Sample records for quinaldine

  1. One-pot synthesis of quinaldine derivatives by using microwave irradiation without any solvent - A green chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Javad Safari; Sayed Hossein Banitaba; Sepehr Sadegh Samiei


    A convenient and efficient procedure for synthesis of quinaldine derivatives has been developed by a simple one-pot reaction of aniline derivatives and acetaldehyde on the surface of neutral alumina impregnated with hydrochloric acid under microwave irradiation without any solvent according to green chemistry.

  2. Complete genome sequence and metabolic potential of the quinaldine-degrading bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a

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    Niewerth Heiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are ubiquitous in soil environments and can be considered as true survivalists. Arthrobacter sp. strain Rue61a is an isolate from sewage sludge able to utilize quinaldine (2-methylquinoline as sole carbon and energy source. The genome provides insight into the molecular basis of the versatility and robustness of this environmental Arthrobacter strain. Results The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,736,495 bp with an average G + C content of 62.32%, the circular 231,551-bp plasmid pARUE232, and the linear 112,992-bp plasmid pARUE113 that was already published. Plasmid pARUE232 is proposed to contribute to the resistance of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a to arsenate and Pb2+, whereas the linear plasmid confers the ability to convert quinaldine to anthranilate. Remarkably, degradation of anthranilate exclusively proceeds via a CoA-thioester pathway. Apart from quinaldine utilization, strain Rue61a has a limited set of aromatic degradation pathways, enabling the utilization of 4-hydroxy-substituted aromatic carboxylic acids, which are characteristic products of lignin depolymerization, via ortho cleavage of protocatechuate. However, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation likely proceeds via meta cleavage of homoprotocatechuate. The genome of strain Rue61a contains numerous genes associated with osmoprotection, and a high number of genes coding for transporters. It encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes for the uptake and utilization of various sugars and organic nitrogen compounds. A. aurescens TC-1 is the closest sequenced relative of strain Rue61a. Conclusions The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a reflects the saprophytic lifestyle and nutritional versatility of the organism and a strong adaptive potential to environmental stress. The circular plasmid pARUE232 and the linear plasmid pARUE113 contribute to heavy metal resistance and to the ability to degrade

  3. Integrated organic-aqueous biocatalysis and product recovery for quinaldine hydroxylation catalyzed by living recombinant Pseudomonas putida. (United States)

    Ütkür, F Ozde; Thanh Tran, Tan; Collins, Jonathan; Brandenbusch, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno


    In an earlier study, biocatalytic carbon oxyfunctionalization with water serving as oxygen donor, e.g., the bioconversion of quinaldine to 4-hydroxyquinaldine, was successfully achieved using resting cells of recombinant Pseudomonas putida, containing the molybdenum-enzyme quinaldine 4-oxidase, in a two-liquid phase (2LP) system (Ütkür et al. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 38:1067-1077, 2011). In the study reported here, key parameters determining process performance were investigated and an efficient and easy method for product recovery was established. The performance of the whole-cell biocatalyst was shown not to be limited by the availability of the inducer benzoate (also serving as growth substrate) during the growth of recombinant P. putida cells. Furthermore, catalyst performance during 2LP biotransformations was not limited by the availability of glucose, the energy source to maintain metabolic activity in resting cells, and molecular oxygen, a possible final electron acceptor during quinaldine oxidation. The product and the organic solvent (1-dodecanol) were identified as the most critical factors affecting biocatalyst performance, to a large extent on the enzyme level (inhibition), whereas substrate effects were negligible. However, none of the 13 alternative solvents tested surpassed 1-dodecanol in terms of toxicity, substrate/product solubility, and partitioning. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide for phase separation and an easy and efficient liquid-liquid extraction step enabled 4-hydroxyquinaldine to be isolated at a purity of >99.9% with recoveries of 57 and 84%, respectively. This study constitutes the first proof of concept on an integrated process for the oxyfunctionalization of toxic substrates with a water-incorporating hydroxylase.

  4. Efficacy of tricaine on Peocilia latipinna at different temperatures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 1, 2010 ... cortisol level increased in deeply anesthetized fish (Davis and Griffin, 2004; Cho and .... Coral fish. Pomacentrus ... ethanol, clove oil, carbon dioxide, Aqui-S, or quinaldine. (Davis and ... coral reef fish, J. Fish Biol. 51: 931-938.

  5. Antibacterial and immunity enhancement properties of anaesthetic doses of thyme (Thymus vulgaris oil and three other anaesthetics in Sparidentax hasta and Acanthopagrus latus

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    I.S. Azad


    Full Text Available An effective alternative was discovered in the form of thyme oil for use as a fish anaesthetic (patent pending approval. The thyme oil along with a common aquaculture-grade commercial anaesthetic (AQUI-S, clove oil and quinaldine were investigated for their antimicrobial properties and its effect on the immune parameters of two important maricultured fish species, bluefin bream (Sparidentax hasta and yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus latus. In vivo studies indicated that both the fish species had highly reduced bacterial load after the treatments and the in vitro antibacterial activity of the of the thyme oil was superior to that of the other treatments. The effects of anaesthetic dose of thyme oil, clove oil, quinaldine and AQUI-S were evaluated and compared. The reduction in the total viable vibrio counts in the anesthetized fish indicated that the vibrio were sensitive to the thyme oil. Also thyme oil produced higher non-specific immune enhancements.

  6. A robotics-based automated assay for inorganic and organic phosphates. (United States)

    Cogan, E B; Birrell, G B; Griffith, O H


    Phosphate analyses are fundamental to a broad range of biochemical applications involving inorganic phosphate and organic phosphoesters such as phospholipids, phosphorylated proteins, and nucleic acids. A practical automated method utilizing robotics is described in this report. Five colorimetric methods of phosphate analyses based on formation of a phosphomolybdate complex and compatible with the automated assay were tested, and the fundamental chemistry is discussed. The relative sensitivities are malachite green > crystal violet > quinaldine red > ascorbate reduction > antimony-modified ascorbate reduction, although only a fourfold improvement was observed in going from the modified ascorbate procedure to malachite green. Malachite green was selected to optimize the assay because this dye provided the highest sensitivity. However, where color stability and low blanks are more important than sensitivity, the ascorbate reduction and quinaldine red methods were found to be better choices than malachite green. Automation using a robotic liquid-handling system substantially reduces the labor required to process large arrays of samples. The result is a sensitive, nonradioactive assay of inorganic phosphate with high throughput. A digestion step in an acid-resistant 96-well plate was developed to extend the assay to phosphate esters. The robotic-based assay was demonstrated with inorganic phosphate and a common phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine.

  7. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.


    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. The authors determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222), metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degrees C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin.

  8. Conformation and reactivity of 1,3-heterocyclic systems

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    Ingate, S.T.


    Compounds containing the biologically active N-CH[sub 2]-O group were prepared for a kinetics investigation of the reaction between these compounds and nucleophilic bases. The stereochemistry and positions of conformational equilibria were determined by [sup 1]H and [sup 13]C NMR spectroscopy to test possible structure-activity relationships. Substituted perhydropyrido[1,2-c][1,3]oxazines and related compounds have been synthesized, usually by condensation of substituted picolines or quinaldines with formaldehyde or via oxidation to the corresponding 2-substituted carboxaldehydes. Reduction gave the required aminoalcohols which were ring closed with formaldehyde to give compounds containing the N-CH[sub 2]-O moiety. 7a,7b,8,9,16a,16b,17,18-Octahydroquino[1[double prime],2[double prime]:3[prime],4[prime

  9. Luminescence properties of compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor-containing neutral ligands (United States)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.


    Luminescent complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor- containing neutral ligands have been obtained. Their composition and structure have been determined. The thermal and spectral-luminescent properties of the obtained complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium( III) have been studied. It is shown that, during thermolysis, a water molecule and neutral ligand are detached in two stages with endothermic effects. It is established that quinaldinate ion is coordinated to europium(III) ion in a bidentate fashion. The Stark structure of the 5 D 0-7 F j ( j = 0, 1, 2) transitions in low-temperature luminescence spectra of complex compounds of europium(III) has been analyzed.

  10. Separation and preconcentration of aluminum in parenteral solutions and bottled mineral water using different analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel A., E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida F., E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan I., E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam A.; Kumar, Sham [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Q., E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)


    A new method is reported for the separation of aluminum ions [Al(III)] from interfering elements in parenteral and pharmaceutical solutions (PS) and bottled mineral water (BMW) samples, through solid-phase extraction with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) adsorbed onto activated silica gel. While the enrichment step of separated Al(III) was carried out by cloud point extraction (CPE) using 8-hydroxyquinoline as complexing reagent, the resulted complex was entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The enriched Al(III) in sample solutions were determined by spectrofluorometry (SPF) at {lambda}{sub excitation} 370 nm and {lambda}{sub emission} 510 nm, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for comparative purpose. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps were studied and optimized. The validity of methodology was checked with certified reference material of water and standard addition method. The enrichment factor and detection limit of Al(III) for the preconcentration of 50 ml of PS and BMW were found to be 100 and 0.25 {mu}g/L, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of trace amount of Al(III) in PS and BMW samples with satisfactory results. In PS the levels of Al(III) are above than permissible limit (25 {mu}g/L).

  11. Multivariate optimization of cloud point extraction procedure for zinc determination in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Kolachi, N F; Kazi, T G; Khan, S; Wadhwa, S K; Baig, J A; Afridi, H I; Shah, A Q; Shah, F


    Cloud point extraction method has been developed for preconcentration of trace quantities of zinc (Zn) in aqueous extract of medicinal plants and blood samples of liver cancer patients using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Zn in aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (MPs) was complexed with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) separately and entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. After centrifugation, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.25mL acidic ethyl alcohol. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables (pH, time temperature, ligands and surfactant concentrations). Interactions between analytical factors and their optimal levels were investigated by two level factorial designs. Student's t-test on the results of factorial design with 16 runs for Zn extraction, demonstrated that the factors, ligands concentrations, pH and temperature were statistically significant. The accuracy was assessed by analysis of certified reference materials, namely, BCR 101 (spruce needles), Clincheck control-lyophilized human whole blood. Enhancement factor of 30 and 26 were achieved for the preconcentration of Zn by 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2), respectively. The relative standard deviation for six replicate determinations of Zn at 10μg/L level using 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (L1) and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (L2) were 5%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity and seasonal changes in the ichthyofauna of rocky tidal pools from Praia Vermelha and São Roque, Santa Catarina

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    João P. Barreiros


    Full Text Available A survey of the tidal pool fish community was carried out between April 1998 and May 1999, at the beaches of Praia Vermelha (PV and São Roque (SR, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The pool of PV was bigger and closer to the subtidal. Specimens were collected monthly at low tide, using quinaldine. In PV we collected 1287 fish belonging to 19 species and in SR 553 fish were caught corresponding to 11 species. In both pools, dominant species were Bathygobius soporator (Gobiidae, Abudefduf saxatilis (Pomacentridae, Parablennius pilicornis (Blenniidae, Gobiesox barbatulus (Gobiesocidae, Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Labrisomidae and Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae. Summer months had higher abundance and diversity values, and correspond to a recruitment season for both A. saxatilis and E. marginatus.Este trabalho realizou-se entre Abril de 1998 e Maio de 1999 e visou o estudo das comunidades de peixes em duas poças de maré situadas nas praias de Praia Vermelha (PV e São Roque (SR, Santa Catarina, Brasil. A poça de PV é maior e mais próxima do sub-mareal. Os exemplares foram coletados mensalmente, durante a baixa-mar, com o anestésico quinaldina. Em PV recolheram-se 1287 peixes pertencentes a 19 espécies enquanto que em SR foram capturados 553 peixes de 11 species. Em ambas as poças as espécies dominantes foram Bathygobius soporator (Gobiidae, Abudefduf saxatilis (Pomacentridae, Parablennius pilicornis (Blenniidae, Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Labrisomidae e Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae. A diversidade e o número de peixes foram maiores nos meses de Verão e correspondem a uma época de recrutamento para as espécies A. saxatilis e E. marginatus.

  13. Clove oil as anaesthetic for juveniles of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869 Óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869

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    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue


    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been used as anaesthetics in fish farms and fish biology laboratories to keep the fish immobilized during handling procedures and to prevent accidents and animal stress. In Brazil, tricaine methane sulfonate (MS 222, quinaldine sulfate, benzocaine, and phenoxyethanol are the most common fish anaesthetics used to prevent fish stress during handling, but many side effects such as body and gill irritations, corneal damage and general risks of intoxication have been reported. Clove oil is a natural product proposed as an alternative fish anaesthetic by many researchers and it has been used in many countries with great economic advantages and no apparent toxic properties. In this work, we assessed the suitability of clove oil to anaesthetize matrinxã. Sixty-three juveniles of matrinxã were exposed to seven anaesthetic batches of clove oil (pharmaceutical grade namely 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mg/L. The times to reach total loss of equilibrium and to recover the upright position were measured. Clove oil concentration about 40 mg/L was enough to anaesthetize the fish in approximately one minute and the recovery time was independent in regard to anaesthetic concentration.Diversos produtos químicos têm sido empregados como anestésicos para peixes nas estações de piscicultura e laboratórios de biologia de peixes para a devida imobilização dos organismos, afim de se prevenir acidentes e ferimentos na superfície do corpo dos próprios peixes, que podem ficar susceptíveis a patógenos e taxas altas de mortalidade. A tricaina metano sulfonato (MS 222, a quinaldina, a benzocaina e o phenoxyethanol têm sido amplamente utilizados no Brasil, mas alguns efeitos colaterais são observados como perda de muco, irritação nas brânquias e olhos, e também alguns incômodos aos trabalhadores como a necessidade do uso de luvas. Dessa forma, o óleo de cravo é proposto como um anestésico alternativo por ser um produto natural de