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Sample records for quimperiana reveal survival

  1. Crab scars reveal survival advantage of left-handed snails

    OpenAIRE

    Dietl, Gregory P.; Hendricks, Jonathan R.

    2006-01-01

    Biological asymmetries are important elements of the structure and function of many living organisms. Using the Plio–Pleistocene fossil record of crab predation on morphologically similar pairs of right- and left-handed snail species, we show here for the first time, contrary to traditional wisdom, that rare left-handed coiling promotes survival from attacks by right-handed crabs. This frequency-dependent result influences the balance of selection processes that maintain left-handedness at th...

  2. Crab scars reveal survival advantage of left-handed snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, Gregory P; Hendricks, Jonathan R

    2006-09-22

    Biological asymmetries are important elements of the structure and function of many living organisms. Using the Plio-Pleistocene fossil record of crab predation on morphologically similar pairs of right- and left-handed snail species, we show here for the first time, contrary to traditional wisdom, that rare left-handed coiling promotes survival from attacks by right-handed crabs. This frequency-dependent result influences the balance of selection processes that maintain left-handedness at the species level and parallels some social interactions in human cultures, such as sports that involve dual contests between opponents of opposite handedness.

  3. Zebrafish chemical screening reveals the impairment of dopaminergic neuronal survival by cardiac glycosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Sun

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the prominent degeneration of dopaminergic (DA neurons among other cell types. Here we report a first chemical screen of over 5,000 compounds in zebrafish, aimed at identifying small molecule modulators of DA neuron development or survival. We find that Neriifolin, a member of the cardiac glycoside family of compounds, impairs survival but not differentiation of both zebrafish and mammalian DA neurons. Cardiac glycosides are inhibitors of Na(+/K(+ ATPase activity and widely used for treating heart disorders. Our data suggest that Neriifolin impairs DA neuronal survival by targeting the neuronal enriched Na(+/K(+ ATPase α3 subunit (ATP1A3. Modulation of ionic homeostasis, knockdown of p53, or treatment with antioxidants protects DA neurons from Neriifolin-induced death. These results reveal a previously unknown effect of cardiac glycosides on DA neuronal survival and suggest that it is mediated through ATP1A3 inhibition, oxidative stress, and p53. They also elucidate potential approaches for counteracting the neurotoxicity of this valuable class of medications.

  4. Mariner mutagenesis of Brucella melitensis reveals genes with previously uncharacterized roles in virulence and survival

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    Ficht Thomas A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random gene inactivation used to identify cellular functions associated with virulence and survival of Brucella spp has relied heavily upon the use of the transposon Tn5 that integrates at G/C base pairs. Transposons of the mariner family do not require species-specific host factors for efficient transposition, integrate nonspecifically at T/A base pairs, and, at a minimum, provide an alternative approach for gene discovery. In this study, plasmid vector pSC189, containing both the hyperactive transposase C9 and transposon terminal inverted repeats flanking a kanamycin resistance gene, were used to deliver Himar1 transposable element into the B. melitensis genome. Conjugation was performed efficiently and rapidly in less than one generation in order to minimize the formation of siblings while assuring the highest level of genome coverage. Results Although previously identified groups or classes of genes required for virulence and survival were represented in the screen, additional novel identifications were revealed and may be attributable to the difference in insertion sequence biases of the two transposons. Mutants identified using a fluorescence-based macrophage screen were further evaluated using gentamicin-based protection assay in macrophages, survival in the mouse splenic clearance model and growth in vitro to identify mutants with reduced growth rates. Conclusion The identification of novel genes within previously described groups was expected, and nearly two-thirds of the 95 genes had not been previously reported as contributing to survival and virulence using random Tn5-based mutagenesis. The results of this work provide added insight with regard to the regulatory elements, nutritional demands and mechanisms required for efficient intracellular growth and survival of the organism.

  5. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  6. Conserved BK channel-protein interactions reveal signals relevant to cell death and survival.

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    Bernd Sokolowski

    Full Text Available The large-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BK channel and its β-subunit underlie tuning in non-mammalian sensory or hair cells, whereas in mammals its function is less clear. To gain insights into species differences and to reveal putative BK functions, we undertook a systems analysis of BK and BK-Associated Proteins (BKAPS in the chicken cochlea and compared these results to other species. We identified 110 putative partners from cytoplasmic and membrane/cytoskeletal fractions, using a combination of coimmunoprecipitation, 2-D gel, and LC-MS/MS. Partners included 14-3-3γ, valosin-containing protein (VCP, stathmin (STMN, cortactin (CTTN, and prohibitin (PHB, of which 16 partners were verified by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation. Bioinformatics revealed binary partners, the resultant interactome, subcellular localization, and cellular processes. The interactome contained 193 proteins involved in 190 binary interactions in subcellular compartments such as the ER, mitochondria, and nucleus. Comparisons with mice showed shared hub proteins that included N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and ATP-synthase. Ortholog analyses across six species revealed conserved interactions involving apoptosis, Ca(2+ binding, and trafficking, in chicks, mice, and humans. Functional studies using recombinant BK and RNAi in a heterologous expression system revealed that proteins important to cell death/survival, such as annexinA5, γ-actin, lamin, superoxide dismutase, and VCP, caused a decrease in BK expression. This revelation led to an examination of specific kinases and their effectors relevant to cell viability. Sequence analyses of the BK C-terminus across 10 species showed putative binding sites for 14-3-3, RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1. Knockdown of 14-3-3 and Akt caused an increase in BK expression, whereas silencing of GSK3β and PDK1 had the opposite

  7. Metabolic profiling of hypoxic cells revealed a catabolic signature required for cell survival.

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    Christian Frezza

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is one of the features of poorly vascularised areas of solid tumours but cancer cells can survive in these areas despite the low oxygen tension. The adaptation to hypoxia requires both biochemical and genetic responses that culminate in a metabolic rearrangement to counter-balance the decrease in energy supply from mitochondrial respiration. The understanding of metabolic adaptations under hypoxia could reveal novel pathways that, if targeted, would lead to specific death of hypoxic regions. In this study, we developed biochemical and metabolomic analyses to assess the effects of hypoxia on cellular metabolism of HCT116 cancer cell line. We utilized an oxygen fluorescent probe in anaerobic cuvettes to study oxygen consumption rates under hypoxic conditions without the need to re-oxygenate the cells and demonstrated that hypoxic cells can maintain active, though diminished, oxidative phosphorylation even at 1% oxygen. These results were further supported by in situ microscopy analysis of mitochondrial NADH oxidation under hypoxia. We then used metabolomic methodologies, utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, to determine the metabolic profile of hypoxic cells. This approach revealed the importance of synchronized and regulated catabolism as a mechanism of adaptation to bioenergetic stress. We then confirmed the presence of autophagy under hypoxic conditions and demonstrated that the inhibition of this catabolic process dramatically reduced the ATP levels in hypoxic cells and stimulated hypoxia-induced cell death. These results suggest that under hypoxia, autophagy is required to support ATP production, in addition to glycolysis, and that the inhibition of autophagy might be used to selectively target hypoxic regions of tumours, the most notoriously resistant areas of solid tumours.

  8. Study of integrated heterogeneous data reveals prognostic power of gene expression for breast cancer survival.

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    Richard E Neapolitan

    Full Text Available Studies show that thousands of genes are associated with prognosis of breast cancer. Towards utilizing available genetic data, efforts have been made to predict outcomes using gene expression data, and a number of commercial products have been developed. These products have the following shortcomings: 1 They use the Cox model for prediction. However, the RSF model has been shown to significantly outperform the Cox model. 2 Testing was not done to see if a complete set of clinical predictors could predict as well as the gene expression signatures.We address these shortcomings. The METABRIC data set concerns 1981 breast cancer tumors. Features include 21 clinical features, expression levels for 16,384 genes, and survival. We compare the survival prediction performance of the Cox model and the RSF model using the clinical data and the gene expression data to their performance using only the clinical data. We obtain significantly better results when we used both clinical data and gene expression data for 5 year, 10 year, and 15 year survival prediction. When we replace the gene expression data by PAM50 subtype, our results are significant only for 5 year and 15 year prediction. We obtain significantly better results using the RSF model over the Cox model. Finally, our results indicate that gene expression data alone may predict long-term survival.Our results indicate that we can obtain improved survival prediction using clinical data and gene expression data compared to prediction using only clinical data. We further conclude that we can obtain improved survival prediction using the RSF model instead of the Cox model. These results are significant because by incorporating more gene expression data with clinical features and using the RSF model, we could develop decision support systems that better utilize heterogeneous information to improve outcome prediction and decision making.

  9. Pathway analysis reveals common pro-survival mechanisms of metyrapone and carbenoxolone after traumatic brain injury.

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    Helen L Hellmich

    Full Text Available Developing new pharmacotherapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI requires elucidation of the neuroprotective mechanisms of many structurally and functionally diverse compounds. To test our hypothesis that diverse neuroprotective drugs similarly affect common gene targets after TBI, we compared the effects of two drugs, metyrapone (MT and carbenoxolone (CB, which, though used clinically for noncognitive conditions, improved learning and memory in rats and humans. Although structurally different, both MT and CB inhibit a common molecular target, 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, which converts inactive cortisone to cortisol, thereby effectively reducing glucocorticoid levels. We examined injury-induced signaling pathways to determine how the effects of these two compounds correlate with pro-survival effects in surviving neurons of the injured rat hippocampus. We found that treatment of TBI rats with MT or CB acutely induced in hippocampal neurons transcriptional profiles that were remarkably similar (i.e., a coordinated attenuation of gene expression across multiple injury-induced cell signaling networks. We also found, to a lesser extent, a coordinated increase in cell survival signals. Analysis of injury-induced gene expression altered by MT and CB provided additional insight into the protective effects of each. Both drugs attenuated expression of genes in the apoptosis, death receptor and stress signaling pathways, as well as multiple genes in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway such as subunits of NADH dehydrogenase (Complex1, cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV and ATP synthase (Complex V. This suggests an overall inhibition of mitochondrial function. Complex 1 is the primary source of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway, thus linking the protective effects of these drugs to a reduction in oxidative stress. The net effect of the drug-induced transcriptional changes observed here indicates that

  10. Gene expression profiling of canine osteosarcoma reveals genes associated with short and long survival times

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    Rao Nagesha AS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling of spontaneous tumors in the dog offers a unique translational opportunity to identify prognostic biomarkers and signaling pathways that are common to both canine and human. Osteosarcoma (OS accounts for approximately 80% of all malignant bone tumors in the dog. Canine OS are highly comparable with their human counterpart with respect to histology, high metastatic rate and poor long-term survival. This study investigates the prognostic gene profile among thirty-two primary canine OS using canine specific cDNA microarrays representing 20,313 genes to identify genes and cellular signaling pathways associated with survival. This, the first report of its kind in dogs with OS, also demonstrates the advantages of cross-species comparison with human OS. Results The 32 tumors were classified into two prognostic groups based on survival time (ST. They were defined as short survivors (dogs with poor prognosis: surviving fewer than 6 months and long survivors (dogs with better prognosis: surviving 6 months or longer. Fifty-one transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, with common upregulation of these genes in the short survivors. The overexpressed genes in short survivors are associated with possible roles in proliferation, drug resistance or metastasis. Several deregulated pathways identified in the present study, including Wnt signaling, Integrin signaling and Chemokine/cytokine signaling are comparable to the pathway analysis conducted on human OS gene profiles, emphasizing the value of the dog as an excellent model for humans. Conclusion A molecular-based method for discrimination of outcome for short and long survivors is useful for future prognostic stratification at initial diagnosis, where genes and pathways associated with cell cycle/proliferation, drug resistance and metastasis could be potential targets for diagnosis and therapy. The similarities between human and canine OS makes the

  11. Ancient DNA reveals that bowhead whale lineages survived Late Pleistocene climate change and habitat shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew D; Kaschner, Kristin; Schultze, Sebastian E;

    2013-01-01

    that a true Arctic species, the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), shifted its range and tracked its core suitable habitat northwards during the rapid climate change of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Late Pleistocene lineages survived into the Holocene and effective female population size increased...... rapidly, concurrent with a threefold increase in core suitable habitat. This study highlights that responses to climate change are likely to be species specific and difficult to predict. We estimate that the core suitable habitat of bowhead whales will be almost halved by the end of this century...

  12. Pro-survival role for Parkinson's associated gene DJ-1 revealed in trophically impaired dopaminergic neurons.

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    Liviu Aron

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the selective death of substantia nigra (SN neurons in Parkinson disease (PD remain elusive. While inactivation of DJ-1, an oxidative stress suppressor, causes PD, animal models lacking DJ-1 show no overt dopaminergic (DA neuron degeneration in the SN. Here, we show that aging mice lacking DJ-1 and the GDNF-receptor Ret in the DA system display an accelerated loss of SN cell bodies, but not axons, compared to mice that only lack Ret signaling. The survival requirement for DJ-1 is specific for the GIRK2-positive subpopulation in the SN which projects exclusively to the striatum and is more vulnerable in PD. Using Drosophila genetics, we show that constitutively active Ret and associated Ras/ERK, but not PI3K/Akt, signaling components interact genetically with DJ-1. Double loss-of-function experiments indicate that DJ-1 interacts with ERK signaling to control eye and wing development. Our study uncovers a conserved interaction between DJ-1 and Ret-mediated signaling and a novel cell survival role for DJ-1 in the mouse. A better understanding of the molecular connections between trophic signaling, cellular stress and aging could uncover new targets for drug development in PD.

  13. Network-based survival analysis reveals subnetwork signatures for predicting outcomes of ovarian cancer treatment.

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    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Cox regression is commonly used to predict the outcome by the time to an event of interest and in addition, identify relevant features for survival analysis in cancer genomics. Due to the high-dimensionality of high-throughput genomic data, existing Cox models trained on any particular dataset usually generalize poorly to other independent datasets. In this paper, we propose a network-based Cox regression model called Net-Cox and applied Net-Cox for a large-scale survival analysis across multiple ovarian cancer datasets. Net-Cox integrates gene network information into the Cox's proportional hazard model to explore the co-expression or functional relation among high-dimensional gene expression features in the gene network. Net-Cox was applied to analyze three independent gene expression datasets including the TCGA ovarian cancer dataset and two other public ovarian cancer datasets. Net-Cox with the network information from gene co-expression or functional relations identified highly consistent signature genes across the three datasets, and because of the better generalization across the datasets, Net-Cox also consistently improved the accuracy of survival prediction over the Cox models regularized by L(2 or L(1. This study focused on analyzing the death and recurrence outcomes in the treatment of ovarian carcinoma to identify signature genes that can more reliably predict the events. The signature genes comprise dense protein-protein interaction subnetworks, enriched by extracellular matrix receptors and modulators or by nuclear signaling components downstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. In the laboratory validation of the signature genes, a tumor array experiment by protein staining on an independent patient cohort from Mayo Clinic showed that the protein expression of the signature gene FBN1 is a biomarker significantly associated with the early recurrence after 12 months of the treatment in the ovarian cancer patients who are

  14. Network-based survival analysis reveals subnetwork signatures for predicting outcomes of ovarian cancer treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Cox regression is commonly used to predict the outcome by the time to an event of interest and in addition, identify relevant features for survival analysis in cancer genomics. Due to the high-dimensionality of high-throughput genomic data, existing Cox models trained on any particular dataset usually generalize poorly to other independent datasets. In this paper, we propose a network-based Cox regression model called Net-Cox and applied Net-Cox for a large-scale survival analysis across multiple ovarian cancer datasets. Net-Cox integrates gene network information into the Cox's proportional hazard model to explore the co-expression or functional relation among high-dimensional gene expression features in the gene network. Net-Cox was applied to analyze three independent gene expression datasets including the TCGA ovarian cancer dataset and two other public ovarian cancer datasets. Net-Cox with the network information from gene co-expression or functional relations identified highly consistent signature genes across the three datasets, and because of the better generalization across the datasets, Net-Cox also consistently improved the accuracy of survival prediction over the Cox models regularized by L(2 or L(1. This study focused on analyzing the death and recurrence outcomes in the treatment of ovarian carcinoma to identify signature genes that can more reliably predict the events. The signature genes comprise dense protein-protein interaction subnetworks, enriched by extracellular matrix receptors and modulators or by nuclear signaling components downstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. In the laboratory validation of the signature genes, a tumor array experiment by protein staining on an independent patient cohort from Mayo Clinic showed that the protein expression of the signature gene FBN1 is a biomarker significantly associated with the early recurrence after 12 months of the treatment in the ovarian cancer patients who are

  15. Disruption of aminergic signalling reveals novel compounds with distinct inhibitory effects on mosquito reproduction, locomotor function and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Silke; Rende, Ermelinda; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony

    2014-07-01

    Insecticide resistance amongst disease vectors is a growing problem and novel compounds are needed. Biogenic amines are important for neurotransmission and we have recently shown a potential role for these in mosquito fertility. Here, we dissected the relative contribution of different aminergic signalling pathways to biological processes essential for vectorial capacity such as fertility, locomotion and survival by injecting agonists and antagonists and showed that octopaminergic/tyraminergic signalling is essential for oviposition and hatching rate. We show that egg melanisation is regulated by adrenergic signalling, whose disruption causes premature melanisation specifically through the action of tyramine. In addition to this, co-injection of tyramine with DOPA, the precursor of melanin, had a strong cumulative negative effect on mosquito locomotion and survival. Dopaminergic and serotonergic antagonists such as amitriptyline and citalopram recapitulate this effect. Together these results reveal potential new target sites for the development of future mosquito sterilants and insecticides.

  16. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

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    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  17. Sodium Iodide Symporter PET and BLI Noninvasively Reveal Mesoangioblast Survival in Dystrophic Mice

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    Bryan Holvoet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of myopathies, characterized by muscle weakness and degeneration, without curative treatment. Mesoangioblasts (MABs have been proposed as a potential regenerative therapy. To improve our understanding of the in vivo behavior of MABs and the effect of different immunosuppressive therapies, like cyclosporine A or co-stimulation-adhesion blockade therapy, on cell survival noninvasive cell monitoring is required. Therefore, cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc and the human sodium iodide transporter (hNIS to allow cell monitoring via bioluminescence imaging (BLI and small-animal positron emission tomography (PET. Non-H2 matched mMABs were injected in the femoral artery of dystrophic mice and were clearly visible via small-animal PET and BLI. Based on noninvasive imaging data, we were able to show that co-stim was clearly superior to CsA in reducing cell rejection and this was mediated via a reduction in cytotoxic T cells and upregulation of regulatory T cells.

  18. Comparative analyses of longevity and senescence reveal variable survival benefits of living in zoos across mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidière, Morgane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vérane; Müller, Dennis W H; Bingaman Lackey, Laurie; Gimenez, Olivier; Clauss, Marcus; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2016-11-07

    While it is commonly believed that animals live longer in zoos than in the wild, this assumption has rarely been tested. We compared four survival metrics (longevity, baseline mortality, onset of senescence and rate of senescence) between both sexes of free-ranging and zoo populations of more than 50 mammal species. We found that mammals from zoo populations generally lived longer than their wild counterparts (84% of species). The effect was most notable in species with a faster pace of life (i.e. a short life span, high reproductive rate and high mortality in the wild) because zoos evidently offer protection against a number of relevant conditions like predation, intraspecific competition and diseases. Species with a slower pace of life (i.e. a long life span, low reproduction rate and low mortality in the wild) benefit less from captivity in terms of longevity; in such species, there is probably less potential for a reduction in mortality. These findings provide a first general explanation about the different magnitude of zoo environment benefits among mammalian species, and thereby highlight the effort that is needed to improve captive conditions for slow-living species that are particularly susceptible to extinction in the wild.

  19. A Carboniferous non-onychophoran lobopodian reveals long-term survival of a Cambrian morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Joachim T; Mayer, Georg; Haug, Carolin; Briggs, Derek E G

    2012-09-25

    Lobopodians, a nonmonophyletic assemblage of worm-shaped soft-bodied animals most closely related to arthropods, show two major morphotypes: long-legged and short-legged forms. The morphotype with stubby, conical legs has a long evolutionary history, from the early Cambrian through the Carboniferous, including the living onychophorans and tardigrades. Species with tubular lobopods exceeding the body diameter have been reported exclusively from the Cambrian; the three-dimensionally preserved Orstenotubulus evamuellerae from the uppermost middle Cambrian "Orsten" (Sweden) is the youngest long-legged lobopodian reported thus far. Here we describe a new long-legged lobopodian, Carbotubulus waloszeki gen. et sp. nov., from Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA (∼296 million years ago). This first post-Cambrian long-legged lobopodian extends the range of this morphotype by about 200 million years. The three-dimensionally preserved specimen differs significantly from the associated short-legged form Ilyodes inopinata, of which we also present new head details. The discovery of a Carboniferous long-legged lobopodian provides a more striking example of the long-term survival of Cambrian morphotypes than, for example, the occurrence of a Burgess Shale-type biota in the Ordovician of Morocco and dampens the effect of any major extinction of taxa at the end of the middle Cambrian.

  20. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Discrete Survival Responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to Sapienic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Josephine C; Alorabi, Jamal A; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcal colonization of human skin is ubiquitous, with particular species more frequent at different body sites. Whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis can be isolated from the skin of every individual tested, Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from S. aureus is inhibited to a greater extent than S. epidermidis by the sebaceous lipid sapienic acid, supporting a role for this skin antimicrobial in selection of skin staphylococci. We used RNA-Seq and comparative transcriptomics to identify the sapienic acid survival responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Consistent with the membrane depolarization mode of action of sapienic acid, both species shared a common transcriptional response to counteract disruption of metabolism and transport. The species differed in their regulation of SaeRS and VraRS regulons. While S. aureus upregulated urease operon transcription, S. epidermidis upregulated arginine deiminase, the oxygen-responsive NreABC nitrogen regulation system and the nitrate and nitrite reduction pathways. The role of S. aureus ACME and chromosomal arginine deiminase pathways in sapienic acid resistance was determined through mutational studies. We speculate that ammonia production could contribute to sapienic acid resistance in staphylococci.

  1. Non-encapsulated strains reveal novel insights in invasion and survival of Streptococcus suis in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, L; Goethe, R; Rohde, M; Valentin-Weigand, P

    2004-09-01

    Streptococcus suis is a porcine and human pathogen causing invasive diseases, such as meningitis or septicaemia. Host cell interactions of S. suis have been studied mainly with serotype 2 strains, but multiple capsular serotypes as well as non-typeable strains exist with diverse virulence features. At present, S. suis is considered an extracellular pathogen. However, whether or not it can also invade host cells is a matter of controversial discussions. We have assessed adherence and invasion of S. suis for HEp-2 epithelial cells by comparing 10 serotype 2 strains and four non-typeable (NT) strains. Only the NT strains and a non-encapsulated serotype 2 mutant strain, but none of the serotype 2 strains, adhered strongly and were invasive. Invasion seemed to be affected by environmental signals, as suggested from comparison of strains grown in different media. Further phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed a high diversity among the different strains. Electron microscopic analysis of invasion of selected invasive NT strains indicated different uptake mechanisms. One strain induced large invaginations comparable to those seen in 'caveolae' mediated uptake, whereas invasion of the other strains was accompanied by formation of filipodia-like membrane protrusions. Invasion of all strains, however, was similarly susceptible to hypertonic sucrose, which inhibits receptor-mediated endocytosis. Irrespective of the uptake pathway, streptococci resided in acidified phago-lysosome like vacuoles. All strains, except one, survived intracellularly as well as extracellular acidic conditions. Survival seemed to be associated with the AdiS protein, an environmentally regulated arginine deiminase of S. suis. Concluding, invasion and survival of NT strains of S. suis in epithelial cells revealed novel evidence that S. suis exhibits a broad variety of virulence-associated features depending on genetic variation and regulation.

  2. Single-cell genomics reveal metabolic strategies for microbial growth and survival in an oligotrophic aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Kennedy, David W.; Castelle, Cindy; Field, Erin; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan

    2014-02-09

    Bacteria from the genus Pedobacter are a major component of microbial assemblages at Hanford Site and have been shown to significantly change in abundance in response to the subsurface intrusion of Columbia River water. Here we employed single cell genomics techniques to shed light on the physiological niche of these microorganisms. Analysis of four Pedobacter single amplified genomes (SAGs) from Hanford Site sediments revealed a chemoheterotrophic lifestyle, with the potential to exist under both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions via expression of both aa3­-type and cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases. These SAGs encoded a wide-range of both intra-and extra­-cellular carbohydrate-active enzymes, potentially enabling the degradation of recalcitrant substrates such as xylan and chitin, and the utilization of more labile sugars such as mannose and fucose. Coupled to these enzymes, a diversity of transporters and sugar-binding molecules were involved in the uptake of carbon from the extracellular local environment. The SAGs were enriched in TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs), which play a key role in uptake of substrates resulting from degradation of recalcitrant carbon. CRISPR-Cas mechanisms for resisting viral infections were identified in all SAGs. These data demonstrate the potential mechanisms utilized for persistence by heterotrophic microorganisms in a carbon-limited aquifer, and hint at potential linkages between observed Pedobacter abundance shifts within the 300 Area subsurface and biogeochemical shifts associated with Columbia River water intrusion.

  3. Predicting survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension: insights from the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benza, Raymond L; Miller, Dave P; Gomberg-Maitland, Mardi; Frantz, Robert P; Foreman, Aimee J; Coffey, Christopher S; Frost, Adaani; Barst, Robyn J; Badesch, David B; Elliott, C Gregory; Liou, Theodore G; McGoon, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    .... A quantitative survival prediction tool has not been established for research or clinical use. Data from 2716 patients with PAH enrolled consecutively in the US Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL...

  4. Proteomic analysis reveals GIT1 as a novel mTOR complex component critical for mediating astrocyte survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Laura J; Gutmann, David H

    2016-06-15

    As a critical regulator of cell growth, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein operates as part of two molecularly and functionally distinct complexes. Herein, we demonstrate that mTOR complex molecular composition varies in different somatic tissues. In astrocytes and neural stem cells, we identified G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1) as a novel mTOR-binding protein, creating a unique mTOR complex lacking Raptor and Rictor. Moreover, GIT1 binding to mTOR is regulated by AKT activation and is essential for mTOR-mediated astrocyte survival. Together, these data reveal that mTOR complex function is partly dictated by its molecuflar composition in different cell types.

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of Hot Springs in Central India Reveals Hydrocarbon Degrading Thermophiles and Pathways Essential for Survival in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rituja; Dhakan, Darshan B.; Mittal, Parul; Waiker, Prashant; Chowdhury, Anirban; Ghatak, Arundhuti; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme ecosystems such as hot springs are of great interest as a source of novel extremophilic species, enzymes, metabolic functions for survival and biotechnological products. India harbors hundreds of hot springs, the majority of which are not yet explored and require comprehensive studies to unravel their unknown and untapped phylogenetic and functional diversity. The aim of this study was to perform a large-scale metagenomic analysis of three major hot springs located in central India namely, Badi Anhoni, Chhoti Anhoni, and Tattapani at two geographically distinct regions (Anhoni and Tattapani), to uncover the resident microbial community and their metabolic traits. Samples were collected from seven distinct sites of the three hot spring locations with temperature ranging from 43.5 to 98°C. The 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of V3 hypervariable region and shotgun metagenome sequencing uncovered a unique taxonomic and metabolic diversity of the resident thermophilic microbial community in these hot springs. Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be abundant in the Anhoni hot springs (43.5–55°C), dominated by Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acidovorax sp., suggesting the presence of chemoorganotrophic thermophilic community with the ability to utilize complex hydrocarbons as a source of energy. A high abundance of genes belonging to methane metabolism pathway was observed at Chhoti Anhoni hot spring, where methane is reported to constitute >80% of all the emitted gases, which was marked by the high abundance of Methylococcus capsulatus. The Tattapani hot spring, with a high-temperature range (61.5–98°C), displayed a lower microbial diversity and was primarily dominated by a nitrate-reducing archaeal species Pyrobaculum aerophilum. A higher abundance of cell metabolism pathways essential for the microbial survival in extreme conditions was observed at Tattapani. Taken together

  6. RNA-Seq Analysis of Sulfur-Deprived Chlamydomonas Cells Reveals Aspects of Acclimation Critical for Cell Survival[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ballester, David; Casero, David; Cokus, Shawn; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii transcriptome was characterized from nutrient-replete and sulfur-depleted wild-type and snrk2.1 mutant cells. This mutant is null for the regulatory Ser-Thr kinase SNRK2.1, which is required for acclimation of the alga to sulfur deprivation. The transcriptome analyses used microarray hybridization and RNA-seq technology. Quantitative RT-PCR evaluation of the results obtained by these techniques showed that RNA-seq reports a larger dynamic range of expression levels than do microarray hybridizations. Transcripts responsive to sulfur deprivation included those encoding proteins involved in sulfur acquisition and assimilation, synthesis of sulfur-containing metabolites, Cys degradation, and sulfur recycling. Furthermore, we noted potential modifications of cellular structures during sulfur deprivation, including the cell wall and complexes associated with the photosynthetic apparatus. Moreover, the data suggest that sulfur-deprived cells accumulate proteins with fewer sulfur-containing amino acids. Most of the sulfur deprivation responses are controlled by the SNRK2.1 protein kinase. The snrk2.1 mutant exhibits a set of unique responses during both sulfur-replete and sulfur-depleted conditions that are not observed in wild-type cells; the inability of this mutant to acclimate to S deprivation probably leads to elevated levels of singlet oxygen and severe oxidative stress, which ultimately causes cell death. The transcriptome results for wild-type and mutant cells strongly suggest the occurrence of massive changes in cellular physiology and metabolism as cells become depleted for sulfur and reveal aspects of acclimation that are likely critical for cell survival. PMID:20587772

  7. A mismatch between the perceived fighting signal and fighting ability reveals survival and physiological costs for bearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac González-Santoyo

    Full Text Available Signals of fighting indicate an animal's intention to attack and so they serve to prevent costly aggressive encounters. However, according to theory, a signal that is different in design (i.e. a novel signal but that fails to inform fighting intentions will result in negative fitness consequences for the bearer. In the present study we used males of the territorial damselfly Hetaerina americana, which have a red wing spot during territory defense that has evolved as a signal of fighting ability. By producing a novel signal (covering the red spot with blue ink in territory owners, we investigated: a the behavioral responses by conspecific males; b survival cost and c three physiological mediators of impaired survival: muscular fat reserves, muscle mass and immune ability. We predicted that males with the novel signal would be attacked more often by conspecifics as the former would fail to convey fighting ability and intentions adequately. This will result in lower survival and physiological condition for the novel signal bearers. We found that, compared to control males (males whose red spot was not changed, experimental males had reduced survival, were less able to hold a territory, and had a reduced muscle mass. It seems that spot modified males were not able to effectively communicate their territory tenancy, which may explain why they lost their defended sites. Our results provide support for theoretical models that a novel signal that fails to informing fighting ability may lead to a fitness cost for bearers.

  8. A Genetic Screen Reveals that Synthesis of 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-Naphthoate (DHNA), but Not Full-Length Menaquinone, Is Required for Listeria monocytogenes Cytosolic Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Grischa Y; McDougal, Courtney E; D'Antonio, Marc A; Portman, Jonathan L; Sauer, John-Demian

    2017-03-21

    Through unknown mechanisms, the host cytosol restricts bacterial colonization; therefore, only professional cytosolic pathogens are adapted to colonize this host environment. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that is highly adapted to colonize the cytosol of both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. To identify L. monocytogenes determinants of cytosolic survival, we designed and executed a novel screen to isolate L. monocytogenes mutants with cytosolic survival defects. Multiple mutants identified in the screen were defective for synthesis of menaquinone (MK), an essential molecule in the electron transport chain. Analysis of an extensive set of MK biosynthesis and respiratory chain mutants revealed that cellular respiration was not required for cytosolic survival of L. monocytogenes but that, instead, synthesis of 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA), an MK biosynthesis intermediate, was essential. Recent discoveries showed that modulation of the central metabolism of both host and pathogen can influence the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. Our results identify a potentially novel function of the MK biosynthetic intermediate DHNA and specifically highlight how L. monocytogenes metabolic adaptations promote cytosolic survival and evasion of host immunity.IMPORTANCE Cytosolic bacterial pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Francisella tularensis, are exquisitely evolved to colonize the host cytosol in a variety of cell types. Establishing an intracellular niche shields these pathogens from effectors of humoral immunity, grants access to host nutrients, and is essential for pathogenesis. Through yet-to-be-defined mechanisms, the host cytosol restricts replication of non-cytosol-adapted bacteria, likely through a combination of cell autonomous defenses (CADs) and nutritional immunity. Utilizing a novel genetic screen, we identified determinants of L. monocytogenes cytosolic survival and virulence and identified a role for

  9. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2014-01-01

    The spatio-temporal origin of surviving juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua was investigated by coupling age information from otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modeling, which allowed backtracking of drift routes in time and space. The suitability of hydrodynamic modeling for drift...... simulations of early life stages of Baltic cod up to the pelagic juvenile stage was validated by comparing model simulations with the catch distribution from a survey targeting pelagic juveniles, and mortality rates and hatch date distributions of pelagic and demersal juveniles were estimated. Hatch dates...... and hatch locations of juvenile survivors showed distinct patterns which did not agree well with the abundance and spatial distribution of eggs, suggesting marked spatio-temporal differences in larval survival. The good agreement of the spatio-temporal origin of survivors from this field investigation...

  10. Ear manipulations reveal a critical period for survival and dendritic development at the single-cell level in Mauthner neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Karen L; Houston, Douglas W; DeCook, Rhonda; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Second-order sensory neurons are dependent on afferents from the sense organs during a critical period in development for their survival and differentiation. Past research has mostly focused on whole populations of neurons, hampering progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying these critical phases. To move toward a better understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of afferent-dependent neuronal development, we developed a new model to study the effects of ear removal on a single identifiable cell in the hindbrain of a frog, the Mauthner cell. Ear extirpation at various stages of Xenopus laevis development defines a critical period of progressively-reduced dependency of Mauthner cell survival/differentiation on the ear afferents. Furthermore, ear removal results in a progressively decreased reduction in the number of dendritic branches. Conversely, addition of an ear results in an increase in the number of dendritic branches. These results suggest that the duration of innervation and the number of inner ear afferents play a quantitative role in Mauthner cell survival/differentiation, including dendritic development.

  11. δ-Catenin, a Wnt/β-catenin modulator, reveals inducible mutagenesis promoting cancer cell survival adaptation and metabolic reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparat, J; Zhang, J; Lu, J-P; Chen, Y-H; Zheng, D; Neufer, P D; Fan, J M; Hong, H; Boykin, C; Lu, Q

    2015-03-19

    Mutations of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has essential roles in development and cancer. Although β-catenin and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutations are well established and are known to drive tumorigenesis, discoveries of mutations in other components of the pathway lagged, which hinders the understanding of cancer mechanisms. Here we report that δ-catenin (gene designation: CTNND2), a primarily neural member of the β-catenin superfamily that promotes canonical Wnt/β-catenin/LEF-1-mediated transcription, displays exonic mutations in human prostate cancer and promotes cancer cell survival adaptation and metabolic reprogramming. When overexpressed in cells derived from prostate tumor xenografts, δ-catenin gene invariably gives rise to mutations, leading to sequence disruptions predicting functional alterations. Ectopic δ-catenin gene integrating into host chromosomes is locus nonselective. δ-Catenin mutations promote tumor development in mouse prostate with probasin promoter (ARR2PB)-driven, prostate-specific expression of Myc oncogene, whereas mutant cells empower survival advantage upon overgrowth and glucose deprivation. Reprogramming energy utilization accompanies the downregulation of glucose transporter-1 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage while preserving tumor type 2 pyruvate kinase expression. δ-Catenin mutations increase β-catenin translocation to the nucleus and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression. Therefore, introducing δ-catenin mutations is an important milestone in prostate cancer metabolic adaptation by modulating β-catenin and HIF-1α signaling under glucose shortage to amplify its tumor-promoting potential.

  12. High-resolution profiling of stationary-phase survival reveals yeast longevity factors and their genetic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Garay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lifespan is influenced by a large number of conserved proteins and gene-regulatory pathways. Here, we introduce a strategy for systematically finding such longevity factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and scoring the genetic interactions (epistasis among these factors. Specifically, we developed an automated competition-based assay for chronological lifespan, defined as stationary-phase survival of yeast populations, and used it to phenotype over 5,600 single- or double-gene knockouts at unprecedented quantitative resolution. We found that 14% of the viable yeast mutant strains were affected in their stationary-phase survival; the extent of true-positive chronological lifespan factors was estimated by accounting for the effects of culture aeration and adaptive regrowth. We show that lifespan extension by dietary restriction depends on the Swr1 histone-exchange complex and that a functional link between autophagy and the lipid-homeostasis factor Arv1 has an impact on cellular lifespan. Importantly, we describe the first genetic interaction network based on aging phenotypes, which successfully recapitulated the core-autophagy machinery and confirmed a role of the human tumor suppressor PTEN homologue in yeast lifespan and phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism. Our quantitative analysis of longevity factors and their genetic interactions provides insights into the gene-network interactions of aging cells.

  13. High-resolution profiling of stationary-phase survival reveals yeast longevity factors and their genetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Erika; Campos, Sergio E; González de la Cruz, Jorge; Gaspar, Ana P; Jinich, Adrian; Deluna, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Lifespan is influenced by a large number of conserved proteins and gene-regulatory pathways. Here, we introduce a strategy for systematically finding such longevity factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and scoring the genetic interactions (epistasis) among these factors. Specifically, we developed an automated competition-based assay for chronological lifespan, defined as stationary-phase survival of yeast populations, and used it to phenotype over 5,600 single- or double-gene knockouts at unprecedented quantitative resolution. We found that 14% of the viable yeast mutant strains were affected in their stationary-phase survival; the extent of true-positive chronological lifespan factors was estimated by accounting for the effects of culture aeration and adaptive regrowth. We show that lifespan extension by dietary restriction depends on the Swr1 histone-exchange complex and that a functional link between autophagy and the lipid-homeostasis factor Arv1 has an impact on cellular lifespan. Importantly, we describe the first genetic interaction network based on aging phenotypes, which successfully recapitulated the core-autophagy machinery and confirmed a role of the human tumor suppressor PTEN homologue in yeast lifespan and phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism. Our quantitative analysis of longevity factors and their genetic interactions provides insights into the gene-network interactions of aging cells.

  14. A Genetic Screen Reveals that Synthesis of 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-Naphthoate (DHNA, but Not Full-Length Menaquinone, Is Required for Listeria monocytogenes Cytosolic Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grischa Y. Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Through unknown mechanisms, the host cytosol restricts bacterial colonization; therefore, only professional cytosolic pathogens are adapted to colonize this host environment. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that is highly adapted to colonize the cytosol of both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. To identify L. monocytogenes determinants of cytosolic survival, we designed and executed a novel screen to isolate L. monocytogenes mutants with cytosolic survival defects. Multiple mutants identified in the screen were defective for synthesis of menaquinone (MK, an essential molecule in the electron transport chain. Analysis of an extensive set of MK biosynthesis and respiratory chain mutants revealed that cellular respiration was not required for cytosolic survival of L. monocytogenes but that, instead, synthesis of 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA, an MK biosynthesis intermediate, was essential. Recent discoveries showed that modulation of the central metabolism of both host and pathogen can influence the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. Our results identify a potentially novel function of the MK biosynthetic intermediate DHNA and specifically highlight how L. monocytogenes metabolic adaptations promote cytosolic survival and evasion of host immunity.

  15. Nocturnal loss of body reserves reveals high survival risk for subordinate great tits wintering at extremely low ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Cīrule, Dina; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Nord, Andreas; Rantala, Markus J; Krama, Tatjana

    2013-06-01

    Winter acclimatization in birds is a complex of several strategies based on metabolic adjustment accompanied by long-term management of resources such as fattening. However, wintering birds often maintain fat reserves below their physiological capacity, suggesting a cost involved with excessive levels of reserves. We studied body reserves of roosting great tits in relation to their dominance status under two contrasting temperature regimes to see whether individuals are capable of optimizing their survival strategies under extreme environmental conditions. We predicted less pronounced loss of body mass and body condition and lower rates of overnight mortality in dominant great tits at both mild and extremely low ambient temperatures, when ambient temperature dropped down to -43 °C. The results showed that dominant great tits consistently maintained lower reserve levels than subordinates regardless of ambient temperature. However, dominants responded to the rising risk of starvation under low temperatures by increasing their body reserves, whereas subdominant birds decreased reserve levels in harsh conditions. Yet, their losses of body mass and body reserves were always lower than in subordinate birds. None of the dominant great tits were found dead, while five young females and one adult female were found dead in nest boxes during cold spells when ambient temperatures dropped down to -43 °C. The dead great tits lost up to 23.83 % of their evening body mass during cold nights while surviving individuals lost on average 12.78 % of their evening body mass. Our results show that fattening strategies of great tits reflect an adaptive role of winter fattening which is sensitive to changes in ambient temperatures and differs among individuals of different social ranks.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteins Reveals Pro-Survival Mechanisms in the Perpetuation of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Stefani N.; Waters, Katrina M.; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Baulch, Janet E.

    2012-07-26

    Radiation induced genomic instability is a well-studied phenomenon that is measured as mitotically heritable genetic alterations observed in the progeny of an irradiated cell. The mechanisms that perpetuate this instability are unclear, however, a role for chronic oxidative stress has consistently been demonstrated. In the chromosomally unstable LS12 cell line, oxidative stress and genomic instability were correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction. To clarify this mitochondrial dysfunction and gain insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation induced genomic instability we have evaluated the mitochondrial sub-proteome and performed quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of LS12 cells. Of 98 quantified mitochondrial proteins, 17 met criteria for fold changes and reproducibility; and 11 were statistically significant in comparison with the stable parental GM10115 cell line. Previous observations implicated defects in the electron transport chain (ETC) in the LS12 cell mitochondrial dysfunction. Proteomic analysis supports these observations, demonstrating significantly reduced levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the intermediary between complexes III and IV of the ETC. Results also suggest that LS12 cells compensate for ETC dysfunction and oxidative stress through increased levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and up-regulation of proteins that protect against oxidative stress and apoptosis. More than one cellular defect is likely to contribute to the genomic instability phenotype. These data suggest that LS12 cells have adapted mechanisms that allow survival under sub-optimal conditions of oxidative stress and compromised mitochondrial function to perpetuate genomic instability.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B Infecting Murine Macrophages Reveals New Mechanisms of Extracellular and Intracellular Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Zachary W; Poorey, Kunal; Brazel, David M; LaBauve, Annette E; Sinha, Anupama; Curtis, Deanna J; House, Samantha E; Tew, Karen E; Hamblin, Rachelle Y; Williams, Kelly P; Branda, Steven S; Young, Glenn M; Meagher, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis of bacteria infecting murine macrophage cells were performed under four distinct conditions. Bacteria were first grown in a nutrient-rich medium at 26 °C to establish a baseline of gene expression that is unrelated to infection. The transcriptomes of these bacteria were then compared to bacteria grown in a conditioned cell culture medium at 37 °C to identify genes that were differentially expressed in response to the increased temperature and medium but not in response to host cells. Infections were then performed, and the transcriptomes of bacteria found on the extracellular surface and intracellular compartments were analyzed individually. The upregulated genes revealed potential roles for a variety of systems in promoting intracellular virulence, including the Ysa type III secretion system, the Yts2 type II secretion system, and the Tad pilus. It was further determined that mutants of each of these systems had decreased virulence while infecting macrophages. Overall, these results reveal the complete set of genes expressed by Y. enterocolitica in response to infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies.

  18. A pan-European epidemiological study reveals honey bee colony survival depends on beekeeper education and disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Antoine; Laurent, Marion; Ribière-Chabert, Magali; Saussac, Mathilde; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Budge, Giles E.; Hendrikx, Pascal; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have often been overlooked, despite honey bees being a managed pollinator. Here, we established a standardised active monitoring network for 5 798 apiaries over two consecutive years to quantify honey bee colony mortality across 17 European countries. Our data demonstrate that overwinter losses ranged between 2% and 32%, and that high summer losses were likely to follow high winter losses. Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that hobbyist beekeepers with small apiaries and little experience in beekeeping had double the winter mortality rate when compared to professional beekeepers. Furthermore, honey bees kept by professional beekeepers never showed signs of disease, unlike apiaries from hobbyist beekeepers that had symptoms of bacterial infection and heavy Varroa infestation. Our data highlight beekeeper background and apicultural practices as major drivers of honey bee colony losses. The benefits of conducting trans-national monitoring schemes and improving beekeeper training are discussed. PMID:28278255

  19. Albino T-DNA tomato mutant reveals a key function of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS1) in plant development and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcázar, Manuel; Giménez, Estela; Pineda, Benito; Capel, Carmen; García-Sogo, Begoña; Sánchez, Sibilla; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J.; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Moreno, Vicente; Lozano, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity is indispensable for plant growth and survival and it depends on the synthesis of plastidial isoprenoids as chlorophylls and carotenoids. In the non-mevalonate pathway (MEP), the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase 1 (DXS1) enzyme has been postulated to catalyze the rate-limiting step in the formation of plastidial isoprenoids. In tomato, the function of DXS1 has only been studied in fruits, and hence its functional relevance during plant development remains unknown. Here we report the characterization of the wls-2297 tomato mutant, whose severe deficiency in chlorophylls and carotenoids promotes an albino phenotype. Additionally, growth of mutant seedlings was arrested without developing vegetative organs, which resulted in premature lethality. Gene cloning and silencing experiments revealed that the phenotype of wls-2297 mutant was caused by 38.6 kb-deletion promoted by a single T-DNA insertion affecting the DXS1 gene. This was corroborated by in vivo and molecular complementation assays, which allowed the rescue of mutant phenotype. Further characterization of tomato plants overexpressing DXS1 and comparative expression analysis indicate that DXS1 may play other important roles besides to that proposed during fruit carotenoid biosynthesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that DXS1 is essentially required for the development and survival of tomato plants. PMID:28350010

  20. Genome analysis of crude oil degrading Franconibacter pulveris strain DJ34 revealed its genetic basis for hydrocarbon degradation and survival in oil contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Siddhartha; Kundu, Anirban; Banerjee, Tirtha Das; Mohapatra, Balaram; Roy, Ajoy; Manna, Riddha; Sar, Pinaki; Kazy, Sufia K

    2017-06-15

    Franconibacter pulveris strain DJ34, isolated from Duliajan oil fields, Assam, was characterized in terms of its taxonomic, metabolic and genomic properties. The bacterium showed utilization of diverse petroleum hydrocarbons and electron acceptors, metal resistance, and biosurfactant production. The genome (4,856,096bp) of this strain contained different genes related to the degradation of various petroleum hydrocarbons, metal transport and resistance, dissimilatory nitrate, nitrite and sulfite reduction, chemotaxy, biosurfactant synthesis, etc. Genomic comparison with other Franconibacter spp. revealed higher abundance of genes for cell motility, lipid transport and metabolism, transcription and translation in DJ34 genome. Detailed COG analysis provides deeper insights into the genomic potential of this organism for degradation and survival in oil-contaminated complex habitat. This is the first report on ecophysiology and genomic inventory of Franconibacter sp. inhabiting crude oil rich environment, which might be useful for designing the strategy for bioremediation of oil contaminated environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) pulmonary hypertension prediction model in a unique population and utility in the prediction of long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Rebecca; Kobashigawa, Erin; McGlothlin, Dana; Shaw, Robin; De Marco, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    The Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial (PAH) Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) model was designed to predict 1-year survival in patients with PAH. Multivariate prediction models need to be evaluated in cohorts distinct from the derivation set to determine external validity. In addition, limited data exist on the utility of this model in the prediction of long-term survival. REVEAL model performance was assessed to predict 1-year and 5-year outcomes, defined as survival or composite survival or freedom from lung transplant, in 140 patients with PAH. The validation cohort had a higher proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (7.9% vs 1.9%, p model to predict survival was 0.765 at 1 year and 0.712 at 5 years of follow-up. The C-index of the model to predict composite survival or freedom from lung transplant was 0.805 and 0.724 at 1 and 5 years of follow-up, respectively. Prediction by the model, however, was weakest among patients with intermediate-risk predicted survival. The REVEAL model had adequate discrimination to predict 1-year survival in this small but clinically distinct validation cohort. Although the model also had predictive ability out to 5 years, prediction was limited among patients of intermediate risk, suggesting our prediction methods can still be improved. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. GSVD comparison of patient-matched normal and tumor aCGH profiles reveals global copy-number alterations predicting glioblastoma multiforme survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng H Lee

    Full Text Available Despite recent large-scale profiling efforts, the best prognostic predictor of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains the patient's age at diagnosis. We describe a global pattern of tumor-exclusive co-occurring copy-number alterations (CNAs that is correlated, possibly coordinated with GBM patients' survival and response to chemotherapy. The pattern is revealed by GSVD comparison of patient-matched but probe-independent GBM and normal aCGH datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find that, first, the GSVD, formulated as a framework for comparatively modeling two composite datasets, removes from the pattern copy-number variations (CNVs that occur in the normal human genome (e.g., female-specific X chromosome amplification and experimental variations (e.g., in tissue batch, genomic center, hybridization date and scanner, without a-priori knowledge of these variations. Second, the pattern includes most known GBM-associated changes in chromosome numbers and focal CNAs, as well as several previously unreported CNAs in >3% of the patients. These include the biochemically putative drug target, cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinase-encoding TLK2, the cyclin E1-encoding CCNE1, and the Rb-binding histone demethylase-encoding KDM5A. Third, the pattern provides a better prognostic predictor than the chromosome numbers or any one focal CNA that it identifies, suggesting that the GBM survival phenotype is an outcome of its global genotype. The pattern is independent of age, and combined with age, makes a better predictor than age alone. GSVD comparison of matched profiles of a larger set of TCGA patients, inclusive of the initial set, confirms the global pattern. GSVD classification of the GBM profiles of an independent set of patients validates the prognostic contribution of the pattern.

  3. A transcriptomic computational analysis of mastic oil-treated Lewis lung carcinomas reveals molecular mechanisms targeting tumor cell growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussos Charis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastic oil from Pistacia lentiscus variation chia, a blend of bioactive terpenes with recognized medicinal properties, has been recently shown to exert anti-tumor growth activity through inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and inflammatory response. However, no studies have addressed its mechanisms of action at genome-wide gene expression level. Methods To investigate molecular mechanisms triggered by mastic oil, Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells were treated with mastic oil or DMSO and RNA was collected at five distinct time points (3-48 h. Microarray expression profiling was performed using Illumina mouse-6 v1 beadchips, followed by computational analysis. For a number of selected genes, RT-PCR validation was performed in LLC cells as well as in three human cancer cell lines of different origin (A549, HCT116, K562. PTEN specific inhibition by a bisperovanadium compound was applied to validate its contribution to mastic oil-mediated anti-tumor growth effects. Results In this work we demonstrated that exposure of Lewis lung carcinomas to mastic oil caused a time-dependent alteration in the expression of 925 genes. GO analysis associated expression profiles with several biological processes and functions. Among them, modifications on cell cycle/proliferation, survival and NF-κB cascade in conjunction with concomitant regulation of genes encoding for PTEN, E2F7, HMOX1 (up-regulation and NOD1 (down-regulation indicated some important mechanistic links underlying the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of mastic oil. The expression profiles of Hmox1, Pten and E2f7 genes were similarly altered by mastic oil in the majority of test cancer cell lines. Inhibition of PTEN partially reversed mastic oil effects on tumor cell growth, indicating a multi-target mechanism of action. Finally, k-means clustering, organized the significant gene list in eight clusters demonstrating a similar

  4. Functional analysis of normalized difference vegetation index curves reveals overwinter mule deer survival is driven by both spring and autumn phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Mark A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Dray, Stéphane; Taylor, Kyle A; Smith, W K; Zager, Pete; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Large herbivore populations respond strongly to remotely sensed measures of primary productivity. Whereas most studies in seasonal environments have focused on the effects of spring plant phenology on juvenile survival, recent studies demonstrated that autumn nutrition also plays a crucial role. We tested for both direct and indirect (through body mass) effects of spring and autumn phenology on winter survival of 2315 mule deer fawns across a wide range of environmental conditions in Idaho, USA. We first performed a functional analysis that identified spring and autumn as the key periods for structuring the among-population and among-year variation of primary production (approximated from 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) along the growing season. A path analysis showed that early winter precipitation and direct and indirect effects of spring and autumn NDVI functional components accounted for 45% of observed variation in overwinter survival. The effect size of autumn phenology on body mass was about twice that of spring phenology, while direct effects of phenology on survival were similar between spring and autumn. We demonstrate that the effects of plant phenology vary across ecosystems, and that in semi-arid systems, autumn may be more important than spring for overwinter survival.

  5. Stress survival islet 1 (SSI-1) survey in Listeria monocytogenes reveals an insert common to listeria innocua in sequence type 121 L. monocytogenes strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Ingeborg; Klinger, Sonja; Dooms, Maxime; Flekna, Gabriele; Stessl, Beatrix; Leclercq, Alexandre; Hill, Colin; Allerberger, Franz; Wagner, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes strains (n = 117) were screened for the presence of stress survival islet 1 (SSI-1). SSI-1(+) strains (32.5%) belonged mainly to serotypes 1/2c, 3b, and 3c. All sequence type 121 (ST-121) strains included (n = 7) possessed homologues to Listeria innocua genes lin0464 and lin0465 instead of SSI-1.

  6. Feather corticosterone reveals effect of moulting conditions in the autumn on subsequent reproductive output and survival in an Arctic migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, N Jane; Legagneux, Pierre; Gilchrist, H Grant; Bêty, Joël; Love, Oliver P; Forbes, Mark R; Bortolotti, Gary R; Soos, Catherine

    2015-02-07

    For birds, unpredictable environments during the energetically stressful times of moulting and breeding are expected to have negative fitness effects. Detecting those effects however, might be difficult if individuals modulate their physiology and/or behaviours in ways to minimize short-term fitness costs. Corticosterone in feathers (CORTf) is thought to provide information on total baseline and stress-induced CORT levels at moulting and is an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during the time feathers are grown. We predicted that CORTf levels in northern common eider females would relate to subsequent body condition, reproductive success and survival, in a population of eiders nesting in the eastern Canadian Arctic during a capricious period marked by annual avian cholera outbreaks. We collected CORTf data from feathers grown during previous moult in autumn and data on phenology of subsequent reproduction and survival for 242 eider females over 5 years. Using path analyses, we detected a direct relationship between CORTf and arrival date and body condition the following year. CORTf also had negative indirect relationships with both eider reproductive success and survival of eiders during an avian cholera outbreak. This indirect effect was dramatic with a reduction of approximately 30% in subsequent survival of eiders during an avian cholera outbreak when mean CORTf increased by 1 standard deviation. This study highlights the importance of events or processes occurring during moult on subsequent expression of life-history traits and relation to individual fitness, and shows that information from non-destructive sampling of individuals can track carry-over effects across seasons.

  7. Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes: implications for malignant melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, David M; Zhang, Qiuyang; Wang, Xuexi; He, Ping; Zhu, Yuelin Jack; Zhao, Jianxiong; Rennert, Owen M; Su, Yan A

    2009-05-01

    Human malignant melanoma has poor prognosis because of resistance to apoptosis and therapy. We describe identification of the expression profile of 1,037 mitochondria-focused genes and 84 survival-apoptosis genes in 21 malignant melanoma cell lines and 3 normal melanocyte controls using recently developed hMitChip3 cDNA microarrays. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of 1,037 informative genes, and 84 survival-apoptosis genes, classified these malignant melanoma cell lines into type A (n = 12) and type B (n = 9). Three hundred fifty-five of 1,037 (34.2%) genes displayed significant (P ≤ 0.030; false discovery rate ≤ 3.68%) differences (± ≥ 2.0-fold) in average expression, with 197 genes higher and 158 genes lower in type A than in type B. Of 84 genes with known survival-apoptosis functions, 38 (45.2%) displayed the significant (P genes expressed at higher levels in type A than in type B, whereas the different set of antiapoptotic (PSEN1, PPP2CA, API5, PPP2R1B, PPP2R1A, and FIS1), antioxidant (HSPD1, GSS, SOD1, ATOX1, and CAT), and proapoptotic (ENDOG, BAK1, CASP2, CASP4, PDCD5, HTRA2, SEPT4, TNFSF10, and PRODH) genes expressed at lower levels in type A than in type B. Microarray data were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. These results showed the presence of two types of malignant melanoma, each with a specific set of dysregulated survival-apoptosis genes, which may prove useful for development of new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention and novel diagnostic biomarkers for treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma.

  8. Renal cell carcinoma survival and body mass index: a dose-response meta-analysis reveals another potential paradox within a paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, M; Speakman, J R; Shemirani, F; Djafarian, K

    2016-12-01

    In healthy subjects increasing body mass index (BMI) leads to greater mortality from a range of causes. Following onset of specific diseases, however, the reverse is often found: called the 'obesity paradox'. But we recently observed the phenomenon called the 'paradox within the paradox' for stroke patients. The objective of our study was to examine the effect of each unit increase in BMI on renal cancer-specific survival (CSS), cancer-specific mortality, overall survival (OS) and overall mortality. Random-effects generalized least squares models for trend estimation were used to analyze the data. Eight studies, comprising of 8699 survivals of 10 512 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients met the inclusion criteria, including 5 on CSS and 3 on OS. The association of BMI with CSS and OS was non-linear (Pparadox in RCC. However, each unit increase in BMI over 25 was associated with decreased OS, indicating that RCC may also exhibit a paradox within the paradox. Inconsistent effects of increases in BMI on CSS and OS, as previously observed for stroke, creates a paradox (different directions of mortality for different causes) within the obesity paradox.

  9. Spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod revisited: Using hydrodynamic modelling to reveal spawning habitat suitability, egg survival probability, and connectivity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Lehmann, A.; Petereit, C.; Nissling, A.; Ustups, D.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the highly variable environment of the Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks exist, one west of the island of Bornholm, which is referred to as the western stock, and one to the east of Bornholm, the eastern stock. A hydrodynamic model combined with a Lagrangian particle tracking technique was utilised to provide spatially and temporally resolved long-term information on environmentally-related (i) spawning habitat size, (ii) egg/yolk-sac larval survival, (iii) separation of causes of mortality, and (iv) connectivity between spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod. Simulations were performed to quantify processes generating heterogeneity in spatial distribution of cod eggs and yolk sac larvae up to the first-feeding stage. The spatial extent of cod eggs represented as virtual drifters is primarily determined by oxygen and salinity conditions at spawning, which define the habitat requirement to which cod's physiology is suited for egg development. The highest habitat suitability occurred in the Bornholm Basin, followed by the Gdansk Deep, while relatively low habitat suitability was obtained for the Arkona and the Gotland Basin. During drift egg and yolk sac larval survival is to a large extent affected by sedimentation. Eggs initially released in the western spawning grounds (Arkona and Bornholm Basin) were more affected by sedimentation than those released in the eastern spawning grounds (Gdansk Deep and Gotland Basin). Highest relative survival of eastern Baltic cod eggs occurred in the Bornholm Basin, with a pronounced decrease towards the Gdansk Deep and the Gotland Basin. Relatively low survival rates in the Gdansk Deep and in the Gotland Basin were attributable to oxygen-dependent mortality. Low oxygen content had almost no impact on survival in the Arkona Basin. For all spawning areas temperature dependent mortality was only evident after severe winters. Egg buoyancy in relation to topographic features like bottom sills and strong bottom slopes

  10. Comparative Analysis of Matrix Metalloproteinase Family Members Reveals That MMP9 Predicts Survival and Response to Temozolomide in Patients with Primary Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinquan; Sun, Ying; Wang, Guangzhi; Li, Yongli; Li, Ruiyan; Feng, Yan; Han, Bo; Li, Jianlong; Tian, Yu; Yi, Liye; Jiang, Chuanlu

    2016-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant TMZ chemotherapy is the current standard of care for patients with GBM. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, are key modulators of tumor invasion and metastasis due to their ECM degradation capacity. The aim of the present study was to identify the most informative MMP member in terms of prognostic and predictive ability for patients with primary GBM. Method The mRNA expression profiles of all MMP genes were obtained from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA), the Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) and the GSE16011 dataset. MGMT methylation status was also examined by pyrosequencing. The correlation of MMP9 expression with tumor progression was explored in glioma specimens of all grades. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association of MMP9 expression with survival and response to temozolomide. Results MMP9 was the only significant prognostic factor in three datasets for primary glioblastoma patients. Our results indicated that MMP9 expression is correlated with glioma grade (p<0.0001). Additionally, low expression of MMP9 was correlated with better survival outcome (OS: p = 0.0012 and PFS: p = 0.0066), and MMP9 was an independent prognostic factor in primary GBM (OS: p = 0.027 and PFS: p = 0.032). Additionally, the GBM patients with low MMP9 expression benefited from temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy regardless of the MGMT methylation status. Conclusions Patients with primary GBMs with low MMP9 expression may have longer survival and may benefit from temozolomide chemotherapy. PMID:27022952

  11. Multi-omics Analyses of Starvation Responses Reveal a Central Role for Lipoprotein Metabolism in Acute Starvation Survival in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvald, Eva Bang; Sprenger, Richard R; Dall, Kathrine Brændgaard

    2017-01-01

    that starvation alters the abundance of hundreds of proteins and mRNAs in a temporal manner, many of which are involved in central metabolic pathways, including lipoprotein metabolism. We demonstrate that premature death of hlh-30 animals under starvation can be prevented by knockdown of either vit-1 or vit-5......, encoding two different lipoproteins. We further show that the size and number of intestinal lipid droplets under starvation are altered in hlh-30 animals, which can be rescued by knockdown of vit-1. Taken together, this indicates that survival of hlh-30 animals under starvation is closely linked...

  12. Genome-wide studies reveal that Lin28 enhances the translation of genes important for growth and survival of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuping; Chen, Ling-Ling; Lei, Xin-Xiang; Yang, Li; Lin, Haifan; Carmichael, Gordon G; Huang, Yingqun

    2011-03-01

    Lin28 inhibits the expression of let-7 microRNAs but also exhibits let-7-independent functions. Using immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing, we show here that Lin28 preferentially associates with a small subset of cellular mRNAs. Of particular interest are those for ribosomal proteins and metabolic enzymes, the expression levels of which are known to be coupled to cell growth and survival. Polysome profiling and reporter analyses suggest that Lin28 stimulates the translation of many or most of these targets. Moreover, Lin28-responsive elements were found within the coding regions of all target genes tested. Finally, a mutant Lin28 that still binds RNA but fails to interact with RNA helicase A (RHA), acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of Lin28-dependent stimulation of translation. We suggest that Lin28, working in concert with RHA, enhances the translation of genes important for the growth and survival of human embryonic stem cells. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  13. A novel method of comparing mating success and survival reveals similar sexual and viability selection for mobility traits in female tree crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercit, K; Gwynne, D T

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between sexual and viability selection in females is necessarily different than that in males, as investment in sexual traits potentially comes at the expense of both fecundity and survival. Accordingly, females do not usually invest in sexually selected traits. However, direct benefits obtained from mating, such as nuptial gifts, may encourage competition among females and subsidize investment into sexually selected traits. We compared sexual and viability selection on female tree crickets Oecanthus nigricornis, a species where females mate frequently to obtain nuptial gifts and sexual selection on females is likely. If male choice determines female mating success in this species, we expect sexual selection for fecundity traits, as males of many species prefer more fecund females. Alternatively, intrasexual scramble or combat competition on females may select for larger jumping legs or wider heads (respectively). We estimated mating success in wild caught crickets using microsatellite analysis of stored sperm and estimated relative viability by comparing surviving female O. nigricornis to those captured by a common wasp predator. In support of the scramble competition hypothesis, we found sexual selection for females with larger hind legs and narrower heads. We also found stabilizing viability selection for intermediate head width and hind leg size. As predicted, traits under viability and sexual selection were very similar, and the direction of that selection was not opposing. However, because the shape of sexual and viability selection differs, these episodes of selection may favour slightly different trait sizes.

  14. A kinome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila Glia reveals that the RIO kinases mediate cell proliferation and survival through TORC2-Akt signaling in glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee D Read

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor, is incurable with current therapies. Genetic and molecular analyses demonstrate that glioblastomas frequently display mutations that activate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK and Pi-3 kinase (PI3K signaling pathways. In Drosophila melanogaster, activation of RTK and PI3K pathways in glial progenitor cells creates malignant neoplastic glial tumors that display many features of human glioblastoma. In both human and Drosophila, activation of the RTK and PI3K pathways stimulates Akt signaling along with other as-yet-unknown changes that drive oncogenesis. We used this Drosophila glioblastoma model to perform a kinome-wide genetic screen for new genes required for RTK- and PI3K-dependent neoplastic transformation. Human orthologs of novel kinases uncovered by these screens were functionally assessed in mammalian glioblastoma models and human tumors. Our results revealed that the atypical kinases RIOK1 and RIOK2 are overexpressed in glioblastoma cells in an Akt-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that overexpressed RIOK2 formed a complex with RIOK1, mTor, and mTor-complex-2 components, and that overexpressed RIOK2 upregulated Akt signaling and promoted tumorigenesis in murine astrocytes. Conversely, reduced expression of RIOK1 or RIOK2 disrupted Akt signaling and caused cell cycle exit, apoptosis, and chemosensitivity in glioblastoma cells by inducing p53 activity through the RpL11-dependent ribosomal stress checkpoint. These results imply that, in glioblastoma cells, constitutive Akt signaling drives RIO kinase overexpression, which creates a feedforward loop that promotes and maintains oncogenic Akt activity through stimulation of mTor signaling. Further study of the RIO kinases as well as other kinases identified in our Drosophila screen may reveal new insights into defects underlying glioblastoma and related cancers and may reveal new therapeutic opportunities for these cancers.

  15. Survival and death of epiblast cells during embryonic stem cell derivation revealed by long-term live-cell imaging with an Oct4 reporter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Ueda, Jun; Mizutani, Eiji; Saitou, Mitinori; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2010-10-01

    Despite the broad literature on embryonic stem cells (ESCs), their derivation process remains enigmatic. This may be because of the lack of experimental systems that can monitor this prolonged cellular process. Here we applied a live-cell imaging technique to monitor the process of ESC derivation over 10 days from morula to outgrowth phase using an Oct4/eGFP reporter system. Our imaging reflects the 'natural' state of ESC derivation, as the ESCs established after the imaging were both competent in chimeric mice formation and germ-line transmission. Using this technique, ESC derivation in conventional conditions was imaged. After the blastocoel was formed, the intensity of Oct4 signals attenuated in the trophoblast cells but was maintained in the inner cell mass (ICM). Thereafter, the Oct4-positive cells scattered and their number decreased along with apoptosis of the other Oct4-nagative cells likely corresponds to trophoblast and hypoblast cells, and then only the surviving Oct4-positive cells proliferated and formed the colony. All embryos without exception passed through this cell death phase. Importantly, the addition of caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK to the medium dramatically suppressed the loss of Oct4-positive cells and also other embryo-derived cells, suggesting that the cell deaths was induced by a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Next we imaged the ESC derivation in 3i medium, which consists of chemical compounds that can suppress differentiation. The most significant difference between the conventional and 3i methods was that there was no obvious cell death in 3i, so that the colony formation was rapid and all of the Oct4-positive cells contributed to the formation of the outgrown colony. These data indicate that the prevention of cell death in epiblast cells is one of the important events for the successful establishment of ESCs. Thus, our imaging technique can advance the understanding of the time-dependent cellular changes during ESC derivation.

  16. Novel Hydraulic Vulnerability Proxies for a Boreal Conifer Species Reveal That Opportunists May Have Lower Survival Prospects under Extreme Climatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Sabine; Světlík, Jan; Andreassen, Kjell; Børja, Isabella; Dalsgaard, Lise; Evans, Robert; Luss, Saskia; Tveito, Ole E; Solberg, Svein

    2016-01-01

    Top dieback in 40-60 years old forest stands of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] in southern Norway is supposed to be associated with climatic extremes. Our intention was to learn more about the processes related to top dieback and in particular about the plasticity of possible predisposing factors. We aimed at (i) developing proxies for P 50 based on anatomical data assessed by SilviScan technology and (ii) testing these proxies for their plasticity regarding climate, in order to (iii) analyze annual variations of hydraulic proxies of healthy looking trees and trees with top dieback upon their impact on tree survival. At two sites we selected 10 tree pairs, i.e., one healthy looking tree and one tree with visual signs of dieback such as dry tops, needle shortening and needle yellowing (n = 40 trees). Vulnerability to cavitation (P 50) of the main trunk was assessed in a selected sample set (n = 19) and we thereafter applied SilviScan technology to measure cell dimensions (lumen (b) and cell wall thickness (t)) in these specimen and in all 40 trees in tree rings formed between 1990 and 2010. In a first analysis step, we searched for anatomical proxies for P 50. The set of potential proxies included hydraulic lumen diameters and wall reinforcement parameters based on mean, radial, and tangential tracheid diameters. The conduit wall reinforcement based on tangential hydraulic lumen diameters ((t/b ht)(2)) was the best estimate for P 50. It was thus possible to relate climatic extremes to the potential vulnerability of single annual rings. Trees with top dieback had significantly lower (t/b ht)(2) and wider tangential (hydraulic) lumen diameters some years before a period of water deficit (2005-2006). Radial (hydraulic) lumen diameters showed however no significant differences between both tree groups. (t/b ht)(2) was influenced by annual climate variability; strongest correlations were found with precipitation in September of the previous growing season: high

  17. Small molecule screening reveals a transcription-independent pro-survival function of androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narizhneva, Natalia V; Tararova, Natalia D; Ryabokon, Petro; Shyshynova, Inna; Prokvolit, Anatoly; Komarov, Pavel G; Purmal, Andrei A; Gudkov, Andrei V; Gurova, Katerina V

    2009-12-15

    In prostate cancer (PCa) patients, initial responsiveness to androgen deprivation therapy is frequently followed by relapse due to development of treatment-resistant androgen-independent PCa. This is typically associated with acquisition of mutations in AR that allow activity as a transcription factor in the absence of ligand, indicating that androgen-independent PCa remains dependent on AR function. Our strategy to effectively target AR in androgen-independent PCa involved using a cell-based readout to isolate small molecules that inhibit AR transactivation function through mechanisms other than modulation of ligand binding. A number of the identified inhibitors were toxic to AR-expressing PCa cells regardless of their androgen dependence. Among these, some only suppressed PCa cell growth (ARTIS), while others induced cell death (ARTIK). ARTIK, but not ARTIS, compounds caused disappearance of AR protein from treated cells. siRNA against AR behaved like ARTIK compounds, while a dominant negative AR mutant that prevents AR-mediated transactivation but does not eliminate the protein showed only a growth suppressive effect. These observations reveal a transcription-independent function of AR that is essential for PCa cell viability and, therefore, is an ideal target for anti-PCa treatment. Indeed, several of the identified AR inhibitors demonstrated in vivo efficacy in mouse models of PCa and are candidates for pharmacologic optimization.

  18. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...... the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how...

  19. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  20. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  1. Surviving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Murjas, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Surviving Objects (2012) is a devised multi-media practice-as-research performance based on extensive interviews conducted with my elderly mother and recorded on a hand-held device. Our conversations concern her experiences as a child refugee following violent deportation by the Soviet Army from Eastern Poland to Siberia (1941), and her subsequent route, via Persia, to a British-run refugee camp in Northern Rhodesia, where she remained for 6 years before arriving in the UK. In order to aid my...

  2. Comprehensive regional and temporal gene expression profiling of the rat brain during the first 24 h after experimental stroke identifies dynamic ischemia-induced gene expression patterns, and reveals a biphasic activation of genes in surviving tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Gidö, Gunilla

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify biological processes relevant for cell death and survival in the brain following stroke, the postischemic brain transcriptome was studied by a large-scale cDNA array analysis of three peri-infarct brain regions at eight time points during the first 24 h of reperfusion following......-dehydrogenase1, and Choline kinase) or cell death-regulating genes such as mitochondrial CLIC. We conclude that a biphasic transcriptional up-regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways occurs in surviving...... tissue, concomitant with a progressive and persistent activation of cell proliferation signifying tissue regeneration, which provide the means for cell survival and postischemic brain plasticity....

  3. Technological advances in avalanche survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Martin I; Grissom, Colin K

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade, a proliferation of interest has emerged in the area of avalanche survival, yielding both an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of death after avalanche burial and technological advances in the development of survival equipment. The dismal survival statistics born out of the modern era of winter recreation unmistakably reveal that elapsed time and depth of burial are the most critical variables of survival and the focus of newer survival devices on the market. Although blunt trauma may kill up to one third of avalanche victims, early asphyxiation is the predominant mechanism of death, and hypothermia is rare. A survival plateau or delay in asphyxiation may be seen in those buried in respiratory communication with an air pocket until a critical accumulation of CO2 or an ice lens develops. The newest survival devices available for adjunctive protection, along with a transceiver and shovel, are the artificial air pocket device (AvaLung), the avalanche air bag system (ABS), and the Avalanche Ball. The artificial air pocket prolongs adequate respiration during snow burial and may improve survival by delaying asphyxiation. The ABS, which forces the wearer to the surface of the avalanche debris by inverse segregation to help prevent burial, has been in use in Europe for the last 10 years with an impressive track record. Finally, the Avalanche Ball is a visual locator device in the form of a spring-loaded ball attached to a tether, which is released from a fanny pack by a rip cord. Despite the excitement surrounding these novel technologies, avalanche avoidance through knowledge and conservative judgment will always be the mainstay of avalanche survival, never to be replaced by any device.

  4. Association between consanguinity and survival of marriages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mostafa Saadat

    2014-09-08

    Sep 8, 2014 ... ulation who have no plan for divorce (as control group) were included in the study. Results: ... proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the survival of marriage was lower signifi- ... Study design and participants.

  5. Generation of a Novel T Cell Specific Interleukin-1 Receptor Type 1 Conditional Knock Out Mouse Reveals Intrinsic Defects in Survival, Expansion and Cytokine Production of CD4 T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufazalov, Ilgiz A; Regen, Tommy; Schelmbauer, Carsten; Kuschmann, Janina; Muratova, Alisa M; Nikolaev, Alexei; Müller, Werner; Pinteaux, Emmanuel; Waisman, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a crucial role in numerous inflammatory diseases via action on its only known signaling IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1). To investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in selected cell types, we generated a new mouse strain in which exon 5 of the Il1r1 gene is flanked by loxP sites. Crossing of these mice with CD4-Cre transgenic mice resulted in IL-1R1 loss of function specifically in T cells. These mice, termed IL-1R1ΔT, displayed normal development under steady state conditions. Importantly, isolated CD4 positive T cells retained their capacity to differentiate toward Th1 or Th17 cell lineages in vitro, and strongly proliferated in cultures supplemented with either anti-CD3/CD28 or Concanavalin A, but, as predicted, were completely unresponsive to IL-1β administration. Furthermore, IL-1R1ΔT mice were protected from gut inflammation in the anti-CD3 treatment model, due to dramatically reduced frequencies and absolute numbers of IL-17A and interferon (IFN)-γ producing cells. Taken together, our data shows the necessity of intact IL-1 signaling for survival and expansion of CD4 T cells that were developed in an otherwise IL-1 sufficient environment.

  6. Retrospective Evaluation Reveals That Long-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy Improves Cause-Specific and Overall Survival in the Setting of Dose-Escalated Radiation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Blas, Kevin; Olson, Karin; Stenmark, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and duration for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated RT (minimum 75 Gy) with or without ADT was performed. The relationship between ADT use and duration with biochemical failure (BF), metastatic failure (MF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), non-prostate cancer death (NPCD), and overall survival (OS) was assessed as a function of pretreatment characteristics, comorbid medical illness, and treatment using Fine and Gray's cumulative incidence methodology. Results: The median follow-up time was 64 months. In men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network defined high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated RT, on univariate analysis, both metastasis (P<.0001; hazard ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.67; cumulative incidence at 60 months 13% vs 35%) and PCSM (P=.015; hazard ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0; cumulative incidence at 60 months 6% vs 11%) were improved with the use of ADT. On multivariate analysis for all high-risk patients, Gleason score was the strongest negative prognostic factor, and long-term ADT (LTAD) improved MF (P=.002), PCSM (P=.034), and OS (P=.001). In men with prostate cancer and Gleason scores 8 to 10, on multivariate analysis after adjustment for other risk features, there was a duration-dependent improvement in BF, metastasis, PCSM, and OS, all favoring LTAD in comparison with STAD or RT alone. Conclusion: For men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated EBRT, this retrospective study suggests that the combination of LTAD and RT provided a significant improvement in clinical outcome, which was especially true for those with Gleason scores of 8 to 10.

  7. A human iPSC model of Ligase IV deficiency reveals an important role for NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair in the survival and genomic stability of induced pluripotent stem cells and emerging haematopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, K; Neganova, I; Moreno-Gimeno, I; Al-Aama, J Y; Burks, D; Yung, S; Singhapol, C; Saretzki, G; Evans, J; Gorbunova, V; Gennery, A; Przyborski, S; Stojkovic, M; Armstrong, L; Jeggo, P; Lako, M

    2013-08-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most common form of DNA damage and are repaired by non-homologous-end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Several protein components function in NHEJ, and of these, DNA Ligase IV is essential for performing the final 'end-joining' step. Mutations in DNA Ligase IV result in LIG4 syndrome, which is characterised by growth defects, microcephaly, reduced number of blood cells, increased predisposition to leukaemia and variable degrees of immunodeficiency. In this manuscript, we report the creation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of LIG4 deficiency, which accurately replicates the DSB repair phenotype of LIG4 patients. Our findings demonstrate that impairment of NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair in human iPSC results in accumulation of DSBs and enhanced apoptosis, thus providing new insights into likely mechanisms used by pluripotent stem cells to maintain their genomic integrity. Defects in NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair also led to a significant decrease in reprogramming efficiency of human cells and accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities, suggesting a key role for NHEJ in somatic cell reprogramming and providing insights for future cell based therapies for applications of LIG4-iPSCs. Although haematopoietic specification of LIG4-iPSC is not affected per se, the emerging haematopoietic progenitors show a high accumulation of DSBs and enhanced apoptosis, resulting in reduced numbers of mature haematopoietic cells. Together our findings provide new insights into the role of NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair in the survival and differentiation of progenitor cells, which likely underlies the developmental abnormalities observed in many DNA damage disorders. In addition, our findings are important for understanding how genomic instability arises in pluripotent stem cells and for defining appropriate culture conditions that restrict DNA damage and result in ex vivo expansion of stem cells with intact genomes.

  8. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  9. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  10. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  11. Survival of Escherichia coli in stormwater biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, G I; Deletic, A; McCarthy, D T

    2014-04-01

    Biofilters are widely adopted in Australia for stormwater treatment, but the reported removal of common faecal indicators (such as Escherichia coli (E. coli)) varies from net removal to net leaching. Currently, the underlying mechanisms that govern the faecal microbial removal in the biofilters are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to study retention and subsequent survival of faecal microorganisms in the biofilters under different biofilter designs and operational characteristics. The current study investigates how E. coli survival is influenced by temperature, moisture content, sunlight exposure and presence of other microorganisms in filter media and top surface sediment. Soil samples were taken from two different biofilters to investigate E. coli survival under controlled laboratory conditions. Results revealed that the presence of other microorganisms and temperature are vital stressors which govern the survival of E. coli captured either in the top surface sediment or filter media, while sunlight exposure and moisture content are important for the survival of E. coli captured in the top surface sediment compared to that of the filter media. Moreover, increased survival was found in the filter media compared to the top sediment, and sand filter media was found be more hostile than loamy sand filter media towards E. coli survival. Results also suggest that the contribution from the tested environmental stressors on E. coli survival in biofilters will be greatly affected by the seasonality and may vary from one site to another.

  12. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  13. Survivability in warship design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, P.J.; Smit, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The initiative taken by the AVT panel to organise this symposium on combat survivability is much welcomed. From our perspective, the possibilities for the survivability experts within NATO to exchange their research efforts have always been rather limited. This symposium under sponsorship of the AVT

  14. Survival in Extreme Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Martin; Halsema, James

    1983-01-01

    Explores the psychosocial and environmental configurations involved in the survival of 500 civilians in a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines during World War II. Although conditions were very harsh, the survival rate of this group was better than expected. Discusses available demographic, social organizational, and cultural information.…

  15. Survivability in warship design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, P.J.; Smit, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The initiative taken by the AVT panel to organise this symposium on combat survivability is much welcomed. From our perspective, the possibilities for the survivability experts within NATO to exchange their research efforts have always been rather limited. This symposium under sponsorship of the AVT

  16. REVEALED ALTRUISM

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, James C; Friedman, Daniel; Sadiraj, Vjollca

    2009-01-01

    This pap er develops a theory of revealed preferences over oneís own and othersímonetary payo§s. We intro duce ìmore altruistic thanî(MAT), a partial ordering over preferences, and interpret it with known parametric mo dels. We also intro duce and illustrate ìmore generous thanî (MGT), a partial ordering over opp ortunity sets. Several recent discussions of altruism fo cus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the Örst mover (FM) cho oses a more or less gen...

  17. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  18. The survival of Coxiella burnetii in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, A. S.; Ul'Yanova, T. Yu.; Tarasevich, I. V.

    2007-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen of Q-fever—a widespread zoonosis. The effective adaptation of C. burnetii to intracellular existence is in contrast with its ability to survive in the environment outside the host cells and its resistance to chemical and physical agents. Its mechanism of survival remains unknown. However, its survival appears to be related to the developmental cycle of the microorganism itself, i.e., to the formation of its dormant forms. The survival of Coxiella burnetii was studied for the first time. The pathogenic microorganism was inoculated into different types of soil and cultivated under different temperatures. The survival of the pathogen was verified using a model with laboratory animals (mice). Viable C. burnetii were found in the soil even 20 days after their inoculation. The relationship between the organic carbon content in the soils and the survival of C. burnetii was revealed. Thus, the results obtained were the first to demonstrate that the soil may serve as a reservoir for the preservation and further spreading of the Q-fever pathogen in the environment, on the one hand, and reduce the risk of epidemics, on the other.

  19. Diatoms respire nitrate to survive dark and anoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; de Beer, Dirk; Nitsch, Jana L.

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms survive in dark, anoxic sediment layers for months to decades. Our investigation reveals a correlation between the dark survival potential of marine diatoms and their ability to accumulate NO3− intracellularly. Axenic strains of benthic and pelagic diatoms that stored 11–274 mM NO3− in th...

  20. Diatoms respire nitrate to survive dark and anoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; de Beer, Dirk; Nitsch, Jana L.

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms survive in dark, anoxic sediment layers for months to decades. Our investigation reveals a correlation between the dark survival potential of marine diatoms and their ability to accumulate NO3− intracellularly. Axenic strains of benthic and pelagic diatoms that stored 11–274 mM NO3− in th...

  1. Survivable Local Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhanced availability and survivability of communications between geographically remote locations with a minimum of redundancy of transmission...isolate bus segements on either side of a connection so that if a fault occurs only the segment containing the fault will be affected. The first type

  2. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  3. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  4. A Profile of Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimrin, Hanita

    1986-01-01

    Abused children who survived the trauma of their childhood and grew up to be well-adjusted were compared with a matched group who showed a high degree of psychosocial pathology. The variables which distinguished the two groups were fatalism, self-esteem, cognitive abilities, self-destructiveness, hope and fantasy, behavior patterns and external…

  5. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    of the SCPFs in Ghana. Distribution ties are associated with negative survival chances and this is not even reversed if the human capital of the owner increases although managers with higher human capital and higher distribution ties experience positive effects. Industry ties are associated with positive ties...

  6. Fighting for their survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gracie; Guo

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of economic performance of China’s painting&dyeing industry during the first five months of 2008 Relying on the researches on enterprises,China Dyeing and Printing Association works out the industry performance in the first five months this year.According to the results,painting&dyeing firms are fighting for their survival in 2008 with yuan appreciation,

  7. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  8. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF SURVIVAL IN RENAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Seriogin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to reveal the independent anatomic, histological, and clinical factors of cancer-specific survival in patients with renal-cell carcinoma (RCC. For this, the authors retrospectively analyzed their experience with radical surgical treatments in 73 RCC patients operated on at the Department of Urology and Surgical Andrology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2004; their outcomes have become known by the present time. There was a statistically significant correlation of cancer-specific survival with its parameters, such as pathological stage of a tumor, its maximum pathological size, differentiation grade, involvement of regional lymph nodes, venous tumor thrombosis, level of thrombocytosis, and degree of the clinical symptoms of the disease. Multivariate analysis of survival in RCC in relation to the prognostic factors could reveal odd ratios for the limit values of significant prognostic factors. The statistically significant prognostic values established in the present study, as well as the molecular factors the implication of which is being now investigated can become in future an effective addition to the TNM staging system to define indications for certain treatments and to predict survival in RCC  

  9. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF SURVIVAL IN RENAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Seriogin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to reveal the independent anatomic, histological, and clinical factors of cancer-specific survival in patients with renal-cell carcinoma (RCC. For this, the authors retrospectively analyzed their experience with radical surgical treatments in 73 RCC patients operated on at the Department of Urology and Surgical Andrology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2004; their outcomes have become known by the present time. There was a statistically significant correlation of cancer-specific survival with its parameters, such as pathological stage of a tumor, its maximum pathological size, differentiation grade, involvement of regional lymph nodes, venous tumor thrombosis, level of thrombocytosis, and degree of the clinical symptoms of the disease. Multivariate analysis of survival in RCC in relation to the prognostic factors could reveal odd ratios for the limit values of significant prognostic factors. The statistically significant prognostic values established in the present study, as well as the molecular factors the implication of which is being now investigated can become in future an effective addition to the TNM staging system to define indications for certain treatments and to predict survival in RCC  

  10. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  11. Survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wen-Chian; Hsiao, Hung-Chi; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2002-03-25

    To investigate the survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying, Bifidobacterium infantis CCRC 14633, B. infantis CCRC 14661, B. longum ATCC 15708, B. longum CCRC 14634 and B. longum B6 were first spray-dried with different carrier media including 10% (w/w) gelatin, gum arabic and soluble starch. B. infantis CCRC 14633 and B. longum were also determined in skim milk. It was found that survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying varied with strains and is highly dependent on the carriers used. Among the test organisms, B. longum B6 exhibited the least sensitivity to spray-drying and showed the highest survival of ca. 82.6% after drying with skim milk. Comparisons of the effect of carrier concentrations revealed that spray-drying at 10% (w/w) gelatin, gum arabic or soluble starch resulted in the highest survival of bifidobacteria. In addition, among the various outlet-air temperatures tested, bifidobacteria showed the highest survival after drying at 50 degrees C. Elevation of outlet-air temperature caused increased inactivation of bifidobacteria. However, the inactivation caused by increased outlet-air temperature varied with the carrier used, with the greatest reduction observed using soluble starch and the least with skim milk.

  12. The Absurdity Art in Yossarian Survives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke-qi

    2014-01-01

    Joseph Heller, an American black humor novelist, is good at making use of various writing techniques to reveal the ab-surdity of the world and the living dilemma of people. His short story Yossarian Survives is a pretty example, which portrays an absurd picture of modern American society. Through some experimental techniques, it shows us the absurd nature of the world through the absurdity of its plot and characters.

  13. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  14. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer Survival rates are often used by doctors ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  15. Evaluation Model of System Survivability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuling; PAN Shiying; TIAN Junfeng

    2006-01-01

    This paper puts forward a survivability evaluation model, SQEM(Survivability Quantitative Evaluation Model), based on lucubrating the main method existed. Then it defines the measurement factors and parses the survivability mathematically, introduces state change probability and the idea of setting the weights of survivability factors dynamically into the evaluating process of SQEM, which improved the accuracy of evaluation. An example is presented to illustrate the way SQEM works, which demonstrated the validity and feasibility of the method.

  16. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  17. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  18. Design of survivable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stoer, Mechthild

    1992-01-01

    The problem of designing a cost-efficient network that survives the failure of one or more nodes or edges of the network is critical to modern telecommunications engineering. The method developed in this book is designed to solve such problems to optimality. In particular, a cutting plane approach is described, based on polyhedral combinatorics, that is ableto solve real-world problems of this type in short computation time. These results are of interest for practitioners in the area of communication network design. The book is addressed especially to the combinatorial optimization community, but also to those who want to learn polyhedral methods. In addition, interesting new research problemsare formulated.

  19. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  20. Consistency of Random Survival Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwaran, Hemant; Kogalur, Udaya B

    2010-07-01

    We prove uniform consistency of Random Survival Forests (RSF), a newly introduced forest ensemble learner for analysis of right-censored survival data. Consistency is proven under general splitting rules, bootstrapping, and random selection of variables-that is, under true implementation of the methodology. Under this setting we show that the forest ensemble survival function converges uniformly to the true population survival function. To prove this result we make one key assumption regarding the feature space: we assume that all variables are factors. Doing so ensures that the feature space has finite cardinality and enables us to exploit counting process theory and the uniform consistency of the Kaplan-Meier survival function.

  1. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:22540252

  2. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    , and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations......, and 18 were best-practice statements. No recommendation was provided for four questions. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial agreement exists among a large cohort of international experts regarding many strong recommendations for the best care of patients with sepsis. Although a significant number of aspects...

  3. Lesotho: the politics of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, W F

    1982-01-01

    In this discussion of the politics of survival in Lesotho, attention is directed to the historical foundations; the road to dependency, the emergence of a political economy; and political transitions. The 1.25 million citizens of Lesotho enjoy a precarious independence. In November 1981, the government welcomed Russian military advisers. Presumably the reason for this was to help defend itself against the Republic of South Africa. This action was only the most recent of a series of increasingly hostile acts and verbal barrages which confirm the persistent aversion of Lesotho toward South Africa. The behavior contrasts markedly with an equally persistent pattern, that of continuous consultations between the Prime Minister of Lesotho since independence in 1966 and every leader of South Africa. The fact that some 200,000 Sotho workers, almost 1/6 of the nation's populaton, cross annually into South Africa to earn their only possible means of income lends a special character to this relationship. It reveals both the depth of Lesotho's aversion while equally affirming its reluctant dependence. It also illuminates a reciprocal need on the part of South Africa, which causes them to tolerate the irritant. The key to understanding the recent history of Lesotho lies with this fundamental interdependence and aversion. In the context of declining living standards at home and the demand for labor by South Africa, at first on the nearby farms and after 1867 in the mines and cities, Lesotho's economy became increasingly subject to political forces beyond its control. During even the early days of Moshoeshoe's reign, he encouraged youths to leave their families to obtain work among the aliens. His original objective was to have the youths learn useful new techniques which could be applied to enrich Lesotho beyond the few coins they might earn. The central focus of foreign employment before long became routine jobs in the mines. By the last decade of the 19th century, Lesotho

  4. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  5. Determination of Survivable Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  6. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  7. Genetic aspects of piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Piglet mortality is high. In the USA nearly 20% of the piglets do not survive between late gestation and weaning; 7% of the piglets die during farrowing and some 13% are lost during lactation. These statistics from the USA are no exception to the norm. Selection for increased piglet survival, if pos

  8. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  9. Understanding Cancer: Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  10. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures.

  11. Common raven juvenile survival in a human-augmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, William C.; Boarman, William I.; Rotenberry, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic resource subsidies have contributed to the dramatic increase in the abundance of Common Ravens (Corvus corax) in the western Mojave Desert, California, during the past 30 years. To better understand the effects of these subsidies on raven demography, we examined whether survival to juvenile departure from the natal territory could be predicted by a set of environmental and morphological variables, such as nest proximity to anthropogenic resources and juvenile condition. We captured 240 juvenile ravens over 2 years and marked them prior to fledging. Nest proximity to anthropogenic resources and earlier fledging dates significantly predicted raven juvenile survival to departure from the natal territory. The best-fitting mark-recapture models predicted postdeparture survival as a function of time since fledging, nest proximity to anthropogenic resources, and year hatched. The positive effect of nest proximity to anthropogenic resources influenced postdeparture survival for at least 9 months after fledging, as revealed by the mark-recapture analysis. Annual survival was 47% for first-year, 81% for second-year, and 83% for third-year birds. Our results support the hypothesis that anthropogenic resources contribute to increasing raven numbers via increased juvenile survival to departure as well as increased postdeparture survival. We expect raven numbers to grow in concert with the growing human presence in the Mojave Desert unless raven access to anthropogenic resources is diminished.

  12. Customer service skills for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium?

  13. Survival of shigellae in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardopoulos, J; Papakonstantinou, A; Kourti, H; Papavassiliou, J

    1980-09-01

    The survival of four Shigella strains in soil (Sh. sonnei, Sh. boydii, Sh. flexneri and Sh. dysenteriae) was studied under various conditions. Their survival period was tested in two different types of sterile soil at 18-20 degrees C and in one type of soil at 4 and 37 degrees C. This latter type of soil, after enrichment with casaminoacids or (NH4)2HPO4 was also used for testing again the survival of the strains at 18-20 degrees C. Though the initial number of the inoculated microorganisms was quite high (10(7) to 10(8) micr. per g of soil) the survival periods were generally short (6 to 39 days). It was found that their viability depended mainly on the bacterial species and not so much on the type of soil, enriched or not, and the temperature. Thus the survival period in soil was always longer for Sh. sonnei and Sh. boydii and shorter for Sh. flexneri and Sh. dysenteriae. The incubations at 4 degrees C or in enriched soil increased and in 37 degrees C decreased the longevity of the strains but for a few days.

  14. Naegleria meningitis : a rare survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain R

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute amebic meningoencephalitis caused by free-living amebae naegleria fowleri is extremely rare and uniformly fatal with only seven survivals reported till date. An interesting case of naegleria meningitis diagnosed by wet mount cytology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and treated with amphoterecin B, rifampicin and ornidazole with complete recovery is presented. In cases of suspected pyogenic meningitis, if CSF staining, antigen detection or culture is negative for bacteria, a wet mount cytology of CSF for naegleria is suggested. Early treatment with amphoterecin B and rifampicin may improve survival.

  15. Frailty Models in Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wienke, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of frailty offers a convenient way to introduce unobserved heterogeneity and associations into models for survival data. In its simplest form, frailty is an unobserved random proportionality factor that modifies the hazard function of an individual or a group of related individuals. "Frailty Models in Survival Analysis" presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental approaches in the area of frailty models. The book extensively explores how univariate frailty models can represent unobserved heterogeneity. It also emphasizes correlated frailty models as extensions of

  16. [Survival analysis of 104 cases of osteosarcoma with lung metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J; Xu, Y F; Kuang, T H; Chen, J; Liu, Y X

    2017-04-23

    Objective: To investigate the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and its correlated factors. Methods: The clinical data of 104 osteosarcoma patients with lung metastasis from April 2007 to September 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Log rank test. Multivariate Cox regression was applied to analyze independent prognostic factor for patient survival. Results: The one-year, two-year and five-year survival rates of the 104 osteosarcoma patients with lung pulmonary metastasis were 93.3%, 61.5% and 11.5%, respectively, and the median survival time was 33 months. The univariate analysis revealed that number of lung metastases, objective response of first-line chemotherapy and therapeutic methods for lung metastases were significant prognostic factors for patient survival, whereas gender, age, time to lung metastasis and time to other metastasis were not (P>0.05). The multivariate analysis indicated that number of lung metastases, objective response of first-line chemotherapy and therapeutic methods for lung metastases were independent significant prognostic factors for patient survival. Conclusions: The prognosis of osteosarcoma patients with advanced lung metastases and active treatment is better. Surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy could effectively prolong survival time for osteosarcoma patients with pulmonary metastasis.

  17. [Osteosarcoma lung metastases. Survival after chemotherapy and surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfalli, Germán L; Albergo, José I; Lobos, Pablo A; Smith, David E; Streitenberger, Patricia D; Pallotta Rodríguez, María G; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Five years overall survival in osteosarcoma patients is around 70%, although in patients with metastatic disease it is only 10-30%. The objective of this study was to analyze overall survival and prognostic factors in a group of patients with metastatic osteosarcoma treated with surgical removal of the lung metastases. A retrospective review from our oncology data base revealed 38 patients treated between 1992 and 2006. The mean age at diagnosis was 18 ± 9.4 years (3-45) and mean follow-up was 57 ± 53.8 months (12-231). All patients were treated with chemotherapy and oncologic resection of the primary tumor and surgical removal of the lung metastases. We analyzed overall survival and prognostic factors: age, gender, site, time of metastasis, local recurrences, number of lung metastasis and chemotherapy response (necrosis). Overall survival of the entire series was 29% at 5 years (CI 95%: 14.5-43.5) and 26% at 10 years (CI 95%: 12-40). Significant difference in 5 year overall survival was found between good and bad responders to chemotherapy, 53% (IC 95%: 28-78) vs. 8% (IC 95%: 0-20) (p = 0.0008). No statistically significant relationship between other prognostic factors analyzed was observed. Five and ten years overall survival rates in osteosarcoma patients with lung metastasis treated with chemotherapy and surgically resection is poor. Patients with good response to chemotherapy have better prognosis.

  18. Biofilm formation enhances Helicobacter pylori survivability in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Ho, Bow

    2017-04-01

    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term pigment dynamics and diatom survival in dark sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, B.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate survival of diatoms and long-term pigment dynamics in dark sediment, we incubated samples of homogenized, sieved, tidal-flat sediment for 1 yr in darkness. Microscopic observations revealed that some diatoms survived the full year in darkness and retained their pigments.

  20. Long-term pigment dynamics and diatom survival in dark sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, B.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate survival of diatoms and long-term pigment dynamics in dark sediment, we incubated samples of homogenized, sieved, tidal-flat sediment for 1 yr in darkness. Microscopic observations revealed that some diatoms survived the full year in darkness and retained their pigments. Conc

  1. Sensing and surviving hypoxia in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonz, Michael G; Buck, Leslie T; Perry, Steve F; Schwerte, Thorsten; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    Surviving hypoxia is one of the most critical challenges faced by vertebrates. Most species have adapted to changing levels of oxygen in their environment with specialized organs that sense hypoxia, while only few have been uniquely adapted to survive prolonged periods of anoxia. The goal of this review is to present the most recent research on oxygen sensing, adaptation to hypoxia, and mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in nonmammalian vertebrates. We discuss the respiratory structures in fish, including the skin, gills, and air-breathing organs, and recent evidence for chemosensory neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in these tissues that initiate reflex responses to hypoxia. The use of the zebrafish as a genetic and developmental model has allowed observation of the ontogenesis of respiratory and chemosensory systems, demonstration of a putative intracellular O2 sensor in chemoreceptors that may initiate transduction of the hypoxia signal, and investigation into the effects of extreme hypoxia on cardiorespiratory development. Other organisms, such as goldfish and freshwater turtles, display a high degree of anoxia tolerance, and these models are revealing important adaptations at the cellular level, such as the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in defense of homeostasis in central neurons.

  2. Survival probability in ataxia telangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, T O; Skolasky, R L; Fernandez, R; Rosquist, K J; Lederman, H M

    2006-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare, multiorgan neurodegenerative disorder with enhanced vulnerability to cancer and infection. Median survival in two large cohorts of patients with this disease, one prospective and one retrospective, is 25 and 19 years, with a wide range. Life expectancy does not correlate well with severity of neurological impairment. PMID:16790721

  3. Top 10 Staff Survival Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Laurie

    1995-01-01

    Tips for camp staff on how to survive summer camp include not giving campers sugary drinks before bedtime, setting behavior limits with campers, setting an example by following camp rules, getting enough rest, being fair and consistent, controlling anger, being accountable for actions, asking questions, and being flexible. (LP)

  4. Modelling survival and connectivity of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, J.; van Beek, J.; Augustine, S.; Vansteenbrugge, L.; van Walraven, L.; van Langenberg, V.; van der Veer, H.W.; Hostens, K.; Pitois, S.; Robbens, J.

    2015-01-01

    Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model

  5. Reading As a Survival Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Patricia E.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a technique for the development of survival reading activity packets for the science classroom. The reading packets described include labels from different food and medicine products and from magazine and newspaper articles. Three types of questions were used with each packet: factual, interpretive, and application. (DS)

  6. PTK6 regulates IGF-1-induced anchorage-independent survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Y Irie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteins that are required for anchorage-independent survival of tumor cells represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention since this property is believed to be critical for survival of tumor cells displaced from their natural niches. Anchorage-independent survival is induced by growth factor receptor hyperactivation in many cell types. We aimed to identify molecules that critically regulate IGF-1-induced anchorage-independent survival. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a high-throughput siRNA screen and identified PTK6 as a critical component of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R-induced anchorage-independent survival of mammary epithelial cells. PTK6 downregulation induces apoptosis of breast and ovarian cancer cells deprived of matrix attachment, whereas its overexpression enhances survival. Reverse-phase protein arrays and subsequent analyses revealed that PTK6 forms a complex with IGF-1R and the adaptor protein IRS-1, and modulates anchorage-independent survival by regulating IGF-1R expression and phosphorylation. PTK6 is highly expressed not only in the previously reported Her2(+ breast cancer subtype, but also in high grade ER(+, Luminal B tumors and high expression is associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight PTK6 as a critical regulator of anchorage-independent survival of breast and ovarian tumor cells via modulation of IGF-1 receptor signaling, thus supporting PTK6 as a potential therapeutic target for multiple tumor types. The combined genomic and proteomic approaches in this report provide an effective strategy for identifying oncogenes and their mechanism of action.

  7. Temporal and geographic variation in survival of juvenile black brant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.H.; Schmutz, J.A.; Sedinger, J.S.; Bollinger, K.S.; Martin, P.D.; Anderson, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    First-year survival has important implications for the structure and growth of populations. We examined variation in seasonal survival of first-year Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) marked late in summer in Alaska at two brood-rearing areas on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Tutakoke and Kokechik) and one area on the Arctic Coastal Plain to provide insight into the magnitude and timing of mortality during fall migration. First-year survival was lower in early fall (15 July-1 October), when birds fledged from brood-rearing areas and migrated to their primary fall staging area at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska, than during late fall and early winter (1 October-15 February), when birds made a long-distance transoceanic flight (>5000 km) to wintering areas in Baja California, Mexico. When compared to other years, monthly survival during early fall was 20-24% lower in 1992, the year of latest hatch dates and slowest growth of goslings. There was strong evidence to indicate that survival varied geographically within the early fall period. Monthly survival estimates during early fall were lowest for birds from Tutakoke, highest for birds from the Arctic Coastal Plain, and intermediate at Kokechik. Our findings revealed that most juvenile mortality occurred during the first 2 months following banding, and variation in juvenile survival during this period was likely influenced significantly by environmental parameters and habitat conditions on the breeding grounds. Monthly survival estimates during the subsequent 4 months were similar across geographic areas, and long-distance migration was likely the most important contributor to juvenile mortality during this period.

  8. Corticosteroids compromise survival in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitter, Kenneth L; Tamagno, Ilaria; Alikhanyan, Kristina; Hosni-Ahmed, Amira; Pattwell, Siobhan S; Donnola, Shannon; Dai, Charles; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Chang, Maria; Chan, Timothy A; Beal, Kathryn; Bishop, Andrew J; Barker, Christopher A; Jones, Terreia S; Hentschel, Bettina; Gorlia, Thierry; Schlegel, Uwe; Stupp, Roger; Weller, Michael; Holland, Eric C; Hambardzumyan, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumour. Standard of care consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and concomitant and maintenance temozolomide (temozolomide/radiotherapy→temozolomide). Corticosteroids are commonly used perioperatively to control cerebral oedema and are frequently continued throughout subsequent treatment, notably radiotherapy, for amelioration of side effects. The effects of corticosteroids such as dexamethasone on cell growth in glioma models and on patient survival have remained controversial. We performed a retrospective analysis of glioblastoma patient cohorts to determine the prognostic role of steroid administration. A disease-relevant mouse model of glioblastoma was used to characterize the effects of dexamethasone on tumour cell proliferation and death, and to identify gene signatures associated with these effects. A murine anti-VEGFA antibody was used in parallel as an alternative for oedema control. We applied the dexamethasone-induced gene signature to The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma dataset to explore the association of dexamethasone exposure with outcome. Mouse experiments were used to validate the effects of dexamethasone on survival in vivo Retrospective clinical analyses identified corticosteroid use during radiotherapy as an independent indicator of shorter survival in three independent patient cohorts. A dexamethasone-associated gene expression signature correlated with shorter survival in The Cancer Genome Atlas patient dataset. In glioma-bearing mice, dexamethasone pretreatment decreased tumour cell proliferation without affecting tumour cell viability, but reduced survival when combined with radiotherapy. Conversely, anti-VEGFA antibody decreased proliferation and increased tumour cell death, but did not affect survival when combined with radiotherapy. Clinical and mouse experimental data suggest that corticosteroids may decrease the effectiveness of treatment and shorten

  9. Hard diffraction with dynamic gap survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christine O.; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2016-02-01

    We present a new framework for the modelling of hard diffraction in pp and poverline{p} collisions. It starts from the the approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, wherein the single diffractive cross section is factorized into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF. To this it adds a dynamically calculated rapidity gap survival factor, derived from the modelling of multiparton interactions. This factor is not relevant for diffraction in ep collisions, giving non-universality between HERA and Tevatron diffractive event rates. The model has been implemented in P ythia 8 and provides a complete description of the hadronic state associated with any hard single diffractive process. Comparisons with poverline{p} and pp data reveal improvement in the description of single diffractive events.

  10. Hard Diffraction with Dynamic Gap Survival

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Christine O

    2015-01-01

    We present a new framework for the modelling of hard diffraction in pp and ppbar collisions. It starts from the the approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, wherein the single diffractive cross section is factorized into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF. To this it adds a dynamically calculated rapidity gap survival factor, derived from the modelling of multiparton interactions. This factor is not relevant for diffraction in ep collisions, giving non-universality between HERA and Tevatron diffractive event rates. The model has been implemented in Pythia 8 and provides a complete description of the hadronic state associated with any hard single diffractive process. Comparisons with ppbar and pp data reveal improvement in the description of single diffractive events.

  11. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  12. Plasticity and rectangularity in survival curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

    2011-09-01

    Living systems inevitably undergo a progressive deterioration of physiological function with age and an increase of vulnerability to disease and death. To maintain health and survival, living systems should optimize survival strategies with adaptive interactions among molecules, cells, organs, individuals, and environments, which arises plasticity in survival curves of living systems. In general, survival dynamics in a population is mathematically depicted by a survival rate, which monotonically changes from 1 to 0 with age. It would be then useful to find an adequate function to describe complicated survival dynamics. Here we describe a flexible survival function, derived from the stretched exponential function by adopting an age-dependent shaping exponent. We note that the exponent is associated with the fractal-like scaling in cumulative mortality rate. The survival function well depicts general features in survival curves; healthy populations exhibit plasticity and evolve towards rectangular-like survival curves, as examples in humans or laboratory animals.

  13. Survivability Modeling & Simulation(Aircraft Survivability, Fall 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Mumford Please welcome Carey "Chip" Mumford to the...capabilities and updated penetration equations. COVART Chip Mumford A ir cr af t S ur vi va bi li ty • Fa ll 2 00 9 • h tt ps :/ /j as po .w pa fb...Beach, FL MAY JASP Aircraft Combat Survivability Short Course 4–7 May 2010 NPS, Monterey, CA SpecOps West 2010 10–12 May 2010 Ft. Lewis , WA

  14. A spatial scan statistic for survival data based on Weibull distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vijaya; Tiwari, Neeraj

    2014-05-20

    The spatial scan statistic has been developed as a geographical cluster detection analysis tool for different types of data sets such as Bernoulli, Poisson, ordinal, normal and exponential. We propose a scan statistic for survival data based on Weibull distribution. It may also be used for other survival distributions, such as exponential, gamma, and log normal. The proposed method is applied on the survival data of tuberculosis patients for the years 2004-2005 in Nainital district of Uttarakhand, India. Simulation studies reveal that the proposed method performs well for different survival distribution functions.

  15. Bacterial survival in Martian conditions

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessandro, Giuseppe Galletta; Giulio Bertoloni; Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We shortly discuss the observable consequences of the two hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth and Mars: the Lithopanspermia (Mars to Earth or viceversa) and the origin from a unique progenitor, that for Earth is called LUCA (the LUCA hypothesis). To test the possibility that some lifeforms similar to the terrestrial ones may survive on Mars, we designed and built two simulators of Martian environments where to perform experiments with different bacterial strains: LISA and mini-LISA. Our LISA environmental chambers can reproduce the conditions of many Martian locations near the surface trough changes of temperature, pressure, UV fluence and atmospheric composition. Both simulators are open to collaboration with other laboratories interested in performing experiments on many kind of samples (biological, minerals, electronic) in situations similar to that of the red planet. Inside LISA we have studied the survival of several bacterial strains and endospores. We verified that the UV light is the major re...

  16. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. Methods We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007?2012 (n=9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  17. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dispersion as a Survival Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Machado, Fábio Prates; Roldán-Correa, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    We consider stochastic growth models to represent population subject to catastrophes. We analyze the subject from different set ups considering or not spatial restrictions, whether dispersion is a good strategy to increase the population viability. We find out it strongly depends on the effect of a catastrophic event, the spatial constraints of the environment and the probability that each exposed individual survives when a disaster strikes.

  19. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  20. Illusory contour formation survives crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jonathan Siu Fung; Cheung, Sing-Hang

    2012-06-12

    Flanked objects are difficult to identify using peripheral vision due to visual crowding, which limits conscious access to target identity. Nonetheless, certain types of visual information have been shown to survive crowding. Such resilience to crowding provides valuable information about the underlying neural mechanism of crowding. Here we ask whether illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. We manipulated the presence of illusory contours through the (mis)alignment of the four inducers of a Kanizsa square. In the inducer-aligned condition, the observers judged the perceived shape (thin vs. fat) of the illusory Kanizsa square, manipulated by small rotations of the inducers. In the inducer-misaligned condition, three of the four inducers (all except the upper-left) were rotated 90°. The observers judged the orientation of the upper-left inducer. Crowding of the inducers worsened observers' performance significantly only in the inducer-misaligned condition. Our findings suggest that information for illusory contour formation survives crowding of the inducers. Crowding happens at a stage where the low-level featural information is integrated for inducer orientation discrimination, but not at a stage where the same information is used for illusory contour formation.

  1. Relative survival multistate Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszti, Ella; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Alioum, Ahmadou; Binquet, Christine; Quantin, Catherine

    2012-02-10

    Prognostic studies often have to deal with two important challenges: (i) separating effects of predictions on different 'competing' events and (ii) uncertainty about cause of death. Multistate Markov models permit multivariable analyses of competing risks of, for example, mortality versus disease recurrence. On the other hand, relative survival methods help estimate disease-specific mortality risks even in the absence of data on causes of death. In this paper, we propose a new Markov relative survival (MRS) model that attempts to combine these two methodologies. Our MRS model extends the existing multistate Markov piecewise constant intensities model to relative survival modeling. The intensity of transitions leading to death in the MRS model is modeled as the sum of an estimable excess hazard of mortality from the disease of interest and an 'offset' defined as the expected hazard of all-cause 'natural' mortality obtained from relevant life-tables. We evaluate the new MRS model through simulations, with a design based on registry-based prognostic studies of colon cancer. Simulation results show almost unbiased estimates of prognostic factor effects for the MRS model. We also applied the new MRS model to reassess the role of prognostic factors for mortality in a study of colorectal cancer. The MRS model considerably reduces the bias observed with the conventional Markov model that does not permit accounting for unknown causes of death, especially if the 'true' effects of a prognostic factor on the two types of mortality differ substantially.

  2. Prognostic and survival analysis of presbyopia: The healthy twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Adiyani; Sung, Joohon

    2015-12-01

    Presbyopia, a vision condition in which the eye loses its flexibility to focus on near objects, is part of ageing process which mostly perceptible in the early or mid 40s. It is well known that age is its major risk factor, while sex, alcohol, poor nutrition, ocular and systemic diseases are known as common risk factors. However, many other variables might influence the prognosis. Therefore in this paper we developed a prognostic model to estimate survival from presbyopia. 1645 participants which part of the Healthy Twin Study, a prospective cohort study that has recruited Korean adult twins and their family members based on a nation-wide registry at public health agencies since 2005, were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis as well as Cox proportional hazard model to reveal the prognostic factors for presbyopia while survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Besides age, sex, diabetes, and myopia; the proposed model shows that education level (especially engineering program) also contribute to the occurrence of presbyopia as well. Generally, at 47 years old, the chance of getting presbyopia becomes higher with the survival probability is less than 50%. Furthermore, our study shows that by stratifying the survival curve, MZ has shorter survival with average onset time about 45.8 compare to DZ and siblings with 47.5 years old. By providing factors that have more effects and mainly associate with presbyopia, we expect that we could help to design an intervention to control or delay its onset time.

  3. Reducing synuclein accumulation improves neuronal survival after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerson, Stephanie M.; van Brummen, Alexandra J.; Busch, David J.; Allen, Scott R.; Roychaudhuri, Robin; Banks, Susan M. L.; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Morgan, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury causes neuronal death, limiting subsequent regeneration and recovery. Thus, there is a need to develop strategies for improving neuronal survival after injury. Relative to our understanding of axon regeneration, comparatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote the survival of damaged neurons. To address this, we took advantage of lamprey giant reticulospinal neurons whose large size permits detailed examination of post-injury molecular responses at the level of individual, identified cells. We report here that spinal cord injury caused a select subset of giant reticulospinal neurons to accumulate synuclein, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein best known for its atypical aggregation and causal role in neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s and other diseases. Post-injury synuclein accumulation took the form of punctate aggregates throughout the somata and occurred selectively in dying neurons, but not in those that survived. In contrast, another synaptic vesicle protein, synaptotagmin, did not accumulate in response to injury. We further show that the post-injury synuclein accumulation was greatly attenuated after single dose application of either the “molecular tweezer” inhibitor, CLR01, or a translation-blocking synuclein morpholino. Consequently, reduction of synuclein accumulation not only improved neuronal survival, but also increased the number of axons in the spinal cord proximal and distal to the lesion. This study is the first to reveal that reducing synuclein accumulation is a novel strategy for improving neuronal survival after spinal cord injury. PMID:26854933

  4. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival probabil......Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  5. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  6. Price Impact and Survival of Irrational Traders

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Kogan; Stephan Ross; Jiang Wang; Mark Westerfield

    2004-01-01

    Milton Friedman argued that irrational traders will consistently lose money, won’t survive and, therefore, cannot influence long run equilibrium asset prices. Since his work, survival and price impact have been assumed to be the same. In this paper, we demonstrate that survival and price impact are two independent concepts. The price impact of irrational traders does not rely on their long-run survival and they can have a significant impact on asset prices even when their wealth becomes negli...

  7. Ion channels in neuronal survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The study of ion channels represents one of the most active fields in neuroscience research in China.In the last 10 years,active research in various Chinese neuroscience institutions has sought to understand the mechanisms responsible for sensory processing,neural development and neurogenesis,neural plasticity,as well as pathogenesis.In addition,extensive studies have been directed to measure ion channel activity,structure-function relationships,as well as many other biophysical and biochemical properties.This review focuses on the progress achieved in the investigation of ion channels in neuronal survival during the past 10 years in China.

  8. Survival paths through the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    in appropriate prevention programs it is important to assess the individual risk with high accuracy. Generally, genetic information plays an important role for many diseases and will help to improve the accuracy of existing risk prediction models. However, conventional regression models have several limitations....... In survival analysis with competing risks I present an extension of random forest using time-dependent pseudo-values to build event risk prediction models. This approach is evaluated with data from Copenhagen stroke study. Further, I will explain how to use the R-package "pec" to evaluate random forests using...

  9. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaicha D. Winters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum

  10. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  11. 38 CFR 3.502 - Surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surviving spouses. 3.502..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Reductions and Discontinuances § 3.502 Surviving... compensation to or for a surviving spouse will be the earliest of the dates stated in this section. Where...

  12. Heat reveals faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinreich, Bernhard [Solarschmiede GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Gremlins cannot hide from the all-revealing view of a thermographic camera, whereby it makes no difference whether it is a roof-mounted system or a megawatt-sized farm. Just as diverse are the range of faults that, with the growing level of expertise, can now be detected and differentiated with even greater detail. (orig.)

  13. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  14. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    and differences in incidence were assessed by Poisson regression and stratified by sex. Survival differences were assessed by Cox regression using all-cause and cause-specific mortality as outcome. Male refugees had significantly lower incidence of CVD (RR = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.85-0.93) and stroke (IRR = 0.62; 95...... significantly lower incidence of CVD, AMI and stroke. All-cause and cause-specific survival after CVD, AMI and stroke was similar or significantly better for migrants compared to Danish-born, regardless of type of migrant (refugee vs. family-reunified) or country of origin. Refugees are disadvantaged in terms...... % CI 0.56-0.69) compared to Danish-born, but significantly higher incidence of AMI (IRR = 1.12; 95 % CI 1.02-1.24). Female refugees had similar rates of CVD and AMI, but significantly lower incidence of stroke (RR = 0.76; 95 % CI 0.67-0.85). Both male and female family-reunified immigrants had...

  15. Crossover studies with survival outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyze, Jozefien; Goetghebeur, Els

    2013-12-01

    Crossover designs are well known to have major advantages when comparing the effect of two treatments which do not interact. With a right-censored survival endpoint, however, this design is quickly abandoned in favour of the more costly parallel design. Motivated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies which lacked power, we evaluate what may be gained in this setting and compare parallel with crossover designs. In a heterogeneous population, we find and explain a substantial increase in power for the crossover study using a non-parametric logrank test. With frailties in a proportional hazards model, crossover designs equally lead to substantially smaller variance for the subject-specific hazard ratio (HR), while the population-averaged HR sees negligible gain. Its efficiency benefit is recovered when the population-averaged HR is reconstructed from estimated subject-specific hazard rates. We derive the time point for treatment crossover that optimizes efficiency and end with the analysis of two recent HIV prevention trials. We find that a Cellulose sulphate trial could have hardly gained efficiency from a crossover design, while a Nonoxynol-9 trial stood to gain substantial power. We conclude that there is a role for effective crossover designs in important classes of survival problems.

  16. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  17. 20 CFR 725.213 - Duration of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse. 725.213 Section 725.213 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... Benefits) § 725.213 Duration of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse. (a)...

  18. 20 CFR 725.212 - Conditions of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving divorced spouse. 725.212 Section 725.212 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.212 Conditions of entitlement; surviving spouse or surviving...

  19. Role of anti-stromal polypharmacy in increasing survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel; J; Tingle; John; A; Moir; Steven; A; White

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the survival impact of common pharmaceuticals, which target stromal interactions, following a pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Data was collected retrospectively for 164 patients who underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma(PDAC). Survival analysis was performed on patients receiving the following medications: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors(ACEI)/angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers(ARB), calcium channel blockers(CCB), aspirin, and statins. Statistical analysis included Kaplan-meier survival estimates and cox multivariate regression; the latter of which allowed for any differences in a range of prognostic indicators between groups. Medications showing a significant survival benefit were investigated in combination with other medications to evaluate synergistic effects.RESULTS: No survival benefit was observed with respect to ACEI/ARB(n = 41), aspirin or statins on individual drug analysis(n = 39). However, the entire CCB group(n = 26) showed a significant survival benefit on multivariate cox regression; hazard ratio(HR) of 0.475(CI = 0.250-0.902, P = 0.023). Further analysis revealed that this was influenced by a group of patients who were taking aspirin in combination with CCB; median survival was significantly higher in the CCB + aspirin group(n = 15) compared with the group taking neither drug(n = 98); 1414 d vs 601 d(P = 0.029, logrank test). Multivariate cox regression revealed neither aspirin nor CCB had a statistically significant impact on survival when given alone, however in combination the survival benefit was significant; HR = 0.332(CI = 0.126-0.870, P = 0.025). None of the other medications showed a survival benefit in any combination.CONCLUSION: Aspirin + CCB in combination appears to increase survival in patients with PDAC, highlighting the potential clinical use of combination therapy to target stromal interactions in pancreatic cancer.

  20. Effects of yearling, juvenile and adult survival on reef manta ray (Manta alfredi) demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M; van der Ouderaa, Isabelle B C; Tibiriçá, Yara

    2016-01-01

    The trade in manta ray gill plates has considerably increased over the last two decades. The resulting increases in ray mortality, in addition to mortality caused by by-catch, has caused many ray populations to decrease in size. The aim of this study was to ascertain how yearling and juvenile growth and survival, and adult survival and reproduction affect reef manta ray (Manta alfredi) population change, to increase our understanding of manta ray demography and thereby improve conservation research and measures for these fish. We developed a population projection model for reef manta rays, and used published life history data on yearling and juvenile growth and adult reproduction to parameterise the model. Because little is known about reef manta ray yearling and juvenile survival, we conducted our analyses using a range of plausible survival rate values for yearlings, juveniles and adults. The model accurately captured observed variation in population growth rate, lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time in different reef manta ray populations. Our demographic analyses revealed a range of population consequences in response to variation in demographic rates. For example, an increase in yearling or adult survival rates always elicited greater responses in population growth rate, lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time than the same increase in juvenile survival rate. The population growth rate increased linearly, but lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time increased at an accelerating rate with increasing yearling or adult survival rates. Hence, even a small increase in survival rate could increase lifetime reproductive success by one pup, and cohort generation time by several years. Elasticity analyses revealed that, depending on survival rate values of all life stages, the population growth rate is either most sensitive to changes in the rate with which juveniles survive but stay juveniles (i.e., do not mature

  1. The game jam survival guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kaitila, Christer

    2012-01-01

    The Game Jam Survival Guide is an insider view of game jams packed full of expert advice; leading with tips and tricks on how to build a great game with just 48 hours; but clearly defining what should be avoided at all costs during Game Jam mayhem. The reader is led through each half-day phase; from the beginning of your quest in hours 1-12 to breaking through ""the wall"" on day two and finally reaching the finishing line in hours 37-48. Although the book is intended for beginners and experts alike, the reader will already know how to program (in any language). He or she will love games and w

  2. Surviving Scientific Academia . . . and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    It's been 16 years since I first took a physics class at Weber State University. Since them, I've survived graduate school in Nuclear Engineering, and a postdoc appointment doing nuclear nonproliferation. Now I'm a Technical Staff Member at Los Alamos National Laboratory working with nuclear data, the physics behind the numerical simulations of nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. Along the way, I've learned a few things. First, scientific computing is everywhere in science. If you are not writing codes, you will be analyzing their output, and generally there will be more output than a human can correctly and accurately interpret in a timely manner. Second, a career in science or engineering can be very rewarding with opportunities to collaborate with and generate friendships with very bright people from all over the world.

  3. Mechanisms of Intracellular Chlamydiae Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukic Ruzica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, non-motile, obligate intracellular, and spherically shaped bacteria with a diameter of 0.2-1.5 μm. Chlamydiae are present in several different morphological forms: the elementary body, the reticular body, and in the last several years, there has been the observation of a third form known as the persistent or atypical form. The intracellular localization of Chlamydia provides a unique replication cycle that occurs inside a membrane-surrounded vacuole in the host cell cytoplasm and is significantly different from the method of multiplication of other microorganisms. Chlamydiae are capable of manipulating different signalling pathways inside the infected cell, thus avoiding the host immune response. This ensures intracellular multiplication, survival, and long-term persistence of Chlamydiae. There are two basic means of achieving this persistence: inhibition of apoptosis and manipulation of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B-mediated signals in the host.

  4. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  5. Quantifying the contribution of genetic variants for survival phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martina; Döring, Angela; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Lamina, Claudia; Malzahn, Dörthe; Bickeböller, Heike; Vollmert, Caren; Klopp, Norman; Meisinger, Christa; Heinrich, Joachim; Kronenberg, Florian; Wichmann, H Erich; Heid, Iris M

    2008-09-01

    Particularly in studies based on population representative samples, it is of major interest what impact a genetic variant has on the phenotype of interest, which cannot be answered by mere association estimates alone. One possible measure for quantifying the phenotype's variance explained by the genetic variant is R(2). However, for survival outcomes, no clear definition of R(2) is available in the presence of censored observations. We selected three criteria proposed for this purpose in the literature and compared their performance for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data through simulation studies and for mortality data with candidate SNPs in the general population-based KORA cohort. The evaluated criteria were based on: (1) the difference of deviance residuals, (2) the variation of individual survival curves, and (3) the variation of Schoenfeld residuals. Our simulation studies included various censoring and genetic scenarios. The simulation studies revealed that the deviance residuals' criterion had a high dependence on the censoring percentage, was generally not limited to the range [0; 1] and therefore lacked interpretation as a percentage of explained variation. The second criterion (variation of survival curves) hardly reached values above 60%. Our requirements were best fulfilled by the criterion based on Schoenfeld residuals. Our mortality data analysis also supported the findings in simulation studies. With the criterion based on Schoenfeld residuals, we recommend a powerful and flexible tool for genetic epidemiological studies to refine genetic association studies by judging the contribution of genetic variants to survival phenotype.

  6. Integrative Genomics with Mediation Analysis in a Survival Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilárd Nemes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA copy number aberrations (DCNA and subsequent altered gene expression profiles may have a major impact on tumor initiation, on development, and eventually on recurrence and cancer-specific mortality. However, most methods employed in integrative genomic analysis of the two biological levels, DNA and RNA, do not consider survival time. In the present note, we propose the adoption of a survival analysis-based framework for the integrative analysis of DCNA and mRNA levels to reveal their implication on patient clinical outcome with the prerequisite that the effect of DCNA on survival is mediated by mRNA levels. The specific aim of the paper is to offer a feasible framework to test the DCNA-mRNA-survival pathway. We provide statistical inference algorithms for mediation based on asymptotic results. Furthermore, we illustrate the applicability of the method in an integrative genomic analysis setting by using a breast cancer data set consisting of 141 invasive breast tumors. In addition, we provide implementation in R.

  7. Beating the odds--surviving extreme hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Philip M; Letterer, Sebastian; Lindner, Ulrich; Lehnert, Hendrik; Haas, Christian Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Severe hyperkalemia (>7 mmol/L) is a medical emergency because of possible fatal arrhythmias. We here report the case of a 58-year-old woman surviving extreme hyperkalemia (>10 mmol/L). The patient with a history of congestive heart failure, a DDD pacemaker and mild chronic renal insufficiency was admitted with progressive weakness and sudden onset of hypotension and bradycardia in the absence of any pacemaker action. Laboratory tests revealed an extreme serum potassium level of 10.1 mmol/L, with a slightly elevated serum creatinine of 149 μmol/L. Treatment with norepinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, and insulin improved both the hemodynamic situation and the serum potassium with subsequent regaining pacemaker actions even before additional hemodialysis normalized the potassium level. A thorough investigation demonstrated that several mechanisms contributed to the extreme potassium level: urinalysis and a low transtubular potassium gradient in the presence of metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap pointed to preexisting interstitial nephritis, with renal tubular acidosis type IV as the predisposing factor, whereas several drugs and acute impairment of renal function contributed to the dangerous situation. Despite the odds for fatal outcome, the patient recovered completely, and long-term management was initiated to prevent recurrent hyperkalemia.

  8. Is Human Papillomavirus Associated with Prostate Cancer Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosa Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of human papillomavirus (HPV in prostate carcinogenesis is highly controversial: some studies suggest a positive association between HPV infection and an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa, whereas others do not reveal any correlation. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of HPV infection on survival in 150 primary PCa patients. One hundred twelve (74.67% patients had positive expression of HPV E7 protein, which was evaluated in tumour tissue by immunohistochemistry. DNA analysis on a subset of cases confirmed HPV infection and revealed the presence of genotype 16. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, HPV-positive cancer patients showed worse overall survival (OS (median 4.59 years compared to HPV-negative (median 8.24 years, P=0.0381. In multivariate analysis age (P<0.001, Gleason score (P<0.001, nuclear grading (P=0.002, and HPV status (P=0.034 were independent prognostic factors for OS. In our cohort, we observed high prevalence of HPV nuclear E7 oncoprotein and an association between HPV infection and PCa survival. In the debate about the oncogenic activity of HPV in PCa, our results further confirm the need for additional studies to clarify the possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis.

  9. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  10. Ancient DNA reveals late survival of mammoth and horse in interior Alaska

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haile, James; Froese, Duane G; Macphee, Ross D E

    2009-01-01

    Causes of late Quaternary extinctions of large mammals ("megafauna") continue to be debated, especially for continental losses, because spatial and temporal patterns of extinction are poorly known. Accurate latest appearance dates (LADs) for such taxa are critical for interpreting the process of ...

  11. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Discrete Survival Responses of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to Sapienic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Josephine C.; Alorabi, Jamal A.; Horsburgh, Malcolm J.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcal colonization of human skin is ubiquitous, with particular species more frequent at different body sites. Whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis can be isolated from the skin of every individual tested, Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from arginine deiminase, the oxygen-responsive NreABC nitrogen regulation system and the nitrate and nitrite reduction pathways. The role of S. aureus ACME and chromosomal arginine deiminase pathways in sapienic acid resistance was determined through mutational studies. We speculate that ammonia production could contribute to sapienic acid resistance in staphylococci. PMID:28179897

  12. Epidemiology and Survival Analysis of Jordanian Female Breast Cancer Patients Diagnosed from 1997 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Sharkas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Jordanian women, yet survival data are scarce. This study aims to assess the observed five-year survival rate of breast cancer in Jordan from 1997 to 2002 and to determine factors that may influence survival. Methods: Data were obtained from the Jordan Cancer Registry (JCR, which is a population-based registry. From 1997-2002, 2121 patients diagnosed with breast cancer were registered in JCR. Relevant data were collected from JCR files, hospital medical records and histopathology reports. Patient's status, whether alive or dead, wasascertained from the Department of Civil Status using patients’ national numbers (ID. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (version 10. Survival probabilities by age, morphology, grade, stage and other relevant variables were obtained with the Kaplan Meier method. Results: The overall five-year survival for breast cancer in Jordan, regardless of the stage or grade was 64.2%, meanwhile it was 58% in the group aged less than 30 years. The best survival was in the age group 40-49 years (69.3%. The survival for adenocarcinoma was 57.4% and for medullary carcinoma, it was 82%. The survival rate approximated 73.8% for well-differentiated, 55.6% for anaplastic, and 58% for poorly differentiated cancers. The five-year survival rate was 82.7% for stage I, 72.2% for stage II, 58.7% for stage III, and 34.6% for stage IV cancers.Conclusion: According to univariate analysis, stage, grade, age and laterality of breast cancer significantly influenced cancer survival. Cox regression analysis revealed that stage, grade and age factors correlated with prognosis, while laterality showed no significant effect on survival. Results demonstrated that overall survival was relatively poor. We hypothesized that this was due to low levels of awareness and lack of screening programs.

  13. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  14. The Survival Processing Effect with Intentional Learning of Ad Hoc Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Savchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that memory is adapted to remember information when it is processed in a survival context. This study investigates how procedural changes in Marinho (2012 study might have led to her failure to replicate the survival mnemonic advantage. In two between-subjects design experiments, participants were instructed to learn words from ad hoc categories and to rate their relevance to a survival or a control scenario. No survival advantage was obtained in either experiment. The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering (ARC scores revealed that including the category labels made the participants rely more on the category structure of the list. Various procedural aspects of the conducted experiments are discussed as possible reasons underlying the absence of the survival effect.

  15. The Prisoners of War Experiences and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO, NO. NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasification )THE PRISONERS OF WAR EXPERIENCES AND SURVIVAL 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...influence of American values and a history of freedom and opportunity is linked to the struggle of the POWs to survive and ultimately be released with...tiny frag- ments). Most of what we ate I considered inedible before prison, 3 but meat--even dog meat--is the prime source of protein , and to survive

  16. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry...... are investigated via simulation studies, and the suggested estimators are used in a study of prostate cancer based on the Finnish twin cohort where a twin pair is included only if both twins were alive in 1974....

  17. Catabolism of volatile organic compounds influences plant survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Patricia Y; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2013-12-01

    Plants emit a diverse array of phytogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The production and emission of VOCs has been an important area of research for decades. However, recent research has revealed the importance of VOC catabolism by plants and VOC degradation in the atmosphere for plant growth and survival. Specifically, VOC catabolism and degradation have implications for plant C balance, tolerance to environmental stress, plant signaling, and plant-atmosphere interactions. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of VOC catabolism and degradation, propose experiments for investigating VOC catabolism, and suggest ways to incorporate catabolism into VOC emission models. Improving our knowledge of VOC catabolism and degradation is crucial for understanding plant metabolism and predicting plant survival in polluted environments.

  18. Herbicide tolerance and seed survival of grain amaranth (Amaranthus sp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Taberner, Andreu; de Troiani, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    crop damage applied at the 4-6 leaf stage compared to the 2-4 leaf stage while clopyralid was selective at both growth stages. The seed survival studies revealed differences between the countries with higher viability in Spain (up to 18%) than in Argentina and Denmark (up to 6%). Our results showed......Amaranth is receiving increasing attention as an alternative crop to small grain cereals. From a weed control point of view cultivation of amaranth poses two problems. Firstly, amaranth grows slowly after emergence and hence is very susceptible to competition by weeds and secondly, seed losses...... at harvest are significant due to an uneven maturing and volunteer amaranth plants could potentially become a weed problem in following crops. Nonetheless, no studies are available on the tolerance of amaranth to herbicides or the survival of seeds in the soil. In this study we examined 1) the tolerance...

  19. Mineralogy and Microbial Survival During Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, E. U.; Gilbert, K.; Bennett, P.

    2010-12-01

    When CO2 is sequestered in deep saline aquifers, a region of high dissolved CO2 surrounds the supercritical CO2 plume. While microbial life will doubtless be perturbed as a result of the CO2 injection, survival may be possible in the region of high dissolved CO2. Mineralogy of the aquifer may influence which microorganisms survive by providing substrates for lithotrophic microbes and determining the competitiveness of microbes in the subsurface. Iron-rich minerals like hematite, for example, provide a terminal electron acceptor for dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) that is essential for their respiration. Mineral dissolution may also provide toxicity for microbes providing increased concentration of toxic elements like Al in groundwater as a result of feldspar or clay dissolution. We investigated, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model DIRB, grown in the presence of representative minerals found in deep saline aquifers including carbonate minerals, silicate minerals, and clays. Cultures were subjected to 20 to 25 atm of CO2 at 30° C for 2 to 8 hours in modified Parr reactors. Cultures were plated to determine viability after CO2 stress and imaged using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Preliminary results show that MR-1 grown in the presence of dolomite and subjected to 20 atm of CO2 for 2 hours results in decreased viability in comparison to cells grown with hematite or no minerals present. This suggests there is selective toxicity with dolomite, possibly due to an increase in dissolved Mg. Additionally, ESEM imaging revealed a change in cell morphology from plump rods to thin, pointy cells after incubating in CO2 for 8 hours at 25 atm. This change in cell morphology may be the result of cell damage due to CO2 stress. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic

  20. Shared Frailty Model for Left-Truncated Multivariate Survival Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Brookmeyer, Ron; Aaby, Peter;

    multivariate survival data, left truncation, multiplicative hazard model, shared gamma frailty, conditional model, piecewise exponential model, childhood survival......multivariate survival data, left truncation, multiplicative hazard model, shared gamma frailty, conditional model, piecewise exponential model, childhood survival...

  1. Reflexive Aero Structures for Enhanced Survivability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop an advanced reflexive structure system to increase the survivability of aerostructures. This reflexive...

  2. Reflexive Aero Structures for Enhanced Survivability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) will develop an advanced reflexive structure technology system to increase the survivability of future systems constructed of...

  3. Can spores survive in interstellar space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, P.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the effects of very low temperature and UV radiation, characteristic of the interstellar medium, on the survival of bacteria. In the most general space environment, 10 percent survival times are only of the order of hundreds of years, too short for panspermia to work. In a substantial fraction of space within dark clouds, however, it is shown that, even with conservative figures, survival times as long as millions to tens of millions of years are attainable. In such conditions, clouds could transport organisms from one solar system to another in times significantly shorter than the mean survival time. This occurs with significant probability.

  4. Improving Survival in Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Nath Mukerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality in cirrhosis is consequent of decompensation, only treatment being timely liver transplantation. Organ allocation is prioritized for the sickest patients based on Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD score. In order to improve survival in patients with high MELD score it is imperative to preserve them in suitable condition till transplantation. Here we examine means to prolong life in high MELD score patients till a suitable liver is available. We specially emphasize protection of airways by avoidance of sedatives, avoidance of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure, elective intubation in grade III or higher encephalopathy, maintaining a low threshold for intubation with lesser grades of encephalopathy when undergoing upper endoscopy or colonoscopy as pre transplant evaluation or transferring patient to a transplant center. Consider post-pyloric tube feeding in encephalopathy to maintain muscle mass and minimize risk of aspiration. In non intubated and well controlled encephalopathy, frequent physical mobility by active and passive exercises are recommended. When renal replacement therapy is needed, night-time Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodialysis may be useful in keeping the daytime free for mobility. Sparing and judicious use of steroids needs to be borne in mind in treatment of ARDS and acute hepatitis from alcohol or autoimmune process.

  5. Survival Strategies: LCTLs in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores an example of successful curriculum de-velopment and methodology for the study of the Quechua language at the university level. This recipe for success falls in line with rec-ommendations made by the MLA Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages, as expressed in their May 2007 report, “Foreign Lan-guages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World”, and may be applied to the case of other LCTLs. This paper argues that, while the MLA’s report was intended for a general audi-ence of foreign language educators, its recommendations are especial-ly vital to the study of the less commonly taught languages. Among the many recommendations included in the report, two in particular stand out as being most essential to the survival of the LCTLs. These are an increase in interdisciplinary courses and inter-departmental alliances as well as a greater integration of cultural study in foreign language teaching.

  6. Survival Strategies: LCTLs in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores an example of successful curriculum de-velopment and methodology for the study of the Quechua language at the university level. This recipe for success falls in line with rec-ommendations made by the MLA Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages, as expressed in their May 2007 report, “Foreign Lan-guages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World”, and may be applied to the case of other LCTLs. This paper argues that, while the MLA’s report was intended for a general audi-ence of foreign language educators, its recommendations are especial-ly vital to the study of the less commonly taught languages. Among the many recommendations included in the report, two in particular stand out as being most essential to the survival of the LCTLs. These are an increase in interdisciplinary courses and inter-departmental alliances as well as a greater integration of cultural study in foreign language teaching.

  7. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...

  8. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...

  9. Anaerobic survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pyruvate fermentation requires an Usp-type stress protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, K; Boes, N; Escbach, M

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we identified a pyruvate fermentation pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sustaining anaerobic survival in the absence of alternative anaerobic respiratory and fermentative energy generation systems (M. Eschbach, K. Schreiber, K. Trunk, J. Buer, D. Jahn, and M. Schobert, J. Bacteriol. 186......:4596-4604, 2004). Anaerobic long-term survival of P. aeruginosa might be essential for survival in deeper layers of a biofilm and the persistent infection of anaerobic mucus plaques in the cystic fibrosis lung. Proteome analysis of P. aeruginosa cells during a 7-day period of pyruvate fermentation revealed...

  10. Survival and its predictors from age 75 to 85 in men and women belonging to cohorts with marked survival differences to age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkinen, E; Kauppinen, M; Schroll, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While predictors of survival in older people have been examined in depth in a large number of studies, a literature search revealed no cross-national comparative prospective cohort studies on this issue. This study investigated survival and its predictors from age 75 to 85...... among three local Nordic populations using survival data on national cohorts as background information. METHODS: The data were derived from national registers and from samples of 75-year old living in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The subjects were invited to take part in interviews and examinations...... focusing on different domains of health, functional capacity, and physical and social activities. RESULTS: The proportion of survivors to age 75 was markedly smaller among the Finnish men and women than Danish or Swedish subjects. In the local population no marked differences in survival from age 75 to 85...

  11. Interleukin polymorphisms associated with overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Nicholas T; Monteiro, Alvaro N; Thompson, Zachary J; Amankwah, Ernest K; Naas, Nina; Haura, Eric B; Beg, Amer A; Schabath, Matthew B

    2015-06-01

    Biomarkers based on germline DNA variations could have translational implications by identifying prognostic factors and sub-classifying patients to tailored, patient-specific treatment. To investigate the association between germline variations in interleukin (IL) genes and lung cancer outcomes, we genotyped 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 33 different IL genes in 651 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Analyses were performed to investigate overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence. Our analyses revealed 24 different IL SNPs significantly associated with one or more of the lung cancer outcomes of interest. The GG genotype of IL16:rs7170924 was significantly associated with disease-free survival (HR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.50-0.83) and was the only SNP that produced a false discovery rate (FDR) of modest confidence that the association is unlikely to represent a false-positive result (FDR = 0.142). Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were used to identify potential higher-order interactions. We restricted the CART analyses to the five SNPs that were significantly associated with multiple endpoints (IL1A:rs1800587, IL1B:rs1143634, IL8:s12506479, IL12A:rs662959, and IL13:rs1881457) and IL16:rs7170924 which had the lowest FDR. CART analyses did not yield a tree structure for overall survival; separate CART tree structures were identified for recurrence, based on three SNPs (IL13:rs1881457, IL1B:rs1143634, and IL12A:rs662959), and for disease-free survival, based on two SNPs (IL12A:rs662959 and IL16:rs7170924), which may suggest that these candidate IL SNPs have a specific impact on lung cancer progression and recurrence. These data suggest that germline variations in IL genes are associated with clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Breast cancer survival in Germany: a population-based high resolution study from Saarland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleczek, Bernd; Jansen, Lina; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Population-based survival studies of breast cancer patients are commonly restricted to age- and stage-specific analyses. This study from Germany aimed at extending available population-based survival data on further prognostic cancer characteristics such as tumor grade, hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2/neu) expression. Data from the population-based Saarland Cancer Registry including female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2009 were included. Period analysis methodology and regression modelling were used to obtain estimates of 5-year relative survival and tumor related excess risks in 2005-2009. Overall age standardized 5-year relative survival was 83%. In addition to age and stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status were independent predictors of 5-year relative survival. Detailed analyses by age, stage, morphology, tumor grade, hormone receptor status and HER2/neu expression consistently revealed lower survival of patients with high grade, hormone receptor negative or HER2/neu positive cancers and patients aged 70 years or older. This high resolution study extends available population-based survival data of breast cancer patients. Particular efforts should be made to overcome the persisting large survival deficits, which were observed for elderly patients in all clinical subgroups.

  13. Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, MJT; de Groot, MH

    2006-01-01

    Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide. - After the suicide of a 43-year-old woman with known depression, a 41-year-old paraplegic man who recently developed diarrhoea and a 41-year-old woman with probable depression with symptoms of psychosis, the general practitioners of the surviving

  14. Temperature mediated moose survival in Northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, M.S.; Nelson, M.E.; Schrage, M.W.; Edwards, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The earth is in the midst of a pronounced warming trend and temperatures in Minnesota, USA, as elsewhere, are projected to increase. Northern Minnesota represents the southern edge to the circumpolar distribution of moose (Alces alces), a species intolerant of heat. Moose increase their metabolic rate to regulate their core body temperature as temperatures rise. We hypothesized that moose survival rates would be a function of the frequency and magnitude that ambient temperatures exceeded the upper critical temperature of moose. We compared annual and seasonal moose survival in northeastern Minnesota between 2002 and 2008 with a temperature metric. We found that models based on January temperatures above the critical threshold were inversely correlated with subsequent survival and explained >78 of variability in spring, fall, and annual survival. Models based on late-spring temperatures also explained a high proportion of survival during the subsequent fall. A model based on warm-season temperatures was important in explaining survival during the subsequent winter. Our analyses suggest that temperatures may have a cumulative influence on survival. We expect that continuation or acceleration of current climate trends will result in decreased survival, a decrease in moose density, and ultimately, a retreat of moose northward from their current distribution.

  15. Survival after in-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Adib Hajbaghery

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Iran’s hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and until defibrillation, duration and result of CPR, frequency of tracheal intubations and time served for it were collected in a checklist. Results: In six months study, 206 cases of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempted. The survival rate was similar for both sexes. Short-term survival observed in19.9% of cases and only 5.3% survived to discharge. Conclusions: Duration of CPR, time of the first defibrillation, response time and the location of cardiac arrest are the key predictors of survival to hospital discharge and in-hospital CPR strategies require improvement. This study promotes a national study on post CPR survival for accurate data on our performance in attention to chain of survival. KeyWords: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR, Survival rate, Iran

  16. E. coli survival in waters: temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important for evaluating microbial contamination and in making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature; this dependency is routinely expressed using an analog of the Q10 model. This suggestion...

  17. Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, MJT; de Groot, MH

    2006-01-01

    Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide. - After the suicide of a 43-year-old woman with known depression, a 41-year-old paraplegic man who recently developed diarrhoea and a 41-year-old woman with probable depression with symptoms of psychosis, the general practitioners of the surviving

  18. Gait speed and survival in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Studenski, S.A.; Perera, S.; Patel, K.; Rosano, C.; Faulkner, K.; Inzitari, M.; Brach, J.; Chandler, J.; Cawthon, P.; Connor, E.B.; Nevitt, M.; Visser, M.C.H. de; Kritchevsky, S.; Badinelli, S.; Harris, T.; Newman, A.B.; Cauley, J.; Ferrucci, L.; Guralnik, J.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Survival estimates help individualize goals of care for geriatric patients, but life tables fail to account for the great variability in survival. Physical performance measures, such as gait speed, might help account for variability, allowing clinicians to make more individualized estimates

  19. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival of nematode

  20. Survival of Spoonbills on Wadden Sea islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauchau, V.; Horn, H.; Overdijk, O.

    1998-01-01

    The Spoonbill populations in Europe are fragmented and threatened. The dynamics of the species is poorly known but ringing and observation programmes are under way. Here we estimated the local survival of two colour-ringed populations of Spoonbills in the Netherlands. Adult survival and sighting rat

  1. Time varying effects in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2002-01-01

    additive risk model; counting process; proportional hazards model; semi-parametric models; survival data; time-varying effects; nonparametric testing......additive risk model; counting process; proportional hazards model; semi-parametric models; survival data; time-varying effects; nonparametric testing...

  2. Benefits of a Cohort Survival Projection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Sidney

    1977-01-01

    A cohort survival model of student attendance provides primary and secondary benefits in accurate student information not before available. At Berkeley the computerized Cohort Survival History File, in use for two years, has been successful in assessing various aspects of students' academic behavior and student flow problems. (Editor/LBH)

  3. Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162498.html Loneliness May Sabotage Breast Cancer Survival: Study Weak social ties linked to higher risk ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Loneliness may impede long-term breast cancer survival, a new study suggests. In the years after ...

  4. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  5. The Colgate University Winter Wilderness Survival Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Peter C.; Milner, Robert

    In January 1976, Colgate University offered its first Winter Wilderness Survival Program in conjunction with the North American Wilderness Survival School (NAWSS). This post-program evaluation summarizes background of the three-week program, with attention to the leadership, program aims, how the course was publicized, and how it developed month…

  6. Survival Processing and the Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Kazanas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the impact of survival processing with a novel task for this paradigm: the Stroop color-naming task. As the literature is mixed with regard to task generalizability, with survival processing promoting better memory for words, but not better memory for faces or paired associates, these types of task investigations are important to a growing field of research. Using the Stroop task provides a unique contribution, as identifying items by color is an important evolutionary adaptation and not specific to humans as is the case with word recall. Our results indicate that survival processing, with its accompanying survival-relevance rating task, remains the best mnemonic strategy for word memory. However, our results also indicate that presenting the survival passage does not motivate better color-naming performance than color-naming alone. In addition, survival processing led to a larger amount of Stroop interference, though not significantly larger than the other conditions. Together, these findings suggest that considering one’s survival when performing memory and attention-based tasks does not enhance cognitive performance generally, although greater allocation of attentional resources to color-incongruent concrete objects could be considered adaptive. These findings support the notion that engaging in deeper processing via survival-relevance ratings may preserve these words across a variety of experimental manipulations.

  7. Socio- economic development and child survival

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2011-12-06

    Dec 6, 2011 ... ... the growth that would improve child survival. ... growth and development to enhance child survival. ... billion people aged 30 years or less.1 The Gross Na- .... try with the investors making huge profits with no bene- fit to the ...

  8. Public Perception of Cancer Survival Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Scherr, Courtney L.; Brown, Natasha; Jones, Christina; Christy, Katheryn

    2013-01-01

    Past research has observed that certain subgroups (e.g., individuals who are overweight/obese) have inaccurate estimates of survival rates for particular cancers (e.g., colon cancer). However, no study has examined whether the lay public can accurately rank cancer survival rates in comparison with one another (i.e., rank cancers from most deadly…

  9. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  10. Survival of Phytophthora infestans in Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Dennis A

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT Coverless petri dishes with water suspensions of sporangia and zoospores of Phytophthora infestans were embedded in sandy soil in eastern Washington in July and October 2001 and July 2002 to quantify longevity of spores in water under natural conditions. Effects of solar radiation intensity, presence of soil in petri dishes (15 g per dish), and a 2-h chill period on survival of isolates of clonal lineages US-8 and US-11 were investigated. Spores in water suspensions survived 0 to 16 days under nonshaded conditions and 2 to 20 days under shaded conditions. Mean spore survival significantly increased from 1.7 to 5.8 days when soil was added to the water. Maximum survival time of spores in water without soil exposed to direct sunlight was 2 to 3 days in July and 6 to 8 days in October. Mean duration of survival did not differ significantly between chilled and nonchilled sporangia, but significantly fewer chilled spores survived for extended periods than that of nonchilled spores. Spores of US-11 and US-8 isolates did not differ in mean duration of survival, but significantly greater numbers of sporangia of US-8 survived than did sporangia of US-11 in one of three trials.

  11. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  12. Long-term survival in Patau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Y; Kadandale, J S; Pivnick, E K

    2001-04-01

    A female patient with an extra chromosome 13 (Patau syndrome) is described. There are only five previous reports of patients with trisomy 13 who have survived past the first decade. It is concluded that non-lethal congenital anomalies and aggressive medical care play an important role in the survival of patients with trisomy 13.

  13. Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

  14. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Samuel J; Maenner, Matthew J; Kuah, Solomon; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Coffee, Megan; Knust, Barbara; Klena, John; Foday, Joyce; Hertz, Darren; Hermans, Veerle; Achar, Jay; Caleo, Grazia M; Van Herp, Michel; Albariño, César G; Amman, Brian; Basile, Alison Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica A; Bergeron, Eric; Blau, Dianna; Brault, Aaron C; Campbell, Shelley; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; McMullan, Laura; Paddock, Christopher; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna S; Sanchez, Angela; Sealy, Tara; Wang, David; Saffa, Gbessay; Turay, Alhajie; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether 2 readily available indicators predicted survival among patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone, we evaluated information for 216 of the 227 patients in Bo District during a 4-month period. The indicators were time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold (Ct), a surrogate for viral load, in first Ebola virus-positive blood sample tested. Of these patients, 151 were alive when detected and had reported healthcare facility admission dates and Ct values available. Time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission was not associated with survival, but viral load in the first Ebola virus-positive blood sample was inversely associated with survival: 52 (87%) of 60 patients with a Ct of >24 survived and 20 (22%) of 91 with a Ct of <24 survived. Ct values may be useful for clinicians making treatment decisions or managing patient or family expectations.

  15. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  16. Surviving severe traumatic brain injury in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Poulsen, Ingrid; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify all hospitalized patients surviving severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Denmark and to compare these patients to TBI patients admitted to highly specialized rehabilitation (HS-rehabilitation). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients surviving severe TBI were identified from...... The Danish National Patient Registry and The Danish Head Trauma Database. Overall incidence rates of surviving severe TBI and incidence rates of admission to HS-rehabilitation after severe TBI were estimated and compared. Patient-related predictors of no admission to HS-rehabilitation among patients...... severe TBI were admitted to HS-rehabilitation. Female sex, older age, and non-working status pre-injury were independent predictors of no HS-rehabilitation among patients surviving severe TBI. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of hospitalized patients surviving severe TBI was stable in Denmark...

  17. Survival Prognosis in Very Old Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt; Jeune, Bernard;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether simple functional indicators are predictors of survival prognosis in very old adults. DESIGN: In-person survey conducted over a 3-month period in 1998; assessment of survival over a 15-year follow-up period. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All 3,600 Danes born...... performance, cognition, depression symptomatology, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality, evaluated as average remaining lifespan and chance of surviving to 100 years. RESULTS: Men aged 92 to 93 had an overall 6.0% chance of surviving to 100 years, whereas the chance for women was 11.4%. Being able......% CI = 24.8-43.5) for women. CONCLUSION: Chair stand score combined with MMSE score is a quick and easy way to estimate overall chance of survival in very old adults, which is particularly relevant when treatment with potential side effects for nonacute diseases is considered....

  18. No surviving evolved companions of the progenitor of SN 1006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Hernández, Jonay I; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Tabernero, Hugo M; Montes, David; Canal, Ramon; Méndez, Javier; Bedin, Luigi R

    2012-09-27

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to occur when a white dwarf made of carbon and oxygen accretes sufficient mass to trigger a thermonuclear explosion. The accretion could be slow, from an unevolved (main-sequence) or evolved (subgiant or giant) star (the single-degenerate channel), or rapid, as the primary star breaks up a smaller orbiting white dwarf (the double-degenerate channel). A companion star will survive the explosion only in the single-degenerate channel. Both channels might contribute to the production of type Ia supernovae, but the relative proportions of their contributions remain a fundamental puzzle in astronomy. Previous searches for remnant companions have revealed one possible case for SN 1572 (refs 8, 9), although that has been questioned. More recently, observations have restricted surviving companions to be small, main-sequence stars, ruling out giant companions but still allowing the single-degenerate channel. Here we report the results of a search for surviving companions of the progenitor of SN 1006 (ref. 14). None of the stars within 4 arc minutes of the apparent site of the explosion is associated with the supernova remnant, and we can firmly exclude all giant and subgiant stars from being companions of the progenitor. In combination with previous results, our findings indicate that fewer than 20 per cent of type Ia supernovae occur through the single-degenerate channel.

  19. Cancer survival disparities by health insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoling; Roche, Lisa M; Pawlish, Karen S; Henry, Kevin A

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies found that uninsured and Medicaid insured cancer patients have poorer outcomes than cancer patients with private insurance. We examined the association between health insurance status and survival of New Jersey patients 18-64 diagnosed with seven common cancers during 1999-2004. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals for 5-year cause-specific survival were calculated from Cox proportional hazards regression models; health insurance status was the primary predictor with adjustment for other significant factors in univariate chi-square or Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. Two diagnosis periods by health insurance status were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival log-rank tests. For breast, colorectal, lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and prostate cancer, uninsured and Medicaid insured patients had significantly higher risks of death than privately insured patients. For bladder cancer, uninsured patients had a significantly higher risk of death than privately insured patients. Survival improved between the two diagnosis periods for privately insured patients with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer and NHL, for Medicaid insured patients with NHL, and not at all for uninsured patients. Survival from cancer appears to be related to a complex set of demographic and clinical factors of which insurance status is a part. While ensuring that everyone has adequate health insurance is an important step, additional measures must be taken to address cancer survival disparities.

  20. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-10-01

    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  1. Pseudo-observations in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Perme, Maja Pohar

    2010-01-01

    We review recent work on the application of pseudo-observations in survival and event history analysis. This includes regression models for parameters like the survival function in a single point, the restricted mean survival time and transition or state occupation probabilities in multi......-state models, e.g. the competing risks cumulative incidence function. Graphical and numerical methods for assessing goodness-of-fit for hazard regression models and for the Fine-Gray model in competing risks studies based on pseudo-observations are also reviewed. Sensitivity to covariate-dependent censoring...... is studied. The methods are illustrated using a data set from bone marrow transplantation....

  2. Empirical likelihood method in survival analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Mai

    2015-01-01

    Add the Empirical Likelihood to Your Nonparametric ToolboxEmpirical Likelihood Method in Survival Analysis explains how to use the empirical likelihood method for right censored survival data. The author uses R for calculating empirical likelihood and includes many worked out examples with the associated R code. The datasets and code are available for download on his website and CRAN.The book focuses on all the standard survival analysis topics treated with empirical likelihood, including hazard functions, cumulative distribution functions, analysis of the Cox model, and computation of empiric

  3. Pseudo-observations in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Perme, Maja Pohar

    2010-02-01

    We review recent work on the application of pseudo-observations in survival and event history analysis. This includes regression models for parameters like the survival function in a single point, the restricted mean survival time and transition or state occupation probabilities in multi-state models, e.g. the competing risks cumulative incidence function. Graphical and numerical methods for assessing goodness-of-fit for hazard regression models and for the Fine-Gray model in competing risks studies based on pseudo-observations are also reviewed. Sensitivity to covariate-dependent censoring is studied. The methods are illustrated using a data set from bone marrow transplantation.

  4. Terminal and progenitor lineage-survival oncogenes as cancer markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vias, Maria; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Mills, Ian G

    2008-11-01

    Tumour classification has traditionally focused on differentiation and cellular morphology, and latterly on the application of genomic approaches. By combining chromatin immunoprecipitation with expression array, it has been possible to identify direct gene targets for transcription factors for nuclear hormone receptors. At the same time, there have been great strides in deriving stem and progenitor cells from tissues. It is therefore timely to propose that pairing the isolation of these cell subpopulations from tissues and tumours with these genomics approaches will reveal conserved gene targets for transcription factors. By focusing on transcription factors (lineage-survival oncogenes) with roles in both organogenesis and tumourigenesis at multiple organ sites, we suggest that this comparative genomics approach will enable developmental biology to be used more fully in relation to understanding tumour progression and will reveal new cancer markers. We focus here on neurogenesis and neuroendocrine differentiation in tumours.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms at TIMP3 are associated with survival of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bashash

    Full Text Available The poor survival of adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ makes them clinically important. Discovery of host genetic factors that affect outcome may guide more individualized treatment. This study tests whether constitutional genetic variants in matrix metalloproteinases (MMP and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP genes are associated with outcome of GEJ adenocarcinoma. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at four TIMP (TIMP1-4 and three MMP genes (MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9 were genotyped in DNA samples from a prospective cohort of patients with primary adenocarcinoma of the GEJ admitted to the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Cox proportional hazards regression, with adjustment for patient, disease and treatment variables, was used to estimate the association of SNPs with survival. Genotypes for 85 samples and 48 SNPs were analyzed. Four SNPs across TIMP3, (rs130274, rs715572, rs1962223 and rs5754312 were associated with survival. Interaction analyses revealed that the survival associations with rs715572 and rs5754312 are specific and significant for 5FU+cisplatin treated patients. Sanger sequencing of the TIMP3 coding and promoter regions revealed an additional SNP, rs9862, also associated with survival. TIMP3 genetic variants are associated with survival and may be potentially useful in optimizing treatment strategies for individual patients.

  6. Predicting survival in malignant pleural effusion: development and validation of the LENT prognostic score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive, Amelia O; Kahan, Brennan C; Hooper, Clare E; Bhatnagar, Rahul; Morley, Anna J; Zahan-Evans, Natalie; Bintcliffe, Oliver J; Boshuizen, Rogier C; Fysh, Edward T H; Tobin, Claire L; Medford, Andrew R L; Harvey, John E; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Lee, Y C Gary; Maskell, Nick A

    2014-12-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) causes debilitating breathlessness and predicting survival is challenging. This study aimed to obtain contemporary data on survival by underlying tumour type in patients with MPE, identify prognostic indicators of overall survival and develop and validate a prognostic scoring system. Three large international cohorts of patients with MPE were used to calculate survival by cell type (univariable Cox model). The prognostic value of 14 predefined variables was evaluated in the most complete data set (multivariable Cox model). A clinical prognostic scoring system was then developed and validated. Based on the results of the international data and the multivariable survival analysis, the LENT prognostic score (pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score (PS), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and tumour type) was developed and subsequently validated using an independent data set. Risk stratifying patients into low-risk, moderate-risk and high-risk groups gave median (IQR) survivals of 319 days (228-549; n=43), 130 days (47-467; n=129) and 44 days (22-77; n=31), respectively. Only 65% (20/31) of patients with a high-risk LENT score survived 1 month from diagnosis and just 3% (1/31) survived 6 months. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating curve revealed the LENT score to be superior at predicting survival compared with ECOG PS at 1 month (0.77 vs 0.66, pLENT scoring system is the first validated prognostic score in MPE, which predicts survival with significantly better accuracy than ECOG PS alone. This may aid clinical decision making in this diverse patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Mineral Influence on Microbial Survival During Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, E. U.; Shanahan, T. M.; Wolfe, W. W.; Bennett, P.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 sequestered in a deep saline aquifer will perturb subsurface biogeochemistry by acidifying the groundwater and accelerating mineral diagenesis. Subsurface microbial communities heavily influence geochemistry through their metabolic processes, such as with dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB). However, CO2 also acts as a sterilant and will perturb these communities. We investigated the role of mineralogy and its effect on the survival of microbes at high PCO2 conditions using the model DIRB Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Batch cultures of Shewanella were grown to stationary phase and exposed to high PCO2 using modified Parr reactors. Cell viability was then determined by plating cultures after exposure. Results indicate that at low PCO2 (2 bar), growth and iron reduction are decreased and cell death occurs within 1 hour when exposed to CO2 pressures of 10 bar or greater. Further, fatty acid analysis indicates microbial lipid degradation with C18 fatty acids being the slowest lipids to degrade. When cultures were grown in the presence of rocks or minerals representative of the deep subsurface such as carbonates and silicates and exposed to 25 bar CO2, survival lasted beyond 2 hours. The most effective protecting substratum was quartz sandstone, with cultures surviving beyond 8 hours of CO2 exposure. Scanning electron microscope images reveal biofilm formation on the mineral surfaces with copious amounts of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) present. EPS from these biofilms acts as a reactive barrier to the CO2, slowing the penetration of CO2 into cells and resulting in increased survival. When biofilm cultures were grown with Al and As to simulate the release of toxic metals from minerals such as feldspars and clays, survival time decreased, indicating mineralogy may also enhance microbial death. Biofilms were then grown on iron-coated quartz sand to determine conversely what influence biofilms may have on mineral dissolution during CO2 perturbation

  8. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  9. Sample size considerations for historical control studies with survival outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Song; Ahn, Chul

    2015-01-01

    Historical control trials (HCTs) are frequently conducted to compare an experimental treatment with a control treatment from a previous study, when they are applicable and favored over a randomized clinical trial (RCT) due to feasibility, ethics and cost concerns. Makuch and Simon developed a sample size formula for historical control (HC) studies with binary outcomes, assuming that the observed response rate in the HC group is the true response rate. This method was extended by Dixon and Simon to specify sample size for HC studies comparing survival outcomes. For HC studies with binary and continuous outcomes, many researchers have shown that the popular Makuch and Simon method does not preserve the nominal power and type I error, and suggested alternative approaches. For HC studies with survival outcomes, we reveal through simulation that the conditional power and type I error over all the random realizations of the HC data have highly skewed distributions. Therefore, the sampling variability of the HC data needs to be appropriately accounted for in determining sample size. A flexible sample size formula that controls arbitrary percentiles, instead of means, of the conditional power and type I error, is derived. Although an explicit sample size formula with survival outcomes is not available, the computation is straightforward. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed method preserves the operational characteristics in a more realistic scenario where the true hazard rate of the HC group is unknown. A real data application of an advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinical trial is presented to illustrate sample size considerations for HC studies in comparison of survival outcomes. PMID:26098200

  10. Revealing the Beast Within

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Deeply Embedded Massive Stellar Clusters Discovered in Milky Way Powerhouse Summary Peering into a giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way galaxy - known as W49 - astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a whole new population of very massive newborn stars . This research is being presented today at the International Astronomical Union's 25th General Assembly held in Sydney, Australia, by ESO-scientist João Alves. With the help of infrared images obtained during a period of excellent observing conditions with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), the astronomers looked deep into this molecular cloud and discovered four massive stellar clusters, with hot and energetic stars as massive as 120 solar masses. The exceedingly strong radiation from the stars in the largest of these clusters is "powering" a 20 light-year diameter region of mostly ionized hydrogen gas (a "giant HII region"). W49 is one of the most energetic regions of star formation in the Milky Way. With the present discovery, the true sources of the enormous energy have now been revealed for the first time, finally bringing to an end some decades of astronomical speculations and hypotheses. PR Photo 21a/03 : Colour Composite of W49A (NTT+SOFI). PR Photo 21b/03 : Radio and Near-Infrared Composite of W49A Giant molecular clouds Stars form predominantly inside Giant Molecular Clouds which populate our Galaxy, the Milky Way. One of the most prominent of these is W49 , which has a mass of a million solar masses. It is located some 37,000 light-years away and is the most luminous star-forming region known in our home galaxy: its luminosity is several million times the luminosity of our Sun. A smaller region within this cloud is denoted W49A - this is one of the strongest radio-emitting areas known in the Galaxy . Massive stars are excessive in all ways. Compared to their smaller and ligther brethren, they form at an Olympic speed and

  11. Klebsiella pneumoniae survives within macrophages by avoiding delivery to lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Victoria; March, Catalina; Insua, Jose Luis; Aguiló, Nacho; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Regueiro, Verónica; Brennan, Gerard P; Millán-Lou, Maria Isabel; Martín, Carlos; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

    2015-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Evidence indicates that Klebsiella might be able to persist intracellularly within a vacuolar compartment. This study was designed to investigate the interaction between Klebsiella and macrophages. Engulfment of K. pneumoniae was dependent on host cytoskeleton, cell plasma membrane lipid rafts and the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Microscopy studies revealed that K. pneumoniae resides within a vacuolar compartment, the Klebsiella-containing vacuole (KCV), which traffics within vacuoles associated with the endocytic pathway. In contrast to UV-killed bacteria, the majority of live bacteria did not co-localize with markers of the lysosomal compartment. Our data suggest that K. pneumoniae triggers a programmed cell death in macrophages displaying features of apoptosis. Our efforts to identify the mechanism(s) whereby K. pneumoniae prevents the fusion of the lysosomes to the KCV uncovered the central role of the PI3K-Akt-Rab14 axis to control the phagosome maturation. Our data revealed that the capsule is dispensable for Klebsiella intracellular survival if bacteria were not opsonized. Furthermore, the environment found by Klebsiella within the KCV triggered the down-regulation of the expression of cps. Altogether, this study proves evidence that K. pneumoniae survives killing by macrophages by manipulating phagosome maturation that may contribute to Klebsiella pathogenesis.

  12. Oceanographic Trawl Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  13. Zooplankton Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  14. CTD Oceanographic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  15. Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161094.html Smoking Tied to Shorter Survival With ALS Tobacco use ... 22, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Sept. 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may speed progression of Lou Gehrig's disease and ...

  16. Bay Scallop Spawning, Survival, Growth Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bay Scallops are selected and cultured according to criteria of growth and survival. Morphological attributes have also been selected to assess heretibility....

  17. Improved survival after rectal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S; Harling, H; Iversen, L H

    2010-01-01

    treated from 1994 to 2006. Method The study was based on the National Rectal Cancer Registry and the National Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented with data from the Central Population Registry. The analysis included actuarial overall and relative survival. Results A total of 10 632 patients were......Objective In 1995, an analysis showed an inferior prognosis after rectal cancer in Denmark compared with the other Scandinavian countries. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) was established with the aim of improving the prognosis, and in this study we present a survival analysis of patients...... operated on. The overall 5-year survival increased from 0.37 in 1994 to 0.51% in 2006; the improvement was greater in men (20% points) than in women (10% points), and greatest in stage III (20% points). The relative 5-year survival increased from 0.46 to 0.62, including an improvement of 23% points in men...

  18. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Survival Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of survival factors recorded by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment...

  19. Homeless Women, Street Smarts, and Their Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Carole

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative study of four homeless women depicted their self-perceptions, instability of relationships, decision-making processes, and resourcefulness. Their informal learning included situational and intentional learning applied to survival. (SK)

  20. Computational Modeling of Cell Survival Using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Jain1,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The model for cell survival has been implemented using VeryHigh Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware DescriptionLanguage (VHDL (Xilinx Tool taking three input signals:Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF, Epidermal growth factor(EGF and Insulin. Cell survival has been regulated by theinteraction of five proteins viz P13K, TNFR1, EGFR, IRS andIKK in a network. In the absence of any one, in protein networkleads to cell death. For the EGF input signal the proteins likeMEK, ERK, AkT, Rac & JNK have been important forregulation of cell survival. Similarly for TNF and Insulin inputsignal proteins like NFκB, AkT, XIAP, JNK, MAP3K & MK2and MEK, ERK, AkT, Rac, mTOR & JNK respectively havebeen important for regulation of cell survival.

  1. Ministerial Importance and Survival in Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bright, Jonathan; Döring, Holger; Little, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Are holders of important ministerial positions more likely to survive in cabinet than their colleagues who hold less important positions? This study examines the relationship between the importance of a ministerial position and the length of time ministers are able to survive in government....... It is based on an original dataset of cabinet ministers in seven West European countries from 1945 to 2011. Employing a little-used measure of ministerial survival based on overall time in government, it is found that holders of important ministerial positions are more durable than their colleagues who hold...... less important ministerial positions. Age, prior government experience and the size of the party to which the minister belongs are also associated with consistently significant effects. Further, the study explores the determinants of survival for two types of risk – exiting government with one’s party...

  2. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation

  3. Survival probability for open spherical billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Carl P.; Rahman, Mohammed R.

    2014-12-01

    We study the survival probability for long times in an open spherical billiard, extending previous work on the circular billiard. We provide details of calculations regarding two billiard configurations, specifically a sphere with a circular hole and a sphere with a square hole. The constant terms of the long-time survival probability expansions have been derived analytically. Terms that vanish in the long time limit are investigated analytically and numerically, leading to connections with the Riemann hypothesis.

  4. Survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Donald E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of Burkholderia pseudomallei to survive in water likely contributes to its environmental persistence in endemic regions. To determine the physiological adaptations which allow B. pseudomallei to survive in aqueous environments, we performed microarray analyses of B. pseudomallei cultures transferred from Luria broth (LB to distilled water. Findings Increased expression of a gene encoding for a putative membrane protein (BPSL0721 was confirmed using a lux-based transcriptional reporter system, and maximal expression was noted at approximately 6 hrs after shifting cells from LB to water. A BPSL0721 deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei was able to survive in water for at least 90 days indicating that although involved, BPSL0721 was not essential for survival. BPSL2961, a gene encoding a putative phosphatidylglycerol phosphatase (PGP, was also induced when cells were shifted to water. This gene is likely involved in cell membrane biosynthesis. We were unable to construct a PGP mutant suggesting that the gene is not only involved in survival in water but is essential for cell viability. We also examined mutants of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase (phbC, lipopolysaccharide (LPS oligosaccharide and capsule synthesis, and these mutations did not affect survival in water. LPS mutants lacking outer core were found to lose viability in water by 200 days indicating that an intact LPS core provides an outer membrane architecture which allows prolonged survival in water. Conclusion The results from these studies suggest that B. pseudomallei survival in water is a complex process that requires an LPS molecule which contains an intact core region.

  5. Male microchimerism and survival among women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy, woman and fetus exchange small quantities of cells, and their persistence at later times is termed microchimerism. Microchimerism is known to substantially impact on women's later health. This study examined the survival of women according to male microchimerism status.......During pregnancy, woman and fetus exchange small quantities of cells, and their persistence at later times is termed microchimerism. Microchimerism is known to substantially impact on women's later health. This study examined the survival of women according to male microchimerism status....

  6. Asbestos Burden Predicts Survival in Pleural Mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Brock C; Roelofs, Cora R.; Longacker, Jennifer L.; Marsit, Carmen J; Nelson, Heather H.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Godleski, John Joseph; Bueno, Raphael; Sugarbaker, David John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rapidly fatal asbestos-associated malignancy with a median survival time of < 1 year following diagnosis. Treatment strategy is determined in part using known prognostic factors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between asbestos exposure and survival outcome in MPM in an effort to advance the understanding of the contribution of asbestos exposure to MPM prognosis. Methods: We studied incident cases of MPM...

  7. Graphics and statistics for cardiology: survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Susanne; McKnight, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Reports of data in the medical literature frequently lack information needed to assess the validity and generalisability of study results. Some recommendations and standards for reporting have been developed over the last two decades, but few are available specifically for survival data. We provide recommendations for tabular and graphical representations of survival data. We argue that data and analytic software should be made available to promote reproducible research.

  8. Survival of environmental mycobacteria in Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adékambi, Toïdi; Ben Salah, Skandar; Khlif, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2006-09-01

    Free-living amoebae in water are hosts to many bacterial species living in such an environment. Such an association enables bacteria to select virulence factors and survive in adverse conditions. Waterborne mycobacteria (WBM) are important sources of community- and hospital-acquired outbreaks of nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections. However, the interactions between WBM and free-living amoebae in water have been demonstrated for only few Mycobacterium spp. We investigated the ability of a number (n = 26) of Mycobacterium spp. to survive in the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga. All the species tested entered the trophozoites of A. polyphaga and survived at this location over a period of 5 days. Moreover, all Mycobacterium spp. survived inside cysts for a period of 15 days. Intracellular Mycobacterium spp. within amoeba cysts survived when exposed to free chlorine (15 mg/liter) for 24 h. These data document the interactions between free-living amoebae and the majority of waterborne Mycobacterium spp. Further studies are required to examine the effects of various germicidal agents on the survival of WBM in an aquatic environment.

  9. A general framework for parametric survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Michael J; Lambert, Paul C

    2014-12-30

    Parametric survival models are being increasingly used as an alternative to the Cox model in biomedical research. Through direct modelling of the baseline hazard function, we can gain greater understanding of the risk profile of patients over time, obtaining absolute measures of risk. Commonly used parametric survival models, such as the Weibull, make restrictive assumptions of the baseline hazard function, such as monotonicity, which is often violated in clinical datasets. In this article, we extend the general framework of parametric survival models proposed by Crowther and Lambert (Journal of Statistical Software 53:12, 2013), to incorporate relative survival, and robust and cluster robust standard errors. We describe the general framework through three applications to clinical datasets, in particular, illustrating the use of restricted cubic splines, modelled on the log hazard scale, to provide a highly flexible survival modelling framework. Through the use of restricted cubic splines, we can derive the cumulative hazard function analytically beyond the boundary knots, resulting in a combined analytic/numerical approach, which substantially improves the estimation process compared with only using numerical integration. User-friendly Stata software is provided, which significantly extends parametric survival models available in standard software. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Survival probability in patients with liver trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buci, Skender; Kukeli, Agim

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the survival probability among patients with liver trauma injury using the anatomical and psychological scores of conditions, characteristics and treatment modes. Design/methodology/approach - A logistic model is used to estimate 173 patients' survival probability. Data are taken from patient records. Only emergency room patients admitted to University Hospital of Trauma (former Military Hospital) in Tirana are included. Data are recorded anonymously, preserving the patients' privacy. Findings - When correctly predicted, the logistic models show that survival probability varies from 70.5 percent up to 95.4 percent. The degree of trauma injury, trauma with liver and other organs, total days the patient was hospitalized, and treatment method (conservative vs intervention) are statistically important in explaining survival probability. Practical implications - The study gives patients, their relatives and physicians ample and sound information they can use to predict survival chances, the best treatment and resource management. Originality/value - This study, which has not been done previously, explores survival probability, success probability for conservative and non-conservative treatment, and success probability for single vs multiple injuries from liver trauma.

  11. Predicting Mean Survival Time from Reported Median Survival Time for Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lousdal, Mette L; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Møller, Bjørn;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mean duration of survival following treatment is a prerequisite for cost-effectiveness analyses used for assessing new and costly life-extending therapies for cancer patients. Mean survival time is rarely reported due to censoring imposed by limited follow-up time, whereas the median...... survival time often is. The empirical relationship between mean and median survival time for cancer patients is not known. AIM: To derive the empirical associations between mean and median survival time across cancer types and to validate this empirical prediction approach and compare it with the standard...... approach of fitting a Weibull distribution. METHODS: We included all patients in Norway diagnosed from 1960 to 1999 with one of the 13 most common solid tumor cancers until emigration, death, or 31 December 2011, whichever came first. Observed median, restricted mean, and mean survival times were obtained...

  12. Dopamine neurons implanted into people with Parkinson's disease survive without pathology for 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendez, Ivar; Viñuela, Angel; Astradsson, Arnar;

    2008-01-01

    Postmortem analysis of five subjects with Parkinson's disease 9-14 years after transplantation of fetal midbrain cell suspensions revealed surviving grafts that included dopamine and serotonin neurons without pathology. These findings are important for the understanding of the etiopathogenesis of...

  13. [Off-pump coronary revascularization. Late survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Juan; Camporrontondo, Mariano; Vrancic, Mariano; Piccinini, Fernando; Camou, Juan; Navia, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Although randomized clinical trials have compared the short-term results of coronary revascularization with on-pump vs. off-pump, the long-term survival effect of off-pump coronary surgery has not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term survival of patients with coronary surgery with off-pump technique. All patients that underwent coronary revascularization from November 1996 to March 2015 were included (n = 4687). We analyzed the long-term survival and the incidence of cardiac events between patients who received off-pump coronary revascularization (n = 3402) against those revascularized with on-pump technique (n = 1285). The primary endpoint was defined as death from any cause. To reduce potential biases, risk-adjusted analysis was performed (propensity score). In-hospital mortality and during follow-up (10 years) for both groups were analyzed. The overall hospital mortality was 3.1%. A statistically significant difference between groups in favor of off-pump surgery was observed (2.3% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.0001). In the survival analysis, off-pump surgery proved to have similar long-term survival as on-pump surgery (off-pump vs. on-pump: 77.9% ± 1.2% vs. 80.2% ± 1.3%, p log rank = 0.361); even in the adjusted survival analysis (84.2% ± 2.9% vs. 80.3% ± 2.4%, p = 0.169). In conclusion, off-pump coronary surgery was associated with lower in-hospital mortality; and it was not associated with increased long-term survival compared with on-pump surgery.

  14. TERT promoter mutations in melanoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagore, Eduardo; Heidenreich, Barbara; Rachakonda, Sívaramakrishna; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Requena, Celia; Soriano, Virtudes; Frank, Christoph; Traves, Victor; Quecedo, Esther; Sanjuan-Gimenez, Josefa; Hemminki, Kari; Landi, Maria Teresa; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Despite advances in targeted therapies, the treatment of advanced melanoma remains an exercise in disease management, hence a need for biomarkers for identification of at-risk primary melanoma patients. In this study, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of TERT promoter mutations in primary melanomas. Tumors from 300 patients with stage I/II melanoma were sequenced for TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations. Cumulative curves were drawn for patients with and without mutations with progression-free and melanoma-specific survival as outcomes. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the effect of the mutations on survivals. Individually, presence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations associated with poor disease-free and melanoma-specific survival with modification of the effect by the rs2853669 polymorphism within the TERT promoter. Hazard ratio (HR) for simultaneous occurrence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations for disease-free survival was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.4) and for melanoma-specific survival 5.8 (95% CI 1.9-18.3). The effect of the mutations on melanoma-specific survival in noncarriers of variant allele of the polymorphism was significant (HR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4-15.2) but could not be calculated for the carriers due to low number of events. The variant allele per se showed association with increased survival (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9). The data in this study provide preliminary evidence that TERT promoter mutations in combination with BRAF/NRAS mutations can be used to identify patients at risk of aggressive disease and the possibility of refinement of the classification with inclusion of the rs2853669 polymorphism within TERT promoter.

  15. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  16. Understanding survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manish Kumar; Khanna, Pardeep; Kishore, Jugal

    2010-01-01

    Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of time. The time starting from a defined point to the occurrence of a given event, for example death is called as survival time and the analysis of group data as survival analysis. This can be affected by subjects under study that are uncooperative and refused to be remained in the study or when some of the subjects may not experience the event or death before the end of the study, although they would have experienced or died if observation continued, or we lose touch with them midway in the study. We label these situations as censored observations. The Kaplan-Meier estimate is the simplest way of computing the survival over time in spite of all these difficulties associated with subjects or situations. The survival curve can be created assuming various situations. It involves computing of probabilities of occurrence of event at a certain point of time and multiplying these successive probabilities by any earlier computed probabilities to get the final estimate. This can be calculated for two groups of subjects and also their statistical difference in the survivals. This can be used in Ayurveda research when they are comparing two drugs and looking for survival of subjects. PMID:21455458

  17. Multilevel survival analysis of health inequalities in life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlo Juan

    2009-08-01

    survival models are flexible and efficient tools in studying health inequalities of life expectancy or survival time data with a geographic structure of more than 2 levels. They are complementary to conventional methods and override some limitations of marginal models. Future research on determinants of health inequalities in the LE of the specific cohort on the household and individual factors could reveal some important causes over the marked household level inequalities.

  18. Kaempferol and Chrysin Synergies to Improve Septic Mice Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasstani, Omar A; Tham, Chau Ling; Israf, Daud A

    2017-01-06

    Previously, we reported the role of synergy between two flavonoids-namely, chrysin and kaempferol-in inhibiting the secretion of a few major proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), and nitric oxide (NO) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of this combination on a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Severe sepsis was induced in male ICR mice (n = 7) via the CLP procedure. The effects of chrysin and kaempferol combination treatment on septic mice were investigated using a 7-day survival study. The levels of key proinflammatory mediators and markers-such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), TNF-α, and NO-in the sera samples of the septic mice were determined via ELISA and fluorescence determination at different time point intervals post-CLP challenge. Liver tissue samples from septic mice were harvested to measure myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels using a spectrophotometer. Moreover, intraperitoneal fluid (IPF) bacterial clearance and total leukocyte count were also assessed to detect any antibacterial effects exerted by chrysin and kaempferol, individually and in combination. Kaempferol treatment improved the survival rate of CLP-challenged mice by up to 16%. During this treatment, kaempferol expressed antibacterial, antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities through the attenuation of bacterial forming units, AST and NO levels, and increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count in the IPF. On the other hand, the chrysin treatment significantly reduced serum TNF-α levels. However, it failed to significantly improve the survival rate of the CLP-challenged mice. Subsequently, the kaempferol/chrysin combination treatment significantly improved the overall 7-day survival rate by 2-fold-up to 29%. Kaempferol and chrysin revealed some synergistic effects by acting individually upon multiple

  19. [Surviving Forms in Antibiotic-Treated Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyukin, A L; Kozlova, A N; Sorokin, V V; Suzina, N E; Cherdyntseva, T A; Kotova, I B; Gaponov, A M; Tutel'yan, A V; El'-Registan, G I

    2015-01-01

    Survival of bacterial populations treated with lethal doses of antibiotics is ensured by the presence of very small numbers of persister cells. Unlike antibiotic-resistant cells, antibiotic tolerance of persisters is not inheritable and reversible. The present work provides evidence supporting the hypothesis of transformation (maturation) of persisters of an opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed by ciprofloxacin (CF) treatment (25-100 μg/mL) into dormant cystlike cells (CLC) and non-culturable cells (NC), as was described previously for a number. of non-spore-forming bacteria. Subpopulations of type 1 and type 2 persisters, which survived antibiotic treatment and developed into dormant forms, were heterogeneous in their capacity to form colonies or microcolonies upon germination, in resistance to heating at 70 degrees C, and in cell morphology Type 1 persisters, which were formed after 1-month incubation in the stationary-phase cultures in the medium with decreased C and N concentrations, developed in several types of surviving cells, including those similar to CLC in cell morphology. In the course of 1-month incubation of type 2 persisters, which were formed in exponentially growing cultures, other types of surviving cells developed: immature CLC and L-forms. Unlike P. aeruginosa CLC formed in the control post-stationary phase cultures without antibiotic treatment, most of 1-month persisters, especially type 2 ones, were characterized by the loss of colony-forming capacity, probably due to transition into an uncultured state with relatively high numbers of live intact cells (Live/Dead test). Another survival strategy of P. aeruginosa populations was ensured by a minor subpopulation of CF-tolerant and CF-resistant cells able to grow in the form of microcolonies or regular colonies of decreased size in the presence of the antibiotic. The described P. aeruginosa dormant forms may be responsible for persistent forms in bacteria carriers and latent

  20. Incidence and overall survival of malignant ameloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rizzitelli

    Full Text Available Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6-2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma.Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma.The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival.To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years.

  1. Incidence and overall survival of malignant ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzitelli, Alexandra; Smoll, Nicolas R; Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6-2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma. Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma. The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival. To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years.

  2. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  3. Survivable Lightpath Routing in WDM Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFengqing; ZENGQingji; ZHUXu; YANGXudong; XIAOShilin

    2004-01-01

    In IP over WDM networks, when a failure(such as a fiber cut) occurs, the service restoration can be implemented by dynamic routing in IP layer. But it needs that the logical topology remains connected after any physical link failure. Otherwise, IP layer cannot find an alternate path to restore the service. The problem of routing logical links (lightpaths) on a physical network topology in a way that the logical topology remains connected in the event of single physical link failure is called survivabl erouting. In this paper~ we address the survivable routing problem by proposing a new ILP algorithm that works well with sparse-connected logical topologies. The necessary and sufficient conditions for survivable routing are simplified, which greatly reduces the number of survivable constraints. Based-on the simplified conditions, a new ILP formulation with K-shortest paths as alternate paths for a logical link is presented, which mainly reduces the number of ILP variables. Finally, numerical results are given and discussed to show that most survivable routing solutions can be found with our algorithms, and the time needed to find such a survivable routing solution is much smaller than other similar methods.

  4. [Survival and mortality in ESRD patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrel, F; de Cornelissen, F; Deloumeaux, J; Lange, C; Lassalle, M

    2013-09-01

    This chapter provides a set of indicators on survival, life expectancy and causes of death of patients in chronic renal failure treated by dialysis or transplantation beginning a first replacement therapy between 2002 and 2011. Age strongly influences survival on dialysis. Thus, one year survival of patients under age 65 is over 90%. After 5 years, among patients over 85 years, it is more than 15%. The presence of diabetes or one or more cardiovascular comorbidities also significantly worse patient survival. In terms of trend, we do not find significant improvement in the 2-year survival between patients in the cohort 2006-2007 and the 2008-2009 cohort. Cardiovascular diseases account for 27% of causes of death to infectious diseases (12%) and cancer (10%). Life expectancy of patients is highly dependent on their treatment. Thus, a transplant patient aged 30 has a life expectancy of 41 years versus 23 years for a dialysis patient. Transplant patients have a mortality rate much lower than those of dialysis patients. Thus, between 60 and 69 years, for 1000 patients in dialysis in 2011, 127 died within the year. For 1000 patients of the same age, who have a functioning kidney transplant, 24 died within the year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mohanty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. RESULTS: The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. CONCLUSION: Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  6. Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beissbarth Jemima

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal hand contamination in Indigenous children in remote communities is common (37%. It is not clear whether this requires frequent inoculation, or if pneumococci will survive on hands for long periods of time. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the survival time of pneumococci on hands and fomites. Findings The hands of 3 adult volunteers, a glass plate and plastic ball were inoculated with pneumococci suspended in two different media. Survival at specified time intervals was determined by swabbing and re-culture onto horse blood agar. Pneumococci inoculated onto hands of volunteers were recovered after 3 minutes at 4% to 79% of the initial inoculum. Recovery from one individual was consistently higher. By one hour, only a small number of pneumococci were recovered and this was dependent on the suspension medium used. At subsequent intervals and up to 3 hours after inoculation, Conclusion The poor survival of pneumococci on hands suggests that the high prevalence of pneumococcal hand contamination in some populations is related to frequent inoculation rather than long survival. It is plausible that hand contamination plays a (brief role in transmission directly, and indirectly through contamination via fomites. Regular hand washing and timely cleansing or removal of contaminated fomites may aid control of pneumococcal transmission via these routes.

  7. Controlling chaotic transients: Yorke's game of survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Jacobo; D'ovidio, Francesco; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the tent map as the prototype of a chaotic system with escapes. We show analytically that a small, bounded, but carefully chosen perturbation added to the system can trap forever an orbit close to the chaotic saddle, even in presence of noise of larger, although bounded, amplitude......, the dynamics diverge, leaving a relatively safe region, and we say the protagonist loses. What makes survival difficult is that the adversary is allowed stronger "actions" than the protagonist. What makes survival possible is (i) the background dynamics (the tent map here) are chaotic and (ii) the protagonist...... knows the action of the adversary in choosing his response and is permitted to choose the initial point x(0) of the game. We use the "slope 3" tent map in an example of this problem. We show that it is possible for the protagonist to survive....

  8. Analysis of survival data from telemetry projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunck, C.M.; Winterstein, S.R.; Pollock, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    Telemetry techniques can be used to study the survival rates of animal populations and are particularly suitable for species or settings for which band recovery models are not. Statistical methods for estimating survival rates and parameters of survival distributions from observations of radio-tagged animals will be described. These methods have been applied to medical and engineering studies and to the study of nest success. Estimates and tests based on discrete models, originally introduced by Mayfield, and on continuous models, both parametric and nonparametric, will be described. Generalizations, including staggered entry of subjects into the study and identification of mortality factors will be considered. Additional discussion topics will include sample size considerations, relocation frequency for subjects, and use of covariates.

  9. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, all enrolled before diagnosis. Self-reported PA was measured as time per activity, and estimated metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week were summed for each activity. We constructed measures for household, exercise, and total PA. The association between...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  10. Stability of alert survivable forces during reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of current and projected strategic forces are discussed within a framework that contains elements of current US and Russian analyses. For current force levels and high alert, stability levels are high, as are the levels of potential strikes, due to the large forces deployed. As force levels drop towards those of current value target sets, the analysis becomes linear, concern shifts from stability to reconstitution, and survivable forces drop out. Adverse marginal costs generally provide disincentives for the reduction of vulnerable weapons, but the exchange of vulnerable for survivable weapons could reduce cost while increasing stability even for aggressive participants. Exchanges between effective vulnerable and survivable missile forces are studied with an aggregated, probabilistic model, which optimizes each sides` first and determines each sides` second strikes and costs by minimizing first strike costs.

  11. 10-year survival of total ankle arthroplasties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose There is an ongoing need to review large series of total ankle replacements (TARs) for monitoring of changes in practice and their outcome. 4 national registries, including the Swedish Ankle Register, have previously reported their 5-year results. We now present an extended series with a longer follow-up, and with a 10-year survival analysis. Patients and methods Records of uncemented 3-component TARs were retrospectively reviewed, determining risk factors such as age, sex, and diagnosis. Prosthetic survival rates were calculated with exchange or removal of components as endpoint—excluding incidental exchange of the polyethylene meniscus. Results Of the 780 prostheses implanted since 1993, 168 (22%) had been revised by June 15, 2010. The overall survival rate fell from 0.81 (95% CI: 0.79–0.83) at 5 years to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67–0.71) at 10 years. The survival rate was higher, although not statistically significantly so, during the latter part of the period investigated. Excluding the STAR prosthesis, the survival rate for all the remaining designs was 0.78 at 10 years. Women below the age of 60 with osteoarthritis were at a higher risk of revision, but age did not influence the outcome in men or women with rheumatoid arthritis. Revisions due to technical mistakes at the index surgery and instability were undertaken earlier than revisions for other reasons. Interpretation The results have slowly improved during the 18-year period investigated. However, we do not believe that the survival rates of ankle replacements in the near future will approach those of hip and knee replacements—even though improved instrumentation and design of the prostheses, together with better patient selection, will presumably give better results. PMID:22066551

  12. Changing Pattern in Malignant Mesothelioma Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Faig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival for mesothelioma has been shown to be poor, with marginal improvement over time. Recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of mesothelioma may impact therapy to improve survival that may not be evident from available clinical trials that are often small and not randomized. Therapies may affect survival differently based on mesothelioma location (pleural vs peritoneal. Data are conflicting regarding the effect of asbestos exposure on mesothelioma location. OBJECTIVES: We examined survival in a large cohort of mesothelioma subjects analyzed by tumor location and presence and mode of asbestos exposure. METHODS: Data were analyzed from cases (n = 380 diagnosed with mesothelioma from 1992 to 2012. Cases were either drawn from treatment referrals, independent medical evaluation for medical legal purposes, or volunteers who were diagnosed with mesothelioma. Subjects completed an occupational medical questionnaire, personal interview with the examining physician, and physician review of the medical record. RESULTS: This study reports better survival for mesothelioma than historical reports. Survival for peritoneal mesothelioma was longer than that for pleural mesothelioma (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.24-0.54, P < .001 after adjusting for gender and age at diagnosis. Non-occupational cases were more likely to be 1 diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma, 2 female, 3 exposed, and 4 diagnosed at a younger age and to have a 5 shorter latency compared to occupational cases (P < .001. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal mesothelioma was more likely associated with non-occupational exposure, thus emphasizing the importance of exposure history in enhancing early diagnosis and treatment impact.

  13. Methods for developing and validating survivability distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.L.

    1993-10-01

    A previous report explored and discussed statistical methods and procedures that may be applied to validate the survivability of a complex system of systems that cannot be tested as an entity. It described a methodology where Monte Carlo simulation was used to develop the system survivability distribution from the component distributions using a system model that registers the logical interactions of the components to perform system functions. This paper discusses methods that can be used to develop the required survivability distributions based upon three sources of knowledge. These are (1) available test results; (2) little or no available test data, but a good understanding of the physical laws and phenomena which can be applied by computer simulation; and (3) neither test data nor adequate knowledge of the physics are known, in which case, one must rely upon, and quantify, the judgement of experts. This paper describes the relationship between the confidence bounds that can be placed on survivability and the number of tests conducted. It discusses the procedure for developing system level survivability distributions from the distributions for lower levels of integration. It demonstrates application of these techniques by defining a communications network for a Hypothetical System Architecture. A logic model for the performance of this communications network is developed, as well as the survivability distributions for the nodes and links based on two alternate data sets, reflecting the effects of increased testing of all elements. It then shows how this additional testing could be optimized by concentrating only on those elements contained in the low-order fault sets which the methodology identifies.

  14. Work Values of Surviving and Non-surviving Managers During Economic Recession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The study compared work values of surviving and non-surviving managers during a period of general economic recession in Hong Kong associated with the Asian financial crisis. Design/methodology/approach - Involving a natural field experiment, data on work values were collected from ethni...

  15. Panspermia Survival Scenarios for Organisms that Survive Typical Hypervelocity Solar System Impact Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, D.

    2014-04-01

    Previous experimental studies have demonstrated the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events, testing the panspermia and litho-panspermia hypotheses [1]. It has been demonstrated by the authors that Nannochloropsis Oculata Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone' (sunlit surface layers of oceans [2]), survive impacts up to 6.93 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 40 GPa) [3, 4]. Also shown to survive impacts up to 5.49 km s-1 is the tardigrade species Hypsibius dujardini (a complex micro-animal consisting of 40,000 cells) [5, 6]. It has also been shown that they can survive sustained pressures up to 600 MPa using a water filled pressure capsule [7]. Additionally bacteria can survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (~30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1], and the survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 (~30 GPa) has also recently been demonstrated [8]. Other groups have also reported that the lichen Xanthoria elegans is able to survive shocks in similar pressure ranges (~40 GPa) [9]. Here we present various simulated impact regimes to show which scenarios are condusive to the panspermia hypothesis of the natural transfer of life (via an icy body) through space to an extraterrestrial environment.

  16. Predicting survival and morbidity-free survival to very old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Newson (Rachel); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); O.H. Franco (Oscar); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Hofman (Albert); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAs life expectancy continually increases, it is imperative to identify determinants of survival to the extreme end of the lifespan and more importantly to identify factors that increase the chance of survival free of major morbidities. As such, the current study assessed 45 common diseas

  17. Regression Analysis of Restricted Mean Survival Time Based on Pseudo-Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Hansen, Mette Gerster; Klein, John P.

    2004-01-01

    censoring; hazard function; health economics; mean survival time; pseudo-observations; regression model; restricted mean survival time; survival analysis......censoring; hazard function; health economics; mean survival time; pseudo-observations; regression model; restricted mean survival time; survival analysis...

  18. Regression analysis of restricted mean survival time based on pseudo-observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Hansen, Mette Gerster; Klein, John P.

    censoring; hazard function; health economics; regression model; survival analysis; mean survival time; restricted mean survival time; pseudo-observations......censoring; hazard function; health economics; regression model; survival analysis; mean survival time; restricted mean survival time; pseudo-observations...

  19. A stochastic evolutionary model for survival dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fenner, Trevor; Loizou, George

    2014-01-01

    The recent interest in human dynamics has led researchers to investigate the stochastic processes that explain human behaviour in different contexts. Here we propose a generative model to capture the essential dynamics of survival analysis, traditionally employed in clinical trials and reliability analysis in engineering. In our model, the only implicit assumption made is that the longer an actor has been in the system, the more likely it is to have failed. We derive a power-law distribution for the process and provide preliminary empirical evidence for the validity of the model from two well-known survival analysis data sets.

  20. Survival probability in diffractive dijet photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, M

    2009-01-01

    We confront the latest H1 and ZEUS data on diffractive dijet photoproduction with next-to-leading order QCD predictions in order to determine whether a rapidity gap survival probability of less than one is supported by the data. We find evidence for this hypothesis when assuming global factorization breaking for both the direct and resolved photon contributions, in which case the survival probability would have to be E_T^jet-dependent, and for the resolved or in addition the related direct initial-state singular contribution only, where it would be independent of E_T^jet.

  1. Surviving sepsis in the critical care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The management of sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care environment is a complex task requiring the cooperation of a multidisciplinary team. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign provides systematic guidelines for the recognition, early intervention, and supportive management of sepsis. Critical care nurses are instrumental in ensuring that these guidelines and other sources of evidence-based practice are used for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. This article discusses the pathophysiologic processes in severe sepsis and septic shock and discusses the appropriate interventions as recommended by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Recommended early treatments are reviewed along with interventions related to hemodynamics, perfusion, and supportive care in the critical care environment.

  2. Survival of soil bacteria during prolonged desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    A determination was made of the kinds and numbers of bacteria surviving when two soils were maintained in the laboratory under dry conditions for more than half a year. Certain non-spore-forming bacteria were found to survive in the dry condition for long periods. A higher percentage of drought-tolerant than drought-sensitive bacteria was able to grow at low water activities. When they were grown in media with high salt concentrations, bacteria generally became more tolerant of prolonged drought and they persisted longer. The percent of cells in a bacterial population that remained viable when exposed to drought stress varied with the stage of growth.

  3. Graft pathology at the time of harvest: impact on long-term survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to present the graft pathology at the time of harvest and its impact on long-term survival. Methods: The remnants of the bypass grafts from 66 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease receiving a coronary artery bypass grafting were investigated pathologically, and pertinent predictive risk factors and survival were analyzed. Results: Medial degenerative changes with or without intimal proliferation were present in 36.8%, 37.8% and 35.6% of left internal mammary artery (IMA, radial artery and saphenous vein grafts. There were 2 (3.0% hospital deaths and 9 (14.1% late deaths. Multinomial logistic regression revealed left IMA pathological changes, dyslipidemia, history of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty/stent deployment and Y-graft were significant predictive risk factors negatively influencing the patients’ long-term survival. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the long-term survival of patients with left IMA pathological changes were significantly reduced compared with those without (74.1% vs. 91.4%, P=0.002; whereas no differences were noted in long-term survivals between patients with and without pathological changes of the radial arterial or saphenous vein grafts. Conclusion: Pathological changes may be seen in the bypass graft at the time of harvest. The subtle ultrastructural modifications and the expressions of vascular tone regulators might be responsible for late graft patency. The pathological changes of the left IMA at the time of harvest rather than those of the radial artery or saphenous vein graft affect significantly longterm survival. Non-traumatic maneuver of left IMA harvest, well-controlled dyslipidemia and avoidance of using composite grafts can be helpful in maintaining the architecture of the grafts.

  4. IL-12 is required for anti-OX40-mediated CD4 T cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Carl E; Montler, Ryan; Zheng, Rongxui; Shu, Suyu; Weinberg, Andrew D

    2008-02-15

    Engagement of OX40 greatly improves CD4 T cell function and survival. Previously, we showed that both OX40 engagement and CTLA-4 blockade led to enhanced CD4 T cell expansion, but only OX40 signaling increased survival. To identify pathways associated with OX40-mediated survival, the gene expression of Ag-activated CD4 T cells isolated from mice treated with anti-OX40 and -CTLA-4 was compared. This comparison revealed a potential role for IL-12 through increased expression of the IL-12R-signaling subunit (IL-12Rbeta2) on T cells activated 3 days previously with Ag and anti-OX40. The temporal expression of IL-12Rbeta2 on OX40-stimulated CD4 T cells was tightly regulated and peaked approximately 4-6 days after initial activation/expansion, but before the beginning of T cell contraction. IL-12 signaling, during this window of IL-12Rbeta2 expression, was required for enhanced T cell survival and survival was associated with STAT4-specific signaling. The findings from these observations were exploited in several different mouse tumor models where we found that the combination of anti-OX40 and IL-12 showed synergistic therapeutic efficacy. These results may lead to the elucidation of the molecular pathways involved with CD4 T cell survival that contribute to improved memory, and understanding of these pathways could lead to greater efficacy of immune stimulatory Abs in tumor-bearing individuals.

  5. Survival costs associated with wood frog breeding migrations: effects of timber harvest and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Thompson, Frank R

    2009-06-01

    Migration presents a trade-off for individuals between the potential fitness benefits of reaching high-quality habitat vs. the potential costs of migration. Within an information-theoretic framework, we examined the costs of migration for adult wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in response to timber harvest and annual weather conditions using Cox proportional-hazard estimates of survival. In 2004 prior to timber harvest, survival did not differ between the inside (0.75, SE = 0.078) and outside (0.73, SE = 0.235) of the circular timber harvest arrays (each 164 m radius). Following timber harvest, survival inside arrays in both 2005 and 2006 (0.22, SE = 0.065; 0.42, SE = 0.139) was lower than survival outside of the arrays and prior to harvest. Sources of mortality included predation in all years and desiccation in the drought year of 2005. The most-supported models for explaining both predation and desiccation risks reflected behaviors as opposed to timber harvest or weather conditions. Both predation and desiccation risks increased when frogs made frequent movements or were located near breeding ponds. Optimal behaviors for reducing predation and desiccation risks were the same before and after timber harvest; however, the survival consequences for not adopting these behaviors were more severe following harvest. Our results provide empirical evidence for (1) the ecological pressures that influence migratory behavior and (2) differential survival in relation to migratory behavior which reveals why frogs move relatively long distances away from breeding sites.

  6. Treatment-associated severe thrombocytopenia affects survival rate in esophageal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y M Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal cancer is commonly treated with surgery, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, or a combination of both. The correlation between the hematological parameters during CCRT and early survival of esophageal cancer has not been fully evaluated. Materials And Methods: We analyzed the records of 65 esophageal cancer patients treated by CCRT between 2007 and 2010 retrospectively. The association between CCRT-associated myelosuppression, demographic variables, and survival rates were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The univariate analysis showed that tumor extent of T3-4, a higher stage of tumor, a lower albumin level, grade 3 or higher anemia and thrombocytopenia, and interruptions in treatment affected survival rates. Further, the multivariate analysis revealed that stage IV (P = 0.030 is an independently negative prognostic factor for a one-year survival rate. Stage IV (P = 0.035, tumor extent of T3-4 (P = 0.002, and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.015 are independently negative prognostic factors for a two-year survival rate. Conclusions: Severe decrease in platelet count during CCRT independently affects survival of esophageal cancer patients in addition to stage of the tumor.

  7. High levels of genomic aberrations in serous ovarian cancers are associated with better survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars O Baumbusch

    Full Text Available Genomic instability and copy number alterations in cancer are generally associated with poor prognosis; however, recent studies have suggested that extreme levels of genomic aberrations may be beneficial for the survival outcome for patients with specific tumour types. We investigated the extent of genomic instability in predominantly high-grade serous ovarian cancers (SOC using two independent datasets, generated in Norway (n = 74 and Australia (n = 70, respectively. Genomic instability was quantified by the Total Aberration Index (TAI, a measure of the abundance and genomic size of copy number changes in a tumour. In the Norwegian cohort, patients with TAI above the median revealed significantly prolonged overall survival (p<0.001 and progression-free survival (p<0.05. In the Australian cohort, patients with above median TAI showed prolonged overall survival (p<0.05 and moderately, but not significantly, prolonged progression-free survival. Results were confirmed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses with TAI as a continuous variable. Our results provide further evidence supporting an association between high level of genomic instability and prolonged survival of high-grade SOC patients, possibly as disturbed genome integrity may lead to increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Human neural progenitor cells promote photoreceptor survival in retinal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund-Johansson, Ulrica; Mohlin, Camilla; Liljekvist-Soltic, Ingela; Ekström, Per; Johansson, Kjell

    2010-02-01

    Different types of progenitor and stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection in animal models of photoreceptor degeneration. The present study was conducted to investigate whether human neural progenitor cells (HNPCs) have neuroprotective properties on retinal explants models with calpain- and caspase-3-dependent photoreceptor cell death. In the first experiments, HNPCs in a feeder layer were co-cultured for 6 days either with postnatal rd1 mouse or normal rat retinas. Retinal histological sections were used to determine outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, and to detect the number of photoreceptors with labeling for calpain activity, cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL. The ONL thickness of co-cultured rat and rd1 retinas was found to be almost 10% and 40% thicker, respectively, compared to controls. Cell counts of calpain activity, cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL labeled photoreceptors in both models revealed a 30-50% decrease when co-cultured with HNPCs. The results represent significant increases of photoreceptor survival in the co-cultured retinas. In the second experiments, for an identification of putative survival factors, or a combination of them, a growth factor profile was performed on conditioned medium. The relative levels of various growth factors were analyzed by densitometric measurements of growth factor array membranes. Following growth factors were identified as most potential survival factors; granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3), placental growth factor (PIGF), transforming growth factors (TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-D). HNPCs protect both against calpain- and caspase-3-dependent photoreceptor cell death in the rd1 mouse and against caspase-3-dependent photoreceptor cell death in normal rat retinas in vitro. The protective effect is possibly achieved by a variety of

  9. Effects of yearling, juvenile and adult survival on reef manta ray (Manta alfredi demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Smallegange

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The trade in manta ray gill plates has considerably increased over the last two decades. The resulting increases in ray mortality, in addition to mortality caused by by-catch, has caused many ray populations to decrease in size. The aim of this study was to ascertain how yearling and juvenile growth and survival, and adult survival and reproduction affect reef manta ray (Manta alfredi population change, to increase our understanding of manta ray demography and thereby improve conservation research and measures for these fish. Methods We developed a population projection model for reef manta rays, and used published life history data on yearling and juvenile growth and adult reproduction to parameterise the model. Because little is known about reef manta ray yearling and juvenile survival, we conducted our analyses using a range of plausible survival rate values for yearlings, juveniles and adults. Results The model accurately captured observed variation in population growth rate, lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time in different reef manta ray populations. Our demographic analyses revealed a range of population consequences in response to variation in demographic rates. For example, an increase in yearling or adult survival rates always elicited greater responses in population growth rate, lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time than the same increase in juvenile survival rate. The population growth rate increased linearly, but lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time increased at an accelerating rate with increasing yearling or adult survival rates. Hence, even a small increase in survival rate could increase lifetime reproductive success by one pup, and cohort generation time by several years. Elasticity analyses revealed that, depending on survival rate values of all life stages, the population growth rate is either most sensitive to changes in the rate with which juveniles

  10. Importance of rare gene copy number alterations for personalized tumor characterization and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Michael; Friedrich, Betty; Beyer, Andreas

    2016-10-03

    It has proven exceedingly difficult to ascertain rare copy number alterations (CNAs) that may have strong effects in individual tumors. We show that a regulatory network inferred from gene expression and gene copy number data of 768 human cancer cell lines can be used to quantify the impact of patient-specific CNAs on survival signature genes. A focused analysis of tumors from six tissues reveals that rare patient-specific gene CNAs often have stronger effects on signature genes than frequent gene CNAs. Further comparison to a related network-based approach shows that the integration of indirectly acting gene CNAs significantly improves the survival analysis.

  11. Avian pneumovirus and its survival in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T; Lopes, Vanessa C; Noll, Sally L; Halvorson, David A; Nagaraja, Kakambi V

    2003-01-01

    The survival of avian pneumovirus (APV) in turkey litter was studied at different temperature (room temperature, [approximately 22-25 C], 8 C, and -12 C) conditions. Built-up turkey litter from a turkey breeder farm known to be free of APV was obtained and was divided into two portions. One portion was sterilized by autoclaving and the other portion was kept nonautoclaved. Both samples were inoculated with a Vero cell-propagated Minnesota isolate of APV subtype C (APV/MN2A) with a titer of 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose at 1% level. These samples were then stored at three different temperatures: -12 C, 8 C, and room temperature (20-25 C). The samples were tested for the presence of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and for the presence of live virus by virus isolation in Vero cells at the intervals of 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90 days. Our studies revealed the presence of APV RNA even after 90 days in the autoclaved litter samples kept at -12 C and at 8 C. The virus was isolated from the autoclaved litter kept at -12 C up to 60 days. From the nonautoclaved litter, viral RNA was detected up to 60 days and virus was isolated up to 14days. The present study indicated that APV could survive in built-up turkey litter up to 60 days postinoculation at a temperature of-12 C.

  12. 38 CFR 3.257 - Children; no surviving spouse entitled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Children; no surviving... and Estate § 3.257 Children; no surviving spouse entitled. Where pension is not payable to a surviving... worth, payments will be made to or for the child or children as if there were no surviving spouse....

  13. 20 CFR 234.44 - Payment to surviving relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment to surviving relatives. 234.44... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Residual Lump-Sum Payment § 234.44 Payment to surviving relatives. (a) How surviving relatives are paid. If the employee either did not designate a beneficiary or was not survived by...

  14. 20 CFR 725.215 - Determination of dependency; surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; surviving spouse...) § 725.215 Determination of dependency; surviving spouse. An individual who is the miner's surviving... service serving on active duty (as defined in § 404.1019 of this title), and the surviving spouse...

  15. Ensuring daughter survival in Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Sharada); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe south Indian state of Tamil Nadu is a relatively recent entrant to the list of Indian states exhibiting the phenomenon of "missing girls". A substantial proportion of these missing girls may be attributed to the differential survival of girls and boys in the 0-6 age group due to

  16. Surviving on Mars: test with LISA simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, G; Bertoloni, G; Castellani, F; Visentin, R

    2009-01-01

    We present the biological results of some experiments performed in the Padua simulators of planetary environments, named LISA, used to study the limit of bacterial life on the planet Mars. The survival of Bacillus strains for some hours in Martian environment is shortly discussed.

  17. Survivable Impairment-Aware Traffic Grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot o

  18. The Classroom Teacher's Technology Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This is a must-have resource for all K-12 teachers and administrators who want to really make the best use of available technologies. Written by Doug Johnson, an expert in educational technology, "The Classroom Teacher's Technology Survival Guide" is replete with practical tips teachers can easily use to engage their students and make their…

  19. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hao

    Full Text Available We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles.

  20. Breastfeeding, birth intervals and child survival:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    short birth intervals are associated with inceased mortality rates in the ages 1-12 months, and to ... and early childhood mortality in Ethiopia is ... factors linking birth intervals and child survival ... and women in their reproductive ages. ... and 2,550 women of reproductive age. ..... to Ecological Degradation and Food Insecurity:.

  1. Changing incidence and improved survival of gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Vincent K. Y.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Enting, Roeline; Bienfait, Henri P.; Robe, Pierre; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Visser, Otto

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a relatively rare but serious health burden. This study provides insight into the incidence and survival patterns of gliomas in the Netherlands diagnosed in adult patients during the time period 1989-2010, with a focus on glioblastoma

  2. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  3. The Classroom Teacher's Technology Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This is a must-have resource for all K-12 teachers and administrators who want to really make the best use of available technologies. Written by Doug Johnson, an expert in educational technology, "The Classroom Teacher's Technology Survival Guide" is replete with practical tips teachers can easily use to engage their students and make their…

  4. Ensuring daughter survival in Tamil Nadu, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Sharada); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe south Indian state of Tamil Nadu is a relatively recent entrant to the list of Indian states exhibiting the phenomenon of "missing girls". A substantial proportion of these missing girls may be attributed to the differential survival of girls and boys in the 0-6 age group due to daug

  5. Estimating haplotype effects for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Martinussen, Torben; Silver, J

    2010-01-01

    Genetic association studies often investigate the effect of haplotypes on an outcome of interest. Haplotypes are not observed directly, and this complicates the inclusion of such effects in survival models. We describe a new estimating equations approach for Cox's regression model to assess haplo...

  6. Black Colleges: An Alternative Strategy for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Albert N.

    1988-01-01

    Joseph Perkins argued in the "Wall Street Journal" that one-third of the 100 traditionally Black colleges should become two-year institutions. This rebuttal suggests that Black institutions' survival involves planning for new and broader missions in an unsheltered, integrated, competitive environment. (MLW)

  7. Survival by Dialysis Modality-Who Cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martin B; Bargman, Joanne M

    2016-06-01

    In light of the recent emphasis on patient-centered outcomes and quality of life for patients with kidney disease, we contend that the nephrology community should no longer fund, perform, or publish studies that compare survival by dialysis modality. These studies have become redundant; they are methodologically limited, unhelpful in practice, and therefore a waste of resources. More than two decades of these publications show similar survival between patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and those receiving thrice-weekly conventional hemodialysis, with differences only for specific subgroups. In clinical practice, modality choice should be individualized with the aim of maximizing quality of life, patient-reported outcomes, and achieving patient-centered goals. Expected survival is often irrelevant to modality choice. Even for the younger and fitter home hemodialysis population, quality of life, not just duration of survival, is a major priority. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that patients with ESRD continue to experience poor quality of life because of high symptom burden, unsolved clinical problems, and unmet needs. Patients care more about how they will live instead of how long. It is our responsibility to align our research with their needs. Only by doing so can we meet the challenges of ESRD patient care in the coming decades.

  8. A Child Survival and Development Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the problems of child survival and development in developing countries by discussing the biomedical causes and the concomitant social determinants of high infant mortality rates. Describes four intervention strategies recommended by UNICEF: growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, and immunization. (HOD)

  9. Survival Skills for the Real World. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Curriculum Div.

    This guide shares survival skills activities with Oklahoma educators of students in grades 9-12. Thirteen sections are included: (1) self-appraisal; (2) skills employers look for; (3) locating available jobs; (4) investigating job requirements; (5) applying for a job; (6) interviewing for a job; (7) deciding about a job; (8) responsibilities of…

  10. Survival in a quasi-death process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van Erik A.; Pollett, Philip K.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a Markov chain in continuous time with an absorbing coffin state and a finite set $S$ of transient states. When $S$ is irreducible the limiting distribution of the chain as $t \\to\\infty,$ conditional on survival up to time $t,$ is known to equal the (unique) quasi-stationary distribution

  11. Statin use and survival following glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Hallas, Jesper; Friis, Søren

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While some studies indicate a potential chemopreventive effect of statin use on the risk of glioma, the effect of statins on the prognosis of brain tumours has not yet been examined. We thus conducted a cohort study evaluating the influence of statin use on survival in patients with glioblas...

  12. Surviving the War: A College Counselor's Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Philip L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents excerpts of the author's journal that recounts his experiences and the events about surviving the war in Egypt from 1990-1991. The article begins with the August 13th entry in the journal of the year 1990.

  13. Surviving the War--And the Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Surviving the War: A College Counselor's Journal" by Philip Clinton. He argues that Clinton's engrossing account of the 1990-91 school year at Cairo American College (CAC) gives individuals wonderful insights into the unusual challenges occasionally encountered by an international counselor. The year…

  14. Survival From Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Friederike; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to diverse findings as to the role of family factors for childhood cancer survival even within Europe, we explored a nationwide, register-based cohort of Danish children with hematological malignancies. METHODS: All children born between 1973 and 2006 and diagnosed with a hematolo...

  15. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible en...

  16. Revisiting the Survival Mnemonic Effect in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa N. S. Pand Eirada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the “survival processing effect.” In the current experiment, we revisited the investigation of this effect in children and tested it in a new cultural group, using a procedure that differs from the existing studies with children. A group of 40 Portuguese children rated the relevance of unrelated words to a survival and a new moving scenario. This encoding task was followed by a surprise free-recall task. Akin to what is typically found, survival processing produced better memory performance than the control condition (moving. These data put on firmer ground the idea that a mnemonic tuning to fitness-relevant encodings is present early in development. The theoretical importance of this result to the adaptive memory literature is discussed, as well as potential practical implications of this kind of approach to the study of memory in children.

  17. An Overview of Algorithms for Network Survivability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Network survivability—the ability to maintain operation when one or a few network components fail—is indispensable for present-day networks. In this paper, we characterize three main components in establishing network survivability for an existing network, namely, (1) determining network

  18. Surviving 1000 centuries can we do it?

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This full color book provides a quantitative view of our civilization over the next 100,000 years. The authors present the dangers and stress the importance of taking decisions in the 21st century to ensure the long-term survival of people on Earth.

  19. What determines the survival of internet IPOs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, T.; van Giersbergen, N.; Botman, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether the variables that are significant in noninternet initial public offering (IPOs) play a similar role for internet IPOs. To this end, we analyse the determinants of survival of internet firms that have gone public at the NASDAQ stock exchange from December 1996 through F

  20. Microbial survival and odor in laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Signe Munk; Johansen, Charlotte; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2001-01-01

    The survival and distribution of microflora during laundering at 30 or 40 degreesC in commercial U.S. and European Union (E.U.) detergents were determined in laboratory wash experiments. Four test strains-Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-were eva...

  1. Longevity and Patau syndrome: what determines survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroos, Sherina; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pugh, Jennifer Harriet; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Hodes, Deborah

    2012-12-06

    The authors report of an 8-year-old girl with non-mosaic Patau syndrome. The median life expectancy of Patau syndrome is 7-10 days, and 90% die in the first year of life. Survival is often attributed to mosaicism and the severity of associated malformations. We delineate the developing phenotype and review the literature discussing potential contributory factors to longevity.

  2. HSP70 mediates survival in apoptotic cells-Boolean network prediction and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasaikar, Suhas V; Ghosh, Sourish; Narain, Priyam; Basu, Anirban; Gomes, James

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal stress or injury results in the activation of proteins, which regulate the balance between survival and apoptosis. However, the complex mechanism of cell signaling involving cell death and survival, activated in response to cellular stress is not yet completely understood. To bring more clarity about these mechanisms, a Boolean network was constructed that represented the apoptotic pathway in neuronal cells. FasL and neurotrophic growth factor (NGF) were considered as inputs in the absence and presence of heat shock proteins known to shift the balance toward survival by rescuing pro-apoptotic cells. The probabilities of survival, DNA repair and apoptosis as cellular fates, in the presence of either the growth factor or FasL, revealed a survival bias encoded in the network. Boolean predictions tested by measuring the mRNA level of caspase-3, caspase-8, and BAX in neuronal Neuro2a (N2a) cell line with NGF and FasL as external input, showed positive correlation with the observed experimental results for survival and apoptotic states. It was observed that HSP70 contributed more toward rescuing cells from apoptosis in comparison to HSP27, HSP40, and HSP90. Overexpression of HSP70 in N2a transfected cells showed reversal of cellular fate from FasL-induced apoptosis to survival. Further, the pro-survival role of the proteins BCL2, IAP, cFLIP, and NFκB determined by vertex perturbation analysis was experimentally validated through protein inhibition experiments using EM20-25, Embelin and Wedelolactone, which resulted in 1.27-, 1.26-, and 1.46-fold increase in apoptosis of N2a cells. The existence of a one-to-one correspondence between cellular fates and attractor states shows that Boolean networks may be employed with confidence in qualitative analytical studies of biological networks.

  3. Effects of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on survival of patients in a persistent vegetative state after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kunpeng; Chen, Ying; Yan, Caihong; Huang, Zhijia; Wang, Deming; Gui, Peigen; Bao, Juan

    2017-10-01

    To assess the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on short- and long-term survival of patients in a persistent vegetative state after stroke and determine the relevant prognostic factors. Stroke may lead to a persistent vegetative state, and the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on survival of stroke patients in a persistent vegetative state remains unclear. Prospective study. A total of 97 stroke patients in a persistent vegetative state hospitalised from January 2009 to December 2011 at the Second Hospital, University of South China, were assessed in this study. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed in 55 patients, and mean follow-up time was 18 months. Survival rate and risk factors were analysed. Median survival in the 55 percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy-treated patients was 17·6 months, higher compared with 8·2 months obtained for the remaining 42 patients without percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy treatment. Univariate analyses revealed that age, hospitalisation time, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy treatment status, family financial situation, family care, pulmonary infection and nutrition were significantly associated with survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that older age, no gastrostomy, poor family care, pulmonary infection and poor nutritional status were independent risk factors affecting survival. Indeed, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy significantly improved the nutritional status and decreased pulmonary infection rate in patients with persistent vegetative state after stroke. Interestingly, median survival time was 20·3 months in patients with no or one independent risk factors of poor prognosis (n = 38), longer compared with 8·7 months found for patients with two or more independent risk factors (n = 59). Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy significantly improves long-term survival of stroke patients in a persistent vegetative state and is associated with improved nutritional status

  4. A glimpse of Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in soils from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haizhen; Ibekwe, A Mark; Ma, Jincai; Wu, Laosheng; Lou, Jun; Wu, Zhigang; Liu, Renyi; Xu, Jianming; Yates, Scott R

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is an important food-borne pathogen, which continues to be a major public health concern worldwide. It is known that E. coli O157:H7 survive in soil environment might result in the contamination of fresh produce or water source. To investigate how the soils and their properties affect E. coli O157:H7 survival, we studied E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics in 14 soils collected in eastern China from the warm-temperate zone to subtropical zone. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 survival as a function of time can be well described by the Weibull model. The calculated td values (survival time to reach the detection limit, 100 colony forming units per gram oven-dried weight of soil) for the test soils were between 1.4 and 25.8 days. A significantly longer survival time (td) was observed in neutral or alkaline soils from north-eastern China (the warm-temperate zone) than that in acidic soils from south-eastern China (the subtropical zone). Distinct E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics was related to soil properties. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the td values were significantly enhanced by soil microbial biomass carbon and total nitrogen, but were significantly reduced by amorphous Al2O3 and relative abundance of Chloroflexi. It should pay more attention to E. coli O157:H7 long survival in soils and its potential environmental contamination risk.

  5. Le survivant sans le syndrome Schreber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Figuier

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available On a pensé la catastrophe, mais a-t-on suffisamment pensé la survivance et la figure du survivant ? Ce n'est pas un hasard si celle-ci est au centre de Masse et puissance, oeuvre dans laquelle Canetti interroge la « mauvaise » survivance responsable de la poursuite de la logique de guerre. Mais où trouver la « bonne » ? Revenir de la catastrophe ne suffit pas pour être un « survivant authentique », selon l'expression de Kafka. Il faut avoir dépassé, avec Primo Levi et Robert Antelme, l'opposition de la vie comme croissance continue et de la mort comme son horrible contraire, par le don, dans la pauvreté solidaire, de cette vie retrouvée.Hemos reflexionado acerca de la catástrofe, pero ¿hemos meditado lo suficiente sobre la supervivencia y el superviviente? No es una coincidencia si el superviviente es el tema principal de Masse et puissance, obra en la cual Canetti analiza la «mala» supervivencia responsable de la persistencia de la lógica de guerra ¿Dónde sin embargo podemos encontrar la «buena» supervivencia? Superar la catástrofe no es suficiente para ser un «auténtico superviviente», según Kafka. Es fundamental ir más allá, con Primo Levi y Robert Antelme, de la oposición entre la vida, como crecimiento continuo, y la muerte, como su espantoso contrario, mediante la donación de forma solidaria de esta vida reencontrada.Disaster is the theme of many studies, but what about survival and of the figure of the survivor? This issue is central in Mass and power, work in which Canetti questions the “bad” survival, responsible for the continuation of the logic of war. But is there any “good” survival? Coming back from the catastrophe is not enough to be an “authentic survivor”, according to Kafka’s expression. To achieve this, it is necessary to have exceeded, with PrimoLevi and Robert Antelme, the opposition of life as a continuous growth and of death as its horrible opposite, by the gift, in a

  6. Water Properties in Cream Cheeses with Variations in pH, Fat, and Salt Content and Correlation to Microbial Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie M.; Hansen, Tina B.; Andersen, Simon Ulf

    2012-01-01

    and Staphylococcus aureus, and partial least-squares regression revealed that H-1 T-2 relaxation decay data were able to explain a large part of the variation in the survival of E. coli O157 (64-83%). However, the predictions of L. innocua and S. aureus survival were strongly dependent on the fat/water content...... of the samples. Consequently, the present results indicate that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for predicting the survival of these bacteria; however, the characteristics of the sample matrix are substantial....

  7. Bacteria survival probability in bactericidal filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur-Azzam, Nura; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Woo, Su Gyeong; Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2014-05-01

    Bactericidal filter papers offer the simplicity of gravity filtration to simultaneously eradicate microbial contaminants and particulates. We previously detailed the development of biocidal block copolymer micelles that could be immobilized on a filter paper to actively eradicate bacteria. Despite the many advantages offered by this system, its widespread use is hindered by its unknown mechanism of action which can result in non-reproducible outcomes. In this work, we sought to investigate the mechanism by which a certain percentage of Escherichia coli cells survived when passing through the bactericidal filter paper. Through the process of elimination, the possibility that the bacterial survival probability was controlled by the initial bacterial load or the existence of resistant sub-populations of E. coli was dismissed. It was observed that increasing the thickness or the number of layers of the filter significantly decreased bacterial survival probability for the biocidal filter paper but did not affect the efficiency of the blank filter paper (no biocide). The survival probability of bacteria passing through the antibacterial filter paper appeared to depend strongly on the number of collision between each bacterium and the biocide-loaded micelles. It was thus hypothesized that during each collision a certain number of biocide molecules were directly transferred from the hydrophobic core of the micelle to the bacterial lipid bilayer membrane. Therefore, each bacterium must encounter a certain number of collisions to take up enough biocide to kill the cell and cells that do not undergo the threshold number of collisions are expected to survive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between necrotic patterns in glioblastoma and patient survival: fractal dimension and lacunarity analyses using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Xu, Kaibin; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Xing; Zhang, Chuanbao; Li, Shaowu; Qiu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Tao

    2017-08-16

    Necrosis is a hallmark feature of glioblastoma (GBM). This study investigated the prognostic role of necrotic patterns in GBM using fractal dimension (FD) and lacunarity analyses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and evaluated the role of lacunarity in the biological processes leading to necrosis. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and MRI data of 95 patients with GBM. FD and lacunarity of the necrosis on MRI were calculated by fractal analysis and subjected to survival analysis. We also performed gene ontology analysis in 32 patients with available RNA-seq data. Univariate analysis revealed that FD lacunarity > 0.46 significantly correlated with poor progression-free survival (p = 0.006 and p = 0.012, respectively) and overall survival (p = 0.008 and p = 0.005, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that both parameters were independent factors for unfavorable progression-free survival (p = 0.001 and p = 0.015, respectively) and overall survival (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively). Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes positively correlated with lacunarity were involved in the suppression of apoptosis and necrosis-associated biological processes. We demonstrate that the fractal parameters of necrosis in GBM can predict patient survival and are associated with the biological processes of tumor necrosis.

  9. Analysing population-based cancer survival – settling the controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Pohar Perme, M; Estève, J; Rachet, B

    2016-01-01

    Background The relative survival field has seen a lot of development in the last decade, resulting in many different and even opposing suggestions on how to approach the analysis. Methods We carefully define and explain the differences between the various measures of survival (overall survival, crude mortality, net survival and relative survival ratio) and study their differences using colon and prostate cancer data extracted from the national population-based cancer registry of Slovenia as w...

  10. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  11. [Problems and priorities in child survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, J L

    1988-01-01

    This work synthesizes the conclusions and recommendations of the 1985 International Workshop on Child Survival held in Teotihuacan, Mexico. Data are presented which document the extent of the problem of child survival in Latin America and the deficiencies of available data. Malnutrition, diseases preventable through vaccination, diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and shortcomings in quality of care are separately discussed following an assessment of their socioeconomic and cultural determining factors. Recent advances in the preventive component of primary health care programs are discussed. In Latin America, 900 of each 1000 live born babies survive to the 5th year of life compared to 980 in developed countries. Although the mortality rate of children under 5 in Latin America declined from 128 in 1950-55 to 63 in 1980-85, there are wide disparities between countries. Most countries of Latin America were classified as having high or very high infant and child mortality. There are serious differences in child survival between geographic regions and social groups of each country. The mortality decline in Costa Rica, Cuba, and Chile demonstrates that other countries could avoid a large proportion of deaths by ensuring that benefits of current programs have broader coverage. The severe economic crisis in Mexico and other countries threatens the progress already achieved in child survival. The recommendations of the conference are based on the premise that recent efforts to improve survival have been insufficient and a more rational use of the available resources and knowledge is required. In the area of health policy, priority should continue to be given to providing care for mothers and small children. Investments should be reoriented toward extending coverage of primary health care. The proportion of mothers attended during delivery by trained paramedical personnel or physicians should be increased, and family planning programs in

  12. Long-term survival and conditional survival of cancer patients in Japan using population-based cancer registry data

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yuri; Miyashiro, Isao; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Chihara, Dai; Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Nakayama, Masashi; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Hattori, Masakazu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Oze, Isao; Tanaka, Rina; Nomura, Etsuko; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    Although we usually report 5-year cancer survival using population-based cancer registry data, nowadays many cancer patients survive longer and need to be followed-up for more than 5 years. Long-term cancer survival figures are scarce in Japan. Here we report 10-year cancer survival and conditional survival using an established statistical approach. We received data on 1 387 489 cancer cases from six prefectural population-based cancer registries in Japan, diagnosed between 1993 and 2009 and ...

  13. Interglacial insects and their possible survival in Greenland during the last glacial stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius

    2012-01-01

    Sediments from the last interglacial (Eemian) in Jameson Land, East Greenland, and the Thule area, NW Greenland, have revealed a number of insect fragments of both arctic and more or less warmth-demanding species. Altogether, the interglacial fauna of Coleoptera (beetles) indicates boreal...... beetle species such as Amara alpina and Isochnus arcticus did not survive the last glacial stage in Greenland. Two factors that have not been sufficiently considered when discussing survival contra extinction are the importance of microclimate and the number of sun-hours during the Arctic summer. Even...... among the Coleoptera, which as a group fares quite badly in the Arctic, there might be survivors, at least among those found both during the interglacial and as fossils during the early Holocene. First of all, glacial survival applies to the seed bug Nysius groenlandicus, which was widespread during...

  14. Incidence of and survival from oligodendroglioma in Denmark, 1943-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene Schjønning; Christensen, Helle Collatz; Kosteljanetz, Michael;

    2008-01-01

    case per 100,000 person-years, but varied somewhat when viewed across isolated periods. Comparison of the incidence rate before and after the introduction of CT scanning did not reveal a significant difference in the incidence rate. The median survival increased from 1.4 years (95% confidence interval......,304 cases of oligodendroglioma were included in the study. We calculated sex- and age-specific incidence rates in 5-year age intervals and for 5-year calendar periods. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. In the period 1943-2002, the incidence rate of oligodendroglioma was less than 1......We established the nationwide, population-based incidence of oligodendroglioma in Denmark during 59 years of monitoring and compared the overall survival of patients with oligodendroglial tumors during the periods 1943-1977 and 1978-2002. On the basis of reports in the Danish Cancer Registry, 1...

  15. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  16. Anaerobic survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pyruvate fermentation requires an Usp-type stress protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, K; Boes, N; Escbach, M;

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we identified a pyruvate fermentation pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sustaining anaerobic survival in the absence of alternative anaerobic respiratory and fermentative energy generation systems (M. Eschbach, K. Schreiber, K. Trunk, J. Buer, D. Jahn, and M. Schobert, J. Bacteriol. 186......:4596-4604, 2004). Anaerobic long-term survival of P. aeruginosa might be essential for survival in deeper layers of a biofilm and the persistent infection of anaerobic mucus plaques in the cystic fibrosis lung. Proteome analysis of P. aeruginosa cells during a 7-day period of pyruvate fermentation revealed...... the induced synthesis of three enzymes involved in arginine fermentation, ArcA, ArcB, and ArcC, and the outer membrane protein OprL. Moreover, formation of two proteins of unknown function, PA3309 and PA4352, increased by factors of 72- and 22-fold, respectively. Both belong to the group of universal stress...

  17. Retinoic acid as a survival factor in neuronal development of the grasshopper, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukiban, Jeyathevy; Bräunig, Peter; Mey, Jörg; Bui-Göbbels, Katrin

    2014-11-01

    Based on experience with cell cultures of adult insect neurons, we develop a serum-free culture system for embryonic locust neurons. Influences of trophic substances on survival and neurite outgrowth of developing neurons are investigated. For the first time, a positive trophic effect of 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA) was shown in vitro on embryonic neurons of an insect. We observed longer cell survival of 50 % developmental stage neurons in cultures supplemented with 0.3 nM 9-cis RA. Furthermore, an influence on neuron morphology was revealed, as the addition of 9-cis RA to cell culture medium led to an increase in the number of neurites per cell. Although an RA receptor gene, LmRXR (Locusta migratoria retinoid X receptor), was expressed in the central nervous system throughout development, the influence of 9-cis RA on neuronal survival and outgrowth was restricted to 50 % stage embryonic cells.

  18. Bronchial resection margin and long-term survival in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Michael; McShane, James; Shaw, Mathew; Page, Richard; Woolley, Steve; Shackcloth, Michael; Mediratta, Neeraj

    2012-08-01

    Clear resection margins are necessary for long-term survival of patients undergoing surgical resection. We aimed to determine whether bronchial resection margin is a factor determining long-term survival in patients undergoing R0 resections for non-small-cell lung cancer. There were 2695 consecutive pulmonary resections performed between October 2001 and September 2011 in our institution; 1795 were R0 resections for non-small-cell lung cancer and bronchial margin length data were available. Benchmarking against the 7th International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer dataset was performed. Cox multivariate and neuronal network analysis was undertaken. Benchmarking failed to reveal any significant differences between our data and the 7th International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer dataset. Cox regression demonstrated that age (pNeuronal network analysis confirmed these findings. Bronchial resection margin length has no impact on long-term survival.

  19. Red salmon survival studies in Karluk Lake, Kodiak Island, 1957: Salmon survival investigations field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on red salmon survival in Karluk Lake on Kodiak Island. The objectives were to systematically isolate, study, and...

  20. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  1. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  2. New role of mining in our survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, T.

    1976-12-01

    The age of conflict in which we live brings about major changes from which some gain and some lose. To survive we must be able to manage this conflict. One of the current problems of the European democratic system is the failure to effectively plan in the long term. Due to the long lead times for exploration and mine development raw materials are in short supply during boom times while there is oversupply during depressions. The mining industry has a new role in our survival; first it must develop new methods to further economics in mining operations and secondly to become involved in community affairs and alert public and politicians to the grave situation ahead.

  3. Large-scale parametric survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sushil; Madigan, David; Cheng, Jerry Q; Burd, Randall S

    2013-10-15

    Survival analysis has been a topic of active statistical research in the past few decades with applications spread across several areas. Traditional applications usually consider data with only a small numbers of predictors with a few hundreds or thousands of observations. Recent advances in data acquisition techniques and computation power have led to considerable interest in analyzing very-high-dimensional data where the number of predictor variables and the number of observations range between 10(4) and 10(6). In this paper, we present a tool for performing large-scale regularized parametric survival analysis using a variant of the cyclic coordinate descent method. Through our experiments on two real data sets, we show that application of regularized models to high-dimensional data avoids overfitting and can provide improved predictive performance and calibration over corresponding low-dimensional models.

  4. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... and 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  5. A Simulation Platform for Quantifying Survival Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayeda, Elizabeth Rose; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Power, Melinda C

    2016-01-01

    Bias due to selective mortality is a potential concern in many studies and is especially relevant in cognitive aging research because cognitive impairment strongly predicts subsequent mortality. Biased estimation of the effect of an exposure on rate of cognitive decline can occur when mortality i......-mortality situations. This simulation platform provides a flexible tool for evaluating biases in studies with high mortality, as is common in cognitive aging research.......Bias due to selective mortality is a potential concern in many studies and is especially relevant in cognitive aging research because cognitive impairment strongly predicts subsequent mortality. Biased estimation of the effect of an exposure on rate of cognitive decline can occur when mortality...... platform with which to quantify the expected bias in longitudinal studies of determinants of cognitive decline. We evaluated potential survival bias in naive analyses under several selective survival scenarios, assuming that exposure had no effect on cognitive decline for anyone in the population. Compared...

  6. Epidemic and Cascading Survivability of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Manzano, Marc; Ripoll, Jordi; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Torres-Padrosa, Victor; Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Our society nowadays is governed by complex networks, examples being the power grids, telecommunication networks, biological networks, and social networks. It has become of paramount importance to understand and characterize the dynamic events (e.g. failures) that might happen in these complex networks. For this reason, in this paper, we propose two measures to evaluate the vulnerability of complex networks in two different dynamic multiple failure scenarios: epidemic-like and cascading failures. Firstly, we present \\emph{epidemic survivability} ($ES$), a new network measure that describes the vulnerability of each node of a network under a specific epidemic intensity. Secondly, we propose \\emph{cascading survivability} ($CS$), which characterizes how potentially injurious a node is according to a cascading failure scenario. Then, we show that by using the distribution of values obtained from $ES$ and $CS$ it is possible to describe the vulnerability of a given network. We consider a set of 17 different compl...

  7. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status....... Statistical analysis The association between OS and season of surgery was analysed by Cox proportional hazards regression models, at survival periods 0-1, 0-2, 0-5 and 0-10 years after surgery. A two-sided p value......Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...

  8. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...... and feasible, although more time should be allocated for training, and teaching materials should be translated into the local language. Knowledge, skills, and confidence of learners increased significantly immediately after training. However, overall pass rates for skills tests of learners after training were...

  9. BDNF signaling and survival of striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna eBaydyuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum, a major component of the basal ganglia, performs multiple functions including control of movement, reward, and addiction. Dysfunction and death of striatal neurons are the main causes for the motor disorders associated with Huntington’s disease (HD. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a member of the neurotrophin family, is among factors that promote survival and proper function of this neuronal population. Here, we review recent studies showing that BDNF determines the size of the striatum by supporting survival of the immature striatal neurons at their origin, promotes maturation of striatal neurons, and facilitates establishment of striatal connections during brain development. We also examine the role of BDNF in maintaining proper function of the striatum during adulthood, summarize the mechanisms that lead to a deficiency in BDNF signaling and subsequently striatal degeneration in HD, and highlight a potential role of BDNF as a therapeutic target for HD treatment.

  10. Microbial survival in deep space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Review of the knowledge available on the extent to which microorganisms (mainly microbial spores, vegetative cells, and fungi) are capable of surviving the environment of deep space, based on recent simulation experiments of deep space. A description of the experimental procedures used is followed by a discussion of deep space ecology, the behavior of microorganisms in ultrahigh vacuum, and factors influencing microbial survival. It is concluded that, so far, simulation experiments have proved far less lethal to microorganisms than to other forms of life. There are, however, wide gaps in the knowledge available, and no accurate predictions can as yet be made on the degree of lethality that might be incurred by a microbial population on a given mission. Therefore, sterilization of spacecraft surfaces is deemed necessary if induced panspermia (i.e., interplanetary life propagation) is to be avoided.

  11. Cell survival in a simulated Mars environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul; Kurk, Michael Andy; Boland, Eugene; Thomas, David

    2016-07-01

    The most ancient life forms on earth date back comfortably to the time when liquid water was believed to be abundant on Mars. These ancient life forms include cyanobacteria, contemporary autotrophic earth organisms believed to have descended from ancestors present as long as 3.5 billion years ago. Contemporary cyanobacteria have adapted to the earth environment's harshest conditions (long-term drying, high and low temperature), and, being autotrophic, they are among the most likely life forms to withstand space travel and the Mars environment. However, it is unlikely that humans would unwittingly contaminate a planetary spacecraft with these microbes. One the other hand, heterotrophic microbes that co-habit with humans are more likely spacecraft contaminants, as history attests. Indeed, soil samples from the Atacama desert have yielded colony-forming organisms resembling enteric bacteria. There is a need to understand the survivability of cyanobacteria (likely survivors, unlikely contaminants) and heterotrophic eubacteria (unlikely survivors, likely contaminants) under simulated planetary conditions. A 35-day test was performed in a commercial planetary simulation system (Techshot, Inc., Greenville, IN) in which the minimum night-time temperature was -80 C, the maximum daytime temperature was +26 C, the simulated day-night light cycle in earth hours was 12-on and 12-off, and the total pressure of the pure CO _{2} atmosphere was maintained below 11 mbar. Any water present was allowed to equilibrate with the changing temperature and pressure. The gas phase was sampled into a CR1-A low-pressure hygrometer (Buck Technologies, Boulder, CO), and dew/frost point was measured once every hour and recorded on a data logger, along with the varying temperature in the chamber, from which the partial pressure of water was calculated. According to measurements there was no liquid water present throughout the test except during the initial pump-down period when aqueous specimens

  12. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Karnov, Kirstine; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    regression analysis in relation to location, gender, age, and calendar year at diagnosis. RESULTS: Altogether, 8299 patients with oral cancer were identified, 5062 (61%) of whom were males and 3237 (39%) were females. The median age at diagnosis was 63 years. The AAIR of patients with OC increased from 1......BACKGROUND: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980...... to 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study covered all patients registered in the nationwide Danish cancer registry (DCR) in the period 1980-2014. Age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) per 100,000 and annual percentage change (APC) were evaluated. Also, 5-year overall survival (OS) was calculated with Cox...

  13. Survivability design for a hybrid underwater vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Wu, Chao; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Qingkai; Ge, Tong [State Key Lab of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-03-10

    A novel hybrid underwater robotic vehicle (HROV) capable of working to the full ocean depth has been developed. The battery powered vehicle operates in two modes: operate as an untethered autonomous vehicle in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mode and operate under remote control connected to the surface vessel by a lightweight, fiber optic tether in remotely operated vehicle (ROV) mode. Considering the hazardous underwater environment at the limiting depth and the hybrid operating modes, survivability has been placed on an equal level with the other design attributes of the HROV since the beginning of the project. This paper reports the survivability design elements for the HROV including basic vehicle design of integrated navigation and integrated communication, emergency recovery strategy, distributed architecture, redundant bus, dual battery package, emergency jettison system and self-repairing control system.

  14. Implant survival after total elbow arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaschke, Hans Christian; Thillemann, Theis M; Brorson, Stig

    2014-01-01

    with the linked design. Fracture sequelae was associated with a relative risk of revision of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.05-3.45). CONCLUSIONS: We found acceptable implant survival rates after 5 and 10 years, with a higher revision rate for the unlinked design and primary TEA due to fracture sequelae. Patient-related outcome...... was to evaluate implant survival and risk factors for revision of TEAs inserted in patients in the eastern part of Denmark in the period from 1980 until 2008. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Danish National Patient Register provided personal identification numbers for patients who underwent TEA procedures from 1980...... until 2008. On the basis of a review of medical reports and linkage to the National Patient Register, we calculated revision rates and evaluated potential risk factors for revision, including, age, sex, period, indication for TEA, and implant design. RESULTS: We evaluated 324 primary TEA procedures...

  15. Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Kieran

    2013-10-01

    A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of positive surgical margin status after radical nephroureterectomy on upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Pierre; Ouzzane, Adil; Yates, David R; Audenet, François; François, Audenet; Pignot, Géraldine; Arvin-Berod, Alexis; Merigot de Treigny, Olivier; Laurent, Guy; Valeri, Antoine; Irani, Jacques; Jacques, Irani; Saint, Fabien; Gardic, Solène; Gres, Pascal; Rozet, François; Neuzillet, Yann; Ruffion, Alain; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2012-10-01

    The influence of a positive surgical margin (PSM) on survival outcome of post radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the significance of PSM on cancer-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS) post RNU. From a multicenter collaborative database, data on SM status, stage, grade, lymph node status, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), tumor location, follow-up, and survival was retrieved for 472 patients. Patients underwent open RNU with bladder cuff excision. Clinicopathological features were compared using χ(2) or Fisher exact test and unpaired t test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were calculated. Median follow-up was 27.5 months (12.1-49.3 months). PSM was identified in 44 patients (9.3%) and correlated with pT stage (p = 0.002), grade (p < 0.001), LVI (p < 0.001), and location (p < 0.001). Univariate analyses revealed that PSM was a poor prognostic factor for CSS, RFS, and MFS (p = 0.003, 0.04, and <0.001, respectively). The 5-yr CSS and MFS for PSM was 59.1 and 51.6%, respectively, compared with 83.3 and 79.3% for patients with negative SM. Multivariate analyses revealed that SM status was an independent predictor of MFS [hazard ratio 2.7; p = 0.001). PSM after RNU is an important prognostic factor for developing UUT-UC metastases. The status of the surgical margin should be systematically reported on the pathological report and may be a useful variable to include in nomogram risk prediction tools.

  17. Steroid hormone control of cell death and cell survival: molecular insights using RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Chittaranjan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The insect steroid hormone ecdysone triggers programmed cell death of obsolete larval tissues during metamorphosis and provides a model system for understanding steroid hormone control of cell death and cell survival. Previous genome-wide expression studies of Drosophila larval salivary glands resulted in the identification of many genes associated with ecdysone-induced cell death and cell survival, but functional verification was lacking. In this study, we test functionally 460 of these genes using RNA interference in ecdysone-treated Drosophila l(2mbn cells. Cell viability, cell morphology, cell proliferation, and apoptosis assays confirmed the effects of known genes and additionally resulted in the identification of six new pro-death related genes, including sorting nexin-like gene SH3PX1 and Sox box protein Sox14, and 18 new pro-survival genes. Identified genes were further characterized to determine their ecdysone dependency and potential function in cell death regulation. We found that the pro-survival function of five genes (Ras85D, Cp1, CG13784, CG32016, and CG33087, was dependent on ecdysone signaling. The TUNEL assay revealed an additional two genes (Kap-alpha3 and Smr with an ecdysone-dependent cell survival function that was associated with reduced cell death. In vitro, Sox14 RNAi reduced the percentage of TUNEL-positive l(2mbn cells (p<0.05 following ecdysone treatment, and Sox14 overexpression was sufficient to induce apoptosis. In vivo analyses of Sox14-RNAi animals revealed multiple phenotypes characteristic of aberrant or reduced ecdysone signaling, including defects in larval midgut and salivary gland destruction. These studies identify Sox14 as a positive regulator of ecdysone-mediated cell death and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the ecdysone signaling network governing cell death and cell survival.

  18. Longevity and Patau syndrome: what determines survival?

    OpenAIRE

    Peroos, Sherina; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pugh, Jennifer Harriet; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Hodes, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The authors report of an 8-year-old girl with non-mosaic Patau syndrome. The median life expectancy of Patau syndrome is 7–10 days, and 90% die in the first year of life. Survival is often attributed to mosaicism and the severity of associated malformations. We delineate the developing phenotype and review the literature discussing potential contributory factors to longevity.

  19. Longevity and Patau syndrome: what determines survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroos, Sherina; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pugh, Jennifer Harriet; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Hodes, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The authors report of an 8-year-old girl with non-mosaic Patau syndrome. The median life expectancy of Patau syndrome is 7–10 days, and 90% die in the first year of life. Survival is often attributed to mosaicism and the severity of associated malformations. We delineate the developing phenotype and review the literature discussing potential contributory factors to longevity. PMID:23220825

  20. A Branching Process for Virus Survival

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, J Theodore

    2011-01-01

    Quasispecies theory predicts that there is a critical mutation probability above which a viral population will go extinct. Above this threshold the virus loses the ability to replicate the best adapted genotype, leading to a population composed of low replicating mutants that is eventually doomed. We propose a new branching model that shows that this is not necessarily so. That is, a population composed of ever changing mutants may survive.

  1. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  2. Pretension Strategy in the Surviving Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejs JAUNZEMS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Till the nowadays we cannot find the scientific analysis that clearly explains the deepest roots of global economical and moral crisis. Because of that many famous politicians, economists, sociologists denote the understanding of current situation as the most valuable attainment. Under traditional influence of the doctrine of spontaneous harmony of egoistic individual behavior many economists believe that competition and private property rights through the markets' price mechanism leads in the long run to the Pareto efficient equilibrium. In the same time the social and economic reality categorically asks for ascertain the market failure and for revision the classical statements of microeconomics. The perfect competition market has lost its attributes due to dialectics of interactions of agents. The investigation of the strategies interactions of the individuals are based on the game theory, what helps to understand also the role of asymmetric information as specific market failure factor. In present paper the Martin Shubik classical surviving game is analyzed and some statements of Herbert Gintis concerning this game are critically appraised. The solution of Martin Shubik game in the original geometrical form is offered. The problem of Martin Shubik "does the fittest necessary survive?" is transformed according the case of asymmetric information in problem "does the pretender survive?", for which the answer "if the agent is not the weakest, but he pretends to be the weakest, than this agent survives with high probability" is offered. The results of the present paper appear to be innovative, not discussed in literature available to the author of the present paper.

  3. Survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei on Environmental Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Alicia M; Rose, Laura J; Hodges, Lisa; Arduino, Matthew J

    2007-12-01

    The survival of the biothreat agent Burkholderia pseudomallei on the surfaces of four materials was measured by culture and esterase activity analyses. The culture results demonstrated that this organism persisted for <24 h to <7 days depending on the material, bacterial isolate, and suspension medium. The persistence determined by analysis of esterase activity, as measured with a ScanRDI solid-phase cytometer, was always longer than the persistence determined by culture analysis.

  4. Aircraft Survivability: Susceptibility Reduction, Spring 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    to waste any time, let’s get started. Here’s the big news. The Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS) merged with...a search for anthrax spores. Likewise, healthcare workers and first responders are being vac- cinated against smallpox—a disease not found outside...The structural honeycomb part is then bagged and autoclaved per the normal cure cycle. Measurements before and after the core bonding indicate

  5. Longevity and Patau syndrome: what determines survival?

    OpenAIRE

    Peroos, Sherina; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pugh, Jennifer Harriet; Arthur-Farraj, Peter; Hodes, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The authors report of an 8-year-old girl with non-mosaic Patau syndrome. The median life expectancy of Patau syndrome is 7–10 days, and 90% die in the first year of life. Survival is often attributed to mosaicism and the severity of associated malformations. We delineate the developing phenotype and review the literature discussing potential contributory factors to longevity.

  6. Ataxia-telangiectasia: Immunodeficiency and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Nienke J H; Jansen, Anne F M; van Deuren, Marcel; Haraldsson, Asgeir; van Driel, Nieke T M; Etzioni, Amos; van der Flier, Michiel; Haaxma, Charlotte A; Morio, Tomohiro; Rawat, Amit; Schoenaker, Michiel H D; Soresina, Annarosa; Taylor, Alexander M R; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Weemaes, Corry M R; Roeleveld, Nel; Willemsen, Michèl A A P

    2017-05-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia, telangiectasia, and immunodeficiency. An increased risk of malignancies and respiratory diseases dramatically reduce life expectancy. To better counsel families, develop individual follow-up programs, and select patients for therapeutic trials, more knowledge is needed on factors influencing survival. This retrospective cohort study of 61 AT patients shows that classical AT patients had a shorter survival than variant patients (HR 5.9, 95%CI 2.0-17.7), especially once a malignancy was diagnosed (HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1-5.5, compared to classical AT patients without malignancy). Patients with the hyper IgM phenotype with hypogammaglobulinemia (AT-HIGM) and patients with an IgG2 deficiency showed decreased survival compared to patients with normal IgG (HR 9.2, 95%CI 3.2-26.5) and patients with normal IgG2 levels (HR 7.8, 95%CI 1.7-36.2), respectively. If high risk treatment trials will become available for AT, those patients with factors indicating the poorest prognosis might be considered for inclusion first. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraordinary survival of nanobacteria under extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria show high resistance to gamma irradiation. To further examine their survival in extreme conditions several disinfecting and sterilizing chemicals as well as autoclaving, UV light, microwaves, heating and drying treatments were carried out. The effect of antibiotics used in cell culture were also evaluated. Two forms of nanobacteria were used in the tests: nanobacteria cultured in serum containing medium, and nanobacteria cultured in serum-free medium, the latter being more mineralized. Nanobacteria, having various amounts of apatite on their surfaces, were used to analyze the degree of protection given by the mineral. The chemicals tested included ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formalin, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, detergents, and commercial disinfectants at concentrations generally used for disinfection. After chemical and physical treatments for various times, the nanobacteria were subcultered to detect their survival. The results show unique and wide resistance of nanobacteria to common agents used in disinfection. It can also be seen that the mineralization of the nanobacterial surface furthermore increases the resistance. Survival of nanobacteria is unique among living bacteria, but it can be compared with that observed in spores. Interestingly, nanobacteria have metabolic rate as slow as bacterial spores. A slow metabolic rate and protective structures, like mineral, biofilm and impermeable cell wall, can thus explain the observations made.

  8. Change point estimation in monitoring survival time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Assareh

    Full Text Available Precise identification of the time when a change in a hospital outcome has occurred enables clinical experts to search for a potential special cause more effectively. In this paper, we develop change point estimation methods for survival time of a clinical procedure in the presence of patient mix in a Bayesian framework. We apply Bayesian hierarchical models to formulate the change point where there exists a step change in the mean survival time of patients who underwent cardiac surgery. The data are right censored since the monitoring is conducted over a limited follow-up period. We capture the effect of risk factors prior to the surgery using a Weibull accelerated failure time regression model. Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to obtain posterior distributions of the change point parameters including location and magnitude of changes and also corresponding probabilistic intervals and inferences. The performance of the Bayesian estimator is investigated through simulations and the result shows that precise estimates can be obtained when they are used in conjunction with the risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM control charts for different magnitude scenarios. The proposed estimator shows a better performance where a longer follow-up period, censoring time, is applied. In comparison with the alternative built-in CUSUM estimator, more accurate and precise estimates are obtained by the Bayesian estimator. These superiorities are enhanced when probability quantification, flexibility and generalizability of the Bayesian change point detection model are also considered.

  9. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus on fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Alicia; Nastri, Natalia; Bernat, Maria; Brusca, Maria; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate duration of survival of Staphylococcus aureus on contaminated standardized fomites, such as sterilization paper (SP) and polyester previously sterilized in a steam autoclave, and to determine the potential inhibitory effects of the substrates (fabrics used to manufacture garments and special wrapping paper used in the dental setting) using the bacteriostasis test. The test was performed on two types of sterile standardized samples (T1 and T2). Sterility of the samples was validated following the protocol in use at the Department of Microbiology, after which the samples were inoculated with 50 microl of a calibrated suspension of Staphylococcus aureus (reference strain ATCC 25923) in the exponential growth phase, in a final concentration of 10(7) cfu/ml and 10(6) cfu/ml). The samples were incubated at 27 degrees C and survival and concentration of microorganisms attached to the surface of the substrates was determined at the following experimental time points: immediately post-contamination, and 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days post-contamination. Recovery was determined and expressed as a percentage; the bacteriostasis test was performed and showed negative results. Our results suggest that the quantity of recovered microorganisms varies according to the type of substrate and that there is a relation between survival and incubation time of the inoculated substrate serving as an artificial niche.

  10. [Survival after gastrectomy for cancer. 209 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Treut, Y P; Capobianco, C; Botti, G; Christophe, M; Lebreuil, G; Bricot, R

    1992-09-26

    The long-term results of 209 gastrectomies performed for adenocarcinoma, including 117 which were prospectively collected, are presented. Resection was curative in 154 cases (73.6 percent). The TNM distribution of the tumours was: stage I (TxNOMO) 75 cases, stage II (TxN1MO) 46 cases, stage III (TxN2MO) 33 cases and stage IV (TxNxM1) 55 cases. Lymph node involvement was more frequent in the prospective than in the retrospective study. With a more than 5 years' follow-up of 80 percent of the patients operated upon, the actuarial survival rate at 5 years (operative mortality included) was 38 percent for all lesions, 52 percent for curative resection and 2 percent for palliative resection. Following curative resection, the survival rates for tumours of the upper, middle and lower thirds of the stomach were 40, 60 and 55 percent respectively. These rates were 60 percent for stage I tumours, 54 percent for stage II tumours and 25 percent for stage III tumours. The results obtained in this series, where most of the curative gastrectomies included excision of N1 and N2 lymph nodes, show that lymph node involvement has no significant importance for the prognosis when it is proximal (N1) and is not incompatible with prolonged survival when it is pedicular (N2).

  11. Obesity and gynecologic cancer etiology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Penelope M

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States and elsewhere has increased dramatically in recent decades. It has long been known that obese women have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer, but recent studies suggest this association is strongest for the most common low-grade endometrioid endometrial cancers and weaker for the other histologic subtypes. There are insufficient data to assess whether obesity affects endometrial cancer-specific survival or whether the relation with all-cause mortality is similar to that seen in the general population. Recent data suggest obesity also increases risk of ovarian cancer, although it may not influence risk of the high-grade serous cancers that account for the majority of ovarian cancer deaths, and that it is also associated with poorer outcomes. There is currently insufficient evidence to draw any clear conclusions regarding the relation between obesity and risk of/survival from other gynecologic cancers although there are suggestions that obesity may increase risk of cervical cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, and perhaps vulvar cancer. Possible mechanisms whereby obesity might influence gynecologic cancer risk and survival include: its strong association with endogenous estrogen levels among postmenopausal women, its effects on glucose metabolism, its effects on the wide range of adipocytokines and inflammatory mediators that are produced by adipose tissue and altered in concentration among obese individuals, and its potential effects on patient management, particularly with regard to chemotherapy dosing.

  12. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Joakim; Engholm, Gerda; Ehrnrooth, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates for patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based on cancer register data, differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries in Eur...... and detailed data in order to understand international survival differences, and cautions comparisons between large national samples and those of smaller areas........ Age standardized 5-year relative survival and multiplicative regression models for the relative excess mortality were calculated. 3888 patients were included in the survival study. Men in Denmark, Finland and Iceland had lower 5-year relative survival and poorer stage distribution compared to Norway...

  13. Aircraft Combat Survivability Estimation and Synthetic Tradeoff Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-lin; LI Shou-an; LI Wei-ji; LI Dong-xia; FENG Feng

    2005-01-01

    A new concept is proposed that susceptibility, vulnerability, reliability, maintainability and supportability should be essential factors of aircraft combat survivability. A weight coefficient method and a synthetic method are proposed to estimate aircraft combat survivability based on the essential factors. Considering that it takes cost to enhance aircraft combat survivability, a synthetic tradeoff model between aircraft combat survivability and life cycle cost is built. The aircraft combat survivability estimation methods and synthetic tradeoff with a life cycle cost model will be helpful for aircraft combat survivability design and enhancement.

  14. ECOG is as independent predictor of the response to chemotherapy, overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Álvarez, Rocío; Martin-Aguilar, Ana; Silva, Juan A.; De La Garza-Salazar, Jaime G.; Ruiz-García, Erika; López-Camarillo, César; Marchat, Laurence A.; La Vega, Horacio Astudillo-De

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether age, gender, functional status, histology, tumor location, number of metastases, and levels of the tumor markers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin, are poor prognostic factors for the response to chemotherapy in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. A total of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site that was histologically confirmed, and treated with chemotherapy in the Oncology Hospital, National Medical Center, ‘Century XXI’ IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico during the period between January 2002 to December 2009, were carefully selected for the present study. The analysis of 149 patients diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary site revealed that the liver was the organ with the highest frequency of metastases (33.5%). The objective response rates to chemotherapy were ~30.2%. Notably, ECOG was an important predictor of response to chemotherapy (P=0.008). The median progression-free survival was 7.1 months. Upon multivariate analysis, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Scale of Performance Status was observed as an independent predictor of progression (P<0.0001). The median overall survival was 14.2 months. The ECOG was also an independent predictor of mortality (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the data from the present study have demonstrated that ECOG is an independent predictor of a poor response to chemotherapy, lower overall survival and progression-free survival in carcinoma of unknown primary site. PMID:28515916

  15. Physical skill training increases the number of surviving new cells in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Curlik

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus is a major site of plasticity in the adult brain, giving rise to thousands of new neurons every day, through the process of adult neurogenesis. Although the majority of these cells die within two weeks of their birth, they can be rescued from death by various forms of learning. Successful acquisition of select types of associative and spatial memories increases the number of these cells that survive. Here, we investigated the possibility that an entirely different form of learning, physical skill learning, could rescue new hippocampal cells from death. To test this possibility, rats were trained with a physically-demanding and technically-difficult version of a rotarod procedure. Acquisition of the physical skill greatly increased the number of new hippocampal cells that survived. The number of surviving cells positively correlated with performance on the task. Only animals that successfully mastered the task retained the cells that would have otherwise died. Animals that failed to learn, and those that did not learn well did not retain any more cells than those that were untrained. Importantly, acute voluntary exercise in activity wheels did not increase the number of surviving cells. These data suggest that acquisition of a physical skill can increase the number of surviving hippocampal cells. Moreover, learning an easier version of the task did not increase cell survival. These results are consistent with previous reports revealing that learning only rescues new neurons from death when acquisition is sufficiently difficult to achieve. Finally, complete hippocampal lesions did not disrupt acquisition of this physical skill. Therefore, physical skill training that does not depend on the hippocampus can effectively increase the number of surviving cells in the adult hippocampus, the vast majority of which become mature neurons.

  16. A hemocyte gene expression signature correlated with predictive capacity of oysters to survive Vibrio infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Rafael

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex balance between environmental and host factors is an important determinant of susceptibility to infection. Disturbances of this equilibrium may result in multifactorial diseases as illustrated by the summer mortality syndrome, a worldwide and complex phenomenon that affects the oysters, Crassostrea gigas. The summer mortality syndrome reveals a physiological intolerance making this oyster species susceptible to diseases. Exploration of genetic basis governing the oyster resistance or susceptibility to infections is thus a major goal for understanding field mortality events. In this context, we used high-throughput genomic approaches to identify genetic traits that may characterize inherent survival capacities in C. gigas. Results Using digital gene expression (DGE, we analyzed the transcriptomes of hemocytes (immunocompetent cells of oysters able or not able to survive infections by Vibrio species shown to be involved in summer mortalities. Hemocytes were nonlethally collected from oysters before Vibrio experimental infection, and two DGE libraries were generated from individuals that survived or did not survive. Exploration of DGE data and microfluidic qPCR analyses at individual level showed an extraordinary polymorphism in gene expressions, but also a set of hemocyte-expressed genes whose basal mRNA levels discriminate oyster capacity to survive infections by the pathogenic V. splendidus LGP32. Finally, we identified a signature of 14 genes that predicted oyster survival capacity. Their expressions are likely driven by distinct transcriptional regulation processes associated or not associated to gene copy number variation (CNV. Conclusions We provide here for the first time in oyster a gene expression survival signature that represents a useful tool for understanding mortality events and for assessing genetic traits of interest for disease resistance selection programs.

  17. Physical skill training increases the number of surviving new cells in the adult hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlik, Daniel M; Maeng, Lisa Y; Agarwal, Prateek R; Shors, Tracey J

    2013-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is a major site of plasticity in the adult brain, giving rise to thousands of new neurons every day, through the process of adult neurogenesis. Although the majority of these cells die within two weeks of their birth, they can be rescued from death by various forms of learning. Successful acquisition of select types of associative and spatial memories increases the number of these cells that survive. Here, we investigated the possibility that an entirely different form of learning, physical skill learning, could rescue new hippocampal cells from death. To test this possibility, rats were trained with a physically-demanding and technically-difficult version of a rotarod procedure. Acquisition of the physical skill greatly increased the number of new hippocampal cells that survived. The number of surviving cells positively correlated with performance on the task. Only animals that successfully mastered the task retained the cells that would have otherwise died. Animals that failed to learn, and those that did not learn well did not retain any more cells than those that were untrained. Importantly, acute voluntary exercise in activity wheels did not increase the number of surviving cells. These data suggest that acquisition of a physical skill can increase the number of surviving hippocampal cells. Moreover, learning an easier version of the task did not increase cell survival. These results are consistent with previous reports revealing that learning only rescues new neurons from death when acquisition is sufficiently difficult to achieve. Finally, complete hippocampal lesions did not disrupt acquisition of this physical skill. Therefore, physical skill training that does not depend on the hippocampus can effectively increase the number of surviving cells in the adult hippocampus, the vast majority of which become mature neurons.

  18. Cyclosporin A enhances neural precursor cell survival in mice through a calcineurin-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachewsky, Nadia; Hunt, Jessica; Cooke, Michael J; Azimi, Ashkan; Zarin, Taraneh; Miu, Carween; Shoichet, Molly S; Morshead, Cindi M

    2014-08-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) has direct effects on neural stem and progenitor cells (together termed neural precursor cells; NPCs) in the adult central nervous system. Administration of CsA in vitro or in vivo promotes the survival of NPCs and expands the pools of NPCs in mice. Moreover, CsA administration is effective in promoting NPC activation, tissue repair and functional recovery in a mouse model of cortical stroke. The mechanism(s) by which CsA mediates this cell survival effect remains unknown. Herein, we examined both calcineurin-dependent and calcineurin-independent pathways through which CsA might mediate NPC survival. To examine calcineurin-dependent pathways, we utilized FK506 (Tacrolimus), an immunosuppressive molecule that inhibits calcineurin, as well as drugs that inhibit cyclophilin A-mediated activation of calcineurin. To evaluate the calcineurin-independent pathway, we utilized NIM811, a non-immunosuppressive CsA analog that functions independently of calcineurin by blocking mitochondrial permeability transition pore formation. We found that only NIM811 can entirely account for the pro-survival effects of CsA on NPCs. Indeed, blocking signaling pathways downstream of calcineurin activation using nNOS mice did not inhibit CsA-mediated cell survival, which supports the proposal that the effects are calcinuerin-independent. In vivo studies revealed that NIM811 administration mimics the pro-survival effects of CsA on NPCs and promotes functional recovery in a model of cortical stroke, identical to the effects seen with CsA administration. We conclude that CsA mediates its effect on NPC survival through calcineurin-independent inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore formation and suggest that this pathway has potential therapeutic benefits for developing NPC-mediated cell replacement strategies. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Impact of acute rejection episodes on long-term renal allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建永; 陈江华; 王逸民; 张建国; 朱琮; 寿张飞; 王苏娅; 张萍; 黄洪锋; 何强

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of the number, and time of acute rejection (AR) and outcome of anti-rejection therapy on the long-term survival of renal allografts and the relative risk factors. Methods The Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test were used to calculate the survival rates of patients and grafts in no acute rejection group (NAR, 895 patients), 1 rejection episode group (1AR, 183), 2 and more than 2 rejection episodes group (2AR, 17), acute rejection group [AR (1AR+2AR), 200], early acute rejection group (within 90 days after transplantation, EAR, 125), late acute rejection group (91 days later, LAR, 58), completely AR reversed group (CAR, 105), and incompletely AR reversed group (IAR, 68). The relative risk factors were analyzed by the Cox proportional hazards regression. Results The 5- and 10-year survival rates of renal allografts were 75.4% and 17.1% in AR and 93.2% and 86.5% in the NAR group (P<0.0001). The long-term graft survival was much lower in the 2AR group than in the NAR or 1AR groups (P<0.0001 and P=0.002, respectively). It was similar in either the NAR or CAR groups (P=0.31), but it was significantly lower (P<0.0001) in the IAR group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the outcome of anti-rejection therapy is an important risk factor affecting the long-term survival of allografts.Conclusions AR is significantly associated with poor long-term survival of renal allografts. But the long-term graft survival of patients with one acute rejection but completely reversed is not significantly different from that of patients without acute rejection.

  20. Association between depression and survival in Chinese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qianqian; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Guo, Xiaoyan; Ou, Ruwei; Chen, Xueping; Huang, Rui; Yang, Jing; Shang, Huifang

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of depression, to identify correlated factors for depression, and to explore the impact on the progression or survival of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by depression in a Chinese population. A total of 166 ALS patients were recruited. Diagnosis of depression disorders and the severity of depression were established by using the fourth diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 items (HDRS-24) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Major depression was found in 15 patients (9.6 %). The multiple regression analysis showed that a lower ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) score was correlated with increasing HDRS scores and BDI scores (P = 0.018 and P = 0.012). No significant difference in the median survival time between ALS patients with and without depression was revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank P = 0.282). Cox hazard model showed that the presence of depression in ALS was unrelated to the survival, while the severity of depression in ALS was correlated with the survival. The presence and severity of depression in ALS did not correlate with the progression of ALS. Major depression in ALS is uncommon. Depression evaluation should be given to ALS patients, especially those with lower ALSFRS-R score. The severity of depression may be associated with the survival; however, depression does not worse the progression of ALS.

  1. Ascertaining the potential effects of temperature on growth, survival and feeding of different juvenile clown ifsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwas Rao Methari; Mohideen Abdul Badhul Haq; Chinna Raja; Sheik Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the physiological and ecological responses of marine ornamental fishes to the change of water temperature with its potential effects on the growth, survival and feeding in clown fish. Methods: Three different sea anemone fish (Premnas biaculeatus, Amphiprion clarkii, Amphiprion akallopisos) were reared in confinement at water temperatures of 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 oC using thermostat and they were maintained up to the marketable size, and growth, survival and feeding were evaluated during the experimental period. Results: The results illustrated that water temperature influenced the physiological performance of juveniles of three different sea anemone fish significantly. The growth and survival rates of juveniles of three different clown fish significantly increased with the increase of water temperature from 26 oC to 34 oC (P Conclusions:This study deliberately reveals that the physiological response of juveniles of clown fish as the change of water temperature and substantiated that water temperature influenced juvenile growth, survival and feeding significantly. This study also put forward that the reduced growth, survival and feeding of juveniles at lower temperature which have ecological impacts on clown fish juveniles in settlement and population replacement in the wild.

  2. PDK2-mediated alternative splicing switches Bnip3 from cell death to cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Hongying; Dhingra, Rimpy; Lin, Junjun; Hai, Yan; Aviv, Yaron; Margulets, Victoria; Hamedani, Mohammad; Thanasupawat, Thatchawan; Leygue, Etienne; Klonisch, Thomas; Davie, James R; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A

    2015-09-28

    Herein we describe a novel survival pathway that operationally links alternative pre-mRNA splicing of the hypoxia-inducible death protein Bcl-2 19-kD interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) to the unique glycolytic phenotype in cancer cells. While a full-length Bnip3 protein (Bnip3FL) encoded by exons 1-6 was expressed as an isoform in normal cells and promoted cell death, a truncated spliced variant of Bnip3 mRNA deleted for exon 3 (Bnip3Δex3) was preferentially expressed in several human adenocarcinomas and promoted survival. Reciprocal inhibition of the Bnip3Δex3/Bnip3FL isoform ratio by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 (PDK2) in Panc-1 cells rapidly induced mitochondrial perturbations and cell death. The findings of the present study reveal a novel survival pathway that functionally couples the unique glycolytic phenotype in cancer cells to hypoxia resistance via a PDK2-dependent mechanism that switches Bnip3 from cell death to survival. Discovery of the survival Bnip3Δex3 isoform may fundamentally explain how certain cells resist Bnip3 and avert death during hypoxia.

  3. Effect of spaying and timing of spaying on survival of dogs with mammary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenmo, K U; Shofer, F S; Goldschmidt, M H

    2000-01-01

    The risk of developing mammary gland tumors in dogs is significantly decreased by ovariohysterectomy at an early age. However, previous studies have not found a benefit to ovariohysterectomy concurrent with tumor removal in dogs with established mammary gland tumors, suggesting that the progression of these tumors is independent of continued estrogen stimulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of spaying and of the timing of spaying on survival in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma. Signalment, spay status and spay age, tumor characteristics, treatment. survival, and cause of death of 137 dogs with mammary gland carcinoma were analyzed. The dogs were classified into 3 groups according to spay status and spay time: intact dogs, dogs spayed less than 2 years before tumor surgery (SPAY 1), and dogs spayed more than 2 years before their tumor surgery (SPAY 2). Dogs in the SPAY 1 group lived significantly longer than dogs in SPAY 2 and intact dogs (median survival of 755 days, versus 301 and 286 days, respectively, P = .02 and .03). After adjusting for differences between the spay groups with regard to age, histologic differentiation, and vascular invasion, SPAY 1 dogs survived 45% longer compared to dogs that were either intact or in the SPAY 2 group (RR = .55; 95% CI .32-.93; P = .03). This study reveals ovariohysterectomy to be an effective adjunct to tumor removal in dogs with mammary gland carcinoma and that the timing of ovariohysterectomy is important in influencing survival.

  4. Interact to survive: Phyllobacterium brassicacearum improves Arabidopsis tolerance to severe water deficit and growth recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Bresson

    Full Text Available Mutualistic bacteria can alter plant phenotypes and confer new abilities to plants. Some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are known to improve both plant growth and tolerance to multiple stresses, including drought, but reports on their effects on plant survival under severe water deficits are scarce. We investigated the effect of Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196 strain, a PGPR isolated from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, on survival, growth and physiological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to severe water deficits combining destructive and non-destructive high-throughput phenotyping. Soil inoculation with STM196 greatly increased the survival rate of A. thaliana under several scenarios of severe water deficit. Photosystem II efficiency, assessed at the whole-plant level by high-throughput fluorescence imaging (Fv/Fm, was related to the probability of survival and revealed that STM196 delayed plant mortality. Inoculated surviving plants tolerated more damages to the photosynthetic tissues through a delayed dehydration and a better tolerance to low water status. Importantly, STM196 allowed a better recovery of plant growth after rewatering and stressed plants reached a similar biomass at flowering than non-stressed plants. Our results highlight the importance of plant-bacteria interactions in plant responses to severe drought and provide a new avenue of investigations to improve drought tolerance in agriculture.

  5. Pathological and immunological responses associated with differential survival of Chinook salmon following Renibacterium salmoninarum challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.; Metzger, C. David; Wargo, Andrew; Park, K. Linda

    2010-01-01

    Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are highly susceptible to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously we demonstrated that introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan, Wisconsin (WI), USA, have higher survival following R. salmoninarum challenge relative to the progenitor stock from Green River, Washington, USA. In the present study, we investigated the pathological and immunological responses that are associated with differential survival in the 2 Chinook salmon stocks following intra-peritoneal R. salmoninarum challenge of 2 different cohort years (2003 and 2005). Histological evaluation revealed delayed appearance of severe granulomatous lesions in the kidney and lower overall prevalence of membranous glomerulopathy in the higher surviving WI stock. The higher survival WI stock had a lower bacterial load at 28 d post-infection, as measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, at all other time points, bacterial load levels were similar despite higher mortality in the more susceptible Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that the stocks may differ in their tolerance to infection by the bacterium. Interferon-y, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Mx-1, and transferrin gene expression were up-regulated in both stocks following challenge. A trend of higher iNOS gene expression at later time points (≥28 d post-infection) was observed in the lower surviving Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that higher iNOS expression may contribute to greater pathology in that stock.

  6. Zebrafish bcl2l is a survival factor in thyroid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Immacolata; De Felice, Elena; Fagman, Henrik; Di Lauro, Roberto; Sordino, Paolo

    2012-06-15

    Regulated cell death, defined in morphological terms as apoptosis, is crucial for organ morphogenesis. While differentiation of the thyroid gland has been extensively studied, nothing is yet known about the survival mechanisms involved in the development of this endocrine gland. Using the zebrafish model system, we aim to understand whether genes belonging to the Bcl-2 family that control apoptosis are implicated in regulation of cell survival during thyroid development. Evidence of strong Bcl-2 gene expression in mouse thyroid precursors prompted us to investigate the functions played by its zebrafish homologs during thyroid development. We show that the bcl2-like (bcl2l) gene is expressed in the zebrafish thyroid primordium. Morpholino-mediated knockdown and mutant analyses revealed that bcl2l is crucial for thyroid cell survival and that this function is tightly modulated by the transcription factors pax2a, nk2.1a and hhex. Also, the bcl2l gene appears to control a caspase-3-dependent apoptotic mechanism during thyroid development. Thyroid precursor cells require an actively maintained survival mechanism to properly proceed through development. The bcl2l gene operates in the inhibition of cell death under direct regulation of a thyroid specific set of transcription factors. This is the first demonstration of an active mechanism to ensure survival of the thyroid primordium during morphogenesis.

  7. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  8. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  9. Survival of Children With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffel, Csaba; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Oster, Matthew E.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the survival of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and potential influence of demographic and clinical characteristics on survival using population-based data. METHODS Infants with nonsyndromic HLHS (n = 212) born between 1979 and 2005 were identified through the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. Vital status was ascertained through 2009 based on linkage with vital records. We estimated Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities stratified by select demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS The overall survival probability to 2009 was 24% and significantly improved over time: from 0% in 1979–1984 to 42% in 1999–2005. Survival probability was 66% during the first week, 27% during the first year of life, and 24% during the first 10 years. Survival of very low and low birth weight or preterm infants and those born in high-poverty neighborhoods was significantly poorer. For children with information on surgical intervention (n = 88), the overall survival was 52%, and preterm infants had significantly poorer survival (31%) compared with term infants (56%). For children who survived to 1 year of age, long-term survival was ~90%. CONCLUSIONS Survival to adolescence of children with nonsyndromic HLHS born in metropolitan Atlanta has significantly improved in recent years, with those born full term, with normal birth weight, or in a low-poverty neighborhood having a higher survival probability. Survival beyond infancy to adolescence is high. A better understanding of the growing population of survivors with HLHS is needed to inform resource planning. PMID:26391936

  10. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant setting of breast cancer therapy--effect on survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Ben-Aharon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of bisphosphonates (BP in early breast cancer (BC has been considered controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs that appraised the effects of BP on survival in early BC. METHODS: RCTs were identified by searching the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE databases and conference proceedings. Hazard ratios (HRs of overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS and relative risks of adverse events were estimated and pooled. RESULTS: Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria, evaluating a total of 15,762 patients. Meta-analysis of ten trials which reported OS revealed no statistically significant benefit in OS for BP (HR 0.89, 95% CI = 0.79 to 1.01. Meta-analysis of nine trials which reported the DFS revealed no benefit in DFS (HR 0.95 (0.81-1.12. Meta-analysis upon menopausal status showed a statistically significant better DFS in the BP-treated patients (HR 0.81(0.69-0.95. In meta-regression, chemotherapy was negatively associated with HR of survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis indicates a positive effect for adjuvant BP on survival only in postmenopausal patients. Meta-regression demonstrated a negative association between chemotherapy use BP effect on survival. Further large scale RCTs are warranted to unravel the specific subgroups that would benefit from the addition of BP in the adjuvant setting.

  11. Palliative Care Improves Survival, Quality of Life in Advanced Lung Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from the first randomized clinical trial of its kind have revealed a surprising and welcome benefit of early palliative care for patients with advanced lung cancer—longer median survival. Although several researchers said that the finding needs to be confirmed in other trials of patients with other cancer types, they were cautiously optimistic that the trial results could influence oncologists’ perceptions and use of palliative care. |

  12. Ebola Blood Test May Help Predict Survival Chances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163165.html Ebola Blood Test May Help Predict Survival Chances Findings ... help determine a person's chance of surviving an Ebola infection, researchers say. "It is not just defining ...

  13. Soluble L-selectin levels predict survival in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Nielsen, Ole H; Strøm, Jens

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate serum soluble L-selectin as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with sepsis.......To evaluate serum soluble L-selectin as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with sepsis....

  14. Suicide Often Leaves Mental, Physical Woes in Surviving Spouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggest. Surviving partners are more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and other mood disorders. Surviving spouses are also at higher risk for suicide themselves, the study said. "It's a really distressing ...

  15. Triple negative breast cancer: adjuvant chemotherapy effect on survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steponaviciene, L; Lachej-Mikeroviene, N; Smailyte, G; Aleknavicius, E; Meskauskas, R; Didziapetriene, J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall survival of patients with triple negative breast cancer and the impact of different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens on survival.Material/Methods...

  16. Integrated Differentiated Survivability in IP over WDM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wei; Qing-Ji Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The problem of differentiated Multi-Layer Integrated Survivability (MLIS) in IP over WDM networks is studied, which is decomposed into three sub-problems: survivable strategies design (SSD), spare capacity dimensioning (SCD), and dynamic survivable routing (DSR). A related work of network survivability in IP over WDM networks is firstly provided, and adaptive survivable strategies are also designed. A new Integrated Shared Pool (ISP) approach for SCD is then proposed, which is formulated by using integer-programming theory. Moreover, a novel survivable routing scheme called Differentiated Integrated Survivability Algorithm (DISA) for DSR is developed. Simulation results show that the proposed integrated survivability scheme performs much better than other solutions (e.g., "highest layer recovery" and "lowest layer recovery" schemes) in terms of traffic blocking ratio, spare resource requirement, and average traffic recovery ratio in IP over WDM networks.

  17. Survival on home dialysis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New Zealand (NZ has a high prevalence of both peritoneal dialysis (PD and home haemodialysis (HD relative to other countries, and probably less selection bias. We aimed to determine if home dialysis associates with better survival than facility HD by simultaneous comparisons of the three modalities. METHODS: We analysed survival by time-varying dialysis modality in New Zealanders over a 15-year period to 31-Dec-2011, adjusting for patient co-morbidity by Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression. RESULTS: We modelled 6,419 patients with 3,254 deaths over 20,042 patient-years of follow-up. Patients treated with PD and facility HD are similar; those on home HD are younger and healthier. Compared to facility HD, home dialysis (as a unified category associates with an overall 13% lower mortality risk. Home HD associates with a 52% lower mortality risk. PD associates with a 20% lower mortality risk in the early period (3 years, with no overall net effect. There was effect modification and less observable benefit associated with PD in those with diabetes mellitus, co-morbidity, and in NZ Maori and Pacific People. There was no effect modification by age or by era. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the culture of home dialysis in NZ, and suggests that the extent and duration of survival benefit associated with early PD may be greater than appreciated. We are planning further analyses to exclude residual confounding from unmeasured co-morbidity and other sociodemographic factors using database linkage to NZ government datasets. Finally, our results suggest further research into the practice of PD in NZ Maori and Pacific People, as well as definitive study to determine the best timing for switching from PD in the late phase.

  18. Covariate analysis of bivariate survival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The methods developed are used to analyze the effects of covariates on bivariate survival data when censoring and ties are present. The proposed method provides models for bivariate survival data that include differential covariate effects and censored observations. The proposed models are based on an extension of the univariate Buckley-James estimators which replace censored data points by their expected values, conditional on the censoring time and the covariates. For the bivariate situation, it is necessary to determine the expectation of the failure times for one component conditional on the failure or censoring time of the other component. Two different methods have been developed to estimate these expectations. In the semiparametric approach these expectations are determined from a modification of Burke's estimate of the bivariate empirical survival function. In the parametric approach censored data points are also replaced by their conditional expected values where the expected values are determined from a specified parametric distribution. The model estimation will be based on the revised data set, comprised of uncensored components and expected values for the censored components. The variance-covariance matrix for the estimated covariate parameters has also been derived for both the semiparametric and parametric methods. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey was analyzed by these methods. The two outcome variables are post-partum amenorrhea and breastfeeding; education and parity were used as the covariates. Both the covariate parameter estimates and the variance-covariance estimates for the semiparametric and parametric models will be compared. In addition, a multivariate test statistic was used in the semiparametric model to examine contrasts. The significance of the statistic was determined from a bootstrap distribution of the test statistic.

  19. The Price Impact and Survival of Irrational Traders

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, Leonid; Ross, Stephen; Wang, Jiang; Westerfield, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Milton Friedman argued that irrational traders will consistently lose money, won't survive and, therefore, cannot influence long run equilibrium asset prices. Since his work, survival and price influence have been assumed to be the same. Often partial equilibrium analysis has been relied upon to examine the survival of irrational traders and to make inferences on their influence on prices. In this paper, we demonstrate that survival and influence on prices are two independent concepts. The pr...

  20. Masculinity, sex and survival in Zambian prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Anne Egelund

    2014-01-01

    Sexual relations between men in prisons occur all over the world, also in African prisons. Sex between men is considered deviant in Zambian society, yet for some prisoners it is a way to cope with the stress of incarceration. Prisoners have to cope with extreme challenges in terms of insufficient...... food, overcrowding and health challenges. For some entering into sexual relationships becomes a strategy of survival. With an emphasis on the link between deprivation and psychological, social and physical death, this article explores prison governance with the aim of documenting how sex becomes...

  1. Studies show giant panda could survive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is not a relic species, and it can survive, according to scientists. Employing microsatellite and mitochondrial control region (CR) sequences as genetic markers, CAS researchers have obtained some key information about the giant panda and its recent evolution history. Their discovery that the lovely creature still possesses high genetic diversity and evolution potentials challenges the hypothesis suggesting the giant panda is facing an"evolutionary dead-end." The research was reported in a recent issue of Molecular Biology and Evolution by a team of scientists led by Prof.WEI Fuwen of the CAS Institute of Zoology and Prof. Michael W.Bruford of Cardiff University.

  2. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    endogeneity of acquisition using IV and propensity score matching approaches suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases the lifetime of the acquired plants only if the plant was an exporter. The effect is robust to controlling for domestic acquisitions and differs between horizontal and vertical...... acquisitions. We find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters and only if the takeover is vertical.......This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible...

  3. EVALUATION OF MICROBIAL SURVIVAL IN EXTRATERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül BULUÇ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the space environments where microbial terrestrial life could form and evolve in, were evaluted with the base of the physical and chemical properties. In addition, Earthial microbial life formation conditions in the interstellar medium and the other planets are investigated and the survival of microorganisms in the space environments are questioned. As a result, considering the aspects of terrestrial microbial life, we suggest that the space environment and other planets could not be a habitat for Earthial microorganisms.

  4. Bayesian feature selection to estimate customer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Figini, Silvia; Giudici, Paolo; Brooks, S P

    2006-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the lifetime value of customers, when a large number of features are present in the data. In order to measure lifetime value we use survival analysis models to estimate customer tenure. In such a context, a number of classical modelling challenges arise. We will show how our proposed Bayesian methods perform, and compare it with classical churn models on a real case study. More specifically, based on data from a media service company, our aim will be to p...

  5. [Diabetic patients survival rates in dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Noël

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the eighties, the prevalence and incidence of diabetes have been increasing in dialysis units. In France, type 2 diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of diabetic hemodialysis patients. Among the etiologies of renal failure, diabetes is characterized by increased hospitalization rates and reduced quality of life, transplantation rates and survival. In dialysis patients, diabetes mellitus enhances the main factors leading to an increase in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular deaths: inflammation, dyslipidemia, hypertension, increased energy expenditure, oxidative stress and plasma assymetrical dimethylarginine. The prevention of these complications includes the control of blood glucose, plasma lipids, hypertension, and anemia. The role of antioxidant therapies remains to be evaluated.

  6. Survival horror games - an uncanny modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the perceived eeriness of a virtual character with the perception of human-likeness for some attributes of motion and sound. 100 participants were asked to rate 13 video clips of 12 different virtual characters and one human. The results indicate t...... in survival horror games that can be used by game designers seeking to increase the fear factor in the genre and that will form the basis of further experiments which, it is hoped, will lead to a conceptual framework for the uncanny....

  7. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  8. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    This paper analyses the effect of foreign acquisition on survival probability and employment growth of target plant using data on Swedish manufacturing plants during the period 1993-2002.  An improvement over previous studies is that we take into account firm level heterogeneity by separating...... the targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms before foreign takeover. The results, controlling for possible endogeneity of the acquisition dummy using an IV and propensity score matching approach suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases...

  9. Heat shock genes – integrating cell survival and death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Richa Arya; Moushami Mallik; Subhash C Lakhotia

    2007-04-01

    Heat shock induced gene expression and other cellular responses help limit the damage caused by stress and thus facilitate cellular recovery. Cellular damage also triggers apoptotic cell death through several pathways. This paper briefly reviews interactions of the major heat shock proteins with components of the apoptotic pathways. Hsp90, which acts as a chaperone for unstable signal transducers to keep them poised for activation, interacts with RIP and Akt and promotes NF-B mediated inhibition of apoptosis; in addition it also blocks some steps in the apoptotic pathways. Hsp70 is mostly anti-apoptotic and acts at several levels like inhibition of translocation of Bax into mitochondria, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, formation of apoptosome and inhibition of activation of initiator caspases. Hsp70 also modulates JNK, NF-B and Akt signaling pathways in the apoptotic cascade. In contrast, Hsp60 has both anti- and pro-apoptotic roles. Cytosolic Hsp60 prevents translocation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax into mitochondria and thus promotes cell survival but it also promotes maturation of procaspase-3, essential for caspase mediated cell death. Our recent in vivo studies show that RNAi for the Hsp60D in Drosophila melanogaster prevents induced apoptosis. Hsp27 exerts its anti-apoptotic influence by inhibiting cytochrome c and TNF-mediated cell death. crystallin suppresses caspase-8 and cytochrome c mediated activation of caspase-3. Studies in our laboratory also reveal that absence or reduced levels of the developmentally active as well as stress induced non-coding hsr transcripts, which are known to sequester diverse hnRNPs and related nuclear RNA-binding proteins, block induced apoptosis in Drosophila. Modulation of the apoptotic pathways by Hsps reflects their roles as ``weak links” between various ``hubs” in cellular networks. On the other hand, non-coding RNAs, by virtue of their potential to bind with multiple proteins, can act as ``hubs” in

  10. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    referred to treatment at Queen Ingrid's Hospital. On 1 February 2014, treatment results, survival, and prognostic variables were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 145 patients (84%); 56% had squamous cell carcinoma, 34% had......INTRODUCTION: Oncological treatment of lung cancer has been available in Greenland since 2004. We evaluated patient characteristics and survival rates for the first six years of local lung cancer treatment. METHODS: From September 2004 to August 2010, a total of 173 patients with lung cancer were...... of the 142 treated patients (86%). Of these, 36 patients (30%) received second-line chemotherapy.The median survival of patients undergoing primary lobectomy/pneumonectomy, palliative chemotherapy, and no treatment was 76.3 months, 11.8 months, and 2.0 months, respectively (p

  11. Secularism and Survival: An Academic Portrait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lionel S.; Altbach, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of faculty in seven western New York State colleges with Catholic traditions revealed certain teacher characteristics and attitudes: high morale, high teaching loads and scholarly activity, basically secular attitudes, and geographic provinciality. (MSE)

  12. 20 CFR 725.214 - Determination of relationship; surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; surviving... Benefits) § 725.214 Determination of relationship; surviving spouse. An individual shall be considered to be the surviving spouse of a miner if: (a) The courts of the State in which the miner was...

  13. 38 CFR 3.50 - Spouse and surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spouse and surviving... surviving spouse. (a) Spouse. “Spouse” means a person of the opposite sex whose marriage to the veteran meets the requirements of § 3.1(j). (b) Surviving spouse. Except as provided in § 3.52,...

  14. Biological aspects of genetic differences in piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to gain insight in the biological background of differences in the direct genetic (piglet) component of piglet survival. Estimations of the direct genetic component of piglet survival were obtained by calculation of estimated breeding values for piglet survival (EBVp

  15. Polysaccharide capsule and suilysin contribute to extracellular survival of Streptococcus suis co-cultivated with primary porcine phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, Laurentiu; Fulde, Marcus; Neis, Christina; Goethe, Ralph; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2008-11-25

    Streptococcus suis is a major cause of meningitis, sepsis and arthritis in piglets and a zoonotic agent. Survival in the blood circulation system represents a major step in pathogenesis of S. suis infections. To get further insights into the mechanisms of S. suis survival in the host, we compared a highly virulent S. suis serotype 2 strain with its non-encapsulated and suilysin-deficient mutants in their abilities to resist phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and mononuclear cells. PMNs displayed a higher capacity to take up encapsulated bacteria than mononuclear cells, whereas both cell types internalized efficiently non-encapsulated S. suis. Differentiation of extracellular and intracellular survival of the WT strain revealed that in PMNs the majority of the cell-associated streptococci were intracellular, whereas in mononuclear cells the majority remained attached to the cell surface. S. suis survived mainly extracellularly, since both cells killed intracellular bacteria to a similar extent. As a consequence of different resistance to phagocytosis, only the encapsulated S. suis strains survived co-cultivation with PMNs. Comparison of the WT strain with its encapsulated suilysin-deficient mutant revealed reduced survival of the mutant after co-cultivation with PMNs. Involvement of suilysin in inhibition of phagocytosis was further confirmed by the use of anti-suilysin antibodies and recombinant suilysin. Kinetic experiments with PMNs suggested that reduced survival of the mutant strain was mainly associated with an increased uptake, whilst both strains adhered similarly. Concluding, our results indicate that the capsule and the suilysin play important roles in S. suis survival in the host by interfering with phagocytic uptake.

  16. Survival of charmonia in a hot environment

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, B Z; Schmidt, Ivan; Siddikov, M

    2014-01-01

    A colorless c-cbar dipole emerging from a heavy ion collision and developing the charmonium wave function can be broken-up by final state interactions (FSI) propagating through the hot medium created in the collision. We single out two mechanisms of charmonium attenuation: (i) Debye color screening, called melting; and (ii) color-exchange interaction with the medium, called absorption. The former problem has been treated so far only for charmonia at rest embedded in the medium, while in practice their transverse momenta at the LHC are quite high, =7-10 GeV^2. We demonstrate that a c-cbar dipole may have a large survival probability even at infinitely high temperature. We develop a procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schroedinger equation to a moving reference frame and perform the first realistic calculations of the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. These effects are found to have comparable magnitudes. We also calculated the FSI...

  17. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species.

  18. Survival strategies of a sterol auxotroph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria; Schwudke, Dominik; Sampaio, Julio L.; Palm, Wilhelm; Riezman, Isabelle; Dey, Gautam; Gupta, Gagan D.; Mayor, Satyajit; Riezman, Howard; Shevchenko, Andrej; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V.; Eaton, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The high sterol concentration in eukaryotic cell membranes is thought to influence membrane properties such as permeability, fluidity and microdomain formation. Drosophila cannot synthesize sterols, but do require them for development. Does this simply reflect a requirement for sterols in steroid hormone biosynthesis, or is bulk membrane sterol also essential in Drosophila? If the latter is true, how do they survive fluctuations in sterol availability and maintain membrane homeostasis? Here, we show that Drosophila require both bulk membrane sterol and steroid hormones in order to complete adult development. When sterol availability is restricted, Drosophila larvae modulate their growth to maintain membrane sterol levels within tight limits. When dietary sterol drops below a minimal threshold, larvae arrest growth and development in a reversible manner. Strikingly, membrane sterol levels in arrested larvae are dramatically reduced (dropping sixfold on average) in most tissues except the nervous system. Thus, sterols are dispensable for maintaining the basic membrane biophysical properties required for cell viability; these functions can be performed by non-sterol lipids when sterols are unavailable. However, bulk membrane sterol is likely to have essential functions in specific tissues during development. In tissues in which sterol levels drop, the overall level of sphingolipids increases and the proportion of different sphingolipid variants is altered. These changes allow survival, but not growth, when membrane sterol levels are low. This relationship between sterols and sphingolipids could be an ancient and conserved principle of membrane homeostasis. PMID:20940226

  19. Hospital survival strategies for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, R S

    1983-09-01

    Survival strategies for hospitals and hospital pharmacy departments are presented, and one hospital's development into a health-services system is described. Financial and competitive pressures are forcing institutions to develop new strategies for survival. The primary institutional strategy is diversification--both horizontal and vertical. Diversification can assist in the hospital's growth, increase its asset and revenue bases, and lead to the development of a health-care delivery system. Marketing to physicians and developing information systems are also critical strategies under a prospective payment system. Institutions will need to know the cost of providing care for specific diagnosis-related groups. Strategies must be employed to develop incentives to reduce inpatient acute-care services and to increase productivity. Physicians should be involved in all of the institutional strategies. Strategies for the pharmacy department are basically the same. Pharmacy departments should develop programs to reduce drug use (especially antibiotic use) and information systems that show the actual cost of providing services by diagnosis. The major corporate restructuring and diversification efforts of one hospital are described. The future of hospitals and pharmacy departments will depend on the successful application of the strategies discussed.

  20. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  1. Survival of microorganisms in space: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G

    1981-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis were exposed to selected factors of space (vacuum, solar UV radiation, heavy ions of cosmic radiation), and their response was studied after recovery. These investigations were supplemented by ground-based studies under simulated space conditions. The vacuum of space did not inactivate the spores. However, vacuum-induced structural changes in the DNA, and probably in the proteins, caused a supersensitivity to solar UV radiation. This phenomenon is caused by the production of specific photoproducts in DNA and protein, which cannot be removed by normal cellular repair processes. In vegetative bacterial cells, exposed to vacuum, cell dehydration led to damage of the cell membrane, which could be partly repaired during subsequent incubation. The high local effectiveness of the cosmic heavy ions further decreases the chance that spores can survive for any length of time in space. Nonetheless, a spore travelling through space and protected from ultraviolet radiation could possibly survive an interplanetary journey. Such a situation favors panspermia as a possible explanation for the origin of life.

  2. Animal reintroductions: an innovative assessment of survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Watry, Mary Kay

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative evaluations of reintroductions are infrequent and assessments of milestones reached before a project is completed, or abandoned due to lack of funding, are rare. However, such assessments, which are promoted in adaptive management frameworks, are critical. Quantification can provide defensible estimates of biological success, such as the number of survivors from a released cohort, with associated cost per animal. It is unlikely that the global issues of endangered wildlife and population declines will abate, therefore, assurance colonies and reintroductions are likely to become more common. If such endeavors are to be successful biologically or achieve adequate funding, implementation must be more rigorous and accountable. We use a novel application of a multistate, robust design capture-recapture model to estimate survival of reintroduced tadpoles through metamorphosis (i.e., the number of individuals emerging from the pond) and thereby provide a quantitative measure of effort and success for an "in progress" reintroduction of toads. Our data also suggest that tadpoles released at later developmental stages have an increased probability of survival and that eggs laid in the wild hatched at higher rates than eggs laid by captive toads. We illustrate how an interim assessment can identify problems, highlight successes, and provide information for use in adjusting the effort or implementing a Decision-Theoretic adaptive management strategy.

  3. Dust Formation and Survival in Supernova Ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, S

    2007-01-01

    The presence of dust at high redshift requires efficient condensation of grains in SN ejecta, in accordance with current theoretical models. Yet, observations of the few well studied SNe and SN remnants imply condensation efficiencies which are about two orders of magnitude smaller. Motivated by this tension, we have (i) revisited the model of Todini & Ferrara (2001) for dust formation in the ejecta of core collapse SNe and (ii) followed, for the first time, the evolution of newly condensed grains from the time of formation to their survival - through the passage of the reverse shock - in the SN remnant. We find that 0.1 - 0.6 M_sun of dust form in the ejecta of 12 - 40 M_sun stellar progenitors. Depending on the density of the surrounding ISM, between 2-20% of the initial dust mass survives the passage of the reverse shock, on time-scales of about 4-8 x 10^4 yr from the stellar explosion. Sputtering by the hot gas induces a shift of the dust size distribution towards smaller grains. The resulting dust ex...

  4. Statistical methods in joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Walter

    Survival studies often generate not only a survival time for each patient but also a sequence of health measurements at annual or semi-annual check-ups while the patient remains alive. Such a sequence of random length accompanied by a survival time is called a survival process. Ordinarily robust health is associated with longer survival, so the two parts of a survival process cannot be assumed independent. The first part of the thesis is concerned with a general technique---reverse alignment---for constructing statistical models for survival processes. A revival model is a regression model in the sense that it incorporates covariate and treatment effects into both the distribution of survival times and the joint distribution of health outcomes. The revival model also determines a conditional survival distribution given the observed history, which describes how the subsequent survival distribution is determined by the observed progression of health outcomes. The second part of the thesis explores the concept of a consistent exchangeable survival process---a joint distribution of survival times in which the risk set evolves as a continuous-time Markov process with homogeneous transition rates. A correspondence with the de Finetti approach of constructing an exchangeable survival process by generating iid survival times conditional on a completely independent hazard measure is shown. Several specific processes are detailed, showing how the number of blocks of tied failure times grows asymptotically with the number of individuals in each case. In particular, we show that the set of Markov survival processes with weakly continuous predictive distributions can be characterized by a two-dimensional family called the harmonic process. The outlined methods are then applied to data, showing how they can be easily extended to handle censoring and inhomogeneity among patients.

  5. Long-Term Survival of Patients with IgA Nephropathy After Dialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Komatsu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: How dialysis affects the survival of patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (IgAN is not fully understood. The present long-term cohort study quantifies the survival rates and incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs among such patients in Japan. Methods: Fifty-two of 433 patients with IgAN who had reached end-stage kidney disease underwent renal replacement therapy (RRT between 1981 and 2010. The overall survival rate and incidence of CCVDs in these patients were evaluated during follow-up for 11.3 ± 6.4 years. Results: The mean age at starting RRT was 42.8 ± 13.3 years. Only seven patients died during follow-up (mortality rate, 1.2/100 person-years and Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed favorable survival rates of 93.3% and 65.1% at 10 and 20 years, respectively, compared with that of patients with glomerulonephritis in the registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy who required RRT. Malignancy and CCVDs were causes of death at 13.6 ± 4.8 and 3.9 ± 1.3 years, respectively, after starting RRT. Fatal and non-fatal CCVDs developed in 15 (incidence, 2.7/100 person-years patients and acute coronary syndrome and cerebral hemorrhage developed relatively soon after starting RRT. Cox proportional hazards models revealed that age at the time of starting RRT was a significant factor affecting the onset of CCVDs. Meanwhile, a history of having had corticosteroid as an initial treatment did not affect the onset of events. Conclusion: Although the survival of patients with IgAN is favorable after dialysis, the onset of CCVDs during the early phase of dialysis should be carefully monitored.

  6. Interaction between smoking history and gene expression levels impacts survival of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Sarah A; Bickett, Katie E; Alatoum, Mohammad A; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Brock, Guy N; Wittliff, James L

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to studies focused on cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer occurrence, this study explored the influence of smoking on breast cancer recurrence and progression. The goal was to evaluate the interaction between smoking history and gene expression levels on recurrence and overall survival of breast cancer patients. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted for 48 cigarette smokers, 50 non-smokers, and the total population separately to determine which gene expressions and gene expression/cigarette usage interaction terms were significant in predicting overall and disease-free survival in breast cancer patients. Using methods similar to Andres et al. (BMC Cancer 13:326, 2013a; Horm Cancer 4:208-221, 2013b), multivariable analyses revealed CENPN, CETN1, CYP1A1, IRF2, LECT2, and NCOA1 to be important predictors for both breast carcinoma recurrence and mortality among smokers. Additionally, COMT was important for recurrence, and NAT1 and RIPK1 were important for mortality. In contrast, only IRF2, CETN1, and CYP1A1 were significant for disease recurrence and mortality among non-smokers, with NAT2 additionally significant for survival. Analysis of interaction between smoking status and gene expression values using the combined samples revealed significant interactions between smoking status and CYP1A1, LECT2, and CETN1. Signatures consisting of 7-8 genes were highly predictive for breast cancer recurrence and overall survival among smokers, with median C-index values of 0.8 and 0.73 for overall survival and recurrence, respectively. In contrast, median C-index values for non-smokers was only 0.59. Hence, significant interactions between gene expression and smoking status can play a key role in predicting breast cancer patient outcomes.

  7. Different survival outcomes after curative R0-resection for Eastern Asian and European gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Woo; Joo, Jungnam; Yoon, Hong Man; Eom, Bang Wool; Ryu, Keun Won; Choi, Il Ju; Kook, Myeong Cherl; Schuhmacher, Christoph; Siewert, Joerg Ruediger; Reim, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several retrospective analyses on patients who underwent gastric cancer (GC) surgery revealed different survival outcomes between Eastern (Korean, Japanese) and Western (USA, Europe) countries due to potential ethnical and biological differences. This study investigates treatment outcomes between specialized institution for GC in Korea and Germany. The prospectively documented databases of the Gastric Cancer Center of the National Cancer Center, Korea (NCCK) and the Department of Surgery of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Germany were screened for patients who underwent primary surgical resection for GC between 2002 and 2008. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ2 testing, and 2 cohorts were matched using a propensity score matching (PSM) method. Patients’ survival was estimated using Kaplan–Meier method, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used for comparison. Three thousand seven hundred ninety-five patients were included in the final analysis, 3542 from Korea and 253 from Germany. Baseline characteristics revealed statistically significant differences for age, tumor location, pT stage, grading, lymphatic vessel infiltration (LVI), comorbidities, number of dissected lymph nodes (LN), postoperative complications, lymph-node ratio stage, and application of adjuvant chemotherapy. After PSM, 171 patients in TUM were matched to NCCK patients, and baseline characteristics for both cohorts were well balanced. Patients in Korea had significantly longer survival than those in Germany both before and after PSM. When the analysis was performed for each UICC stage separately, same trend was found over all UICC stages before PSM. However, significant difference in survival was observed only for UICC I after PSM. This analysis demonstrates different survival outcomes after surgical treatment of GC on different continents in specialized centers after balancing of baseline characteristics by PSM. PMID:27428238

  8. Survival of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is correlated with production of urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Robert R. Jr. Farrar; Michael B. Blackburn

    2011-01-01

    We tested 50 lepidopteran-toxic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) strains with diverse phenotypes for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed a remarkable correlation...

  9. [Endobronchial hamartoma revealed by hemoptysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smati, Belhassen; Boudaya, Mohamed Sadok; Mestiri, Taher; Djilani, Habiba; Mezni, Faouzi; Kilani, Tarek

    2005-05-01

    Hamartoma is the most frequent benign tumor of the lung. Its endo bronchial location is rare. We report two cases of endo bronchial hamartoma occurring in 2 men aged 68 and 60 years respectively. The two cases were revealed by hemoptysis. Bronchial fibroscopy showed a bud respectively in the left stump and in the lower left bronchus. Treatment consisted in a pneumonectomy and a lower lobectomy. A histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of endo bronchial hamartoma. Diagnosis of endobronchial hamartoma before surgery is difficult. Pulmonary resections are often necessary because of parenchyma lelions caused bronchial obstruction.

  10. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  11. Environmental influences on Adelie penguin breeding schedules, endocrinology, and chick survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninnes, C E; Waas, J R; Ling, N; Nakagawa, S; Banks, J C; Bell, D G; Bright, A; Carey, P W; Chandler, J; Hudson, Q J; Ingram, J R; Lyall, K; Morgan, D K J; Stevens, M I; Wallace, J; Möstl, E

    2011-08-01

    To understand how the social and physical environment influences behaviour, reproduction and survival, studies of underlying hormonal processes are crucial; in particular, interactions between stress and reproductive responses may have critical influences on breeding schedules. Several authors have examined the timing of breeding in relation to environmental stimuli, while others have independently described endocrine profiles. However, few studies have simultaneously measured endocrine profiles, breeding behaviour, and offspring survival across seasons. We measured sex and stress hormone concentrations (oestrogens, testosterone, and corticosterone), timing of breeding, and chick survival, in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at two colonies in two different years. Clutch initiation at Cape Bird South (CBS; year 1, ~14,000 pairs) occurred later than at Cape Crozier East (CCE; year 2, ~ 25,000 pairs); however, breeding was more synchronous at CBS. This pattern was probably generated by the persistence of extensive sea ice at CBS (year 1). Higher corticosterone metabolite and lower sex hormone concentrations at CBS correlated with later breeding and lower chick survival compared to at CCE - again, a likely consequence of sea ice conditions. Within colonies, sub-colony size (S, 50-100; M, 200-300; L, 500-600; XL, >1000 pairs) did not influence the onset or synchrony of breeding, chick survival, or hormone concentrations. We showed that the endocrine profiles of breeding Adelie penguins can differ markedly between years and/or colonies, and that combining measures of endocrinology, behaviour, and offspring survival can reveal the mechanisms and consequences that different environmental conditions can have on breeding ecology.

  12. Survival kinetics of starving bacteria is biphasic and density-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Phaiboun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the lifecycle of microorganisms, prolonged starvation is prevalent and sustaining life during starvation periods is a vital task. In the literature, it is commonly assumed that survival kinetics of starving microbes follows exponential decay. This assumption, however, has not been rigorously tested. Currently, it is not clear under what circumstances this assumption is true. Also, it is not known when such survival kinetics deviates from exponential decay and if it deviates, what underlying mechanisms for the deviation are. Here, to address these issues, we quantitatively characterized dynamics of survival and death of starving E. coli cells. The results show that the assumption--starving cells die exponentially--is true only at high cell density. At low density, starving cells persevere for extended periods of time, before dying rapidly exponentially. Detailed analyses show intriguing quantitative characteristics of the density-dependent and biphasic survival kinetics, including that the period of the perseverance is inversely proportional to cell density. These characteristics further lead us to identification of key underlying processes relevant for the perseverance of starving cells. Then, using mathematical modeling, we show how these processes contribute to the density-dependent and biphasic survival kinetics observed. Importantly, our model reveals a thrifty strategy employed by bacteria, by which upon sensing impending depletion of a substrate, the limiting substrate is conserved and utilized later during starvation to delay cell death. These findings advance quantitative understanding of survival of microbes in oligotrophic environments and facilitate quantitative analysis and prediction of microbial dynamics in nature. Furthermore, they prompt revision of previous models used to analyze and predict population dynamics of microbes.

  13. Democratic survival in Latin America (1945-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal PÉREZ-LIÑÁN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do democracies survive or break down? In this paper, it returns to this classic question with an empirical focus on Latin America from 1945 to 2005. The argument deviates from the quantitative literature and a good part of the qualitative literature on democratic survival and breakdown. It is argued that structural variables such as the level of development and inequalities have not shaped prospects for democratic survival in Latin America. Nor, contrary to findings in some of the literature, has economic performance affected the survival of competitive regimes. Instead, it is focused on the regional political environment and on actors’ normative preferences about democracy and dictatorship and their policy radicalism or moderation. It is argued that 1 a higher level of development did not increase the likelihood of democratic survival in Latin America over this long time; 2 if actors have a normative preference for democracy, it is more likely to survive; and 3 policy moderation facilitates democratic survival.

  14. Prediction of survival with alternative modeling techniques using pseudo values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd van der Ploeg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of alternative modeling techniques for predicting patient survival is complicated by the fact that some alternative techniques cannot readily deal with censoring, which is essential for analyzing survival data. In the current study, we aimed to demonstrate that pseudo values enable statistically appropriate analyses of survival outcomes when used in seven alternative modeling techniques. METHODS: In this case study, we analyzed survival of 1282 Dutch patients with newly diagnosed Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC with conventional Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. We subsequently calculated pseudo values to reflect the individual survival patterns. We used these pseudo values to compare recursive partitioning (RPART, neural nets (NNET, logistic regression (LR general linear models (GLM and three variants of support vector machines (SVM with respect to dichotomous 60-month survival, and continuous pseudo values at 60 months or estimated survival time. We used the area under the ROC curve (AUC and the root of the mean squared error (RMSE to compare the performance of these models using bootstrap validation. RESULTS: Of a total of 1282 patients, 986 patients died during a median follow-up of 66 months (60-month survival: 52% [95% CI: 50%-55%]. The LR model had the highest optimism corrected AUC (0.791 to predict 60-month survival, followed by the SVM model with a linear kernel (AUC 0.787. The GLM model had the smallest optimism corrected RMSE when continuous pseudo values were considered for 60-month survival or the estimated survival time followed by SVM models with a linear kernel. The estimated importance of predictors varied substantially by the specific aspect of survival studied and modeling technique used. CONCLUSIONS: The use of pseudo values makes it readily possible to apply alternative modeling techniques to survival problems, to compare their performance and to search further for promising

  15. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants.

  16. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  17. Uncanny behaviour in survival horror games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Williams, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    . The results indicate that attributes of motion and sound do exaggerate the uncanny phenomenon and how frightening that character is perceived to be. Strong correlations were identified for the perceived strangeness of a character with how human-like a character?s voice sounded, how human-like the facial...... expression appeared and how synchronized the character?s sound was with lip movement; characters rated as the least synchronized were perceived to be the most frightening. Based on the results of this study, this article seeks to define an initial set of hypotheses for the fear-evoking aspects of character...... facial rendering and vocalization in survival horror games that can be used by game designers seeking to increase the fear factor in the genre, and that will form the basis of further experiments, which, it is hoped, will lead to a conceptual framework for the uncanny....

  18. Staphylococcus aureus survival in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is abundant in hospitals and in the United States is a leading cause of mortality due to infectious agents. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains such as USA300, which typically cause disease outside of healthcare settings, are also prevalent in the United States. Although most CA-MRSA infections affect skin and soft tissue, the pathogen can enter the bloodstream and ultimately cause severe disease. In a recent paper, we used USA300-specific microarrays to generate a comprehensive view of the molecules that facilitate S. aureus immune evasion and survival in human blood. Notably, genes encoding proteins involved in iron-uptake and utilization and gamma-hemolysin (hlgABC) are highly up-regulated by USA300 during culture in human blood. Here we discuss the potential implication of these findings and the possible role of gamma-hemolysin in the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen.

  19. Interobserver variability in prostate cancer specific survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Y; Lillis, P K; O'Rourke, T J; Jones, C; Higgins, B A; Thompson, I M

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability of disease-specific survival (DSS) as an outcome measure in patients with carcinoma of the prostate (CaP). The records of 50 patients had a diagnosis of CaP and had expired were selected from the hospital tumor registry. Records were reviewed by six individuals and each individual was asked to specify cause of death as due to CaP or some other cause. DSS curves were generated based on the determinations of each reviewer. Although the DSS curves were generally parallel, a high degree of variability was seen at various intervals, leading us to conclude that DSS is dependent upon the individual reviewer. Published by Elsevier Science Inc.

  20. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  1. SCYL pseudokinases in neuronal function and survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephane Pelletier

    2016-01-01

    The generation of mice lacking SCYL1 or SCYL2 and the identiifcation ofScyl1 as the causative gene in the motor neuron disease mouse model muscle deifcient (Scyl1mdf/mdf) demonstrated the importance of the SCY1-like family of protein pseudokinases in neuronal function and survival. Several essential cellular processes such as intracellular trafifcking and nuclear tRNA export are thought to be regulated by SCYL proteins. How-ever, whether deregulation of these processes contributes to the neurodegenerative processes associated with the loss of SCYL proteins is still unclear. Here, I brielfy review the evidence supporting that SCYL proteins play a role in these processes and discuss their possible involvement in the neuronal functions of SCYL pro-teins. I also propose ways to determine the importance of these pathways for the functions of SCYL proteins in vivo.

  2. A Lesson in Survival, by Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. S. Rópolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the relationships between host and parasites, there is a cross-talk that involves diverse mechanisms developed by two different genetic systems during years of evolution. On the one hand, immunocompetent hosts have developed effective innate and acquired immune responses that are used to restrict or avoid parasitism. On the other hand, parasites evade the immune response, expressing different antigens on their surface or by using other specific mechanisms, such as nutrient depletion. In this review, we analyze the survival mechanisms used by the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia during infection. In particular, we examine the multiple roles played by the enzyme arginine deiminase during colonization of the gut, also involving the parasite's mechanism of antigenic variation. Potential drug targets for the treatment of giardiasis are also discussed.

  3. Survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; G. Marquesa, Irina; Karst, Søren Michael;

    2015-01-01

    Successful application of bioaugmentation for enhanced degradation of environmental pollutants is often limited by the lack of methods to monitor the survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains. However, recent advancements in sequencing technologies and molecular techniques now...... allow us to address these limitations. Here a complementing set of general applicable molecular methods are presented that provides detailed information on the performance of individual bioaugmentation strains under in situ conditions. The approach involves genome sequencing to establish highly specific...... qPCR and RT-qPCR tools for cell enumerations and expression of involved genes, stable isotope probing to follow growth on the target compounds and GFP-tagging to visualize the bioaugmentation strains directly in samples, all in combination with removal studies of the target compounds. The concept...

  4. Crossing Hazard Functions in Common Survival Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Yingwei

    2009-10-15

    Crossing hazard functions have extensive applications in modeling survival data. However, existing studies in the literature mainly focus on comparing crossed hazard functions and estimating the time at which the hazard functions cross, and there is little theoretical work on conditions under which hazard functions from a model will have a crossing. In this paper, we investigate crossing status of hazard functions from the proportional hazards (PH) model, the accelerated hazard (AH) model, and the accelerated failure time (AFT) model. We provide and prove conditions under which the hazard functions from the AH and the AFT models have no crossings or a single crossing. A few examples are also provided to demonstrate how the conditions can be used to determine crossing status of hazard functions from the three models.

  5. Listeria monocytogenes survival in refrigerator dill pickles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyung; D'Sa, Elaine M; Harrison, Mark A; Harrison, Judy A; Andress, Elizabeth L

    2005-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can survive and grow in refrigerated foods with pH values of approximately 4.0 to 5.0 and salt concentrations of 3 to 4%. Home-fermented refrigerator dill pickles fit this description. Contamination of this product with L. monocytogenes could cause serious problems because these items are not heated prior to consumption. L. monocytogenes survival and growth patterns were investigated in refrigerator dill pickles at 1.3, 3.8, and 7.6% salt concentrations. Pickling cucumbers were dipped into an inoculum of L. monocytogenes, brine mixtures were added, and cucumbers were held at room temperature for 1 week and then refrigerated for up to 3 months. The pH, NaCl percentage, titratable acidity percentage, and total populations of Listeria and aerobic, psychrotrophic, and lactic acid bacteria were measured at the addition of brine, after 2, 4, and 7 days of storage at room temperature, and then weekly during refrigerated storage. The initial Listeria population was 5.4 to 5.6 log CFU/cm2 on cucumber surfaces and 3.9 to 4.6 log CFU/g internally. There was an approximate 0.3- to 1-log increase during room temperature fermentation followed by a population decline during refrigerator storage, with a greater decrease in the brines with the highest NaCl concentration. Up to 49 days, the internal tissue of pickles with 1.3, 3.8, or 7.6% salt concentrations were presumptively positive for L. monocytogenes by the enrichment method, and at 91 days the surfaces of such pickles were still positive for L. monocytogenes. Populations of total aerobes and lactic acid bacteria increased during room temperature storage and decreased gradually during refrigerated storage.

  6. Academic practice groups: strategy for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J L; Jacobs, D M; Zera, R T; Van Camp, J M; Muehlstedt, S G; West, M A; Bubrick, M P

    2000-10-01

    The mission of public academic health centers (puAHC) and their affiliated practice groups (APG) focuses on teaching, research, and the clinical care of at-risk populations. Resources to accomplish this mission, however, are becoming scarce. For puAHC to survive and remain competitive, innovative strategies will need to be developed by the APG. We hypothesized that the integration of a surgical academic practice of the APG with a nonacademic integrated health care delivery system (NAIDS) in a managed care environment would benefit all involved. A surgical academic practice was integrated with a NAIDS in a 95% managed care market. Faculty alone provided care the first year, and third-year residents were added the following year. To assess outcome, we collected benefit and cost data for the 1-year period before integration and compared them with the two, 1-year periods after integration. In the second year of integration, revenues from the NAIDS referrals to the puAHC and APG increased 89% and 150%, respectively. The NAIDS' general surgical and endoscopy caseload increased by 25%. Additionally, there was a 92% reduction in operating room technician cost with no increase in operating time per case. Finally, the third-year resident experienced a caseload increase of 163%. In an environment where resources are diminishing and managed care consists of many large NAIDS that drive referrals and revenue, the integration of a surgical academic practice with a NAIDS benefits all shareholders. Academic practice groups that develop strategies that leverage their competitive advantage will have the best chance of surviving in today's turbulent health care market.

  7. Volatility, persistence, and survival in financial markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, M; Sarma, S Das

    2005-11-01

    We study the temporal fluctuations in time-dependent stock prices (both individual and composite) as a stochastic phenomenon using general techniques and methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. In particular, we analyze stock price fluctuations as a non-Markovian stochastic process using the first-passage statistical concepts of persistence and survival. We report the results of empirical measurements of the normalized qth-order correlation functions fq(t), survival probability S(t), and persistence probability P(t) for several stock market dynamical sets. We analyze both minute-to-minute and higher-frequency stock market recordings (i.e., with the sampling time deltat of the order of days). We find that the fluctuating stock price is multifractal and the choice of deltat has no effect on the qualitative multifractal behavior displayed by the 1/q dependence of the generalized Hurst exponent Hq associated with the power-law evolution of the correlation function fq(t) approximately tHq. The probability S(t) of the stock price remaining above the average up to time t is very sensitive to the total measurement time tm and the sampling time. The probability P(t) of the stock not returning to the initial value within an interval t has a universal power-law behavior P(t) approximately t(-theta), with a persistence exponent theta close to 0.5 that agrees with the prediction theta=1-H2. The empirical financial stocks also present an interesting feature found in turbulent fluids, the extended self-similarity.

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B Infecting Murine Macrophages Reveals New Mechanisms of Extracellular and Intracellular Survival

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differ...

  9. RNA-seq analysis of Pichia anomala reveals important mechanisms required for survival at low pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Feizi, Amir; Kim, SungSoo

    2015-01-01

    previously studied. Results: To this end, we isolated an acid resistant strain of P. anomala, performed a gross phenotypic characterisation at low pH and also performed a whole genome and total RNA sequencing. By integrating the RNA-seq data with the genome sequencing data, we found that several genes...

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals unique metabolic features in the Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts associated with environmental survival and stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haili

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidium parvum is a globally distributed zoonotic parasite and an important opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Little is known on the metabolic dynamics of the parasite, and study is hampered by the lack of molecular and genetic tools. Here we report the development of the first Agilent microarray for C. parvum (CpArray15K that covers all predicted ORFs in the parasite genome. Global transcriptome analysis using CpArray15K coupled with real-time qRT-PCR uncovered a number of unique metabolic features in oocysts, the infectious and environmental stage of the parasite. Results Oocyst stage parasites were found to be highly active in protein synthesis, based on the high transcript levels of genes associated with ribosome biogenesis, transcription and translation. The proteasome and ubiquitin associated components were also highly active, implying that oocysts might employ protein degradation pathways to recycle amino acids in order to overcome the inability to synthesize amino acids de novo. Energy metabolism in oocysts was featured by the highest level of expression of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH gene. We also studied parasite responses to UV-irradiation, and observed complex and dynamic regulations of gene expression. Notable changes included increased transcript levels of genes involved in DNA repair and intracellular trafficking. Among the stress-related genes, TCP-1 family members and some thioredoxin-associated genes appear to play more important roles in the recovery of UV-induced damages in the oocysts. Our observations also suggest that UV irradiation of oocysts results in increased activities in cytoskeletal rearrangement and intracellular membrane trafficking. Conclusions CpArray15K is the first microarray chip developed for C. parvum, which provides the Cryptosporidium research community a needed tool to study the parasite transcriptome and functional genomics. CpArray15K has been successfully used in profiling the gene expressions in the parasite oocysts as well as their responses to UV-irradiation. These observations shed light on how the parasite oocysts might adapt and respond to the hostile external environment and associated stress such as UV irradiation.

  11. Tropical tree rings reveal preferential survival of fast-growing juveniles and increased juvenile growth rates over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Brienen, Roel J W; Soliz-Gamboa, Claudia C; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2010-02-01

    Long-term juvenile growth patterns of tropical trees were studied to test two hypotheses: fast-growing juvenile trees have a higher chance of reaching the canopy ('juvenile selection effect'); and tree growth has increased over time ('historical growth increase'). Tree-ring analysis was applied to test these hypotheses for five tree species from three moist forest sites in Bolivia, using samples from 459 individuals. Basal area increment was calculated from ring widths, for trees rings formed by small juveniles. Thus, extant adult trees in these species have had higher juvenile growth rates than extant juvenile trees. By contrast, rings formed by somewhat larger juveniles in four species showed the opposite pattern: a historical growth increase. For most size classes of > 10 cm diameter none of the patterns was found. Fast juvenile growth may be essential to enable tropical trees to reach the forest canopy, especially for small juvenile trees in the dark forest understorey. The historical growth increase requires cautious interpretation, but may be partially attributable to CO(2) fertilization.

  12. Surveys in Argentina and Uruguay reveal Cyrtobagous salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations adapted to survive temperate climates in southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrtobagous salviniae is widely used in several countries, including the United States, South Africa and Australia, for the biological control of Salvinia molesta. Despite success in tropical and subtropical regions, C. salviniae establishment is inconsistent in temperate regions, and therefore popu...

  13. Modelling p-value distributions to improve theme-driven survival analysis of cancer transcriptome datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brors Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theme-driven cancer survival studies address whether the expression signature of genes related to a biological process can predict patient survival time. Although this should ideally be achieved by testing two separate null hypotheses, current methods treat both hypotheses as one. The first test should assess whether a geneset, independent of its composition, is associated with prognosis (frequently done with a survival test. The second test then verifies whether the theme of the geneset is relevant (usually done with an empirical test that compares the geneset of interest with random genesets. Current methods do not test this second null hypothesis because it has been assumed that the distribution of p-values for random genesets (when tested against the first null hypothesis is uniform. Here we demonstrate that such an assumption is generally incorrect and consequently, such methods may erroneously associate the biology of a particular geneset with cancer prognosis. Results To assess the impact of non-uniform distributions for random genesets in such studies, an automated theme-driven method was developed. This method empirically approximates the p-value distribution of sets of unrelated genes based on a permutation approach, and tests whether predefined sets of biologically-related genes are associated with survival. The results from a comparison with a published theme-driven approach revealed non-uniform distributions, suggesting a significant problem exists with false positive rates in the original study. When applied to two public cancer datasets our technique revealed novel ontological categories with prognostic power, including significant correlations between "fatty acid metabolism" with overall survival in breast cancer, as well as "receptor mediated endocytosis", "brain development", "apical plasma membrane" and "MAPK signaling pathway" with overall survival in lung cancer. Conclusions Current methods of theme

  14. Sponge-microbe associations survive high nutrients and temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Simister

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under considerable pressure from global stressors such as elevated sea surface temperature and ocean acidification, as well as local factors including eutrophication and poor water quality. Marine sponges are diverse, abundant and ecologically important components of coral reefs in both coastal and offshore environments. Due to their exceptionally high filtration rates, sponges also form a crucial coupling point between benthic and pelagic habitats. Sponges harbor extensive microbial communities, with many microbial phylotypes found exclusively in sponges and thought to contribute to the health and survival of their hosts. Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the impact of elevated nutrients and seawater temperature on health and microbial community dynamics in the Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. R. odorabile exposed to elevated nutrient levels including 10 µmol/L total nitrogen at 31°C appeared visually similar to those maintained under ambient seawater conditions after 7 days. The symbiotic microbial community, analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing, was highly conserved for the duration of the experiment at both phylum and operational taxonomic unit (OTU (97% sequence similarity levels with 19 bacterial phyla and 1743 OTUs identified across all samples. Additionally, elevated nutrients and temperatures did not alter the archaeal associations in R. odorabile, with sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealing similar Thaumarchaeota diversity and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealing consistent amoA gene patterns, across all experimental treatments. A conserved eukaryotic community was also identified across all nutrient and temperature treatments by DGGE. The highly stable microbial associations indicate that R. odorabile symbionts are capable of withstanding short-term exposure to elevated nutrient concentrations and sub-lethal temperatures.

  15. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  17. Kaiso depletion attenuates the growth and survival of triple negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey-Archibong, Blessing I; Rayner, Lyndsay G A; Hercules, Shawn M; Aarts, Craig W; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Bramson, Jonathan L; Hassell, John A; Daniel, Juliet M

    2017-03-23

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are highly aggressive and lack specific targeted therapies. Recent studies have reported high expression of the transcription factor Kaiso in triple negative tumors, and this correlates with their increased aggressiveness. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of Kaiso in the growth and survival of TNBCs. Herein, we report that Kaiso depletion attenuates TNBC cell proliferation, and delays tumor onset in mice xenografted with the aggressive MDA-231 breast tumor cells. We further demonstrate that Kaiso depletion attenuates the survival of TNBC cells and increases their propensity for apoptotic-mediated cell death. Notably, Kaiso depletion downregulates BRCA1 expression in TNBC cells expressing mutant-p53 and we found that high Kaiso and BRCA1 expression correlates with a poor overall survival in breast cancer patients. Collectively, our findings reveal a role for Kaiso in the proliferation and survival of TNBC cells, and suggest a relevant role for Kaiso in the prognosis and treatment of TNBCs.

  18. Survival nomogram for curatively resected Korean gastric cancer patients: multicenter retrospective analysis with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wool Eom

    Full Text Available A small number of nomograms have been previously developed to predict the individual survival of patients who undergo curative resection for gastric cancer. However, all were derived from single high-volume centers. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for gastric cancer patients using a multicenter database.We reviewed the clinicopathological and survival data of 2012 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer between 2001 and 2006 at eight centers. Among these centers, six institutions were randomly assigned to the development set, and the other two centers were assigned to the validation set. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard regression model was performed, and discrimination and calibration were evaluated by external validation.Multivariate analyses revealed that age, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, depth of invasion, and metastatic lymph nodes were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. In the external validation, the concordance index was 0.831 (95% confidence interval, 0.784-0.878, and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic was 3.92 (P = 0.917.We developed and validated a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after curative resection for gastric cancer based on a multicenter database. This nomogram can be broadly applied even in general hospitals and is useful for counseling patients, and scheduling follow-up.

  19. ROCK I Has More Accurate Prognostic Value than MET in Predicting Patient Survival in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Bharadwaj, Shruthi S; Guzman, Grace; Vishnubhotla, Ramana; Glover, Sarah C

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States despite improvements in incidence rates and advancements in screening. The present study evaluated the prognostic value of two tumor markers, MET and ROCK I, which have been noted in other cancers to provide more accurate prognoses of patient outcomes than tumor staging alone. We constructed a tissue microarray from surgical specimens of adenocarcinomas from 108 colorectal cancer patients. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression levels of tumor markers MET and ROCK I, with a pathologist blinded to patient identities and clinical outcomes providing the scoring of MET and ROCK I expression. We then used retrospective analysis of patients' survival data to provide correlations with expression levels of MET and ROCK I. Both MET and ROCK I were significantly over-expressed in colorectal cancer tissues, relative to the unaffected adjacent mucosa. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients' 5-year survival was inversely correlated with levels of expression of ROCK I. In contrast, MET was less strongly correlated with five-year survival. ROCK I provides better efficacy in predicting patient outcomes, compared to either tumor staging or MET expression. As a result, ROCK I may provide a less invasive method of assessing patient prognoses and directing therapeutic interventions. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Survival Outcomes at a Tertiary Medical Center Based on Sex and Geographic Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamurthy, Anjana; Chela, Harleen; Romana, Bhupinder; Yousef, Mohamad; Winn, Jessica; Madsen, Richard; Bechtold, Matthew; Asombang, Akwi W

    2016-11-01

    To describe the survival outcomes of patients with histologically proven primary pancreatic cancer based on geographic location and sex. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records from 2009 through 2013 of patients with pancreatic cancer using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 157.9 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision code C 25.9. The variables extracted included demographics, date of diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, duration, treatment methods, family history, history of chronic pancreatitis, and diabetes mellitus. ZIP codes were used to identify the geographic location of each subject, and rural urban commuting area codes were used to further classify the areas as metropolitan, micropolitan, small town, and rural. Population sizes were classified as metropolitan >50,000, micropolitan 10,000 to 49,999, small town 2500 to 9999, and rural location (P = 0.96). There is no difference in survival outcomes of patients with primary pancreatic cancer based on sex or geographic location. Our survival outcomes differ from the national survival outcomes, which reveal that mortality in men is higher than it is in women.

  1. Nuclear trafficking of Pten after brain injury leads to neuron survival not death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Choo-Peng; Putz, Ulrich; Howitt, Jason; Low, Ley-Hian; Gunnersen, Jenny; Bye, Nicole; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2014-02-01

    There is controversy whether accumulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN protein in the cell nucleus under stress conditions such as trauma and stroke causes cell death. A number of in vitro studies have reported enhanced apoptosis in neurons possessing nuclear PTEN, with the interpretation that its nuclear phosphatase activity leads to reduction of the survival protein phospho-Akt. However, there have been no in vivo studies to show that nuclear PTEN in neurons under stress is detrimental. Using a mouse model of injury, we demonstrate here that brain trauma altered the nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of Pten, resulting in increased nuclear Pten but only in surviving neurons near the lesion. This event was driven by Ndfip1, an adaptor and activator of protein ubiquitination by Nedd4 E3 ligases. Neurons next to the lesion with nuclear PTEN were invariably negative for TUNEL, a marker for cell death. These neurons also showed increased Ndfip1 which we previously showed to be associated with neuron survival. Biochemical assays revealed that overall levels of Pten in the affected cortex were unchanged after trauma, suggesting that Pten abundance globally had not increased but rather Pten subcellular location in affected neurons had changed. Following experimental injury, the number of neurons with nuclear Pten was reduced in heterozygous mice (Ndfip1(+/-)) although lesion volumes were increased. We conclude that nuclear trafficking of Pten following injury leads to neuron survival not death.

  2. Extremotolerant survival and proteomics of Acinetobacter isolated from spacecraft assembly facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; McCoy, Kelly; Derecho, Ivy; Dallal, Freida

    2012-07-01

    Herein, we report on the extreme hydrogen peroxide resistance of Acinetobacter isolated from the assembly facilities for the Mars Odyssey orbiter and Phoenix lander. Specific activity experiments on 10 different spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter strains show that the catalase contents are 15-250-fold greater than that of E. coli. Among this group, the highest and lowest catalase-containing strains, which were Acinetobacter nov. sp. 2P01AA and Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1, demonstrated no significant and 2-log reductions in survivability upon exposure to 100 mM hydrogen peroxide (1 hr), respectively. These survivals are among the highest reported for non-spore forming Gram-negative bacteria. Comparative proteomics on these strains reveals that alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, ATP synthase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase also contribute to the hydrogen peroxide extremotolerance. Together, the survival and metabolic features of the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter indicate that survival in the dry and low-nutrient environments of clean rooms is supported by factors such as oxidant degradation, energy management, and protein biosynthesis.

  3. Thirteen-Year Disease-Free Survival after Surgery for Cystic Duct Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zine Abedine Benchellal

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic duct carcinoma is known to have a better prognosis compared to its location in other biliary ducts. Only one case with a survival over ten years has been previously published. The authors report a case of survival over 13 years without recurrence or metastasis. Preoperative diagnosis of cystic duct tumor was carried in a 66-year-old male. Under the diagnosis of carcinoma of the cystic duct, the patient underwent en bloc resection of the gallbladder, cystic duct, hepaticocholedochus and lymph node dissection. A Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was performed. Histological examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the cystic duct. Five months later the patient underwent second look surgery for benign obstruction of the hepaticojejunal anastomosis. The patient is still doing well 13 years later without any local recurrence or metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the longest disease-free survival ever published in the literature. This case sustains that better and longer survival is possible with a real chance of potential cure if radical surgery is performed.

  4. Reduced CDX2 expression predicts poor overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwang Dae; Lee, Dooseok; Lee, Youngseok; Lee, Sun Il; Moon, Hong Young

    2013-04-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor CDX2 directs development and maintenance of normal intestinal epithelium. However, the role of CDX2 in colorectal carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Hence, we investigated the CDX2 expression in patients with colorectal cancer and its relationship to tumor cell proliferation and differentiation and evaluated the role of this molecule as a biologic marker for the prediction of poor patient survival. We retrospectively reviewed 207 patients with colorectal cancer, with an available paraffin block, who underwent surgical resection between January 2002 and December 2004 at Korea University Guro Hospital. CDX2 expression was compared between tumor tissue and the adjacent normal mucosa using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for CDX2, Ki-67, and CK20 was performed in each tumor tissue. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CDX2 protein is overexpressed by colorectal cancer compared with adjacent normal mucosa (P < 0.001). In the Western blot analysis, tumor tissue showed a trend toward overexpression of CDX2 protein compared with normal mucosa (P = 0.09). CDX2 expression showed a significant direct correlation with the expression of Ki-67 and CK20 in tumor tissue (P = 0.028 and P = 0.042, respectively). Survival analysis showed that reduced CDX2 expression was statistically and significantly related to poor overall survival. Reduced CDX2 expression is associated with poor overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer and may be clinically useful as a marker for poor prognosis.

  5. Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.

    1984-11-01

    To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions.

  6. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  7. Protein disorder reduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to survive heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Esmeralda; Gasik, Zofia; Dong, Yu-An; Goldberg, Tatyana; Rost, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments established that a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) survives sudden high temperatures by specifically duplicating the entire chromosome III and two chromosomal fragments (from IV and XII). Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are not significantly over-abundant in the duplication. In contrast, we suggest a simple algorithm to “ postdict ” the experimental results: Find a small enough chromosome with minimal protein disorder and duplicate this region. This algorithm largely explains all observed duplications. In particular, all regions duplicated in the experiment reduced the overall content of protein disorder. The differential analysis of the functional makeup of the duplication remained inconclusive. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment suggested over-representation in processes related to reproduction and nutrient uptake. Analyzing the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) revealed that few network-central proteins were duplicated. The predictive hypothesis hinges upon the concept of reducing proteins with long regions of disorder in order to become less sensitive to heat shock attack. PMID:26673203

  8. Survival trends in gastric cancer patients of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoZhang; Ling—LingSun; Yan—LiMeng; Guang-YuSong; ]ing-.1ingHu; PingLu; BinJl

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To describe survival trends in patients in Northeast China diagnosed as gastric cancer. METHODS: A review of all inpatient and outpatient records of gastric cancer patients was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. All the gastric cancer patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria from January 1, 1980 through December 31, 2003 were included in the study. The main outcomes were based on median survival and 3-year and 5-year survival rates, by decade of diagnosis. RESULTS: From 1980 through 2003, the median survival for patients with gastric cancer (n = 1604) increased from 33 mo to 49 mo. The decade of diagnosis was not significantly associated with patient survival for gastric cancer (P = 0.084 for overall survival, and P = 0.150 for 5-year survival); however, the survival rate of the 2000s was remarkably higher than that of the 1980s (P = 0.019 for overall survival, and P = 0.027 for 5-year survival).CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference of survival among each period; however, the survival rate of the 2000s was remarkably higher than that of the 1980s.

  9. Surviving the Holocaust: Socio-demographic Differences Among Amsterdam Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammes, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the victimisation rate among Amsterdam Jews and socio-demographic differences in surviving the Holocaust. After linking a registration list of over 77,000 Jewish inhabitants in 1941 to post-war lists of Jewish victims and survivors, the victimisation rate lies between 74.3 and 75.3 %. Differences in survival chances and risk of being killed are examined by using multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses. While male Jews had a reduced risk of death, in the end their survival chances hardly differed from females. Though Jews aged 6-14 and 31-50 initially had a lower risk of death, in the end compared with Jews aged 15-30 they had lower survival chances, just as Jews aged 50+. For Jews aged 0-5, it was the other way around. Immigrants showed better survival chances than native Jews. German Jews showed better survival chances than Dutch Jews, but Polish and other Jewish nationals showed highest survival chances. Jews who had abandoned Judaism had better survival chances than Jews belonging to an Israelite congregation. Divorced, widowed and unmarried adult Jews had better survival chances than married Jews and their children; Jews married to non-Jews, however, had one of the highest survival chances. Jews in the two highest social classes had better survival chances than jobless Jews. These findings indicate that survival was not random but related to socio-demographic characteristics. This sheds light on demographic consequences of conflict and violence: Nazi persecution reduced the Amsterdam Jewish community drastically, and socio-demographic differences in survival impacted the post-war Jewish population structure.

  10. Conditional Melanoma Cancer Survival in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyond relative survival, which indicates the likelihood that patients will not die from causes associated with their cancer, conditional relative survival probabilities provide further useful prognostic information to cancer patients, tailored to the time already survived from diagnosis. This study presents conditional relative survival for melanoma patients in the United States, diagnosed during 2000–2008 and followed through 2012. Analyses are based on 62,803 male and 50,261 female cases in population-based cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute. Five-year relative survival estimates are presented for melanoma patients who have already survived one, two, three, four, or five years after the initial diagnosis. Five- and ten-year relative survival decreases with age, stage at diagnosis, and is lower among males, Blacks, and Hispanics. Five-year conditional relative survival improves with each year already survived. The potential for improvement in five-year conditional relative survival is greatest for older age, males, Blacks, Hispanics, and in later staged cases. For local disease, five-year conditional relative survival was significantly lower in ages greater than 65 years and in Blacks. It was significantly higher in females, non-Hispanics, and married individuals. Age had a greater inverse relationship with five-year survival in later staged disease. A similar result occurred for females and married individuals. In contrast, non-Hispanics had better five-year survival if diagnosed with local or regional disease, but not distant disease.

  11. Rapamycin Prolongs Cardiac Allograft Survival in a Mouse Model by Inducing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Nakao, T; Yoshimura, N; Ashihara, E

    2015-09-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are the main immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which mTOR inhibitors induce immunosuppression is not fully understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) maintain host immunity; however, the relationship between mTOR inhibitors and MDSCs is unclear. Here, the results from a murine cardiac transplantation model revealed that rapamycin treatment (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, and 6) led to the recruitment of MDSCs and increased their expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that rapamycin induced the migration of iNOS-expressing MDSCs into the subintimal space within the allograft vessels, resulting in a significant prolongation of graft survival compared with that in the untreated group (67 days vs. 7 days, respectively). These effects were counterbalanced by the administration of an anti-Gr-1, which reduced allograft survival to 21 days. Moreover, adoptive transcoronary arterial transfer of MDSCs from rapamycin-treated recipients prolonged allograft survival; this increase was reversed by the anti-Gr-1 antibody. Finally, co-administration of rapamycin and a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor trametinib reversed rapamycin-mediated MDSC recruitment. Thus, the mTOR and Raf/MEK/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways appear to play an important role in MDSC expansion.

  12. Survival outcomes for first-line antiretroviral therapy in India's ART program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Rakhi; Rewari, Bharat B; Kumar, G Anil; Tanwar, Sukarma; Kumar, S G Prem; Vishnumolakala, Venkata S; Duber, Herbert C; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Dandona, Lalit

    2016-10-11

    Little is known about survival outcomes of HIV patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) on a large-scale in India, or facility level factors that influence patient survival to guide further improvements in the ART program in India. We examined factors at the facility level in addition to patient factors that influence survival of adult HIV patients on ART in the publicly-funded ART program in a high- and a low-HIV prevalence state. Retrospective chart review in public sector ART facilities in the combined states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (APT) before these were split in 2014 and in Rajasthan (RAJ), the high- and a low-HIV prevalence states, respectively. Records of adults initiating ART between 2007-12 and 2008-13 in APT and RAJ, respectively, were reviewed and facility-level information collected at all ART centres and a sample of link ART centres. Survival probability was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method, and determinants of mortality explored with facility and patient-level factors using Cox proportional hazard model. Based on data from 6581 patients, the survival probability of ART at 60 months was 76.3 % (95 % CI 73.0-79.2) in APT and 78.3 % (74.4-81.7) in RAJ. The facilities with cumulative ART patient load above the state average had lower mortality in APT (Hazard ratio [HR] 0.74, 0.57-0.95) but higher in RAJ (HR 1.37, 1.01-1.87). Facilities with higher proportion of lost to follow-up patients in APT had higher mortality (HR 1.47, 1.06-2.05), as did those with higher ART to pre-ART patient ratio in RAJ (HR 1.62, 1.14-2.29). In both states, there was higher hazard for mortality in patients with CD4 count 100 cells/mm(3) or less at ART initiation, males, and in patients with TB co-infection. These data from the majority of facilities in a high- and a low-HIV burden state of India over 5 years reveal reasonable and similar survival outcomes in the two states. The facilities with higher ART load in the longer established ART program in

  13. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oncological treatment of lung cancer has been available in Greenland since 2004. We evaluated patient characteristics and survival rates for the first six years of local lung cancer treatment. METHODS: From September 2004 to August 2010, a total of 173 patients with lung cancer were...... referred to treatment at Queen Ingrid's Hospital. On 1 February 2014, treatment results, survival, and prognostic variables were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 145 patients (84%); 56% had squamous cell carcinoma, 34% had...... adenocarcinoma, 2% had large cell carcinoma and 8% had NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS). In all, 28 (16%) had small cell lung cancer. A total of 142 patients (82%) received treatment; 20 underwent surgery (ten stage Ib, one stage IIa, five stage IIb, four stage IIIa); palliative chemotherapy was given to 122...

  14. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, J.; Engholm, G.; Ehrnrooth, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates four patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based oil cancer register data. differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries ill ...... for high quality and detailed data in order to understand international survival differences, and cautions comparisons between large national samples and those of smaller areas. (C) 2009 UICC Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11/15...... included. Age standardized 5-year relative survival and multiplicative regression models for the relative excess mortality were calculated. 3888 patients were included in the survival study. Men in Denmark, Finland and Iceland hall lower 5-year relative survival and poorer stage distribution compared...

  15. Clay mineral type effect on bacterial enteropathogen survival in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Fiona P; Moynihan, Emma; Griffiths, Bryan S; Hillier, Stephen; Owen, Jason; Pendlowski, Helen; Avery, Lisa M

    2014-01-15

    Enteropathogens released into the environment can represent a serious risk to public health. Soil clay content has long been known to have an important effect on enteropathogen survival in soil, generally enhancing survival. However, clay mineral composition in soils varies, and different clay minerals have specific physiochemical properties that would be expected to impact differentially on survival. This work investigated the effect of clay materials, with a predominance of a particular mineral type (montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite), on the survival in soil microcosms over 96 days of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Dublin, and Escherichia coli O157. Clay mineral addition was found to alter a number of physicochemical parameters in soil, including cation exchange capacity and surface area, and this was specific to the mineral type. Clay mineral addition enhanced enteropathogen survival in soil. The type of clay mineral was found to differentially affect enteropathogen survival and the effect was enteropathogen-specific.

  16. Survival and clinical outcome of dogs with ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Toft, Nils; Westrup, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate survival time, possible predictors of survival and clinical outcome in dogs with ischaemic stroke. A retrospective study of dogs with a previous diagnosis of ischaemic stroke diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed....... The association between survival and the hypothesised risk factors was examined using univariable exact logistic regression. Survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Twenty-two dogs were identified. Five dogs (23%) died within the first 30days of the stroke event. Median survival in 30-day...... survivors was 505days. Four dogs (18%) were still alive by the end of the study. Right-sided lesions posed a significantly increased risk of mortality with a median survival time in dogs with right-sided lesions of 24days vs. 602days in dogs with left sided lesions (P=0.006). Clinical outcome was considered...

  17. Climbing Stairs, Handrail Use, and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, J; Rottenberg, Y; Jacobs, J M

    2017-01-01

    Negotiating stairs is identified as a challenging task by older people, and using a handrail to climb stairs is a compensatory gait strategy to overcome mobility difficulties. We examine the association between handrail use to climb stairs at increasing ages, and long term survival. Data were collected by the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study, which is a prospective study of a representative sample from the 1920-1921 birth-cohort living in West Jerusalem. Comprehensive assessment at home in 1990, 1998, and 2005, at ages 70 (n=446), 78 (n=897), and 85 (n=1041) included direct questioning concerning handrail use for climbing stairs. Mortality data were collected from age 70-90. The frequency of handrail use to climb stairs at ages 70, 78, 85 years was 23.1% (n=103/446), 41.0% (n=368/897), and 86.7% (n=903/1041) respectively. Handrail use was associated throughout follow-up with a consistent pattern of negative demographic, functional and medical parameters. Between ages 70-78, 70-90, 78-85, 78-90, and 85-90, survival was significantly lower among subjects using a handrail, with unadjusted mortality Hazard Ratios of HR 1.57 (95%CI, 1.01-2.42), HR 1.65 (95%CI, 1.27-2.14), HR 1.78 (95%CI, 1.41-2.25), HR 1.71 (95%CI, 1.41-2.06), and HR 1.53 (95%CI, 1.01-2.33) respectively. HR's remained significant at all ages after adjusting for sociodemographic factors (gender, education, marital, and financial status), and common medical conditions (ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain), as well as between ages 78-85 and 78-90 after adjusting for functional covariables (self-rated health, physical activity, depression, BMI and ADL difficulties). Using a handrail to climb stairs is increasingly common with rising age, was associated with a negative profile of health parameters and is associated with subsequent mortality.

  18. Modeling survival in colon cancer: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holbert Don

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Cox proportional hazards model is the most widely used model for survival analysis because of its simplicity. The fundamental assumption in this model is the proportionality of the hazard function. When this condition is not met, other modifications or other models must be used for analysis of survival data. We illustrate in this review several methodological approaches to deal with the violation of the proportionality assumption, using survival in colon cancer as an illustrative example.

  19. The survival advantage of olfaction in a competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, Kenta; Pavlenkovich, Viktoryia; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2008-08-05

    Olfaction is generally assumed to be critical for survival because this sense allows animals to detect food and pheromonal cues. Although the ability to sense sex pheromones [1, 2, 3] is likely to be important for insects, the contribution of general odor detection to survival is unknown. We investigated the extent to which the olfactory system confers a survival advantage on Drosophila larvae foraging for food under conditions of limited resources and competition from other larvae.

  20. Erythrocyte survival in chronic renal failure. Role of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Akmal, M; Telfer, N; Ansari, A N; Massry, S G

    1985-01-01

    The human erythrocyte (RBC) is a target organ for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the hormone increases RBC osmotic fragility and induces their hemolysis. The present study was undertaken to examine whether elevated blood levels of PTH affect RBC survival, and therefore whether PTH, being an extracorpuscular factor, is responsible for the shortened RBC survival in chronic renal failure. 51Cr-labeled RBC survival was elevated in six normal dogs, in six animals with chronic renal failure and seco...

  1. Evaluating first-year pine seedling survival plateau in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar N. Khana; Thomas J. Dean; Scott D. Roberts; Donald L. Grebner

    2016-01-01

    First-year seeding survival has been a continuing problem since the start of commercial pine plantation forestry in the 1950s. First-year survival of bare-root loblolly pine seedlings on intensively prepared sites in Louisiana has maintained a survival plateau between 79 to 89 percent with an average of about 82 percent. The specific objectives of this study were to...

  2. Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) with an 11-year survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, B; Wolf, J; Lensing-Hebben, D; Pruggmayer, M; Thorpe, B

    1993-01-01

    Trisomy 13 is very rare in live-born children. Only a small number of these children survive the first year and very few cases are reported to live longer. Survival time depends partly on the cytogenetic findings--full trisomy 13 or trisomy 13 mosaicism--and partly on the existence of serious somatic malformations. We report on a 11-year-old girl with full trisomy 13. In this case, missing cerebral and cardiovascular malformations probably allowed the long survival.

  3. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α promotes survival of mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bingke; Li, Feng; Fang, Jie; Xu, Limin; Sun, Chengmei; Han, Jianbang; Hua, Tian; Zhang, Zhongfei; Feng, Zhiming; Jiang, Xiaodan

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal materials for cell therapy. Research has indicated that hypoxia benefits MSC survival, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. This study aims to uncover potential mechanisms involving hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) to explain the promoted MSC survival under hypoxia. MSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured under normoxia or hypoxia condition. The overexpression vector or small interfering RNA of Hif1a gene was transfected to MSCs, after which cell viability, apoptosis and expression of HIF1A were analyzed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Factors in p53 pathway were detected to reveal the related mechanisms. Results showed that hypoxia elevated MSCs viability and up-regulated HIF1A (P cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression had the opposite pattern (P cell therapy.

  4. From Exit to Entry: Long-term Survival and Transmission of Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon L. Waldner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of human infectious disease worldwide and pose a serious health concern. While we have an improving understanding of pathogenesis and the host-pathogen interactions underlying the infection process, comparatively little is known about the survival of pathogenic Salmonella outside their hosts. This review focuses on three areas: (1 in vitro evidence that Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods of time under harsh conditions; (2 observations and conclusions about Salmonella persistence obtained from human outbreaks; and (3 new information revealed by genomic- and population-based studies of Salmonella and related enteric pathogens. We highlight the mechanisms of Salmonella persistence and transmission as an essential part of their lifecycle and a prerequisite for their evolutionary success as human pathogens.

  5. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  6. Encapsulated Lactococcus lactis with enhanced gastrointestinal survival for the development of folate enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Jayakumar Beena; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from cow's milk were identified as Lactococcus lactis strains and designated as L. lactis CM22 and L. lactis CM28. They were immobilised by co-encapsulation using alginate and mannitol and by hybrid entrapment with skim milk, glycerol, CaCO3 and alginate. The encapsulated cells survived better in simulated gastrointestinal conditions compared to the free cells. The percentage survival of probiotics encapsulated by hybrid entrapment method was 62.74% for L. lactis CM22 and 68% for L. lactis CM28. Studies to check their efficacy in fermentative fortification of skim milk and ice cream revealed an enhancement in folate level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Communication styles of persons with ALS as recounted by surviving partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Miechelle; Evans, David L; Kawai, Norimune; Beukelman, David

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the communication patterns of individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) as reported from the surviving spouses' perspectives. Six surviving spouses of people with ALS participated in semi-structured interviews after the deaths of their partners. The interviews were transcribed and coded. Data analysis revealed four primary themes: communication styles, augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) use, decision-making, and lifestyle changes. Spouses described unique changes in communication styles as their partners began to use augmentative communication strategies and devices. AAC devices were described as essential for individuals with ALS with respect to decision making and maintaining social roles. Spouses stated the importance of adapting social activities in order to maintain involvement in the community as well as with family and friends.

  8. Association of Donor Age and Sex With Survival of Patients Receiving Transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Following animal model data indicating the possible rejuvenating effects of blood from young donors, there have been at least 2 observational studies conducted with humans that have investigated whether donor age affects patient outcomes. Results, however, have been conflicting....... Objective: To study the association of donor age and sex with survival of patients receiving transfusions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database, with nationwide data, was conducted for all patients from Sweden...... number of transfusions and mortality revealed a nonlinear pattern. After adjustments to accommodate nonlinearity, donor age and sex were no longer associated with patient mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Donor age and sex were not associated with patient survival and need not be considered in blood...

  9. Survival and prognostic factors in patients treated with stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Thomas; Oettingen, Gorm von; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background. Stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) of brain metastases is used with good effect around the world, but no consensus exists regarding which prognostic factors that are related to favourable or unfavourable prognosis after the treatment. A better definition of these factors...... months and median time to clinical cerebral progression was eight months. The multivariate analysis revealed age ≥ 65 years, Performance Status ≥ 2, extracranial metastases and size of metastasis > 20 mm as independent prognostic factors related to shorter survival. No factors were independently related...... to clinical cerebral progression. Conclusion. We identified four prognostic factors related to survival after SRT for brain metastases. The grouping of patients by these factors is useful to determine the level of treatment. We discourage the delivery of SRT to patients with 3-4 unfavourable prognostic...

  10. Calcineurin Targets Involved in Stress Survival and Fungal Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Soo Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin governs stress survival, sexual differentiation, and virulence of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Calcineurin is activated by increased Ca2+ levels caused by stress, and transduces signals by dephosphorylating protein substrates. Herein, we identified and characterized calcineurin substrates in C. neoformans by employing phosphoproteomic TiO2 enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry. The identified targets include the transactivator Crz1 as well as novel substrates whose functions are linked to P-bodies/stress granules (PBs/SGs and mRNA translation and decay, such as Pbp1 and Puf4. We show that Crz1 is a bona fide calcineurin substrate, and Crz1 localization and transcriptional activity are controlled by calcineurin. We previously demonstrated that thermal and other stresses trigger calcineurin localization to PBs/SGs. Several calcineurin targets localized to PBs/SGs, including Puf4 and Pbp1, contribute to stress resistance and virulence individually or in conjunction with Crz1. Moreover, Pbp1 is also required for sexual development. Genetic epistasis analysis revealed that Crz1 and the novel targets Lhp1, Puf4, and Pbp1 function in a branched calcineurin pathway that orchestrates stress survival and virulence. These findings support a model whereby calcineurin controls stress and virulence, at the transcriptional level via Crz1, and post-transcriptionally by localizing to PBs/SGs and acting on targets involved in mRNA metabolism. The calcineurin targets identified in this study share little overlap with known calcineurin substrates, with the exception of Crz1. In particular, the mRNA binding proteins and PBs/SGs residents comprise a cohort of novel calcineurin targets that have not been previously linked to calcineurin in mammals or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study suggests either extensive evolutionary rewiring of the calcineurin pathway, or alternatively that these novel calcineurin targets have yet

  11. Survival of microorganisms in smectite clays: Implications for Martian exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Deborah M.; Vestal, J. Robie

    1992-08-01

    Manned exploration of Mars may result in the contamination of that planet with terrestrial microbes, a situation requiring assessment of the survival potential of possible contaminating organisms. In this study, the survival of Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, and the enteric bacteriophage MS2 was examined in clays representing terrestrial (Wyoming type montmorillonite) or Martian (Fe 3+-montmorillonite) soils exposed to terrestrial and Martian environmental conditions of temperature and atmospheric pressure and composition, but not to UV flux or oxidizing conditions. Survival of bacteria was determined by standard plate counts and biochemical and physiological measurements over 112 days. Extractable lipid phosphate was used to measure microbial biomass, and the rate of 14C-acetate incorporation into microbial lipids was used to determine physiological activity. MS2 survival was assayed by plaque counts. Both bacterial types survived terrestrial or Martian conditions in Wyoming montmorillonite better than Martian conditions in Fe 3+-montmorillonite. Decreased survival may have been caused by the lower pH of the Fe 3+-montmorillonite compared to Wyoming montmorillonite. MS2 survived simulated Mars conditions better than the terrestrial environment, likely due to stabilization of the virus caused by the cold and dry conditions of the simulated Martian environment. The survival of MS2 in the simulated Martian environment is the first published indication that viruses may be able to survive in Martian type soils. This work may have implications for planetary protection for future Mars missions.

  12. Physical activity increases survival after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Kikkenborg berg, Selina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between...... physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient...... of physical activity after heart valve surgery are positively associated with higher survival rates and participation in cardiac rehabilitation....

  13. Medulloblastoma variants and survival at a children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Randall; Sandquist, Dane; Nadell, Joseph; Velez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Our 25 year experience with 35 medulloblastomas included classic (NOS) 22 (63%), anaplastic (ANA) 5(14%), desmoplastic (DES) 4(11%), excessive nodularity (EN) 3(9%), and large cell (LC) 1(3%). Overall 5, 10, and 15 year survivals were .6631, .5851, and .5051. Those under 3 years at diagnosis had an overall 2 year survival of .4379. Two survived 17(NOS) and 19 (EN) years. In the 26 children 3 years or older, late deaths occurred at 8, 8, and 14 years (5, 10, 15 year survivals .7375, .6392, .5114). Because late deaths occur; continued follow-up of these children is required.

  14. A Novel Situation Assessment Method for Network Survivability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Huiqiang; ZHAO Guosheng

    2006-01-01

    Survivability has emerged as a new phase for the development of network security technique, and quantifying survivability for network system helps to evaluate it exactly for the system in different environments. In this paper, we adopt a stochastic method called sequential Monte Carlo and try to reflect dynamic evolvement process of network survivability situation from several time sequences. The experiment results show that this method has the features of quantitative description, real-time calculation and dynamic tracking, and it is a good situation assessment solution for network survivability.

  15. Correlates of Strategic Management and Corporate Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    influences the survival or consumer goods manufacturing companies. ..... resistance to change therefore rendering the strategic management process a fruitless effort. .... assessed, and incorporated into the executives' decision making.

  16. The tao of survival skills to keep you alive

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, James Morgan

    2013-01-01

    The Tao of Survival focuses on real-world, core survival skills that can save your life anytime and anyplace, in any emergency situation. It delves into fundamental concepts that most survival books don't cover, including how to deal with fear, developing mind/body skills, and fully engaging your senses to be aware of your surroundings. James Morgan Ayres has worked as a consultant for various U.S. government agencies and private corporations, founded four companies, and lived and worked all over the world. He's written seven books, taught seminars on the tao of survival and related

  17. Environmental pollution has sex-dependent effects on local survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Hakkarainen, Harri; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pollutants cause a potential hazard for survival in free-living animal populations. We modelled local survival (including emigration) by using individual mark–recapture histories of males and females in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) living around a point source of heavy metals (copper smelter). Local survival of F. hypoleuca females did not differ between polluted and unpolluted environments. Males, however, showed a one-third higher local-survival probability in the polluted area. Low fledgling production was generally associated with decreased local survival, but males in the polluted area showed relatively high local survival, irrespective of their fledgling number. A possible explanation of higher local survival of males in the polluted area could be a pollution-induced change in hormone (e.g. corticosterone or testosterone) levels of males. It could make them to invest more on their own survival or affect the hormonal control of breeding dispersal. The local survival of males decreased in the polluted area over the study period along with the simultaneous decrease in heavy metal emissions. This temporal trend is in agreement with the stress hormone hypothesis. PMID:17148387

  18. Survival of water ice in Jupiter Trojans

    CERN Document Server

    Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Jupiter Trojans appear to be a key population of small bodies to study and test the models of the Solar System formation and evolution. Because understanding the evolution of Trojans can bring strong and unique constraints on the origins of our planetary system, a significant observational effort has been undertaken to unveil their physical characteristics. The data gathered so far are consistent with Trojans having volatile-rich interiors (possibly water ice) and volatile-poor surfaces (fine grained silicates). Since water ice is not thermodynamically stable against sublimation at the surface of an object located at ~5 AU, such layering seems consistent with past outgassing. In this work, we study the thermal history of Trojans after the formation of a dust mantle by possible past outgassing, so as to constrain the depth at which water ice could be stable. We find that it could have survived 100 m below the surface, even if Trojans orbited close to the Sun for ~10,000 years, as suggested by the most recent d...

  19. Quantifying survival in patients with Proteus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Julie C; Hu, Lian; Zhao, Jean; Gruber, Ashlyn; Schwartz, Brian; Ferrari, Dora; Biesecker Md, Leslie G

    2017-06-29

    PurposeProteus syndrome is a rare mosaic overgrowth disorder that is associated with severe complications. While anecdotal data have suggested that the life span of affected patients is reduced, this has not been measured. Mortality data on rare diseases is critical for assessing treatments and other interventions.MethodsTo address this we used the clinical research records of 64 patients in a longitudinal natural history cohort at the National Institutes of Health to ascertain the data in an organized manner and estimate survival using a Kaplan-Meier approach.ResultsThe median age of diagnosis was 19 months. Based on this analysis, there was 25% probability of death by 22 years of age. Ten of the 11 patients who died were younger than 22 years of age, and there was only a single death after this age.ConclusionThese data quantify the risk of premature death in Proteus syndrome, which can be used to support interventions and trials. Although the risk of death is substantial, the fact that only one patient died after 22 years of age supports anecdotal evidence that the disease process moderates after the end of adolescence. Interventions to reduce mortality should be targeted to the pediatric age range.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 29 June 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.65.

  20. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.