively. The synthesis of these benzofuroquinazolinones 4-17 was performed in a simple one-pot reaction using 3-aminodibenzofuran or its 2-methoxy derivative, as starting materials. From 3-(dipropylamino)-5-methoxybenzofuro[2,3-f] quinazolin-1(2H)-one (13), we prepared 3-(dipropylamino)-5-hydroxybenzofuro[2,3-f]quinazolin-1(2H)-one (18), referred to as DPA-HBFQ-1. The cytotoxic activities of all the synthesized compounds, tested in different human breast cancer cell lines, revealed that DPA-HBFQ-1 was the most active compound. In particular, the latter was able to inhibit anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and to induce apoptosis in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive and -negative breast cancer cells. It did not affect proliferation and apoptotic responses in MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells. The observed effects have been ascribed to an enhanced p21(Cip1/WAF1) expression in a p53-dependent manner of tumor suppressor and to a selective inhibition of human topoisomerase II. In addition, DPA-HBFQ-1 exerted growth inhibitory effects also in other cancer cell lines, even though with a lower cytotoxic activity. Our results indicate DPA-HBFQ-1 as a good candidate to be useful as cancer therapeutic agent, particularly for breast cancer.

  18. NMS-P937, a 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivative as potent and selective Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor. (United States)

    Beria, Italo; Bossi, Roberto T; Brasca, Maria Gabriella; Caruso, Michele; Ceccarelli, Walter; Fachin, Gabriele; Fasolini, Marina; Forte, Barbara; Fiorentini, Francesco; Pesenti, Enrico; Pezzetta, Daniele; Posteri, Helena; Scolaro, Alessandra; Re Depaolini, Stefania; Valsasina, Barbara


    As part of our drug discovery effort, we identified and developed 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivatives as PLK1 inhibitors. We now report the optimization of this class that led to the identification of NMS-P937, a potent, selective and orally available PLK1 inhibitor. Also, in order to understand the source of PLK1 selectivity, we determined the crystal structure of PLK1 with NMS-P937. The compound was active in vivo in HCT116 xenograft model after oral administration and is presently in Phase I clinical trials evaluation.

  19. Synthesis, Polymorphism, and Insecticidal Activity of Methyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-iodo-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline-3-Carboxylate Against Anopheles arabiensis Mosquito. (United States)

    Venugopala, Katharigatta N; Nayak, Susanta K; Gleiser, Raquel M; Sanchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Garcia, Daniel A; Odhav, Bharti


    Mosquitoes are the major vectors of pathogens and parasites including those causing malaria, the most deadly vector-borne disease. The negative environmental effects of most synthetic compounds combined with widespread development of insecticide resistance encourage an interest in finding and developing alternative products against mosquitoes. In this study, pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline derivative DHPM3 has been synthesized by three-step chemical reaction and screened for larvicide, adulticide, and repellent properties against Anopheles arabiensis, one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. The title compound emerged as potential larvicide agent for further research and development, because it exerted 100% mortality, while adulticide activity was considered moderate.

  20. Design of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands in quinuclidine, tropane and quinazoline series. Chemistry, molecular modeling, radiochemistry, in vitro and in rats evaluations of a [(18)F] quinuclidine derivative. (United States)

    Pin, Frédéric; Vercouillie, Johnny; Ouach, Aziz; Mavel, Sylvie; Gulhan, Zuhal; Chicheri, Gabrielle; Jarry, Christian; Massip, Stephane; Deloye, Jean-Bernard; Guilloteau, Denis; Suzenet, Franck; Chalon, Sylvie; Routier, Sylvain


    In this report, we describe the synthesis of a novel library of α7 nAChR ligands based on the modulation of the quinuclidine, quinazoline and tropane moieties. Spirane derivatives were newly synthesized under stereo specific 1,3 dipolar cylcoadditions. Only amide derivatives bonded efficiently to the receptor with Ki measured between 14 and 133 nM. The best fluorinated candidate was selected and radiolabeled. The potent [(18)F]4 PET tracer was evaluated in rats and its brain accumulation quantified.

  1. Synthesis and biological investigation of 2,4-substituted quinazolines as highly potent inhibitors of breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2). (United States)

    Krapf, Michael K; Gallus, Jennifer; Wiese, Michael


    Expression of ABCG2, a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, has been correlated to the clinical outcome of multiple cancers and is often associated with the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapy. Inhibition of the transport protein by potent and selective inhibitors might be a way to treat cancer more efficiently and improve the therapy of cancer patients. Recently we reported the synthesis of new inhibitors based on a quinazoline scaffold. In the present study more structural variations were explored. Compounds with 3,4-dimethoxy groups and meta or para nitro substituents were found to be highly potent inhibitors of ABCG2. The most potent compound was more than five-fold more potent than Ko143, one of the best inhibitors of ABCG2. To determine the new compounds selectivity toward ABCG2 their inhibitory effects on ABCB1 and ABCC1 were also investigated identifying selective as well as broadspectrum inhibitors. Furthermore, intrinsic cytotoxicity and efficacy regarding the reversal of multidrug resistance toward SN-38 and mitoxantrone were explored. The most potent compounds were able to reverse the resistance toward the cytostatic agents with EC50 values below 20 nM. Additionally, the type of interaction between inhibitors and the ABCG2 substrate Hoechst 33342 was investigated yielding competitive and non-competitive interactions suggesting different modes of binding. Finally the effect of the derivatives on vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity of ABCG2 was determined. According to the different effects on ATPase activity we conclude the existence of different binding sites. This study provides the structural requirements for high potency inhibition and elucidates the interaction with ABCG2 setting the basis for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. 3D-QSAR Study of 7,8-Dialkyl-1,3-diaminopyrrolo-[3,2-f]Quinazolines with Anticancer Activity as DHFR Inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-can Chen; Lan-mei Chen; Si-yan Liao; Li Qian; Kang-cheng Zheng


    A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study of a series of 7,8-dialkyl-1,3-diaminopyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinazolines with anticancer activity as dihydrofo-late reductase (DHFR) inhibitors was carried out by using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), on the basis of our reported 2D-QSAR of these compounds. The es-tablished 3D-QSAR model has good quality of statistics and good prediction ability; the non cross-validation correlation coefficient and the cross-validation value of this model are 0.993 and 0.619, respectively, the F value is 193.4, and the standard deviation SD is 0.208. This model indicates that the steric field factor plays a much more important role than the electrostatic one, in satisfying agreement with the published 2D-QSAR model. However, the 3D-QSAR model offers visual imagcs of the steric field and the electrostatic field. The 3D-QSAR study further suggests the following: to improve the activity, the substituent R' should be selected to be a group with an adaptive bulk like Et or i-Pr, and the substituent R should be sclected to be a larger alkyl. In particular, based on our present 3D-QSAR as well as the published 2D-QSAR, the experimentally-proposed hydrophobic binding mechanism on the receptor-binding site of the DHFR can be further explained in theory. Therefore, the QSAR studies help to further understand the "hydrophobic binding" action mechanism of this kind of compounds, and to direct the molecular design of new drugs with higher activity.

  3. Structural Exploration of Quinazolin-4(3H)-ones as Anticonvulsants: Rational Design, Synthesis, Pharmacological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking Studies. (United States)

    Ugale, Vinod G; Bari, Sanjay B


    Anticonvulsants effective against multiple seizures are of wide interest as antiepileptic drugs, especially if active against pharmaco-resistant seizures. Herein, we synthesized 16 different, rationally designed 2-((6,7-dimethoxy-4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)amino)-N-(substituted phenyl)acetamides and screened for anticonvulsant activities through in vivo experiments. Compound 4d emerged as prototype with excellent anti-seizure action in mice against electroshock, chemically induced and pharmaco-resistant 6-Hz seizure models with no symptoms of neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity (ED50  = 23.5 mg/kg, MES, mice, i.p.; ED50  = 32.6 mg/kg, scPTZ, mice, i.p.; ED50  = 45.2 mg/kg, 6-Hz, mice, i.p.; TD50  = 325.9 mg/kg, mice, i.p.). In addition, investigation of compound 4l in mice for its pharmacological profile proved it as safer anticonvulsant, devoid of the side effects such as motor dysfunction and hepatotoxicity of classical antiepileptic drugs (ED50  = 26.1 mg/kg, MES, mice, i.p.; ED50  = 79.4 mg/kg, scPTZ, mice, i.p.; TD50  = 361.2 mg/kg, mice, i.p.). We also predicted physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of structurally optimized quinazolin-4(3H)-ones by a computational protocol. A combination of in vivo anticonvulsant profile, ex vivo toxicity, and in silico studies suggested that the synthesized compounds may be useful as broad-spectrum anti-seizure drug candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic parameters. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Anti-arthritis effect of a novel quinazoline derivative through inhibiting production of TNF-α mediated by TNF-α converting enzyme in murine collagen-induced arthritis model. (United States)

    Pu, Yuzhi; Cao, Dong; Xie, Caifeng; Pei, Heying; Li, Dan; Tang, Minghai; Chen, Lijuan


    TNF-α is a dominant inflammatory mediator in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. In our research, we discovered 2-chloro-N-(4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)quinazolin-4-amine (9c) exhibited an outstanding anti-inflammatory activity on inhibiting TNF-α production with an IC50 of 8.86 μM in RAW264.7 cells. Interestingly, 9c had no effect on mRNA level of TNF-α but up-regulated the precursor of TNF-α (pro-TNF-α). Then, we studied TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE), which is the most important proteases responsible for the release of TNF-α from pro-TNF-α to soluble TNF-α. The results showed 9c reduced TACE both on the levels of mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo study, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice were treated by 9c orally. 9c exhibited significant anti-arthritis effect by ameliorating arthritic score, reducing inflammatory cell infiltration, protecting joints from destruction and decreasing the production of systemic TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β. The underlying mechanism of 9c on CIA was coincided with the in vitro, which was mediated by TACE. In conclusion, we discovered a novel quinazoline derivative which ameliorates arthritis through inhibiting production of TNF-α mediated by TACE for the first time.

  5. The effect of the [{sup 18}F]-PEG group on tracer qualification of [4-(phenylamino)-quinazoline-6-YL]-amide moiety-An EGFR putative irreversible inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissoki, Samar [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Aviv, Yoel [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Unit of Cellular Signaling, Department of Biological Chemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laky, Desideriu [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Abourbeh, Galith [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Unit of Cellular Signaling, Department of Biological Chemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Levitzki, Alexander [Unit of Cellular Signaling, Department of Biological Chemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mishani, Eyal [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hadassah Hebrew University, Hadassah University Hospital, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)], E-mail:


    Previous reports have designated the labeled derivatives of [4-(phenylamino)-quinazoline-6-yl]-amide group as the most promising EGFR-PET imaging agent candidates. To further improve tracer qualifications and increase stability and solubility, additional derivatives of this group substituted at the 7-position with various lengths of fluoro-polyethyleneglycol (F-PEG) chains were synthesized. These novel derivatives inhibited EGFR autophosphorylation with IC{sub 50} values of 5-40 nM. The compounds were successfully labeled with fluorine-18 at the PEG chain via a three-step radiosynthesis route. The labeled final products were obtained with a 13-32% decay corrected radiochemical yield, 99% radiochemical purity, and high specific activity.

  6. Synthesis and analgesic profile of conformationally constrained N-acylhydrazone analogues: discovery of novel N-arylideneamino quinazolin-4(3H)-one compounds derived from natural safrole. (United States)

    Maia, Rodolfo C; Silva, Leandro L; Mazzeu, Eduardo F; Fumian, Milla M; de Rezende, Claudia M; Doriguetto, Antonio C; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Fraga, Carlos Alberto Manssour


    In this work we reported the synthesis and evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and platelet anti-aggregating properties of new 3-(arylideneamino)-2-methyl-6,7-methylenedioxy-quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives (3a-j), designed as conformationally constrained analogues of analgesic 1,3-benzodioxolyl-N-acylhydrazones (1) previously developed at LASSBio. Target compounds were synthesized in very good yields exploiting abundant Brazilian natural product safrole (2) as starting material. The pharmacological assays lead us to identify compounds LASSBio-1240 (3b) and LASSBio-1272 (3d) as new analgesic prototypes, presenting an antinociceptive profile more potent and effective than dipyrone and indomethacin used, respectively, as standards in AcOH-induced abdominal constrictions assay and in the formalin test. These results confirmed the success in the exploitation of conformation restriction strategy for identification of novel cyclic N-acylhydrazone analogues with optimized analgesic profile.

  7. La(III) complex involving the O,N-donor environment of quinazoline-4(3H)-one Schiff’s base and their antimicrobial attributes against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (United States)

    Siddappa, K.; Mane, Sunilkumar B.; Manikprabhu, Deene


    The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased during the past few decades, so there is an urgent need of new antimicrobial agents if public health is concerned. Though the Schiff’s bases and La(III) complex have enormous biological activity, but less attention was given in their synthesis. In the present investigation, we synthesized a new (E)-3-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl) methyleneamino)-2-methylquinazoline-4(3H)-one HNMAMQ Schiff’s base by the condensation of 3-(2-aminophenyl) quinazolin-2-methyl-4(3H)-one and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. The Schiff’s base HNMAMQ and its La(III) complex were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, NMR, mass spectra, and thermal studies. The newly synthesized Schiff’s base HNMAMQ and its La(III) complex were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the Gulbarga region in India. The Schiff’s base HNMAMQ and its La(III) complex showed good antimicrobial activity and thus represents a potential new drug of choice.

  8. 10-Dimethylamino Derivatives of Benzo[h]quinoline and Benzo[h]quinazolines: Fluorescent Proton Sponge Analogues with Opposed peri-NMe2/-N═ Groups. How to Distinguish between Proton Sponges and Pseudo-Proton Sponges. (United States)

    Pozharskii, Alexander F; Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Mikshiev, Vladimir Y; Antonov, Alexander S; Chernyshev, Anatoly V; Metelitsa, Anatoly V; Borodkin, Gennady S; Fedik, Nikita S; Dyablo, Olga V


    For the first time, 10-dimethylamino derivatives of benzo[h]quinoline 6 and benzo[h]quinazoline 7a-e as mixed analogues of archetypal 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene ("proton sponge") 1 and quino[7,8-h]quinoline 2a have been examined. Similar to 1 and 2, compounds 6 and 7 display rather high basicity, forming chelated monocations. At the same time, unexpected specifics of the protonated NMe2/-N═ systems consist of a strong shift of the NH proton to the 10-NMe2 group, contrary to the "aniline-pyridine" basicity rule. In case of 4H(+), a rapid migration (in the NMR time scale) of the NH proton between two nitrogen atoms along the N-H···N hydrogen bond was registered at room temperature and frozen below -30 °C with the proton fixed on the NMe2 group. Two different approaches for classification of strong neutral nitrogen organic bases as proton sponges (kinetically inert compounds) or pseudo-proton sponges (kinetically active) are discussed. On this basis, benzoquinoline 6 was identified as staying closer to pseudo-proton sponges while 7a-e to proton sponges due to the presence in their molecules of bulky substituents in the pyrimidine ring. Other remarkable peculiarities of 6 and 7 are their yellow color and luminescence in the visible region distinguishing them from colorless 1 and 2a.

  9. An Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Procedure for the Synthesis of Some Novel 8-Benzylidene-4-phenyl-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-quinazolin-2-ones/thiones using Tetrabutylammonium Hexatungstate as a Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghashang, Majid [Islamic Azad Univ., Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoor, Syed Sheik; Aswin, Krishnamoorthy [Research Department of Chemistry, Tamil Nadu (India)


    An efficient method for the preparation of 8-benzylidene-4-phenyl-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-quinazolin-2-ones/thiones from the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with cyclohexanone and urea or thiourea in the presence of Tetrabutylammonium hexatungstate, [TBA]{sub 2}[W{sub 6}O{sub 19}], as an efficient, inexpensive catalyst under thermal and solvent-free conditions has been developed. Good yields, short reaction times, straightforward workup, reusability of the catalyst, and green conditions are the most obvious advantages of this procedure.

  10. Synthesis and Anticonvulsant Activity of 5-Substituted[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolines%5-取代-1,2,4-三唑并[4,3-a]喹唑啉衍生物的合成及抗惊厥活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓先清; 肖春瑞; 魏成喜; 全哲山


    A series of 5-substituted-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-α]quinazolines were synthesized. The anticonvulsant effects and neurotoxicity of the compounds were evaluated with maximal electroshock test and rotarod test with intraperitoneally injected in mice. The pharmacology results showed that 5-pentyloxy-[l,2,4]triazolo-[4,3-α]quinazoline (2d) was the most potent with ED50 value of 19.7 mg/kg and protective index (PI= TD50/ED50) value of 6.2. To explain the possible mechanism of anticonvulsant activity, compound 2d was tested in several chemical induced seizures tests. The results revealed that compound 2d was effective against the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, isoniazid, 3-mercaptopropionic acid and thiosemicarba-zide, which suggested that the anticonvulsant effects of this series compounds were acted via increasing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic neurotransmission and activating glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) or inhibiting α-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GABA-T) in the brain.%合成了5-取代-1,2,4-三唑并[4,3-a]喹唑啉衍生物2a~2q.利用最大电惊厥法(MES)和旋转棒法(Rotarod Test),以小鼠腹腔给药,分别测定了其抗惊厥活性和神经毒性.药理实验结果表明,化合物5-正庚氧基-1,2,4-三唑并[4,3 -a]喹唑啉(2d)的抗惊厥活性最强,其半数有效量EDso为19.7 mg/kg,保护指数PI为6.2.由化学物质诱发的抗惊厥实验结果表明,化合物2d能对抗由戊四唑、异烟肼、硫代氨基脲和3-巯基丙酸诱发的惊厥作用,推测其抗惊厥作用是通过增强γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)神经能系统和活化谷氨酸脱羧酶或抑制GABA转氨酶而起抗惊厥作用.

  11. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 2-thiophen-5-yl-3H-quinazolin-4-one analogues as inhibitors of transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation: Their possible utilization as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agents. (United States)

    Giri, Rajan S; Thaker, Hardik M; Giordano, Tony; Williams, Jill; Rogers, Donna; Vasu, Kamala K; Sudarsanam, Vasudevan


    In an attempt to discover novel inhibitors of NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation utilizing the concept of chemical lead based medicinal chemistry and bioisosterism a series of 2-(2,3-disubstituted-thiophen-5-yl)-3H-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed. A facile and simple route for the synthesis of the designed molecules was developed. Synthesized molecules were evaluated for their activity as inhibitors towards NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation in a cell line report-based assay. This series provides us with a substantial number of compounds inhibiting the activity of NF-kappaB and/or AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation. These compounds also exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity in in vivo models of inflammation and cancer. The 4-pyridyl group is found to be the most important pharmacophore on the third position of thiophene ring for inhibiting NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation. The relationships between the activities shown by these compounds in the in vivo and in vitro models have been established by using FVB transgenic mice model. These results suggest the suitability of the designed molecular framework as a potential scaffold for the design of molecules with inhibitory activity towards NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation, which may also exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. This series of molecules warrants further study to explore their potential as therapies for use in chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer. Development of the synthetic protocol for the synthesis of this series of molecules, biological activities and a structure-activity relationship (SAR) have been discussed herein.

  12. Synthesis and Fungicidal Activities of Novel Quinazoline Derivatives Containing 1,2,4-Triazole Schiff-Base Unit%含1,2,4-三唑席夫碱的新型喹唑啉类化合物的合成及其抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军虎; 刘勇; 蹇军友; 鲍小平


    Using 3-methyl-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione,aromatic aldehydes and 4-chloroquinazoline as starting materials,fourteen novel quinazoline derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole Schiff-base unit were synthesized. The structures of target compounds were fully characterized by IR,1H NMR,MS and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay showed that some compounds possessed certain fungicidal activities. At the concentration of 50 μg/mL,the inhibition rates of compound 6g against F. oxysporium,C. mandshurica and P. infestans were 71%,72% and 58%,respectively.%以3-甲基-4-氨基-1,2,4-三唑-5-硫酮、芳醛和4-氯喹唑啉为原料,经席夫碱和硫醚化反应合成了14个新型的含1,2,4-三唑席夫碱单元的喹唑啉类化合物6a~6n,通过IR,1H NMR,MS及元素分析对所合成的目标化合物进行了结构表征.初步生物活性测试结果表明,部分化合物表现出一定的抗菌活性.在50 μg/mL浓度下,化合物6g对辣椒枯萎菌、苹果腐烂菌及马铃薯晚疫菌的抑制率分别为71%,72%和58%.

  13. Exocyclic push-pull conjugated compounds. Part 3. An experimental NMR and theoretical MO ab initio study of the structure, the electronic properties and barriers to rotation about the exocyclic partial double bond in 2- exo-methylene- and 2-cyanoimino-quinazolines and -benzodiazepines (United States)

    Benassi, R.; Bertarini, C.; Hilfert, L.; Kempter, G.; Kleinpeter, E.; Spindler, J.; Taddei, F.; Thomas, S.


    The structure of a number of 2- exo-methylene substituted quinazolines and benzodiazepines, respectively, 1, 3a, b, 4( X=-CN, -COOEt ) and their 2-cyanoimino substituted analogues 2, 3c, d( X=-CN, -SO 2C 6H 4-Me (p) was completely assigned by the whole arsenal of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods. The E/ Z isomerism at the exo-cyclic double bond was determined by both NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by ab initio quantum chemical calculations; the Z isomer is the preferred one, its amount proved dependent on steric hindrance. Due to the push-pull effect in this part of the molecules the restricted rotation about the partial C 2,C 11 and C 2,N 11 double bonds, could also be studied and the barrier to rotation measured by dynamic NMR spectroscopy. The free energies of activation of this dynamic process proved very similar along the compounds studied but being dependent on the polarity of the solvent. Quantum chemical calculations at the ab initio level were employed to prove the stereochemistry at the exo-cyclic partial double bonds of 1- 4, to calculate the barriers to rotation but also to discuss in detail both the ground and the transition state of the latter dynamic process in order to better understand electronic, inter- and intramolecular effects on the barrier to rotation which could be determined experimentally. In the cyanoimino substituted compounds 2, 3c, d, the MO ab initio calculations evidence the isomer interconversion to be better described by the internal rotation process than by the lateral shift mechanism.

  14. Quinazolines and 1,4-benzodiazepines. 82.1 5-Pyrimidyl-and 5-pyrazinylbenzodiazepines. (United States)

    Archer, G A; Kalish, R I; Ning, R Y; Sluboski, B C; Stempel, A; Steppe, T V; Sternbach, L H


    Analogues of bromazepam [7-bromo-1,3-dihydro-5(2-pyridyl)-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, A], which is a clinically useful minor tranquilizer, have been prepared by replacing the 2-pyridyl group at position 5 with 4-pyrimidyl (5), 2-pyrazinyl (8), 2,5-dimethylpyrazin-3-yl (10), and 2-pyrimidyl (12) groups. Low to moderate CNS activities in both mice and cat were found for all the new compounds. For the screening procedures used, the 2-pyrimidyl-substituted derivatives were found to be the most active new analogues although none of the activities exceeded those observed for bromazepam.

  15. Quinazoline antifolates inhibiting thymidylate synthase: variation of the N10 substituent. (United States)

    Jones, T R; Calvert, A H; Jackman, A L; Eakin, M A; Smithers, M J; Betteridge, R F; Newell, D R; Hayter, A J; Stocker, A; Harland, S J


    The synthesis of 12 new 5,8-dideazafolates with isopropyl, cyclopropylmethyl, 2-fluoroethyl, carbamoylmethyl, phenacyl, 3-fluorobenzyl, 5-uracilylmethyl, carboxymethyl, 2-carboxyethyl, 3-cyanopropyl, 3-hydroxypropyl, and cyanomethyl substituents at N10 is described. In general, the synthetic route involved monoalkylation of diethyl N-(4-amino-benzoyl)-L-glutamate, coupling of the resulting secondary amine with 2-amino-6-(bromomethyl)-4-hydroxyquinazoline hydrobromide in N,N-dimethylacetamide with calcium carbonate as the base, and deprotection using mild alkali. The cyanomethyl derivatives was found to be unexpectedly base labile and was therefore prepared by mild acid deprotection of a di-tert-butyl ester. The compounds were tested as inhibitors of purified L1210 thymidylate synthase (TS). Four members of the series were more potent that the N10-hydrogen compound, but none was superior to the previously described N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid. Selected compounds were examined as inhibitors of purified L1210 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). As desired, N10 substitution in general reduced DHFR inhibitory activity; these results are discussed. As a measure of cytotoxicity, the compounds were examined for their inhibition of the growth of L1210 cells in culture. None of the new substituents conferred enhanced potency relative to N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (ID50 = 5 microM), which, as the best TS inhibitor and a relatively poor DHFR inhibitor, continues to lead this series.

  16. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of imines derived from 3-Amino-2-isopropyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Karakaya


    Full Text Available Novel Schiff bases were synthesised using 3-aminoquinazolinone (1 and a variety of aldehydes in the presence of acetic acid as solvent. Antifungal evaluation of the compounds was carried out by the agar dilution method. Among the all compounds prepared, quinazolinone itself showed the best fungiostatic activity against all filamentous fungi.

  17. Synthesis, Anti-microbial and Molecular Docking Studies of Quinazolin-4(3H-one Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Nasser Mabkhot


    Full Text Available In this work, synthesis, antimicrobial activities and molecular docking studies of some new series of substituted quinazolinone 2a–h and 3a–d were described. Starting form 2-aminobenzamide derivatives 1, a new series of quinazolinone derivatives has been synthesized, in high yields, assisted by microwave and classical methods. Some of these substituted quinazolinones were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Esherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and anti-fungal activity against (Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cervevisiae, and Candida albicans using agar well diffusion method. Among the prepared products, 3-benzyl-2-(4-chlorophenylquinazolin-4(3H-one (3a was found to exhibits the most potent in vitro anti-microbial activity with MICs of 25.6 ± 0.5, 24.3 ± 0.4, 30.1 ± 0.6, and 25.1 ± 0.5 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Esherichia coli, respectively. Compound 3a was found to exhibits the most potent in vitro anti-fungal activity with MICs of 18.3 ± 0.6, 23.1 ± 0.4, and 26.1 ± 0. 5 µg/mL against Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cervevisiae, and Candidaal bicans, respectively.

  18. Pelanserin: 3-[3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-ylpropyl]quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aguirre Hernández


    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H24N4O2, is a potent serotonin 5-HT2 and α1-adrenoceptor antagonist. The n-propyl chain links the quinazolinedione heterocycle and the phenylpiperazine group in which the benzene ring is equatorially located and the piperazine ring has the expected chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene ring and the quinazolinedione ring system is 74.1 (1°. In the crystal, molecules form centrosymmetric dimers through R22(8 hydrogen-bonded rings involving the amine and one carbonyl group of the quinazolinedione moiety. These dimers are extended into chains extending along the a-axis direction through expanded centrosymmetric cyclic C—H...O associations involving the second carbonyl group, giving R22(20 and R12(7 motifs.

  19. A new class of quinazoline-sulfonamides acting as efficient inhibitors against the α-carbonic anhydrase from Trypanosoma cruzi. (United States)

    Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Ceruso, Mariangela; Al-Jaber, Nabila A; Parkkila, Seppo; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Supuran, Claudiu T


    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent responsible for trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) in humans and other animals. It has been recently reported that this pathogen encodes for an α-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC, denominated TcCA, which was shown to be crucial for its life cycle. Inhibition studies of a class of 4-oxoquinazoline containing a benzensulfonamide moiety and their 4-thioxo bioisosteres against the protozoan enzyme TcCA are described here. Most of 4-oxoquinazoline sulfonamides showed nanomolar TcCA inhibition activity with K(I)s in the same order of magnitude of acetazolamide (AAZ), whereas their thioxo bioisosters showed moderate anti-Trypanosoma CA potency with K(I)s in the micromolar range. The discovery of compounds incorporating a 4-oxoquinazoline ring as a low-nanomolar TcCA inhibitor is quite promising and it may be useful for developing anti-Trypanosoma agents with a novel mechanism of action compared to the clinically used drugs (such as benznidazole, nifurtimox) for which significant resistance and serious adverse effects due to their high-toxicity appeared.


    Hydration reactions are fundamental to many biological functions and environmental processes. The energetics of hydration of inorganic and organic chemical species influences their fate and transport behavior in the environment. In this study, gas-phase quantum mechanical calcula...

  1. Spectroscopic and reactive properties of a newly synthesized quinazoline derivative: Combined experimental, DFT, molecular dynamics and docking study (United States)

    El-Azab, Adel S.; Mary, Y. Shyma; Mary, Y. Sheena; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A.-M.; Mohamed, Menshawy A.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Van Alsenoy, Christian


    The molecular geometry, the normal mode wavenumbers and corresponding vibrational assignments, natural bond orbital analysis and the HOMO-LUMO analysis of 3-(4-oxo-phenethyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)propanamide were performed by B3LYP level of theory using the 6-311++G(d,p)(5D,7F) basis set. The experimentally obtained wavenumbers are in agreement with the theoretically predicted wavenumbrs. From the MEP plot it is evident that the negative charge covers carbonyl group, mono substituted phenyl ring, O59 atom and the positive region is over the nitrogen atoms and hydrogen atoms. NLO behavior of the title molecule was investigated by the determination of the first and second order hyperpolarizabilities. The molecular orbitals and molecular electrostatic potential map are also reported. The NMR spectra and Fukui indices are also analyzed. Molecule sites important from the aspect of reactivity have been determined by calculations of average local ionization energy (ALIE), Fukui functions and bond dissociation energies (BDE). BDE for hydrogen abstraction served us to investigate the possibility for autoxidation mechanism of the investigated molecule. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used in order to investigate which atoms of the title molecule have the most pronounced interactions with water molecules. Molecular docking studies reveal that the inhibitor forms a stable complex with HNE as is evident from the binding affinity -10.9 kcal/mol and the results suggest that the compound exhibit inhibitory activity against HNE.

  2. 2-Methylsulfanyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]quinazolin-5(4H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Al-Salahi


    Full Text Available The non-H atoms of the title compound, C10H8N4OS, lie approximately in a common plane (r.m.s. deviation = 0.058 Å. In the crystal, two molecules are linked across a center of inversion by a pair of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a a dimer.

  3. 2-Phenoxy-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]quinazolin-5(4H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Al-Salahi


    Full Text Available The triazoloquinazole ring system in the title compound, C15H10N4O2 is approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.035 Å. The phenyl ring of the phenoxy substitutent is aligned at 59.3 (1° with respect to this ring system. In the crystal, two molecules are linked about a center of inversion by a pair of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a dimer.

  4. Pharmacophore-guided design, synthesis and evaluation of quinazoline-arylpiperazines as new α1-adrenoceptor antagonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Fang; Min Yong Li; Lin Xia


    A series of arylpiperazinesquinazoline-2,4-diamine compounds were designed and synthesized based on pharmacophore for uro-selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and 3D chemical database searching. The in vitro functional analysis showed that compounds 9 and 14 showed better and similar α1-AR antagonistic activity compared with prazosin.

  5. Enhancement effect of some phosphorylated compounds on fluorescence of quinazoline-based chelating ligand complexed with gallium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Junko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takehiko [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Fukushima, Takeshi, E-mail: [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi-shi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan)


    The chelating ligand, 2,4-[bis-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)]-dihydrazinoquinazoline (DBHQ) can form a fluorescence complex with Ga{sup 3+} ions. The fluorescence intensity of the obtained DBHQ-Ga{sup 3+} complex increases in the presence of some phosphorylated compounds. The addition of phosphorylated serine and tyrosine, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) leads to an increase in the fluorescence quantum yield (phi) of the complex by 1.38-1.59 times, while the addition of serine, tyrosine, pyridoxal, and glucose leads to a small increase in phi (1.02-1.04). This is the first report on the fluorescence enhancement effect of phosphorylated compounds on a Ga{sup 3+} ion complex.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of 2-Phenyl-3-[(Phenyl Amino) Methyl-Amino)]-Quinazolin-4(3h)-One


    Ramesh Dhani


    The process of establishing a new drug is exceedingly complexioned involves the talents of people from a variety of disciplines including Pharmaceutical chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, pharmaceutics and medicine. Heterocyclic chemistry is the branch of chemistry dealing with the synthesis, properties, and applications of heterocyclics. Heterocyclic chemistry comprises at least half of all organic chemistry research worldwide. In particular, heterocyclic structures form the ...

  7. 6′-Methyl-1′,2′,3′,4′-tetrahydrospirocyclohexane-2′-quinazolin-4′-one

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    Jiarong Li


    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H18N2O, was synthesized by the reaction of cyclohexanone and 2-amino-5-methylbenzonitrile. In the molecule, the cyclohexane ring displays a chair conformation, whereas the 1,3-diazacyclohexane moiety of the bicyclic system has a sofa conformation with the spiro C atom displaced by 0.603 (2 Å from the rest of the atoms of the 1,3-diazacyclohexane ring [planar within 0.052 (2 Å]. Molecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers via N—H...O hydrogen bonds.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Dhani


    Full Text Available The process of establishing a new drug is exceedingly complexioned involves the talents of people from a variety of disciplines including Pharmaceutical chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, pharmaceutics and medicine. Quinazolinone is a heterocyclic chemical compound. There are two structural isomers, 2-quinazolinone and 4-quinazolinone, with the 4-isomer being the more common. Various novel classes of structurally different quinazolinones have been designed and synthesized depicting potential interventions such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, anticancer CNS depressant, and so on. All the synthesized quinazolinone derivatives were confirmed preliminarily by M.P and TLC and further all the synthesized compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using Phenyl butazone as the standard and carragennin induced paw oedema model used for anti-inflammatory activity.

  9. Impacts of the quinazoline-based alpha1-antagonist, terazosin, and of the sulfonamide derivative, tamsulosin, on serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume. (United States)

    Paick, Jae-Seung; Cho, Min Chul; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Ku, Ja Hyeon


    The aim of this study was to compare the impacts of terazosin and tamsulosin, on prostate activity, i.e., serum prostate-specific antigen, total prostate volume (TPV), and transition zone volume (TZV). A total of 90 patients who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), ranging in age from 52 to 83 yr (median 65 yr), were included in the study. Patients were given 0.2 mg tamsulosin, 2 mg terazosin, or 4 mg terazosin once daily for an average of 14 months (range, 6-56 months). Subjective (International Prostate Symptom Scores, I-PSS) and objective (maximal flow rate and post-void residual) parameters were assessed both at baseline and at treatment cessation. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were found to be unaffected by treatment (1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL). In total patients, multivariate analysis showed that baseline TPV was the only independent predictor of treatment-related TPV reduction. Moreover, baseline TPV > or =30 g was found to be associated with a higher likelihood of TPV reduction (odds ratio [OR], 3.939; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.506-10.304; p=0.005), and a baseline TZV of > or =10 g was associated with a 7.1-times greater chance of TZV reduction (OR, 7.100; 95% CI, 2.428-20.763; p<0.001). The same model showed that patients on 2 mg terazosin had a 10.8-fold greater likelihood (OR, 10.770; 95% CI, 1.409-82.323; p=0.022) and that those on 4 mg terazosin had a 9.0-fold greater likelihood (OR, 9.001; 95% CI, 1.724-46.995; p=0.009) of a TZV reduction than those on 0.2 mg tamsulosin. In addition, symptoms improved regardless of prostate activity after taking alpha1-blockers. Our findings suggest that terazosin reduces TZV and demonstrate that the relief of symptoms associated with BPH may not be due to a prostate activity reduction induced by apoptosis in the prostate gland.

  10. 6′,7′-Dimethoxy-1′,2′-dihydrospiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-quinazolin]-4′(3′H-one

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    Li-Jun Zhang


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H20N2O3, prepared from the reaction of 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile and cyclohexanone, the six-membered diaza ring assumes an envelope conformation. In the crystal, inversion dimers are formed by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds. Futher N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the dimers into a two-dimensional structure parallel to (001.



    Vasdev, Neil; Dorff, Peter N.; O’Neil, James P.; Chin, Frederick T.; Hanrahan, Stephen; VanBrocklin, Henry F.


    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), upregulated in many tumor types, have been a target for therapeutic development and molecular imaging. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and metabolic characteristics of fluorine-18 labeled anilinoquinazolines as potential imaging agents for EGFR tyrosine kinase expression. Fluorine-18 labeled fluoronitrobenzenes were prepared by reaction of potassium cryptand [18F]fluoride with 1,2- and 1,4-dinitrobenzenes, and 3-nitro-N,N,...

  12. Discovery of new natural products by application of X-hitting, a novel algorithm for automated comparison of full UV-spectra, combined with structural determination by NMR spectroscophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard;


    X-hitting, a newly developed algorithm for automated comparison of UV data, has been used for the tracking of two novel spiro-quinazoline metabolites, lapatins A (1)andB(2), in a screening study targeting quinazolines. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, p......, primarily 2D NMR....

  13. Identification and Development of 2,3-Dihydropyrrolo[1,2-a]quinazolin-5(1H)-one Inhibitors Targeting Bromodomains within the Switch/Sucrose Nonfermenting Complex. (United States)

    Sutherell, Charlotte L; Tallant, Cynthia; Monteiro, Octovia P; Yapp, Clarence; Fuchs, Julian E; Fedorov, Oleg; Siejka, Paulina; Müller, Suzanne; Knapp, Stefan; Brenton, James D; Brennan, Paul E; Ley, Steven V


    Bromodomain containing proteins PB1, SMARCA4, and SMARCA2 are important components of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. We identified bromodomain inhibitors that target these proteins and display unusual binding modes involving water displacement from the KAc binding site. The best compound binds the fifth bromodomain of PB1 with a KD of 124 nM, SMARCA2B and SMARCA4 with KD values of 262 and 417 nM, respectively, and displays excellent selectivity over bromodomains other than PB1, SMARCA2, and SMARCA4.

  14. Synthesis and in vitro anti-proliferative activity of some novel isatins conjugated with quinazoline/phthalazine hydrazines against triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells as apoptosis-inducing agents. (United States)

    Eldehna, Wagdy M; Almahli, Hadia; Al-Ansary, Ghada H; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Aly, Mohamed H; Ismael, Omnia E; Al-Dhfyan, Abdullah; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A


    Treatment of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is challenging due to the absence of well- defined molecular targets and the heterogeneity of such disease. In our endeavor to develop potent isatin-based anti-proliferative agents, we utilized the hybrid-pharmacophore approach to synthesize three series of novel isatin-based hybrids 5a-h, 10a-h and 13a-c, with the prime goal of developing potent anti-proliferative agents toward TNBC MDA-MB-231 cell line. In particular, compounds 5e and 10g were the most active hybrids against MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50 = 12.35 ± 0.12 and 12.00 ± 0.13 μM), with 2.37- and 2.44-fold increased activity than 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (IC50 = 29.38 ± 1.24 μM). Compounds 5e and 10g induced the intrinsic apoptotic mitochondrial pathway in MDA-MB-231; evidenced by the reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, the enhanced expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the up-regulated active caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels. Furthermore, 10g showed significant increase in the percent of annexin V-FITC positive apoptotic cells from 3.88 to 31.21% (8.4 folds compared to control).

  15. 5′-Methylsulfanyl-4′-oxo-7′-phenyl-3′,4′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-quinazoline]-8′-carbonitrile dimethylformamide monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C21H21N3OS·C3H7NO, the carbonitrile molecule is built up of two fused six-membered rings and one six-membered ring linked through a spiro C atom. The 1,3-diaza ring adopts an envelope conformation and the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 46.7 (3°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  16. Synthesis and QSAR Study of (4-Oxo-3-aryl-3,4-dihydro-quinazolin-2-ylsulfanyl-propionic Acid arylidene/aryl-ethylidene-hydrazides via Microwave Assisted Solvent Free Reations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Deshmukh


    Full Text Available In the present work, s-alkylated derivatives of thio-quinazolinone were obtained using Methyl 2-chloro propionate via a solvent-free microwave-assisted method. The alkylated thio quinazolinones were further sequentially condensed with hydrazine hydrate and different aromatic aldehydes to get the hydrazides, which were studied for QSAR. The synthesized compounds were subjected to a prediction of biological activities. A software application (PASS was used for this purpose. . The relationship between structure and different biological activities was studied and the different derivatives were recommended for the screening of some specific activities like anti-tuberculosic, anti-mycobacterial & HDL cholesterol increasing activities.

  17. 5′-Methyl-4′-oxo-7′-phenyl-3′,4′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-quinazoline]-8′-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Tang


    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H21N3O, was obtained by cyclocondensation of 3-amino-5-methyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-2,4-dicarbonitrile with cyclohexanone. The six-membered 1,3-diaza ring assumes an envelope conformation [with the flap atom displaced by 0.511 (7 Å from the plane through the other ring atoms] and the cyclohexane ring displays a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 42.61 (7°.In the crystal, the molecules form hydrogen-bonded bands along [011].

  18. Discovery of novel, highly potent, and selective quinazoline-2-carboxamide-based matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 inhibitors without a zinc binding group using a structure-based design approach. (United States)

    Nara, Hiroshi; Sato, Kenjiro; Naito, Takako; Mototani, Hideyuki; Oki, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Kuno, Haruhiko; Santou, Takashi; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Terauchi, Jun; Uchikawa, Osamu; Kori, Masakuni


    Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) has been implicated to play a key role in the pathology of osteoarthritis. On the basis of X-ray crystallography, we designed a series of potent MMP-13 selective inhibitors optimized to occupy the distinct deep S1' pocket including an adjacent branch. Among them, carboxylic acid inhibitor 21k exhibited excellent potency and selectivity for MMP-13 over other MMPs. An effort to convert compound 21k to the mono sodium salt 38 was promising in all animal species studied. Moreover, no overt toxicity was observed in a preliminary repeat dose oral toxicity study of compound 21k in rats. A single oral dose of compound 38 significantly reduced degradation products (CTX-II) released from articular cartilage into the joint cavity in a rat MIA model in vivo. In this article, we report the discovery of highly potent, selective, and orally bioavailable MMP-13 inhibitors as well as their detailed structure-activity data.

  19. Combined 3D-QSAR and molecular docking study on 7,8-dialkyl-1,3-diaminopyrrolo-[3,2-f] Quinazoline series compounds to understand the binding mechanism of DHFR inhibitors (United States)

    Aouidate, Adnane; Ghaleb, Adib; Ghamali, Mounir; Chtita, Samir; Choukrad, M'barek; Sbai, Abdelouahid; Bouachrine, Mohammed; Lakhlifi, Tahar


    A series of nineteen DHFR inhibitors was studied based on the combination of two computational techniques namely, three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and molecular docking. The comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) were developed using 19 molecules having pIC50 ranging from 9.244 to 5.839. The best CoMFA and CoMSIA models show conventional determination coefficients R2 of 0.96 and 0.93 as well as the Leave One Out cross-validation determination coefficients Q2 of 0.64 and 0.72, respectively. The predictive ability of those models was evaluated by the external validation using a test set of five compounds with predicted determination coefficients R2test of 0.92 and 0.94, respectively. The binding mode between this kind of compounds and the DHFR enzyme in addition to the key amino acid residues were explored by molecular docking simulation. Contour maps and molecular docking identified that the R1 and R2 natures at the pyrazole moiety are the important features for the optimization of the binding affinity to the DHFR receptor. According to the good concordance between the CoMFA/CoMSIA contour maps and docking results, the obtained information was explored to design novel molecules.

  20. Crystal structure of 4-methylsulfanyl-2-phenylquinazoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed B. Alshammari


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H12N2S, the methylthioquinazoline group is planar with the methyl C displaced by only 0.116 (3 Å from the plane of the quinazoline moiety. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the quinazoline ring system is 13.95 (5°. In the crystal, each molecule is linked by π–π stacking between to two adjacent inversion-related molecules. On one side, the inverted quinazoline groups interact with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.7105 (9 Å. On the other side, the quinazoline group interacts with the pyrimidine and phenyl rings of the second neighbour with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5287 (8 and 3.8601 (9 Å, respectively.

  1. Synthesis of 4-Alkylamino-2-Triazolylquinazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goliškina Svetlana Marija


    Full Text Available 5-Alkylamino derivatives of tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinazoline were obtained with high regioselectivity in the reaction of 5-azidotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinazoline (formally, 2,4-diazidoquinazoline with long chain alkylamines. The obtained 5-aminoquinazoline derivatives were used in a copper catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction to obtain series of 4-(alkylamino-2-(1,2,3-triazol-1-ylquinazolines.

  2. Synthesis of Fluoroalkylated Heterocycles via the Reaction of 3-(1-Hydropolyfluoroalkenyl)-1-oxo-2,4,1-benzoxazines with Dinucleophilic Reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xian-Jin; LIU Jin-Tao


    The reaction of 3-(1-hydropolyfluoroalkenyl)-1-oxo-2,4,1-benzoxazines 1 with some dinucleophiles was investigated. 7-Fluoroalkyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-diazepine[1,2-d]quinazolin-11-ones 2, 2-fluoroalkylisoxazolo[3,2-b]quinazolin-9-ones 3 and 2-fluoroalkylbenzoimidazoles 4 were obtained from the reaction of 1 with 1,2-diaminoethane,hydroxylamine hydrochloride and 1,2-diaminobenzene respectively.

  3. 2-Methyl-3-(2-methylphenyl-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-8-yl 4-bromobenzene-1-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. T. Tiekink


    Full Text Available The title molecule, C22H17BrN2O4S, has a twisted U shape, the dihedral angle between the quinazolin-4-one and bromobenzene ring systems being 46.25 (8°. In order to avoid steric clashes with adjacent substituents on the quinazolin-4-one ring, the N-bound tolyl group occupies an orthogonal position [dihedral angle = 89.59 (8°]. In the crystal, molecules are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H...O interactions, with the ketone O atom accepting two such bonds and a sulfonate O atom one.

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_114406.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_114406.1 chr1 AURORA A KINASE ACTIVATED MUTANT (T287D) IN COMPLEX WITH A 5-AMINO...PYRIMIDINYL QUINAZOLINE INHIBITOR p2c6eb_ chr1/NP_114406.1/NP_114406.1_holo_29-326.pdb blast 41L,42G,49I,51Q

  5. 2-Chloroquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lei Cao


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H5ClN2O, the quinazoline system is approximately planar with a maximum deviation from the least-squares plane of 0.034 (2 Å. In the crystal, classical N—H...O and weak non-classical C—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules.

  6. Selective copper(II acetate and potassium iodide catalyzed oxidation of aminals to dihydroquinazoline and quinazolinone alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Richers


    Full Text Available Copper(II acetate/acetic acid/O2 and potassium iodide/tert-butylhydroperoxide systems are shown to affect the selective oxidation of ring-fused aminals to dihydroquinazolines and quinazolinones, respectively. These methods enable the facile preparation of a number of quinazoline alkaloid natural products and their analogues.

  7. A novel alkaloid serantrypinone and the spiro azaphilone daldinin D from Penicillium thymicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, Marta Romero; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.


    The novel quinazoline metabolite serantrypinone (1) has been isolated from an isolate of the microfungus Penicillium thymicola together with daldinin D (2), a new peracetylated spiro azaphilone derivative. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including 2D N...

  8. Zr(HSO44: An Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of 3-(2'- Benzothiazolyl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin- 4(1H-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Wu


    Full Text Available A simple and efficient synthesis of 3-(2'-benzothiazolyl-2,3-dihydro quinazolin-4(1H- ones has been accomplished by the one-pot condensation of isatoic anhydride, aldehyde and 2-aminobenzothiazole under solvent-free conditions in the presence of Zr(HSO44.

  9. 40 CFR 180.632 - Fenazaquin; import tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fenazaquin; import tolerances for... § 180.632 Fenazaquin; import tolerances for residues. (a) General. Import tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide and miticide, fenazaquin, 4-tert-butylphenethyl quinazolin-4-yl ether, in or on...

  10. Overcoming the Limitations of C-H Activation with Strongly Coordinating N-Heterocycles by Cobalt Catalysis. (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lorion, Mélanie M; Ackermann, Lutz


    Strongly coordinating nitrogen heterocycles, including pyrimidines, oxazolines, pyrazoles, and pyridines, were fully tolerated in cobalt-catalyzed C-H amidations by imidate assistance. Structurally complex quinazolines are thus accessible in a step-economic manner. Our findings also establish the relative powers of directing groups in cobalt(III)-catalyzed C-H functionalization for the first time.

  11. Domain Modeling: NP_001027467.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001027467.2 chr13 Crystal structure of human Serine/threonine-protein kinase MST...4 in complex with an quinazolin p3ggfb_ chr13/NP_001027467.2/NP_001027467.2_holo_18-297.pdb blast 30I,31G,38

  12. Cardiac effects of r-79595 and its isomers (r-80122 and r-80123) in an acute heart-failure model - a new class of cardiotonic agents with highly selective phosphodiesterase-iii inhibitory properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    R 79595 (N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-2-[[[phenyl (1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-2 oxoimidazo [2,1-b]-quinazolin-7-yl) methylene] amin] oxy] acetamide) and its isomers represent a novel class of compounds with phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitory and cardiotonic (positive inotropic) actions. The cardiac effects of this

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_112562.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_112562.3 chr17 Src kinase in complex with a quinazoline inhibitor c1fmka_ chr17/NP_112562.3/NP_112562.3..._apo_71-521.pdb c2h8ha_ chr17/NP_112562.3/NP_112562.3_holo_71-521.pdb psi-blast 244F,

  14. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of N-Arylheterocyclic Substituted-4-aminoquinazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu


    Full Text Available A simple, efficient, and general method has been developed for the synthesis of various N-aryl heterocylic substituted-4-aminoquinazoline compounds from 4-chloro- quinazoline and aryl heterocyclic amines under microwave irradiation using 2-propanol as solvent. The advantages of the use of microwave irradiation in relation to the classical method were demonstrated.

  15. Inwerking van stikstofhoudende nucleofielen op enige 15N-gemerkte pyrimidine- en chinazolinederivaten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.P.


    In this thesis an investigation is described on the mechanism of aminations of pyrimidine- and quinazoline derivatives with nitrogen containing bases.In the introduction a survey is given of investigations, reported in the literature, concerning σ-complex formation on azahetarenes and their derivati

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_938207.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_938207.2 chr17 Src kinase in complex with a quinazoline inhibitor c1fmka_ chr17/NP_938207.2/NP_938207....2_apo_71-521.pdb c2h8ha_ chr17/NP_938207.2/NP_938207.2_holo_71-521.pdb psi-blast 244F,

  17. Triazoloquinazolinediones as novel high affinity ligands for the benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jakob; Gidlöf, Ritha; Nielsen, Elsebet Østergaard


    Based on a pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine-binding site of GABA(A) receptors, a series of 2-aryl-2,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]quinazoline-3,5-diones (structure type I) were designed, synthesized, and identified as high-affinity ligands of the binding site. For several compounds, K...

  18. Prediction of inhibitory activity of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors using grid search-projection pursuit regression method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Du

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR protein tyrosine kinase (PTK is an important protein target for anti-tumor drug discovery. To identify potential EGFR inhibitors, we conducted a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR study on the inhibitory activity of a series of quinazoline derivatives against EGFR tyrosine kinase. Two 2D-QSAR models were developed based on the best multi-linear regression (BMLR and grid-search assisted projection pursuit regression (GS-PPR methods. The results demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of quinazoline derivatives is strongly correlated with their polarizability, activation energy, mass distribution, connectivity, and branching information. Although the present investigation focused on EGFR, the approach provides a general avenue in the structure-based drug development of different protein receptor inhibitors.

  19. Conjugate Addition of Nucleophiles to the Vinyl Function of 2-Chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski


    Full Text Available Conjugate addition reaction of various nucleophiles across the vinyl group of 2-chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine, 2-chloro-4-(1-phenylvinylpyrimidine and 2-chloro-4-vinylquinazoline provides the corresponding 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylpyrimidines and 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylquinazolines. Treatment of these products, without isolation, with N-methylpiperazine results in nucleophilic displacement of chloride and yields the corresponding 2,4-disubstituted pyrimidines and quinazolines.

  20. Transition metal-promoted synthesis of 2-aryl/heteroaryl-thioquinazoline: C-S Bond formation by “Chan-Lam Cross-Coupling” Reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    An efficient method for the synthesis of S-aryl/heteroaryl-quinazoline has been developed through the cross-coupling of 1,4-dihydroquinazoline with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl boronic acids assisted by [Cu(OAc)₂] as the catalyst for the formation of carbon-sulfur bonds. This newly developed method demonstratesthat the conditions of the traditional copper-catalyzed Chan-Lam reaction can be improved. Optimized reaction involves base, solvent and catalyst.

  1. The Design and Synthesis of a New Class of RTK/HDAC Dual-Targeted Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu


    Full Text Available Over the years, the development of targeted medicines has made significant achievements. As a typical example, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK inhibitors have become important chemotherapy drugs for a variety of cancers. However, the effectiveness of these agents is always hindered by poor response rates and acquired drug resistance. In order to overcome these limitations, several dual-targeted inhibitors with quinazoline core were designed and synthesized. Though these compounds can simultaneously inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC as well as RTK, the structure-activity relationship (SAR is still not clear enough. To further explore this type of dual-targeted inhibitors, a new class of quinazoline derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their activity evaluations include in vitro inhibitory activity of HDAC, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The SAR study indicated that the introduction of polar group such as hydroxamate on the 4-position of the quinazoline core is more likely to provide a potent HDACi/HER2i hybrid rather than HDACi/EGFRi molecule.

  2. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Schiff Base Ligand and their Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Gautam


    Full Text Available In the present work, the synthesis and structural characterization of a 2-phenyl- 3(benzamido propyl quinazoline (3H -4- one semicarbazone/ thiosemicarbazone hydrochloride and its metal complexes have been reported. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by using various physico-chemical techniques such as Infrared spectra, electronic spectra, molar conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The ligand and metal ions reacted to form in the 2:1 ratio as found from the elemental analyses and general stiochiometry was determined, [M(PBPQS2X2] and [M(PBPQT2X2]; where M = Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II; PBPQS = 2-phenyl- 3 (benzamido propyl quinazoline (3H -4- one semicarbazone and PBPQT = 2- phenyl- 3 (benzamido propyl quinazoline (3H -4- one thiosemicarbazone. On the basis of analytical data, a proposed structure for the Cu(II complexes are distorted octahedral and those for Co(II and Ni(II complexes are octahedral. Ligands PBPQS/ PBPQT have been proposed to act in a bidentate manner co-ordinating to the metal ions though azomethine nitrogen and oxygen/ sulphur atom of either semicarbazone/ thiosemicarbazone moiety. The remaining co-ordination sites are occupied by negative ions such as Cl-, Br-, I- or NO3-. The ligands and its metal complexes were tested for their possible antimicrobial potentials.

  3. Photodecomposition of an acaricide, fenazaquin, in aqueous alcoholic solution. (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Jayati; Banerjee, Hemanta; Bhattacharyya, Anjan


    Fenazaquin (I) is a new acaricide of the quinazoline class. The photodecomposition of I was studied in aqueous methanolic and 2-propanolic solution under UV light (30 h) and sunlight (70 h) separately. The photolytic half-lives in aqueous methanolic solution were found to be 17.1 h (UV) and 38.1 h (sunlight), whereas these were 12.9 h (UV) and 29.2 h (sunlight) for aqueous 2-propanolic solution; all followed a first-order reaction kinetics. Six photoproducts were obtained: beta-phenyl (p-tert-butyl) ethyl alcohol (II), 4-hydroxyquinazoline (III), p-tert-butyl vinyl benzene (IV), 2,4-dihydroxyquinazoline (V), phenyl (p-tert-butyl) acetic acid (VI), and 2-methyl-2-[4'-(2' '-hydroxyethyl)phenyl]propanoic acid (VII). Compounds VI and VII could be isolated only from aqueous 2-propanolic solution under sunlight irradiation. The major degradation products are formed as a result of cleavage of the ether bridge linking the quinazoline and phenyl ring systems of the molecule, oxidation of the tert-butyl substituent, and oxidation of the heterocyclic portion of the quinazoline ring. A probable mechanism of formation of the photoproducts is also suggested.

  4. The Role of α1-Adrenoceptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Prostate and Other Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory Batty


    Full Text Available This review evaluates the role of α-adrenoceptor antagonists as a potential treatment of prostate cancer (PCa. Cochrane, Google Scholar and Pubmed were accessed to retrieve sixty-two articles for analysis. In vitro studies demonstrate that doxazosin, prazosin and terazosin (quinazoline α-antagonists induce apoptosis, decrease cell growth, and proliferation in PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines. Similarly, the piperazine based naftopidil induced cell cycle arrest and death in LNCaP-E9 cell lines. In contrast, sulphonamide based tamsulosin did not exhibit these effects. In vivo data was consistent with in vitro findings as the quinazoline based α-antagonists prevented angiogenesis and decreased tumour mass in mice models of PCa. Mechanistically the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of the α-antagonists appear largely independent of α 1-blockade. The proposed targets include: VEGF, EGFR, HER2/Neu, caspase 8/3, topoisomerase 1 and other mitochondrial apoptotic inducing factors. These cytotoxic effects could not be evaluated in human studies as prospective trial data is lacking. However, retrospective studies show a decreased incidence of PCa in males exposed to α-antagonists. As human data evaluating the use of α-antagonists as treatments are lacking; well designed, prospective clinical trials are needed to conclusively demonstrate the anticancer properties of quinazoline based α-antagonists in PCa and other cancers.

  5. In vitro and in vivo metabolism and inhibitory activities of vasicine, a potent acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Vasicine (VAS, a potential natural cholinesterase inhibitor, exhibited promising anticholinesterase activity in preclinical models and has been in development for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study systematically investigated the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of VAS in rat using ultra performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 72 metabolites were found based on a detailed analysis of their 1H- NMR and 13C NMR data. Six key metabolites were isolated from rat urine and elucidated as vasicinone, vasicinol, vasicinolone, 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-3-yl hydrogen sulfate, 9-oxo-1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-3-yl hydrogen sulfate, and 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-3-β-D-glucuronide. The metabolic pathway of VAS in vivo and in vitro mainly involved monohydroxylation, dihydroxylation, trihydroxylation, oxidation, desaturation, sulfation, and glucuronidation. The main metabolic soft spots in the chemical structure of VAS were the 3-hydroxyl group and the C-9 site. All 72 metabolites were found in the urine sample, and 15, 25, 45, 18, and 11 metabolites were identified from rat feces, plasma, bile, rat liver microsomes, and rat primary hepatocyte incubations, respectively. Results indicated that renal clearance was the major excretion pathway of VAS. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities of VAS and its main metabolites were also evaluated. The results indicated that although most metabolites maintained potential inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE, but weaker than that of VAS. VAS undergoes metabolic inactivation process in vivo in respect to cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  6. Utility of 4-formylantipyrine in heterocyclic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou O. Abdelhamid


    Full Text Available Pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole-4,6(1H,5H-dione, pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-5-carbonitrile, pyrano[2,3-d]4-imidazolines, pyrido[2,1-b]benzimidazole, pyrido[2,1-b][1,3]benzoxazole, pyrido[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole and pyrido[2,1-b]quinazoline were synthesised from antipyrine derivatives with appropriate reagents such as maleimides, malononitrile, ethyl cyanoacetate, benzimidazole-2-acetonitrile, benzothiazole-2-acetonitrile, benzoxazol-2-acetonitrile, benzoylacetonitrile and other reagents. The newly synthesised compounds were established by elemental analysis, spectral data, and alternative synthetic routes whenever possible.

  7. A new pyrroloquinazoline alkaloid from Linaria vulgaris. (United States)

    Hua, Huiming; Cheng, Maosheng; Li, Xian; Pei, Yuehu


    A new alkaloid, 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo(2,1-b)quinazolin-1-carboxylic acid (1), together with eight known compounds, 7-hydroxy vasicine (2), benzyl alcohol beta-D-(2'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)glucopyranoside (3), benzyl alcohol O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), benzyl alcohol O-beta-D-primveroside (5), 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (6), gluco-syringic acid (7), syringin (8), and liriodendrin (9), were isolated from the plants of Linaria vulgaris. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods.

  8. A new flavonol glucoside from the aerial parts of Sida glutinosa. (United States)

    Das, Niranjan; Achari, Basudev; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Dinda, Biswanath


    Phytochemical investigation on the dried aerial parts of Sida glutinosa has led to the isolation of a new flavonol glucoside, glutinoside (1), along with seven known compounds, 24(28)-dehydromakisterone A (2), 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]-quinazolin-3-amine (3), docosanoic acid, 1-triacontanol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic techniques as well as GC/MS analysis (for sterols) and comparison with the literature data. All these seven known compounds are reported from this plant for the first time.

  9. A Novel Alkaloid Isolated from Spiranthera atlantica (Rutaceae). (United States)

    Rodrigues e Rocha, Michelle; da Cunha, Carolina Passos; Filho, Raimundo Braz; Vieira, Ivo J Curcino


    A novel alkaloid 3-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4'-methoxy-7'H-quinolino[2,1-b]quinazolin-7'-one, named atlanticol (1), was isolated from Spiranthera atlantica (Rutaceae), along with five known compounds: lupeol (3), γ-fagarine (4), skimmianine (5), 7-methoxy-1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone (6) and 8-methoxy-1-methyl-2-phenyl-4-quinolone (7). Compound 6 was isolated from the Spiranthera genus for the first time. These compounds were characterized based on their spectral data, mainly through one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectra, but also involving comparison with literature data.

  10. Cyanuric Acid-Based Organocatalyst for Utilization of Carbon Dioxide at Atmospheric Pressure. (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Kim, Daeun; Kim, Seoksun; Hong, Soon Hyeok


    A organocatalytic system based on economical and readily available cyanuric acid has been developed for the synthesis of 2-oxazolidinones and quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones from propargylamines and 2-aminobenzonitriles under atmospheric pressure carbon dioxide. Notably, a low concentration of carbon dioxide in air was directly converted into 2-oxazolidinone in excellent yields without an external base. Through mechanistic investigation by in situ FTIR spectroscopy, cyanuric acid was demonstrated to be an efficient catalyst for carbon dioxide fixation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis and Photophysical Property Studies of the 2,6,8-Triaryl-4-(phenylethynylquinazolines

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    Malose Jack Mphahlele


    Full Text Available The 2-aryl-6,8-dibromo-4-chloroquinazolines derived from the 2-aryl-6,8-dibromoquinazolin-4(3H-ones were subjected to the Sonogashira cross-coupling with terminal acetylenes at room temperature to afford novel 2-aryl-6,8-dibromo-4-(alkynylquinazoline derivatives. Further transformation of the 2-aryl-6,8-dibromo-4-(phenylethynylquinazolines via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling with arylboronic acids occurred without selectivity to afford the corresponding 2,6,8-triaryl-4-(phenylethynylquinazolines. The absorption and emission properties of these polysubstituted quinazolines were also determined.

  12. Synthesis and antimalarial evaluation of some 4-quinazolinone derivatives based on febrifugine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanjan Sen


    Full Text Available A series of 2-substituted and 2,3-substituted quinazolin -4(3H-one derivatives were designed and synthesized based on the structure of febrifugine. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by spectral analysis. The in vivo biological activity test results indicated that those compounds exhibited antimalarial activities against Plasmodium berghei in mice, at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Compared to Chloroquine and Artemisinin, these compounds have the advantages of shorter synthetic routes and consequently are highly cost effective in nature.

  13. Alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi: a review. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Han, Ting; Ming, Qianliang; Wu, Lingshang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping


    In recent years, a number of alkaloids have been discovered from endophytic fungi in plants, which exhibited excellent biological properties such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities. This review mainly deals with the research progress on endophytic fungi for producing bioactive alkaloids such as quinoline and isoquinoline, amines and amides, indole derivatives, pyridines, and quinazolines. The biological activities and action mechanisms of these alkaloids from endophytic fungi are also introduced. Furthermore, the relationships between alkaloid-producing endophytes and their host plants, as well as their potential applications in the future are discussed.

  14. Synthesis and antitumour activity of 4-aminoquinazoline derivatives (United States)

    Lipunova, G. N.; Nosova, E. V.; Charushin, V. N.; Chupakhin, O. N.


    Pieces of data on the synthesis and antitumour activity of 4-aminoquinazolines are summarized and analyzed. Key methods for the synthesis of these compounds are considered, primarily cyclocondensation of carboxylic acid derivatives, as well as the oxidation of quinazolines and the cyclization of disubstituted thioureas. Improvements of synthetic schemes for erlotinib, gefitinib and lapatinib, which are the best-known pharmaceuticals based on compounds of the title class, are also considered. Synthetic strategies and biological activities for new 4-aminoquinazoline derivatives that are EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, multiactive compounds, and labelled compounds for use as positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are discussed. The bibliography includes 263 references.

  15. Synthesis of some new Thieno[2,3-b]pyridines, Pyrimidino[4',5':4,5]thieno[2,3-b]pyridine and Pyridines Incorporating 5-Bromobenzofuran-2-yl Moiety. (United States)

    Abdelriheem, Nadia Abdelhamed; Ahmad, Sayed Abdel-Kader; Abdelhamid, Abdou Osman


    2-Sulfanyl-6-(2-thienyl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile, 1-Amino-6-(5-bromo-benzofuran-2-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-pyridine-3-carbonitrile, thieno[2,3-b]pyridins, pyrimidino[4',5':4,5] thieno[2,3-b]pyridine, quinazoline and carbamate derivatives were synthesized from sodium 3-(5-bromobenzofuran-2-yl)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-olate with. The newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analysis, spectral data, and alternative synthesis whenever possible and chemical transportation.

  16. Metabolites of lorazepam: Relevance of past findings to present day use of LC-MS/MS in analytical toxicology. (United States)

    Turfus, Sophie C; Braithwaite, Robin A; Cowan, David A; Parkin, Mark C; Smith, Norman W; Kicman, Andrew T


    The advent of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the sensitivity it confers, permits the analysis of both phase I and II drug metabolites that in the past would have been difficult to target using other techniques. These metabolites may have relevance to current analytical toxicology employing LC-MS/MS, and lorazepam was chosen as a model drug for investigation, as only the parent compound has been targeted for screening purposes. Following lorazepam administration (2 mg, p.o.) to 6 volunteers, metabolites were identified in urine by electrospray ionization LC-MS/MS, aided by the use of deuterated analogues generated by microsomal incubation for use as internal chromatographic and mass spectrometric markers. Metabolites present were lorazepam glucuronide, a quinazolinone, a quinazoline carboxylic acid, and two hydroxylorazepam isomers, one of which is novel, having the hydroxyl group located on the fused chlorobenzene ring. The quinazolinone, and particularly the quinazoline carboxylic acid metabolite, provided longer detection windows than lorazepam in urine extracts not subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, a finding that is highly relevant to toxicology laboratories that omit hydrolysis in order to rapidly reduce the time spent on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. With hydrolysis, the longest windows of detection were achieved by monitoring lorazepam, supporting the targeting of the aglycone with free drug for those incorporating hydrolysis in their analytical toxicology procedures.

  17. Side-effects of fenazaquin on a cellular model of Paramecium. (United States)

    Benbouzid, Houneïda; Berrebbah, Houria; Djebar, Mohammed-Réda; Smagghe, Guy


    Our biodiversity has long been preserved, but the main constituents of our environment have been particularly affected by the addition of molecules resulting from agricultural and industrial activities. It is well accepted that these changes may stress some species, making them more vulnerable. In this project, we determined the disruptive side-effects of a pesticide on several biochemical endpoints and the behaviour of a microorganism as the ciliate protist Paramecium sp. Here we used fenazaquin [4-(4-tert-butylphenethoxy)quinazoline] that belongs to the quinazoline class of chemicals and that is a pesticide intended to control mites and insects; its route of exposure is ingestion and dermal, and its mode of action is the disruption of the biochemistry of insect mitochondria. In our experiments with fenazaquin at 40, 60 and 80 nM, we recorded disturbances in protein and glutathione, in glutathione S-transferase, and a decrease in consumption of oxygen. The results are discussed in relation to potential risks and mechanisms of action. In addition, the data can be used as reference values in further testing with other pesticides and chemistries.

  18. Effect of household processing on fenazaquin residues in okra fruits. (United States)

    Duhan, Anil; Kumari, Beena; Gulati, Rachna


    Fenazaquin (4-[[4 (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl] ethoxy]quinazoline) is a new acaricide of the quinazoline class. Residue levels of fenazaquin were determined in unprocessed and processed okra fruits to evaluate the effect of different processes (washing, boiling and washing followed by boiling) in reduction of residues of this pesticide in okra. The study was carried out on okra crop (Variety, Varsha Uphar) in research farm of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with application of fenazaquin (Magister 10 EC) @ 125 ga.i./ha (Single Dose, T(1)) and 250 g a.i./ha (Double Dose, T(2)). Samples of okra fruits were collected on 0, 3, 7, 15 days after treatment and at harvest (30 days). Residues were estimated by gas chromatograph equipped with capillary column and nitrogen phosphorus detector. Residues reached below maximum residue limit of 0.01 mg/kg at harvest. The residues dissipated with half-life period of 3.13 days at lower dose and 4.43 days at higher dose. Processing is shown to be very effective in reducing the levels of fenazaquin residues in okra fruits. Maximum reduction (60-61%) was observed by washing + boiling followed by boiling/cooking (38-40%) and then by washing (31-32%).

  19. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 3-(Substituted-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H-ylaminoquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramgopal Appani


    Full Text Available A series of novel 3-(substituted-2-(substituted quinazolinylaminoquinazolin-4(3H-ones were synthesized by the reaction of 3-(substituted-2-hydrazino-quinazoline-4(3H-ones with 2-phenyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one. The starting materials 3-(substituted-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4(3H-ones were synthesized from various primary amines by a multistep synthesis. All the title compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity using ciprofloxacin as reference standard. Compounds 3-(4-fluorophenyl-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H-ylaminoquinazolin-4(3H-one (9a and 3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H-ylaminoquinazolin-4(3H-one (9h emerged as the most active compounds of the series. These compounds have shown most potent antibacterial activity against the tested organisms of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis having zone of inhibition values of 1.1 cm and 1.4 cm for compound 9a 1.2 cm and 1.0 cm for compound 9h, respectively.

  20. In-Silico search of Tailored Cox-2 Inhibitors: Screening of Quinazolinone derivatives via molecular modeling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Abdul


    Full Text Available Novel Quinazoline derivatives were designed through in silico studies including Molecular properties prediction, Toxicity risk prediction and by Molecular Docking approaches. The hypothetically designed molecules were studied for Lipinski rule of 5 properties. The successful molecules were subjected to toxicity risk prediction by Osiris property calculator.The docking methodology applied in the study was first validated by redocking the celecoxib in cox-2 domain with the co-crystallized one. Cox-2 protein was explored for the residues imperative for activity by analyzing the binding pattern of celecoxib and selected compounds of quinazolinone derivatives in the active domain. All the selected molecules passed Lipinski rule of five successfully and they were safe. The docking results explored that compound IQ1, IQ2, IQ5, IQ8 and IQ12 have binding affinity -9.3, which indicated that these compounds may prove successful anti-inflammatory oral candidates.

  1. Crystal structure of 3-amino-2-propylquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. El-Hiti


    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C11H13N3O, the propyl group is almost perpendicular to the quinazolin-4(3H-one mean plane, making a dihedral angle of 88.98 (9°. In the crystal, molecules related by an inversion centre are paired via π–π overlap, indicated by the short distances of 3.616 (5 and 3.619 (5 Å between the centroids of the aromatic rings of neighbouring molecules. Intermolecular N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds form R66(30 rings and C(5 chains, respectively, generating a three-dimensional network. Weak C—H...O interactions are also observed.

  2. Introducing Telescoping Process to Synthesis of a Key Intermediate of Drug Discoveries Using Design of Experiment. (United States)

    Nishimura, Koichiro; Saitoh, Toshikazu


    The 5-bromo-2-methylamino-8-methoxyquinazoline (1) is a key intermediate in our drug discoveries. Compound 1 bears a monomethylamino group at the 2-position of the quinazoline ring. This compound has been synthesized from 6-bromo-2-fluoro-3-methoxybenzaldehyde by a synthetic route including a total of four isolation processes in the medicinal chemistry laboratories. Our process chemistry laboratories successfully improved the original synthetic route by introducing the telescoping process. We successfully reduced the isolation processes from four to two processes by using information extracted through design of experiment. The total yield of compound 1 increased by 18%, while maintaining the purity of compound 1 of the original synthetic route. Accordingly, we contributed to the quick supply of compound 1 to the medicinal laboratories.

  3. Inhibition of ALK enzymatic activity in T-cell lymphoma cells induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation independently of Jak3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Kasprzycka, Monika; Ptasznik, Andrzej;


    Aberrant expression of the ALK tyrosine kinase as a chimeric protein with nucleophosmin (NPM) and other partners plays a key role in malignant cell transformation of T-lymphocytes and other cells. Here we report that two small-molecule, structurally related, quinazoline-type compounds, WHI-131...... and WHI-154, directly inhibit enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK as demonstrated by in vitro kinase assays using a synthetic tyrosine-rich oligopeptide and the kinase itself as the substrates. The inhibition of NPM/ALK activity resulted in malignant T cells in suppression of their growth, induction...... of apoptosis and inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, the key effector of the NPM/ALK-induced oncogenesis. We also show that the STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation is mediated in the malignant T cells by NPM/ALK independently of Jak3 kinase as evidenced by the presence of STAT3 phosphorylation...

  4. Recent developments regarding the use of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives in medicinal chemistry, with a focus on their synthesis and anticancer properties. (United States)

    Bozorov, Khurshed; Zhao, Jiang-Yu; Elmuradov, Burkhon; Pataer, Apar; Aisa, Haji A


    It is generally understood that the antitumor properties of synthetic heterocyclic compounds are among the most powerful properties that can be made use in medicinal chemistry. More specifically, their substantial cytotoxic effects against different types of human tumor cells, in addition to their roles as enzymes or receptors for various kinase inhibitors, make them critically important. In recent years, thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives (TPs), which are analogs of quinazoline alkaloids, have frequently attracted the interest of medicinal chemistry researchers due to their promising anticancer properties. The present study is a review of the latest advances (i.e., since 2006) in TP derivative-related research, with a focus on how such derivatives are synthesized and on their anticancer activities.

  5. XLN306 induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MX-1 cells

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    Jing Jin


    Full Text Available XLN306 is a novel synthetic quinazoline derivative with potentially useful anticancer activity. In previous research, we showed that XLN306 is highly cytotoxic to many tumor cell lines. This paper reports an investigation of this cytotoxicity in a number of human carcinoma cell lines. The results show that human breast carcinoma MX-1 cells are extremely sensitive to XLN306 and that the cytotoxicity is due to dose- and time-dependent apoptosis as confirmed by DAPI stain and DNA fragmentation analysis. Both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are involved in the apoptosis process. The findings indicate that XLN306 has apoptotic induction activity and may be useful for the management of various cancers, especially breast carcinoma.

  6. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of N-acylhydrazones and novel conformationally constrained compounds as selective and potent orally active phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors. (United States)

    Kümmerle, Arthur E; Schmitt, Martine; Cardozo, Suzana V S; Lugnier, Claire; Villa, Pascal; Lopes, Alexandra B; Romeiro, Nelilma C; Justiniano, Hélène; Martins, Marco A; Fraga, Carlos A M; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Barreiro, Eliezer J


    Among a small series of tested N-acylhydrazones (NAHs), the compound 8a was selected as a selective submicromolar phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor associated with anti-TNF-α properties measured both in vitro and in vivo. The recognition pattern of compound 8a was elucidated through molecular modeling studies based on the knowledge of the 3D-structure of zardaverine, a PDE4 inhibitor resembling the structure of 8a, cocrystallized with the PDE4. Based on further conformational analysis dealing with N-methyl-NAHs, a quinazoline derivative (19) was designed as a conformationally constrained NAH analogue and showed similar in vitro pharmacological profile, compared with 8a. In addition 19 was found active when tested orally in LPS-evoked airway hyperreactivity and fully confirmed the working hypothesis supporting this work.

  7. A Base Promoted Synthesis of N,N-dimethylformamidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao Lin; Ding, Si Yi; Ren, Yu Fei; Wang, Liu Chang; Jia, Yu Cai [Shaanxi Normal Univ., Xi' an (China); Zhang, Xi Quan; Gu, Hong Mei [Jiangsu Chia Tai Tianqing Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Nanjing (China)


    In conclusion, this report supplies a base promoted synthesis of N'-aryl-N,N-dimethylformamidines straight from arylamines bearing strong electron withdrawing group at o-position and imine complex from DMF and Me{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The key advantage of the procedure is to avoid the preparation of N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal from DMF and Me{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Using this method, some important intermediates shown as entry 1-4, 9-11 in Table 3 were efficiently prepared. With these intermediates in hand, various antitumor drugs containing quinazoline moiety such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib etc. can be synthesized conveniently.

  8. Detection and confirmation of alkaloids in leaves of Justicia adhatoda and bioinformatics approach to elicit its anti-tuberculosis activity. (United States)

    Jha, Deepak Kumar; Panda, Likun; Lavanya, P; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand


    The extraction and determination of alkaloids was performed and confirmed by phytochemical analysis. Six different quinazoline alkaloids (vasicoline, vasicolinone, vasicinone, vasicine, adhatodine and anisotine) were found in the leaf of Justicia adhatoda (J. adhatoda). The presence of the peaks obtained through HPLC indicated the diverse nature of alkaloid present in the leaf. The enzyme β-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase III that catalyses the initial step of fatty acid biosynthesis (FabH) via a type II fatty acid synthase has unique structural features and universal occurrence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Thus, it was considered as a target for designing of anti-tuberculosis compounds. Docking simulations were conducted on the above alkaloids derived from J. adhatoda. The combination of docking/scoring provided interesting insights into the binding of different inhibitors and their activity. These results will be useful for designing inhibitors for M. tuberculosis and also will be a good starting point for natural plant-based pharmaceutical chemistry.

  9. Anthranilate-activating modules from fungal nonribosomal peptide assembly lines. (United States)

    Ames, Brian D; Walsh, Christopher T


    Fungal natural products containing benzodiazepinone- and quinazolinone-fused ring systems can be assembled by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) using the conformationally restricted beta-amino acid anthranilate as one of the key building blocks. We validated that the first module of the acetylaszonalenin synthetase of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181 activates anthranilate to anthranilyl-AMP. With this as a starting point, we then used bioinformatic predictions about fungal adenylation domain selectivities to identify and confirm an anthranilate-activating module in the fumiquinazoline A producer Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 as well as a second anthranilate-activating NRPS in N. fischeri. This establishes an anthranilate adenylation domain code for fungal NRPS and should facilitate detection and cloning of gene clusters for benzodiazepine- and quinazoline-containing polycyclic alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities.

  10. Synthesis and E/Z Configuration Determination of Novel Derivatives of 3-Aryl-2-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio Acrylonitrile, 3-(Benzothiazol-2'-ylthio-4-(furan-2''-yl-3-buten-2-one and 2-(1-(Furan-2''-yl-3'-oxobut-1''-en-2-ylthio-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abou El-Khair


    Full Text Available Knoevenagel condensation of 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio acetonitrile (2 with either furan-2-carbaldehyde or thiophene-2-carbaldehydes leads to E-isomers 4a–b exclusively, while the condensation of the compound 2 with benzaldehyde or para-substituted benzaldehydes with an electron-donating group afforded E/Z mixtures 4c–e with preferentially formation of the E-isomer. Condensation of furan-2-carbaldehyde (3a with either 1-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio propan-2-one (5 or 2-(2'-oxo propylthio-3-phenyl-quinazolin-4(3H-one (9 leads exclusively to the Z-isomers of 6 and 10, respectively. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analyses, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOE, MS and X-ray crystallographic investigations.

  11. A fully automated two-step synthesis of an {sup 18}F-labelled tyrosine kinase inhibitor for EGFR kinase activity imaging in tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobus, D.; Giesen, Y.; Ullrich, R.; Backes, H. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zuelch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Neumaier, B. [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zuelch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)], E-mail:


    Radiolabelled epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors potentially facilitate the assessment of EGFR overexpression in tumors. Since elaborate multi-step radiosyntheses are required for {sup 18}F-labelling of EGFR-specific anilinoquinazolines we report on the development of a two-step click labelling approach that was adapted to a fully automated synthesis module. 6-(4-N,N-Dimethylaminocrotonyl)amido-4-(3-chloro-4-fluoro)phenylamino-7-{l_brace}3- [4-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-2,3,4-triazol-1-yl]propoxy{r_brace}quinazoline ([{sup 18}F]6) was synthesized via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethylazide ([{sup 18}F]4) and the alkyne modified anilinoquinazoline precursor 5. PET images of PC9 tumor xenograft using the novel biomarker showed promising results to visualize EGFR overexpression.

  12. Estudos de ressonancia magnetica multinuclear e de propriedades fisico-quimicas e biologicas de quinazolinas polissubstituidas


    Silvana Aparecida Rocco


    Resumo: Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de síntese e dos estudos de RMN de H e C, de coeficientes de partição (logP) e de atividade biológica de derivados de 6,7-dimetoxiquinazolinas. Os métodos gerais para a síntese de quinazolinas já se encontram descritos na literatura, mas foi necessário avaliar a melhor seqüência para a obtenção dos compostos propostos neste trabalho. A primeira etapa envolve a preparação de uma quinazolin-4-ona 2a através da ciclização in situ do ácido 2-amino-4,5...

  13. Synthesis of 4-Chloroquinazoline Derivatives%4-氯喹唑啉类化合物的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴佳亮; 洪一鸣; 熊杰; 何小飞; 沈振陆; 莫卫民


    以邻氨基苯甲酸类化合物和醋酸脒为原料,经环合反应得到喹唑啉-4(3H)-酮类化合物,再经POCl3氯化后得到4-氯喹唑啉类化合物。所得化合物的结构均经核磁和质谱确证。%Quinazolin-4 (3H)-ones were conveniently synthesized from anthranilie acids and amidines via cyclization reaction, which could be chloridized with POCl3 to obtain 4-chloroquinazoline derivatives. The structures of the products were characterized by 1HNMR and MS.

  14. Development of a cell permeable red-shifted CHEF-based chemosensor for Al3 + ion by controlling PET (United States)

    Mukherjee, Manjira; Sen, Buddhadeb; Pal, Siddhartha; Maji, Abhishek; Budhadev, Darshita; Chattopadhyay, Pabitra


    A structurally modified quinazoline derivative (L) acts as highly selective chemosensor for Al3 + ions in DMSO-H2O (1:9, v/v) over the other competitive metal ions. L shows a red shifted fluorescence after the addition of Al3 + ions and later the further fluorescence enhancement is due to chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) through inhibition of photoinduced electron transfer (PET). This probe (L) detects Al3 + ions as low as 9 nM in DMSO-H2O (1:9, v/v) at biological pH. The non-cytotoxic probe (L) can efficiently detect the intercellular distribution of Al3 + ions in living cells under a fluorescence microscope to exhibit its sensible applications in the biological systems.

  15. Acid-Base Interactions of Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid in Amorphous Solid Dispersions Using a Combined UV/FTIR/XPS/ssNMR Study. (United States)

    Song, Yang; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Chen, Xin; Nie, Haichen; Su, Ziyang; Fang, Ke; Yang, Xinghao; Smith, Daniel; Byrn, Stephen; Lubach, Joseph W


    This study investigates the potential drug-excipient interactions of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) and two weakly basic anticancer drugs, lapatinib (LB) and gefitinib (GB), in amorphous solid dispersions. Based on the strong acidity of the sulfonic acid functional group, PSSA was hypothesized to exhibit specific intermolecular acid-base interactions with both model basic drugs. Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy identified red shifts, which correlated well with the color change observed in lapatinib-PSSA solutions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra suggest the protonation of the quinazoline nitrogen atom in both model compounds, which agrees well with data from the crystalline ditosylate salt of lapatinib. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) detected increases in binding energy of the basic nitrogen atoms in both lapatinib and gefitinib, strongly indicating protonation of these nitrogen atoms. (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy provided direct spectroscopic evidence for protonation of the quinazoline nitrogen atoms in both LB and GB, as well as the secondary amine nitrogen atom in LB and the tertiary amine nitrogen atom in GB. The observed chemical shifts in the LB-PSSA (15)N spectrum also agree very well with the lapatinib ditosylate salt where proton transfer is known. Additionally, the dissolution and physical stability behaviors of both amorphous solid dispersions were examined. PSSA was found to significantly improve the dissolution of LB and GB and effectively inhibit the crystallization of LB and GB under accelerated storage conditions due to the beneficial strong intermolecular acid-base interaction between the sulfonic acid groups and basic nitrogen centers.

  16. A new solvate of afatinib, a specific inhibitor of the ErbB family of tyrosine kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Zeller


    Full Text Available Afatinib (systematic name: N-{4-(3-chloro-4-fluoroanilino-7-[(tetrahydrofuran-3-yloxy]quinazolin-6-yl}-4-(dimethylaminobut-2-enamide, is a specific inhibitor of the ErbB family of tyrosine kinases. The free base form crystallizes from acetonitrile as a mixed water–acetonitrile solvent, C24H25ClFN5O3·0.25C2H3N·2H2O. It crystallizes with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit of the chiral space group P4212, but exhibits close to perfect pseudo-inversion symmetry, emulating P4/ncc that relates the two molecules to each other. Exact inversion symmetry is however broken by swapping of oxygen and CH2 moieties of the outer tetrahydrofuranyl substituents of the two independent molecules. This can, in turn, be traced back to C—H...N and C—H...O interactions of the acetonitrile solvent molecules with the tetrahydrofuran oxygen and CH2 units. In the crystal, neighboring molecules are connected via N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the secondary amine and the amide keto O atom. Additional hydrogen bonds are formed through the water solvent molecules, which are engaged in O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds connecting to the dimethylamino N atom, the amide keto O atom, and one of the quinazoline N atoms of a neighboring molecule, leading to an intricate three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded superstructure. There are two types of channels stretching along the direction of the c axis; one along the fourfold rotational axis, occupied by acetonitrile solvent molecules situated on that axis, and parallel channels which are not occupied by any solvent.

  17. Cyanotryptophans as Novel Fluorescent Probes for Studying Protein Conformational Changes and DNA-Protein Interaction. (United States)

    Talukder, Poulami; Chen, Shengxi; Roy, Basab; Yakovchuk, Petro; Spiering, Michelle M; Alam, Mohammad P; Madathil, Manikandadas M; Bhattacharya, Chandrabali; Benkovic, Stephen J; Hecht, Sidney M


    Described herein are the syntheses and photophysical characterization of three novel cyanotryptophans, and their efficient incorporation into proteins as fluorescent probes. Photophysical characteristics indicated that each was significantly brighter and red-shifted in fluorescence emission relative to tryptophan. Each analogue was used to activate a suppressor tRNA transcript and was incorporated with good efficiency into two different positions (Trp22 and Trp74) of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR). The Trp analogues could be monitored selectively in the presence of multiple native Trp residues in DHFR. 6-CNTrp (A) formed an efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair with l-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine (HCO, D) at position 17. Further, 6-CNTrp (A) was incorporated into two DNA binding proteins, including the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I and an RNA recognition motif (RRM2) of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L-like (hnRNP LL). Using these proteins, we demonstrated the use of FRET involving A as a fluorescence donor and benzo[g]quinazoline-2,4-(1H,3H)-dione 2'-deoxyriboside (Tf) or 4-aminobenzo[g]quinazoline-2-one 2'-deoxyriboside (Cf) as fluorescent acceptors to study the binding interaction of the Klenow fragment with duplex DNA oligomers (labeled with Tf), or the domain-specific association between hnRNP LL and the BCL2 i-motif DNA (labeled with Cf). Thus, the non-natural amino acid could be used as a FRET partner for studying protein-nucleic acid interactions. Together, these findings demonstrate the potential utility of 6-CNTrp (A) as a fluorescence donor for the study of protein conformational events.

  18. Nitrenes, diradicals, and ylides. Ring expansion and ring opening in 2-quinazolylnitrenes. (United States)

    Kvaskoff, David; Bednarek, Pawel; George, Lisa; Waich, Kerstin; Wentrup, Curt


    Tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinazoline (9) is converted to 2-azidoquinazoline (10) on sublimation at 200 degrees C and above, and the azide-tetrazole equilibrium is governed by entropy. 2-Quinazolylnitrenes 11 and 27 and/or their ring expansion products 14 and 29 can undergo type I (ylidic) and type II (diradicaloid) ring opening. Argon matrix photolysis of 9/10 affords 2-quinazolylnitrene (11), which has been characterized by ESR, UV, and IR spectroscopy. A minor amount of a second nitrene, formed by rearrangement or ring opening, is also observed. A diradical (19) is formed rapidly by type II ring opening and characterized by ESR spectroscopy; it decays thermally at 15 K with a half-life of ca. 47 min, in agreement with its calculated facile intersystem crossing (19T --> 19OSS) followed by facile cyclization/rearrangement to 1-cyanoindazole (21) (calculated activation barrier 1-2 kcal/mol) and N-cyanoanthranilonitrile (22). 21and 22 are the isolated end products of photolysis. 21 is also the end product of flash vacuum thermolysis. An excellent linear correlation between the zero-field splitting parameter D (cm(-1)) and the spin density rho on the nitrene N calculated at the B3LYP/EPRIII level is reported (R2 = 0.993 for over 100 nitrenes). Matrix photolysis of 3-phenyltetrazolo[1,5-a]quinazoline (25) affords the benzotriazacycloheptatetraene 29, which can be photochemically interconverted with the type I ring opening product 2-isocyano-alpha-diazo-alpha-phenyltoluene (33) as determined by IR and UV spectroscopy. The corresponding carbene 37, obtained by photolysis of 33, was detected by matrix ESR spectroscopy.

  19. Enhancing Physicochemical Properties through Synthesis and Formulation of Piclamilast- and Lapatinib-Derived Analogs (United States)

    Woodring, Jennifer L.

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease of significant morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Current chemotherapeutics targeting the causative agent Trypanosoma brucei lack oral bioavailability, efficacy, and safety. New small molecule drugs are desperately needed for HAT. Target repurposing represents one method for rapidly discovering new anti-trypanosomal compounds. This concept has been applied to repurposing small molecule inhibitors of human phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) for HAT, while improving physicochemical properties. The first project in this dissertation begins with the human PDE4 inhibitor piclamilast, which has an IC50 value of 4.7 microM against T. brucei PDEB1. Based upon this scaffold, new analogs were designed, synthesized, and screened for their biological activity against TbrPDEB1. Secondly, previous optimization of the human tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib led to the discovery of the 4-anilino-quinazoline NEU-617, a potent (EC 50 = 42 nM) antitrypanosomal agent. Since alkynyl thienopyrimidines are well-known scaffolds for tyrosine kinase inhibitors, we assessed this scaffold as an alternative to the quinazoline of NEU-617. In addition, analogs of the NEU-617 were designed and synthesized to improve their physicochemical properties, such as lipophilicity and predicted central nervous system penetration. Lastly, nanoformulations have been shown to improve the oral bioavailability and circulation half-life of their encapsulated drug components. Because of this, nanoemulsions, liposomes, and polymeric nanoparticles were explored for their potential parasitic inhibitory effects and their ability to improve the physicochemical properties of NEU-617.

  20. AST1306, a novel irreversible inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2, exhibits antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xie

    Full Text Available Despite the initial response to the reversible, ATP-competitive quinazoline inhibitors that target ErbB-family, such a subset of cancer patients almost invariably develop resistance. Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that irreversible ErbB inhibitors have the potential to override this resistance. Here, we found that AST1306, a novel anilino-quinazoline compound, inhibited the enzymatic activities of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and ErbB2 as well as EGFR resistant mutant in both cell-free and cell-based systems. Importantly, AST1306 functions as an irreversible inhibitor, most likely through covalent interaction with Cys797 and Cys805 in the catalytic domains of EGFR and ErbB2, respectively. Further studies showed that AST1306 inactivated pathways downstream of these receptors and thereby inhibited the proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Although the activities of EGFR and ErbB2 were similarly sensitive to AST1306, ErbB2-overexpressing cell lines consistently exhibited more sensitivity to AST1306 antiproliferative effects. Consistent with this, knockdown of ErbB2, but not EGFR, decreased the sensitivity of SK-OV-3 cells to AST1306. In vivo, AST1306 potently suppressed tumor growth in ErbB2-overexpressing adenocarcinoma xenograft and FVB-2/N(neu transgenic breast cancer mouse models, but weakly inhibited the growth of EGFR-overexpressing tumor xenografts. Tumor growth inhibition induced by a single dose of AST1306 in the SK-OV-3 xenograft model was accompanied by a rapid (within 2 h and sustained (≥24 h inhibition of both EGFR and ErbB2, consistent with an irreversible inhibition mechanism. Taken together, these results establish AST1306 as a selective, irreversible ErbB2 and EGFR inhibitor whose growth-inhibitory effects are more potent in ErbB2-overexpressing cells.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavoush Dastmalchi


    Full Text Available Aldehyde oxidase (EC, a cytosolic enzyme containing FAD, molybdenum and iron-sulphur cluster, is a member of non-cytochrome P-450 enzymes called molybdenum hydroxylases which is involved in the metabolism of a wide range of endogenous compounds and many drug substances. Drug metabolism is one of the important characteristics which influences many aspects of a therapeutic agent such as routes of administration, drug interaction and toxicity and therefore, characterisation of the key interactions between enzymes and substrates is very important from drug development point of view. The aim of this study was to generate a three-dimensional model of human aldehyde oxidase (AO in order to assist us to identify the mode of interaction between enzyme and a set of phethalazine/quinazoline derivatives. Both sequence-based (BLAST and inverse protein fold recognition methods (THREADER were used to identify the crystal structure of bovine xanthine dehydrogenase (pdb code of 1FO4 as the suitable template for comparative modelling of human AO. Model structure was generated by aligning and then threading the sequence of human AO onto the template structure, incorporating the associated cofactors, and molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization using GROMACS program. Different criteria which were measured by the PROCHECK, QPACK, VERIFY-3D were indicative of a proper fold for the predicted structural model of human AO. For example, 97.9 percentages of phi and psi angles were in the favoured and most favoured regions in the ramachandran plot, and all residues in the model are assigned environmentally positive compatibility scores. Further evaluation on the model quality was performed by investigation of AO-mediated oxidation of a set of phthalazine/quinazoline derivatives to develop QSAR model capable of describing the extent of the oxidation. Substrates were aligned by docking onto the active site of the enzyme using GOLD technology and then

  2. A new solvate of afatinib, a specific inhibitor of the ErbB family of tyrosine kinases (United States)

    Zeller, Matthias; de Araujo, Gabriel Lima Barros; Parker, Trev; Singh Rai, Amrinder; Byrn, Stephen R.


    Afatinib (systematic name: N-{4-(3-chloro-4-fluoro­anilino)-7-[(tetra­hydro­furan-3-yl)­oxy]quinazolin-6-yl}-4-(di­methyl­amino)­but-2-enamide), is a specific in­hibitor of the ErbB family of tyrosine kinases. The free base form crystallizes from aceto­nitrile as a mixed water–aceto­nitrile solvent, C24H25ClFN5O3·0.25C2H3N·2H2O. It crystallizes with two independent mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit of the chiral space group P4212, but exhibits close to perfect pseudo-inversion symmetry, emulating P4/ncc that relates the two mol­ecules to each other. Exact inversion symmetry is however broken by swapping of oxygen and CH2 moieties of the outer tetra­hydro­furanyl substituents of the two independent mol­ecules. This can, in turn, be traced back to C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O inter­actions of the aceto­nitrile solvent mol­ecules with the tetra­hydro­furan oxygen and CH2 units. In the crystal, neighboring mol­ecules are connected via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the secondary amine and the amide keto O atom. Additional hydrogen bonds are formed through the water solvent mol­ecules, which are engaged in O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds connecting to the di­methyl­amino N atom, the amide keto O atom, and one of the quinazoline N atoms of a neighboring mol­ecule, leading to an intricate three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded superstructure. There are two types of channels stretching along the direction of the c axis; one along the fourfold rotational axis, occupied by aceto­nitrile solvent mol­ecules situated on that axis, and parallel channels which are not occupied by any solvent.

  3. Inhibition of human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels by alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin. (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Wimmer, Anna-Britt; Wu, Kezhong; Hammerling, Bettina C; Ficker, Eckhard K; Kuryshev, Yuri A; Kiehn, Johann; Katus, Hugo A; Schoels, Wolfgang; Karle, Christoph A


    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels are expressed in multiple tissues including the heart and adenocarcinomas. In cardiomyocytes, HERG encodes the alpha-subunit underlying the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current, I(Kr), and pharmacological reduction of HERG currents may cause acquired long QT syndrome. In addition, HERG currents have been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recently, doxazosin has been associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Moreover, quinazoline-derived alpha 1-inhibitors induce apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and prostate tumor cells independently of alpha1-adrenoceptor blockade. To assess the action of the effects of prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin on HERG currents, we investigated their acute electrophysiological effects on cloned HERG potassium channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK 293 cells.Prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin blocked HERG currents in Xenopus oocytes with IC(50) values of 10.1, 18.2, and 113.2 microM respectively, whereas the IC(50) values for HERG channel inhibition in human HEK 293 cells were 1.57 microM, 585.1 nM, and 17.7 microM. Detailed biophysical studies revealed that inhibition by the prototype alpha 1-blocker prazosin occurred in closed, open, and inactivated channels. Analysis of the voltage-dependence of block displayed a reduction of inhibition at positive membrane potentials. Frequency-dependence was not observed. Prazosin caused a negative shift in the voltage-dependence of both activation (-3.8 mV) and inactivation (-9.4 mV). The S6 mutations Y652A and F656A partially attenuated (Y652A) or abolished (F656A) HERG current blockade, indicating that prazosin binds to a common drug receptor within the pore-S6 region. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HERG

  4. Developing new PET tracers to image the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazunori; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Shimoda, Yoko; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Zhang, Yiding; Hatori, Akiko; Xie, Lin; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Kumata, Katsushi; Ohkubo, Takayuki; Kurihara, Yusuke; Ogawa, Masanao; Nengaki, Nobuki; Zhang, Ming-Rong


    `The growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) is the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, and its endogenous ligand is ghrelin. GHS-R1a contributes to regulation of glucose homeostasis, memory and learning, food addiction, and neuroprotection. Several PET tracers for GHS-R1a have been developed, but none have been reported to be clinically applicable to GHS-R1a imaging. In this study, we developed three new PET tracers for GHS-R1a: (18)F-labeled 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-((1-(2-fluoroethyl)piperidin-3-yl)methyl)-2-(o-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1), (11)C-labeled 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-((1-(2-methoxyethyl)piperidin-3-yl)methyl)-2-(o-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (2), and (11)C-labeled (S)-(4-(1H-indole-6-carbonyl)-3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)(4'-methoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methanone (3). [(18)F]1 was synthesized by the (18)F-fluoroethylation; [(11)C]2 or [(11)C]3 was synthesized by the (11)C-methylation. Biodistribution studies and PET studies were conducted in mice. We successfully radiosynthesized [(18)F]1, [(11)C]2, and [(11)C]3 with appropriate radioactivity for the animal study. In the ex vivo biodistribution study, 60min following injection, the radioactivity level of [(18)F]1 was relatively high in the small intestine, that of [(11)C]2 was high in the liver, and that of [(11)C]3 was high in the pancreas. The radioactivity levels of the three PET tracers were relatively low in the brain. Under pretreatment with YIL781 (a selective and high affinity antagonist for GHS-R1a), the pancreas radioactivity level at 30min following [(11)C]3 injection was significantly reduced to 55% of control, but the radioactivity in the brain was not changed. In the PET study under control conditions, high radioactivity levels in the liver and pancreas were observed following [(11)C]3 injection. With YIL781 pretreatment, the accumulated radioactivity in the pancreas 15-60min after [(11)C]3 injection was significantly decreased to 78% of control. [(11)C]3 exhibited relatively high uptake

  5. Febrifugine analogues as Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase inhibitors: binding energy analysis assisted by molecular docking, ADMET and molecular dynamics simulation. (United States)

    Pandey, Rajan Kumar; Kumbhar, Bajarang Vasant; Srivastava, Shubham; Malik, Ruchi; Sundar, Shyam; Kunwar, Ambarish; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar


    Visceral leishmaniasis affects people from 70 countries worldwide, mostly from Indian, African and south American continent. The increasing resistance to antimonial, miltefosine and frequent toxicity of amphotericin B drives an urgent need to develop an antileishmanial drug with excellent efficacy and safety profile. In this study we have docked series of febrifugine analogues (n = 8813) against trypanothione reductase in three sequential docking modes. Extra precision docking resulted into 108 ligands showing better docking score as compared to two reference ligand. Furthermore, 108 febrifugine analogues and reference inhibitor clomipramine were subjected to ADMET, QikProp and molecular mechanics, the generalized born model and solvent accessibility study to ensure the toxicity caused by compounds and binding-free energy, respectively. Two best ligands (FFG7 and FFG2) qualifying above screening parameters were further subjected to molecular dynamics simulation. Conducting these studies, here we confirmed that 6-chloro-3-[3-(3-hydroxy-2-piperidyl)-2-oxo-propyl]-7-(4-pyridyl) quinazolin-4-one can be potential drug candidate to fight against Leishmania donovani parasites.

  6. Identification of selective inhibitors of RET and comparison with current clinical candidates through development and validation of a robust screening cascade [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Watson


    Full Text Available RET (REarranged during Transfection is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which plays pivotal roles in regulating cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, migration and chemotaxis. Activation of RET is a mechanism of oncogenesis in medullary thyroid carcinomas where both germline and sporadic activating somatic mutations are prevalent.   At present, there are no known specific RET inhibitors in clinical development, although many potent inhibitors of RET have been opportunistically identified through selectivity profiling of compounds initially designed to target other tyrosine kinases. Vandetanib and cabozantinib, both multi-kinase inhibitors with RET activity, are approved for use in medullary thyroid carcinoma, but additional pharmacological activities, most notably inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor - VEGFR2 (KDR, lead to dose-limiting toxicity. The recent identification of RET fusions present in ~1% of lung adenocarcinoma patients has renewed interest in the identification and development of more selective RET inhibitors lacking the toxicities associated with the current treatments.   In an earlier publication [Newton et al, 2016; 1] we reported the discovery of a series of 2-substituted phenol quinazolines as potent and selective RET kinase inhibitors. Here we describe the development of the robust screening cascade which allowed the identification and advancement of this chemical series.  Furthermore we have profiled a panel of RET-active clinical compounds both to validate the cascade and to confirm that none display a RET-selective target profile.

  7. A New Route for the Synthesis of Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor Raltitrexed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Sheng-Li; WAN Rong; FENG Yu-Ping


    @@ Raltitrexed (8), a new quinazoline-based inhibitor of thymidylate synthase (TS), has been registered widely for the first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. [1,2] As reported in the literature, [3,4] it can be prepared from 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid via 7 steps in 3% overall yield, but n-BuLi and the low temperature at - 78 ℃ was needed for the introduction of 5-carboxyl group into thiophene ring through lithiation of 2-(N-Boc-N-methylamino) thiophene followed by the addition of CO2. Here we wish to report a new route for the synthesis of Raltitrexed which was obtained from 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid via 6 steps in 18.2% overall yield (Scheme 1). The mild conditions utilized in the synthetic route avoid the use of n-BuLi, NaH and the experimental conditions of low temperature at - 78 ℃ and strictly free of water, and are suitable for the large-scale preparation.

  8. A high-resolution mitochondria-targeting ratiometric fluorescent probe for detection of the endogenous hypochlorous acid (United States)

    Zhou, Liyi; Lu, Dan-Qing; Wang, Qianqian; Hu, Shunqin; Wang, Haifei; Sun, Hongyan; Zhang, Xiaobing


    Hypochlorite anion, one of the biologically important reactive oxygen species, plays an essential role in diverse normal biochemical functions and abnormal pathological processes. Herein, an efficient high-resolution mitochondria-targeting ratiometric fluorescent probe for hypochlorous acid detection has been designed, synthesized and characterized. It is easily synthesized by the condensation reaction (Cdbnd C) of a 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-one fluorophore and a cyanine group (mitochondria-targeting), which made the whole molecular a large Stokes shift (210 nm) and the two well-resolved emission peaks separated by 140 nm. As a result, it is considered as a good candidate for high resolution hypochlorous acid imaging in live cells. The ratiometric fluorescent probe exhibited outstanding features of high sensitivity, high selectivity, rapid response time (within 50 s), and excellent mitochondria-targeting ability. Moreover, the probe can also be successfully applied to imaging endogenously hypochlorous acid in the mitochondria of living cells with low cytotoxicity, and high resolution.

  9. [Actinomycetes from mangrove and their secondary metabolites]. (United States)

    Hong, Kui


    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. Driven by the discovery of novel natural products from marine environment, mangrove is becoming a hot spot for actinomycetes resources collection and secondary metabolites (natural products) identification as well as their biosynthesis mechanism investigation. Salinaspora A produced by a Salinispora strain isolated from Bahamas mangrove environment, is in the first clinical trial. Till the time of writing this paper, 24 genera of 11 families and 8 suborders under the actinomycetale have been reported from mangrove, among which 3 are new genera, and 31 are new species. At the same time, secondary metabolites were identified from the mangrove actinomycetes culture, including alkanoids and quinines, azalomycins, antimycins, bezamides and quinazolines, divergolides, indole derivatives, kandenols, macrocyclic dilactones, and the attractive structures, such as the Streptocarbazoles, the multicyclic indolsesquiterpenes, and xiamycin presented unique structures. Their biosynthetic mechanism has also been investigated. Most of the metabolites were isolated from streptomycetes, with a few from Micromonospora and Saccharopolyspora.

  10. 4-Anilino-2-pyridylquinazolines and -pyrimidines as Highly Potent and Nontoxic Inhibitors of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2). (United States)

    Krapf, Michael K; Gallus, Jennifer; Wiese, Michael


    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins remains a major problem in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and might be overcome by inhibition of the transporter. Because of the lack of understanding, the complex mechanisms involved in the transport process, in particular for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), there is a persistent need for studies of inhibitors of ABCG2. In this study, we investigated a systematic series of 4-substituted-2-pyridylquinazolines in terms of their inhibitory potency as well as selectivity toward ABCG2. For comparison, the quinazoline scaffold was reduced to the significantly smaller 4-methylpyrimidine basic structure. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity and the ability to reverse MDR was tested with the chemotherapeutic agents SN-38 and mitoxantrone (MX). Interaction of the compounds with ABCG2 was investigated by a colorimetric ATPase assay. Enzyme kinetic studies were carried out with Hoechst 33342 as fluorescent dye and substrate of ABCG2 to elucidate the compounds binding modes.

  11. Transformation of the antiepileptic drug oxcarbazepine upon different water disinfection processes. (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Fenet, Hélène; Gomez, Elena; Chiron, Serge


    Transformation of the pharmaceutical oxcarbazepine (OXC), a keto analogue of carbamazepine (CBZ) was investigated under different water disinfection processes (ozonation, chlorination and UV irradiation) to compare its persistence, toxicity and degradation pathways with those of CBZ. Analysis by LC-ion trap-MS(n) allowed for the identification of up to thirteen transformation products (TPs). The major abundant and persistent TPs (10,11-dihydro-10,11-trans-dihydroxy-carbamazepine (DiOH-CBZ), acridine (ACIN) and 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-(1H, 3H)-quinazoline-2,4-dione (BQD)) were identical to those previously reported during water treatment of CBZ. Only one new compound arising from an intramolecular cyclisation reaction was identified during UV irradiation. OXC reacted quickly with hydroxyl radical and relatively rapidly with free chlorine while slow reaction rates were recorded in presence of ozone and upon UV irradiation. An increase of the acute toxicity of UV irradiated solutions, monitored by a Daphnia magna bioassay, was recorded, probably due to the accumulation of ACIN. The formation of ACIN is of concern due to the carcinogenic properties of this chemical. ACIN was also generated during the direct UV photo transformation of DiOH-CBZ and 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydro-carbamazepine (OH-CBZ), two metabolites of OXC and CBZ widely detected in water resources. Analysis of tap water samples revealed the occurrence at ng/L levels of the major TPs detected under laboratory scale experiments, except ACIN.

  12. Integrated CO2 capture-fixation chemistry via interfacial ionic liquid catalyst in laminar gas/liquid flow (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Singh, Ajay K.; Hwang, Yoon-Ho; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Oh; Babu, A. Giridhar; Kim, Dong-Pyo


    Simultaneous capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization with subsequent work-up would significantly enhance the competitiveness of CO2-based sustainable chemistry over petroleum-based chemistry. Here we report an interfacial catalytic reaction platform for an integrated autonomous process of simultaneously capturing/fixing CO2 in gas–liquid laminar flow with subsequently providing a work-up step. The continuous-flow microreactor has built-in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with immobilized ionic liquid catalysts on tips of cone-shaped nanowire bundles. Because of the superamphiphobic SiNWs, a stable gas–liquid interface maintains between liquid flow of organoamines in upper part and gas flow of CO2 in bottom part of channel. The intimate and direct contact of the binary reagents leads to enhanced mass transfer and facilitating reactions. The autonomous integrated platform produces and isolates 2-oxazolidinones and quinazolines-2,4(1H,3H)-diones with 81–97% yields under mild conditions. The platform would enable direct CO2 utilization to produce high-valued specialty chemicals from flue gases without pre-separation and work-up steps. PMID:28262667

  13. Integrated CO2 capture-fixation chemistry via interfacial ionic liquid catalyst in laminar gas/liquid flow (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Singh, Ajay K.; Hwang, Yoon-Ho; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Oh; Babu, A. Giridhar; Kim, Dong-Pyo


    Simultaneous capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization with subsequent work-up would significantly enhance the competitiveness of CO2-based sustainable chemistry over petroleum-based chemistry. Here we report an interfacial catalytic reaction platform for an integrated autonomous process of simultaneously capturing/fixing CO2 in gas-liquid laminar flow with subsequently providing a work-up step. The continuous-flow microreactor has built-in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with immobilized ionic liquid catalysts on tips of cone-shaped nanowire bundles. Because of the superamphiphobic SiNWs, a stable gas-liquid interface maintains between liquid flow of organoamines in upper part and gas flow of CO2 in bottom part of channel. The intimate and direct contact of the binary reagents leads to enhanced mass transfer and facilitating reactions. The autonomous integrated platform produces and isolates 2-oxazolidinones and quinazolines-2,4(1H,3H)-diones with 81-97% yields under mild conditions. The platform would enable direct CO2 utilization to produce high-valued specialty chemicals from flue gases without pre-separation and work-up steps.

  14. Receptor-Based Virtual Screening of EGFR Kinase Inhibitors from the NCI Diversity Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiattawee Choowongkomon


    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR abnormalities have been associated with several types of human cancer. The crystal structures of its tyrosine kinase domain (EGFR-TK complexed with small molecule inhibitors revealed the kinase inhibition modes, prompting us to search for novel anti-cancer drugs. A total of 1,990 compounds from the National Cancer Institute (NCI diversity set with nonredundant structures have been tested to inhibit cancer cell lines with unknown mechanism. Cancer inhibition through EGFR-TK is one of the mechanisms of these compounds. In this work, we performed receptor-based virtual screening against the NCI diversity database. Using two different docking algorithms, AutoDock and Gold, combined with subsequent post-docking analyses, we found eight candidate compounds with high scoring functions that all bind to the ATP-competitive site of the kinase. None of these compounds belongs to the main group of the currently known EGFR-TK inhibitors. Binding mode analyses revealed that the way these compounds complexed with EGFR-TK differs from quinazoline inhibitor binding and the interaction mainly involves hydrophobic interactions. Also, the common kinase-inhibitor (NH---N and CO---HC hydrogen bonds between the hinge region and the hit compounds are rarely observed. Our results suggest that these molecules could be developed as novel lead compounds in anti-cancer drug design.

  15. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  16. Bright hybrid white light-emitting quantum dot device with direct charge injection into quantum dot (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wei, Xiang; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Chao-Ping; Wang, Zi-Xing; Jhun, Chulgyu


    A bright white quantum dot light-emitting device (white-QLED) with 4-[4-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl]-2- [3-(tri-phenylen-2-yl)phen-3-yl]quinazoline deposited on a thin film of mixed green/red-QDs as a bilayer emitter is fabricated. The optimized white-QLED exhibits a turn-on voltage of 3.2 V and a maximum brightness of 3660 cd/m2@8 V with the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity in the region of white light. The ultra-thin layer of QDs is proved to be critical for the white light generation in the devices. Excitation mechanism in the white-QLEDs is investigated by the detailed analyses of electroluminescence (EL) spectral and the fluorescence lifetime of QDs. The results show that charge injection is a dominant mechanism of excitation in the white-QLED. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21302122) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 13ZR1416600).

  17. The Uses of 2-Ethoxy-(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one in the Synthesis of Some Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhry A. El-Bassiouny


    Full Text Available The behavior of 2-ethoxy-(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (1 towards nitrogen nucleo-philes, e.g. ethanolamine, aromatic amines (namely: p-toluidine, p-anisidine, p-hydroxyaniline, o-hydroxyaniline, o-bromoaniline, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylene- diamine, o-tolidinediamine p-aminobenzoic acid, glucosamine hydrochloride,  2-amino- nicotinic acid, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid hydrazide, n-decanoic acid hydrazide, benzoic acid hydrazide, semicarbazide, aminoacids (e.g. D,L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-arginine and derivatives of 2-aminothiodiazole has been investigated. The behavior of the benzoxazinone towards a selected sulfur nucleophile, L-cysteine, has also been discussed. Formation of an amidine salt as a reaction intermediate has been assumed. The effect of solvent in some reactions has been elucidated. The structures of all the novel quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives, obtained by heterocyclic ring opening and ring closure were inferred by the IR, MS as well as 1H-NMR spectral analysis. Moreover, the antimicrobial potential of some of the new synthesized derivatives has been evaluated.

  18. Organobase-catalyzed three-component reactions for the synthesis of 4H-2-aminopyrans, condensed pyrans and polysubstituted benzenes

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    Moustafa Sherief Moustafa


    Full Text Available Novel routes for the preparation of 2-amino-4H-pyran-3-carbonitrile 9, amino-arylbenzoic acid ester derivatives 13a,b, 2-aminotetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile 18, 3-amino-4-cyanotetrahydronaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid ester 26 and 4-amino-3,5-dicyanophthalic acid ester derivatives 37a–c were developed. The synthetic methods utilize one-pot reactions of acetylene carboxylic acid esters, α,β-unsaturated nitriles and/or active methylenenitriles in the presence of L-proline or DABCO. Plausible mechanisms are suggested for the formation of the products. Finally, these compounds were used for the efficient synthesis of 6-amino-5-cyanonicotinic acid ester derivatives 31a,b, ethyl 4-amino-5H-pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylates 33a,b, 4-amino-6H-pyrrolo[3,4-g]quinazoline-9-carbonitrile 39, and 1,7-diamino-6-(N'-hydroxycarbamimidoyl-3-oxo-5-phenyl-3H-isoindole-4-carboxylate (40.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II Coordination Compounds with Nitrogen, Oxygen Containing Schiff Base

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    B. K. RAI


    Full Text Available A series of complexes of the type [M(EHPQH2X2] where M = Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II, EHPQH=2-ethyl, [3(hydroxypropyl]-3, 1 4H quinazoline -4-hydrazone, X= Cl-, Br-, I- and No-3 -. The geometry of the complexes have been elucidated in the light of molar mass, elemental analysis, IR, electronic Spectra, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility. The measured molar conductance value indicates that the complexes are nonelectrolytic in nature. The above observation indicates that Schiff bases EHPQH behave as bidentate ligand and coordination proposes through azomethine N and oxygen atom of alcoholic group of ligand. The remaining coordination sites are satisfied by negative ion such as Ci-, Br-, I- and NB-. The geometry of the Co(II and Ni(II were proposed to be octahedral in geometry whereas Cu(II complexes were proposed to be distorted octahedral. The Schiff bases and its complexes have been evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The complexes show enhanced antibacterial activity than ligand.

  20. A3 Adenosine receptors mediate oligodendrocyte death and ischemic damage to optic nerve. (United States)

    González-Fernández, Estíbaliz; Sánchez-Gómez, María Victoria; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Arellano, Rogelio O; Matute, Carlos


    Adenosine receptor activation is involved in myelination and in apoptotic pathways linked to neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor activation in the viability of oligodendrocytes of the rat optic nerve. Selective activation of A3 receptors in pure cultures of oligodendrocytes caused concentration-dependent apoptotic and necrotic death which was preceded by oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Oligodendrocyte apoptosis induced by A3 receptor activation was caspase-dependent and caspase-independent. In addition to dissociated cultures, incubation of optic nerves ex vivo with adenosine and the A3 receptor agonist 2-CI-IB-MECA(1-[2-Chloro-6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-1-deoxy-N-methyl-b-D-ribofuranuronamide)-induced caspase-3 activation, oligodendrocyte damage, and myelin loss, effects which were prevented by the presence of caffeine and the A3 receptor antagonist MRS 1220 (N-[9-Chloro-2-(2-furanyl)[1,2,4]-triazolo [1,5-c]quinazolin-5-yl]benzene acetamide). Finally, ischemia-induced injury and functional loss to the optic nerve was attenuated by blocking A3 receptors. Together, these results indicate that adenosine may trigger oligodendrocyte death via activation of A3 receptors and suggest that this mechanism contributes to optic nerve and white matter ischemic damage.

  1. Quantification of vasaka alkaloids in in vitro cultures and in natural leaves from Indian subcontinents by reversed phase- high performance liquid chromatography

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    Madhukar Garg


    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to develop an efficient protocol for studying the enhancement of in vitro production of secondary metabolites in Adhatoda vasica leaves collected from the varied geographical locations of Indian sub-continents by a validated simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography gradient method for the quantification of vasicine and vasicinone in the developed calli and crude samples. Materials and Methods: The analysis was carried out on a reverse phase C18column using 0.1% of orthophosphoric acid: Acetonitrile in gradient manner and carried out the detection at 280 nm wavelength keeping the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Results: The simultaneous method was found linear with regression coefficient r2 = 0.991 in a wide range (100–500 μg/mL precise, accurate, and robust for quinazoline alkaloids in samples. Results clearly showed a significant increase in the concentration of alkaloids in in vitro cultures as compared to natural ones. The proposed method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for accuracy, precision, robustness, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. Conclusion: The developed method was found suitable for quality control of A. vasica and for the analysis of vasicine and vasicinone in any type of sample.

  2. The role of a conserved tyrosine in the 49-kDa subunit of complex I for ubiquinone binding and reduction. (United States)

    Tocilescu, Maja A; Fendel, Uta; Zwicker, Klaus; Dröse, Stefan; Kerscher, Stefan; Brandt, Ulrich


    Iron-sulfur cluster N2 of complex I (proton pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) is the immediate electron donor to ubiquinone. At a distance of only approximately 7A in the 49-kDa subunit, a highly conserved tyrosine is found at the bottom of the previously characterized quinone binding pocket. To get insight into the function of this residue, we have exchanged it for six different amino acids in complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica. Mitochondrial membranes from all six mutants contained fully assembled complex I that exhibited very low dNADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activities with n-decylubiquinone. With the most conservative exchange Y144F, no alteration in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of complex I was detectable. Remarkably, high dNADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activities were observed with ubiquinones Q1 and Q2 that were coupled to proton pumping. Apparent Km values for Q1 and Q2 were markedly increased and we found pronounced resistance to the complex I inhibitors decyl-quinazoline-amine (DQA) and rotenone. We conclude that Y144 directly binds the head group of ubiquinone, most likely via a hydrogen bond between the aromatic hydroxyl and the ubiquinone carbonyl. This places the substrate in an ideal distance to its electron donor iron-sulfur cluster N2 for efficient electron transfer during the catalytic cycle of complex I.

  3. CAL-101, a p110delta selective phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, inhibits PI3K signaling and cellular viability. (United States)

    Lannutti, Brian J; Meadows, Sarah A; Herman, Sarah E M; Kashishian, Adam; Steiner, Bart; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Loriaux, Marc M; Deininger, Mike; Druker, Brian J; Puri, Kamal D; Ulrich, Roger G; Giese, Neill A


    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110δ serves as a central integration point for signaling from cell surface receptors known to promote malignant B-cell proliferation and survival. This provides a rationale for the development of small molecule inhibitors that selectively target p110δ as a treatment approach for patients with B-cell malignancies. We thus identified 5-fluoro-3-phenyl-2-[(S)-1-(9H-purin-6-ylamino)-propyl]-3H-quinazolin-4-one (CAL-101), a highly selective and potent p110δ small molecule inhibitor (half-maximal effective concentration [EC(50)] = 8nM). Using tumor cell lines and primary patient samples representing multiple B-cell malignancies, we have demonstrated that constitutive phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway activation is p110δ-dependent. CAL-101 blocked constitutive phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling, resulting in decreased phosphorylation of Akt and other downstream effectors, an increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase cleavage and an induction of apoptosis. These effects have been observed across a broad range of immature and mature B-cell malignancies, thereby providing a rationale for the ongoing clinical evaluation of CAL-101.

  4. CAL-101, a p110δ selective phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, inhibits PI3K signaling and cellular viability (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah A.; Herman, Sarah E. M.; Kashishian, Adam; Steiner, Bart; Johnson, Amy J.; Byrd, John C.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Deininger, Mike; Druker, Brian J.; Puri, Kamal D.; Ulrich, Roger G.; Giese, Neill A.


    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110δ serves as a central integration point for signaling from cell surface receptors known to promote malignant B-cell proliferation and survival. This provides a rationale for the development of small molecule inhibitors that selectively target p110δ as a treatment approach for patients with B-cell malignancies. We thus identified 5-fluoro-3-phenyl-2-[(S)-1-(9H-purin-6-ylamino)-propyl]-3H-quinazolin-4-one (CAL-101), a highly selective and potent p110δ small molecule inhibitor (half-maximal effective concentration [EC50] = 8nM). Using tumor cell lines and primary patient samples representing multiple B-cell malignancies, we have demonstrated that constitutive phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway activation is p110δ-dependent. CAL-101 blocked constitutive phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling, resulting in decreased phosphorylation of Akt and other downstream effectors, an increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase cleavage and an induction of apoptosis. These effects have been observed across a broad range of immature and mature B-cell malignancies, thereby providing a rationale for the ongoing clinical evaluation of CAL-101. PMID:20959606

  5. Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Prazosin, Terazosin, and Doxazosin in Pharmaceutical Formulations. (United States)

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B


    The current study was carried out with an attempt to separate similarly structured title drugs by liquid chromatography. Spectrophotometric techniques were generally insufficient under these conditions because of the spectral overlapping of drugs with similar functional groups. The pharmaceutical drugs prazosin, terazosin, and doxazosin contain the same parent quinazoline nucleus, thus making it especially difficult to separate the former two drugs because of their very similar structures. A simple and sensitive method for the routine determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical formulations was attempted. We found that the mobile phase consisting of A: ACN-diethylamine (0.05 ml), B: methanol, and C: 10 mM Ammonium acetate separated these drugs effectively. Separations were carried out on a new Kromasil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm) at 254 nm wavelength. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 2-500 μg/ml. The stated method was then validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. Additionally, the proposed method reduced the duration of the analysis.

  6. Extraction, isolation, characterization, semi-synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of Justicia adathoda leaves

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    Sivaperumal Gopalan


    Full Text Available There is a need to investigate the new sources of antimalarial drugs which are more effective against Plasmodium falciparum. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of vasicinone, vasicine and 9-oxo-1, 2, 3, 9-tetrahydropyrrolo [2,1-b]quinazolin-3-yl acetate (VA-1. Vasicinone and vasicine were extracted from the leaves of Justicia adhatoda. The novel compound VA-1 was synthesized from alkaloid the alkaloid vasicine, which was isolated from the ethanol extract of J. adhatoda leaves. Vasicine (IC50 = 89.8 µg/mL and vasicinone (IC50 = 38.9 µg/mL showed moderate antiplasmodial activity whereas the compound VA-1 ( IC50 = 06.0 µg/mL showed excellent antiplasmodial activity when compared with standard drug chloroquine (IC50 = 12.6 µg/mL. The results achieved suggest that both isolated and semi-synthetic compounds may serve as a lead compound to antiplasmodial activity. Further, the compound VA-1 is for the first time reported for antiplasmodial activity with IC50 value.

  7. Peganum harmala L. Intoxication in a Pregnant Woman

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    Mohamed Adnane Berdai


    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L. is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. It is commonly used in traditional medicine in Morocco as sedative and abortifacient but exposes users to the risk of overdose and poisoning. The pharmacologically active compounds of this plant include a number of β-carboline and quinazoline alkaloids responsible of its pharmacological and toxicological effects. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman, 22 weeks pregnant, intoxicated with the seeds of Peganum harmala L. On admission, she had disturbance of consciousness, uterine contraction, and oliguria. Laboratory tests revealed renal failure and liver injury, and she benefited then from hemodialysis. During hospitalization, she was intubated after deterioration of consciousness and presented a spontaneous expulsion of the fetus. After extubation, she kept unusual sequelae: cerebellar ataxia and peripheral polyneuropathy. Physicians in regions using Peganum harmala L. as traditional medicine must be able to detect symptoms of its toxicity, in order to establish early gastrointestinal decontamination. The prognosis of this intoxication is variable; most cases can be managed successfully; but in high doses of intoxication, evolution can be fatal.

  8. A novel quinazolinone derivative induces cytochrome c interdependent apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells

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    Suresh Kumar


    Full Text Available Crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is budding as one of the novel strategies in the cancer therapeutics. The present study tinted toward the interdependence of autophagy and apoptosis induce by a novel quinazolinone derivative 2,3-dihydro-2-(quinoline-5-yl quinazolin-4(1H-one structure [DQQ] in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells. DQQ induces cytochrome c arbitrated apoptosis and autophagy in MOLT-4 cells. Apoptosis induces by DQQ was confirmed through a battery of assay e.g. cellular and nuclear microscopy, annexin-V assay, cell cycle analysis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and immune-expression of cytochrome c, caspases and PARP. Furthermore, acridine orange staining, LC3 immunofluorescence and western blotting of key autophagy proteins revealed the autophagic potential of DQQ. A universal caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK and cytochrome c silencing, strongly inhibited the DQQ induce autophagy and apoptosis. Beclin1 silencing through siRNA partially reversed the cell death, which was not as significant as by cytochrome c silencing. Although, it partially reversed the PARP cleavage induced by DQQ, indicating the role of autophagy in the regulation of apoptosis. The present study first time portrays the negative feedback potential of cytochrome c regulated autophagy and the importance of quinazolinone derivative in discovery of novel anticancer therapeutics.

  9. Protective effect of Qnr on agents other than quinolones that target DNA gyrase. (United States)

    Jacoby, George A; Corcoran, Marian A; Hooper, David C


    Qnr is a plasmid-encoded and chromosomally determined protein that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from inhibition by quinolones. Despite its prevalence worldwide and existence prior to the discovery of quinolones, its native function is not known. Other synthetic compounds and natural products also target bacterial topoisomerases. A number were studied as molecular probes to gain insight into how Qnr acts. Qnr blocked inhibition by synthetic compounds with somewhat quinolone-like structure that target the GyrA subunit, such as the 2-pyridone ABT-719, the quinazoline-2,4-dione PD 0305970, and the spiropyrimidinetrione pyrazinyl-alkynyl-tetrahydroquinoline (PAT), indicating that Qnr is not strictly quinolone specific, but Qnr did not protect against GyrA-targeting simocyclinone D8 despite evidence that both simocyclinone D8 and Qnr affect DNA binding to gyrase. Qnr did not affect the activity of tricyclic pyrimidoindole or pyrazolopyridones, synthetic inhibitors of the GyrB subunit, or nonsynthetic GyrB inhibitors, such as coumermycin A1, novobiocin, gyramide A, or microcin B17.Thus, in this set of compounds the protective activity of Qnr was confined to those that, like quinolones, trap gyrase on DNA in cleaved complexes.

  10. OSI-774 OSI Pharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Norman, P


    OSI-774 (formerly CP-358774), a quinazoline derivative, is an orally active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor which was originally under joint development by Pfizer and OSI Pharmaceuticals (formerly Oncogene Science) for the potential treatment of cancer (eg, ovarian, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck). It is being evaluated in phase II trials [304305], [372201]. On 8 January 2001, OSI announced that it had signed an agreement with Roche and Genentech for the global co-development and marketing of OSI-774. The agreement with Genentech covers the United States, that with Roche the rest of the world [395371], [395526]. In June 2000, OSI gained all development and marketing rights for OSI-774 following Pfizer's merger with Warner-Lambert [371439]. In September 2000, Pfizer transferred the IND dossierfor OSI-774 to OSI ahead of the timeline agreed in the June 2000 development and marketing rights agreement [383786]. The phase II trials will assess OSI-774 both as a single agent and in combination with existing chemotherapy regimens [347783]. Phase III trials are expected to be initiated in 2001 [347783]. In October 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted that OSI-774 would move into pivotal trials in thefirst half of 2001 and that the drug would be launched in 2003. The analysts also estimated worldwide sales of US $66 million, $285 million and $461 million in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively, and peak sales in excess of US $500 million [395189].

  11. A novel STK1-targeted small-molecule as an "antibiotic resistance breaker" against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Kant, Sashi; Asthana, Shailendra; Missiakas, Dominique; Pancholi, Vijay


    Ser/Thr protein kinase (STK1) plays a critical role in cell wall biosynthesis of and drug resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA strains lacking STK1 become susceptible to failing cephalosporins, such as Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime. STK1, despite being nonessential protein for MRSA survival, it can serve as an important therapeutic agent for combination therapy. Here, we report a novel small molecule quinazoline compound, Inh2-B1, which specifically inhibits STK1 activity by directly binding to its ATP-binding catalytic domain. Functional analyses encompassing in vitro growth inhibition of MRSA, and in vivo protection studies in mice against the lethal MRSA challenge indicated that at high concentration neither Inh2-B1 nor Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime alone was able to inhibit the growth of bacteria or protect the challenged mice. However, the growth of MRSA was inhibited, and a significant protection in mice against the bacterial challenge was observed at a micromolar concentration of Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime in the presence of Inh2-B1. Cell-dependent minimal to no toxicity of Inh2-B1, and its abilities to down-regulate cell wall hydrolase genes and disrupt the biofilm formation of MRSA clearly indicated that Inh2-B1 serves as a therapeutically important "antibiotic-resistance-breaker," which enhances the bactericidal activity of Ceftriaxone/Cefotaxime against highly pathogenic MRSA infection.

  12. Quinazolinone derivative: Model compound for determination of dipole moment, solvatochromism and metal ion sensing (United States)

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Pannipara, Mehboobali; Kalam, Abul


    A dihydroquinazolinone derivative 2-(2,4-Dimethoxy-phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-quinazolin-4-one (1) was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR and its spectral, photophysical, intramolecular charge transfer characteristics were studied by absorption and emission spectroscopy. The compound exhibits significant changes in their photophysical properties depending on the solvent polarity. The observed bathochromic emission band and difference in Stokes shift on changing the polarity of the solvents clearly demonstrate the highly polar character of the excited state, which is also supported by the enhancement of dipole moment of the molecule upon photoexcitation. Solvatochromic shift methods based on Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev-Kawski and Reichardt's correlations were applied to calculate the ground, excited and change in dipole moments. The effect of solute-solvent interactions on compound 1 was studied using multi-parameter solvent polarity scales proposed by Kamlet-Taft and Catalan. The interactions of various metal ions on compound 1 were also studied using steady state fluorescence measurements. The emission profile reveals that it acts as on-off type fluorescent chemosensor for selective and sensitive detection of Hg2 + ions. Complexation stoichiometry and mechanism of quenching were determined from Benesi-Hildebrand and Stern-Volmer plot.

  13. SbCl3 as effective catalyst for the preparation of 2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones, spectroscopic investigation and DFT study (United States)

    Pourmousavi, Seied Ali; Kanaani, Ayoob; Fatahi, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Ajloo, Davood


    A simple and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of Quinazolines using SbCl3 as a heterogeneous catalysis at room temperature. This method provides a good pathway for the synthesis of 2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones derivatives in the terms of excellent yields and short reaction times. Also we studied theoretically and experimentally on 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one (PDQ). Using density functional theory (DFT), the tautomerism of PDQ was also studied. Thermal stability of PDQ was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The spectroscopic results and theoretical calculations indicate that the strength of intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IHB) of PDQ is stronger than that in 2-methyl-4-quinolinol (2MQ). The absorption spectra of the PDQ in solvents with different polarity were obtained and the results show that PDQ exists in both keto-amine and enol-imine forms in THF, while it has keto-amine form in other solvents. Theoretical results show that the conductance of the two tautomers (keto-amine and enol-imine) varies greatly, which offers that the potential usage of this molecule is as a molecular device.

  14. Complementary medicinal chemistry-driven strategies toward new antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial lead drug candidates. (United States)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Lizzi, Federica; Bongarzone, Salvatore; Belluti, Federica; Piazzi, Lorna; Bolognesi, Maria Laura


    Trypanosomiases and Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases that affect the less developed countries. For this reason, they did not and still do not have high visibility in Western societies. The name neglected diseases also refers to the fact that they often received little interest at the level of public investment, research and development. The drug discovery scenario, however, is changing dramatically. After a period in which different socioeconomic factors have prevented massive research efforts in this field, such efforts have increased considerably in the very recent years, with significant scientific advancements. In this context, we have embarked on a new drug discovery project devoted to identification of new small molecules for the treatment of trypanosomal and leishmanial diseases. Two complementary approaches have been pursued and are reported here. The first deals with a structure-based drug design, and a privileged structure-guided synthesis of quinazoline compounds able to modulate trypanothione reductase activity was accomplished. In the second, a combinatorial library, built on a natural product-based strategy, was synthesized. Using whole parasite assays, different quinones have been identified as promising lead compounds. A combination of both approaches to hopefully overcome some of the challenges of anti-trypanosomatid drug discovery has eventually been proposed.

  15. Tertiary treatment of Berlin WWTP effluents with ferrate (Fe(VI)). (United States)

    Hübner, U; Jekel, M


    New and higher standards in the EU water framework directive necessitate advanced treatment of secondary effluents for reduction of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) and nutrients before the discharge into receiving surface waters. Due to its dual function as oxidant and coagulant, ferrate is considered as a promising alternative for tertiary treatment. The oxidation of selected TrOCs and simultaneous flocculation of phosphates by ferrate was tested in batch experiments with secondary effluent from Berlin Ruhleben. The concentrations of carbamazepine (CBZ) and diclofenac were reduced by >90% with ferrate dosages of 6 mg/L as Fe. CBZ was transformed to 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-4-hydro-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2-one, which is known as the major product from the reaction of CBZ with ozone. In contrast to ozonation, no further transformation of this product was observed. The concentration of ibuprofen was not reduced by ferrate treatment. For efficient removal of 60-100 μg/L phosphate-P to values <20 μg/L, ferrate dosages of 3-4 mg/L as Fe were sufficient.

  16. Quinazolinones-Phenylquinoxaline hybrids with unsaturation/saturation linkers as novel anti-proliferative agents. (United States)

    Palem, Jyothsna Devi; Alugubelli, Gopi Reddy; Bantu, Rajashaker; Nagarapu, Lingaiah; Polepalli, Sowjanya; Jain, S Nishanth; Bathini, Raju; Manga, Vijjulatha


    A new series of novel quinazolinones with allylphenyl quinoxaline hybrids 9a-n were efficiently synthesized in good yields by the reaction of 3-allyl-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (5a-n) with bromophenyl)quinoxaline (8) utilizing Pd catalyzed Heck-cross coupling and evaluated for anti-proliferative activity against four cancer cell lines such as HeLa (cervical), MIAPACA (pancreatic), MDA-MB-231 (breast) and IMR32 (neuroblastoma). Compounds 9a, 9e, 9g and 9h exhibited promising anti-proliferative activity with GI50 values ranging from 0.06 to 0.2μM against four cell lines, while compounds 9e and 9k showed significant activity against HeLa and MIAPACA cell lines and compounds 9b, 9d, 9h and 9j showed selective potency against IMR32 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. This is the first report on the synthesis and in vitro anti-proliferative evaluation of E-2-(4-substituted)-3-(3-(4-(quinoxalin-2-yl)phenyl)allyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones (9a-n). Docking results indicate a sign of good correlation between experimental activity and calculated binding affinity (dock score), suggesting that these compounds could act as promising DNA intercalates.

  17. Prazosin Displays Anticancer Activity against Human Prostate Cancers: Targeting DNA, Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Chia Lin


    Full Text Available Quinazoline-based α1,-adrenoceptor antagonists, in particular doxazosin, terazosin, are suggested to display antineoplastic activity against prostate cancers. However, there are few studies elucidating the effect of prazosin. In this study, prazosin displayed antiproliferative activity superior to that of other α1-blockers, including doxazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin, phentolamine. Prazosin induced G2 checkpoint arrest, subsequent apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3, DU-145, LNCaP cells. In p53-null PC-3 cells, prazosin induced an increase in DNA str, breaks, ATM/ATR checkpoint pathways, leading to the activation of downstream signaling cascades, including Cdc25c phosphorylation at Ser216, nuclear export of Cdc25c, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk 1 phosphorylation at Tyr15. The data, together with sustained elevated cyclin A levels (other than cyclin B1 levels, suggested that Cdki activity was inactivated by prazosin. Moreover, prazosin triggered mitochondria-mediated, caspaseexecuted apoptotic pathways in PC-3 cells. The oral administration of prazosin significantly reduced tumor mass in PC-3-derived cancer xenografts in nude mice. In summary, we suggest that prazosin is a potential antitumor agent that induces cell apoptosis through the induction of DNA damage stress, leading to Cdki inactivation, G2 checkpoint arrest. Subsequently, mitochondriamediated caspase cascades are triggered to induce apoptosis in PC-3 cells.

  18. 2-quinoxalinylnitrenes and 4-quinazolinylnitrenes: rearrangement to cyclic and acyclic carbodiimides and ring-opening to nitrile ylides. (United States)

    Kvaskoff, David; Vosswinkel, Michael; Wentrup, Curt


    This work was undertaken with the aim to obtain direct evidence for the interrelationships between hetarylnitrenes, their ring-expanded cyclic carbodiimide isomers, and ring-opened nitrile ylides. Tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline 11T and tetrazolo[5.1-c]quinazoline 13T undergo valence tautomerization to the corresponding azides 11A and 13A on mild flash vacuum thermolysis (FVT). Photolysis in Ar matrixes at ca. 15 K affords the triplet nitrenes 12 and 14, identified by ESR, UV, and IR spectroscopy. The nitrenes are converted photochemically to the seven-membered ring carbodiimide 15 followed by the open-chain carbodiimide 22. The 3-methoxy- and 3-chloro-2-quinoxalinylnitrenes 24 yield the ring-expanded carbodiimides 26 very cleanly on matrix photolysis, whereas FVT affords N-cyanobenzimidazoles 28. The ring-opened nitrile ylides 36 and 49 are identified as intermediates in the photolyses of 2-phenyl-4-quinazolinylnitrene 32 and 7-nitro-2-phenyl-4- quinazolinylnitrene 47. In these systems, a photochemically reversible interconversion of the seven-membered ring carbodiimides 35 and 48 and the nitrile ylides 36 and 49 is established. Recyclization of open-chain nitrile ylides is identified as an important mechanism of formation of ring contraction products (N-cyanobenzimidazoles). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. One-electron oxidation of ferrocenes by short-lived N-oxyl radicals. The role of structural effects on the intrinsic electron transfer reactivities. (United States)

    Baciocchi, Enrico; Bietti, Massimo; D'Alfonso, Claudio; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Salamone, Michela


    A kinetic study of the one electron oxidation of substituted ferrocenes (FcX: X = H, COPh, COMe, CO(2)Et, CONH(2), CH(2)OH, Et, and Me(2)) by a series of N-oxyl radicals (succinimide-N-oxyl radical (SINO), maleimide-N-oxyl radical (MINO), 3-quinazolin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (QONO) and 3-benzotriazin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (BONO)), has been carried out in CH(3)CN. N-oxyl radicals were produced by hydrogen abstraction from the corresponding N-hydroxy derivatives by the cumyloxyl radical. With all systems, the rate constants exhibited a satisfactory fit to the Marcus equation allowing us to determine self-exchange reorganization energy values (λ(NO˙/NO(-))) which have been compared with those previously determined for the PINO/PINO(-) and BTNO/BTNO(-) couples. Even small modification of the structure of the N-oxyl radicals lead to significant variation of the λ(NO˙/NO(-)) values. The λ(NO˙/NO(-)) values increase in the order BONO < BTNO < QONO < PINO < SINO < MINO which do not parallel the order of the oxidation potentials. The higher λ(NO˙/NO(-)) values found for the MINO and SINO radicals might be in accordance with a lower degree of spin delocalization in the radicals MINO and SINO and charge delocalization in the anions MINO(-) and SINO(-) due to the absence of an aromatic ring in their structure.

  20. Design and synthesis of azolopyrimidoquinolines, pyrimidoquinazolines as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. (United States)

    El-Gazzar, A B A; Youssef, M M; Youssef, A M S; Abu-Hashem, A A; Badria, F A


    The 5,10-dihydro-2-thioxo-pyrimido[4,5-b]quinolines (2a-c) and its oxidized form 3 were prepared and used as key intermediates for the synthesis of thiazolo[3',2':1,2]pyrimido[4,5-b]-quinolines (5a-c), isoxazolo[5'',4'':4',5']thiazolo[3',2':1,2]pyrimido[4,5-b]quinolines (6a-c), 4-chloro-2-methylthio-pyrimido[4,5-b]quinoline, its amino derivatives (19-21) and 10,11,12,13-tetrahydro-5H-quino[2',3':4,5]pyrimido[6,1-b]quinazoline (22). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR (1H, 13C) and mass spectral studies. Representative of the synthesized compounds was tested and evaluated for anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Compounds 2a-c showed the highest inhibitory anti-oxidant activity either using erythrocyte hemolysis or ABTS methods. Compounds 2a, 10b, 16, and 17a manifested the best protective effect against DNA damage induced by bleomycin. Compounds 2c, 5a, 20a, 2a, and 2b exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw edema test in rats.

  1. Synthesis and anticancer effects of 6-nitro-4-anilinoquinazolines and 6-amino-4-anilinoquinazolines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓莉; 刘志红; 陈惠; 张生勇; 药立波


    Objective: To synthesize inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase such as 6-nitro-4-anilinoquinazolines and 6-amino-4-anilinoquinazolines,and to compare their anticancer effects in vitro. Methods: The 4-anilinoquinazolines compounds were prepared by hydrolyzed, ringed, halagenated, substituded in turn from 2-amino-5-nitrobenzylcarbonitril. The synthesized 4- anilinoquinazoline compounds has been rudimentarily screened by using A431 tumor cell line which overexpresses epidermal growth factor receptor as model adopted MTT method. Results: Five 6-nitro-4-halo-sbstituted anilinoquinazolines and five 6-amino-4-halo-substituted anilinoquinazolines have been obtained,and all of them had anticancer activity. The anticancer activity of 6-amino substituted inhibitors was higher than that of 6-nitro substituted inhibitors. However, the difference of anticancer activity between two series of quinazoline was much less than that of their inhibiting EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. Conclusion: The probable reason for 6-nitro-4-anilinoquinazolines having anticancer activity in vitro was that they had been partially transformed to 6-amino-4-anilinoquinazolines through endocellular cytochrome oxidation-reduction system.

  2. Synthetic Strategies for 5- and 6-Membered Ring Azaheterocycles Facilitated by Iminyl Radicals

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    John C. Walton


    Full Text Available The totality of chemical space is so immense that only a small fraction can ever be explored. Computational searching has indicated that bioactivity is associated with a comparatively small number of ring-containing structures. Pyrrole, indole, pyridine, quinoline, quinazoline and related 6-membered ring-containing aza-arenes figure prominently. This review focuses on the search for fast, efficient and environmentally friendly preparative methods for these rings with specific emphasis on iminyl radical-mediated procedures. Oxime derivatives, particularly oxime esters and oxime ethers, are attractive precursors for these radicals. Their use is described in conventional thermolytic, microwave-assisted and UV-vis based preparative procedures. Photoredox-catalyzed protocols involving designer oxime ethers are also covered. Choice can be made amongst these synthetic strategies for a wide variety of 5- and 6-membered ring heterocycles including phenanthridine and related aza-arenes. Applications to selected natural products and bioactive molecules, including trispheridine, vasconine, luotonin A and rutaecarpine, are included.

  3. Antifungal quinazolinones from marine-derived Bacillus cereus and their preparation. (United States)

    Xu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yapeng; Fu, Haichao; Zhong, Huimin; Hong, Kui; Zhu, Weiming


    Two new quinazolinones alkaloids, R(+)-2-(heptan-3-yl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1) and (2R,3'R)+(2S,3'R)-2-(heptan-3-yl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one (2) (a pair of epimers), as well as seven known analogues, 2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (3), 2-benzylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (4), cyclo-(Pro-Ile), cyclo-(Pro-Leu), cyclo-(Pro-Val), cyclo-(Pro-Phe), and cyclo-(Tyr-Pro) were isolated from the n-butyl alcohol extract of the marine-derived bacterium Bacillus cereus 041381. The new compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis and chemical synthesis. Four optical isomers 5-8 were also synthesized. Compounds 1-8 all showed moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans with MIC values of 1.3-15.6 μM. Compound 5 exhibits the most powerful antifungal activity, which may reveal that S-configuration and 2,3-double bond were necessary for antifungal activity, and the racemization at C-2 and C-3' reduced the antifungal activity.

  4. AHR-11797: a novel benzodiazepine antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.N.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Hannaman, P.K.


    AHR-11797(5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-1-phenyl-/sup 3/H-pyrrolo(3,2,1-ij)quinazolin-3-one) displaced /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (IC/sub 50/ = 82 nM) and /sup 3/H-Ro 15-1877 (IC/sub 50/ = 104 nM) from rat brain synaptosomes. AHR-11797 did not protect mice from seizures induced by maximal electroshock or subcutaneous Metrazol (scMET), nor did it induce seizures in doses up to the lethal dose. However, at 31.6 mg/kg, IP, it significantly increased the anticonvulsant ED/sub 50/ of chlordiazepoxide (CDPX) from 1.9 to 31.6 mg/kg, IP. With 56.7 mg/kg, IP, of AHR-11797, CDPX was inactive in doses up to 100 mg/kg, IP. AHR-11797 did not significantly increase punished responding in the Geller and Seifter conflict procedure, but it did attenuate the effects of diazepam. Although the compound is without anticonvulsant or anxiolytic activity, it did have muscle relaxant properties. AHR-11797 blocked morphine-induced Straub tail in mice (ED/sub 50/ = 31 mg/kg, IP) and it selectively suppressed the polysnaptic linguomandibular reflex in barbiturate-anesthetized cats. The apparent muscle relaxant activity of AHR-11797 suggests that different receptor sites are involved for muscle relaxant vs. anxiolytic/anticonvulsant activities of the benzodiazepines.

  5. The DcpS inhibitor RG3039 improves survival, function and motor unit pathologies in two SMA mouse models (United States)

    Gogliotti, Rocky G.; Cardona, Herminio; Singh, Jasbir; Bail, Sophie; Emery, Carina; Kuntz, Nancy; Jorgensen, Michael; Durens, Madel; Xia, Bing; Barlow, Courtenay; Heier, Christopher R.; Plasterer, Heather L.; Jacques, Vincent; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Jarecki, Jill; Rusche, James; DiDonato, Christine J.


    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein due to the functional loss of the SMN1 gene and the inability of its paralog, SMN2, to fully compensate due to reduced exon 7 splicing efficiency. Since SMA patients have at least one copy of SMN2, drug discovery campaigns have sought to identify SMN2 inducers. C5-substituted quinazolines increase SMN2 promoter activity in cell-based assays and a derivative, RG3039, has progressed to clinical testing. It is orally bioavailable, brain-penetrant and has been shown to be an inhibitor of the mRNA decapping enzyme, DcpS. Our pharmacological characterization of RG3039, reported here, demonstrates that RG3039 can extend survival and improve function in two SMA mouse models of varying disease severity (Taiwanese 5058 Hemi and 2B/− SMA mice), and positively impacts neuromuscular pathologies. In 2B/− SMA mice, RG3039 provided a >600% survival benefit (median 18 days to >112 days) when dosing began at P4, highlighting the importance of early intervention. We determined the minimum effective dose and the associated pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure relationship of RG3039 and DcpS inhibition ex vivo. These data support the long PK half-life with extended pharmacodynamic outcome of RG3039 in 2B/− SMA mice. In motor neurons, RG3039 significantly increased both the average number of cells with gems and average number of gems per cell, which is used as an indirect measure of SMN levels. These studies contribute to dose selection and exposure estimates for the first studies with RG3039 in human subjects. PMID:23736298

  6. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of 5-HT7 Receptor Antagonists: Piperazin-1-yl Substituted Unfused Heterobiaryls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski


    Full Text Available A series of piperazin-1-yl substituted unfused heterobiaryls was synthesized as ligands of the 5-HT7 receptors. The goal of this project was to elucidate the structural features that affect the 5-HT7 binding affinity of this class of compounds represented by the model ligand 4-(3-furyl-2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-ylpyrimidine (2. The SAR studies included systematical structural changes of the pyrimidine core moiety in 2 to quinazoline, pyridine and benzene, changes of the 3-furyl group to other heteroaryl substituents, the presence of various analogs of the 4-methylpiperazin-1-yl group, as well as additional substitutions at positions 5 and 6 of the pyrimidine. Substitution of position 6 of the pyrimidine in the model ligand with an alkyl group results in a substantial increase of the binding affinity (note a change in position numbers due to the nomenclature rules. It was also demonstrated that 4-(3-furyl moiety is crucial for the 5-HT7 binding affinity of the substituted pyrimidines, although, the pyrimidine core can be replaced with a pyridine ring without a dramatic loss of the binding affinity. The selected ethylpyrimidine (12 and butylpyrimidine (13 analogs of high 5-HT7 binding affinity showed antagonistic properties in cAMP functional test and varied selectivity profile—compound 12 can be regarded as a dual 5-HT7/5-HT2AR ligand, and 13 as a multi-receptor (5-HT7, 5-HT2A, 5-HT6 and D2 agent.

  7. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids. (United States)

    Michael, Joseph P


    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  8. [EFfect of quinazolone-alkyl-carboxylic acid derivatives on the transmembrane Ca2+ ion flux mediated by AMPA receptors]. (United States)

    Szárics, Eva; LaszTóczi, Bálint; Nyikos, Lajos; Barabás, Péter; Kovács, Ilona; Skuban, Nina; Nagy, Péter I; Kökösi, József; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina; Kardos, Julianna


    The excitatory neurotransmitter, Glu, plays a crucial role in many sensory and motor functions as well as in brain development, learning and memory and it is also involved in the pathogenesis of a number of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, the study of Glu receptors (GluRs) is of therapeutical importance. We showed here by fluorescence monitoring of transmembrane Ca2+ ion fluxes in response to (S)-alpha-amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-izoxazol propionic acid ((S)-AMPA) on the time scale of 0.00004-10 s that Ca2+ ion influx proceeds through faster and slower desensitizing receptors. Pharmacological isolation of the slower and faster desensitizing AMPA receptor was possible by fluorescence monitoring of Ca2+ ion translocation in response to (S)-AMPA in the presence and absence of various 2-methyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazoline-3-alkyl-carboxilic acid derivatives (Qxs): the acetic acid Q1 inhibits the slower desensitizing receptor response specifically, while the acetyl-piperidine Q5 is a more potent inhibitor of the faster desensitizing receptor response. In addition, spontaneous interictal activity, as induced by high [K+] conditions in hippocampal slices, was reduced significantly by Q5, suggesting a possible anticonvulsant property of Q5. Substitutions of Qxs into the GluR2 S1S2 binding core were consistent with their effect by causing variable degree of S1S2 bridging interaction as one of the main determinants of AMPA receptor agonist activity. The exploitation of differences between similar receptors will be important in the development and use of drugs with high pharmacological specificity.

  9. New N- and O-arylpiperazinylalkyl pyrimidines and 2-methylquinazolines derivatives as 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptor ligands: Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and molecular modeling studies. (United States)

    Intagliata, Sebastiano; Modica, Maria N; Pittalà, Valeria; Salerno, Loredana; Siracusa, Maria A; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Salmona, Mario; Kurczab, Rafał; Romeo, Giuseppe


    Based on our earlier studies of structure activity relationships on 4-substituted piperazine derivatives, in this work we synthesized a novel set of long-chain arylpiperazines with the purpose of elucidating if some structural modifications in the terminal fragment could affect the binding affinity for the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. In this new series, the quinazolinone system of the previous derivatives was replaced by a 6-phenylpyrimidine or a 2-methylquinazoline, which were used as versatile building blocks for the preparation of new compounds. A 4-arylpiperazine moiety through a five methylene chain was anchored at the nitrogen or oxygen atom of the heterocyclic scaffolds. The substituents borne by the piperazine nucleus were phenyl, phenylmethyl, 3- or 4-chlorophenyl, and 2-ethoxyphenyl. Binding tests, performed on human cloned 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors, showed that, among the newly synthesized derivatives, 4-[5-[4-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]pentoxy]-6-phenyl-pyrimidine (13) and 3-[5-[4-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]pentyl]-2-methyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone (20) displayed the best affinity values, Ki=23.5 and 8.42nM for 5-HT7 and 6.96 and 2.99nM for 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. Moreover, the functional properties for both compounds were further evaluated using the cAMP assay. Finally, a molecular modeling study has been performed for 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptor homology models to investigate the binding mode of N- and O-alkylated pyrimidinones/pyrimidines 4-13, 2-methylquinazolinones/quinazolines 17-22, and previously reported 2- and 3-substituted quinazolinones 23-30.

  10. Molecular and ionic hydrogen bond formation in fluorous solvents. (United States)

    O'Neal, Kristi L; Weber, Stephen G


    There are only a few studies of noncovalent association in fluorous solvents and even fewer that are quantitative. A full understanding, particularly of stoichiometry and binding strength of noncovalent interactions in fluorous solvents could be very useful in improved molecular-receptor-based extractions, advancements in sensor technologies, crystal engineering, and supramolecular chemistry. This work investigates hydrogen bonding between heterocyclic bases and a perfluoropolyether with a terminal carboxylic acid group (Krytox 157FSH (1)), chiefly in FC-72 (a mixture of perfluorohexanes). In particular, we were interested in whether or not proton transfer occurs, and if so, under what conditions in H-bonded complexes. Continuous variations experiments show that in FC-72 weaker bases (pyrazine, pyrimidine, and quinazoline) form 1:1 complexes with 1, whereas stronger bases (quinoline, pyridine, and isoquinoline) form 1:3 complexes. Ultraviolet and infrared spectral signatures reveal that the 1:1 complexes are molecular (B.HA) whereas the 1:3 complexes are ionic (BH+.A-HAHA). Infrared spectra of 1:3 ionic complexes are discussed in detail. Literature and experimental data on complexes between N-heterocyclic bases and carboxylic acids in a range of solvents are compiled to compare solvent effects on proton transfer. Polar solvents support ionic hydrogen bonds at a 1:1 mol ratio. In nonpolar organic solvents, ionic hydrogen bonds are only observed in complexes with 1:2 (base/acid) stoichiometries. In fluorous solvents, a larger excess of acid, 1:3, is necessary to facilitate proton transfer in hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and the bases studied.

  11. Modulatory Effects and Action Mechanisms of Tryptanthrin on Murine Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoi-Ling Chan; Hon-Yan Yip; Nai-Ki Mak; Kwok-Nam Leung


    Leukemia is the disorder of hematopoietic cell development and is characterized by an uncoupling of cell proliferation and differentiation. There is a pressing need for the development of novel tactics for leukemia therapy as conventional treatments often have severe adverse side effects. Tryptanthrin (6,12-dihydro-6,12-dioxoindolo-(2,1-b)-quinazoline) is a naturally-occurring, weakly basic alkaloid isolated from the dried roots of medicinal indigo plants (Ban-Lan-Gen). It has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects. However, its modulatory effects and action mechanisms on myeloid cells remain poorly understood. In this study, tryptanthrin was shown to suppress the proliferation of the murine myeloid leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also significantly reduced the growth of WEHI-3B JCS cells in vivo in syngeneic BALB/c mice. However, it exhibited no significant direct cytotoxicity on normal murine peritoneal macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis showed an obvious cell cycle arrest of the tryptanthrin-treated WEHI-3B JCS cells at the G0/G1 phase. The expression of cyclin D2,D3, Cdk 2, 4 and 6 genes in WEHI-3B JCS cells was found to be down-regulated at 24 h as measured by RT-PCR. Morphological and functional studies revealed that tryptanthrin could induce differentiation in WEHI-3B JCS cells, as shown by the increases in vacuolation, cellular granularity and NBT-reducing activity in tryptanthrin-treated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that tryptanthrin might exert its anti-tumor effect on the murine myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells by causing cell cycle arrest and by triggering cell differentiation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2009;6(5):335-342.

  12. Paralytic toxicity in the ribbon worm Cephalothrix species (Nemertea) in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan and the isolation of tetrodotoxin as a main component of its toxins. (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Toyoshima, Tadayoshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Bessho, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Chisato; Tsunetsugu, Shogo; Shida, Yasuo; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Shunsuke F; Noguchi, Tamao; Miyazawa, Keisuke


    Paralytic toxicity of ribbon worms ("himomushi" in Japanese), identified as undescribed species of the genus Cephalothrix, found on the surface of the shells of cultured oysters in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture was examined between April 1998 and December 2001. The toxicity study showed that all of specimens were found to contain toxins with strong paralytic action in mice; the highest toxicity (as tetrodotoxin, TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for whole body throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component of this himomushi toxin (HMT) was isolated from a pooled specimen (390 g; total toxicity 2,897,000MU) by a method that consisted of treatment with activated charcoal, chromatography on Bio-Gel P-2 and Bio-Rex 70 (H+ form), and finally crystallization from an acidified methanolic solution. The recrystallized toxin showed a specific toxicity of 3520MU/mg. This toxin showed (M+H)+ and (M+H-H(2)O)+ ion peaks at m/z 320 and 302, respectively, by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The absorption band at 3353, 3235, 1666, 1612 and 1076 cm(-1) were observed in infrared spectrum of this toxin. This spectrum was indistinguishable from that of TTX. The 1H-NMR spectrum for the recrystallized toxin was the same as that for TTX. The pair of doublets centered at 2.33 (J=10.0Hz) and 5.48 ppm (J=10.0Hz) which are characteristic of TTX, were shown to be coupled by double irradiation. Furthermore, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the alkali-hydrolyzate of this toxin indicated the presence of quinazoline skeleton (C9-base) specific to TTX.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of some surface active agents from long chain fatty amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A. M. F.


    Full Text Available This study continues our series of synthesis of surface active agents containing heterocyclic moiety. NHeptadecanoyl- 3-(4-oxo-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-2-yl- acrylamide (4 was used as a new starting material to synthesize propenoxylated nonionic surface active agents having heterocycles such as (thiazole, triazole, benzoxazine, quinazoline, triazine, and oxazine. The structures of the prepared compounds were elucidated by using spectroscopic tools (IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Physical properties such as surface and interfacial tension, cloud point, foaming height, wetting time, emulsification power and critical micelle concentration (CMC were determined. Antimicrobial and biodegradability properties were also screened. It was found that the produced novel groups of nonionic surface active agents have pronounced surface properties and good antimicrobial activities.Este estudio continua nuestra serie sobre la síntesis de agentes surfactantes que contienen grupos heterociclicos. N-Heptadecanoyl-3-(4-oxo-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-2-yl- acrylamida (4 se usa como nueva materia prima para sintetizar surfactantes noiónico propenoxilado conteniendo herociclos tales como thiazol, triazol, benzoxazina, quinazolina, triazina, y oxazina. Las estructuras de los compuestos preparados se dilucidan mediante herramientas espectroscópicas (IR, 1H NMR and espectroscopía de masas. Se determinan sus propiedades físicas, tensión superficial e interfacial, punto de nube, altura de espuma, poder de emulsificación y concentración micelar critica.También se revisan sus propiedades antimicrobianas y de biodegradabilidad Se encontró que los nuevos compuestos poseían destacadas propiedades superficiales y unas buenas actividades antimicrobianas.

  14. Drug interactions with Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV: biochemical basis for quinolone action and resistance. (United States)

    Aldred, Katie J; McPherson, Sylvia A; Wang, Pengfei; Kerns, Robert J; Graves, David E; Turnbough, Charles L; Osheroff, Neil


    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is considered a serious threat as a bioweapon. The drugs most commonly used to treat anthrax are quinolones, which act by increasing the levels of DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IV and gyrase. Quinolone resistance most often is associated with specific serine mutations in these enzymes. Therefore, to determine the basis for quinolone action and resistance, we characterized wild-type B. anthracis topoisomerase IV, the GrlA(S81F) and GrlA(S81Y) quinolone-resistant mutants, and the effects of quinolones and a related quinazolinedione on these enzymes. Ser81 is believed to anchor a water-Mg(2+) bridge that coordinates quinolones to the enzyme through the C3/C4 keto acid. Consistent with this hypothesized bridge, ciprofloxacin required increased Mg(2+) concentrations to support DNA cleavage by GrlA(S81F) topoisomerase IV. The three enzymes displayed similar catalytic activities in the absence of drugs. However, the resistance mutations decreased the affinity of topoisomerase IV for ciprofloxacin and other quinolones, diminished quinolone-induced inhibition of DNA religation, and reduced the stability of the enzyme-quinolone-DNA ternary complex. Wild-type DNA cleavage levels were generated by mutant enzymes at high quinolone concentrations, suggesting that increased drug potency could overcome resistance. 8-Methyl-quinazoline-2,4-dione, which lacks the quinolone keto acid (and presumably does not require the water-Mg(2+) bridge to mediate protein interactions), was more potent than quinolones against wild-type topoisomerase IV and was equally efficacious. Moreover, it maintained high potency and efficacy against the mutant enzymes, effectively inhibited DNA religation, and formed stable ternary complexes. Our findings provide an underlying biochemical basis for the ability of quinazolinediones to overcome clinically relevant quinolone resistance mutations in bacterial type II topoisomerases.

  15. Erlotinib: a new therapeutic approach for non-small cell lung cancer. (United States)

    Bonomi, Philip


    Although treatment with cytotoxic agents has produced modest survival improvement in patients with stage III and IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it appears that a plateau has been reached with currently available chemotherapeutic regimens. Increasing knowledge regarding the properties of malignant neoplasms has identified a number of potential therapeutic targets. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of these targets. Preclinical models have revealed that tumour growth can be inhibited by monoclonal antibodies directed against EGFR and EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Erlotinib (Tarceva trade mark; OSI Pharmaceuticals, Genentech and Roche), a quinazoline derivative with good oral absorption, is one of several EGFR tyrosine kinases that has been studied in clinical trials. In a Phase I study, mild diarrhoea and mild rash were the most common toxicities. At a dose of 200 mg/day, diarrhoea was the dose-limiting toxicity. The observation that EGFR overexpression is relatively common in NSCLC led to a Phase II trial of erlotinib at the maximum-tolerated dose (150 mg/day) in previously treated NSCLC patients. Erlotinib produced a 12% response rate and there was no apparent relationship between response and tumour EGFR levels. More recent reports suggest that patients who develop a rash have higher responses. Based on its single agent activity, erlotinib has been evaluated in two Phase III trials which compared erlotinib plus chemotherapy to chemotherapy alone in previously untreated NSCLC patients. Erlotinib has also been compared to placebo in a Phase III trial which was limited to advanced stage NSCLC patients whose disease had progressed after two previous chemotherapy regimens. The optimum use of erlotinib in NSCLC will be determined by the results of the completed and future Phase III trials.

  16. Interaction of Individual Structural Domains of hnRNP LL with the BCL2 Promoter i-Motif DNA. (United States)

    Roy, Basab; Talukder, Poulami; Kang, Hyun-Jin; Tsuen, Shujian S; Alam, Mohammad P; Hurley, Laurence H; Hecht, Sidney M


    The recently discovered role of the BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 gene) promoter i-motif DNA in modulation of gene expression via interaction with the ribonucleoprotein hnRNP L-like (hnRNP LL) has prompted a more detailed study of the nature of this protein-DNA interaction. The RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of hnRNP LL were expressed individually, and both RRM1 and RRM2 were found to bind efficiently to the BCL2 i-motif DNA, as well as being critical for transcriptional activation, whereas RRM3-4 bound only weakly to this DNA. Binding was followed by unfolding of the DNA as monitored by changes in the CD spectrum. Mutational analysis of the i-motif DNA revealed that binding involved primarily the lateral loops of the i-motif. The kinetics of binding of the DNA with RRM1 was explored by recording CD spectra at predetermined times following admixture of the protein and DNA. The change in molar ellipticity was readily apparent after 30 s and largely complete within 1 min. A more detailed view of protein-DNA interaction was obtained by introducing the fluorescence donor 6-CNTrp in RRM1 at position 137, and the acceptor 4-aminobenzo[g]quinazoline-2-one (Cf) in lieu of cytidine22 in the i-motif DNA. The course of binding of the two species was monitored by FRET, which reflected a steady increase in energy transfer over a period of several minutes. The FRET signal could be diminished by the further addition of (unlabeled) RRM2, no doubt reflecting competition for binding to the i-motif DNA. These experiments using the individual RRM domains from hnRNP LL confirm the role of this transcription factor in activation of BCL2 transcription via the i-motif in the promoter element.

  17. In vitro hepatic metabolism of cediranib, a potent vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: interspecies comparison and human enzymology. (United States)

    Schulz-Utermoehl, Timothy; Spear, Michael; Pollard, Christopher R J; Pattison, Christine; Rollison, Helen; Sarda, Sunil; Ward, Michelle; Bushby, Nick; Jordan, Angela; Harrison, Mike


    The in vitro metabolism of cediranib (4-[(4-fluoro-2-methyl-1H-indol-5-yl)oxy]-6-methoxy-7-[3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)propoxy]quinazoline), a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of all three VEGF receptors in late-stage development for the treatment of colorectal cancer and recurrent glioblastoma was investigated in hepatic proteins from preclinical species and humans using radiolabeled material. In human hepatocyte cultures, oxidative and conjugative metabolic pathways were identified, with pyrrolidine N(+)-glucuronidation being the major route. The primary oxidative pathways were di-and trioxidations and pyrrolidine N-oxidation. All metabolites with the exception of the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite were observed in rat and cynomolgus monkey hepatocyte preparations. Additional metabolism studies in liver microsomes from these or other preclinical species (CD-1 mouse, Han Wistar rat, Dunkin Hartley guinea pig, Göttingen mini-pig, New Zealand White rabbit, beagle dog, and cynomolgus and rhesus monkey) indicated that the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite was not formed in these additional species. Incubations with recombinant flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes and inhibition studies using the nonselective cytochrome P450 (P450) chemical inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole in human hepatocytes indicated that FMO1 and FMO3 contributed to cediranib N-oxidation, whereas UGT1A4 had a major role in cediranib N(+)-glucuronidation. P450 enzymes had only a minor role in the metabolism of cediranib. In conclusion, species differences in the formation of the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite of cediranib were observed. All other metabolites of cediranib found in humans were also detected in rat and cynomolgus monkey. Non-P450 enzymes are predominantly involved in the metabolism of cediranib, and this suggests that clinical drug interactions involving other coadministered drugs are unlikely.

  18. Stimulation of Hepatic Apolipoprotein A-I Production by Novel Thieno-Triazolodiazepines: Roles of the Classical Benzodiazepine Receptor, PAF Receptor, and Bromodomain Binding. (United States)

    Kempen, Herman J; Bellus, Daniel; Fedorov, Oleg; Nicklisch, Silke; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Picaud, Sarah; Knapp, Stefan


    Expression and secretion of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) by cultured liver cells can be markedly stimulated by triazolodiazepines (TZDs). It has been shown previously that the thieno-TZD Ro 11-1464 increases plasma levels of apoA-I and in vivomacrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice. However, these effects were only seen at high doses, at which the compound could act on central benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors or platelet activating factor (PAF) receptors, interfering with its potential utility. In this work, we describe 2 new thieno-TZDs MDCO-3770 and MDCO-3783, both derived from Ro 11-1464. These compounds display the same high efficacy on apoA-I production, metabolic stability, and lack of cytotoxicity in cultured hepatocytes as Ro 11-1464, but they do not bind to the central BZD receptor and PAF receptor. The quinazoline RVX-208 was less efficacious in stimulating apoA-I production and displayed signs of cytotoxicity. Certain TZDs stimulating apoA-I production are now known to be inhibitors of bromodomain (BRD) extra-terminal (BET) proteins BRDT, BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4, and this inhibition was inferred as a main molecular mechanism for their effect on apoA-I expression. We show here that the thieno-TZD (+)-JQ1, a potent BET inhibitor, strongly stimulated apoA-I production in Hep-G2 cells, but that its enantiomer (-)-JQ1, which has no BET inhibitor activity, also showed considerable effect on apoA-I production. MDCO-3770 and MDCO-3783 also inhibited BRD3 and BRD4 in vitro, with potency somewhat below that of (+)-JQ1. We conclude that the effect of thieno-TZDs on apoA-I expression is not due to inhibition of the BZD or PAF receptors and is not completely explained by transcriptional repression by BET proteins.

  19. Importance of π-stacking interactions in the hydrogen atom transfer reactions from activated phenols to short-lived N-oxyl radicals. (United States)

    Mazzonna, Marco; Bietti, Massimo; DiLabio, Gino A; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Salamone, Michela


    A kinetic study of the hydrogen atom transfer from activated phenols (2,6-dimethyl- and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-substituted phenols, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman-6-ol, caffeic acid, and (+)-cathechin) to a series of N-oxyl radical (4-substituted phthalimide-N-oxyl radicals (4-X-PINO), 6-substituted benzotriazole-N-oxyl radicals (6-Y-BTNO), 3-quinazolin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (QONO), and 3-benzotriazin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (BONO)), was carried out by laser flash photolysis in CH3CN. A significant effect of the N-oxyl radical structure on the hydrogen transfer rate constants (kH) was observed with kH values that monotonically increase with increasing NO-H bond dissociation energy (BDENO-H) of the N-hydroxylamines. The analysis of the kinetic data coupled to the results of theoretical calculations indicates that these reactions proceed by a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism where the N-oxyl radical and the phenolic aromatic rings adopt a π-stacked arrangement. Theoretical calculations also showed pronounced structural effects of the N-oxyl radicals on the charge transfer occurring in the π-stacked conformation. Comparison of the kH values measured in this study with those previously reported for hydrogen atom transfer to the cumylperoxyl radical indicates that 6-CH3-BTNO is the best N-oxyl radical to be used as a model for evaluating the radical scavenging ability of phenolic antioxidants.

  20. Cyclic Benzimidazole Derivatives and Their Antitumor Activity

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    Karminski-Zamola, G.


    Full Text Available Over the past years benzimidazole derivatives are one of the most extensively studied classes of heterocyclic compounds, and have received much attention from synthetic organic as well as medicinal chemists, because of their well known biological activities and their applications in several areas as materials in electronics, in electrochemistry as anticorrosive agents, as polymers or optical materials and fluorescent tags in DNA sequencing. The structure of vitamin B12, as an example, contains a benzimidazole group. Compounds containing benzimidazole nuclei show anticancer, antineoplastic, antiinfective, antibacterial, antifungal and many others activities. Due to the structural similarity of benzimidazole nuclei with some naturally occurring compounds such as purine, they can easily interact with biomolecules of the living systems. The introduction of an additional substituent on the benzimidazole nuclei has been increasing attention in the expectation that such changes could potentially affect the interaction of the molecules with biological targets. Fused cyclic benzimidazole derivatives, as benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines,benzimidazo[1,2-c]quinazolines, benzimidazo[2,1-b]isoquinolines and many others, have also interesting biological activities and most of them are very good anticancer agents.DNA is the molecular target of many anticancer drugs in clinical use and development. Compounds which can bind to DNA with intercalative or non-intercalative mechanism play a major role in biological processes such as gene transcription or DNA replication. Benzoannulated benzimidazole analogues contain a planar chromophore and have the ability to become inserted between adjacent base pairs of DNA double helix. Intercalators are recognized as one of the most important classes of anticancer agents. So an understanding of the drug-DNA interactions is a promising approach to developing novel reagents and plays a key role in pharmacology today.

  1. New heterocycles having double characters; as antimicrobial and surface active agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed, R.


    Full Text Available Fatty acids isothiocyanate (1 was used as a starting material to synthesize some important heterocycles such as triazoles, oxazoles, thiazoles, benzoxazoles and quinazolines by treating with different types of nucleophiles such as nitrogen nucleophiles, oxygen nucleophiles, and sulfur nucleophiles. The produced compounds were subjected to propylene oxide in different moles (n = 3, 5 and 7 to produce novel groups of nonionic compounds having the double function as antimicrobial and surface active agents which can be used in the manufacturing of drugs, cosmetics, pesticides or can be used as antibacterial and/or antifungal. The physical properties as surface and interfacial tension, cloud point, foaming height, wetting time, emulsification power and the critical micelle concentration (CMC were determined, antimicrobial and biodegradability were also determined.Isocianatos de acidos grasos se utilizaron como material de partida para la síntesis de importantes heterociclos tales como triazoles, oxazoles, thoazoles, benzoxazoles y quinazolinas mediante el tratamiento de los mismos con diferentes tipos de nucleofilos tales como nucleofilos nitrogenados, oxigenados, o azufrados. Los compuestos producidos se trataron con oxido de propileno a diferentes concentraciones molares (n = 3, 5 y 7 para producir nuevos grupos de compuestos no iónicos que tuvieran la doble función de ser compuestos antimicrobianos y agentes de superficie, que se pudieran usar en la fabricación de medicinas, cosméticos, pesticidas o como antibacterianos o antifúngicos. Se determinaron sus propiedades tales como tensión superficial e interfacial, punto de turbidez, altura de espuma, tiempo de mojado, poder de emulsificación y concentración micelar crítica (CMC, asi como sus propiedades antimicrobianas y de degradabilidad.

  2. Linker design for the modular assembly of multifunctional and targeted platinum(ii)-containing anticancer agents. (United States)

    Ding, S; Bierbach, U


    A versatile and efficient modular synthetic platform was developed for assembling multifunctional conjugates and targeted forms of platinum-(benz)acridines, a class of highly cytotoxic DNA-targeted hybrid agents. The synthetic strategy involved amide coupling between succinyl ester-modified platinum compounds (P1, P2) and a set of 11 biologically relevant primary and secondary amines (N1-N11). To demonstrate the feasibility and versatility of the approach, a structurally and functionally diverse range of amines was introduced. These include biologically active molecules, such as rucaparib (a PARP inhibitor), E/Z-endoxifen (an estrogen receptor antagonist), and a quinazoline-based tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Micro-scale reactions in Eppendorf tubes or on 96-well plates were used to screen for optimal coupling conditions in DMF solution with carbodiimide-, uronium-, and phosphonium-based compounds, as well as other common coupling reagents. Reactions with the phosphonium-based coupling reagent PyBOP produced the highest yields and gave the cleanest conversions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the chemistry can also be performed in aqueous media and is amenable to parallel synthesis based on multiple consecutive reactions in DMF in a "one-tube" format. In-line LC-MS was used to assess the stability of the conjugates in physiologically relevant buffers. Hydrolysis of the conjugates occurs at the ester moiety and is facilitated by the aquated metal moiety under low-chloride ion conditions. The rate of ester cleavage greatly depends on the nature of the amine component. Potential applications of the linker technology are discussed.

  3. Virtual Screening for Potential Inhibitors of NS3 Protein of Zika Virus (United States)

    Sahoo, Maheswata; Jena, Lingaraja; Daf, Sangeeta


    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito borne pathogen, belongs to Flaviviridae family having a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome, currently known for causing large epidemics in Brazil. Its infection can cause microcephaly, a serious birth defect during pregnancy. The recent outbreak of ZIKV in February 2016 in Brazil realized it as a major health risk, demands an enhanced surveillance and a need to develop novel drugs against ZIKV. Amodiaquine, prochlorperazine, quinacrine, and berberine are few promising drugs approved by Food and Drug Administration against dengue virus which also belong to Flaviviridae family. In this study, we performed molecular docking analysis of these drugs against nonstructural 3 (NS3) protein of ZIKV. The protease activity of NS3 is necessary for viral replication and its prohibition could be considered as a strategy for treatment of ZIKV infection. Amongst these four drugs, berberine has shown highest binding affinity of –5.8 kcal/mol and it is binding around the active site region of the receptor. Based on the properties of berberine, more similar compounds were retrieved from ZINC database and a structure-based virtual screening was carried out by AutoDock Vina in PyRx 0.8. Best 10 novel drug-like compounds were identified and amongst them ZINC53047591 (2-(benzylsulfanyl)-3-cyclohexyl-3H-spiro[benzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cyclopentan]-4(6H)-one) was found to interact with NS3 protein with binding energy of –7.1 kcal/mol and formed H-bonds with Ser135 and Asn152 amino acid residues. Observations made in this study may extend an assuring platform for developing anti-viral competitive inhibitors against ZIKV infection. PMID:27729840

  4. Novel cytochrome p450 bioactivation of a terminal phenyl acetylene group: formation of a one-carbon loss benzaldehyde and other oxidative products in the presence of N-acetyl cysteine or glutathione. (United States)

    Subramanian, Raju; Tam, Janet; Aidasani, Divesh; Reid, Darren L; Skiles, Gary L


    Compounds 1 (N1-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6-methyl-N5-(3-(6-(methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)pyridin-2-yl) isoquinoline-1,5-diamine) and 2 (N-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazolin-4-amine; Erlotinib/Tarceva) are kinase inhibitors that contain a terminal phenyl acetylene moiety. When incubated in the presence of P450 and NADPH, the anticipated phenyl acetic acid metabolite was formed. When 10 mM of N-acetyl-l-cysteine was added to the incubation mixtures, the phenyl acetic acid product was reduced and at 25 mM or higher concentration of NAC, formation of the phenyl acetic acid was abolished. Instead, the phenyl acetylene moiety lost a carbon and formed a benzaldehyde product. Other oxidation products incorporating one or more equivalents of NAC were also observed. The identities of the metabolites were characterized by MS and NMR. Addition of deferoxamine or ascorbic acid diminished the formation of the NAC influenced products. Similar products were also observed when 1 or 2 were incubated in P450 reactions supplemented with GSH, in Fenton reactions supplemented with NAC or GSH, and in peroxidase reactions supplemented with NAC. We propose the thiols act as a pro-oxidant readily undergoing a one-electron oxidation to form thiyl radicals which in turn initiates the formation of other peroxy radicals that drive the reaction to the observed products. These in vitro findings suggest that one-electron oxidation of thiols may promote the cooxidation of xenobiotic substrates.

  5. Evaluation of Three Small Molecular Drugs for Targeted Therapy to Treat Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ni; Li Zhang


    Objective: To guide the optimal selection among first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in clinical practice.This review attempted to provide a thorough comparison among three first-generation EGFR-TKIs, namely icotinib,erlotinib, and gefitinib, with regard to their molecular structure, pharmacokinetic parameters, clinical data, adverse reactions, and contraindications.Data Sources: An electronic literature search of the PubMed database and Google Scholar for all the available articles regarding gefitinib,icotinib, and erlotinib in the English language from January 2005 to December 2014 was used.Study Selection: The search terms or keywords included but not limited to "lung cancer", "nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC)","epidemiology", "EGFR", "TKIs", and "optimal selection".Results: As suggested by this review, even though the three first-generation EGFR-TKIs share the quinazoline structure, erlotinib had the strongest apoptosis induction activity because of its use of a different side-chain.The pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that both erlotinib and icotinib are affected by food.The therapeutic window of erlotinib is narrow, and the recommended dosage is close to the maximum tolerable dosage.Icotinib enjoys a wider therapeutic window, and its concentration in the blood is within a safe dosage range even if it is administered with food.Based on multiple large-scale clinical trials, erlotinib is universally applied as the first-line treatment.In marked contrast, icotinib is available only in China as the second-or third-line therapeutic approach for treating advanced lung cancer.In addition, it exhibits a similar efficacy but better safety profile than gefitinib.Conclusions: Although there is a paucity of literature regarding whether icotinib is superior to erlotinib, its superior toxicity profile, noninferior efficacy, and lower cost indicate that it is a better alternative for Chinese patients living with

  6. Agonist-biased signaling via proteinase activated receptor-2: differential activation of calcium and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rithwik; Mihara, Koichiro; Mathur, Maneesh; Rochdi, Moulay Driss; Bouvier, Michel; Defea, Kathryn; Hollenberg, Morley D


    We evaluated the ability of different trypsin-revealed tethered ligand (TL) sequences of rat proteinase-activated receptor 2 (rPAR(2)) and the corresponding soluble TL-derived agonist peptides to trigger agonist-biased signaling. To do so, we mutated the proteolytically revealed TL sequence of rPAR(2) and examined the impact on stimulating intracellular calcium transients and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. The TL receptor mutants, rPAR(2)-Leu(37)Ser(38), rPAR(2)-Ala(37-38), and rPAR(2)-Ala(39-42) were compared with the trypsin-revealed wild-type rPAR(2) TL sequence, S(37)LIGRL(42)-. Upon trypsin activation, all constructs stimulated MAP kinase signaling, but only the wt-rPAR(2) and rPAR(2)-Ala(39-42) triggered calcium signaling. Furthermore, the TL-derived synthetic peptide SLAAAA-NH2 failed to cause PAR(2)-mediated calcium signaling but did activate MAP kinase, whereas SLIGRL-NH2 triggered both calcium and MAP kinase signaling by all receptors. The peptides AAIGRL-NH2 and LSIGRL-NH2 triggered neither calcium nor MAP kinase signals. Neither rPAR(2)-Ala(37-38) nor rPAR(2)-Leu(37)Ser(38) constructs recruited beta-arrestins-1 or -2 in response to trypsin stimulation, whereas both beta-arrestins were recruited to these mutants by SLIGRL-NH2. The lack of trypsin-triggered beta-arrestin interactions correlated with impaired trypsin-activated TL-mutant receptor internalization. Trypsin-stimulated MAP kinase activation by the TL-mutated receptors was not blocked by inhibitors of Galpha(i) (pertussis toxin), Galpha(q) [N-cyclohexyl-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methylindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide (GP2A)], Src kinase [4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidine (PP1)], or the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor [4-(3'-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxy-quinazoline (AG1478)], but was inhibited by the Rho-kinase inhibitor (R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide, 2HCl (Y27362). The data indicate that the

  7. p53-Independent induction of Fas and apoptosis in leukemic cells by an adenosine derivative, Cl-IB-MECA (United States)

    Kim, Seong Gon; Ravi, Gnana; Hoffmann, Carsten; Jung, Yun-Jin; Kim, Min; Chen, Aishe; Jacobson, Kenneth A.


    A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonists have been reported to influence cell death and survival. The effects of an A3AR agonist, 1-[2-chloro-6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-1-deoxy-N-methyl-β-D-ribofuranonamide (Cl-IB-MECA), on apoptosis in two human leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and MOLT-4, were investigated. Cl-IB-MECA (≥30 μM) increased the apoptotic fractions, as determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, and activated caspase 3 and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase. Known messengers coupled to A3AR (phospholipase C and intracellular calcium) did not seem to play a role in the induction of apoptosis. Neither dantrolene nor BAPTA-AM affected the Cl-IB-MECA-induced apoptosis. Cl-IB-MECA failed to activate phospholipase C in HL-60 cells, while UTP activated it through endogenous P2Y2 receptors. Induction of apoptosis during a 48 hr exposure to Cl-IB-MECA was not prevented by the A3AR antagonists [5-propyl-2-ethyl-4-propyl-3-(ethylsulfanylcarbonyl)-6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate] (MRS 1220) or N-[9-chloro-2-(2-furanyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[l,5-c]quinazolin-5-yl]benzeneacetamide (MRS 1523). Furthermore, higher concentrations of MRS 1220, which would also antagonize A1 and A2A receptors, were ineffective in preventing the apoptosis. Although Cl-IB-MECA has been shown in other systems to cause apoptosis through an A3AR-mediated mechanism, in these cells it appeared to be an adenosine receptor-independent effect, which required prolonged incubation. In both HL-60 and MOLT-4 cells, Cl-IB-MECA induced the expression of Fas, a death receptor. This induction of Fas was not dependent upon p53, because p53 is not expressed in an active form in either HL-60 or MOLT-4 cells. Cl-IB-MECA-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells was augmented by an agonistic Fas antibody, CH-11, and this increase was suppressed by the antagonistic anti-Fas antibody ZB-4. Therefore, Cl-IB-MECA induced apoptosis via a novel, p53-independent up-regulation of Fas. Published by

  8. Efficacy of CR4056, a first-in-class imidazoline-2 analgesic drug, in comparison with naproxen in two rat models of osteoarthritis

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    Comi E


    Full Text Available Eleonora Comi,1,2 Marco Lanza,1 Flora Ferrari,1 Valeria Mauri,1,3 Gianfranco Caselli,1 Lucio Claudio Rovati1 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rottapharm Biotech, 2PhD Program in Neuroscience, University of Milan-Bicocca, 3Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza, Italy Purpose: CR4056, (2-phenyl-6-(1H-imidazol-1yl quinazoline, an imidazoline-2 (I2 receptor ligand, is a promising analgesic drug that has been reported to be effective in several animal models of pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CR4056 in two well-established rat models of osteoarthritis (OA, mimicking the painful and structural components of human OA.Methods: Knee OA was induced either by single intra-articular injection of monoiodoacetate (MIA or by medial meniscal tear (MMT in the right knee of male rats. In the MIA model, allodynia and hyperalgesia were measured as paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation. In the MMT model, pain behavior was analyzed as weight-bearing asymmetry (i.e. difference in hind paw weight distribution, HPWD between the injured and the contralateral limbs.Results: Acute oral administration of CR4056, 14 days after MIA injection, significantly and dose-dependently reduced allodynia and hyperalgesia 90 minutes after treatment, whereas acute naproxen administration significantly reduced allodynia but not hyperalgesia. After 7 days of repeated treatment, both CR4056 and naproxen showed significant anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects in the MIA model. Rats undergoing MMT surgery developed a significant and progressive asymmetry in HPWD compared with sham-operated animals. Repeated treatment with CR4056 significantly reduced the progression of the pain behavior, whereas naproxen had no effects.Conclusion: The data presented here show that the I2 ligand CR4056 could be a new effective treatment for OA pain. The compound is currently under Phase II clinical

  9. Recent acquisitions on chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of malaria. (United States)

    Onori, E; Majori, G


    The most recent acquisitions on chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of malaria are reviewed. With regard to chemotherapy, candidate antimalarial compounds have been divided into four groups, according to their stages of development. Mefloquine and the combination of mefloquine with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine belong to the first group: they have completed clinical trials and have been registered in several countries for routine clinical use. The second group is characterized by chemical compounds which are in an advanced stage of development, including clinical trials. The compounds considered in this group are: a) the 9-phenanthrenemethanols, among which halofantrine is the most promising one; b) the sesquiterpene lactones such as Qinghaosu, artemether, artesunate, artesunic acid and arteether which must be further tested in order to find more effective drug regimens capable of eliminating recrudescences and for the completion of toxicity studies; c) pyronaridine, which appears to be a promising antimalarial, effective also against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum, but still requiring further investigations on resistance and cross-resistance, as well as its pharmacokinetics, tolerability and bioavailability; d) enpiroline, another promising compound, which needs to be further studied in Phase II and Phase III investigations with naturally acquired malaria. The third group is composed of seven chemical classes of compounds that are in an advanced pre-clinical development, namely: the 4-aminoquinolines, such as dabechin, piperaquine, hydroxypiperaquine, tripiperaquine, dichlor-quinazine and the Mannich base compounds, the 8-aminoquinolines, the 4-quinolinemethanols, the quinolones, the naphthoquinones, the quinazolines and the dihydrotriazines. Among the many antimalarial compounds of interest, which can be considered at the moment as leads for further studies, only the acridandione derivatives such as floxacrine, the antibiotics, antifungal agents or their

  10. Rapid, sensitive, and validated UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method for quantitative determination of vasicine in Adhatoda vasica and its in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Madhukar


    Full Text Available Background: Adhatoda vasica a perennial herb has been used in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines since last 2000 years and has been employed for the treatment of respiratory tract ailments. Objective: To develop and validate new, rapid, and highly sensitive high throughput ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method for the quantitative estimation of vasicine in the leaves and to establish in vitro cultures of Adhatoda vasica for production of vasicine. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC TM BEH C8 (100.0 × 2.1 mm; 1.7 μm column packing using isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 20 mM ammonium acetate (90:10; v/v in a multiple reactions monitoring mode using the transitions m/z 189.09 → 171.08 for vasicine. Results: The vasicine was eluted at 2.58 ± 0.05 min and established a dynamic range of linearity over the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/ml (r2 = 0.999 ± 0.0005. The lower limit of detection and quantification was 0.68 and 1.0 ng/ml, respectively. There was no significant difference observed in the content of vasicine (0.92-1.04%w/w among the eleven samples collected from different locations of India. The in vitro cultures developed showed that addition of extra 28 mM KNO 3 and 100 mM NaCl in MS medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D + benzyladenine (BA + indole acetic acid (IAA (1 ppm each produces faster biomass and higher amount of quinazoline alkaloids. Conclusion: Rapid, efficient, and sensitive UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method was developed for the estimation of vasicine and an efficient protocol for development of in vitro cultures was proposed, which can be used at large scale for industrial production of vasicine using bioreactors.

  11. Validation of different methods of preparation of Adhatoda vasica leaf juice by quantification of total alkaloids and vasicine

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    Soni S


    Full Text Available Leaf of Adhatoda vasica ( Vasaka is an important drug of Ayurveda, prescribed as an expectorant. Quinazoline alkaloids present in the leaves are established as active principles. In Ayurveda, its leaf juice ( Vasa swarasa is incorporated in many formulations. Classical method for extracting the juice ( swarasa from the leaf is an elaborate process, which involves subjecting a bolus of crushed fresh leaf to heat followed by squeezing out the juice. Commercially, to prepare the juice of Vasaka , manufacturers have been adopting different methods other than the traditional method. In an effort to evaluate these modified processes phytochemically to identify the process which gives juice of the quality that is obtained by traditional method, in terms of its alkaloid content, we prepared the leaf juice by traditional Ayurvedic method, its modification by steaming of leaf to simulate the traditional method and other methods adopted by some manufacturers. These juice samples were evaluated for the total alkaloid content by spectrophotometric method and vasicine content by thin layer chromatography densitometric method using high performance thin layer chromatography. The high performance thin layer chromatography method was validated for precision, repeatability and accuracy. The total alkaloid content varied from 0.3 mg/ml to 5.93 mg/ml and that of vasicine content varied from 0.2 mg/ml to 5.64 mg/ml in the juice samples prepared by different methods. The present study revealed that steaming of fresh leaves under 15 lb pressure yielded same quantity of juice as the traditional bolus method (25 ml/100 g leaf and its total alkaloid content and vasicine content (4.05±0.12 and 3.46±0.06 mg/ml, respectively were very high when compared to the other methods, though the traditional method was found to give the best quality juice with highest amount of total alkaloids (5.93±0.55 mg/ml and vasicine (5.64±0.10 mg/ml content .

  12. The dual-acting H3 receptor antagonist and AChE inhibitor UW-MD-71 dose-dependently enhances memory retrieval and reverses dizocilpine-induced memory impairment in rats. (United States)

    Khan, Nadia; Saad, Ali; Nurulain, Syed M; Darras, Fouad H; Decker, Michael; Sadek, Bassem


    Both the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) are involved in the regulation of release and metabolism of acetylcholine and several other central neurotransmitters. Therefore, dual-active H3R antagonists and AChE inhibitors (AChEIs) have shown in several studies to hold promise to treat cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The novel dual-acting H3R antagonist and AChEI 7-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)-1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazoline (UW-MD-71) with excellent selectivity profiles over both the three other HRs as well as the AChE's isoenzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) shows high and balanced in vitro affinities at both H3R and AChE with IC50 of 33.9nM and hH3R antagonism with Ki of 76.2nM, respectively. In the present study, the effects of UW-MD-71 (1.25-5mg/kg, i.p.) on acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval in a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task in male rats were investigated applying donepezil (DOZ) and pitolisant (PIT) as reference drugs. Furthermore, the effects of UW-MD-71 on memory deficits induced by the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine (DIZ) were tested. Our results indicate that administration of UW-MD-71 before the test session dose-dependently increased performance and enhanced procognitive effect on retrieval. However neither pre- nor post-training acute systemic administration of UW-MD-71 facilitated acquisition or consolidation. More importantly, UW-MD-71 (2.5mg/kg, i.p.) ameliorated the DIZ-induced amnesic effects. Furthermore, the procognitive activity of UW-MD-71 in retrieval was completely reversed and partly abrogated in DIZ-induced amnesia when rats were pretreated with the centrally-acting H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL), but not with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR). These results demonstrate the procognitive effects of UW-MD-71 in two in vivo memory models, and are to our knowledge the first demonstration in vivo that a potent dual

  13. Toxicity Assessment of the Xanthid Crab Demania cultripes from Cebu Island, Philippines

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    Manabu Asakawa


    Full Text Available Several cases of poisoning resulting in human fatalities and stemming from the ingestion of coral reef crabs have been reported from the Indo-Pacific region. We assessed the toxicity of the unidentified xanthid crab collected from the Camotes Sea off the eastern coast of Cebu Island, central Visayas region of Philippines from the food hygienic point of view. All seven specimens, which were identified with Demania cultripes, collected in 2006 were toxic to mice irrespective of the season of collection and induced paralytic symptoms typical of tetrodotoxin (TTX and paralytic shellfish poison (PSP. The activity was expressed in mouse unit (MU being defined as the amount of TTX to kill a 20 g ddY male mice in 30 min after i.p. injection. Toxicity scores for viscera and appendages of specimens were 18.2±16.0 (mean ± S.D. and 4.4±2.6 MU/g, respectively. The highest individual toxicity scores observed for viscera and appendages were 52.1 and 7.7 MU/g, respectively. The frequency of toxic samples was 100%. Toxin profiles as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection analysis (HPLC-FLD revealed that TTX was the main toxic principle accounting for about 90% of the total toxicity along with 4-epi TTX and 4,9-anhydroTTX. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed mass fragment ion peaks at m/z 376, 392 and 407, which were characteristic of the quinazoline skeleton (C9-base specific to TTX. In addition, only a small amount of PSP containing gonyautoxins1–4 and hydroxysaxitoxin was detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting evidence of occurrence of TTX and PSP in the xanthid crab D. cultripes inhabiting waters surrounding Cebu Island. From food hygienic point of view, people in coastal areas should be warned of the potential hazard of this crab in order to prevent its intentional or accidental consumption.

  14. Toxicity Assessment of the Xanthid Crab Demania cultripes from Cebu Island, Philippines. (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Gomez-Delan, Gloria; Tsuruda, Shintaro; Shimomura, Michitaka; Shida, Yasuo; Taniyama, Shigeto; Barte-Quilantang, Mercy; Shindo, Jo


    Several cases of poisoning resulting in human fatalities and stemming from the ingestion of coral reef crabs have been reported from the Indo-Pacific region. We assessed the toxicity of the unidentified xanthid crab collected from the Camotes Sea off the eastern coast of Cebu Island, central Visayas region of Philippines from the food hygienic point of view. All seven specimens, which were identified with Demania cultripes, collected in 2006 were toxic to mice irrespective of the season of collection and induced paralytic symptoms typical of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and paralytic shellfish poison (PSP). The activity was expressed in mouse unit (MU) being defined as the amount of TTX to kill a 20 g ddY male mice in 30 min after i.p. injection. Toxicity scores for viscera and appendages of specimens were 18.2 ± 16.0 (mean ± S.D.) and 4.4 ± 2.6 MU/g, respectively. The highest individual toxicity scores observed for viscera and appendages were 52.1 and 7.7 MU/g, respectively. The frequency of toxic samples was 100%. Toxin profiles as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescent detection analysis (HPLC-FLD) revealed that TTX was the main toxic principle accounting for about 90% of the total toxicity along with 4-epi TTX and 4,9-anhydroTTX. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed mass fragment ion peaks at m/z 376, 392 and 407, which were characteristic of the quinazoline skeleton (C9-base) specific to TTX. In addition, only a small amount of PSP containing gonyautoxins1-4 and hydroxysaxitoxin was detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting evidence of occurrence of TTX and PSP in the xanthid crab D. cultripes inhabiting waters surrounding Cebu Island. From food hygienic point of view, people in coastal areas should be warned of the potential hazard of this crab in order to prevent its intentional or accidental consumption.

  15. EGFR inhibitors identified as a potential treatment for chordoma in a focused compound screen. (United States)

    Scheipl, Susanne; Barnard, Michelle; Cottone, Lucia; Jorgensen, Mette; Drewry, David H; Zuercher, William J; Turlais, Fabrice; Ye, Hongtao; Leite, Ana P; Smith, James A; Leithner, Andreas; Möller, Peter; Brüderlein, Silke; Guppy, Naomi; Amary, Fernanda; Tirabosco, Roberto; Strauss, Sandra J; Pillay, Nischalan; Flanagan, Adrienne M


    Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumour with a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. We undertook a focused compound screen (FCS) against 1097 compounds on three well-characterized chordoma cell lines; 154 compounds were selected from the single concentration screen (1 µm), based on their growth-inhibitory effect. Their half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) values were determined in chordoma cells and normal fibroblasts. Twenty-seven of these compounds displayed chordoma selective cell kill and 21/27 (78%) were found to be EGFR/ERBB family inhibitors. EGFR inhibitors in clinical development were then studied on an extended cell line panel of seven chordoma cell lines, four of which were sensitive to EGFR inhibition. Sapitinib (AstraZeneca) emerged as the lead compound, followed by gefitinib (AstraZeneca) and erlotinib (Roche/Genentech). The compounds were shown to induce apoptosis in the sensitive cell lines and suppressed phospho-EGFR and its downstream pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of substituent patterns suggested that EGFR-inhibitors with small aniline substituents in the 4-position of the quinazoline ring were more effective than inhibitors with large substituents in that position. Sapitinib showed significantly reduced tumour growth in two xenograft mouse models (U-CH1 xenograft and a patient-derived xenograft, SF8894). One of the resistant cell lines (U-CH2) was shown to express high levels of phospho-MET, a known bypass signalling pathway to EGFR. Neither amplifications (EGFR, ERBB2, MET) nor mutations in EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB4, PIK3CA, BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, PTEN, MET or other cancer gene hotspots were detected in the cell lines. Our findings are consistent with the reported (p-)EGFR expression in the majority of clinical samples, and provide evidence for exploring the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of patients with chordoma and studying possible resistance mechanisms to these compounds in vitro and in vivo. © 2016

  16. JAK3 inhibitor Ⅵ is a mutant specific inhibitor for epidermal growth factor receptor with the gatekeeper mutation T790M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoyuki; Nishiya; Yasumitsu; Sakamoto; Yusuke; Oku; Takamasa; Nonaka; Yoshimasa; Uehara


    AIM:To identify non-quinazoline kinase inhibitors effective against drug resistant mutants of epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR).METHODS:A kinase inhibitor library was subjected to screening for specific inhibition pertaining to the in vitro kinase activation of EGFR with the gatekeeper mutation T790 M,which is resistant to small molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors(TKIs) for EGFR in nonsmall cell lung cancers(NSCLCs). This inhibitory effect was confirmed by measuring autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858 R in NCI-H1975 cells,an NSCLC cell line harboring the gatekeeper mutation. The effects of a candidate compound,Janus kinase 3(JAK3) inhibitor Ⅵ,on cell proliferation were evaluated using the MTT assay and were compared between T790M-positive and-negative lung cancer cell lines. JAK3 inhibitor Ⅵ was modeled into the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858 R. Potential physical interactions between the compound and kinase domains of wild-type(WT) or mutant EGFRs or JAK3 were estimated by calculating binding energy. The gatekeeper residues of EGFRs and JAKs were aligned to discuss the similarities among EGFR T790 M and JAKs. RESULTS:We found that JAK3 inhibitor Ⅵ,a known inhibitor for JAK3 tyrosine kinase,selectively inhibits EGFR T790M/L858 R,but has weaker inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR in vitro. JAK3 inhibitor Ⅵ also specifically reduced autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858 R in NCI-H1975 cells upon EGF stimulation,but did not show the inhibitory effect on WT EGFR in A431 cells. Furthermore,JAK3 inhibitor Ⅵ suppressed the proliferationof NCI-H1975 cells,but showed limited inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR-expressing cell lines A431 and A549.A docking simulation between JAK3 inhibitor Ⅵ and the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858 R predicted a potential binding status with hydrogen bonds. Estimated binding energy of JAK3 inhibitor Ⅵ to EGFR T790M/L858 R was more stable than its binding energy to the WT EGFR. Amino acid sequence

  17. Mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 regulating the activity of β secretase in N2a/APP695 cells%人参皂苷Rg1调节N2a/APP695细胞β分泌酶活性的可能机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽敏; 林楠; 张静; 朱元贵; 陈晓春


    Objective To explore whether or not ginsenoside Rg1 can modify the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the generation of amyloid beta (Aβ) by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB).Methods N2a/APP695 cells,a mutated APP-overexpressing neuronal cell line,was used to mimic the APP metabolism and Aβ generation in vitro.The BACE1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by RTPCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and Western blot respectively.Then the expression levels and subcellular localization of NF-κB were detected by Western blot and confocal laser scanning microscope respectively.Results The treatment of ginsenoside Rg1 at a dose of 2.5 μmol/L decreased the levels of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 ( 13.3 ± 4.3 ) ng/ml vs ( 12.0 ± 5.4 ) ng/ml in N2a/APP695 cells,decreased the protein level of BACE1 ( BACE1/β -actin 0.26 ± 0.05),increased the protein level of NF-κB p65 (p-p65/p65 0.93 ± 0.02) and resulted in the translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus.Quinazoline inhibited the activation of NF-κB with a reduction of p-p65 and p-p65/p65 in N2a/APP695 cells and increased the BACE1 protein level.And the treatment of ginsenoside Rg1 showed similar changes in N2a/APP695 cells when compared with the treatment of quinazoline alone.Conclusion Ginsenoside Rg1 may modify the metabolism of APP by enhancing the nuclear binding of NF-κB to BACE1 promoter and inhibiting the transcription and translation of BACE1.%目的 观察人参皂苷Rg1能否通过核蛋白因子κB(NF-κB)影响N2a/APP695细胞β淀粉样肽(Aβ)的生成和代谢,从源头上缓解和(或)减轻阿尔茨海默病(AD)病人的神经病理改变.方法 利用稳定表达突变型APP695的N2a细胞(N2a/APP695),通过RT-PCR、蛋白免疫印迹、激光共聚焦显微镜等方法检测人参皂苷Rg1对β分泌酶活性及上游转录因子NF-κB活性的影响.结果 2.5 mol/L人参皂苷Rg1作用6~12 h后,N2a/APP695细胞外液Aβ1-40和Aβ1-42水平较Rg1作用前均有不

  18. In silico identification of EGFR-T790M inhibitors with novel scaffolds: start with extraction of common features

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    Xiang M


    pharmacophore feature was extracted from the same inhibitors using pharmacophore modeling. Based on these unique features, two constraints were set while calibrating the protocols of in silico screening. Compounds bearing these specific features were obtained from the National Cancer Institute diversity database to form our subsequent library. Finally, a structure based virtual screening against the library was conducted using standard protocols validated in our lab.Results: Twenty-eight candidate compounds that demonstrated antitumor activity and that had novel scaffolds different from commonly known quinazoline/quinoline analogs were obtained. The interaction modes between three representative candidates and our model system are similar to that between the model system and the reference compound T-001, which has previously been reported to be one of the most potent of the 138 irreversible inhibitors.Conclusion: The hybrid strategy starting with the extraction of common features is an effective approach to design potential irreversible inhibitors with novel scaffolds and therefore to obtain lead molecules in the selection process. These candidates possessing unique scaffolds have a strong likelihood to act as further starting points in the preclinical development of potent irreversible T790M EGFR inhibitors.Keywords: mutant EGFR, NCI database, virtual screening, drug resistant, quantum chemical calculation, pharmacophore modeling

  19. The dual-acting AChE inhibitor and H3 receptor antagonist UW-MD-72 reverses amnesia induced by scopolamine or dizocilpine in passive avoidance paradigm in rats. (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Khan, Nadia; Darras, Fouad H; Pockes, Steffen; Decker, Michael


    Both the acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) are involved in the metabolism and modulation of acetylcholine release and numerous other centrally acting neurotransmitters. Hence, dual-active AChE inhibitors (AChEIs) and H3R antagonists hold potential to treat cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The novel dual-acting AChEI and H3R antagonist 7-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)-2,3-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-9(1H)-one (UW-MD-72) shows excellent selectivity profiles over the AChE's isoenzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as well as high and balanced in-vitro affinities at both AChE and hH3R with IC50 of 5.4μM on hAChE and hH3R antagonism with Ki of 2.54μM, respectively. In the current study, the effects of UW-MD-72 (1.25, 2.5, and 5mg/kg, i.p.) on memory deficits induced by the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (SCO) and the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine (DIZ) were investigated in a step-through type passive avoidance paradigm in adult male rats applying donepezil (DOZ) and pitolisant (PIT) as reference drugs. The results observed show that SCO (2mg/kg, i.p.) and DIZ (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired learning and memory in rats. However, acute systemic administration of UW-MD-72 significantly ameliorated the SCO- and DIZ-induced amnesic effects. Furthermore, the ameliorating activity of UW-MD-72 (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) in DIZ-induced amnesia was partly reversed when rats were pretreated with the centrally-acting H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, 10mg/kg, i.p.), but not with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR, 10mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, ameliorative effect of UW-MD-72 (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) in DIZ-induced amnesia was strongly reversed when rats were pretreated with a combination of ZOL (10mg/kg, i.p.) and SCO (1.0mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that these memory enhancing effects were, in addition to other neural circuits, observed through histaminergic H2R as well as

  20. Functional expression of adenosine A2A and A3 receptors in the mouse dendritic cell line XS-106. (United States)

    Dickenson, John M; Reeder, Steve; Rees, Bob; Alexander, Steve; Kendall, Dave


    ][1,3,5]triazin-5ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385; 100 nM) and 5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-7-phenylethyl-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5c]pyrimidine (SCH 58261; 100 nM) and the adenosine A3 receptor selective antagonist N-[9-chloro-2-(2-furanyl)[1,2,4]-triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-benzeneacetamide (MRS 1220; 100 nM) partially blocked the inhibitory effects of NECA on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha release. Combined addition of MRS 1220 and SCH 58261 completely blocked the inhibitory effects of NECA on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha release. In conclusion, we have shown that the mouse dendritic cell line XS-106 expresses functional adenosine A2A and A3 receptors, which are capable of modulating TNF-alpha release.