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Sample records for quicklime sulfate salt

  1. Evaluation of quicklime mixing for the remediation of petroleum contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, V; Macleod, C; Hadlow, N; Dudeney, R

    2007-03-15

    Quicklime mixing is an established solidification/stabilization technique to improve mechanical properties and immobilise contaminants in soils. This study examined the effects of quicklime mixing on the concentrations and leachability of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds, in two natural soils and on a number of artificial sand/kaolinite mixtures. Several independent variables, such as clay content, moisture content and quicklime content were considered in the study. After mixing the soils with the quicklime, pH, temperature, moisture content, Atterberg limits and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds were determined on soil and leachate samples extracted from the treated soils. Significant decreases in concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds were measured in soils and leachates upon quicklime mixing, which may be explained by a number of mechanisms such as volatilization, degradation and encapsulation of the hydrocarbon compounds promoted by the quicklime mixing. The increase in temperature due to the exothermic hydration reaction of quicklime when in contact with porewater helps to volatilize the light compounds but may not be entirely responsible for their concentration decreases and for the decrease of heavy aliphatics and aromatics concentrations.

  2. Treatability of PCB-contaminated soils with quicklime (CaO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, D.; Taylor, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    The possibility that quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) can destroy PCBs has received much attention over the past year. Observations at an EPA remediation site, where lime-containing kiln dusts were used for interim stabilization of PCB-containing wastes prompted the EPA to sponsor a small research project to investigate quicklime-PCB interactions. That study reported decreases in PCB content in synthetic, PCB-spiked soil following the application of quicklime and heat. META Environmental, Inc., as a contractor to EPRI, recently completed research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of quicklime for treating PCBs in soil and sand matrices under several reaction conditions, and to examine the underlying dechlorination chemistry involved, if any. Experiments were run with PCB-spiked sand and with actual PCB-contaminated soil. A variety of experimental conditions were employed including tests in open and closed containers, at ambient and elevated temperatures, and over a range of one hour to four days. Granular quicklime, fly ash, and kiln dust were all tested for reaction with PCBs. Early experiments showed that a mixture of sand/quicklime/water at 1:3:1.5 by weight, placed in an insulated container reached a maximum temperature of 216 degree C. Treatability experiments were subsequently run under controlled heat at room temperature, at 80 degree C, and at 200 degree C (following the initial temperature increase which occurs when water is added to quicklime). Little or no loss of PCBs was observed in open or closed containers at ambient or at 800 degree C over any period of time studied. A significant decrease of PCBs levels was observed only in the high temperature experiments (above 200 degree C), however the fate of the PCBs in those experiments was not determined. The conditions and the results of the PCB treatment tests are presented in this report, as well as recommendations for further studies

  3. 75 FR 56101 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... decision for the pesticide, lauryl sulfate salts (also known as sodium lauryl salts), case 4061... announces the availability of EPA's final registration review decision for the lauryl sulfate salts. Sodium... product that contains sodium lauryl sulfate as an active ingredient. The product, Kleenex[reg] Brand...

  4. Modeling of Sulfate Double-Salt in Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toghiani, B.; Lindner, J.S.; Weber, C.F.; Hunt, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) continues to adequately predict the solubility of most key chemical systems in the Hanford tank waste. For example, the ESP predictions were in fair agreement with the solubility experiments for the fluoride-phosphate system, although ESP probably underestimates the aqueous amounts. Due to the importance of this system in the formation of pipeline plugs, additional experiments have been made at elevated temperatures, and improvements to the ESP database will be made. ESP encountered problems with sulfate systems because the Public database for ESP does not include anhydrous sodium sulfate in mixed solutions below 32.4 C. This limitation leads to convergence problems and to spurious predictions of solubility near the transition point with sodium sulfate decahydrate when other salts such as sodium nitrate are present. However, ESP was able to make reasonable solubility predictions with a corrected database, demonstrating the need to validate and document the various databases that can be used by ESP. Even though ESP does not include the sulfate-nitrate double salt, this omission does not appear to be a major problem. The solubility predictions with and without the sulfate-nitrate double salt are comparable. In sharp contrast, the sulfate-fluoride double salt is included, but ESP still underestimates solubility in some cases. This problem can misrepresent the ionic strength of the solution, which is an important factor in the formation of pipeline plugs. Solubility tests on the sulfate-fluoride system are planned to provide additional data at higher temperatures and in caustic solutions. These results will be used to improve the range and accuracy of ESP predictions. ESP will continue to provide important predictions for waste processing operations while being evaluated and improved. For example, ESP will be used to determine the amount of water for the saltcake dissolution efforts at Hanford. When ESP underestimates the

  5. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  6. Determination of sulfate in thorium salts using gravimetric technique with previous thorium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M. da; Pires, M.A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. A simple analytical method to analyze sulfates in thorium salt, is presented. The method is based on the thorium separation as hydroxide. The gravimetric technique is used to analyze the sulfate in the filtered as barium sulfate. Using this method, the sulfate separation from thorium has been reach 99,9% yield, and 0,1% precision. This method is applied to thorium salts specifically thorium sulfate, carbonate and nitrate. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  7. Stabilization and reuse of heavy metal contaminated soils by means of quicklime sulfate salt treatment. Final report, September 1992--February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermatas, D.

    1995-08-01

    Capillary and hydraulic flows of water in porous media contaminated by heavy metal species often result in severe aquifer contamination. In the present study a chemical admixture stabilization approach is proposed, where heavy metal stabilization/immobilization is achieved by means of quicklime-based treatment. Both in-situ treatment by injection and on-site stabilization by excavation, mixing, and compaction will be investigated. In addition, the potential to reuse the resulting stabilized material as readily available construction material will also be investigated. The heavy metals under study include: arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury. The proposed technical approach consists of three separate phases. During phase A, both artificial and naturally occurring contaminated soil mixes were treated, and then tested for stress-strain properties, leachability, micromorphology, mineralogical composition, permeability, setting time, and durability. In such a way, the effectiveness of the proposed remediation technology was verified, the treatment approach was optimized, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for stabilization were established. During phase B, the proposed technology will be tested for two DOE-site subscale systems, involving naturally occurring contaminated soil, using the same testing methodology as the one outlined for phase A. Provided that the proposed technology is proven effective for the subscale systems, a field application will be demonstrated. Again process quality monitoring will be performed by testing undisturbed samples collected from the treated sites, in the same fashion as for the previous phases. Following completion of the proposed study, a set of comprehensive guidelines for field applications will be developed. 42 refs., 196 figs., 26 tabs

  8. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8855-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea.... 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034, and methyl parathion, case no. 0153... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion...

  9. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranghel, D., E-mail: daranghe@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30,RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Badita, C. R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O. [National Institute R& D for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independenţei 296, sector 6, cod 060031, C.P. 17-16, Bucharest (Romania); Balasoiu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-25

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca{sup 2+} by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl{sub 2}) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  10. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-03-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca2+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca2+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  11. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca"2"+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca"2"+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl_2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  12. Immobilization of lead in shooting range soils by means of cement, quicklime, and phosphate amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinde; Dermatas, Dimitris; Xu, Xuanfeng; Shen, Gang

    2008-03-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination at shooting range sites is increasingly under environmental concern. Controlling Pb leachability from shooting range soil media is an important step to minimize Pb exposure to the surrounding environment. This study investigated stabilization of Pb in shooting range soils treated with cement, quicklime, and phosphate. Two soils were used and collected from two shooting ranges, referred to as SR1 and SR2. The treatment additives were applied to the soils at rates from 2.5% to 10% (w/w). The effectiveness of each treatment was evaluated by Pb (w/w). The effectiveness of each treatment was evaluated by Pb leachability, measured by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The possible mechanisms for Pb immobilization were elucidated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Cement and quicklime treatments were effective in immobilizing Pb in SR1 soil, with reduction of Pb concentration in TCLP leachate (TCLP-Pb) to be below the U.S. EPA non-hazardous regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1) at application rates of > or =5% and 28-d incubation. By contrast, cement and quicklime amendments were less effective for Pb stabilization in SR2 soil because the TCLP-Pb levels in the treated soil were still higher than the limit of 5 mg L(-1) at all application rates, although they were significantly reduced in comparison with the untreated soil. Phosphate application was most effective in reducing Pb leach ing in both soils. Even at an application rate as low as 5% and 1-d incubation, phosphate could reduce TCLP-Pb to be below the limit of 5 mg L(-1) in both soils. Immobilization of Pb in the SR1 soil amended with cement and quicklime was attributed to the formation of pozzolanic minerals (e.g., calcium silicate hydrate C-S-H and ettringite) that could encapsulate soil Pb. The pozzolanic reaction was limited in the SR2 soil upon the application of cement and quicklime. Reduction of the TCLP-Pb might result from complexation of Pb on the surface of the

  13. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Burg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  14. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  15. The influence of using quicklime and volcanic ash as stabilizing materials in clay viewed from CBR value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuty, Ika Puji; Sofyan, Tri Alby; Roesyanto

    2017-11-01

    The condition of the soil in Indonesia in varied, viewed from its bearing capacity. The soil is one of the materials which plays a very important role in a construction or foundation so that it is very necessary to have soil with its adequate technical properties. In reality, often founding inadequate soil properties such as in its compressibility, permeability, and plasticity. The objective of the research was to find out the physical properties, technical properties, CBR value, and stabilization of clay by adding quicklime and volcanic ash as stabilizing materials. The mixing combination is 2%, 4% quicklime, and 2%-24% volcanic ash. The value of Water Content for original soil was 34.33% and Specific Gravity original soil was 2.65. The result of the research showed that the stabilizing materials from quicklime and volcanic ash could improve the physical and mechanical properties of clay. The value of Atterberg Limits decreased from 29.88% to 11.33% in the variation of 4% Q+24% VA, while the most maximal value of CBR was found in the variation of 4% Q+8% VA at 9.01%.

  16. Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

    2011-06-30

    This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quicklime-induced changes of soil properties: Implications for enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated soils via mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Dong, Binbin; He, Xiaosong; Shi, Yi; Xu, Mingyue; He, Xuwen; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical soil aeration is used for soil remediation at sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds. However, the effectiveness of the method is limited by low soil temperature, high soil moisture, and high soil viscosity. Combined with mechanical soil aeration, quicklime has a practical application value related to reinforcement remediation and to its action in the remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. In this study, the target pollutant was trichloroethylene, which is a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutant commonly found in contaminated soils. A restoration experiment was carried out, using a set of mechanical soil-aeration simulation tests, by adding quicklime (mass ratios of 3, 10, and 20%) to the contaminated soil. The results clearly indicate that quicklime changed the physical properties of the soil, which affected the environmental behaviour of trichloroethylene in the soil. The addition of CaO increased soil temperature and reduced soil moisture to improve the mass transfer of trichloroethylene. In addition, it improved the macroporous cumulative pore volume and average pore size, which increased soil permeability. As soil pH increased, the clay mineral content in the soils decreased, the cation exchange capacity and the redox potential decreased, and the removal of trichloroethylene from the soil was enhanced to a certain extent. After the addition of quicklime, the functional group COO of soil organic matter could interact with calcium ions, which increased soil polarity and promoted the removal of trichloroethylene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnesium sulfate salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate salts often result from the combination of incompatible construction materials, such as stone or mortar with high magnesium content and sulfates from adjacent mortars or polluted air. When combined with a source of moisture, these materials react to form soluble salts, often leading to significant damage by flaking of the stone, as the magnesium sulfate responds to fluctuating environmental conditions. Several laboratory experiments were performed to reproduce surface flaking on different types of limestone from Spain and the UK to evaluate the effects of humidity cycling on the damage of stone by salt crystallization. The two salt solutions used for the experiments were a single salt of magnesium sulfate and a mixture of magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate and sodium chloride, a typical salt mixture found in damaged stone at the site of Howden Minster (UK. A climate chamber with precise and programmable temperature and humidity control was used to test the hypothesis that salt damage in the stone can be readily caused by humidity fluctuations. Damage was monitored using Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT, which measure transducers displacement by dimensional change on the order of microns. In addition, Ion Chromatography, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM-EDX and X-ray Diffraction analyses (XRD were also carried out to analyze salt behavior. Damage by flaking took place in two types of magnesian limestone cubes impregnated with the salt mixture, from Cadeby quarry and York Minster, apparently by deliquescent salts of low equilibrium relative humidity (RHeq, while the rest of the samples developed a salt crust over the surface, but no damage was observed in the stone. It is important to verify hypotheses developed from field observations with laboratory experiments. By combining both field and laboratory data, a clearer understanding the different mechanisms of

  19. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multicomponent (Fe2(SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21 °C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  20. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-01-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca–, Na–, Mg– and Fe–chloride brines and multi-component (Fe2 (SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe–chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and

  1. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C; Rogers, A Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C; Jensen, Heidi B; Reeder, Richard J; Dyar, M Darby

    2018-03-01

    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multi-component (Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO 3 ) brines at ∼21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  2. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M; Krstonošić Veljko S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, ...

  3. Preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of a forest mushroom Suillus luteus by sodium dodecyl sulfate based "salting-in" countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Hu, Xueqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    In the course of screening new anticancer natural products, an edible forest mushroom Suillus luteus (L. Ex Franch). Gray was found to have potent cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells. However, the lipophilic sample made some countercurrent chromatography solvent systems emulsify, which caused difficulties in the separation of its cytotoxic components. Here, we found that the addition of an organic salt sodium dodecyl sulfate could efficiently shorten the settling time of the mushroom sample solutions by eliminating the emulsification of two-phase solvent systems. Moreover, we found that sodium dodecyl sulfate could play a new "salting-in" role and made the partition coefficients of the solutes decrease with the increased concentrations. Thus, a sodium dodecyl sulfate based salting-in countercurrent chromatography method has been successfully established for the first time for preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of the mushroom. The active component was identified as isosuillin. Whole results indicated that sodium dodecyl sulfate could be used as an efficient salting-in reagent for two-phase solvent system selection and targeted countercurrent chromatography isolation. It is very useful for current natural products isolation and drug discovery. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Metal and acidity fluxes controlled by precipitation/dissolution cycles of sulfate salts in an anthropogenic mine aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, C R; Macías, F; Pérez-López, R

    2016-05-01

    Underground mine drainages are extremely difficult to study due to the lack of information about the flow path and source proximity in relation to the outflow adit. Geochemical processes controlling metals and acidity fluxes in a complex anthropogenic mine aquifer in SW Spain during the dry and rainy season were investigated by geochemical and statistical tools. High concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals and metalloids (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, Co) were observed due to intense sulfide oxidation processes. The high residence time inside the anthropogenic aquifer, around 40days, caused the release of significant quantities of metals linked to host rocks (e.g. Al, Ca, Ge, Li, Mg, REE). The most outstanding characteristic of the acid mine drainage (AMD) outflows is the existence of higher Fe/SO4 molar ratios than those theoretical of pyrite (0.50) during most of the monitored period, due to a fire which occurred in 1949 and remained active for decades. Permanent and temporal retention mechanisms of acidity and metals were observed in the galleries. Once released from sulfide oxidation, Pb and As are sorbed on Fe oxyhydroxysulfate or precipitated as low solubility minerals (i.e. anglesite) inside the galleries. The precipitation of evaporitic sulfate salts during the dry season and the subsequent re-dissolution after rainfall control the fluxes of acidity and main metals (i.e. Fe, Mg, Al) from this anthropogenic aquifer. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, REE and Zn, are retained in highly soluble sulfate salts while other elements, such as Ge, Pb and Sc, have a lower response to washout processes due to its incorporation in less soluble sulfate salts. In this way, metal concentration during the washout processes would be controlled by the proportion and solubility of each type of evaporitic sulfate salt stored during the dry season. The recovery of metals of economic interest contained in the AMD could help to self-finance the remediation of these waters in

  5. Low-concentration tailing and subsequent quicklime-enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Du, Xiaoming; Shi, Yi; Xu, Zhu; Fang, Jidun; Li, Zheng; Li, Fasheng

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical soil aeration has long been regarded as an effective ex-situ remediation technique and as suitable for remediation of large-scale sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low cost. However, it has been reported that the removal efficiency of VOCs from soil is relatively low in the late stages of remediation, in association with tailing. Tailing may extend the remediation time required; moreover, it typically results in the presence of contaminants residues at levels far exceeding regulations. In this context, the present study aimed to discuss the tailing that occurs during the process of remediation of soils contaminated artificially with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) and to assess possible quicklime-enhanced removal mechanisms. The results revealed the following conclusions. First, temperature and aeration rate can be important controls on both the timing of appearance of tailing and the levels of residual contaminants. Furthermore, the addition of quicklime to soil during tailing can reduce the residual concentrations rapidly to below the remedial target values required for site remediation. Finally, mechanical soil aeration can be enhanced using quicklime, which can improve the volatilization of VCHs via increasing soil temperature, reducing soil moisture, and enhancing soil permeability. Our findings give a basic understanding to the elimination of the tailing in the application of mechanical soil aeration, particularly for VOCs-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical Study of Infrared and Raman Spectra of Hydrated Magnesium Sulfate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Huo, Winifred M.; Lee, Timothy J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Harmonic and anharmonic vibrational frequencies, as well as infrared and Raman intensities, are calculated for MgSO4.nH20 (n=1-3). Electronic structure theory at the second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) level with a triple-zeta + polarization (TZP) basis set is used to determine the geometry, properties, and vibrational spectra of pure and hydrated MgSO4 salts. The direct vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) method and its correlation corrected (CC-VSCF) extension are used to determine anharmonic corrections to vibrational frequencies and intensities for the pure MgSO4 and its complex with one water molecule. Very significant differences are found between vibrational of water molecules in complexes with MgSO4 and pure water. Some of the O-H stretching frequencies are shifted to the red very significantly (by up to 1500-2000/cm) upon complexation with magnesium sulfate. They should be observed between 1700 and 3000/cm in a region very different from the corresponding O-H stretch frequency region of pure water (3700-3800/cm). In addition, the SO2 stretching vibrations are found at lower frequency regions than the water vibrations. They can serve as unique identifiers for the presence of sulfate salts. The predicted infrared and Raman spectra should be of valuable help in the design of future missions and analysis of observed data from the ice surface of Jupiter's moon Europa that possibly contains hydrated MgSO4 salts.

  7. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  8. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  9. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirin, Dejan M; Poša, Mihalj M; Krstonošić, Veljko S

    2011-12-29

    In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  10. Uso de cal virgem para o controle de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp. em camas de aviário Quicklime for controlling Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp in litter from floor pens of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Dai Pra

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do uso de cal virgem (CaO para a redução de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp. em cama de aviário. Foram aplicados quatro tratamentos: T1- sem adição de cal virgem (controle, T2- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 300g m-2, T3- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 600g m-2 e T4- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 900g m-2. Os valores médios observados para o pH da cama após o 12° dia de aplicação de cal virgem foram 8,95 e 9,91, 10,75 e 11,11 para os tratamentos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. O número mais provável Log10 (UFC de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp foi reduzido em 82 e 97% com a aplicação de cal na dosagem de 300g m-2 e 100% na dosagem de 600 e 900g m-2, ambos diferindo significativamente em relação ao controle (antes da aplicação da cal. A atividade de água da cama reduziu progressivamente (de 0,2 a 3,82% com a utilização de níveis crescentes de cal. Conclui-se que o uso da cal na cama de aviário, mesmo nas doses mais baixas, reduz o número mais provável de Salmonella e Clostridium ssp.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of quicklime (CaO for reducing Salmonella and Clostridium spp. population in used litter from floor pens of broilers. Four treatments were tested: (T1 control (without quicklime; (T2 300g quicklime m-2; (T3 600g quicklime m-2; and (T4 900g quicklime m-2. The following average pH values were observed 12 days after adding quicklime: 8.95, 9.91, 10.75 and 11.11 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. An 82 and 97% reduction in the most probable number Log10 (CFU of Salmonella and Clostridium spp, respectively, was observed when 300g m-2 of quicklime was added to the used litter from floor pens of broilers. Additionally, a 100% reduction was obtained when both 600 and 900g m-2 of quicklime were added, differing significantly from control (before adding quicklime. A progressive reduction in water activity (from 0.2 to 3.82% was

  11. Regularities of radium coprecipitation with barium sulfate from salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavskij, Yu.P.; Rakhimova, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    Coprecipitation of radium with barium sulfate from highly concentrated NaCl solutions is studied, including the effects of the initial solution composition, alkaline reagent (CaO, NaOH), supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration, and pH. The process is promoted by high NaCl concentration in the initial solution, which is due to structural transformation and change in the sorption activity of the BaSO 4 precipitate in salt solutions. The results obtained were applied to recovery of radium from process solutions during the development and introduction of improved procedure for disinfection and decontamination of waste yielded by chlorination of loparite concentrates [ru

  12. Mg-Sulfate Salts as Possible Water Reservoirs in Martian Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-12-01

    Neutron spectrometer data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter provide evidence of high water-equivalent hydrogen abundance in some near-equatorial locations on Mars. In broad regions shallow (duricrust indicate that Mg and S are correlated and that ˜10% of an Mg-sulfate salt is a likely cementing agent. However, the range of possible Mg sulfates is large. Epsomite (7-hydrate, 51% water) and hexahydrite (6-hydrate, 47% water) are the most hydrated; both form structures of isolated SO4 tetrahedra with isolated octahedral sites consisting of Mg coordinated by six H2O molecules (epsomite has an extra H2O in addition to the six required to coordinate with Mg). Pentahydrite (5-hydrate, 43% water) has infinite chains of alternating SO4 tetrahedra and Mg octahedra, with 4/5 of the water forming apices in octahedral sites. Starkeyite (4-hydrate, 37% water) has clusters of two SO4 tetrahedra and two Mg octahedra, linked only by hydrogen bonds. The Mg-sulfate sanderite (2-hydrate, 23% water) is rare and has poorly known structure. Kieserite (1-hydrate, 13% water) is relatively common in evaporite deposits and has a framework structure of infinite tetrahedral-octahedral chains cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The stability of Mg-sulfate hydrates under martian near-surface conditions depends on their structures; those with excess water beyond that required to form the octahedral Mg site (e.g., epsomite, pentahydrite) lose that excess readily. Experiments with epsomite and hexahydrite indicate great sensitivity to environmental conditions; epsomite is not stable at 295 K at relative humidity (RH) values less than about 55%, below which hexahydrite is the observed phase. More importantly, hexahydrite - with all water coordinated to Mg in octahedral sites - is unstable at pressures less than ˜20 mtorr. X-ray diffraction analysis of hexahydrite held at 20 mtorr for six hours shows that structural degradation is slow at 100 K but becomes obvious in 1 hour at 273 K. Thermogravimetric

  13. Biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt sulfate size-segregated aerosols in the Arctic summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghahremaninezhad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS Amundsen in the Arctic during July 2014. The objective of this study was to utilize the isotopic composition of sulfate to address the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions in the Arctic atmosphere. Non-sea-salt sulfate is divided into biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate using stable isotope apportionment techniques. A considerable amount of the average sulfate concentration in the fine aerosols with a diameter  <  0.49 µm was from biogenic sources (>  63 %, which is higher than in previous Arctic studies measuring above the ocean during fall (<  15 % (Rempillo et al., 2011 and total aerosol sulfate at higher latitudes at Alert in summer (>  30 % (Norman et al., 1999. The anthropogenic sulfate concentration was less than that of biogenic sulfate, with potential sources being long-range transport and, more locally, the Amundsen's emissions. Despite attempts to minimize the influence of ship stack emissions, evidence from larger-sized particles demonstrates a contribution from local pollution. A comparison of δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols was used to show that gas-to-particle conversion likely occurred during most sampling periods. δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols were similar, suggesting the same source for SO2 and aerosol sulfate, except for two samples with a relatively high anthropogenic fraction in particles  <  0.49 µm in diameter (15–17 and 17–19 July. The high biogenic fraction of sulfate fine aerosol and similar isotope ratio values of these particles and SO2 emphasize the role of marine organisms (e.g., phytoplankton, algae, bacteria in the formation of fine particles above the Arctic Ocean during the productive summer months.

  14. The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hao; Liu, Min; Qu, Wen; Johnson, James; Brunson, Ed; Almoazen, Hassan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium iodide, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals by wet ball milling. Sulfamerazine was milled using zirconium oxide beads in a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a sodium salt (iodide, chloride or sulfate). Particle size distributions were evaluated by light diffraction before and after milling. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine the amount of PVP adsorbed onto sulfamerazine surface. Lyophilized nanocrystals were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution testing. Sulfate ion had more profound effect on reducing particle size via milling than iodide or chloride. We linked our findings to Hofmeister ion series, which indicates that sulfate ions tends to break the water structure, increases the surface tension and lowers the solubility of hydrocarbons in water. We hypothesized that the addition of sulfate ions dehydrated the PVP molecules and enhanced its adsorption onto the sulfamerazine particle surfaces. Consequently, the adsorbed PVP helped to stabilize of the nanosuspension. The nanocrystals that were obtained from the lyophilized milled suspensions exhibited a notable increase in dissolution rate. The addition of sodium sulfate enhanced the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

  15. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  16. Quicklime as an alternative in the photodegradation of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joya, M R; Bautista Ruiz, J H; Raba, A M

    2016-01-01

    Chemical oxidation is one of the many different methods of removing contaminants that has emerged recently, is an alternative method to traditional techniques. According to this research calcium peroxide is suitable choice for contaminant biodegradation in soil and ground water, but it happens at a very low speed. We hope that the method of synthesis of calcium peroxide in nano size by increased ratio of surface to volume can increase the speed of reaction and solve the problem. In the first synthesis of the material we obtained CaO instead of CaO 2 . Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound in obtaining hypochlorite and to neutralize acidic soils. In this study we characterize the material by X-ray scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. (paper)

  17. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  19. Reactions of solid CaSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and formation of sodium carbonate sulfate double salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinsheng; Wu, Yinghai; Anthony, Edward J. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1M1 (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    High-temperature chemical reactions in mixtures of solid CaSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were investigated in order to explore the mechanisms of enhanced sulfur capture by limestones doped with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in fluidized bed combustion. Drastic weight loss of the mixtures was observed in a thermogravimetric analyzer near the melting temperature of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, indicating chemical reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis for a mixture of the solids following a heat treatment at 850 C revealed the existence of two sodium carbonate sulfate double salts that have not been reported before for the present system. The formation of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the melt of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} appears to precede the formation of the double salts. The two double salts are believed to have high porosity and specific surface area similar to those of a better-known double salt, burkeite. The implications of these findings for the enhancement of limestone sulfation by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} are also discussed. (author)

  20. Reactions of solid CaSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and formation of sodium carbonate sulfate double salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1M1 (Canada)]. E-mail: jiwang@nrcan.gc.ca; Wu Yinghai [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1M1 (Canada); Anthony, Edward J. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Dr., Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1M1 (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    High-temperature chemical reactions in mixtures of solid CaSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were investigated in order to explore the mechanisms of enhanced sulfur capture by limestones doped with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in fluidized bed combustion. Drastic weight loss of the mixtures was observed in a thermogravimetric analyzer near the melting temperature of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, indicating chemical reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis for a mixture of the solids following a heat treatment at 850 deg. C revealed the existence of two sodium carbonate sulfate double salts that have not been reported before for the present system. The formation of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the melt of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} appears to precede the formation of the double salts. The two double salts are believed to have high porosity and specific surface area similar to those of a better-known double salt, burkeite. The implications of these findings for the enhancement of limestone sulfation by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} are also discussed.

  1. DEPENDENCY OF SULFATE SOLUBILITY ON MELT COMPOSITION AND MELT POLYMERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfate and sulfate salts are not very soluble in borosilicate waste glass. When sulfate is present in excess it can form water soluble secondary phases and/or a molten salt layer (gall) on the melt pool surface which is purported to cause steam explosions in slurry fed melters. Therefore, sulfate can impact glass durability while formation of a molten salt layer on the melt pool can impact processing. Sulfate solubility has been shown to be compositionally dependent in various studies, (e.g. , B2O3, Li2O, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3 were shown to increase sulfate solubility while Al2O3 and SiO2 decreased sulfate solubility). This compositional dependency is shown to be related to the calculated melt viscosity at various temperatures and hence the melt polymerization

  2. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; Hoppe, P.; Foley, S.; Borrmann, S.

    2012-05-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g). However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate - which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by hypohalous acids and transition metal ions can continue at low pH once alkalinity is titrated. We have measured 34S/32S fractionation factors for SO2 oxidation in sea salt, pure water and NaOCl aerosol, as well as the pH dependency of fractionation. Oxidation of SO2 by NaOCl aerosol was extremely efficient, with a reactive uptake coefficient of ≈0.5, and produced sulfate that was enriched in 32S with αOCl = 0.9882±0.0036 at 19 °C. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol was much less efficient than on NaOCl aerosol, suggesting alkalinity was already exhausted on the short timescale of the experiments. Measurements at pH = 2.1 and 7.2 were used to calculate fractionation factors for each step from SO2(g) → multiple steps → SOOCl2-. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol resulted in a lower fractionation factor than expected for oxidation of SO32- by O3 (αseasalt = 1.0124±0.0017 at 19 °C). Comparison of the lower fractionation during oxidation on sea salt aerosol to the fractionation factor for high pH oxidation shows HOCl contributed 29% of S(IV) oxidation on sea salt in the short experimental timescale, highlighting the potential importance of hypohalous acids in the marine environment. The sulfur isotope fractionation factors measured in this study allow differentiation between the alkalinity-limited pathways - oxidation by O3 and by Cl catalysis (α34 = 1.0163±0.0018 at 19 °C in pure water or 1.0199±0.0024 at pH = 7.2) - which favour the heavy isotope, and the alkalinity non

  3. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g. However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate – which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by hypohalous acids and transition metal ions can continue at low pH once alkalinity is titrated. We have measured 34S/32S fractionation factors for SO2 oxidation in sea salt, pure water and NaOCl aerosol, as well as the pH dependency of fractionation. Oxidation of SO2 by NaOCl aerosol was extremely efficient, with a reactive uptake coefficient of ≈0.5, and produced sulfate that was enriched in 32S with αOCl = 0.9882±0.0036 at 19 °C. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol was much less efficient than on NaOCl aerosol, suggesting alkalinity was already exhausted on the short timescale of the experiments. Measurements at pH = 2.1 and 7.2 were used to calculate fractionation factors for each step from SO2(g → multiple steps → SOOCl2−. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol resulted in a lower fractionation factor than expected for oxidation of SO32− by O3 (αseasalt = 1.0124±0.0017 at 19 °C. Comparison of the lower fractionation during oxidation on sea salt aerosol to the fractionation factor for high pH oxidation shows HOCl contributed 29% of S(IV oxidation on sea salt in the short experimental timescale, highlighting the potential importance of hypohalous acids in the marine environment. The sulfur isotope fractionation factors measured in this study allow differentiation between the alkalinity-limited pathways – oxidation by O3 and by Cl catalysis (α34 = 1.0163±0.0018 at 19 °C in pure water or 1.0199±0.0024 at pH = 7.2 – which favour the heavy isotope, and

  4. Quicklime (CaO) Stabilization of fine-grained marine sediments in low temperature areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skels, Peteris; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr

    2011-01-01

    This study presents laboratory testing on quicklime (CaO) stabilization of fine-grained marine sediments in low temperature areas. The soil was sampled on the Fossil Plain in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and analyzed in the laboratory at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The optimum CaO content...... curing temperatures, comparing stabilization effectiveness between low and normal soil temperature conditions....... in a soil-CaO mixture was determined using a number of laboratory methods, such as pH test, consistency limit analysis, degree of compaction, and short term California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values. The study also numerically demonstrates a long term strength development of the soil-CaO mixture at 1°C and 10°C...

  5. Quicklime treatment and stirring of different poultry litter substrates for reducing pathogenic bacteria counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M; Roll, V F B; Leite, F L; Dai Prá, M A; Xavier, E G; Heres, T; Valente, B S

    2013-03-01

    Testing different management practices can help to identify conditions that decrease or even eliminate pathogenic bacteria in poultry litter. A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily manual stirring (rotation of the litter with a pitchfork) for the first 14 d of a bird's life (WDR), in 3 types of poultry litter substrates and quicklime treatment (CaO) during layout time between flocks on pathogenic bacteria occurrence (cfu). A total of 216 male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted to 18 pens with new litter (experimental unit). A split-plot design, with 6 treatments allotted to the main plots, was used: 1) wood shavings (WS) + WDR, 2) WS without stirring up to 14 d (WODR), 3) rice hulls (RIH) + WDR, 4) RIH + WODR, 5) mixture of 50% RIH and WS + WDR, and 6) mixture of 50% RIH and WS + WODR. Two treatments were allotted to the subplots: 0 and 300 g of CaO•m(-2) litter. After depopulation, litter samples were collected, and CaO was incorporated into the litter in the designated half of each pen. The cfu from litter samples after 7 d of the quicklime treatment were counted on Chapman agar, brain heart infusion media, and MacConkey agar. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and the means were compared by least squares means (P litter efficiently reduced the cfu observed on brain heart infusion, Chapman agar, and MacConkey agar media by 57.2, 66.9, and 92.1%, respectively, compared with control (6.4, 17.9, and 46.1%; P litter reduces the cfu, regardless of the substrate and stirring performed.

  6. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J

    2002-01-01

    Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent.

  7. Mineral Carbonation of Phosphogypsum Waste for Production of Useful Carbonate and Sulfate Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, Hannu-Petteri, E-mail: hmattila@abo.fi; Zevenhoven, Ron [Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory, Åbo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2015-11-16

    Phosphogypsum (CaSO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, PG) waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}] with ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and CO{sub 2}, also solid calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) is generated. The ammonium sulfate can be utilized as a fertilizer or in other mineral carbonation processes that use magnesium silicate-based rock as feedstock, while calcium carbonate has various uses as, e.g., filler material. The reaction extent of the described process was studied by thermodynamic modeling and experimentally as a function of reactant concentrations and temperature. Other essential properties such as purity and quality of the solid products are also followed. Conversion efficiencies of >95% calcium from PG to calcium carbonate are obtained. Scalenohedral, rhombohedral, and prismatic calcite particles can be produced, although the precipitates contain certain contaminants such as rare earth metals and sulfur from the gypsum. A reverse osmosis membrane cartridge is also tested as an alternative and energy-efficient method of concentrating the ammonium sulfate salt solution instead of the traditional evaporation of the process solution.

  8. Mineral carbonation of phosphogypsum waste for production of useful carbonate and sulfate salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu-Petteri eMattila

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (CaSO4·2H2O waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H3PO4 production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred Mt of carbon dioxide (CO2. For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 with ammonia (NH3 and CO2, also solid calcium carbonate (CaCO3 is generated. The ammonium sulfate can be utilized as a fertilizer or in other mineral carbonation processes that use magnesium silicate-based rock as feedstock, while calcium carbonate has various uses as e.g. filler material. The reaction extent of the described process was studied by thermodynamic modeling and experimentally as a function of reactant concentrations and temperature. Other essential properties such as purity and quality of the solid products are also followed. Conversion efficiencies of >95% calcium from phosphogypsum to calcium carbonate are obtained. Scalenohedral, rhombohedral and prismatic calcite particles can be produced, though the precipitates contain certain contaminants such as rare earth metals and sulfur from the gypsum. A reverse osmosis membrane cartridge is also tested as an alternative and energy-efficient method of concentrating the ammonium sulfate salt solution instead of the traditional evaporation of the process solution.

  9. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, Tatiana; Leentjes, Sarah; Janaway, Rob C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2012-04-10

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6 months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6 months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  11. Investigation of Various LiCl Waste Salt Purification Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung-Zun Cho; Hee-Chul Yang; Han-Soo Lee; In-Tae Kim

    2008-01-01

    Various purification research of LiCl waste molten salt generated from electroreduction process were tested. The purification of the LiCl waste salt very important in a various aspects, where the purification means separation of cesium and strontium form LiCl salt melts. In this study, for the separation of cesium and strontium from LiCl salt melts, precipitant agent addition techniques such as sulfate and carbonate addition method and, as a new attempt, zone freezing technique for concentration of cesium and strontium elements was investigated. As a results of this research, only strontium was carbonated by reaction with Li 2 CO 3 (cesium did not react with Li 2 CO 3 ). In case of sulfate addition method, both cesium and strontium were converted into their sulfate that is Cs 2 S 2 O 6 and SrSO 4 and maximum sulfate efficiency of cesium and strontium were about 72% and 95%, respectively. Cesium and strontium involved in LiCl molten salt could be concentrated in the molten salt by using zone freezing method. (authors)

  12. Experimental Research on Foamed Mixture Lightweight Soil Mixed with Fly-Ash and Quicklime as Backfill Material behind Abutments of Expressway Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To promote the utilization of fly-ash, based on the orthogonal experiment method, wet density and unconfined compressive strength of Foamed Mixture Lightweight Soil mixed with fly-ash and quicklime (FMLSF are studied. It is shown that the wet density and unconfined compressive strength of FMLSF increase with the increase of cement content, while decreasing with the increase of foam content. With the mixing content of fly-ash increase, the wet density and unconfined compressive strength of FMLSF increase firstly and then decrease. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM tests show that ball effect or microaggregate effect of fly-ash improves the wet density and unconfined compressive strength of FMLSF. With the mixing content of quicklime increase, the wet density and unconfined compressive strength of FMLSF increase firstly within a narrow range and then decrease. In addition, the primary and secondary influence order on wet density and 28-day compressive strength of FMLSF are obtained, as well as the optimal mixture combination. Finally, based on two abutments in China, behind which they are filled with FMLSF and Foamed Mixture Lightweight Soil (FMLS, the construction techniques and key points of quality control behind abutment are compared and discussed in detail, and the feasibility of utilization fly-ash as FMLSF is verified by the experimental results.

  13. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate pretreatment and 2-stage curing for improved quality of salted duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zixuan; Qiao, Longshan; Zhu, Guanghong; Deng, Yun; Qian, Bingjun; Yue, Jin; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-03-01

    The effects of use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing on the microbial, physicochemical, and microstructural qualities of salted duck eggs were studied. After pretreatment in 0.5% (w/v) SDS solution at room conditions for 15 min, no discolorations were observed and no microorganisms were detected on the egg shells. In the 2-stage curing process, 25% (w/v) and 30% (w/v) saline solutions were evaluated in the 1st step (Stage I, approximately 18 d), whereas 4% (w/v) saline solution was applied in the 2nd step (Stage II, approximately 15 d). Along with increased curing time, water content decreased and NaCl content increased in the egg yolks from approximately 0.40% to 0.86%, whereas the water content of egg albumen remained at approximately 85% during the 2-stage curing. More importantly, the NaCl content of albumen maintained at approximately 4.0% at Stage II curing. Yolk index as a sign of maturity for salted duck eggs reached 1 at the end of Stage I (18 d) and retained the same value during Stage II curing regardless of the NaCl concentration in the Stage I saline solution. Oil exudation in egg yolks increased as the time of curing increased. As seen from scanning electron microscopy, oil was released from yolk granules. This study indicated that SDS pretreatment is effective to reduce microbial load on the shells of fresh duck eggs and the 2-stage curing can improve physicochemical qualities of the salted duck eggs and shortened curing time to about 7 to 17 d as compared to the traditional 1-step curing method. Spoiled saline solution and uneven distribution of salt are the 2 major problems in producing salted duck eggs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing process have shown effective to solve these problems, respectively. The SDS pretreatment was able to remove microorganisms and soil from the surface of fresh egg shells, thus preventing the spoilage of the saline solution. The 2-stage curing process

  14. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS OF CHONDROITIN SULFATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1962-01-01

    In autoradiograms of slices of costal cartilage, incubated for 4 hours in a salt solution containing S35-sulfate and then washed extensively and dehydrated, about 85 per cent of the radioactivity was assignable to the chondrocytes. From alkaline extracts of similarly prepared slices of cartilage, 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 in the slices was isolated as chondroitin sulfate by chromatography on an anion-exchange resin. In view of the estimate that only about 15 per cent of the radioactivity was in the matrix, the isolation of 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 as chondroitin sulfate is a strong argument that the chondrocytes are the loci in which chondroitin sulfate(s) is synthesized. PMID:13888910

  15. Quenching characteristics of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt in aqueous solution and copper sulfate plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Toshiaki; Hirakawa, Chieko; Takeshita, Michinori; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    Bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (BCS) is generally used to detect Cu(I) through a color reaction. We newly found BCS fluorescence in the visible blue region in an aqueous solution. However, the fluorescence mechanism of BCS is not well known, so we should investigate its fundamental information. We confirmed that the characteristics of fluorescence are highly dependent on the molecular concentration and solvent properties. In particular, owing to the presence of the copper compound, the fluorescence intensity extremely decreases. By fluorescence quenching, we observed that a copper compound concentration of 10-6 mol/L or less could easily be measured in an aqueous solution. We also observed BCS fluorescence in copper sulfate plating solution and the possibility of detecting monovalent copper by fluorescence reabsorption.

  16. The boric acid - ammonium rhodanide (nitrate, sulfate) - water system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.G.; Molodkin, A.K.; Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Sadetdinov, Sh.V.; Nikonov, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of isothermal solubility and refractometry have been used to establish that boric acid-ammonium rhodanite (nitrate, sulfate) - water systems are of a simple eutonic type. Rhodanide salts out boric acid, while nitrate and sulfate salt it in. The lyotropic effect referred to the volumetric share of both anion and cation increases in the series SCN - 3 - 4 2-

  17. Boric acid - ammonium rhodanide (nitrate, sulfate) - water system at 25 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skvortsov, V G; Molodkin, A K; Tsekhanskij, R S; Sadetdinov, Sh V; Nikonov, F V [Chuvashskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst., Cheboksary (USSR); Universitet Druzhby Narodov, Moscow (USSR))

    1985-03-01

    Methods of isothermal solubility and refractometry have been used to establish that boric acid-ammonium rhodanite (nitrate, sulfate) - water systems are of a simple eutonic type. Rhodanide salts out boric acid, while nitrate and sulfate salt it in. The lyotropic effect referred to the volumetric share of both anion and cation increases in the series SCN/sup -/ < NO/sub 3//sup -/ < SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/.

  18. Short-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Contradictions and misconceptions regarding the effect of lime on the decay of human remains have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition. This study follows previous research by the authors who have investigated the effect of lime on the decomposition of human remains in burial environments. A further three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were observed and monitored for 78 days without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and with quicklime (CaO) in the taphonomy laboratory at the University of Bradford. The results showed that in the early stages of decay, the unlimed and hydrated lime cadavers follow a similar pattern of changes. In contrast, the application of quicklime instigated an initial acceleration of decay. Microbial investigation demonstrated that the presence of lime does not eliminate all aerobic bacteria. The experiment also suggested that lime functions as a sink, buffering the carbon dioxide evolution. This study complements the field observations. It has implications for the investigation of time since death of limed remains. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes is of interest to forensic pathologists, archaeologists, humanitarian organisations and those concerned with disposal of animal carcasses or human remains in mass disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Denton, John; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    An increased number of police enquiries involving human remains buried with lime have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effects of lime on the decay of human remains in laboratory conditions and 6 months of field experiments. Six pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were buried without lime with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy-loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 17 and 42 months of burial. Analysis of the soil, lime and carcasses included entomology, pH, moisture content, microbial activity, histology and lime carbonation. The results of this study demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, the extent of decomposition is slowed down by burial with both hydrated lime and quicklime. The more advanced the decay process, the more similar the degree of liquefaction between the limed and unlimed remains. The end result for each mode of burial will ultimately result in skeletonisation. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials, for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials and potentially for the interpretation of mass graves and management of mass disasters by humanitarian organisation and DVI teams. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Synthesis of [2,4-3H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhavnani, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin-3-sulfate ammonium salt suitable for in vivo pharmacokinetic studies was synthesized from [2,4- 3 H] equilin. Sulfation of [2,4- 3 H] equilin with pyridine-chlorosulfonic acid mixture gave in high yields [2,4- 3 H] equilin sulfate, which was then reduced with sodium borohydride to yield [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate. The reduction was sterospecific and no 17α-reduced products were formed. (author)

  1. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: direct observation of crystallization in a porous material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, A.; Hall, C.; Pel, L.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that sodium sulfate causes salt crystallization damage in building materials and rocks. However since the early 1900s the existence of the metastable heptahydrate has been largely forgotten and almost entirely overlooked in scientific publications on salt damage mechanics and on

  2. Opiate-like excitatory effects of steroid sulfates and calcium-complexing agents given cerebroventricularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBella, F S; Havlicek, V; Pinsky, C

    1979-01-12

    Intracerebroventricular administration of 10--20 microgram of steroid-O-sulfates induced hypermotility, agitation, salivation, EEG abnormalities, stereotypies, wet dog shakes and seizures. Equivalent effects resulted from 30--200 microgram morphine sulfate (H2SO4 salt), 50 microgram EGTA or 300--400 microgram of sodium sulfate or phosphate, but not chloride, nitrate or acetate. Non-steroid sulfates, steroid glucuronides and steroid phosphates were inactive. Naloxone, previously found to antagonize the excitatory effects of androsterone sulfate, failed to antagonize those of cortisol sulfate, sodium sulfate or EGTA. These findings suggest a role for extracellular calcium ions and for sulfate derived from circulating steroids in central responses to opiates.

  3. Mixed sodium nickel-manganese sulfates: Crystal structure relationships between hydrates and anhydrous salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Delyana M.; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N.; Kukeva, Rositsa R.; Markov, Pavel V. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nihtianova, Diana D. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoyanova, Radostina K., E-mail: radstoy@svr.igic.bas.bg [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2017-06-15

    The present contribution provides new structural and spectroscopic data on the formation of solid solutions between hydrated and dehydrated sulfate salts of sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese in a whole concentration range: Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·yH{sub 2}O, 0≤ x≤1.0. Using powder XRD, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), IR and Raman spectroscopy it has been found that double sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese salts form solid solutions Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O with a blödite-type of structure within a broad concentration range of 0≤x≤0.49, while the manganese rich compositions Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (0.97≤x≤1.0) crystallize in the kröhnkite-type of structure. The Ni-based blödites Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O dehydrate between 140 and 260 °C into anhydrous salts Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, 0≤ x≤0.44, with a structure where Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 6} octahedra are bridged into pairs by edge- and corner sharing SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups. Both TEM and EPR methods show that the Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions are homogenously distributed over three crystallographic positions of the large monoclinic cell. The dehydration of the kröhnkite phase Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O yields the alluaudite phase Na{sub 2+δ}Mn{sub 2-δ/2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, where the Na-to-Mn ratio decreases and all Ni{sup 2+} dopants are released from the structure. The process of the dehydration is discussed in terms of structural aspects taking into account the distortion degree of the Ni,MnO{sub 6} and SO{sub 4} polyhedra. - Graphical abstract: Thermal dehydration of the blödite phase Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O (0≤ x≤0.49) yields nickel-manganese sulfates Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} (0≤ x≤0.44) with

  4. Discovery and measurement of an isotopically distinct source of sulfate in Earth's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Jackson, Terri; Brothers, Lauren; Barnett, Burton; Nguyen, Bryan; Thiemens, Mark H

    2008-09-02

    Sulfate (SO(4)) and its precursors are significant components of the atmosphere, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Recently, our triple-isotope ((16)O, (17)O, (18)O) measurements of atmospheric sulfate have provided specific insights into the oxidation pathways leading to sulfate, with important implications for models of the sulfur cycle and global climate change. Using similar isotopic measurements of aerosol sulfate in a polluted marine boundary layer (MBL) and primary sulfate (p-SO(4)) sampled directly from a ship stack, we quantify the amount of p-SO(4) found in the atmosphere from ships. We find that ships contribute between 10% and 44% of the non-sea-salt sulfate found in fine [diameter (D) sea salt particles may lead to the rapid removal of SO(2) in the MBL. When combined with the longer residence time of p-SO(4) emissions in the MBL, these findings suggest that the importance of p-SO(4) emissions in marine environments may be underappreciated in global chemical models. Given the expected increase of international shipping in the years to come, these findings have clear implications for public health, air quality, international maritime law, and atmospheric chemistry.

  5. Harvesting Water from Air: Using Anhydrous Salt with Sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2018-04-02

    Atmospheric water is abundant alternative water resource, equivalent to 6 times of water in all rivers on Earth. This work screens 14 common anhydrous and hydrated salt couples in terms of their physical and chemical stability, water vapor harvesting and release capacity under relevant application scenarios. Among the salts screened, copper chloride (CuCl2), copper sulfate (CuSO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) distinguish themselves and are further made into bi-layer water collection devices, with the top layer being photothermal layer while the bottom layer being salt-loaded fibrous membrane. The water collection devices are capable of capturing water vapor out of the air with low relative humidity (down to 15 %) and releasing water under regular and even weakened sunlight (i.e. 0.7 kW/m2). The work shines light on the potential use of anhydrous salt towards producing drinking water in water scarce regions.

  6. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibrium for water + poly(Ethylene glycol + salt aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.G. Sé

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The NRTL (nonrandom, two-liquid model, expressed in mass fraction instead of mole fraction, was used to correlate liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous two-phase polymer-salt solutions. New interaction energy parameters for this model were determined using reported data on the water + poly(ethylene glycol + salt systems, with different molecular masses for PEG and the salts potassium phosphate, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate and magnesium sulfate. The correlation of liquid-liquid equilibrium is quite satisfactory.

  7. Pavement mechanic response of sulfate saline soil subgrade section based on fluid–structure interaction model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a consensus that salt heaving and frost heaving are urgent and typical distress in the sulfate saline soil area. To further investigate the microscopic performance of pavement structure in this special area, Jinan-Dongying Freeway in Shandong Province is selected as a case study engineering and the mechanic responses under salt heaving, frost heaving and traffic loads were analyzed through the finite element (FE Program (ANSYS. In this paper, the process of salt heaving and frost heaving was divided into 3 stages and FE models were established based on fluid–structure interaction (FSI model. It is shown that under both effects of salt heaving and frost heaving, the tensile stress of asphalt surface course could be up to 96.75% of its tensile strength, which means its tensile strength was seriously inadequate; however, traffic loads could help to dramatically counteract effects of salt heaving and frost heaving, which could decrease 40–80% of the tensile stress in asphalt surface course. It is also shown that in Jinan-Dongying Freeway effects of salt heaving had slightly larger effects on pavement compared with that of frost heaving, probably because salt heaving occurred from the top to the bottom of subgrade. However, as a whole, in sulfate saline soil area, compared with general area, crack resistance of asphalt courses and foundation treatment should always be strengthened. Keywords: Sulfate saline soil subgrade, Asphalt pavement, Pavement mechanic, FEM, FSI, Cracks and bulging

  8. Barium sulfate suspension as a negative oral contrast agent for MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.C.P.; Tart, R.P.; Fitzsimmons, J.R.; Storm, B.; Mao, J.

    1989-01-01

    Proton spectroscopy with linewidth measurements and MR imaging were performed on various commercially available barium sulfate suspensions as well as inorganic sulfates and barium salts. Approximately 500 mL of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 70% wt/wt single-contrast oral barium sulfate suspensions were administered to four normal volunteers, and MR imaging was performed with both a 1.5-T and a 0.15-T MR imager. As much as 80% of the small bowel and the entire colon were well visualized with the 60% or 70% wt/wt single-contrast barium sulfate suspensions. The authors conclude that barium sulfate suspensions are useful as oral MR contrast agents

  9. 75 FR 37790 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts; Antimicrobial Registration Review Final Work Plan and Proposed Registration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ..., and opens a 60-day public comment period on the proposed decision. Sodium lauryl sulfate (PC Code...% sodium lauryl sulfate and is registered by Kimberly-Clark Global Sales, LLC (EPA Reg. No. 9402-10). The... sulfate as an active ingredient were first registered in 1948 and sodium lauryl sulfate is widely used as...

  10. Protonation of inorganic 5-Fluorocytosine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Matheus S.; da Silva, Cecília C. P.; Almeida, Leonardo R.; Diniz, Luan F.; Andrade, Marcelo B.; Ellena, Javier

    2018-06-01

    5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) has been widely used for the treatment of fungal infections and recently was found to exert an extraordinary antineoplastic activity in gene directed prodrug therapy. However, despite of its intense use, 5-FC exhibits tabletability issues due its physical instability in humid environments, leading to transition from the anhydrous to monohydrate phase. By considering that salt formation is an interesting strategy to overcome this problem, in this paper crystal engineering approach was applied to the supramolecular synthesis of new 5-FC salts with sulfuric, hydrobromic and methanesulfonic inorganic acids. A total of four structures were obtained, namely 5-FC sulfate monohydrate (1:1:1), 5-FC hydrogen sulfate (1:1), 5-FC mesylate (1:1) and 5-FC hydrobromide (1:1), the last one being a polymorphic form of a structure already reported in the literature. These novel salts were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and its supramolecular organization were analyses by Hirshfeld surface analysis. The vibrational behavior was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and it was found to be consistent with the crystal structures.

  11. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal Setschenow salting constants in sulfate, nitrate, and chloride solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waxman, Eleanor M.; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols....... We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.......06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na...

  12. Salt-Induced Physical Weathering of Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-12-01

    Salt weathering is recognized as an important mechanism that contributes to the modeling and shaping of the earth’s surface, in a range of environments spanning from the Sahara desert to Antarctica. It also contributes to the degradation and loss of cultural heritage, particularly carved stone and historic buildings. Soluble salts have recently been suggested to contribute to the shaping of rock outcrops on Mars and are being identified in other planetary bodies such as the moons of Jupiter (Europa and IO)1. Soluble salts such as sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and carbonates of alkali and alkali earth metals can crystallize within the porous system of rocks and building stones, exerting sufficient pressure against the pore walls to fracture the substrate. This physical damage results in increased porosity, thus providing a higher surface area for salt-enhanced chemical weathering. To better understand how salt-induced physical weathering occurs, we have studied the crystallization of the particularly damaging salt, sodium sulfate2, in a model system (a sintered porous glass of controlled porosity and pore size). For this elusive task of studying sub-surface crystallization in pores, we combined a variety of instruments to identify which phases crystallized during evaporation and calculated the supersaturation and associated crystallization pressure that caused damage. The heat of crystallization was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), providing the timing of crystallization events and phase transitions3, while the evaporation rate was recorded using thermal gravimetry (TG). These methods enabled calculation of the sodium sulfate concentration in solution at every point during evaporation. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) performs synchrotron-like experiments in a normal lab by using a Molybdenum X-ray source (more than 5 times more penetrative than conventional Copper source). Using this method, we determined that the first phase to

  13. Volatility of atmospherically relevant alkylaminium carboxylate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Segre, Enrico; Gomez-Hernandez, Mario; Zhang, Renyi; Rudich, Yinon

    2015-05-14

    Heterogeneous neutralization reactions of ammonia and alkylamines with sulfuric acid play an important role in aerosol formation and particle growth. However, little is known about the physical and chemical properties of alkylaminium salts of organic acids. In this work we studied the thermal stability and volatility of alkylaminium carboxylate salts of short aliphatic alkylamines with monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. The enthalpy of vaporization and saturation vapor pressure at 298 K were derived using the kinetic model of evaporation and the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The vapor pressure of alkylaminium dicarboxylate salts is ∼10(-6) Pa, and the vaporization enthalpy ranges from 73 to 134 kJ mol(-1). Alkylaminium monocarboxylate salts show high thermal stability, and their thermograms do not follow our evaporation model. Hence, we inferred their vapor pressure from their thermograms as comparable to that of ammonium sulfate (∼10(-9) Pa). Further characterization showed that alkylaminium monocarboxylates are room temperature protic ionic liquids (RTPILs) that are more hygroscopic than ammonium sulfate (AS). We suggest that the irregular thermograms result from an incomplete neutralization reaction leading to a mixture of ionic and nonionic compounds. We conclude that these salts are expected to contribute to new particle formation and particle growth under ambient conditions and can significantly enhance the CCN activity of mixed particles in areas where SO2 emissions are regulated.

  14. The Chemical Composition and Structure of Supported Sulfated Zirconia with Regulated Size Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazhevskiy, V. V.; Shmachkova, V. P.; Kotsarenko, N. S.; Kochubey, D. I.; Vedrine, J. C.

    2007-02-01

    A set of model skeletal isomerization catalysts — sulfated zirconia nanoparticles of controlled thickness anchored on different supports — was prepared using colloidal solutions of Zr salt on titania as support. The nanoparticles of zirconia (1-5 nm) are epitaxially connected to the support surface, with S/Zr ratio equals to 1.3-1.5. It was shown by EXAFS that nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric zirconium sulfate Zr(SO4)1+x, where xlayers as zirconium hydroxide undergoes sulfation followed by thermal treatment.

  15. Effect of n-octanol on -uranyl extraction by tri-n-octylammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Kudrov, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of n-octanol on the extraction of uranyl sulfate by solutions of tri-n-octylamine sulfate in benzene has been studied. With the increase of alcohol concentration the coefficient of uranium distribution passes through the maximum. At low alcohol concentrations a decrease in water content in the organic phase is observed. It is shown that the increase in ammonium salt activity in replacement of part of hydrate At high alcohol concentration the decrease in uranium distribution coefficients is observed, which is related to TOA sulfate solvation by alcohol

  16. Setting constraints on the nature and origin of the two major hydrous sulfates on Mars: Monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Liu, Yang; Connor, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Monohydrated Mg sulfate (MgSO4·H2O) and polyhydrated sulfate are the most common and abundant hydrous sulfates observed thus far on Mars. They are widely distributed and coexist in many locations. On the basis of results from two new sets of experiments, in combination with past experimental studies and the subsurface salt mineralogy observed at a saline playa (Dalangtan, DLT) in a terrestrial analogue hyperarid region on the Tibet Plateau, we can now set new constraints on the nature and origin of these two major Martian sulfates. Starkeyite (MgSO4·4H2O) is the best candidate for polyhydrated sulfate. MgSO4·H2O in the form of "LH-1w," generated from dehydration of Mg sulfates with high degrees of hydration, is the most likely mineral form for the majority of Martian monohydrated Mg sulfate. Two critical properties of Mg sulfates are responsible for the coexistence of these two phases that have very different degrees of hydration: (1) the metastability of a substructural unit in starkeyite at relatively low temperatures, and (2) catalytic effects attributed to coprecipitated species (sulfates, chlorides, oxides, and hydroxides) from chemically complex brines that help overcome the metastability of starkeyite. The combination of these two properties controls the coexistence of the LH-1w layer and starkeyite layers at many locations on Mars, which sometimes occur in an interbedded stratigraphy. The structural H2O held by these two broadly distributed sulfates represents a large H2O reservoir at the surface and in the shallow subsurface on current Mars.

  17. Spectral identification and quantification of salts in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Claire, M. W.

    2016-10-01

    Salt minerals are an important natural resource. The ability to quickly and remotely identify and quantify salt deposits and salt contaminated soils and sands is therefore a priority goal for the various industries and agencies that utilise salts. The advent of global hyperspectral imagery from instruments such as Hyperion on NASA's Earth-Observing 1 satellite has opened up a new source of data that can potentially be used for just this task. This study aims to assess the ability of Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify salt minerals through the use of spectral mixture analysis. The surface and near-surface soils of the Atacama Desert in Chile contain a variety of well-studied salts, which together with low cloud coverage, and high aridity, makes this region an ideal testbed for this technique. Two forms of spectral data ranging 0.35 - 2.5 μm were collected: laboratory spectra acquired using an ASD FieldSpec Pro instrument on samples from four locations in the Atacama desert known to have surface concentrations of sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and perchlorates; and images from the EO-1 satellite's Hyperion instrument taken over the same four locations. Mineral identifications and abundances were confirmed using quantitative XRD of the physical samples. Spectral endmembers were extracted from within the laboratory and Hyperion spectral datasets and together with additional spectral library endmembers fed into a linear mixture model. The resulting identification and abundances from both dataset types were verified against the sample XRD values. Issues of spectral scale, SNR and how different mineral spectra interact are considered, and the utility of VNIR spectroscopy and Hyperion in particular for mapping specific salt concentrations in desert environments is established. Overall, SMA was successful at estimating abundances of sulfate minerals, particularly calcium sulfate, from both hyperspectral image and laboratory sample spectra

  18. The influence of petrography, mineralogy and chemistry on burnability and reactivity of quicklime produced in Twin Shaft Regenerative (TSR) kilns from Neoarchean limestone (Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vola, Gabriele; Sarandrea, Luca; Della Porta, Giovanna; Cavallo, Alessandro; Jadoul, Flavio; Cruciani, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluates the influence of chemical, mineralogical and petrographic features of the Neoarchean limestone from the Ouplaas Mine (Griqualand West, South Africa) on its burnability and quicklime reactivity, considering the main use as raw material for high-grade lime production in twin shaft regenerative (TSR) kilns. This limestone consists of laminated clotted peloidal micrite and fenestrate microbial boundstone with herringbone calcite and organic carbon (kerogen) within stylolites. Diagenetic modifications include hypidiotopic dolomite, micrite to microsparite recrystallization, stylolites, poikilotopic calcite, chert and saddle dolomite replacements. Burning and technical tests widely attest that the Neoarchean limestone is sensitive to high temperature, showing an unusual and drastically pronounced sintering or overburning tendency. The slaking reactivity, according to EN 459-2 is high for lime burnt at 1050 °C, but rapidly decreases for lime burnt at 1150 °C. The predominant micritic microbial textures, coupled with the organic carbon, are key-factors influencing the low burnability and the high sintering tendency. The presence of burial cementation, especially poikilotopic calcite, seems to promote higher burnability, either in terms of starting calcination temperature, or in terms of higher carbonate dissociation rate. In fact, the highest calcination velocity determined by thermal analysis is consistent with the highest slaking reactivity of the lower stratum of the quarry, enriched in poikilotopic calcite. Secondly, locally concentered dolomitic marly limestones, and sporadic back shales negatively affects the quicklime reactivity, as well. This study confirms that a multidisciplinary analytical approach is essential for selecting the best raw mix for achieving the highest lime reactivity in TSR kilns.

  19. The absorption and transportation of ferric-salt in apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhixun; Chen Meihong

    1994-01-01

    59 Fe tracer technique was used to study the ferric-salt absorption, utilization and transportation in apple trees. The results indicated that absorption and utilization rate of ferric salt was 0.056%∼0.110% for roots and 30% for leaves, and that Fe is not easily to be transferred from one part to another. Fulvic acid iron had a better effect than ferrous sulfate. Ferric-salt absorption, utilization and transference were different among the cultivars. Intensive injections of ferrous salt into the apple trunks seemed to be more effective for correcting of chlorosis

  20. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  1. Mitigating salt damage in lime-based mortars with mixed-in crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Laue, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the most important results of a research project which
    focused on the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in lime mortar to mitigate
    salt crystallization damage. The research focused on two of the most damaging
    salts, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, and

  2. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    tests, the combined sulfate attack tests captured performance risks and complex damage mechanisms associated with the SCC pore structure and constituent materials. Sodium sulfate attack with wetting-drying cycles and/or partial immersion under temperate-hot conditions synergistically caused significant damage to specimens, especially to quaternary cementitious systems having very fine pore structure, due to the build-up of salt crystals and sulfate reaction products. The deleterious effects of sulfate reaction products and salt crystallization on all cementitious systems were more severe under the combined sodium sulfate and freezing-thawing exposure, with a potential of sudden brittle failure. Laboratory experiments in the current work documented evidence for the occurrence of thaumasite sulfate attack (TSA) in cementitious systems containing limestone filler, not only under cold but also under temperate-hot conditions, which made specimens more vulnerable to damage in the combined sulfate attack tests. The field-like combined exposure of sodium sulfate, cyclic environments and flexural loading had synergistic effects on SCC specimens and caused the coexistence of multiple-complex degradation mechanisms (sulfate attack, TSA, stress-corrosion, salt crystallization, surface scaling and corrosion of surface steel fibres) depending on the mixture design variables. The current thesis demonstrates that relying only on sulfate immersion tests to evaluate the performance of cement-based materials can be risky. It also shows that linear and deterministic modeling of the performance of concrete structures under external sulfate attack is unrealistic. Fuzzy and adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference systems developed in the current thesis accurately and rationally predicted the serviceability, deterioration in engineering properties and time to failure of the SCC mixtures under the various sulfate attack exposure regimes adopted in the integrated testing approach. A durability evaluation

  3. Mitigating salt damage in lime-based mortars with mixed-in crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Quist, W.J.; Granneman, S.J.C.; van Hees, R.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes some of the most important results of a four year PhD research on the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in lime mortar to mitigate salt crystallization damage. The research focused on two of the most damaging salts, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, and suitable

  4. A novel reverse osmosis membrane by ferrous sulfate assisted controlled oxidation of polyamide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Hiren D.; Raviya, Mayur R.; Gauswami, Maulik V.

    2017-11-01

    With growing desalination capacity, it is very important to evaluate the performance of thin film composite reverse osmosis (TFC RO) membrane in terms of energy consumption for desalination. There is a trade-off between salt rejection and water-flux of TFC RO membrane. This article presents a novel approach of analyzing the effect of mixture of an oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite and a reducing agent ferrous sulfate on virgin TFC RO membrane. Experiments were carried out by varying the concentrations of both sodium hypochlorite and ferrous sulfate. The negative charge was induced on the membrane due to the treatment of combination of sodium hypochlorite and ferrous sulfate, thereby resulting in higher rejection of negative ions due to repulsive force. Membrane treated with 1000 mg l-1 sodium hypochlorite and 2000 mg l-1 ferrous sulfate showed the best salt rejection i.e. 96.23%. The characterization was carried out to understand the charge on the membrane surface by Zeta potential, morphology of membrane surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface roughness features by atomic force microscope (AFM) and chemical structural changes by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis.

  5. Effects of salinity induced by ammonium sulfate fertilizer on root and shoot growth of highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium sulfate fertilizer is commonly used in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), but due to a high salt index, it often causes salt damage, particularly in young plants, when too much of the fertilizer is applied. A study was done to determine the sensitivity of blueberry to ammonium su...

  6. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfact......The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...

  7. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  8. Speciation of the major inorganic salts in atmospheric aerosols of Beijing, China: Measurements and comparison with model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Ci, Zhijia; Guo, Jia; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-05-01

    In the winter and summer of 2013-2014, we used a sampling system, which consists of annular denuder, back-up filter and thermal desorption set-up, to measure the speciation of major inorganic salts in aerosols and the associated trace gases in Beijing. This sampling system can separate volatile ammonium salts (NH4NO3 and NH4Cl) from non-volatile ammonium salts ((NH4)2SO4), as well as the non-volatile nitrate and chloride. The measurement data was used as input of a thermodynamic equilibrium model (ISORROPIA II) to investigate the gas-aerosol equilibrium characteristics. Results show that (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3 and NH4Cl were the major inorganic salts in aerosols and mainly existed in the fine particles. The sulfate, nitrate and chloride associated with crustal ions were also important in Beijing where mineral dust concentrations were high. About 19% of sulfate in winter and 11% of sulfate in summer were associated with crustal ions and originated from heterogeneous reactions or direct emissions. The non-volatile nitrate contributed about 33% and 15% of nitrate in winter and summer, respectively. Theoretical thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for NH4NO3 and NH4Cl suggest that the gaseous precursors were sufficient to form stable volatile ammonium salts in winter, whereas the internal mixing with sulfate and crustal species were important for the formation of volatile ammonium salts in summer. The results of the thermodynamic equilibrium model reasonably agreed with the measurements of aerosols and gases, but large discrepancy existed in predicting the speciation of inorganic ammonium salts. This indicates that the assumption on crustal species in the model was important for obtaining better understanding on gas-aerosol partitioning and improving the model prediction.

  9. The Chemical Composition and Structure of Supported Sulfated Zirconia with Regulated Size Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazhevskiy, V. V.; Shmachkova, V. P.; Kotsarenko, N. S.; Kochubey, D. I.; Vedrine, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    A set of model skeletal isomerization catalysts - sulfated zirconia nanoparticles of controlled thickness anchored on different supports - was prepared using colloidal solutions of Zr salt on titania as support. The nanoparticles of zirconia (1-5 nm) are epitaxially connected to the support surface, with S/Zr ratio equals to 1.3-1.5. It was shown by EXAFS that nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric zirconium sulfate Zr(SO4)1+x, where x<0.5, are formed on the support surface. Its structure looks like half-period shifted counterdirected chains built-up by zirconium atoms linked by triangle pyramids of sulfate groups. Considering catalytic data of skeletal n-butane isomerisation at 150 deg. C, one can suggest that these species behave as the active component of sulfated zirconia. They are formed in subsurface layers as zirconium hydroxide undergoes sulfation followed by thermal treatment

  10. Pavement mechanic response of sulfate saline soil subgrade section based on fluid–structure interaction model

    OpenAIRE

    Xueying Zhao; Aiqin Shen; Yinchuang Guo; Peng Li; Zhenhua Lv

    2017-01-01

    It is a consensus that salt heaving and frost heaving are urgent and typical distress in the sulfate saline soil area. To further investigate the microscopic performance of pavement structure in this special area, Jinan-Dongying Freeway in Shandong Province is selected as a case study engineering and the mechanic responses under salt heaving, frost heaving and traffic loads were analyzed through the finite element (FE) Program (ANSYS). In this paper, the process of salt heaving and frost heav...

  11. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  12. Substantial Seasonal Contribution of Observed Biogenic Sulfate Particles to Cloud Condensation Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Kevin J; Chen, Chia-Li; Russell, Lynn M; Betha, Raghu; Liu, Jun; Price, Derek J; Massoli, Paola; Ziemba, Luke D; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven A; Wisthaler, Armin; Lee, Alex K Y; Quinn, Patricia K; Bates, Timothy S; Porter, Jack; Bell, Thomas G; Saltzman, Eric S; Vaillancourt, Robert D; Behrenfeld, Mike J

    2018-02-19

    Biogenic sources contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere, but few measurements exist to constrain climate model simulations of their importance. The chemical composition of individual atmospheric aerosol particles showed two types of sulfate-containing particles in clean marine air masses in addition to mass-based Estimated Salt particles. Both types of sulfate particles lack combustion tracers and correlate, for some conditions, to atmospheric or seawater dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations, which means their source was largely biogenic. The first type is identified as New Sulfate because their large sulfate mass fraction (63% sulfate) and association with entrainment conditions means they could have formed by nucleation in the free troposphere. The second type is Added Sulfate particles (38% sulfate), because they are preexisting particles onto which additional sulfate condensed. New Sulfate particles accounted for 31% (7 cm -3 ) and 33% (36 cm -3 ) CCN at 0.1% supersaturation in late-autumn and late-spring, respectively, whereas sea spray provided 55% (13 cm -3 ) in late-autumn but only 4% (4 cm -3 ) in late-spring. Our results show a clear seasonal difference in the marine CCN budget, which illustrates how important phytoplankton-produced DMS emissions are for CCN in the North Atlantic.

  13. The Sulfate-Rich and Extreme Saline Sediment of the Ephemeral Tirez Lagoon: A Biotope for Acetoclastic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Montoya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to examine the composition of methanogenic archaea (MA and sulfate-reducing (SRP and sulfur-oxidizing (SOP prokaryotes in the extreme athalassohaline and particularly sulfate-rich sediment of Tirez Lagoon (Spain. Thus, adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (APS reductase α (aprA and methyl coenzyme M reductase α (mcrA gene markers were amplified given that both enzymes are specific for SRP, SOP, and MA, respectively. Anaerobic populations sampled at different depths in flooded and dry seasons from the anoxic sediment were compared qualitatively via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprint analysis. Phylogenetic analyses allowed the detection of SRP belonging to Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfohalobiaceae, and Peptococcaceae in ∂-proteobacteria and Firmicutes and SOP belonging to Chromatiales/Thiotrichales clade and Ectothiorhodospiraceae in γ-proteobacteria as well as MA belonging to methylotrophic species in Methanosarcinaceae and one hydrogenotrophic species in Methanomicrobiaceae. We also estimated amino acid composition, GC content, and preferential codon usage for the AprA and McrA sequences from halophiles, nonhalophiles, and Tirez phylotypes. Even though our results cannot be currently conclusive regarding the halotolerant strategies carried out by Tirez phylotypes, we discuss the possibility of a plausible “salt-in” signal in SRP and SOP as well as of a speculative complementary haloadaptation between salt-in and salt-out strategies in MA.

  14. The Sulfate-Rich and Extreme Saline Sediment of the Ephemeral Tirez Lagoon: A Biotope for Acetoclastic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Lilia; Lozada-Chávez, Irma; Amils, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Nuria; Marín, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the composition of methanogenic archaea (MA) and sulfate-reducing (SRP) and sulfur-oxidizing (SOP) prokaryotes in the extreme athalassohaline and particularly sulfate-rich sediment of Tirez Lagoon (Spain). Thus, adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase α (aprA) and methyl coenzyme M reductase α (mcrA) gene markers were amplified given that both enzymes are specific for SRP, SOP, and MA, respectively. Anaerobic populations sampled at different depths in flooded and dry seasons from the anoxic sediment were compared qualitatively via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint analysis. Phylogenetic analyses allowed the detection of SRP belonging to Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfohalobiaceae, and Peptococcaceae in ∂-proteobacteria and Firmicutes and SOP belonging to Chromatiales/Thiotrichales clade and Ectothiorhodospiraceae in γ-proteobacteria as well as MA belonging to methylotrophic species in Methanosarcinaceae and one hydrogenotrophic species in Methanomicrobiaceae. We also estimated amino acid composition, GC content, and preferential codon usage for the AprA and McrA sequences from halophiles, nonhalophiles, and Tirez phylotypes. Even though our results cannot be currently conclusive regarding the halotolerant strategies carried out by Tirez phylotypes, we discuss the possibility of a plausible “salt-in” signal in SRP and SOP as well as of a speculative complementary haloadaptation between salt-in and salt-out strategies in MA. PMID:21915180

  15. Growth and characterization of ammonium nickel-cobalt sulfate Tutton's salt for UV light applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santunu; Oliveira, Michelle; Pacheco, Tiago S.; Perpétuo, Genivaldo J.; Franco, Carlos J.

    2018-04-01

    We have obtained a set of sample crystals of the family of Tutton's salt comprise in the isomorphic series with general chemical formula (NH4)2NixCo(1-x) (SO4)2·6H2O, by employing growth from solutions by slow evaporation technique. The samples crystals were characterized by ICP-AES, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis-NIR, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. This type of material has been studied because of its physical and chemical properties not yet understood and they have potential technological applications. Chemical analysis of the samples by ICP-AES method allowed us to investigate the efficiency of the method of growth used. Thermogravimetric analysis provides the information about the thermal stability of the obtained crystals for high temperature applications, and powder X-ray diffraction analysis at ambient and high temperature reveals the structural quality and structural change of the samples respectively. We have used Raman spectroscopy in the range 100-4000 cm-1 and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 400-4000 cm-1 to understand the internal vibrational mode of the octahedral complexes [Ni(H2O)6]2+ and [Co(H2O)6]2+, SO42- and NH4+ tetrahedra. The transmittance of our mixed ammonium nickel cobalt sulfate hexahydrate (ACNSH) crystals is 75% in the UV region, which indicates that they are ideal to use in UV light filters and UV sensors.

  16. Morpholine-4-carboxamidinium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, 2C5H12N3O+·SO42−, comprises two cations and one sulfate ion. In both cations, the C, N and O atoms of the morpholine rings are disordered over two sets of sites, with refined occupancies of 0.849 (3:0.151 (3 for cation I and 0.684 (4:0.316 (4 for cation II. The C—N bond lengths in both central C3N units of the carboxamidinium ions range between 1.253 (12 and 1.362 (5 Å, indicating a degree of double-bond character. The central C atoms are bonded to the three N atoms in a nearly ideal trigonal–planar geometry and the positive charges are delocalized in both CN3 planes. The crystal structure is stabilized by a three-dimensional network of N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and the sulfate ion. Scheme tiny font, charges and delocalized bonds almost invisible

  17. The use of anions with sulfate function in electrolyte for lithium battery. Study of transport mechanism; Utilisation d'anions a fonction sulfate dans des electrolytes pour batterie au lithium. Etude des mecanismes de transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Ch.

    2005-05-15

    Lithium salts based on oligo-ether sulfate were synthesized and characterised. They incorporate oxy-ethylene units which enable the lithium cation salvation and, potentially, their use as ionic liquids. Their properties as lithium salts dissolved in liquid or polymer electrolytes were evaluated. Their electrochemical and thermal stabilities are sufficient for lithium battery application. Due to their weak dissociation in POE, their conductivities are fairly low. On the other hand, they have high cationic transference numbers. In mixture with usual salts as LiTFSI, they provide a good compromise between conductivities/transference number/cost. The second part of this study deals with the synthesis and characterisation of an ionomer with sulfate function and polyether backbone. The electrochemical, physical and chemical properties of this material show that it could be used as polymer electrolyte. Its potential as cross-linked gelled polymer electrolyte is outstanding. Structural analyses on an ionomeric monocrystal have been corroborated with quantum chemistry calculations. (author)

  18. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H.; Moreira Junior, Paulo F.; Tcacenco, Celize M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation numbers (N Ag ) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles (γ = 0.11-0.15, where γ is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y aq ] and [Y aq ] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles (γ ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I 1 /I 3 vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  19. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H., E-mail: quina@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Moreira Junior, Paulo F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Tcacenco, Celize M. [Fundacao Instituto de Ensino para Osasco (FIEO/UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil). Centro Universitario FIEO. Centro de Estudos Quimicos

    2013-02-15

    Aggregation numbers (N{sub Ag}) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles ({gamma} = 0.11-0.15, where {gamma} is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y{sub aq}] and [Y{sub aq}] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles ({gamma} ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I{sub 1}/I{sub 3} vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  20. Impact of leachable sulfate on the quality of groundwater in the Pocatello aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, C.; Welhan, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the summer of 1993, groundwaters and surface waters were found to have anomalous sulfate concentrations in the Southern Pocatello municipal aquifer in an area known as the Highway Ponds. Leach tests performed on a large pile of road aggregate stockpiled near the Highway Ponds have been identified as the most likely source for the sulfate. Correlating trends of sulfate and chloride concentrations can be found both in the main Pocatello aquifer and in Pocatello Creek groundwaters. The chloride contamination at Pocatello Creek has previously been suggested to be derived from road salt. It is hypothesized that aggregate used in roadbed construction may be responsible for elevated sulfate in the areas groundwater. Chemical modeling has eliminated carbonate precipitation/dissolution reactions in buffering the chemistry of sulfate-impacted groundwater. Ion-exchange with clays is hypothesized to be a more significant process and is being investigated further. 12 refs., 3 figs

  1. Salt Attack on Rocks and Expansion of Soils on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Carey, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Salt-rich sediments observed by the MER rover Opportunity at Meridiani Planum show that brines have been present on Mars in the past, but a role for groundwater in widespread rock weathering and soil formation is uncertain. Experiments by several groups suggest instead the action of acid fog over long time spans, with episodic input of volcanic gases, as a more significant agent of Mars weathering. Salt minerals formed in these acid weathering experiments consistently include gypsum and alunogen, with epsomite or hexahydrite forming where olivine provides a source of Mg. Analogous to the martian acid fog scenario are terrestrial acid rain or acid fog attacks on building and monument stone by chemical action and mechanical wedging through growth of gypsum, anhydrite, epsomite, hexahydrite, kieserite, and other sulfate minerals. Physical effects can be aggressive, operating by both primary salt growth and hydration of anhydrous or less-hydrous primary salts. In contrast, soils evolve to states where chemical attack is lessened and salt mineral growth leads to expansion with cementation; in this situation the process becomes constructive rather than destructive. We have made synthetic salt-cemented soils (duricrusts) from clays, zeolites, palagonites and other media mixed with ultrapure Mg-sulfate solutions. Although near-neutral in pH, these solutions still exchange or leach Ca from the solids to form cements containing gypsum as well as hexahydrite. At low total P (1 torr) and low RH (duricrust expands by formation of a complex mixture of Mg-sulfate phases with various hydration states. The expanded form is retained even if the duricrust is again dehydrated, suggesting that soil porosity thus formed is difficult to destroy. These processes can be considered in the context of Viking, Pathfinder, and MER evidence for differing salt components in the weathered surfaces of rocks versus duricrust-like materials in soils. The divergent chemical trends indicate that soil

  2. Fatal manganese intoxication due to an error in the elaboration of Epsom salts for a liver cleansing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Baltasar; Casalots-Casado, Jaume; Quintana, Salvador; Arroyo, Amparo; Martín-Fumadó, Carles; Galtés, Ignasi

    2012-11-30

    We describe the case of a 50-year-old man with a fatal intoxication after accidental massive oral ingestion of manganese. The patient presented with lethargy, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting, and profuse diarrhea after ingesting Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) during a liver cleansing diet. Despite intensive care management with intubation, prone position ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and multiple transfusions, he progressed to refractory shock with multiple organ dysfunction resulting in death within 72 h. Similar patients arrived at several hospitals with identical epidemiology (all had ingested the same salt obtained in the same place). Clinical and forensic investigations (X-ray diffraction) discovered that the supplier had mistakenly prepared the salts with hydrated manganese sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. The results enabled the other patients to be successfully treated for hydrated manganese sulfate intoxication with life support in the intensive care unit and chelation therapy (EDTA). We describe the clinical presentation of acute manganese poisoning and alert professionals to the risk of an increasingly popular diet. This case demonstrates the importance of collaboration between clinicians, pathologists, and forensic scientists to resolve a difficult-to-diagnose case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduction of sulfate by hydrogen in natural systems: A literature review: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, J.J.; Strachan, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The results of this literature search indicate that the reduction of sulfate by hydrogen gas can occur in nature, but that temperature appears to be a key factor in the rate of this reaction. At temperatures below 200/degree/C, the key factor in the rate of reaction appears to be extremely slow. At low pH the rate of reaction is faster than at high pH. The solution composition also influences the reaction rate; the most recent research available (Yanisagawa 1983) suggests that the concentration of sulfide in solution influences the rate of this reaction. The reduction reaction appears to proceed through a thiosulfate intermediate, so the presence and distribution of other sulfur species will influence the reaction rate. If the reaction mechanism proposed by Yanisagawa is correct, then higher concentrations of sulfide will result in faster rates of sulfate reduction. In conclusion, the reduction of sulfate by hydrogen to form significant amounts of sulfide is a function of temperature, sulfate and sulfide concentrations, pH, and solution composition. The rate of this reaction appears to be very slow under the conditions anticipated in this repository, but given the length of time required to maintain the integrity of the containers (300 to 1000 years) and the unusual solution compositions present, a better understanding of the reaction mechanism is needed. 16 refs., 1 tab

  4. TEM study of soot, organic aerosol, and sea-salt particles collected during CalNex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosol particles are emitted in abundance from megacities. Those particles can have important effects on both human health and climate. In this study, aerosol particles having aerodynamic diameters between 50 and 300 nm were collected during the CalNex campaign at the Pasadena ground site from May 15 to June 15, 2010, ~15 km northeast of downtown Los Angeles. The samples were analyzed using transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) to characterize particle shapes and compositions. Most samples are dominated by soot, organic aerosol (OA), sulfate, sea salt, or combinations thereof. Sizes and amounts of OA particles increased during the afternoons, and most soot particles were internally mixed with OA and sulfate in the afternoons. The proportion of soot to other material in individual particles increased and soot particles were more compact during the nights and early mornings. Sea-salt particles were commonly internally mixed with other materials. They have high Na contents with lesser N, Mg, S, K, and Ca and almost no Cl, suggesting that the Cl was replaced by sulfate or nitrate in the atmosphere. There is less OA and more sea salt and sulfate in the CalNex samples than in the samples from Mexico City that were collected during the MILAGRO campaign. Our study indicates that compositions of internally mixed aerosol particles and shapes of soot particles change significantly within a day. These changes probably influence the estimates of their effects on human health and climate.

  5. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy application for sea salt quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Rangel, António O S S

    2011-10-26

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode was explored with the objective of discriminating sea salts according to their quality type (traditional salt vs "flower of salt") and geographical origin (Atlantic vs Mediterranean). Sea salts were also analyzed in terms of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations to support spectroscopic results. High concentrations of Mg(2+) and K(+) characterized Atlantic samples, while a high Ca(2+) content was observed in traditional sea salts. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis model considering the 8500-7500 cm(-1) region permitted the discrimination of salts by quality types. The regions 4650-4350 and 5900-5500 cm(-1) allowed salts classification according to their geographical origin. It was possible to classify correctly 85.3 and 94.8% of the analyzed samples according to the salt type and to the geographical origin, respectively. These results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy is a suitable and very efficient tool for sea salt quality evaluation.

  6. In vitro lipid peroxidation of intestinal bile salt-based nanoemulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courraud, J; Charnay, C; Cristol, J P

    2013-01-01

    . Several nanoemulsions were compared in terms of physical characteristics and reactivity to 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation. Formulations included different types of lipids, a detergent (a conjugated bile salt or sodium dodecyl sulfate) and, finally, lipophilic...

  7. Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) ortholog in the marine skate Leucoraja erinacea is not a physiological bile salt transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongke; Zhang, Han; Lionarons, Daniel A; Boyer, James L; Cai, Shi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    The Na + -dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) is a hepatocyte-specific solute carrier, which plays an important role in maintaining bile salt homeostasis in mammals. The absence of a hepatic Na + -dependent bile salt transport system in marine skate and rainbow trout raises a question regarding the function of the Slc10a1 gene in these species. Here, we have characterized the Slc10a1 gene in the marine skate, Leucoraja erinacea The transcript of skate Slc10a1 (skSlc10a1) encodes 319 amino acids and shares 46% identity to human NTCP (hNTCP) with similar topology to mammalian NTCP. SkSlc10a1 mRNA was mostly confined to the brain and testes with minimal expression in the liver. An FXR-bile salt reporter assay indicated that skSlc10a1 transported taurocholic acid (TCA) and scymnol sulfate, but not as effectively as hNTCP. An [ 3 H]TCA uptake assay revealed that skSlc10a1 functioned as a Na + -dependent transporter, but with low affinity for TCA ( K m = 92.4 µM) and scymnol sulfate ( K i = 31 µM), compared with hNTCP (TCA, K m = 5.4 µM; Scymnol sulfate, K i = 3.5 µM). In contrast, the bile salt concentration in skate plasma was 2 µM, similar to levels seen in mammals. Interestingly, skSlc10a1 demonstrated transport activity for the neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and estrone-3-sulfate at physiological concentration, similar to hNTCP. Together, our findings indicate that skSlc10a1 is not a physiological bile salt transporter, providing a molecular explanation for the absence of a hepatic Na + -dependent bile salt uptake system in skate. We speculate that Slc10a1 is a neurosteroid transporter in skate that gained its substrate specificity for bile salts later in vertebrate evolution. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Optical investigation of gas-phase KCl/KOH sulfation in post flame conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Wubin; chen, Shuang; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    A counter-flow reactor setup was designed to investigate the gas-phase sulfation and homogeneous nucleation of potassium salts. Gaseous KOH and KCl were introduced into the post-flame zone of a laminar flat flame. The hot flame products mixed in the counter-flow with cold N2, with or without....... Depending on the potassium speciation in the inlet and the presence of SO2, they consisted of K2SO4, KCl, or K2CO3, respectively. The experiments showed that KOH was sulphated more readily than KCl, resulting in larger quantities of aerosols. The sulfation process in the counter-flow setup was simulated...... using a chemical kinetic model including a detailed subset for the Cl/S/K chemistry. Similar to the experimental results, much more potassium sulfate was predicted when seeding KOH compared to seeding KCl. For both KOH and KCl, sulfation was predicted to occur primarily through the reactions among...

  9. The confused world of sulfate attack on concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neville, Adam

    2004-01-01

    External sulfate attack is not completely understood. Part I identifies the issues involved, pointing out disagreements, and distinguishes between the mere occurrence of chemical reactions of sulfates with hydrated cement paste and the damage or deterioration of concrete; only the latter are taken to represent sulfate attack. Furthermore, sulfate attack is defined as deleterious action involving sulfate ions; if the reaction is physical, then, it is physical sulfate attack that takes place. The discussion of the two forms of sulfate attack leads to a recommendation for distinct nomenclature. Sulfate attack on concrete structures in service is not widespread, and the amount of laboratory-based research seems to be disproportionately large. The mechanisms of attack by different sulfates--sodium, calcium, and magnesium--are discussed, including the issue of topochemical and through-solution reactions. The specific aspects of the action of magnesium sulfate are discussed, and the differences between laboratory conditions and field exposure are pointed out. Part II discusses the progress of sulfate attack and its manifestations. This is followed by a discussion of making sulfate-resisting concrete. One of the measures is to use Type V cement, and this topic is extensively discussed. Likewise, the influence of w/c on sulfate resistance is considered. The two parameters are not independent of one another. Moreover, the cation in the sulfate salt has a strong bearing on the efficiency of the Type V cement. Recent interpretations of the Bureau of Reclamation tests, both long term and accelerated, are evaluated, and it appears that they need reworking. Part III reviews the standards and guides for the classification of the severity of exposure of structures to sulfates and points out the lack of calibration of the various classes of exposure. A particular problem is the classification of soils because much depends on the extraction ratio of sulfate in the soil: there is a

  10. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  11. Solid ferrous ammonium sulfate as a dosimeter at low temperatures and high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-calderon, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and doses from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is ferric ion (Fe 3+ ) and its molar concentration was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosimeter, for studies and works at low temperatures and high doses. (authors)

  12. Solid ferrous ammonium sulfate as a dosimeter at low temperatures and high doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-calderon, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A. [Mexico Univ. Nacional Autonoma, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and doses from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is ferric ion (Fe{sup 3+}) and its molar concentration was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosimeter, for studies and works at low temperatures and high doses. (authors)

  13. The effectiveness of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) on the impurities removal of saturated salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, C.; Ngatilah, Y.; Sumada, K.; Muljani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the quality of salt can be done through various methods such as washing (hydro-extraction), re-crystallization, ion exchange methods and others. In the process of salt quality improvement by re-crystallization method where salt product diluted with water to form saturated solution and re-crystallized through heating process. The quality of the salt produced is influenced by the quality of the dissolved salt and the crystallization mechanism applied. In this research is proposed a concept that before the saturated salt solution is recrystallized added a chemical for removal of the impurities such as magnesium ion (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4) is contained in a saturated salt solution. The chemical reagents that used are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 2 N and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 2 N. This research aims to study effectiveness of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the impurities removal of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfate (SO4). The results showed that the addition of sodium hydroxide solution can be decreased the impurity ions of magnesium (Mg) 95.2%, calcium ion (Ca) 45%, while the addition of sodium carbonate solution can decreased magnesium ion (Mg) 66.67% and calcium ion (Ca) 77.5%, but both types of materials are not degradable sulfate ions (SO4). The sodium hydroxide solution more effective to decrease magnesium ion than sodium carbonate solution, and the sodium carbonate solution more effective to decrease calcium ion than sodium hydroxide solution.

  14. Electrochemical removal of salts from masonry - Experiences from pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Villumsen, Arne

    2008-01-01

    A pilot experiment with newly developed electrodes was tested for removal of contaminating salts from brick masonry where plaster peeling was a problem. A high concentration of sulfate was found at the height where the paint peeling was most pronounced. The concentrations of chloride and nitrate ...

  15. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H 2 35 SO 4 ) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  16. Ferric sulfates on Mars: Surface Explorations and Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Ling, Z.; Freeman, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent results from missions to Mars have reinforced the importance of sulfates for Mars science. They are the hosts of water, the sinks of acidity, and maybe the most active species in the past and current surface/near-surface processes on Mars. Fe-sulfate was found frequently by Spirit and Opportunity rovers: jarosite in Meridiani Planum outcrops and a less specific "ferric sulfate" in the salty soils excavated by Spirit at Gusev Crater. Pancam spectral analysis suggests a variety of ferric sulfates in these soils, i.e. ferricopiapite, jarosite, fibroferrite, and rhomboclase. A change in the Pancam spectral features occurred in Tyrone soils after ~ 190 sols of exposure to surface conditions. Dehydration of ferric sulfate is a possible cause. We synthesized eight ferric sulfates and conducted a series of hydration/dehydration experiments. Our goal was to establish the stability fields and phase transition pathways of these ferric sulfates. In our experiments, water activity, temperature, and starting structure are the variables. No redox state change was observed. Acidic, neutral, and basic salts were used. Ferric sulfate sample containers were placed into relative humidity buffer solutions that maintain static relative humidity levels at three temperatures. The five starting phases were ferricopiapite (Fe4.67(SO4)6(OH)2.20H2O), kornelite (Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O), rhomboclase (FeH(SO4)2.4H2O), pentahydrite (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O), and an amorphous phase (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O). A total of one hundred fifty experiments have been running for nearly ten months. Thousands of coupled Raman and gravimetric measurements were made at intermediate steps to monitor the phase transitions. The first order discovery from these experiments is the extremely large stability field of ferricopiapite. Ferricopiapite is the major ferric sulfate to precipitate from a Fe3+-S-rich aqueous solution at mid-low temperature, and it has the highest H2O/Fe ratio (~ 4.3). However, unlike the Mg-sulfate with highest

  17. Surface Corrosion and Microstructure Degradation of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement Subjected to Wet-Dry Cycles in Sulfate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuman Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydration products of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA cement are different from those of Portland cement. The degradation of CSA cement subjected to wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution was studied in this paper. The surface corrosion was recorded and the microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that SO42-, Na+, Mg2+, and Cl− have an effect on the stability of ettringite. In the initial period of sulfate attack, salt crystallization is the main factor leading to the degradation of CSA cement specimens. The decomposition and the carbonation of ettringite will cause long-term degradation of CSA cement specimens under wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution. The surface spalling and microstructure degradation increase significantly with the increase of wet-dry cycles, sulfate concentration, and water to cement ratio. Magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride reduce the degradation when the concentration of sulfate ions is a constant value.

  18. Solution-mediated phase transformation of haloperidol mesylate in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Kristyn; Bogner, Robin

    2011-09-01

    Forming a salt is a common way to increase the solubility of a poorly soluble compound. However, the solubility enhancement gained by salt formation may be lost due to solution-mediated phase transformation (SMPT) during dissolution. The SMPT of a salt can occur due to a supersaturated solution near the dissolving surface caused by pH or other solution conditions. In addition to changes in pH, surfactants are also known to affect SMPT. In this study, SMPT of a highly soluble salt, haloperidol mesylate, at pH 7 in the presence of a commonly used surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), was investigated. Dissolution experiments were performed using a flow-through dissolution apparatus with solutions containing various concentrations of SLS. Compacts of haloperidol mesylate were observed during dissolution in the flow-through apparatus using a stereomicroscope. Raman microscopy was used to characterize solids. The dissolution of haloperidol mesylate was significantly influenced by the addition of sodium lauryl sulfate. In conditions where SMPT was expected, the addition of SLS at low concentrations (0.1-0.2 mM) reduced the dissolution of haloperidol mesylate. In solutions containing concentrations of SLS above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) (10-15 mM), the dissolution of haloperidol mesylate increased compared to below the CMC. The solids recovered from solubility experiments of haloperidol mesylate indicated that haloperidol free base precipitated at all concentrations of SLS. Above 5 mM of SLS, Raman microscopy suggested a new form, perhaps the estolate salt. The addition of surfactant in solids that undergo solution-mediated phase transformation can add complexity to the dissolution profiles and conversion.

  19. Effects of enteral and intravenous fluid therapy, magnesium sulfate, and sodium sulfate on colonic contents and feces in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marco A F; White, Nathaniel A; Donaldson, Lydia; Crisman, Mark V; Ward, Daniel L

    2004-05-01

    To assess changes in systemic hydration, concentrations of electrolytes in plasma, hydration of colonic contents and feces, and gastrointestinal transit in horses treated with IV fluid therapy or enteral administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), sodium sulfate (NaSO4), water, or a balanced electrolyte solution. 7 horses with fistulas in the right dorsal colon (RDC). In a crossover design, horses alternately received 1 of 6 treatments: no treatment (control); IV fluid therapy with lactated Ringer's solution; or enteral administration of MgSO4, Na2SO4, water, or a balanced electrolyte solution via nasogastric intubation. Physical examinations were performed and samples of blood, RDC contents, and feces were collected every 6 hours during the 48 hour-observation period. Horses were muzzled for the initial 24 hours but had access to water ad libitum. Horses had access to hay, salt, and water ad libitum for the last 24 hours. Enteral administration of a balanced electrolyte solution and Na2SO4 were the best treatments for promoting hydration of RDC contents, followed by water. Sodium sulfate was the best treatment for promoting fecal hydration, followed by MgSO4 and the balanced electrolyte solution. Sodium sulfate caused hypocalcemia and hypernatremia, and water caused hyponatremia. Enteral administration of a balanced electrolyte solution promoted hydration of RDC contents and may be useful in horses with large colon impactions. Enteral administration of either Na2SO4 or water may promote hydration of RDC contents but can cause severe electrolyte imbalances.

  20. Rapid Soil Stabilization of Soft Clay Soils for Contingency Airfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    quicklime or calcium carbide, could possibly crosslink the polymers of sodium or potassium polyacrylic acid together to form a harder material. Very...LiquiBlock 40K and 41K are both potassium salts of crosslinked polyacrylic acids/polyacrylamide copolymers in granular form that also gel in the presence...communication, 2006), soil could possibly be stabilized with calcium and super absorbent polymers, such as sodium or potassium polyacrylic acids. This

  1. Production of ferrous sulfate from residue from the iron mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, K.A; Riella, H.G.; Abreu, E.F.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper was developed from a residue obtained by processing iron ore exploited by the mining company Samarco S/A. The residue was characterized and the analyses showed that it contains about 70% of the mineral hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and also that some economically important products could be produced. One is the ferrous sulfate that can be used in pharmaceuticals and also that can be used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The iron, in addition to is importance for the industrial production of steel and parts in general, also has great biological importance in all living beings. In order to produce ferrous sulfate from the byproduct in question, it was developed a obtaining route using metallic iron as hematite reductor and sulfuric acid to form the salt. (author)

  2. Synthetic salt cake standards for analytical laboratory quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, A.E.; Miller, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The validation of analytical results in the characterization of Hanford Nuclear Defense Waste requires the preparation of synthetic waste for standard reference materials. Two independent synthetic salt cake standards have been prepared to monitor laboratory quality control for the chemical characterization of high-level salt cake and sludge waste in support of Rockwell Hanford Operations' High-Level Waste Management Program. Each synthetic salt cake standard contains 15 characterized chemical species and was subjected to an extensive verification/characterization program in two phases. Phase I consisted of an initial verification of each analyte in salt cake form in order to determine the current analytical capability for chemical analysis. Phase II consisted of a final characterization of those chemical species in solution form where conflicting verification data were observed. The 95 percent confidence interval on the mean for the following analytes within each standard is provided: sodium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, hydroxide, chromate, chloride, fluoride, aluminum, plutonium-239/240, strontium-90, cesium-137, and water

  3. Sulfate transporters in the plant’s response to drought and salinity: regulation and possible functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine eGallardo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought and salinity are two frequently combined abiotic stresses that affect plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Sulfate, and molecules derived from this anion such as glutathione, play important roles in the intrinsic responses of plants to such abiotic stresses. Therefore, understanding how plants facing environmental constraints re-equilibrate the flux of sulfate between and within different tissues might uncover perspectives for improving tolerance against abiotic stresses. In this review, we took advantage of genomics and post-genomics resources available in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the model legume species Medicago truncatula to highlight and compare the regulation of sulfate transporter genes under drought and salt stress. We also discuss their possible function in the plant’s response and adaptation to abiotic stresses and present prospects about the potential benefits of mycorrhizal associations, which by facilitating sulfate uptake may assist plants to cope with abiotic stresses. Several transporters are highlighted in this review that appear promising targets for improving sulfate transport capacities of crops under fluctuating environmental conditions.

  4. SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hand, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution ∼40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO 2 . On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO 4 detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO 4 is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl 2 , and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

  5. SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution {approx}40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO{sub 2}. On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO{sub 4} detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO{sub 4} is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl{sub 2}, and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

  6. Thermodynamic data for modeling acid mine drainage problems: compilation and estimation of data for selected soluble iron-sulfate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Bruch S.; Seal, Robert R.; Chou, I-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, and entropy values have been compiled from the literature for the hydrated ferrous sulfate minerals melanterite, rozenite, and szomolnokite, and a variety of other hydrated sulfate compounds. On the basis of this compilation, it appears that there is no evidence for an excess enthalpy of mixing for sulfate-H2O systems, except for the first H2O molecule of crystallization. The enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation of each H2O molecule of crystallization, except the first, in the iron(II) sulfate - H2O system is -295.15 and -238.0 kJ?mol-1, respectively. The absence of an excess enthalpy of mixing is used as the basis for estimating thermodynamic values for a variety of ferrous, ferric, and mixed-valence sulfate salts of relevance to acid-mine drainage systems.

  7. Surface Enrichment by Conventional and Polymerizable Sulfated Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Emulsifiers in Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilin Zhang; Yuxi Zhao; Matthew R. Dubay; Steven J. Severtson; Larry E. Gwin; Carl J. Houtman

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of properties are made for pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) generated via emulsion polymerization using both conventional and reactive emulsifiers. The emulsifiers are ammonium salts of sulfated nonylphenol ethoxylates with similar chemical structures and hydrophilic−lipophilic balances. The polymerizable surfactant possesses a reactive double...

  8. Salinity stress effects on [14C-1]- and [14C-6]-glucose metabolism of a salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible variety of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaraj, S.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of salt (sodium sulfate) on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a salt-tolerant (Kharchia-65) variety and a salt-susceptible (Fielder) variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by comparing their responses under control and stress conditions. Leaf segments of Kharchia-65 showed increased activity through both the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the glycolytic pathway of glucose oxidation, with the former being comparatively more active in response to salt. In Fielder, there was an increase in PPP activity at the expense of glycolytic pathway activity. Label from glucose was found in the lipid, neutral sugar, amino acid, organic acid, and phosphate ester fractions in all treatments. On the basis of the label distribution patterns, it appears that Fielder leaves incubated with [ 14 C-6]-glucose were not able to utilize glucose efficiently under saline conditions. This finding was further supported by decreased label incorporation into all the fractions, especially the amino acid and organic acid fractions. Adenosine phosphate and reduced pyridine nucleotide concentrations were consistent with these observations. We conclude therefore that the salt-tolerant variety had an enhanced metabolic activity compared with the salt-susceptible variety, which contributed to its ability to overcome the adverse effects of salt. (author)

  9. Salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuqiang; Liou, Liang-Chun; Ren, Qun; Bao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-03-03

    The yeast cell wall plays an important role in maintaining cell morphology, cell integrity and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that salt stress causes cell wall damage in yeast cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 ). Upon salt treatment, the cell wall is thickened, broken and becomes more sensitive to the cell wall-perturbing agent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Also, SCW11 mRNA levels are elevated in ρ 0 cells. Deletion of SCW11 significantly decreases the sensitivity of ρ 0 cells to SDS after salt treatment, while overexpression of SCW11 results in higher sensitivity. In addition, salt stress in ρ 0 cells induces high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further damages the cell wall, causing cells to become more sensitive towards the cell wall-perturbing agent.

  10. Sulfate Transporters in Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Microorganisms: A Comparative Genomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Marietou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 44 sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea across six phyla and identified putative sulfate transporter encoding genes from four out of the five surveyed protein families based on homology. We did not find evidence that ABC-type transporters (SulT are involved in the uptake of sulfate in SRM. We speculate that members of the CysP sulfate transporters could play a key role in the uptake of sulfate in thermophilic SRM. Putative CysZ-type sulfate transporters were present in all genomes examined suggesting that this overlooked group of sulfate transporters might play a role in sulfate transport in dissimilatory sulfate reducers alongside SulP. Our in silico analysis highlights several targets for further molecular studies in order to understand this key step in the metabolism of SRMs.

  11. Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Manuella, Fabio C.; Hovland, Martin; Rueslåtten, Håkon; Johnsen, Hans-K.

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide marine salt deposits ranging over the entire geological record are generally considered climate-related evaporites, derived from the precipitation of salts (mainly chlorides and sulfates) from saturated solutions driven by solar evaporation of seawater. This explanation may be realistic for a salt thickness ≤100 m, being therefore inadequate for thicker (>1 km) deposits. Moreover, sub-seafloor salt deposits in deep marine basins are difficult to reconcile with a surface evaporation model. Marine geology reports on abyssal serpentinite systems provide an alternative explanation for some salt deposits. Seawater-driven serpentinization consumes water and increases the salinity of the associated aqueous brines. Brines can be trapped in fractures and cavities in serpentinites and the surrounding `country' rocks. Successive thermal dehydration of buried serpentinites can mobilize and accumulate the brines, forming highly saline hydrothermal solutions. These can migrate upwards and erupt onto the seafloor as saline geysers, which may form salt-saturated water pools, as are currently observed in numerous deeps in the Red Sea and elsewhere. The drainage of deep-seated saline brines to seafloor may be a long-lasting, effective process, mainly occurring in areas characterized by strong tectonic stresses and/or igneous intrusions. Alternatively, brines could be slowly expelled from fractured serpentinites by buoyancy gradients and, hence, separated salts/brines could intrude vertically into surrounding rocks, forming salt diapirs. Serpentinization is an ubiquitous, exothermic, long-lasting process which can modify large volumes of oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Therefore, buried salt deposits in many areas of the world can be reasonably related to serpentinites.

  12. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Ren Nanqi; Wang Xu; Lee Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO 4 2- ) ratios. At a critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  13. The effect of ammonium sulfate on the solubility of amino acids in water at (298.15 and 323.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Luisa A.; Macedo, Eugenia A. [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Pinho, Simao P. [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus e Santa Apolonia, 5301-857 Braganca (Portugal)], E-mail: spinho@ipb.pt

    2009-02-15

    Using the analytical gravimetric method the solubility of glycine, DL-alanine, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, and L-serine in aqueous systems of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, at (298.15 and 323.15) K, were measured for salt concentrations ranging up to 2.0 molal. In the electrolyte molality range studied the experimental observations showed that ammonium sulfate is a salting-in agent for most of the amino acids studied. Furthermore, the change of the relative solubility with electrolyte concentration shows a maximum, which makes the representation of the data by a simple empirical correlation such as the Setschenow equation difficult. For the development and evaluation of a robust thermodynamic framework that makes it possible to more profoundly understand aqueous amino acid solutions with ammonium sulfate additional experimental information is needed.

  14. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  15. Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAco...

  16. Experiment Analysis of Concrete’s Mechanical Property Deterioration Suffered Sulfate Attack and Drying-Wetting Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of concrete deterioration in sodium sulfate solution is investigated. The macroperformance was characterized via its apparent properties, mass loss, and compressive strength. Changes in ions in the solution at different sulfate attack periods were tested by inductively coupled plasma (ICP. The damage evolution law, as well as analysis of the concrete’s meso- and microstructure, was revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and computed tomography (CT scanning equipment. The results show that the characteristics of concrete differed at each sulfate attack period; the drying-wetting cycles generally accelerated the deterioration process of concrete. In the early sulfate attack period, the pore structure of the concrete was filled with sulfate attack products (e.g., ettringite and gypsum, and its mass and strength increased. The pore size and porosity decreased while the CT number increased. As deterioration progressed, the swelling/expansion force of products and the salt crystallization pressure of sulfate crystals acted on the inner wall of the concrete to accumulate damage and accelerate deterioration. The mass and strength of concrete sharply decreased. The number and volume of pores increased, and the pore grew more quickly resulting in initiation and expansion of microcracks while the CT number decreased.

  17. Extracellular matrix of smooth muscle cells: interaction of collagen type V with heparan sulfate proteoglycan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, S.; Hoeoek, M.; Gay, R.E.; Magargal, W.W.; Reynertson, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Alteration in the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently the authors have initiated studies on the structural organization of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured smooth muscle cells. Immunohisotological examination of this matrix using well-characterized mono- and polyclonal antibodies showed a partial codistribution of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a number of different matrix components including collagen types I, III, IV, V and VI, laminin and fibronectin. Subsequent binding studies between isolated matrix proteins and HS showed that the polysaccharide interacts strongly with type V collagen and to a lesser extent with fibronectin as well as collagen types III and VI. The interaction between type V and HS was readily inhibited by heparin and highly sulfated HS but not be dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate or HS with a low sulfate content. Furthermore, [ 35 S]-HS proteoglycans isolated from cultured smooth muscle cells could be adsorbed on a column of sepharose conjugated with native type V collagen and eluted in a salt gradient. Hence, the interaction between type V and HS may play a major part in stabilizing the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall

  18. Solubility of inorganic salts in pure ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereiro, A.B.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Oliveira, F.S.; Esperança, J.M.S.S.; Canongia Lopes, J.N.; Marrucho, I.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report the solubility of different conventional salts in several ionic liquids. ► The solubility was initially screened using a visual detection method. ► The most promising mixtures were quantitatively re-measured using an ATR–FTIR. - Abstract: The solubility of different conventional salts in several room-temperature ionic liquids – containing ammonium, phosphonium or imidazolium cations combined with acetate, sulfate, sulfonate, thiocyanate, chloride, tetracyano-borate, tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluoro-phosphate, L-lactate, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide or trifluoromethylsulfonate anions – were screened using a visual detection method. The most promising mixtures were then re-measured using an ATR–FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopy technique in order to accurately and quantitatively determine the corresponding solubility at 298.15 K.

  19. Colloidal titration of aqueous zirconium solutions with poly(vinyl sulfate) by potentiometric endpoint detection using a toluidine blue selective electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Osamu; Kato, Yasutake; Kito, Noriyoshi; Kameyama, Keiichi; Hattori, Toshiaki; Hashiba, Minoru

    2004-02-01

    Zirconium oxy-salts were hydrolyzed to form positively charged polymer or cluster species in acidic solutions. The zirconium hydrolyzed polymer was found to react with a negatively charged polyelectrolyte, such as poly(vinyl sulfate), and to form a stoichiometric polyion complex. Thus, colloidal titration with poly(vinyl sulfate) was applied to measure the zirconium concentration in an acidic solution by using a Toluidine Blue selective plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode as a potentiometric end-point detecting device. The determination could be performed with 1% of the relative standard deviation. The colloidal titration stoichiometry at pH < or = 2 was one mol of zirconium per equivalent mol of poly(vinyl sulfate).

  20. A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction to simultaneously determine trans-resveratrol and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhixia; Yu, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yu; Yang, Yue; Lu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jiaqiu; Qin, Zhiying; Huang, Fang; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was applied to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol (Res) and its major glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma. Acetonitrile-methanol (80:20, v/v) and ammonium acetate (10 mol L -1 ) were used as extractant and salting-out reagent to locate the target analytes in the supernatant after the aqueous and organic phase stratification, then the analytes were determined via gradient elution by LC-MS/MS in negative mode in a single run. The analytical method was validated with good selectivity, acceptable accuracy (>85%) and low variation of precision (extraction efficiency of target glucuronide and sulfate conjugates (>80%). The method was successfully applied to determine Res and its four conjugated metabolites in rat after Res administration (intragastric, 50 mg kg -1 ; intravenous, 10 mg kg -1 ). The systemic exposures to Res conjugates were much higher than those to Res (AUC 0-t , i.v., 7.43 μm h; p.o., 8.31 μm h); Res-3-O-β-d-glucuronide was the major metabolite (AUC 0-t , i.v., 66.1 μm h; p.o., 333.4 μm h). The bioavailability of Res was estimated to be ~22.4%. The reproducible SALLE method simplified the sample preparation, drastically improved the accuracy of the concomitant assay and gave full consideration of extraction recovery to each target analyte in bio-samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Analysis of chondroitin sulfate content of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum with different processing methods and different parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui-Ze; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Yin-Shi

    2018-02-01

    The differences and the variations of chondroitin sulfate content in different parts of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum(CCP) with different processing methods were investigated. The chondroitin sulfate from velvet was extracted by dilute alkali-concentrated salt method. Next, the chondroitin sulfate was digested by chondroitinase ABC.The contents of total chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate A, B and C in the samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with freeze-drying processing is 14.13,11.99,1.74,0.32 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with boiling processing is 10.71,8.97,2.21,1.40 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP without blood is 12.47,9.47,2.64,0.07 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. And the content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with blood is 8.22,4.39,0.87,0.28 g·kg⁻¹ respectively. The results indicated that the chondroitin sulfate content in different processing methods was significantly different.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP with freeze-drying is higher than that in CCP with boiling processing.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP without blood is higher than that in CCP with blood. The chondroitin sulfate content in differerent paris of the velvet with the same processing methods was arranged from high to low as: wax slices, powder, gauze slices, bone slices. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Salting Effects as an Illustration of the Relative Strength of Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Eric C.; Golden, Donnie R.; Royce, Brenda R.

    2010-01-01

    This quick and inexpensive demonstration of the salting of an alcohol out of an aqueous solution illustrates the impact of intermolecular forces on solubility using materials familiar to many students. Ammonium sulfate (fertilizer) is added to an aqueous 35% solution of isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol and water) containing food coloring as a…

  3. Liquid-liquid equilibrium of water + PEG 8000 + magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems at 35°C: experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Castro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems is a highly efficient technique for separation and purification of biomolecules due to the mild properties of both liquid phases. Reliable data on the phase behavior of these systems are essential for the design and operation of new separation processes; several authors reported phase diagrams for polymer-polymer systems, but data on polymer-salt systems are still relatively scarce. In this work, experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data on water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + magnesium sulfate and water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were obtained at 35°C. Both equilibrium phases were analyzed by lyophilization and ashing. Experimental results were correlated with a mass-fraction-based NRTL activity coefficient model. New interaction parameters were estimated with the Simplex method. The mean deviations between the experimental and calculated compositions in both equilibrium phases is about 2%.

  4. Preparation of a Highly Fluorophilic Phosphonium Salt and its Use in a Fluorous Anion-Exchanger Membrane with High Selectivity for Perfluorinated Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Boswell, Paul G.; Anfang, Alyce C.; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Fluorous solvents are the most nonpolar, nonpolarizable phases known, whereas ions are inherently polar. This makes it difficult to create salts that are soluble in a fluorous solvent. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorophilic phosphonium salt, tris{3,5-bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]phenyl}methylphosphonium methyl sulfate. The salt has a solubility of at least 14 mM in perfluoro(perhydrophenanthrene), perfluoro(methylcyclohexane), and perfluorohexanes. It also show...

  5. Optical sensing of sulfate by polymethinium salt receptors: colorimetric sensor for heparin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bříza, T.; Kejík, Z.; Císařová, I.; Králová, Jarmila; Martásek, P.; Král, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2008), s. 1901-1903 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : colorimetric sensor * heparin * polymethinium salt Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.340, year: 2008

  6. Iminium Salts by Meerwein Alkylation of Ehrlich’s Aldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 4-(Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde is alkylated at the N atom by dialkyl sulfates, MeI, or Me3O BF4. In contrast, ethylation by Et3O BF4 occurs selectively at the O atom yielding a quinoid iminium ion. 4-(Diethylaminobenzaldehyde is alkylated only at O by either Et or Me oxonium reagent. The iminium salts are prone to hydrolysis giving the corresponding hydrotetrafluoroborates. Five crystal structures were determined.

  7. Hydrocarbon Degradation and Sulfate Reduction in a Coastal Marsh of North Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y.; Bugna, G. C.; Robinson, L.

    2001-05-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of coastal waters has been an environmental concern for sometime. Coastal wetlands, which are rich in organic matter and microbial activities, have been considered natural systems that could degrade hydrocarbon in contaminated coastal waters. This study was initiated to investigate the potential of hydrocarbon degradation in a coastal salt marsh of North Florida with special reference to sulfate reduction. Freshly collected surface marsh sediments (0-20 cm) were incubated in a laboratory at ambient temperature (23.2° C) with the treatments of: 1) Control (i.e., no treatment), 2) +(crude) oil, 3) +NO3-1+oil, and 4) +MoO4-2+oil. Carbon dioxide evolution from the incubation was collected and analyzed for the total amount and the 13C signature. The NO3-1 and MoO4-2 treatments were intended to block the sulfate reduction activity. The results show that the indigenous organic matter and the crude oil have distinct δ 13C values of -19.8 and -27.6 \\permil, respectively, relative to PDB. Evolved CO2 concentrations and δ 13C values also indicate that microbial populations can adapt to the presence of anthropogenic hydrocarbons. Blocking of sulfate reducers by MoO4-2 addition started to reduce the carbon dioxide evolution rates after a 4-d incubation. After a 48-d incubation, the carbon dioxide evolution of the MoO4-2-treated samples was reduced to only 23 % of the non-MoO4-2-treated samples, indicating the increased significant role of sulfate reducers in digesting older soil organic matter and the hydrocarbons. T-tests also indicated that in NO3-1 treatment, δ 13C values significantly depleted (p=0.1) while CO2 concentration remained relatively constant. These indicate that while denitrifiers played a role in the degradation, the microbial population is predominantly composed of sulfate reducers. Salt marshes would be a much more significant source of CH4 if SO4-2 is suppressed. All MoO4-2-treated samples produced significant amount of methane

  8. Water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes, northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Liscum, F.

    1980-11-01

    This report contains water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin. Water-quality data were compiled for aquifers in the Wilcox Group, the Carrizo Sand, and the Queen City Sand. The data include analyses for dissolved solids, pH, temperature, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Water-quality and streamflow data were obtained from 63 surface-water sites in the vicinity of the domes. These data include water discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected at selected sites for analysis of principal and selected minor dissolved constituents

  9. Simulation-based Analysis of the Differences in the Removal Rate of Chlorides, Nitrates and Sulfates by Electrokinetic Desalination Treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    than chlorides and nitrates. A physicochemical model for electrochemically-induced reactive-transport processes is described and used for a theoretical analysis of the influence of the chemical interactions on the removal rate of the target ions. Simulations for the electro-desalination of a brick......Due to their abundance in the natural environment, chloride, nitrate and sulfate salts are considered the main responsible for the salt-induced decay processes in building materials and sculptures. Electro-desalination techniques, enhanced with carbonated clay buffer poultice placed between...

  10. The ferrous ammonium sulfate solid system, as dosemeter for processes at low temperatures and high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez C, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and dose from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is Fe 3+ and molar concentration of ferric ion was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosemeter, at low temperatures and high dose. (Author)

  11. Studying of the combined salts effect on the engineering properties of clayey soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Anwar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies had been performed to investigate the effect of pore water chemistry on the strength and compressibility characteristics of soil. Although the effect of chloride and sulfates salts separately in pore fluids on the geotechnical properties of soil seems to be well understood, but the influence of combined effect of sulfates and chlorides in pore water on the behavior of soil is still unclear mostly due to the limited numbers of studies as well as the complexity of processes that may occur in soil (with the presence of salts in pore water-soil interaction. Southern regions of Iraq, especially Basra suffers from low water levels in the summer season in addition to the lack of rain water, which causes a significant increase of salt in the Shatt al Arab. Water salinity continues to increase with time. To investigate the combined impacts of water salinity on the behavior of clayey soils, the basic characteristics of the soil brought from Al-Nahrawan site was studied. Chemical methods were done with three types of water (distilled, water of highly saline as Shatt Al-Arab water and water of Tarmiya as moderate saline water. The effect of water salinity on the geotechnical properties of fine grain soil was investigated. Different laboratory tests such as Atterberg limits, standard compaction, consolidation and shear strength of soil .Results showed that the presence of perceptible amounts of dissolved salts in water can lead to changes in the engineering properties of the soil.

  12. Spectroscopy of Loose and Cemented Sulfate-Bearing Soils: Implications for Duricrust on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher D.; Mustard, John F.

    2002-07-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the spectroscopic properties of sulfate in martian soil analogs over the wavelength range 0.3 to 25 μm (which is relevant to existing and planned remotely sensed data sets for Mars). Sulfate is an abundant component of martian soil (up to 9% SO 3 by weight) and apparently exists as a particulate in the soil but also as a cement. Although previous studies have addressed the spectroscopic identity of sulfates on Mars, none have used laboratory mixtures of materials with sulfates at the abundances measured by landed spacecraft, nor have any works considered the effect of salt-cementation on spectral properties of soil materials. For this work we created mixtures of a palagonitic soil (JSC Mars-1) and sulfates (MgSO 4 and CaSO 4·2H 2O). The effects of cementation were determined and separated from the effects of packing and hydration by measuring the samples as loose powders, packed powders, cemented materials, and disaggregated materials. The results show that the presence of particulate sulfate is best observed in the 4-5 μm region. Soils cemented with sulfate exhibit a pronounced restrahlen band between 8 and 9 μm as well as well-defined absorptions in the 4-5 μm region. Cementation effects are distinct from packing effects and disaggregation of cemented samples rapidly diminishes the strength of the restrahlen bands. The results of this study show that sulfate in loose materials is more detectable in the near infrared (4-5 μm) than in the thermal infrared (8-9 μm). However, cemented materials are easily distinguished from loose mixtures in the thermal infrared because of the high values of their absorption coefficient in this region. Together these results suggest that both wavelength regions are important for determining the spatial extent and physical form of sulfates on the surface of Mars.

  13. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietra, R P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  14. Influence of the Chemical Interactions on the Removal Rate of Different Salts in Electrokinetic Desalination Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination techniques have been successfully applied for the prevention of salt-induced deterioration problems of masonry and other construction materials. A mathematical model for electrochemical desalination treatments is described, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system...... of equations and accounting for the chemical interactions between the species in the pore solution and the solid matrix. Due to their high abundance in the natural environment, chlorides, nitrates and sulfates are considered the main ions responsible to the salt decay processes in buildings materials...

  15. Stimulation of sulfate-reducing activity at salt-saturation in the salterns of Ribandar, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    salt pan. Each pans is surrounded by ?bandhs? or mud borders on all four sides to prevent siltation and help regulate the flow of water. In the Ribandar saltern, sea water from the Mandovi estuary enters the creek through a sluice gate at high tide... activity (SRA) in marine ecosystems, especially the coastal regions contributes as much as 50% organic carbon turnover (Jorgensen,1982). Sulphate accounts for 70 - 90% of total respiration in salt marsh sediments, where total sediment respiration rates...

  16. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Moreira Jr, Paulo F.; Tcacenco, Celize M.; Quina, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation numbers (N Ag) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40º C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles (γ = 0.11-0.15, where γ is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Yaq] and [Yaq] is the sodium counter...

  17. Sulfate but not thiosulfate reduces calculated and measured urinary ionized calcium and supersaturation: implications for the treatment of calcium renal stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Rodgers

    Full Text Available Urinary sulfate (SO4(2- and thiosulfate (S2O3(2- can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa and on supersaturation (SS of calcium oxalate (CaOx and calcium phosphate (CaP, and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM of these salts.Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1. A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS (Model 2. The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations.Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect.Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease.

  18. Periodate Oxidation for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, with Special Reference to the Position of Extra Sulfate Groups in Chondroitin Polysulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate D and Chondroitin Sulfate K

    OpenAIRE

    Seno, Nobuko; Murakami, Keiko; Shibusawa, Haru

    1981-01-01

    The optimum conditions for periodate oxidation of sulfated disaccharides were investigated to determine the position of extra sulfate groups on the saturated disulfated disaccharides obtained from chondroitin polysulfates, chondroitin sulfates D and K. Under the conditions: 2mM saturated disulfated disaccharide with 20mM sodium periodate at 37°in the dark, the uronic acid residue in the disulfated disaccharide from chondroitin sulfate D was rapidly and completely destroyed, whereas that in th...

  19. Some Elements of Equilibrium Diagrams for Systems of Iron with Water above 100 deg C and with Simple Chloride, Carbonate and Sulfate Melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Derek

    1971-05-15

    Some aspects of molten salts relevant to the nuclear power industry are discussed briefly and an approach is presented to the theoretical description of the electrochemical thermodynamics of corrosion, mass-transport and deposition processes in power-plant working on the water-cycle, and in homogenous molten-salt reactors. Diagrams are introduced, based on the parameter pe instead of the usual redox potential, that are useful for illustrating equilibrium data for aqueous systems at elevated temperatures and for molten salts. Systems including iron in water and in the eutectic mixtures of lithium and sodium chloride, carbonate and sulfate, are taken as examples

  20. Some Elements of Equilibrium Diagrams for Systems of Iron with Water above 100 deg C and with Simple Chloride, Carbonate and Sulfate Melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Derek

    1971-05-01

    Some aspects of molten salts relevant to the nuclear power industry are discussed briefly and an approach is presented to the theoretical description of the electrochemical thermodynamics of corrosion, mass-transport and deposition processes in power-plant working on the water-cycle, and in homogenous molten-salt reactors. Diagrams are introduced, based on the parameter pe instead of the usual redox potential, that are useful for illustrating equilibrium data for aqueous systems at elevated temperatures and for molten salts. Systems including iron in water and in the eutectic mixtures of lithium and sodium chloride, carbonate and sulfate, are taken as examples

  1. Utilization of fly ash for stabilization/solidification of heavy metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermatas, D.; Meng, X. [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Pozzolanic-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is an effective, yet economic technological alternative to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils and sludges. Fly ash waste materials were used along with quicklime (CaO) to immobilize lead, trivalent and hexavalent chromium present in contaminated clayey sand soils. The degree of heavy metal immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as controlled extraction experiments. These leaching test results along with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses were also implemented to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for immobilization of the heavy metals under study. Finally, the reusability of the stabilized waste forms in construction applications was also investigated by performing unconfined compressive strength and swell tests. Results suggest that the controlling mechanism for both lead and hexavalent chromium immobilization is surface adsorption, whereas for trivalent chromium it is hydroxide precipitation. Addition of fly ash to the contaminated soils effectively reduced heavy metal leachability well below the non-hazardous regulatory limits. However, quicklime addition was necessary in order to attain satisfactory immobilization levels. Overall, fly ash addition increases the immobilization pH region for all heavy metals tested, and significantly improves the stress-strain properties of the treated solids, thus allowing their reuse as readily available construction materials. The only potential problem associated with this quicklime/fly ash treatment is the excessive formation of the pozzolanic product ettringite in the presence of sulfates. Ettringite, when brought in contact with water, may cause significant swelling and subsequent deterioration of the stabilized matrix. Addition of minimum amounts of barium hydroxide was shown to effectively eliminate ettringite formation.

  2. On the role of salts for the treatment of wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals by electrochemical oxidation using a boron doped diamond anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Yandi; Coetsier, Clémence; Causserand, Christel; Groenen Serrano, Karine

    2017-01-01

    Refractory pharmaceuticals remain in biologically treated wastewater and are continuously discharged into aquatic systems due to their limited biodegradability. Electrochemical oxidation is promising for the treatment of such refractory compounds, in particular using a boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. This study investigates the role of salts, such as sulfates and chlorides in the electrochemical treatment of wastewater. The presence of sulfates accelerated the removal of ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole, but had no effect on the oxidation of salbutamol. This comparison highlights the selectivity of the reaction between organics and sulfate radicals. The addition of chlorides into the solution led to a remarkably-faster degradation of ciprofloxacin. However, incomplete mineralization was observed at high current densities due to the significant formation of halogenated organic compounds (AOX). The formation of refractory and toxic compounds such as ClO_4"− and AOX can be limited under the control of (i) applied current intensity and (ii) duration of electrolysis. Electrochemical oxidation of concentrated biologically-treated hospital wastewater investigated the excellent removal of biorefractory pharmaceuticals and confirmed the acceleration effect of salts on pharmaceutical degradation.

  3. Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie mining area (Romania) — Acid mine drainage and climatological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Andrei; Dill, Harald G.; Buzgar, Nicolae; Damian, Gheorghe; Maftei, Andreea Elena; Apopei, Andrei Ionuț

    2016-01-01

    The Baia Sprie epithermal system, a well-known deposit for its impressive mineralogical associations, shows the proper conditions for acid mine drainage and can be considered a general example for affected mining areas around the globe. Efflorescent samples from the abandoned open pit Minei Hill have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. The identified phases represent mostly iron sulfates with different hydration degrees (szomolnokite, rozenite, melanterite, coquimbite, ferricopiapite), Zn and Al sulfates (gunningite, alunogen, halotrichite). The samples were heated at different temperatures in order to establish the phase transformations among the studied sulfates. The dehydration temperatures and intermediate phases upon decomposition were successfully identified for each of mineral phases. Gunningite was the single sulfate that showed no transformations during the heating experiment. All the other sulfates started to dehydrate within the 30–90 °C temperature range. The acid mine drainage is the main cause for sulfates formation, triggered by pyrite oxidation as the major source for the abundant iron sulfates. Based on the dehydration temperatures, the climatological interpretation indicated that melanterite formation and long-term presence is related to continental and temperate climates. Coquimbite and rozenite are attributed also to the dry arid/semi-arid areas, in addition to the above mentioned ones. The more stable sulfates, alunogen, halotrichite, szomolnokite, ferricopiapite and gunningite, can form and persists in all climate regimes, from dry continental to even tropical humid. - Highlights: • Efflorescent salts from mining areas have a great impact on the environment. • Secondary minerals are influenced by geology, hydrology, biology and climate. • AMD-precipitates samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM, Raman and NIR spectrometry. • The dehydration temperatures

  4. Efflorescent sulfates from Baia Sprie mining area (Romania) — Acid mine drainage and climatological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzatu, Andrei, E-mail: andrei.buzatu@uaic.ro [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Department of Geology, 20A Carol I Blv., 700505 Iaşi (Romania); Dill, Harald G. [Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University, Welfengarten 1 D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Buzgar, Nicolae [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Department of Geology, 20A Carol I Blv., 700505 Iaşi (Romania); Damian, Gheorghe [Technical University Cluj Napoca, North University Center of Baia Mare, 62A Dr. Victor Babeş Street, 430083 Baia Mare (Romania); Maftei, Andreea Elena; Apopei, Andrei Ionuț [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi, Department of Geology, 20A Carol I Blv., 700505 Iaşi (Romania)

    2016-01-15

    The Baia Sprie epithermal system, a well-known deposit for its impressive mineralogical associations, shows the proper conditions for acid mine drainage and can be considered a general example for affected mining areas around the globe. Efflorescent samples from the abandoned open pit Minei Hill have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry. The identified phases represent mostly iron sulfates with different hydration degrees (szomolnokite, rozenite, melanterite, coquimbite, ferricopiapite), Zn and Al sulfates (gunningite, alunogen, halotrichite). The samples were heated at different temperatures in order to establish the phase transformations among the studied sulfates. The dehydration temperatures and intermediate phases upon decomposition were successfully identified for each of mineral phases. Gunningite was the single sulfate that showed no transformations during the heating experiment. All the other sulfates started to dehydrate within the 30–90 °C temperature range. The acid mine drainage is the main cause for sulfates formation, triggered by pyrite oxidation as the major source for the abundant iron sulfates. Based on the dehydration temperatures, the climatological interpretation indicated that melanterite formation and long-term presence is related to continental and temperate climates. Coquimbite and rozenite are attributed also to the dry arid/semi-arid areas, in addition to the above mentioned ones. The more stable sulfates, alunogen, halotrichite, szomolnokite, ferricopiapite and gunningite, can form and persists in all climate regimes, from dry continental to even tropical humid. - Highlights: • Efflorescent salts from mining areas have a great impact on the environment. • Secondary minerals are influenced by geology, hydrology, biology and climate. • AMD-precipitates samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM, Raman and NIR spectrometry. • The dehydration temperatures

  5. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  6. Immunotoxicity of copper nanoparticle and copper sulfate in a common Indian earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Arunodaya; Ray, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Soumalya; Das, Santanu; Pal, Kunal; Das, Subhadeep; Karmakar, Parimal; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2018-02-01

    nanoparticles and sulfate salt of copper in M.posthuma inhabiting the soil of India, an agriculture based country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  8. Characterization and Potential Use of Biochar for the Remediation of Coal Mine Waste Containing Efflorescent Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Díaz Muegue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In open pit coal mining, soil and vegetation are removed prior to the start of mining activities, causing physical, chemical, and microbiological changes to the soil and landscape. The present work shows the results of an integrated study of the remediation of mine waste with a high level of salt contamination in areas of the Cesar Department (Colombia, employing biochar as an amendment. Physical-chemical properties including Munsell color, texture, pH, electrical conductivity, water-holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, metal content, organic carbon, sulfates, extractable P, and total nitrogen were characterized both in the soils contaminated with mine residues and the biochar sample. A high concentration of sulfates, calcium, iron, and aluminum and a significant presence of Na, followed by minor amounts of Mg, K, Cu, and Mn, were observed in efflorescent salts. X-ray diffraction indicated a high presence of quartz and gypsum and the absence of pyrite and Schwertmannite in the efflorescent salt, while showing broad peaks belonging to graphene sheets in the biochar sample. Soil remediation was evaluated in Petri dish seed germination bioassays using Brachiaria decumbens. Biochar was shown to be effective in the improvement of pH, and positively influenced the germination percentage and root length of Brachiaria grass seeds.

  9. Genetic Adaptation to Salt Stress in Experimental Evolution of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Aifen; Hillesland, Kristina; He, Zhili; Joachimiak, Marcin; Zane, Grant; Dehal, Paramvir; Arkin, Adam; Stahl, David; Wall, Judy; Hazen, Terry; Zhou, Jizhong; Baidoo, Edward; Benke, Peter; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-05-17

    High salinity is one of the most common environmental stressors. In order to understand how environmental organisms adapt to salty environment, an experiment evolution with sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vugaris Hildenborough was conducted. Control lines and salt-stressed lines (6 lines each) grown in minimal medium LS4D or LS4D + 100 mM NaCl were transferred for 1200 generations. The salt tolerance was tested with LS4D supplemented with 250 mM NaCl. Statistical analysis of the growth data suggested that all lines adapted to their evolutionary environment. In addition, the control lines performed better than the ancestor with faster growth rate, higher biomass yield and shorter lag phase under salty environment they did not evolve in. However, the salt-adapted lines performed better than the control lines on measures of growth rate and yield under salty environment, suggesting that the salt?evolved lines acquired mutations specific to having extra salt in LS4D. Growth data and gene transcription data suggested that populations tended to improve till 1000 generations and active mutations tended to be fixed at the stage of 1000 generations. Point mutations and insertion/deletions were identified in isolated colonies from salt-adapted and control lines via whole genome sequencing. Glu, Gln and Ala appears to be the major osmoprotectant in evolved salt-stressed line. Ongoing studies are now characterizing the contribution of specific mutations identified in the salt-evolved D. vulgaris.

  10. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    dust. The Moessbauer parameters are not definitive for mineralogical speciation (other than octahedrally-coordinated Fe(3+) but are consistent with a schwertmannite-like phase (i.e., a nanophase ferric oxide). The high oxidation state and values of Moessbauer parameters (center shift and quadrupole splitting) for the high-SO3 samples imply ferric sulfate (i.e., oxidized sulfur), although the hydration state cannot be constrained. In no case is there an excess of SO3 over available cations (i.e., no evidence for elemental sulfur), and Fe sulfide (pyrite) has been detected in only one Gusev sample. The presence of both high-SiO2 (and low total iron and SO3) and high SO3 (and high total iron as ferric sulfate) can be accommodated by a two-step geochemical model developed with the Geochemist's Workbench. (1) Step 1 is anoxic acid sulfate leaching of Martian basalt at high water-to rock ratios (greater than 70). The result is a high-SiO2 residue0, and anoxic conditions are required to solubilize Fe as Fe(2+). (2) Step 2 is the oxic precipitation of sulfate salts from the leachate. Oxic conditions are required to produce the high concentrations of ferric sulfate with minor Mg-sulfates and no detectable Fe(2+)-sulfates.

  11. Variability of sea salts in ice and firn cores from Fimbul Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulina Vega, Carmen; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Divine, Dmitry; Martma, Tõnu; Mulvaney, Robert; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski-Gigar, Margit

    2018-05-01

    Major ions were analysed in firn and ice cores located at Fimbul Ice Shelf (FIS), Dronning Maud Land - DML, Antarctica. FIS is the largest ice shelf in the Haakon VII Sea, with an extent of approximately 36 500 km2. Three shallow firn cores (about 20 m deep) were retrieved in different ice rises, Kupol Ciolkovskogo (KC), Kupol Moskovskij (KM), and Blåskimen Island (BI), while a 100 m long core (S100) was drilled near the FIS edge. These sites are distributed over the entire FIS area so that they provide a variety of elevation (50-400 m a.s.l.) and distance (3-42 km) to the sea. Sea-salt species (mainly Na+ and Cl-) generally dominate the precipitation chemistry in the study region. We associate a significant sixfold increase in median sea-salt concentrations, observed in the S100 core after the 1950s, to an enhanced exposure of the S100 site to primary sea-salt aerosol due to a shorter distance from the S100 site to the ice front, and to enhanced sea-salt aerosol production from blowing salty snow over sea ice, most likely related to the calving of Trolltunga occurred during the 1960s. This increase in sea-salt concentrations is synchronous with a shift in non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO42-) toward negative values, suggesting a possible contribution of fractionated aerosol to the sea-salt load in the S100 core most likely originating from salty snow found on sea ice. In contrast, there is no evidence of a significant contribution of fractionated sea salt to the ice-rises sites, where the signal would be most likely masked by the large inputs of biogenic sulfate estimated for these sites. In summary, these results suggest that the S100 core contains a sea-salt record dominated by the proximity of the site to the ocean, and processes of sea ice formation in the neighbouring waters. In contrast, the ice-rises firn cores register a larger-scale signal of atmospheric flow conditions and a less efficient transport of sea-salt aerosols to these sites. These findings are a

  12. Hot corrosion behavior of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7 and YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 thermal barrier coatings exposed to molten sulfate and vanadate salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurluk, Yasin; Doleker, Kadir Mert; Karaoglanli, Abdullah Cahit

    2018-04-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are mostly used in critical components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Hot corrosion is among the main deteriorating factors in TBCs which results from the effect of molten salt on the coating-gas interface. This type of corrosion is observed as a result of contamination accumulated during combustion processes. Fuels used in aviation industry generally contain impurities such as vanadium oxide (V2O5) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). These impurities damage turbines' inlet at elevated temperatures because of chemical reaction. Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a conventional top coating material for TBCs while Gd2Zr2O7 is a new promising top coating material for TBCs. In this study, CoNiCrAlY metallic bond coat was deposited on Inconel 718 nickel based superalloy substrate material with a thickness about 100 μm using cold gas dynamic spray (CGDS) method. Production of TBCs were done with deposition of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7, YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 ceramic top coating materials using EB-PVD method, having a total thickness of 300 μm. Hot corrosion behavior of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7, YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 TBC systems were exposed to 45 wt.% Na2SO4 and 55 wt.% V2O5 molten salt mixtures at 1000 °C temperature. TBC samples were investigated and compared using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The hot corrosion failure mechanisms of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7 and YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 TBCs in the molten salts were evaluated.

  13. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  14. Discovery of a Heparan sulfate 3- o -sulfation specific peeling reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489; Zaia, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases

  15. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with 14C or 3H in the taurine moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Zhang; Griffiths, W.J.; Sjoevall, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-Δ 4 or 3β, 7α-dihydroxy-Δ 5 structures. Taurine labeled with 14 C or 3 H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with 14 C- or 3 H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author)

  16. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p- cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The levels of the uremic toxins p- cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by

  17. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Safonov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid development of science, humanity has achieved remarkable success in various fields. This also applies to the synthesis of biological compounds. Over the centuries, scientists have invented many methods and drugs that are being actively used to date. Derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole can be the foundation for the manufacture of new native drugs that will compete with foreign ones. The aim of work was synthesis and confirmation the structure of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetate acids salts. Materials and methods. As starting substances we used 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids, which were synthesized by previously described methods. The structure of synthesized compounds was confirmed by the complex use of modern physical-chemical methods of analysis: elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, HPLC-MS. Results. Salts of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids were synthesized by the interaction of the appropriate acids with organic (morpholin, methanamin, 2-hydroxyethanamin, inorganic basics (aqueous ammonia solution, sodium hydroxide and salts (zinc sulfate, ferrum (III chloride, magnesium sulfate, copper (II sulfate in alcoholic or aqueous media. Conclusions. A series of novel 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids salts were synthesized. The structure of synthesized compounds is established using modern physical-chemical methods of analysis.

  18. Organic geochemistry and brine composition in Great Salt, Mono, and Walker Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Orem, W.H.; Eugster, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Recent sediments, representing up to 1000 years of accumulation, were collected from three closed basin lakes (Mono Lake, CA, Walker Lake, NV, and Great Salt Lake, UT) to assess the effects of brine composition on the accumulation of total organic carbon, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid structure and diagenesis, and trace metal complexation. The Great Salt Lake water column is a stratified Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 brine with low alkalinity. Algal debris is entrained in the high density (1.132-1.190 g/cc) bottom brines, and in this region maximum organic matter decomposition occurs by anaerobic processes, with sulfate ion as the terminal electron acceptor. Organic matter, below 5 cm of the sediment-water interface, degrades at a very slow rate in spite of very high pore-fluid sulfate levels. The organic carbon concentration stabilizes at 1.1 wt%. Mono Lake is an alkaline (Na-CO3-Cl-SO4) system. The water column is stratified, but the bottom brines are of lower density relative to the Great Salt Lake, and sedimentation of algal debris is rapid. Depletion of pore-fluid sulfate, near l m of core, results in a much higher accumulation of organic carbon, approximately 6 wt%. Walker Lake is also an alkaline system. The water column is not stratified, and decomposition of organic matter occurs by aerobic processes at the sediment-water interface and by anaerobic processes below. Total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Walker Lake sediments vary with location and depth due to changes in input and pore-fluid sulfate concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies (13C) of humic substances and dissolved organic carbon provide information on the source of the Recent sedimentary organic carbon (aquatic vs. terrestrial), its relative state of decomposition, and its chemical structure. The spectra suggest an algal origin with little terrestrial signature at all three lakes. This is indicated by the ratio of aliphatic to

  19. Co-existence of Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction with Common Substrates in Sulfate-Rich Estuarine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sela-Adler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens over common substrates has been proposed as a critical control for methane production. In this study, we examined the co-existence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction with shared substrates over a large range of sulfate concentrations and rates of sulfate reduction in estuarine systems, where these processes are the key terminal sink for organic carbon. Incubation experiments were carried out with sediment samples from the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Yarqon (Israel estuary with different substrates and inhibitors along a sulfate concentrations gradient from 1 to 10 mM. The results show that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction can co-exist while the microbes share substrates over the tested range of sulfate concentrations and at sulfate reduction rates up to 680 μmol L-1 day-1. Rates of methanogenesis were two orders of magnitude lower than rates of sulfate reduction in incubations with acetate and lactate, suggesting a higher affinity of sulfate reducing bacteria for the available substrates. The co-existence of both processes was also confirmed by the isotopic signatures of δ34S in the residual sulfate and that of δ13C of methane and dissolved inorganic carbon. Copy numbers of dsrA and mcrA genes supported the dominance of sulfate reduction over methanogenesis, while showing also the ability of methanogens to grow under high sulfate concentration and in the presence of active sulfate reduction.

  20. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eLing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of passive CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from ten depths ranging from 0-20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia. Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling.

  1. Evaluation of commercial grade ferrous ammonium sulfate as potential dosimeter for technological irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Calderon, J. Manuel; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the behavior of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) under gamma irradiation. The doses studied ranged from 33.5 to 270 kGy. The purpose of this study is to explain the setup, measurement, and reporting procedures for using FAS as a dosimeter. The results obtained in the present study show that this salt very easily gave reproducible results, a linear response, as well as, simple sample preparation and reading. The irradiation temperature and dose rate in the response of the iron salt were found to have slight influence. Any storage time up to 18 months resulted in a 36% decreased in the response. The variation in the response obtained for short periods of storage is negligible for this application. Due to the properties of the FAS system also can be use as transfer dosimeter. (author)

  2. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  3. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  4. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, G; Kochba, J

    1983-07-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of ;Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K(+) and Cl(-) accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl(-). (d) Removal of Ca(2+) from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change.

  5. Korean Solar Salt Ameliorates Colon Carcinogenesis in an AOM/DSS-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Yeung-Ju; Park, Eui Seong; Park, Kun-Young

    2017-06-01

    The effects of Korean solar salt on an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer C57BL/6 mouse model were studied. Korean solar salt samples (SS-S, solar salt from S salt field; SS-Yb, solar salt from Yb salt field), nine-time-baked bamboo salt (BS-9x, made from SS-Yb), purified salt (PS), and SS-G (solar salt from Guérande, France) were orally administered at a concentration of 1% during AOM/DSS colon cancer induction, and compared for their protective effects during colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. SS-S and SS-Yb suppressed colon length shortening and tumor counts in mouse colons. Histological evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining also revealed suppression of tumorigenesis by SS-S. Conversely, PS and SS-G did not show a similar suppressive efficacy as Korean solar salt. SS-S and SS-Yb promoted colon mRNA expression of an apoptosis-related factor and cell-cycle-related gene and suppressed pro-inflammatory factor. SS-Yb baked into BS-9x further promoted these anti-carcinogenic efficacies. Taken together, the results indicate that Korean solar salt, especially SS-S and SS-Yb, exhibited anti-cancer activity by modulating apoptosis- and inflammation-related gene expression during colon carcinogenesis in mice, and bamboo salt baked from SS-Yb showed enhanced anti-cancer functionality.

  6. Copper sulfate pentahydrate reduced epithelial cytotoxicity induced by lipopolysaccharide from enterogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Adel; Delkhosh, Aref; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Cheraghi, Omid; Khakpour, Mansour; Barekati-Mowahed, Mazyar; Soltani, Sina; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh; Kazemi, Masoumeh; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Rezabakhsh, Aysa; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Namdarian, Reza

    2017-05-01

    The over usage of multiple antibiotics contributes to the emergence of a whole range of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria causing enterogenic infections in poultry science. Therefore, finding an appropriate alternative natural substance carrying an antibacterial capacity would be immensely beneficial. It has been previously discovered that the different types of cupric salts, especially copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O), to carry a potent bactericidal capacity. We investigated the neutralizing effect of CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O (6.25μg/ml) on the reactive oxygen species generation, and expression of MyD88, an essential adaptor protein of Toll-like receptor, and NF-κB in three intestinal epithelial cell lines exposed to 50ng/ml lipopolysaccharide. In order to find the optimal cupric sulfate concentration without enteritis-inducing toxicity, broiler chickens were initially fed with water containing 0.4, 0.5, and 1mg/l during a period of 4days. After determination of appropriate dosage, two broiler chickens and turkey flocks with enteritis were fed with cupric compound for 4days. We found that cupric sulfate can lessen the cytotoxic effect of lipopolysaccharide by reducing the reactive oxygen species content (psulfate. The copper sulfate in doses lower than 0.4mg/ml expressed no cytotoxic effect on the liver, kidney, and the intestinal tract while a concentration of 0.5 and 1mg/ml contributed to a moderate to severe tissue injuries. Pearson Chi-Square analysis revealed the copper cation significantly diminished the rate of mortality during 4-day feeding of broiler chicken and turkey with enteritis (p=0.000). Thus, the results briefed above all confirm the potent anti-bactericidal feature of cupric sulfate during the course of enteritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE's mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies

  8. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-07-07

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

  9. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  10. Correction: Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugahara Kazuyuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the publication of the work entitled "Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity", by Kozlowski et al., BMC Biochemistry 2011, 12:29, we found that the legends to Figures 2 to 5 contain serious mistakes that compromise the comprehension of the work. This correction article contains the correct text of the legends to Figures 2 to 5.

  11. Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Stonestrom, David A.; Reedy, Robert C.; Leaney, Fred W.; Gates, John; Cresswell, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water‐extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated (“rain‐fed”) croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800–120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630–3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600–41,000 kg/ha). Order‐of‐magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water‐extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic

  12. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with {sup 14}C or {sup 3}H in the taurine moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Zhang; Griffiths, W.J.; Sjoevall, Jan [Karolinska Inst., Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics Dept., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7{alpha}-hydroxy-3-oxo-{Delta}{sup 4} or 3{beta}, 7{alpha}-dihydroxy-{Delta}{sup 5} structures. Taurine labeled with {sup 14}C or {sup 3}H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with {sup 14}C- or {sup 3}H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author).

  13. Zinc layered hydroxide salts: intercalation and incorporation into low-density polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Jaerger,Silvia; Zimmermann,Ademir; Zawadzki,Sonia Faria; Wypych,Fernando; Amico,Sandro Campos

    2014-01-01

    In this study, polymer composites using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and layered hydroxide salts (LHS) were synthesized. The following compositions of LHS were obtained Zn5(OH)8(An-)2/n.yH2O, where A was varied in order to obtain hydrophilic (A = NO3 -) or hydrophobic (A = DDS- – dodecyl sulfate or DBS- – dodecyl benzene sulfonate). Synthesis was carried out by co-precipitation in alkaline medium and drying, being followed by characterization via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, th...

  14. Aspects of Salt Tolerance in a NaCl-Selected Stable Cell Line of Citrus sinensis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hayyim, Gozal; Kochba, Joshua

    1983-01-01

    A NaCl-tolerant cell line which was selected from ovular callus of `Shamouti' orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) proved to be a true cell line variant. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (a) Cells which have been removed from the selection pressure for at least four passages retain the same NaCl tolerance as do cells which are kept constantly on 0.2 molar NaCl. (b) Na+ and Cl− uptake are considerably lower in salt-tolerant cells (R-10) than in salt-sensitive cells (L-5) at a given external NaCl concentration. (c) Growth of salt-tolerant cells is markedly suppressed upon replacement of NaCl by KCl, whereas the growth of salt-sensitive cells is only slightly affected. Accumulation of K+ and Cl− accompanies the inhibition of growth. Experiments carried out with sodium and potassium sulfate suggest that the toxic effect is due to the accumulated Cl−. (d) Removal of Ca2+ from the growth medium severely inhibits the growth of salt-tolerant cells in the presence of NaCl, while it has a minor effect on growth of salt-sensitive cells in the presence of NaCl. (e) Electron micrographs show that the salt-tolerant cells have very big vacuoles when exposed to salt, while the size of the vacuoles of the salt-sensitive cells does not change. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16663067

  15. Halorubrum depositum sp. nov., a Novel Halophilic Archaeon Isolated from a Salt Deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoxing; Sun, Siqi; Xu, Yao; Lv, Jinting; Chen, Linan; Liu, Liu

    2018-06-01

    A non-motile, pleomorphic rod-shaped or oval, red-pigmented (nearly scarlet), extremely halophilic archaeon, strain Y78 T , was isolated from a salt deposit of Yunnan salt mine, China. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that it was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Halorubrum, with a close relationship to Halorubrum rutilum YJ-18-S1 T (98.6%), Halorubrum yunnanense Q85 T (98.3%), and Halorubrum lipolyticum 9-3 T (98.1%). The temperature, NaCl, and pH ranges for growth were 25-50 °C, 12-30% (w/v), and 6.5-9.0, respectively. Mg 2+ was required for growth. The polar lipids of strain Y78 T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, and a sulfated diglycosyl diether. The DNA G+C content was 66.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain Y78 T and two closely related species of the genus Halorubrum were far below 70%. Based on the data presented in this study, strain Y78 T represents a novel species for which the name Halorubrum depositum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Y78 T (= CGMCC 1.15456 T  = JCM 31272 T ).

  16. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  17. Continuous Flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) Method of Measuring Size-Resolved Sea-Salt Particle Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Royalty, T. M.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Petters, M. D.; Reed, R.; Weinstein, J.; Hook, D.; Wiener, R.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate representation of aerosols in climate models requires direct ambient measurement of the size- and composition-dependent particle production fluxes. Here we present the design, testing, and analysis of data collected through the first instrument capable of measuring hygroscopicity-based, size-resolved particle fluxes using a continuous-flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) technique. The different components of the instrument were extensively tested inside the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerosol Test Facility for sea-salt and ammoniums sulfate particle fluxes. The new REA system design does not require particle accumulation, therefore avoids the diffusional wall losses associated with long residence times of particles inside the air collectors of the traditional REA devices. The Hy-Res REA system used in this study includes a 3-D sonic anemometer, two fast-response solenoid valves, two Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), and a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA). A linear relationship was found between the sea-salt particle fluxes measured by eddy covariance and REA techniques, with comparable theoretical (0.34) and measured (0.39) proportionality constants. The sea-salt particle detection limit of the Hy-Res REA flux system is estimated to be 6x105 m-2s-1. For the conditions of ammonium sulfate and sea-salt particles of comparable source strength and location, the continuous-flow Hy-Res REA instrument was able to achieve better than 90% accuracy of measuring the sea-salt particle fluxes. In principle, the instrument can be applied to measure fluxes of particles of variable size and distinct hygroscopic properties (i.e., mineral dust, black carbon, etc.).

  18. Insight into the structure of layered zinc hydroxide salts intercalated with dodecyl sulfate anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Hynek, Jan; Kovář, P.; Day, Y.; Taviot-Guého, Ch.; Demel, Ondřej; Pospíšil, M.; Lang, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 46 (2014), s. 27131-27141 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05114S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : Distribution functions * Molecular dynamics * Salts * X ray diffraction * Zinc Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.772, year: 2014

  19. CHROMIUM(VI REDUCTION BY A MIXED CULTURE OF SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA DEVELOPED IN COLUMN REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Henny

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A lactate enriched mixed sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB culture was examined for the reduction of Cr(VI in a continuous flow system. The influent was mineral salts media added with lactate and sulfate with amounts of 8 and 6 mM respectively as electron donor and electron acceptor. The SRB culture was allowed to stabilize in the column before adding the Cr(VI to the influent. Chromium and sulfate reduction and lactate oxidation were examined by measuring the concentrations of Cr(Vl, sulfate and lactate in the influent and the effluent over time. The experiment was discontinued when Cr(VI concentration in the effiuent was breakthrough. In the absence of Cr(VI, sulfate was not completely reduced in the column, although lactate was completely oxidized and acetate as an intermediate product was not often detected. Almost all of Cr(VI loaded was reduced in the column seeded with the SRB culture at influent Cr(VI concentrations of 192,385 and769 mM. There was no significant Cr(VI loss in the control column, indicating that Cr(VI removal was due to the reduction of Cr(VI to Cr (lll by the SRB culture. The instantaneous Cr(VI removal decreased to a minimum of 32%, 24 days after the influent Cr(VI concentration was increased to 1540 mM, ancl sulfate removal efficiency decreased to a minimum of 17%. The SRB population in the column decreased 100 days after C(VI was added to the column. The total mass of Cr(VI reduced was approximately 878 mmol out of 881 mmol of Cr(Vl loaded in 116 days. The results clearly show that our developed SRB culture could reduced Cr(Vl considerably.

  20. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Process for treating the dialyzed spent liquor from sulphonic acid containing sulfur minerals or tar oils or ammonium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, E A

    1936-08-09

    Process for working up the dialyzate from sulfonic acid, sulfur-containing mineral or tar oils, or their ammonium salts, characterized by the combination of known steps, in the dialyzate being reacted with alkaline-earth oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate, and the resulting slightly soluble sulfate being filtered off and evaporated if necessary.

  2. Suppression of Raman electron spin relaxation of radicals in crystals. Comparison of Cu2+ and free radical relaxation in triglycine sulfate and Tutton salt single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S K; Goslar, J; Lijewski, S

    2011-08-31

    Electron spin-lattice relaxation was measured by the electron spin echo method in a broad temperature range above 4.2 K for Cu(2+) ions and free radicals produced by ionizing radiation in triglycine sulfate (TGS) and Tutton salt (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ⋅ 6H2O crystals. Localization of the paramagnetic centres in the crystal unit cells was determined from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Various spin relaxation processes and mechanisms are outlined. Cu(2+) ions relax fast via two-phonon Raman processes in both crystals involving the whole phonon spectrum of the host lattice. This relaxation is slightly slower for TGS where Cu(2+) ions are in the interstitial position. The ordinary Raman processes do not contribute to the radical relaxation which relaxes via the local phonon mode. The local mode lies within the acoustic phonon band for radicals in TGS but within the optical phonon range in (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ⋅ 6H2O. In the latter the cross-relaxation was considered. A lack of phonons around the radical molecules suggested a local crystal amorphisation produced by x- or γ-rays.

  3. Participation of Taxifolin in the Protection of Soya Seeds from the Effects of Heavy Metal Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kuznetsova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A correlation was revealed between the specific activity of peroxidases and their multiple forms during the germination of soya seeds (Glycine max (L. Merrill in the presence of heavy metal salts. It was shown that lead and cadmium sulfates cause emergence of new forms of the enzyme with high electrophoretic mobility, which indicates that the identified enzyme forms are involved in the molecular mechanism of adaptation to oxidative stress. Addition of taxifolin (dihydroquercetin, a bioflavonoid antioxidant, to the salts of heavy metals caused decrease in the specific activity of peroxidases and favored emergence of new forms of the enzyme, which were absent in the control samples.

  4. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B.; Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P.

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, [ 3 H]glucosamine/[ 35 S]sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain

  5. Growth and sedimentation of fine particles produced in aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Motoyoshi; Jonah, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    It is known that palladium and palladium-silver fine particles were formed from deaerated aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Changes in particle size and with amount of particles in the solution with time during and after irradiation were studied using dynamic light scattering technique and UV spectrophotometer. The particles formed from palladium sulfate solution are found to be water-filled bulky particles of diameter of 200 nm, which grow by mutual coagulation even after irradiation was terminated. Average density depends on concentration of palladium ion in the solution and dose, and the lowest density was about 2 g/cm 3 for particles of 200 nm obtained from 0.06 mM solution by 2.4 kGy irradiation. The average density of the particles obtained from palladium sulfate-silver sulfate solutions was smaller than those obtained for the corresponding palladium sulfate solutions. Supersonic agitation destroyed coagulated precipitates to form fine particles, but did not form clusters of a few atoms. (author)

  6. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...... was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths...... was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation....

  7. A Synchrotron Mössbauer Spectroscopy Study of a Hydrated Iron-Sulfate at High Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, T. M.; Finkelstein, G. J.; Solomatova, N. V.; Jackson, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Szomolnokite is a monohydrated ferrous iron sulfate mineral, FeSO4*H2O, where the ferrous iron atoms are in octahedral coordination with four corners shared with SO4 and two with H2O. While somewhat rare on Earth, szomolnokite has been detected on the surface of Mars along with several other hydrated sulfates and suggested to occur near the surface of Venus [1,2]. It is not clear if these sulfates are a result of reactions occurring at depth driven by changes in the behavior of iron in the sulfate. To date, only a few high-pressure studies have been conducted on hydrated iron sulfates using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our study represents a first step towards understanding of the electronic environment of iron in a monohydrated sulfate at pressure. Using a hydrostatic helium pressure-transmitting medium, the pressure dependence of iron's site-specific behavior in a synthetic szomolnokite powdered sample was explored up to about 100 GPa with time-resolved synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. At 1 bar, the Mössbauer spectrum is well described by three Fe2+-like sites, consistent with conventional Mössbauer spectra reported in Dyar et al. [3]. At pressures up to 20 GPa, changes in the hyperfine parameters are most likely due to a structural phase transition. Above this pressure, a fourth site is required to explain the time-spectra. Changes in the electronic configuration of iron, such as those due to a phase transition and/or a spin crossover, will affect the material's compressibility and transport properties. We will compare our high-pressure trends with those of other iron-bearing phases and discuss the relative influence on the dynamics of terrestrial planetary interiors. 1. Bishop et al. (2014) What Lurks in the Martian Rocks and Soil? Investigations of Sulfates, Phosphates, and Perchlorates. Spectral and thermal properties of perchlorate salts and implications for Mars. Am. Min. 99(8-9), 1580

  8. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji; Wei Min; Rao Guoying; Evans, D.G.; Duan Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation

  9. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  10. Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostroem, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Nordin, Anders [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nykoeping (Sweden); Helgesson, Anna; Berg, Magnus; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as ''ChlorOut''. IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW{sub th}/25MW{sub e} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (author)

  11. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, R.W.; Grajczak, P.; Wilcoxson, J.C.; Webster, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR trademark), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment

  12. Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate sulfatases from mammals and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumin; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases. Moreover, further studies will provide powerful tools for structural and functional studies of CS/DS as well as related applications. This article reviews the recent progress in CS/DS sulfatase research and is expected to initiate further research in this field.

  13. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  14. Heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan of the cell surface and basement membrane of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate represents approximately 15% of the 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycans carried by the proteoglycans of the cell surface and of the basolateral secretions of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture. Evidence is provided that these chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans are hybrid proteoglycans, carrying both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Complete N-desulfation but limited O-desulfation, by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide, of the proteoglycans decreased the anionic charge of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans to a greater extent than it decreased the charge of their constituent chondroitin sulfate chains. Partial depolymerization of the heparan sulfate residues of the proteoglycans with nitrous acid or with heparin lyase also reduced the effective molecular radius of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans. The effect of heparin lyase on the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans was prevented by treating the proteoglycan fractions with dimethyl sulfoxide, while the effect of nitrous acid on the dimethyl sulfoxide-treated proteoglycans was prevented by acetylation. This occurrence of heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycans suggests that the substitution of core proteins by heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains may not solely be determined by the specific routing of these proteins through distinct chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate synthesizing mechanisms. Moreover, regional and temporal changes in pericellular glycosaminoglycan compositions might be due to variable postsynthetic modification of a single gene product

  15. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  17. Oral iron therapy in human subjects, comparative absorption between ferrous salts and iron polymaltose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.; Johnson, G.; Wood, L.

    1984-01-01

    Iron absorption was directly compared between equivalent doses of ferrous salts and a polymaltose complex using a twin-isotope technique in which each individual acts as his own control. In the first study, bioavailability of iron from ferrous sulfate and the complex was defined at physiologic doses of 5 mg (Group 1: n = 14) and therapeutic doses of 50 mg (Group 2: n = 13). In Group 1, mean absorption from salt was 47.77% (SD 14.58%) and from polymaltose, 46.56% SD 17.07%). In Group 2, mean absorption from salt was 32.92% (SD 13.42%) and from polymaltose, 27.07% (SD 6.50%). In a second study, 100 mg of iron in a chewable formulation was used to compare absorption between equal doses of ferrous fumarate and the polymaltose complex. Mean absorption from salt was 10.25% (SD 6.89%) and from polymaltose 10.68% (SD 4.68%). At all three dosage levels, iron is equally available from salt or polymaltose for hemoglobin synthesis (p greater than 0.20), and absorption negatively correlated with plasma ferritin (p less than 0.01). These two materials may be used interchangeably in the treatment of patients with absolute iron deficiency

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  19. Impact of Oral Zinc Sulfate on Uncomplicated Neonatal Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Nabavizadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Jaundice is one of the most significant problems to consider in the neonatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of oral zinc sulfate on uncomplicated neonatal jaundice using comparison of effect of just phototherapy with the effect of combination of phototherapy and oral zinc sulfate.   Methods: The present double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 78 normal term neonates with the age of 2-7 days who were admitted for uncomplicated jaundice in neonatal ward of Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences. These infants were divided to experimental group (40 cases and control group (38 cases using block random allocation. In the control group, phototherapy was done alone and experimental group received elemental zinc orally as 10 mg daily for 5 days in combination with phototherapy.  The total bilirubin serum levels were measured at the beginning of the study , 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after the beginning of the study, discharge, and one week after discharge. The collected data were analyzed by the Chi Square test, independent t-test, and analysis of variance with repeated measurement.   Results: There were no significant statistical difference between the experimental group and control group in sex, age, birth weight, hemoglobin, reticulocyte percentage, G6PD deficiency, and of serum total bilirubin level at the beginning of study(p>0.05. Analysis of variance with repeated measurement showed that there were no significant statistical difference between the total bilirubin serum level at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours after beginning of the study, discharge, and one week after discharge (p>0.05. Also, the mean of hospitalization duration was not significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05.   Conclusion: Although oral zinc salts inhibit the enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin, however probably not effective in the treatment of neonatal physiologic

  20. Desulfohalophilus alkaliarsenatis gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely halophilic sulfate- and arsenate-respiring bacterium from Searles Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jodi Switzer; Kulp, Thomas R.; Han, Sukkyun; Lanoil, Brian; Saltikov, Chad W.; Stolz, John F.; Miller, Laurence G.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2012-01-01

    A haloalkaliphilic sulfate-respiring bacterium, strain SLSR-1, was isolated from a lactate-fed stable enrichment culture originally obtained from the extreme environment of Searles Lake, California. The isolate proved capable of growth via sulfate-reduction over a broad range of salinities (125–330 g/L), although growth was slowest at salt-saturation. Strain SLSR-1 was also capable of growth via dissimilatory arsenate-reduction and displayed an even broader range of salinity tolerance (50–330 g/L) when grown under these conditions. Strain SLSR-1 could also grow via dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. Growth experiments in the presence of high borate concentrations indicated a greater sensitivity of sulfate-reduction than arsenate-respiration to this naturally abundant anion in Searles Lake. Strain SLSR-1 contained genes involved in both sulfate-reduction (dsrAB) and arsenate respiration (arrA). Amplicons of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from DNA extracted from Searles Lake sediment revealed the presence of close relatives of strain SLSR-1 as part of the flora of this ecosystem despite the fact that sulfate-reduction activity could not be detected in situ. We conclude that strain SLSR-1 can only achieve growth via arsenate-reduction under the current chemical conditions prevalent at Searles Lake. Strain SLSR-1 is a deltaproteobacterium in the family Desulfohalobiacea of anaerobic, haloalkaliphilic bacteria, for which we propose the name Desulfohalophilus alkaliarsenatis gen. nov., sp. nov.

  1. Isotopic Zonation Within Sulfate Evaporite Mineral Crystals Reveal Quantitative Paleoenvironment Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M.; Rhorssen, M.; Mielke, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic variations measured within a single crystal of hydrated magnesium sulfate are greater than 30 permil for delta 2-H, almost 10 permil for δ18O in water of hydration; and greater than 3 permil in sulfate oxygen. These results are interpreted to indicate the relative humidity of the system during evaporation (15 to 20 percent in this test case) and constrain the volume of water involved. The theoretical basis of this system is the isotopic fractionation between the species in solution and those precipitated as evaporite salts. Precipitation preferentially accumulates more of the heavy isotopes of sulfur and oxygen in mineral sulfate, relative to sulfate in solution. During the course of mineral growth this leads to successive depletion of the respective heavier isotopes in the residual brine reflected in a parallel trend in successive precipitates or even in successive zones within a single crystal. The change in isotopic composition at any one time during the process, relative to the initial value, can be described by an isotopic version of the Rayleigh Fractionation equation, depending only on the extent of the completion of the process and the relevant fractionation factor. Evaporation preferentially removes isotopically lighter hydrogen and oxygen leading to successive extents of enrichment in the respective heavier isotopes in the residual water. However, the relative effects on hydrogen and oxygen isotopes differs as function of relative humidity [1]. ALL OF THESE CHANGES ARE PRESERVED IN THE MINERAL ISOTOPE COMPOSITIONS. We precipitated barium sulfate from epsomite or gypsum samples, which was reduced at 1450°C in the presence of graphite and glassy carbon in a Finnigan TC/EA to produce CO for O isotopic analysis in a Finnigan 253 mass spectrometer, while a separate subsample was oxidized to SO2 in a Costech Elemental Analyzer. However, to make progress with this approach we needed to make a large number of measurements of hydration water and so we

  2. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the quantitative determination of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor quizartinib in mouse plasma using salting-out liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retmana, Irene A; Wang, Jing; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Sparidans, Rolf W

    2017-01-01

    A bioanalytical assay for quizartinib -a potent, and selective FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor- in mouse plasma was developed and validated. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE), using acetonitrile and magnesium sulfate, was selected as sample pretreatment with deuterated quizartinib

  3. Insights into the Metal Salt Catalyzed 5-Ethoxymethylfurfural Synthesis from Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of common metal salts as catalysts for 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF synthesis from carbohydrate transformation was performed. Initial screening suggested AlCl3 as an efficient catalyst for EMF synthesis (45.0% from fructose at 140 °C. Interestingly, CuSO4 and Fe2(SO43 were found to yield comparable EMF at lower temperature of 110 to 120 °C, and high yields of ethyl levulinate (65.4–71.8% were obtained at 150 °C. However, these sulfate salts were inactive in EMF synthesis from glucose and the major product was ethyl glucoside with around 80% yield, whereas EMF of 15.2% yield could be produced from glucose using CrCl3. The conversion of sucrose followed the accumulation of the reaction pathways of fructose and glucose, and a moderate yield of EMF could be achieved.

  4. A salting out system for improving the efficiency of the headspace solid-phase microextraction of short and medium chain free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Dennis; Pacetti, Deborah; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Gabrielli, Serena; Ballini, Roberto

    2015-08-28

    Given the importance of short and medium chain free fatty acids (FFAs) in several fields, this study sought to improve the extraction efficiency of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of FFAs by evaluating salting out agents that appear promising for this application. The salts ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) were tried on their own and in combination (3.7/1), in four different total amounts, as salting out agents in the headspace-SPME-gas chromatographic (HS-SPME-GC) analysis of the FFAs from acetic acid (C2) to decanoic acid (C10). Their performance in a model system of an aqueous standard mixture of FFAs at a pH of 3.5 was compared to that of the more commonly used sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). All of the salts and salt systems evaluated, in proper amount, gave improved results compared to NaCl (saturated), which instead gave interesting results only for the least volatile FFAs C8 and C10. For C2-C6, the salt system that gave the best results compared to NaCl was (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4, in the highest of the four amounts evaluated, with factor increases between 1.2 and 4.1-fold, and NaH2PO4, between 1.0 and 4.3-fold. The SPME extraction efficiency given by the mixture (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4 was also assessed on biological and food samples, confirming that overall it performed better than NaCl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aggregation behavior of sodium lauryl ether sulfate with a positively bicharged organic salt and effects of the mixture on fluorescent properties of conjugated polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhang; Zhu, Linyi; Han, Yuchun; Wang, Yilin

    2015-02-24

    The aggregation behavior of anionic single-chain surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate containing three ether groups (SLE3S) with positively bicharged organic salt 1,2-bis(2-benzylammoniumethoxy)ethane dichloride (BEO) has been investigated in aqueous solution, and the effects of the BEO/SLE3S aggregate transitions on the fluorescent properties of anionic conjugated polyelectrolyte MPS-PPV with a larger molecular weight and cationic conjugated oligoelectrolyte DAB have been evaluated. Without BEO, SLE3S does not affect the fluorescent properties of MPS-PPV and only affects the fluorescent properties of DAB at a higher SLE3S concentration. With the addition of BEO, SLE3S and BEO form gemini-like surfactant (SLE3S)2-BEO. When the BEO/SLE3S molar ratio is fixed at 0.25, with increasing the BEO/SLE3S concentration, the BEO/SLE3S mixture forms large, loosely arranged aggregates and then transforms to closely packed spherical aggregates and finally to long thread-like micelles. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of MPS-PPV varies with the morphologies of the BEO/SLE3S aggregates, while the PL intensity of DAB is almost independent of the aggregate morphologies. The results demonstrate that gemini-like surfactants formed through intermolecular interactions can effectively adjust the fluorescent properties of conjugated polyelectrolytes.

  6. The Effect of Systemic Amantadine Sulfate on Malondialdehyde and Total Thiol Levels in Rat Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züleyha Yalniz-Akkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (sulfhydryl, SH levels in rat corneas after intraperitoneal injection of amantadine sulfate. Methods: A total of 12 Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 6 and amantadine group (n = 6. Balanced salt solution (1 mL, 0.9% NaCl, twice/day was injected into rats in control group. Amantadine sulfate (2 mg/1 mL, twice/day was injected into rats in amantadine group. In each group, two rats were injected for 1 week, two received injections for 1 month, and two rats received injections for 3 months. The corneas were homogenized and MDA and SH levels were measured spectroflourometrically. Results: In control group, median MDA and SH levels were 2.37 (range, 0.92-3.60 and 25.35 (range, 6.30-54.0 nmol/mg, respectively. In amantadine group, median MDA and SH levels were 3.57 (range, 1.25-5.92 and 32.65 (range, 3.30-48.3 nmol/mg, respectively. The difference between this two groups regarding MDA (P = 0.14 and SH (P = 1.0 levels was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Systemically administered amantadine sulfate seems not to cause MDA and SH imbalance in rat corneas.

  7. The SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.): Gene cloning and expression analyses under sulfate starvation and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qin; Wang, Meiping; Xia, Zongliang

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and stress responses. The family of sulfate transporters (SULTRs) mediates the uptake and translocation of sulfate in higher plants. However, basic knowledge of the SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.) is scarce. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of SULTR genes in maize was conducted, and the developmental expression patterns of the genes and their responses to sulfate starvation and abiotic stress were further investigated. The ZmSULTR family includes eight putative members in the maize genome and is clustered into four groups in the phylogenetic tree. These genes displayed differential expression patterns in various organs of maize. For example, expression of ZmSULTR1;1 and ZmSULTR4;1 was high in roots, and transcript levels of ZmSULTR3;1 and ZmSULTR3;3 were high in shoots. Expression of ZmSULTR1;2, ZmSULTR2;1, ZmSULTR3;3, and ZmSULTR4;1 was high in flowers. Also, these eight genes showed differential responses to sulfate deprivation in roots and shoots of maize seedlings. Transcript levels of ZmSULTR1;1, ZmSULTR1;2, and ZmSULTR3;4 were significantly increased in roots during 12-day-sulfate starvation stress, while ZmSULTR3;3 and ZmSULTR3;5 only showed an early response pattern in shoots. In addition, dynamic transcriptional changes determined via qPCR revealed differential expression profiles of these eight ZmSULTR genes in response to environmental stresses such as salt, drought, and heat stresses. Notably, all the genes, except for ZmSULTR3;3, were induced by drought and heat stresses. However, a few genes were induced by salt stress. Physiological determination showed that two important thiol-containing compounds, cysteine and glutathione, increased significantly under these abiotic stresses. The results suggest that members of the SULTR family might function in adaptations to sulfur deficiency stress and adverse growing environments. This study will lay a

  8. Acute Exacerbations of COPD Are Associated With Increased Expression of Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate in BAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Klagas, Ioannis; Roth, Michael; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-03-01

    Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPDs) are associated with accelerated aggravation of clinical symptoms and deterioration of pulmonary function. The mechanisms by which exacerbations may contribute to airway remodeling and declined lung function are poorly understood. We investigated whether AECOPDs are associated with differential expression of glycosaminoglycans in BAL in a cohort of 97 patients with COPD. Patients with COPD with either stable disease (n = 53) or AECOPD (n = 44) and undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy were matched for demographics and lung function parameters. Levels of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in BAL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly increased in BAL of patients during exacerbations. Levels of heparan sulfate were higher in the BAL of patients with microbial infections. Chondroitin sulfate was negatively correlated with FEV1 % predicted but not with diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % predicted, indicating that chondroitin sulfate is associated with airway remodeling, leading to obstruction rather than to emphysema. Furthermore, heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly correlated with MMP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-12 in BAL, indicating that they were cleaved from their respective proteoglycans by MMPs and subsequently washed out in BAL. During AECOPD, there is increased expression of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in BAL. These molecules are significantly correlated with MMPs in BAL, indicating that they may be associated with airway remodeling and may lead to lung function decline during exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Salt Anions on Heavy Metal Ion Adsorption on the Example of Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Mandy; Schwarz, Dana; Steinbach, Christine; Schwarz, Simona

    2018-01-01

    The biodegradable polysaccharide chitosan possesses protonated and natural amino groups at medium pH values and has therefore been used as an adsorbing material for nickel salts in water treatment. Nickel is a problematic heavy metal ion which can cause various diseases and disorders in living organisms. Here, we show the influence of oxyanions (e.g., nitrate and sulfate) to the adsorption of nickel ions. Hence, simultaneously we are addressing the increasing global problem of nitrate and sulfate ion pollution in groundwater and surface water. A series of adsorption experiments was carried out in order to determine (i) the adsorption equilibrium, (ii) the adsorption capacity in dependence on the initial nickel ion concentration, and (iii) the influence of the anion presented in solution for the adsorption capacity. Surface morphology of chitosan flakes before and after the adsorption process has been studied with SEM-EDX analysis. The chitosan flakes exhibited promising adsorption capacities of 81.9 mg·g−1 and 21.2 mg·g−1 for nickel (sulfate) and nickel (nitrate), respectively. The calculated values of Gibbs free energy change ΔG0 confirm the higher adsorption of nickel ions in presence of sulfate ions. Hence, higher anion valence leads to a higher adsorption capacity. PMID:29510485

  10. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  11. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960); Activation biologique du sulfate et son transfert (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author) [French] On examine dans cette etude les stades successifs de la mise en evidence du sulfate actif, son role dans la formation des esters sulfuriques de natures diverses, ainsi que sa participation eventuelle comme intermediaire au cours de la reduction du sulfate. On decrit aussi un procede de preparation du systeme biologique, generateur du sulfate actif et une methode de synthese chimique. (auteur)

  12. The salting-out of molibdoferrats(II from aqueous solutions by the organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola V. Nikolenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a method for producing of molybdoferrate(II precipitates by salting-out them from aqueous solutions by means of organic solvents. Dependence of the composition of molybdoferrate(II precipitates on the pH of the reaction solutions was studied. Experiments on salting-out of molybdoferrate(II with various organic solvents were carried out. As a result it was found that the best reagent for the molybdoferrate(II salting-out is acetone. By its use, lowest quantity of the ammonium sulfate impurities was obtained. It is also of importance that by using of acetone the process of regeneration by distillation of the reaction solutions is characterized by the lowest energy consumption. A functional relationship between the solubility of molybdoferrates(II and dielectric constant of the medium was established. By increasing the dielectric constant of the solvent solubility of molybdoferrates(II rapidly increases. The linearized dependence ln(lnS–ln(1/e was proposed to predict the solubility of molybdoferrates(II in various aqueous-organic solutions.

  13. Quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and keratan sulfate by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osago, Harumi; Shibata, Tomoko; Hara, Nobumasa; Kuwata, Suguru; Kono, Michihaya; Uchio, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2014-12-15

    We developed a method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using one-shot analysis with our MS/MS method, we demonstrated the simultaneous quantification of a total of 23 variously sulfated disaccharides of four GAG classes (8 chondroitin/dermatan sulfates, 1 hyaluronic acid, 12 heparan sulfates, and 2 keratan sulfates) with a sensitivity of less than 0.5 pmol within 20 min. We showed the differences in the composition of GAG classes and the sulfation patterns between porcine articular cartilage and yellow ligament. In addition to the internal disaccharides described above, some saccharides derived from the nonreducing terminal were detected simultaneously. The simultaneous quantification of both internal and nonreducing terminal saccharides could be useful to estimate the chain length of GAGs. This method would help to establish comprehensive "GAGomic" analysis of biological tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-08

    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude

  15. 40 CFR 98.190 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Lime manufacturing plants (LMPs) engage in the manufacture of a lime product (e.g., calcium oxide, high-calcium quicklime, calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, dolomitic quicklime, dolomitic hydrate, or... kraft pulp mill, soda pulp mill, sulfite pulp mill, or only processes sludge containing calcium...

  16. An ultrasensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of estrone 3-sulfate sodium salt based on molecularly imprinted polymer modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Wang, Yuli; Zhang, Lu; Tian, Liping; Luo, Jun; Zhao, Na; Han, Yajie; Zhao, Feilang; Ying, Xue; Li, Yingchun

    2017-11-01

    A highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor based on carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has been developed for the determination of estrone 3-sulfate sodium salt (ESS). MIPs were prepared in polar medium via bulk polymerization and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was performed to the study preparation process and binding behavior of the MIP-modified CPE (MIP/CPE) toward ESS. The conditions for preparing MIPs and MIP/CPE as well as ESS detection were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the detection linear range for ESS is 4 × 10 -12 to 6 × 10 -9  M with a limit of detection of 1.18 × 10 -12  M (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor exhibits high binding affinity toward ESS over its structural analogues with excellent repeatability and stability. The fabricated MIP/CPE was then successfully employed to detect ESS in pregnant mare urine (PMU) without any pretreatment, and the average recoveries were from 99.6 to 104.9% with relative standard deviation less than 3.0%. High-performance liquid chromatography was adopted as a reference to validate the established approach in detecting ESS and their results showed good agreement. The as-prepared sensor has high potential to be a decent tool for on-site determination of ESS in PMU in a fast and convenient manner. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Study of calcium carbonate and sulfate co-precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Zarga, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Co-precipitation of mineral based salts in scaling is still not well understood and/or thermodynamically well defined in the water industry. This study focuses on investigating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sulfate mixed precipitation in scaling which is commonly observed in industrial water treatment processes including seawater desalination either by thermal-based or membrane-based processes. Co-precipitation kinetics were studied carefully by monitoring several parameters simultaneously measured, including: pH, calcium and alkalinity concentrations as well as quartz microbalance responses. The CaCO3 germination in mixed precipitation was found to be different than that of simple precipitation. Indeed, the co-precipitation of CaCO3 germination time was not anymore related to supersaturation as in a simple homogenous precipitation, but was significantly reduced when the gypsum crystals appeared first. On the other hand, the calcium sulfate crystals appear to reduce the energetic barrier of CaCO3 nucleation and lead to its precipitation by activating heterogeneous germination. However, the presence of CaCO3 crystals does not seem to have any significant effect on gypsum precipitation. IR spectroscopy and the Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the nature of scales structures. Gypsum was found to be the dominant precipitate while calcite and especially vaterite were found at lower proportions. These analyses showed also that gypsum crystals promote calcite crystallization to the detriment of other forms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Constraining Δ33S signatures of Archean seawater sulfate with carbonate-associated sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Bekker, A.; Hofmann, A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-mass dependent sulfur isotope deviation of S-bearing phases in Archean sedimentary strata, and expressed as Δ33S, has a consistent pattern, i.e., sulfide (pyrite) predominantly bear positive Δ33S values, while Paleoarchean sulfate (barite) has negative Δ33S values. This pattern was later corroborated by observations of negative Δ33S values in Archean volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and negative Δ33S values in early diagenetic nodular pyrite with a wide range of δ34S values, which is thought to be due to microbial sulfate reduction. These signatures have provided a set of initial conditions for a mechanistic interpretation at physical chemistry level. Unlike the younger geological times when large bodies of seawater evaporite deposits are common, to expand seawater sulfate records, carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) was utilized as a proxy for ancient seawater sulfate. CAS extracted from the Archean carbonates carries positive Δ33S values. However, CAS could be derived from pyrite oxidation following exposure to modern oxidizing conditions and/or during laboratory extraction procedures. It is, therefore, important for us understanding context of the overall early earth atmospheric condition to empirically confirm whether Archean seawater sulfate was generally characterized by negative Δ33S signatures. Combined δ18O, Δ17O, δ34S, and Δ33S analyses of sequentially extracted water-leachable sulfate (WLS) and acid-leachable sulfate (ALS = CAS) and δ34S and Δ33S analyses of pyrite can help to identify the source of extracted sulfate. We studied drill-core samples of Archean carbonates from the 2.55 Ga Malmani and Campell Rand supgroups, South Africa. Our preliminary results show that 1) neither WLS nor ALS were extracted from samples with extremely low pyrite contents (less than 0.05 wt.%); 2) extractable WLS and ALS is present in samples with relatively high pyrite contents (more than 1 wt.%), and that δ34S and Δ33S values of WLS, ALS, and

  19. Water Uptake By Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions On Mars Using Raman Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. ';Instant Mars' is a salt analog developed to fully encompass the correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Using environmental Raman microscopy, we have studied the water uptake by the Instant Mars analog as a function of temperature and relative humidity. Water uptake was monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy. A MicroJet droplet generator was used to generate 30 μm diameter particles that were deposited onto a quartz disc. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of water uptake is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. At -30° C, water uptake begins at ~ 35% RH as humidity is increased. The water uptake is marked by the growth of a sulfate peak at 990 cm-1, an indicator that sulfate has undergone a phase transition into an aqueous state. As the RH continues to increase, the peak in the O-H region (~3500 cm-1) broadens as more liquid water accumulates in the particles. The Instant Mars particles achieve complete deliquescence at 68% RH, indicated both visually and with Raman spectroscopy. The gradual water uptake observed suggests that deliquescence of the Instant Mars particles is not an immediate process, but that it occurs in steps marked by the deliquescence of the individual salts. Perhaps of even more significance is the tendency for the Instant Mars particles to remain aqueous at low humidity as RH is decreased. Raman spectra indicate that liquid water is present as low as 2% RH at -30° C. Ongoing work will examine the phase of Instant Mars particles under simulated Martian surface and subsurface conditions to gain insight into the possibility for aqueous solutions on Mars

  20. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with [3H]glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of [3H]chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics

  1. Synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan from methyl oleate with O-sulfate chitosan as edible film material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel; Sihaloho, O.; Saleh, C.; Magdaleni, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The research on the synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan through sulfonation reaction on chitosan with ammonium sulfate and followed by amidation reaction using methyl oleate has been done. In this study, chitosan was chemically modified into N-oleyl O-sulfatechitosan as an edible film making material. N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was synthesized by reaction between methyl oleate and O-sulfate chitosan. Wherein the depleted chitosan of O-sulfate chitosan into O-sulfate chitosan was obtained by reaction of sulfonation between ammonium sulfate and chitosan aldimine. While chitosan aldimine was obtained through reaction between chitosan with acetaldehyde. The structure of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was characterized by FT-IR analysis which showed vibration uptake of C-H sp3 group, S=O group, and carbonyl group C=O of the ester. The resulting of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan yielded a percentage of 93.52%. Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) test results gave a value of 6.68. In the toxicity test results of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan obtained LC50 value of 3738.4732 ppm. In WVTR (Water Vapor Transmission Rate) test results for chitosan film was 407.625 gram/m2/24 hours and N-oleylO-sulfate chitosan film was 201.125 gram/m2/24 hours.

  2. Preparation and antifouling property of polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huihui; Xue, Jing; Qian, Bin; Chen, Huaying; Zhu, Yonggang; Lan, Minbo

    2017-02-01

    An antifouling polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate (PU-CS) was prepared by chemical grafting with N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine as a spacer. The different mass fraction of N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine was investigated to obtain PU-CS films with different CS grafting density. The surface properties of PU-CS films were comprehensively characterized. Proteins adsorption and glycosaminoglycans adhesion on films were evaluated. Moreover, inorganic salt deposition on film with highest CS grafting density (3.70 μg/cm2) was briefly investigated. The results showed that the increase of CS grafting density improved not only the hydrophilicity but the antifouling performance of films. The best antifouling film reduced the adsorption of fibrinogen (BFG), human serum albumin (HSA) and lysozyme (LYS) by 81.4%, 95.0% and 76.5%, respectively, and the adhesion of chondroitin (CS), heparin (HP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) by 70.6%, 87.4% and 81.3%, respectively. In addition, the co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans reduced up to 86.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Changes in inorganic salt deposition after co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans on PU-CS(3) suggested that the proteins promoted the inorganic salt deposition, while glycosaminoglycans inhibited the crystal growth. The negatively charged polysaccharides might promote the generation of smaller crystals which could be conducive to provide theoretical and practical guide to develop novel urinary stents with significant anti-encrustation properties.

  3. Impact of palmitic acid coating on the water uptake and loss of ammonium sulfate particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available While water insoluble organics are prevalent in the atmosphere, it is not clear how the presence of such species alters the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Here we use a combination of FTIR spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS to characterize ammonium sulfate particles coated with palmitic acid. Coated aerosols were generated by atomizing pure ammonium sulfate, mixing the particles with a heated flow of nitrogen with palmitic acid vapor, and then flowing the mixture through an in-line oven to create internally mixed particles. The mixing state of the particles was probed using the AMS data and images from the TEM. Both of these probes suggest that the particles were internally mixed. Water uptake by the mixed particles was then probed at 273 K. It was found that for ammonium sulfate containing ~20 wt% palmitic acid the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH was the same as for pure ammonium sulfate (80±3% RH. For particles with ~50 wt% palmitic acid however, the mixed particles began to take up water at relative humidities as low at 69% and continued to slowly take up water to 85% RH without fully deliquescing. In addition to studies of water uptake, water loss was also investigated. Here coatings of up to 50 wt% had no impact on the efflorescence relative humidity. These studies suggest that even if insoluble substances coat salt particles in the atmosphere, there may be relatively little effect on the resulting water uptake and loss.

  4. Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

    2013-06-01

    The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  6. Heritability and clinical determinants of serum indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, candidate biomarkers of the human microbiome enterotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Viaene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study. RESULTS: Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4-4.3 and 13.0 (7.4-21.5 μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17 and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18 concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. LIMITATIONS: Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites.

  7. The electrical and thermal properties of sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide was prepared. The thermal and electrical properties of its phases were investigated. The Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 SiO 2 samples are similar to the Na 2 SO 4 -I phase (a high temperature phase), which is appreciably effective for Na + ionic conduction. Phase transformation was considerably suppressed by mixing. Electromotive force (EMF) was measured, using Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -SiO 2 as a solid electrolyte, by constructing an SO 2 gas concentration cell. The measured EMF's at 823 and 773 K were in fairly good accordance with the calculated EMF's for inlet SO 2 gas concentration between 30 ppm and 1%, and 500 ppm and 0.5% respectively

  8. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  9. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter–spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br−, and iodine. Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14–3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl−, Br−, and iodine in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS SO42−. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  10. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter-spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Keiichiro; Matoba, Sumito; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Yamasaki, Tetsuhide

    2017-07-01

    Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br-, and iodine). Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14-3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl-, Br-, and iodine) in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS) SO42-. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine) on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  11. Purification and sequence characterization of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate from fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Mo, Xiaoli; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) were extracted and purified from skins or bones of salmon (Salmo salar), snakehead (Channa argus), monkfish (Lophius litulon) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Size, structural sequences and sulfate groups of oligosaccharides in the purified CS and DS could be characterized and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. CS and DS chain structure varies depending on origin, but motif structure appears consistent. Structures of CS and DS oligosaccharides with different size and sulfate groups were compared between fishes and other animals, and results showed that some minor differences of special structures could be identified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-liquid chromatography-fourier transform-mass/mass spectrometry (HILIC-LC-FT-MS/MS). For example, data showed that salmon and skipjack CS had a higher percentage content of high-level sulfated oligosaccharides than that porcine CS. In addition, structural information of different origins of CS and DS was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and results showed that CS and DS samples could be differentiated according to their molecular conformation and oligosaccharide fragments information. Understanding CS and DS structure derived from different origins may lead to the production of CS or DS with unique disaccharides or oligosaccharides sequence composition and biological functions.

  12. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Lee, Chin-Yu; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. ► Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. ► The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. ► The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  13. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: cedean@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chin-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  14. Micro-Raman and SEM-EDS analyses to evaluate the nature of salt clusters present in secondary marine aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; Marcaida, Iker; García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-02-15

    Marine aerosol is a complex inorganic and organic chemistry system which contains several salts, mainly forming different type of salt clusters. Different meteorological parameters have a key role in the formation of these aggregates. The relative humidity (%RH), temperature, CO, SO 2 and NO x levels and even the O 3 levels can promote different chemical reactions giving rise to salt clusters with different morphology and sizes. Sulfates, nitrates and chlorides and even mixed chlorosulfates or nitrosulfates are the final compounds which can be found in environments with a direct influence of marine aerosol. In order to collect and analyze these types of compounds, the use of adequate samplers is crucial. In this work, salt clusters were collected thanks to the use of a self-made passive sampler (SMPS) installed in a 20th century historic building (Punta Begoña Galleries, Getxo, Basque Country, Spain) which is surrounded by a beach and a sportive port. These salt clusters were finally analyzed directly by micro-Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron microscopy coupled to Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electro-desalination of sulfate contaminated carbonaceous sandstone – risk for salt induced decay during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-sulphate is known to cause severe stone damage. This paper is focused on removal of this salt from carbonaceous sandstone by electro-desalination (ED). The research questions are related to possible stone damage during ED and subsequently suction cycles are made in distilled water before......, during and after ED. During suction in water the salts are concentrated in the upper part of the sandstone. After 2 days of treatment the average water soluble SO42- concentration was half the initial and for this sample corners were damaged as was the case for the reference stone. After 4 days of ED...... in the poultice with carbonate. The acid would be highly damaging to the carbonaceous sandstone as the binder-CaCO3 is soluble in acid. From pH measurements of the poultice it seems as if the acid is buffered well, as pH is still slightly alkaline after ED, but this is a measurement of the average pH and thus...

  16. Individual aerosol particles in and below clouds along a Mt. Fuji slope: Modification of sea-salt-containing particles by in-cloud processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, S.; Hirose, Y.; Miura, K.; Okochi, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sizes and compositions of atmospheric aerosol particles can be altered by in-cloud processing by absorption/adsorption of gaseous and particulate materials and drying of aerosol particles that were formerly activated as cloud condensation nuclei. To elucidate differences of aerosol particles before and after in-cloud processing, aerosols were observed along a slope of Mt. Fuji, Japan (3776 m a.s.l.) during the summer in 2011 and 2012 using a portable laser particle counter (LPC) and an aerosol sampler. Aerosol samples for analyses of elemental compositions were obtained using a cascade impactor at top-of-cloud, in-cloud, and below-cloud altitudes. To investigate composition changes via in-cloud processing, individual particles (0.5-2 μm diameter) of samples from five cases (days) collected at different altitudes under similar backward air mass trajectory conditions were analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. For most cases (four cases), most particles at all altitudes mainly comprised sea salts: mainly Na with some S and/or Cl. Of those, in two cases, sea-salt-containing particles with Cl were found in below-cloud samples, although sea-salt-containing particles in top-of-cloud samples did not contain Cl. This result suggests that Cl in the sea salt was displaced by other cloud components. In the other two cases, sea-salt-containing particles on samples at all altitudes were without Cl. However, molar ratios of S to Na (S/Na) of the sea-salt-containing particles of top-of-cloud samples were higher than those of below-cloud samples, suggesting that sulfuric acid or sulfate was added to sea-salt-containing particles after complete displacement of Cl by absorption of SO2 or coagulation with sulfate. The additional volume of sulfuric acid in clouds for the two cases was estimated using the observed S/Na values of sea-salt-containing particles. The estimation revealed that size changes by in

  17. Isolation of a sulfate reducing bacterium and its application in sulfate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the effect of C. freundii in removing sulfate was best when the temperature was 32°C, pH was 7.0, COD/SO42- was 5.0 and the initial SO42- concentration was 1500 mg/L. Also, the SRB was inoculated onto an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) to remove sulfate in actual tannery wastewater.

  18. Mechanism of groundwater inrush hazard caused by solution mining in a multilayered rock-salt-mining area: a case study in Tongbai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Shi, Tingting; Chen, Zhihua; Xiang, Liu; Xiang, Shaopeng; Yang, Muyi

    2018-01-01

    The solution mining of salt mineral resources may contaminate groundwater and lead to water inrush out of the ground due to brine leakage. Through the example of a serious groundwater inrush hazard in a large salt-mining area in Tongbai County, China, this study mainly aims to analyse the source and channel of the inrushing water. The mining area has three different types of ore beds including trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate, also sodium sesquicarbonate dihydrate, with the formula Na2CO3 × NaHCO3 × 2H2O, it is a non-marine evaporite mineral), glauber (sodium sulfate, it is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates) and gypsum (a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with chemical formula CaSO4 × 2H2O). Based on characterisation of the geological and hydrogeological conditions, the hydrochemical data of the groundwater at different points and depths were used to analyse the pollution source and the pollutant component from single or mixed brine by using physical-chemical reaction principle analysis and hydrogeochemical simulation method. Finally, a possible brine leakage connecting the channel to the ground was discussed from both the geological and artificial perspectives. The results reveal that the brine from the trona mine is the major pollution source; there is a NW-SE fissure zone controlled by the geological structure that provides the main channels through which brine can flow into the aquifer around the water inrush regions, with a large number of waste gypsum exploration boreholes channelling the polluted groundwater inrush out of the ground. This research can be a valuable reference for avoiding and assessing groundwater inrush hazards in similar rock-salt-mining areas, which is advantageous for both groundwater quality protection and public health.

  19. Divergent Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides and Identification of Sulfate Motifs that Inhibit Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Poh, Zhong; Heng Gan, Chin; Lee, Eric J.; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W.; Lam, Yulin

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the “sulfation code” is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  20. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  1. Groundwater arsenic removal by coagulation using ferric(III) sulfate and polyferric sulfate: A comparative and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jinli; Jing, Chuanyong; Che, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Duan, Shuxuan

    2015-06-01

    Elevated arsenic (As) in groundwater poses a great threat to human health. Coagulation using mono- and poly-Fe salts is becoming one of the most cost-effective processes for groundwater As removal. However, a limitation comes from insufficient understanding of the As removal mechanism from groundwater matrices in the coagulation process, which is critical for groundwater treatment and residual solid disposal. Here, we overcame this hurdle by utilizing microscopic techniques to explore molecular As surface complexes on the freshly formed Fe flocs and compared ferric(III) sulfate (FS) and polyferric sulfate (PFS) performance, and finally provided a practical solution in As-geogenic areas. FS and PFS exhibited a similar As removal efficiency in coagulation and coagulation/filtration in a two-bucket system using 5mg/L Ca(ClO)2. By using the two-bucket system combining coagulation and sand filtration, 500 L of As-safe water (<10 μg/L) was achieved during five treatment cycles by washing the sand layer after each cycle. Fe k-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and As k-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the solid residue indicated that As formed a bidentate binuclear complex on ferrihydrite, with no observation of scorodite or poorly-crystalline ferric arsenate. Such a stable surface complex is beneficial for As immobilization in the solid residue, as confirmed by the achievement of much lower leachate As (0.9 μg/L-0.487 mg/L) than the US EPA regulatory limit (5 mg/L). Finally, PFS is superior to FS because of its lower dose, much lower solid residue, and lower cost for As-safe drinking water. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  3. Effect of light, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen nutrition on the incorporation of S from external sulfate into different S-containing fractions in Scenedesmus, with special reference to lipid S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylin, A

    1966-01-01

    Incorporation of S from the sulfate in the medium into normal cells of Scenedesmus was enhanced by light, relatively most in the case of lipid S and least in the inorganic sulfate fraction. The effects of light were, generally, increased by the presence of CO/sub 2/ and nitrogen salts. CO/sub 2/ did not significantly alter the proportions between the fractions, but the presence of nitrogen increased the formation of protein S more than the synthesis of S-containing lipids. It is suggested that lipid S is formed as a sink, when a step between sulfite and -SH becomes increasingly rate-limiting in the overall reduction of sulfate. Furthermore, incorporation as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and as lipid S may be regulated by more or less independent processes. 15 references, 2 tables.

  4. Determination of particle size distribution of salt crystals in aqueous slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.G.

    1977-10-01

    A method for determining particle size distribution of water-soluble crystals in aqueous slurries is described. The salt slurries, containing sodium salts of predominantly nitrate, but also nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, aluminates, carbonate, and hydroxide, occur in radioactive, concentrated chemical waste from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel elements. The method involves separating the crystals from the aqueous phase, drying them, and then dispersing the crystals in a nonaqueous medium based on nitroethane. Ultrasonic treatment is important in dispersing the sample into its fundamental crystals. The dispersed crystals are sieved into appropriate size ranges for counting with a HIAC brand particle counter. A preponderance of very fine particles in a slurry was found to increase the difficulty of effecting complete dispersion of the crystals because of the tendency to retain traces of aqueous mother liquor. Traces of moisture produce agglomerates of crystals, the extent of agglomeration being dependent on the amount of moisture present. The procedure is applicable to particles within the 2 to 600 μm size range of the HIAC particle counter. The procedure provides an effective means for measuring particle size distribution of crystals in aqueous salt slurries even when most crystals are less than 10 μm in size. 19 figures

  5. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  6. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca, E-mail: odilefrancesca.restaino@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Finamore, Rosario, E-mail: rosario.finamore@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Diana, Paola, E-mail: paola.diana@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Marseglia, Mariacarmela, E-mail: marimars84@hotmail.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Vitiello, Mario, E-mail: mariovitiello.ita@gmail.com [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Casillo, Angela, E-mail: angela.casillo@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Bedini, Emiliano, E-mail: emiliano.bedini@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Parrilli, Michelangelo, E-mail: michelangelo.parrilli@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); and others

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  7. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2017-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  8. Effect of Hofmeister series salts on Absorptivity of aqueous solutions on Sodium polyacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrapati, Swathi; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Vijayalakshmi, U.

    2017-11-01

    Sodium polyacrylate (SPA) is a popular super absorbent commonly used in children diapers, sanitary pads, adult diapers etc. The use of SPA is in force from past 30 years and the newer applications like as food preservant are evolving. SPA is recently discovered by our group for improvement of sensitivity of colorimetric agents. Though the discovery of improvement in sensitivity is phenomenal, the mechanism still remains a puzzle. A typical assay reagent contains colorimetric/fluorescent reagents, buffers, salts, stabilizers etc. These chemicals are known to influence the water absorptivity of SPA. If we were to perform chemical/biochemical assays on SPA absorbed reagents effect of salts and other excipients on colorimetric/fluorescence compounds absorbed on SPA is very important. The hofmeister series are standard for studying effect of salts on permeability, stability, aggregation, fluorescence quenching etc. We recently studied affect of urea, sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, guanidine thiocayanate on fluorescence characteristics of fluorescence compounds and noted that except urea all other reagents have resulted in fluorescence quenching and urea had an opposite effect and increased the fluorescence intensity. This result was attributed to the different water structure around fluorescent in urea solution versus other chaotropic agents.

  9. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  10. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  11. Phase transformation of aluminium hydroxide to aα- alumina prepared from different aluminium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masliana Muslimin; Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2006-01-01

    The study intends to look at the most suitable aluminium salt to produce a single-phase a-alumina by the hydrothermal method. In the process to produce alumina from the calcination of aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ), three different aluminium salts namely aluminium sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 2), aluminium nitrate (A(NO 3 ) 3 ) and aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) were tried. The process involved the used of NH 4 OH as the precipitating medium. Aluminium hydroxide produced from each of these salts were characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique to identity the crystalline phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced by all the different aluminium salts is present as boehmite or pseudo-boehmite phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced from Al 2 (SO) 2 , Al(NO) 3 and AlCl 3 shows the transformation of the boehmite phase to a α-alumina phase at 500 0 C. On further heating, the α-alumina continuously formed at 800 o C followed soon at 1000 o C. But for the Al(NO3) 3 salts a different phase transitions occurs on heating especially at 1000 o C. Here it was observed not a single alumina phase is presence but the presence of both α and γ--alumina phases. At 1300 o C, the single α-alumina phase was formed. The study concluded that aluminium sulphate is recommended in order to obtain a single-phase α-alumina with the required characteristics. (Author)

  12. Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2014-11-04

    Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution and metabolism of quaternary amines in salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M.

    1985-01-01

    Quaternary amines such as glycine betaine (GBT) are common osmotically active solutes in much of the marine biota. GBT is accumulated by various bacteria, algae, higher plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates in response to salinity or water stresses; in some species, GBT occurs at tens to hundreds of millimolar concentrations and can account for a significant fraction of total nitrogen. Initial studies suggest that GBT is readily converted to two potential methane precursors, trimethylamine (TMA) and acetate, in anoxic sediments. TMA is apparently the most important methane precursor in surface sediments containing sulfate reducing bacteria. In salt marshes, the bulk of the methane formed may be due to the metabolism of TMA rather than other substrates. Current research is focussed on testing this hypothesis and on determining the role of quaternary amino osmoregulatory solutes in methane fluxes from marine environments. Preliminary studies have dealt with several problems: (1) determination of GBT concentrations in the dominant flora and fauna of salt marshes; (2) synthesis of radiolabelled GBT for metabolic studies; and (3) determination of fates of BGT in marine sediments using radiotracers. Both GC and HPLC techniques have been used to assay GBT concentrations in plant and animal tissues. S. alterniflora is probably the only significant source of GBT (and indirectly of methane) since the biomass and distribution of most other species is limited. Current estimates suggest that S. alterniflora GBT could account for most of the methane efflux from salt marshes.

  14. Estimation of salt loads for the Dolores River in the Paradox Valley, Colorado, 1980–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2017-07-13

    Regression models that relate total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations to specific conductance were used to estimate salt loads for two sites on the Dolores River in the Paradox Valley in western Colorado. The salt-load estimates will be used by the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate salt loading to the river coming from the Paradox Valley and the effect of the Paradox Valley Unit (PVU), a project designed to reduce the salinity of the Colorado River. A second-order polynomial provided the best fit of the discrete data for both sites on the river. The largest bias occurred in samples with elevated sulfate concentrations (greater than 500 milligrams per liter), which were associated with short-duration runoff events in late summer and fall. Comparison of regression models from a period of time before operation began at the PVU and three periods after operation began suggests the relation between TDS and specific conductance has not changed over time. Net salt gain through the Paradox Valley was estimated as the TDS load at the downstream site minus the load at the upstream site. The mean annual salt gain was 137,900 tons per year prior to operation of the PVU (1980–1993) and 43,300 tons per year after the PVU began operation (1997–2015). The difference in annual salt gain in the river between the pre-PVU and post-PVU periods was 94,600 tons per year, which represents a nearly 70 percent reduction in salt loading to the river.

  15. Determination of thermodynamic parameters for complexation of calcium and magnesium with chondroitin sulfate isomers using isothermal titration calorimetry: Implications for calcium kidney-stone research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen L.; Jackson, Graham E.

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) occurs in human urine. It has several potential binding sites for calcium and as such may play an inhibitory role in calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (kidney stone disease by reducing the supersaturation (SS) and crystallization of these salts. Urinary magnesium is also a role player in determining speciation in stone forming processes. This study was undertaken to determine the thermodynamic parameters for binding of the disaccharide unit of two different CS isomers with calcium and magnesium. These included the binding constant K. Experiments were performed using an isothermal titration calorimeter (ITC) at 3 different pH levels in the physiological range in human urine. Data showed that interactions between the CS isomers and calcium and magnesium occur via one binding site, thought to be sulfate, and that log K values are 1.17-1.93 and 1.77-1.80 for these two metals respectively. Binding was significantly stronger in Mg-CS than in Ca-CS complexes and was found to be dependent on pH in the latter but not in the former. Furthermore, binding in Ca-CS complexes was dependent on the location of the sulfate binding site. This was not the case in the Mg-CS complexes. Interactions were shown to be entropy driven and enthalpy unfavourable. These findings can be used in computational modeling studies to predict the effects of the calcium and magnesium CS complexes on the speciation of calcium and the SS of calcium salts in real urine samples.

  16. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  18. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  19. Large scale disposal of waste sulfur: From sulfide fuels to sulfate sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappold, T.A.; Lackner, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum industries produce more byproduct sulfur than the market can absorb. As a consequence, most sulfur mines around the world have closed down, large stocks of yellow sulfur have piled up near remote operations, and growing amounts of toxic H 2 S are disposed of in the subsurface. Unless sulfur demand drastically increases or thorough disposal practices are developed, byproduct sulfur will persist as a chemical waste problem on the scale of 10 7 tons per year. We review industrial practices, salient sulfur chemistry, and the geochemical cycle to develop sulfur management concepts at the appropriate scale. We contend that the environmentally responsible disposal of sulfur would involve conversion to sulfuric acid followed by chemical neutralization with equivalent amounts of base, which common alkaline rocks can supply cheaply. The resulting sulfate salts are benign and suitable for brine injection underground or release to the ocean, where they would cause minimal disturbance to ecosystems. Sequestration costs can be recouped by taking advantage of the fuel-grade thermal energy released in the process of oxidizing reduced compounds and sequestering the products. Sulfate sequestration can eliminate stockpiles and avert the proliferation of enriched H 2 S stores underground while providing plenty of carbon-free energy to hydrocarbon processing.

  20. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Saline Playas on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as Mars Analog for the Formation-Preservation of Hydrous Salts and Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Zheng, M.; Kong, F.; Sobron, P.; Mayer, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    Qinghai-Tibet (QT) Plateau has the highest average elevation on Earth (~ 4500 m, about 50-60% of atmospheric pressure at sea-level). The high elevation induces a tremendous diurnal (and seasonal) temperature swing caused by high level of solar irradiation during the day and low level of atmospheric insulation during the evening. In addition, the Himalaya mountain chain (average height >6100 m) in the south of the QT Plateau largely blocks the pathway of humid air from the Indian Ocean, and produces a Hyperarid region (Aridity Index, AI ~ 0.04), the Qaidam Basin (N32-35, E90-100) at the north edge of the QT Plateau. Climatically, the low P, T, large ΔT, high aridity, and high UV radiation all make the Qaidam basin to be one of the most similar places on Earth to Mars. Qaidam basin has the most ancient playas (up to Eocene) and the lakes with the highest salinity on QT Plateau. More importantly, Mg-sulfates appear in the evaporative salts within the most ancient playas (Da Langtang) at the northwest corner of Qaidam basin, which mark the final stage of the evaporation sequence of brines rich in K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, C, B, S, and Cl. The evaporation minerals in the saline playas of Qaidam basin, their alteration and preservation under hyperarid conditions can be an interesting analog for the study of Martian salts and salty regolith. We conducted a field investigation at Da Langtan playa in Qaidam basin, with combined remote sensing (ASTER on board of NASA’s Terra satellite, 1.656, 2.167, 2.209, 2.62, 2.336, 2.40 µm), in situ sensing of a portable NIR spectrometer (WIR, 1.25-2.5 µm continuous spectral range), and the laboratory analyses of collected samples from the field (ASD spectrometer, 0.4 -2.5 µm, and Laser Raman spectroscopy). The results indicate that the materials contributing the high albedo layers in playa deposits are carbonate-gypsum-bearing surface soils, salt-clay-bearing exhaumed Pleistocene deposits, dehydrated Na-sulfates, hydrous Mg

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  7. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Sulfate in the Fresh Water, King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Park, B.; Mayer, B.; Kaufman, A. J.; Park, S.; Kim, G.; Lee, K.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic compositions of sulfur (δ34S) and oxygen (δ18O) were measured for the sulfate of the fresh water near the King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica. Sejong station is located in the Barton peninsular of the King George Island. The geology around King Sejong station mainly composed of basalt-andesite, quart monzodiorite, and granodiorite. Lapilli tuff, conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone occur along the southern and eastern shore of the Barton peninsula. Lapilli tuff also occurs on the highland located on southeastern part of the Barton peninsula. The δ34S values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 13.7 to 16.3 per mil excluding 1 sample. These sulfur values are very narrow in their range compared with those from anthropogenic sources. These sulfur values are 5 to 7 per mil lower than those of typical present seawater. Considering the rocks occurring near the King Sejong station, these sulfur isotopic values do not seem to be related to any evaporites of certain age. In Antarctic region the natural source of sulfate dissolved in water could be originated from marine biogenic source (DMS), sea-salt, volcanic source, or other continental sources. Most of the δ34S values of sulfate at King Sejong station seems to indicate the dominance of marine biogenic origin for the source of sulfur. The δ18O values of sulfate extracted from fresh water samples at King Sejong Station range from 1.9 to 6.4 per mil excluding 1 sample. These oxygen isotope values are lower than those of the sulfate in the present seawater by 6 per mil. However, both sulfur and oxygen isotope values strongly represent the influence of the seawater sulfate. One sample have 2.6 and -1.1 per mil in its δ34S and δ18O values, respectively, that are quite different from the isotopic values of other samples. This sample was collected in the highland far from the King Sejong station. Therefore this sample might reflect the composition of

  8. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-β-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-β-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-[1- 3 H]galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides. (Auth.)

  9. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-..beta..-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-..beta..-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-(1-/sup 3/H)galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides.

  10. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  12. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  13. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  14. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique H Bucher

    Full Text Available Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina, the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite, and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic "fluffy" surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr, and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  16. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  17. Production of ferrous sulfate from residue from the iron mining; Producao de sulfato ferroso a partir de residuo proveniente da mineracao de ferro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.A; Riella, H.G.; Abreu, E.F. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engrenharia Quimica; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Combustivel Nuclear

    2012-11-15

    This paper was developed from a residue obtained by processing iron ore exploited by the mining company Samarco S/A. The residue was characterized and the analyses showed that it contains about 70% of the mineral hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and also that some economically important products could be produced. One is the ferrous sulfate that can be used in pharmaceuticals and also that can be used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The iron, in addition to is importance for the industrial production of steel and parts in general, also has great biological importance in all living beings. In order to produce ferrous sulfate from the byproduct in question, it was developed a obtaining route using metallic iron as hematite reductor and sulfuric acid to form the salt. (author)

  18. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 2. Influence of Coating Solution Viscosity, Stickiness, pH, and Droplet Diameter on Agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 49, 1914], agglomeration regime maps were developed for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. It was observed here how the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt coating...... the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency of agglomeration, similar to that of the salt coating process. The best results for the PVA-TiO2 solution are obtained by substituting the PVA-TiO2 in equal amounts with Neodol 23-6.5 and further reducing the pH value in the coating...

  19. Sulfation in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Feres, Fred F.; Trinidad, Francisco

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead-acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead-acid batteries is the word, sulfation. Sulfation is a residual term that came into existence during the early days of lead-acid battery development. The usage is part of the legend that persists as a means for interpreting and justifying the eventual performance deterioration and failure of lead-acid batteries. The usage of this term is confined to the greater user community and, over time, has encouraged a myriad of remedies for solving sulfation problems. One can avoid the connotations associated with the all-inclusive word, sulfation by visualizing the general "sulfation" effect in terms of specific mechanistic models. Also, the mechanistic models are essential for properly understanding the operation and making proper use this battery system. It is evident that the better the model, the better the level of understanding.

  20. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  1. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  2. Sulfate and dissolved sulfide variation under low COD/Sulfate ratio in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB treating domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérvio Túlio Alves Cassini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamics of sulfate reduction and dissolved sulfide generation (S2-, HS-, H2Saq in liquid phase was evaluated in an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater with low COD/Sulfate content. The evaluation in the UASB reactor was performed at three sludge heights (0.25, 1.25, 2.25 taps and effluent of the reactor. Sulfate reduction was verified in the reactor, with an average reduction of 24 % throughout the experiment period. However, the dissolved sulfide concentration in the reactor was not higher than 5.0 mg Sdiss/L. The kinetic model of first order showed good fit to describe the sulfate reduction under different COD/sulfate ratio, with K1app between 2.94x10-5 s-1 and 1.17x10-5 s-1 with correlation coefficients for data over 91%. The maximum rate to sulfate reduction was 18.0 mg SO42-/L.h-1 and small variation in COD/sulfate ratio promotes a significant change both in sulfate and sulfide concentrations.

  3. Evaluation of the Impact of Excipients and an Albendazole Salt on Albendazole Concentrations in Upper Small Intestine Using an In Vitro Biorelevant Gastrointestinal Transfer (BioGIT) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourentas, Alexandros; Vertzoni, Maria; Khadra, Ibrahim; Symillides, Mira; Clark, Hugh; Halbert, Gavin; Butler, James; Reppas, Christos

    2016-09-01

    An in vitro biorelevant gastrointestinal transfer (BioGIT) system was assessed for its ability to mimic recently reported albendazole concentrations in human upper small intestine after administration of free base suspensions to fasted adults in absence and in presence of supersaturation promoting excipients (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and lipid self-emulsifying vehicles). The in vitro method was also used to evaluate the likely impact of using the sulfate salt on albendazole concentrations in upper small intestine. In addition, BioGIT data were compared with equilibrium solubility data of the salt and the free base in human aspirates and biorelevant media. The BioGIT system adequately simulated the average albendazole gastrointestinal transfer process and concentrations in upper small intestine after administration of the free base suspensions to fasted adults. However, the degree of supersaturation observed in the duodenal compartment was greater than in vivo. Albendazole sulfate resulted in minimal increase of albendazole concentrations in the duodenal compartment of the BioGIT, despite improved equilibrium solubility observed in human aspirates and biorelevant media, indicating that the use of a salt is unlikely to lead to any significant oral absorption advantage for albendazole. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  5. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  6. Aqueous two-phase (polyethylene glycol + sodium sulfate) system for caffeine extraction: Equilibrium diagrams and partitioning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Sampaio, Daniela de; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Forville de Andrade, Eriel; Oberson de Souza, Michèle; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Castilhos, Fernanda de

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Binodal curves of PEG (400, 4000 and 6000) + Na_2SO_4 ATPS were determined. • Tie-lines were experimentally determined for aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system. • Influence of caffeine on LLE of aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system was investigated. • Partitioning of caffeine in aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system was investigated. • Caffeine partition showed to be dependent on temperature and TLL. - Abstract: Environmental friendly methods for liquid–liquid extraction have been taken into account due to critical conditions and ecotoxicological effects potentially produced by organic solvents applied in traditional methods. Liquid–liquid extraction using aqueous two phase systems (ATPSs) presents advantages when compared to traditional liquid–liquid extraction. (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) + sodium sulfate + water) ATPS was applied to study partition of caffeine. Binodal curves for ATPSs composed of PEG of different molecular weights (400 g · mol"−"1, 4000 g · mol"−"1 and 6000 g · mol"−"1) sodium sulfate + water were determined by cloud point method at three different temperatures (293.15, 313.15 and 333.15) K. Liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) data (tie-lines, slope of the tie-line and tie-lines length) were obtained applying a gravimetric method proposed by Merchuck and co-workers at the same temperatures for aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate) and aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate + caffeine) systems. Reliability of the experimental tie-line (TL) data was evaluated using the equations reported by Othmer–Tobias and satisfactory linearity was obtained. Concerning to aqueous (PEG + sodium sulfate) system, the results pointed out that the higher PEG molecular weight the largest is the heterogeneous region. Moreover, temperature showed not to be relevant on binodal curves behavior, but it influenced on tie-line slopes. Partitioning of caffeine in aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate) system was investigated at different temperatures

  7. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  8. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Sulfation and cation effects on the conformational properties of the glycan backbone of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-05-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic "backbone" has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high-resolution, high-precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All 10 disaccharides (β1-3 vs β1-4 linkage × five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum, whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA -COO(-) moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to -COO(-) can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to -COO(-) results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing information

  10. Development and validation of an alternative titration method for the determination of sulfate ion in indinavir sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Carvalho e Silva

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid precipitation titration method was developed and validated to determine sulfate ion content in indinavir sulfate raw material. 0.1 mol L-1 lead nitrate volumetric solution was used as titrant employing potentiometric endpoint determination using a lead-specific electrode. The United States Pharmacopoeia Forum indicates a potentiometric method for sulfate ion quantitation using 0.1 mol L-1 lead perchlorate as titrant. Both methods were validated concerning linearity, precision and accuracy, yielding good results. The sulfate ion content found by the two validated methods was compared by the statistical t-student test, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the methods.

  11. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  12. The combined therapy with chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine sulfate or chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride does not improve joint damage in an experimental model of knee osteoarthritis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Mediero, Aránzazu; Tardío, Lidia; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Gratal, Paula; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; Largo, Raquel

    2017-01-05

    Osteoarthritis is the most common chronic joint disorder especially during aging. Although with controversies, glucosamine, both in its forms of sulfate and hydrochloride, and chondroitin sulfate are commonly employed to treat osteoarthritis. Due to the modest improve in the symptoms observed in patients treated with these drugs alone, a formulation combining both agents has been considered. The discrepant results achieved for pain control or structural improvement in osteoarthritis patients has been attributed to the quality of chemical formulations or different bias in clinical studies. The current study has been designed to test the effects of two different combined formulations with adequate pharmaceutical grade of these drugs in osteoarthritic joints, and to explore the underlying mechanisms modulated by both formulations in different osteoarthritis target tissues. Knee osteoarthritis was surgically induced in experimental rabbits. Some animals received the combined therapy (CT)1, (chondroitin sulfate 1200mg/day + glucosamine sulfate 1500mg/day), or the CT2 ((chondroitin sulfate 1200mg/day + glucosamine hydrochloride 1500mg/day). Neither CT1 nor CT2 significantly modified the cartilage damage or the synovial inflammation observed in osteoarthritic animals. Treatments were also unable to modify the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators, and the synthesis of metalloproteinases in the cartilage or in the synovium of osteoarthritic animals. Combined therapies did not modify the decrease in the subchondral bone mineral density observed in osteoarthritic rabbits. Therapies of chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine sulfate or chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride failed to improve structural damage or to ameliorate the inflammatory profile of joint tissues during experimental osteoarthritis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Murakoshi, Saori; Kalayanamitra, Kittiwan; Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Fukui, Shigeyuki; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates and are linear polysaccharides consisting of variously sulfated repeating disaccharides, [-4GlcUAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-](n), where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. CS chains containing D-disaccharide units [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)] are involved in the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity through interaction with a neurotrophic factor, pleiotrophin, resulting in the regulation of signaling. In this study, to obtain further structural information on the CS chains containing d-disaccharide units involved in brain development, oligosaccharides containing D-units were isolated from a shark fin cartilage. Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, ΔO-D-D, ΔA-D-D, ΔC-D-D, ΔE-A-D, ΔD-D-C, ΔE-D-D and ΔA-B-D, in addition to three previously reported sequences, ΔC-A-D, ΔC-D-C and ΔA-D-A, were isolated from a CS preparation of shark fin cartilage after exhaustive digestion with chondroitinase AC-I, which cannot act on the galactosaminidic linkages bound to D-units. The symbol Δ stands for a 4,5-unsaturated bond of uronic acids, whereas A, B, C, D, E and O represent [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-, 6-O-sulfate)] and [GlcUA-GalNAc], respectively. In binding studies using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody, MO-225, the epitopes of which are involved in cerebellar development in mammals, novel epitope structures, ΔA-D-A, ΔA-D-D and ΔA-B-D, were revealed. Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields.

  14. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  15. Effect of metakaolin on external sulfate attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlochan, T.; Thomas, M. [Toronto Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of high reactivity metakaolin (HRM) on the sulfate resistance of mortars was studied. Mortar bars with three cements of varying C{sub 3}A content were used for the experiment. After a six month exposure to a 5 per cent solution of sodium sulfate, mortar bars incorporating any level of HRM as a partial replacement for a high-C{sub 3}A was considered 'moderately sulfate resistant'; mortar bars with HRM and a moderate or low C{sub 3}A content as 'high sulfate resistant'. It was also determined that for long term sulfate resistance 15 per cent HRM or more may be required, depending on the C{sub 3}A content. The performance of HRM was found to be significantly influenced by the water-cementitious material ratio, and in turn, by permeability, suggesting that HRM might increase sulfate resistance more by lowering the permeability of the concrete than by any chemical action. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Furfuryl Alcohol to Butyl Levulinate Biofuel over Common Metal Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincai Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Levulinate ester has been identified as a promising renewable fuel additive and platform chemical. Here, the use of a wide range of common metal salts as acid catalysts for catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived furfuryl alcohol to butyl levulinate was explored by conventional heating. Both alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides did not lead effectively to the conversion of furfuryl alcohol, while several transition metal chlorides (CrCl3, FeCl3, and CuCl2 and AlCl3 exhibited catalytic activity for the synthesis of butyl levulinate. For their sulfates (Cr(III, Fe(III, Cu(II, and Al(III, the catalytic activity was low. The reaction performance was correlated with the Brønsted acidity of the reaction system derived from the hydrolysis/alcoholysis of cations, but was more dependent on the Lewis acidity from the metal salts. Among these investigated metal salts, CuCl2 was found to be uniquely effective, leading to the conversion of furfuryl alcohol to butyl levulinate with an optimized yield of 95%. Moreover, CuCl2 could be recovered efficiently from the resulting reaction mixture and remained with almost unchanged catalytic activity in multiple recycling runs.

  17. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  18. Mechanism of groundwater inrush hazard caused by solution mining in a multilayered rock-salt-mining area: a case study in Tongbai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The solution mining of salt mineral resources may contaminate groundwater and lead to water inrush out of the ground due to brine leakage. Through the example of a serious groundwater inrush hazard in a large salt-mining area in Tongbai County, China, this study mainly aims to analyse the source and channel of the inrushing water. The mining area has three different types of ore beds including trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate, also sodium sesquicarbonate dihydrate, with the formula Na2CO3  ×  NaHCO3  ×  2H2O, it is a non-marine evaporite mineral, glauber (sodium sulfate, it is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates and gypsum (a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with chemical formula CaSO4  ×  2H2O. Based on characterisation of the geological and hydrogeological conditions, the hydrochemical data of the groundwater at different points and depths were used to analyse the pollution source and the pollutant component from single or mixed brine by using physical–chemical reaction principle analysis and hydrogeochemical simulation method. Finally, a possible brine leakage connecting the channel to the ground was discussed from both the geological and artificial perspectives. The results reveal that the brine from the trona mine is the major pollution source; there is a NW–SE fissure zone controlled by the geological structure that provides the main channels through which brine can flow into the aquifer around the water inrush regions, with a large number of waste gypsum exploration boreholes channelling the polluted groundwater inrush out of the ground. This research can be a valuable reference for avoiding and assessing groundwater inrush hazards in similar rock-salt-mining areas, which is advantageous for both groundwater quality protection and public health.

  19. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Dupont, Sam T; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1-2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  1. N-sulfation of heparan sulfate is critical for syndecan-4-mediated podocyte cell-matrix interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugar, T.; Wassenhove-McCarthy, D.J.; Orr, A.W.; Green, J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; McCarthy, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that podocytes unable to assemble heparan sulfate on cell surface proteoglycan core proteins have compromised cell-matrix interactions. This report further explores the role of N-sulfation of intact heparan chains in podocyte-matrix interactions. For the purposes of this

  2. ELECTRODIALYSIS IN THE CONVERSION STEP OF THE CONCENTRATED SALT SOLUTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF BATTERY SCRAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The concentrated sodium sulfate solution is formed during the processing of waste battery scrap. A promising way to further treatment of the concentrated salt solution could be the conversion of these salts into acid and bases by electrodialysis, that can be reused in the same technical process cycle. For carrying out the process of conversion of salts into the corresponding acid and base several cells schemes with different combinations of cation, anion and bipolar membranes are used. At this article a comparative analysis of these cells is carried out. In the cells there were used the membranes МC-40, МА-41 and МB-2I. Acid and base solutions with higher concentration may be obtained during the process of electrodialysis in the circulation mode, when a predetermined amount of salt in the closed loop is run through a set of membranes to obtain the desired concentration of the product. The disadvantages of this method are the high cost of buffer tanks and the need to work with small volumes of treated solutions. In industrial applications it is advisable to use continuous electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, since this configuration allows to increase the number of repeating sections, which is necessary to reduce the energy costs. The increase of the removal rate of salts can be achieved by increasing the process steps, and to produce a more concentrated products after the conversion step can be applied electrodialysis-concentrator or evaporator.

  3. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, J.; Pera, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  4. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  5. Mencegah Pembentukan Kalsium Sulfat pada Desalinasi Air Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resin penukar-anion, Relite MG 1/P, dapat digunakan untuk memisahkan sulfat dalam air laut guna mencegah pembentukan kerak kalsium sulfat pada heat exchanger. Resin tersebut menunjukkan selektivitas sulfat yang tinggi dalam air laut sintetis. Resin yang telah dipakai dapat diregenerasi menggunakan air asin yang dipekatkan dengan asam hingga mencapai pH 4. Untuk waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi yang sama, faktor konsentrasi desalinasi (misalnya 2 hingga 4 menaikkan konsentrasi klorida dalam air asin yang diblowdown. Dengan faktor konsentrasi yang tetap, kenaikan laju alir (pengurangan waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi memperendah efisiensi regenerasi dan menaikkan pemisahan sulfat. Akibat kelarutan kalsium sulfat yang bersifat terbalik tersebut, temperatur air asin yang tinggi memerlukan pemisahan sulfat yang lebih banyak, yang dapat dicapai dengan mengurangi laju alir air laut. Pengurangan laju alir tersebut membutuhkan peralatan yang lebih besar dan resin yang lebih banyak, sehingga biaya modal bertambah. Untuk pabrik desalinasi dengan kapasitas produksi 1 juta gallon per hari dan faktor konsentrasi sebesar 2, biaya pemisahan sulfat meliputi biaya resin dan biaya peralatan. Biaya tersebut bervariasi dari $0.246 hingga $0.356/kgalon (per ribu galon air yang diproduksi karena temperatur maksimum air asin berubah dari 140°C menjadi 180°C. Keywords: desalinasi air laut, ion exchange, kalsium sulfat, kerak; mechanical vapor compression (MVC, pemisahan sulfat, resin penukar-anion basa lemah

  6. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  7. A conductance study of guanidinium chloride, thiocyanate, sulfate, and carbonate in dilute aqueous solutions: ion-association and carbonate hydrolysis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Neueder, Roland; Buchner, Richard; Apelblat, Alexander

    2013-01-17

    We study the conductance of dilute aqueous solutions for a series of guandinium salts at 298.15 K. The experimental molar conductivities were analyzed within the framework of the Quint-Viallard theory in combination with Debye-Hückel activity coefficients. From this analysis, we find no evidence for significant ion association in aqueous solutions of guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and guanidinium thiocyanate (GdmSCN), and the molar conductivity of these electrolytes can be modeled assuming a complete dissociation. The limiting ionic conductivity of the guanidinium ion (Gdm(+)) is accurately determined to λ(Gdm(+)) = 51.45 ± 0.10 S cm(2) mol(-1). For the bivalent salts guanidinium sulfate (Gdm(2)SO(4)) and guanidinium carbonate (Gdm(2)CO(3)), the molar conductivities show small deviations from ideal (fully dissociated electrolyte) behavior, which are related to weak ion association in solution. Furthermore, for solutions of Gdm(2)CO(3), the hydrolysis of the carbonate anion leads to distinctively increased molar conductivities at high dilutions. The observed ion association is rather weak for all studied electrolytes and cannot explain the different protein denaturing activities of the studied guanidinium salts, as has been proposed previously.

  8. The ferrous ammonium sulfate solid system, as dosemeter for processes at low temperatures and high doses of gamma radiation; El sistema sulfato ferroso amoniacal solido, como dosimetro para procesos a bajas temperaturas y altas dosis de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez C, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A. [ICN-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and dose from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is Fe{sup 3+} and molar concentration of ferric ion was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosemeter, at low temperatures and high dose. (Author)

  9. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  10. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  11. Synthesis of [19- 2H3]-analogs of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone and their sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerný, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Budesínský, Milos; Bicíková, Marie; Hill, Martin; Hampl, Richard

    2004-03-01

    Deuterated analogs of pregnenolone and pregnenolone sulfate with three atoms of deuterium in position 19 were prepared. The synthetic approach was developed on derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone, where initial intermediates were well characterized, and then applied to the pregnenolone series. Starting 19-hydroxy compounds were transformed into 3alpha,5-cycloderivatives to simplify the Jones oxidation into the corresponding 19-oic acids. After oxidation, rearrangement to 3-hydroxy-5-enes, and suitable protection, two deuterium atoms were introduced by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction. Mesylate exchange by iodide in the presence of zinc and deuterium oxide added third deuterium atom. Deprotection gave title analogs with about 93-95% content of d3-derivative, the rest was mainly not fully deuterated d2-analogue as followed from the mass spectra analysis. Thus, 3beta-hydroxy[19-2H3]androst-5-en-17-one was prepared in 14 steps from 19-hydroxy-17-oxoandrost-5-en-3beta-yl acetate in 8.9% yield, the analogous sequence in the pregnenolone series gave 3beta-hydroxy[19-2H3]pregn-5-en-20-one in 7.3% yield. Corresponding sulfates were prepared via pyridinium salts in 53 and 57% yields, respectively. Fully assigned NMR data of selected pregnenolone derivatives were given.

  12. Expression and activity of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in curly kale in response to sulfate deprivation and re-supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koralewska, Aleksandra; Buchner, Peter; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Posthumus, Freek S.; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2009-01-01

    Both activity and expression of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in plants are modulated by the sulfur status of the plant. To examine the regulatory mechanisms in curly kale (Brossica olerracea L.), the sulfate supply was manipulated by the transfer of seedlings to sulfate-deprived

  13. Impacts of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.; Tilmes, S.; Mills, M. J.; Richter, J.; Kravitz, B.; MacMartin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) includes sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon, elemental carbon, soil dust, and sea salt. The first four components are mostly present near the ground as fine particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and these are of the most concern for human health. PM is efficiently scavenged by precipitation, which is its main atmospheric sink. Here we examine the impact of stratospheric climate engineering on this important pollutant and health risk, taking advantage of two sets of climate model simulations conducted at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. We use the full tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry version of the Community Earth System Model - Community Atmospheric Model 4 (CESM CAM4-chem) with a horizontal resolution of 0.9° x 1.25° lat-lon to simulate a stratospheric sulfate injection climate intervention of 8 Tg SO2 yr-1 combined with an RCP6.0 global warming forcing, the G4 Specified Stratospheric Aerosol (G4SSA) scenario. We also analyze the output from a 20-member ensemble of Community Earth System Model, version 1 with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model as its atmospheric component (CESM1(WACCM)) simulations, also at 0.9° x 1.25° lat-lon resolution, with sulfur dioxide injection at 15°N, 15°S, 30°N, and 30°S varying in time to balance RCP8.5 forcing. While the CESM CAM4-chem model has full tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, CESM1(WACCM) has an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation and a comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric sulfate aerosol treatment, but only stratospheric chemistry. For G4SSA, there are a global temperature reduction of 0.8 K and global averaged precipitation decrease of 3% relative to RCP6.0. The global averaged surface PM2.5 reduces about 1% compared with RCP6.0, mainly over Eurasian and East Asian regions in Northern Hemisphere winter. The PM2.5 concentration change is a combination of effects from tropospheric chemistry and precipitation

  14. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  15. Ganymede's internal structure including thermodynamics of magnesium sulfate oceans in contact with ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Steve; Bouffard, Mathieu; Choukroun, Mathieu; Sotin, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The large icy moons of Jupiter contain vast quantities of liquid water, a key ingredient for life. Ganymede and Callisto are weaker candidates for habitability than Europa, in part because of the model-based assumption that high-pressure ice layers cover their seafloors and prevent significant water-rock interaction. Water-rock interactions may occur, however, if heating at the rock-ice interface melts the high pressure ice. Highly saline fluids would be gravitationally stable, and might accumulate under the ice due to upward migration, refreezing, and fractionation of salt from less concentrated liquids. To assess the influence of salinity on Ganymede's internal structure, we use available phase-equilibrium data to calculate activity coefficients and predict the freezing of water ice in the presence of aqueous magnesium sulfate. We couple this new equation of state with thermal profiles in Ganymede's interior-employing recently published thermodynamic data for the aqueous phase-to estimate the thicknesses of layers of ice I, III, V, and VI. We compute core and silicate mantle radii consistent with available constraints on Ganymede's mass and gravitational moment of inertia. Mantle radii range from 800 to 900 km for the values of salt and heat flux considered here (4-44 mW m-2 and 0 to 10 wt% MgSO4). Ocean concentrations with salinity higher than 10 wt% have little high pressure ice. Even in a Ganymede ocean that is mostly liquid, achieving such high ocean salinity is permissible for the range of likely S/Si ratios. However, elevated salinity requires a smaller silicate mantle radius to satisfy mass and moment-of-inertia constraints, so ice VI is always present in Ganymede's ocean. For lower values of heat flux, oceans with salinity as low as 3 wt% can co-exist with ice III. Available experimental data indicate that ice phases III and VI become buoyant for salinity higher than 5 wt% and 10 wt%, respectively. Similar behavior probably occurs for ice V at salinities

  16. Salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions of methylcellulose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, C; Tam, K C; Li, L

    2004-02-03

    The effects of various salts on the sol-gel transition of aqueous methylcellulose (MC) solutions have been studied systematically by means of a micro differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the heating process was endothermic while the cooling process was exothermic for both MC solutions with and without salts. The addition of salts did not change the patterns of gelation and degelation of MC. However, the salts could shift the sol-gel transition and the gel-sol transition to lower or higher temperatures from a pure MC solution, depending on the salt type. These opposite effects were termed the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions. Either the salt-assisted transition or the salt-suppressed sol-gel transition was a function of salt concentration. In addition, each salt was found to have its own concentration limit for producing a stable aqueous solution of MC at a given concentration of MC, which was related to the anionic charge density of the salt. Cations were proved to have weaker effects than anions. The "salt-out strength", defined as the salt effect per mole of anion, was obtained for each anion studied. The thermodynamic mechanisms involved in the salt-assisted and salt-suppressed sol-gel transitions are discussed.

  17. Sulfate resistance of nanosilica contained Portland cement mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batilov, Iani B.

    Soils, sea water and ground water high in sulfates are commonly encountered hostile environments that can attack the structure of concrete via chemical and physical mechanisms which can lead to costly repairs or replacement. Sulfate attack is a slow acting deteriorative phenomenon that can result in cracking, spalling, expansion, increased permeability, paste-to-aggregate bond loss, paste softening, strength loss, and ultimately, progressive failure of concrete. In the presented research study, Portland cement (PC) mortars containing 1.5% to 6.0% nanosilica (nS) cement replacement by weight were tested for sulfate resistance through full submersion in sodium sulfate to simulate external sulfate attack. Mortars with comparable levels of cement replacement were also prepared with microsilica (mS). Three cement types were chosen to explore nS' effectiveness to reduce sulfate expansion, when paired with cements of varying tricalcium aluminate (C3A) content and Blaine fineness, and compare it to that of mS. Mortars were also made with combined cement replacement of equal parts nS and mS to identify if they were mutually compatible and beneficial towards sulfate resistance. Besides sulfate attack expansion of mortar bars, the testing program included investigations into transport and microstructure properties via water absorption, sulfate ion permeability, porosimetry, SEM with EDS, laser diffraction, compressive strength, and heat of hydration. Expansion measurements indicated that mS replacement mortars outperformed both powder form nS, and nS/mS combined replacement mixtures. A negative effect of the dry nS powder replacement attributed to agglomeration of its nanoparticles during mixing negated the expected superior filler, paste densification, and pozzolanic activity of the nanomaterial. Agglomerated nS was identified as the root cause behind poor performance of nS in comparison to mS for all cement types, and the control when paired with a low C3A sulfate resistant

  18. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  19. Chondroitin / dermatan sulfate modification enzymes in zebrafish development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Habicher

    Full Text Available Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS proteoglycans consist of unbranched sulfated polysaccharide chains of repeating GalNAc-GlcA/IdoA disaccharide units, attached to serine residues on specific proteins. The CS/DS proteoglycans are abundant in the extracellular matrix where they have essential functions in tissue development and homeostasis. In this report a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate genes coding for the enzymes that modify CS/DS is presented. We identify single orthologous genes in the zebrafish genome for the sulfotransferases chst7, chst11, chst13, chst14, chst15 and ust and the epimerase dse. In contrast, two copies were found for mammalian sulfotransferases CHST3 and CHST12 and the epimerase DSEL, named chst3a and chst3b, chst12a and chst12b, dsela and dselb, respectively. Expression of CS/DS modification enzymes is spatially and temporally regulated with a large variation between different genes. We found that CS/DS 4-O-sulfotransferases and 6-O-sulfotransferases as well as CS/DS epimerases show a strong and partly overlapping expression, whereas the expression is restricted for enzymes with ability to synthesize di-sulfated disaccharides. A structural analysis further showed that CS/DS sulfation increases during embryonic development mainly due to synthesis of 4-O-sulfated GalNAc while the proportion of 6-O-sulfated GalNAc increases in later developmental stages. Di-sulfated GalNAc synthesized by Chst15 and 2-O-sulfated GlcA/IdoA synthesized by Ust are rare, in accordance with the restricted expression of these enzymes. We also compared CS/DS composition with that of heparan sulfate (HS. Notably, CS/DS biosynthesis in early zebrafish development is more dynamic than HS biosynthesis. Furthermore, HS contains disaccharides with more than one sulfate group, which are virtually absent in CS/DS.

  20. Terrestrial analogs for interpretation of infrared spectra from the Martian surface and subsurface: Sulfate, nitrate, carbonate, and phyllosilicate-bearing Atacama Desert soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Dalton, J. B.; Ewing, S. A.; Amundson, R.; McKay, C. P.

    2007-10-01

    Hyperarid (Mars soils have similar sulfate concentrations; possess phyllosilicates (e.g., smectite) and minor carbonate. Nitrate has not been detected on Mars, but its presence has been proposed. The similar compositions of Atacama and Mars soils have prompted the visible-infrared (0.35-25 μm) investigation of Atacama soils as Mars analogs. Results from this work determined the best infrared features for detecting sulfate, nitrate, carbonate, and phyllosilicate on Mars. The fundamental region (>6.5 μm) was not suited for salt and phyllosilicate detection because of overlapping spectra from primary silicates (e.g., feldspar), water and carbon dioxide. The visible near-infrared (0.35-2.5 μm) region was suited for detecting carbonate, nitrate, gypsum water of hydration, and phyllosilicate hydroxyls without interference from primary silicates. However, gypsum water of hydration features can obscure phyllosilicate hydroxyl, carbonate and nitrate, features if gypsum levels are high. Overtone/combination absorption features in the midinfrared were determined to be the best indicators of sulfate (4.48-4.70 μm), nitrate (4.12 μm), and carbonate (3.98 μm) because interferences from overlapping primary silicate and water features are not present in this region. Interferences from CO2 and thermal emission effects in the overtone/combination region are possible but may be minimized by corrective techniques. Infrared analysis of Atacama Desert soils can provide insight into the spectral search of sulfate, nitrate, carbonate, and phyllosilicate containing soils on Mars.

  1. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 3. The Role of Tackiness and the Tack Stokes Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    In the first and second parts of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 48, 1893 and 1905], agglomeration tendencies were studied for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. Results showed that the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt...... of agglomeration, similar to the salt coating process. With the PVA-TiO2, coating liquid layer thicknesses encountered during these fluid-bed coating processes, agglomeration seems to be governed primarily by liquid surface phenomena. A modification to the original viscous Stokes number is suggested in the present...... paper, which defines the Stokes number in terms of the work needed to reach maximum tack instead of the viscous dissipation energy. The new tack Stokes number correlates well with the observed levels of agglomeration and, as a promising feature, proportionality is observed between the agglomeration...

  2. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  3. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Kwong, Kai; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Nin Chan, Man

    2018-02-01

    Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na) droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH) of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4-) has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O) and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ṡ -) upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27 × 1012 molecule cm-3 s), only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an

  4. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

  5. Acidity-Reactivity Relationships in Catalytic Esterification over Ammonium Sulfate-Derived Sulfated Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I. M. Rabee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New insight was gained into the acidity-reactivity relationships of sulfated zirconia (SZ catalysts prepared via (NH42SO4 impregnation of Zr(OH4 for propanoic acid esterification with methanol. A family of systematically related SZs was characterized by bulk and surface analyses including XRD, XPS, TGA-MS, N2 porosimetry, temperature-programmed propylamine decomposition, and FTIR of adsorbed pyridine, as well as methylbutynol (MBOH as a reactive probe molecule. Increasing surface sulfation induces a transition from amphoteric character for the parent zirconia and low S loadings <1.7 wt %, evidenced by MBOH conversion to 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone, methylbutyne and acetone, with higher S loadings resulting in strong Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs upon completion of the sulfate monolayer, which favored MBOH conversion to prenal. Catalytic activity for propanoic acid esterification directly correlated with acid strength determined from propylamine decomposition, coincident with the formation of Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs identified by MBOH reactive titration. Monodispersed bisulfate species are likely responsible for superacidity at intermediate sulfur loadings.

  6. Purification and characterisation of a salt-stable protease from the halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruichang; Shi, Tong; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Mengqin; Cui, Henglin; Yuan, Li

    2017-03-01

    Because proteases play an important role in the fermentation of fish sauce, the purification and characterisation of an extracellular protease from the halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum was investigated. The molecular mass of the protease was estimated to be approximately 47 kDa based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE) and native-PAGE analysis. The optimum conditions for catalytic activity were pH 8.0 and 50°C. The protease showed alkaline stability (pH 7.0-10.0). The protease also exhibited novel catalytic ability over a broad range of salinity (NaCl 0-3 mol L -1 ). Calcium ion enhanced the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. The K m and V max values of the purified protease for casein were calculated to be 4.89 mg mL -1 and 1111.11 U mL -1 , respectively. The protease was strongly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Meanwhile, the protease was stable in the presence of Triton X-100, isopropanol, ethanol or dithio-bis-nitrobenzoic (DTNB), but was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or methanol. MALDI -TOF/TOF MS analysis revealed that the protease shared some functional traits with protease produced by Halogranum salarium. Furthermore, it exhibited high hydrolytic activity on silver carp myosin protein. The protease is an alkaline and salt-tolerant enzyme that hydrolyses silver carp myosin with high efficiency. These excellent characteristics make this protease an attractive candidate for industrial use in low-salt fish sauce fermentation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  8. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  9. Metabolic interactions in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, A J M; Plugge, C M; de Bok, F A M; van Houten, B H G W; Lens, P; Dijkman, H; Weijma, J

    2005-01-01

    In environments where the amount of electron acceptors is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic consortia of acetogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Hydrogen consumption by methanogens is essential for acetogenic bacteria to convert organic acids to acetate and hydrogen. Several syntrophic cocultures growing on propionate and butyrate have been described. These syntrophic fatty acid-degrading consortia are affected by the presence of sulfate. When sulfate is present sulfate-reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic archaea for hydrogen and acetate, and with acetogenic bacteria for propionate and butyrate. Sulfate-reducing bacteria easily outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, but the presence of acetate as carbon source may influence the outcome of the competition. By contrast, acetoclastic methanogens can compete reasonably well with acetate-degrading sulfate reducers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria grow much faster on propionate and butyrate than syntrophic consortia.

  10. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  11. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  12. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  13. Spartina alterniflora alters ecosystem DMS and CH4 emissions and their relationship along interacting tidal and vegetation gradients within a coastal salt marsh in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxin; Wang, Jinshu

    2017-10-01

    the creek and other vegetation zones, methanogenesis was inhibited by sulfate reduction. This suggests that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction were spatially isolated within the coastal salt marsh. Therefore, we conclude that the invasive S. alterniflora altered the ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of DMS and CH4 and the responses of the relationship between these two gases to interacting gradients of tidal inundation and vegetation within an Eastern Chinese coastal salt marsh.

  14. Tetrazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirobokov, I.Yu.; Ostrovskij, V.A.; Koldobskij, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics and the relation of products of the reaction of 5-phenyltetrazole salts alkylation with dimethyl sulfate-d 6 in acetonitrile are studied. The reaction limiting stage is the addition of dimethyl sulfate-d 6 to 5-phenyltetrazole anion as well as during the alkylation with dimethyl sulfate. The revearse secondary kinetic isotopic effect Ksub(H)/Ksub(D)=0.85 (25 deg C) is observed at the change of dimethyl sulfate with dimethyl sulfate-d 6 . The data obtained testify to the two-stage mechanism of the reaction of 5-phenyltetrazole salts alkylation

  15. Direct sulfation of limestone based on oxy-fuel combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.M.; Zhao, C.S.; Liu, S.T.; Wang, C.B. [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China)

    2009-10-15

    With limestone as the sorbent, the sulfation reaction can proceed via two different routes depending on whether calcination of the limestone takes place under the given reaction conditions. The direct sulfation reaction is defined as the sulfation reaction between sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and limestone in an uncalcined state. This reaction, based on oxyfuel combustion technology, was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Surface morphologies of the limestone particles after sulfation were examined by a scanning electron microscope. Results show that there are more pores or gaps in the product layer formed by direct sulfation of limestone than by indirect sulfation, which can be attributed to the generation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at a reaction interface. Compared with indirect sulfation, direct sulfation of limestone can yield much higher conversion and has a much higher reaction rate. For direct sulfation, the greater porosity in the product layer greatly reduces the solid-state ion diffusion distance, resulting in a higher reaction rate and higher conversion.

  16. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO 2 , HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g -1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  17. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  18. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  19. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine into heparan and chondroitin sulfates during the cell cycle of B16-F10 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, O.C.; Sartorelli, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in glycosaminoglycan composition occurring during the cell cycle were determined in B16-F10 cells sorted flow cytometrically with respect to DNA content. Incorporation of 35 S-sulfate into heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate of unsorted and G1,S, and G2 +M sorted cells was determined following chondroitinase ABC or nitrous acid treatment; the incorporation into surface material was measured as the difference between the radioactivity of control and trypsin-treated cells. Incorporation of 35 S-sulfate and 3 H-glucosamine into cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC)-precipitable material was characterized before and after chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment by Sephadex G50 chromatography. Long-term (48 h) and short-term (1 h) labeling studies demonstrate that (a) the amount of total cellular chondroitin sulfate is greater than that of heparan sulfate, with larger amounts of unsulfated heparan than chondroitin being present; (b) the rate of turnover of heparan sulfate is greater than that of chondroitin sulfate; (c) greatest short-term incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into CPC-precipitable material occurs during S phase; and (d) the rate of turnover of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate is decreased in S phase relative to G1 and G2 + M

  20. Purification, structural characterization and antiproliferative properties of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate from tunisian fish skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichen, Fatma; Volpi, Nicola; Sila, Assaâd; Maccari, Francesca; Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs were extracted and purified from the skins of grey triggerfish (GTSG) and smooth hound (SHSG). The disaccharide composition produced by chondroitinase ABC treatment showed the presence of nonsulfated disaccharide, monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S, and disulfated disaccharides in different percentages. In particular, the nonsulfated disaccharide ΔDi0S of GTSG and SHSG were 3.5% and 5.5%, respectively, while monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S were evaluated to be 18.2%, 59% and 14.6%, 47.0%, respectively. Capillary elecrophoresis analysis of GTSG and SHSG contained 99.2% and 95.4% of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, respectively. PAGE analysis showed a GTSG and SHSG having molecular masses with average values of 41.72KDa and 23.8KDa, respectively. HCT116 cell proliferation was inhibited (p<0.05) by 70.6% and 72.65% at 200μg/mL of GTSG and SHSG respectively. Both GTSG and SHSG demonstrated promising antiproliferative potential, which may be used as a novel, effective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of conditioning film on antifouling properties of the polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate in urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huihui; Qian, Bin; Chen, Huaying; Lan, Minbo

    2017-12-01

    The encrustation and induced infection severely impact on the therapeutic effectiveness and service life of urinary stents due to the fast formation of conditioning film on urinary stents after implantation. The composition and properties of conditioning film have great influence on antifouling properties of stent materials. In our previous work, we modified polyurethane films by chondroitin sulfate (PU-CS) with different CS grafting densities to verify its anti-fouling properties. To obtain the in-depth understanding of encrustation on urinary stents, we investigated the impact of the composition and properties of conditioning film on the following inorganic salt deposition and bacteria adhesion in urine. The results showed that quantity of proteins and polysaccharides in conditioning films, and the roughness, water contact angle and zeta potential of PU-CSs covered with corresponding conditioning film decreased with the increase of CS grafting density on PU films.PU-CS(3) with highest CS grafting density (3.70 g/cm2) had the highest bacteria inhibition rate and least inorganic salt deposition among the PU-CSs in artificial urine. Moreover, inorganic salts depositing on the PU-CS(3) were less and smaller than those on other films. Bacteria were not detectable until day 21 in real urine. Meanwhile, the pH value was elevated. The results suggested that the component of conditioning films was more important than other surface properties such as hydrophilicity, zeta potential and roughness for inorganic salt deposition and bacteria adhesion. Moreover, the anti-encrustation properties of the surface was promoted by proteins and inhibited by polysaccharides.

  2. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Apperley, David C. [Solid-State NMR Group, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kinoshita, Hajime [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked C–A–S–H gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  3. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Kwong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4− has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ⋅ − upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19  ×  10−13 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27  ×  1012 molecule cm−3 s, only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we

  4. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  5. Comparison of Seed Germination and Recovery Responses of a Salt Marsh Halophyte Halopeplis Perfoliata to Osmotic and Ionic Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S. G.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity affects seed germination of halophytes by inducing ionic toxicity, osmotic constraint or both. Information about the effects of salinity on seed germination of a large number of halophytes exists, but generally little is known about the basis of salinity-induced germination inhibition. In order to partition salinity effects, we studied seed germination and recovery responses of a coastal salt marsh halophyte halopeplis perfoliata to different isotonic treatments (Psi/sub S/: -0.5, -1.0, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5, MPa) of various salts and polythylene glycol (PEG) under two light regimes (12-h light photo period and 24-h complete darkness). Highest seed germination was observed in distilled water under 12-h light photo period and reduction in osmotic potential of the solution decreased seed germination. However, some seeds of H. perfoliata could germinate in as low as -2.5 MPa (600 mM NaCl), which is equivalent to seawater salinity. Sea-salt treatment was more inhibitory than isotonic NaCl at the lowest osmotic potential (Psi/sub S/ -2.5 MPa). Generally, chloride salts with lowest Psi/sub S/ inhibited germination more than the isotonic sulfate salts. Comparable germination responses of the seeds in NaCl and isotonic PEG treatments as well as high recovery of germination in un-germinated seeds after alleviation of NaCl salinity indicated prevalence of osmotic constraint. These results thus indicate that the seeds of H. perfoliata could tolerate high levels of a wide variety of salts found in soil. (author)

  6. Sulfates on Mars: TES Observations and Thermal Inertia Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. D.; Mustard, J. F.

    2001-05-01

    The high resolution thermal emission spectra returned by the TES spectrometer on the MGS spacecraft have allowed the mapping of a variety of minerals and rock types by different sets of researchers. Recently, we have used a linear deconvolution approach to compare sulfate-palagonite soil mixtures created in the laboratory with Martian surface spectra. This approach showed that a number of areas on Mars have spectral properties that match those of sulfate-cemented soils (but neither loose powder mixtures of sulfates and soils nor sand-sized grains of disaggregated crusted soils). These features do not appear to be caused by atmospheric or instrumental effects and are thus believed to be related to surface composition and texture. The distribution and physical state of sulfate are important pieces of information for interpreting surface processes on Mars. A number of different mechanisms could have deposited sulfate in surface layers. Some of these include evaporation of standing bodies of water, aerosol deposition of volcanic gases, hydrothermal alteration from groundwater, and in situ interaction between the atmosphere and soil. The areas on Mars with cemented sulfate signatures are spread across a wide range of elevations and are generally large in spatial scale. Some of the areas are associated with volcanic regions, but many are in dark red plains that have previously been interpreted as duricrust deposits. Our current work compares the distribution of sulfate-cemented soils as mapped by the spectral deconvolution approach with thermal inertia maps produced from both Viking and MGS-TES. Duricrust regions, interpreted from intermediate thermal inertia values, are large regions thought to be sulfate-cemented soils similar to coherent, sulfate-rich materials seen at the Viking lander sites. Our observations of apparent regions of cemented sulfate are also large in spatial extent. This scale information is important for evaluating formation mechanisms for the

  7. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhances the controlled release properties of the chondroitin sulfate gels. While introduction of chondroitin sulfate into a scaffold inhibits primary cortical outgrowth, the combination of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide and nerve growth factor promotes primary cortical neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels.

  8. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid

  9. Xyloside-primed Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate from Breast Carcinoma Cells with a Defined Disaccharide Composition Has Cytotoxic Effects in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Andrea; Tykesson, Emil; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Malmström, Anders; Ellervik, Ulf; Mani, Katrin

    2016-07-08

    We previously reported that the xyloside 2-(6-hydroxynaphthyl) β-d-xylopyranoside (XylNapOH), in contrast to 2-naphthyl β-d-xylopyranoside (XylNap), specifically reduces tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo Although there are indications that this could be mediated by the xyloside-primed glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and that these differ in composition depending on xyloside and cell type, detailed knowledge regarding a structure-function relationship is lacking. In this study we isolated XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed GAGs from a breast carcinoma cell line, HCC70, and a breast fibroblast cell line, CCD-1095Sk, and demonstrated that both XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs derived from HCC70 cells had a cytotoxic effect on HCC70 cells and CCD-1095Sk cells. The cytotoxic effect appeared to be mediated by induction of apoptosis and was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the XylNap-primed heparan sulfate GAGs. In contrast, neither the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate nor the heparan sulfate derived from CCD-1095Sk cells primed on XylNapOH or XylNap had any effect on the growth of HCC70 cells or CCD-105Sk cells. These observations were related to the disaccharide composition of the XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed GAGs, which differed between the two cell lines but was similar when the GAGs were derived from the same cell line. To our knowledge this is the first report on cytotoxic effects mediated by chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V M; Hillamo, R; Maekinen, M; Virkkula, A; Maekelae, T; Pakkanen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  11. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  12. ROLE OF TYROSINE-SULFATED PROTEINS IN RETINAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanan, Y.; Al-Ubaidi, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a significant role in cellular and retinal health. The study of retinal tyrosine-sulfated proteins is an important first step toward understanding the role of ECM in retinal health and diseases. These secreted proteins are members of the retinal ECM. Tyrosine sulfation was shown to be necessary for the development of proper retinal structure and function. The importance of tyrosine sulfation is further demonstrated by the evolutionary presence of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases, enzymes that catalyze proteins’ tyrosine sulfation, and the compensatory abilities of these enzymes. Research has identified four tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins: fibulin 2, vitronectin, complement factor H (CFH), and opticin. Vitronectin and CFH regulate the activation of the complement system and are involved in the etiology of some cases of age-related macular degeneration. Analysis of the role of tyrosine sulfation in fibulin function showed that sulfation influences the protein's ability to regulate growth and migration. Although opticin was recently shown to exhibit anti-angiogenic properties, it is not yet determined what role sulfation plays in that function. Future studies focusing on identifying all of the tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins would be instrumental in determining the impact of sulfation on retinal protein function in retinal homeostasis and diseases. PMID:25819460

  13. A novel chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conovaloff, Aaron William

    Brachial plexus injuries affect numerous patients every year, with very debilitating results. The majority of these cases are very severe, and involve damage to the nerve roots. To date, repair strategies for these injuries address only gross tissue damage, but do not supply cells with adequate regeneration signals. As a result, functional recovery is often severely lacking. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel that delivers neurotrophic signals to damaged neurons is proposed as a scaffold to support nerve root regeneration. Capillary electrophoresis studies revealed that chondroitin sulfate can physically bind with a variety of neurotrophic factors, and cultures of chick dorsal root ganglia demonstrated robust neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate hydrogels. Outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels was greater than that observed in control gels of hyaluronic acid. Furthermore, the chondroitin sulfate hydrogel's binding activity with nerve growth factor could be enhanced by incorporation of a synthetic bioactive peptide, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. This enhanced binding was observed only in chondroitin sulfate gels, and not in hyaluronic acid control gels. This enhanced binding activity resulted in enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels. Finally, the growth of regenerating dorsal root ganglia in these gels was imaged using label-free coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy. This technique generated detailed, high-quality images of live dorsal root ganglion neurites, which were comparable to fixed, F-actin-stained samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the viability of this chondroitin sulfate hydrogel to serve as an effective implantable scaffold to aid in nerve root regeneration.

  14. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  15. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I

  16. Pectin of Prunus domestica L. alters sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate in differentiated Caco-2 cells through stimulation of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Murata, Kazuma; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Although previous reports have suggested that pectin induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. As heparan sulfate plays important roles in development of the small intestine, to verify the involvement of heparan sulfate (HS) in the pectin-induced morphological changes of the small intestine, the effects of pectin from Prunus domestica L. on cell-surface HS were investigated using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Disaccharide compositional analysis revealed that sulfated structures of HS were markedly changed by pectin administration. Real-time RT-PCR showed that pectin upregulated human HS 6-O-endosulfatase-2 (HSulf-2) expression and markedly inhibited HSulf-1 expression. Furthermore, inhibition analysis suggested that pretreatment with fibronectin III1C fragment, RGD peptide, and ERK1/2 inhibitor suppressed pectin-induced HSulf-2 expression. These observations indicate that pectin induced the expression of HSulf-2 through the interaction with fibronectin, α5β1 integrin, and ERK1/2, thereby regulating the sulfated structure of HS on differentiated Caco-2 cells.

  17. Preparation and thermal properties of Glauber’s salt-based phase-change materials for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau solar greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zipeng; Tie, Shengnian

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of eutectic Glauber’s salt-based composite, phase-change materials (G-PCMs). PCMs were prepared using industrial-grade sodium sulfate decahydrate (Na2SO4 ṡ 10H2O) as the basic material. Other salts were added to obtain the eutectic Glauber’s salt-based PCMs with phase-change temperatures of 25∘C, 15∘C and 10∘C. The modification of the G-PCMs was designed using the same experimental method to select the efficient nucleating, thickening and thermal conductive agents. The results show that borax can be an effective nucleating agent, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is an excellent thickener and carbon powder is a good thermal conductive agent. The phase-change temperature, latent heat and thermal conductivity of the three different PCMs are 23.9∘C, 15.4∘C and 9.5∘C; 179.6, 129 and 116.2 J/g; and 1.02, 1.10 and 1.23 W/(m K), respectively. These PCMs possess suitable phase-change temperature, high latent heat and good thermal conductivity, and can be used in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau agricultural solar greenhouses.

  18. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  19. Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Are Targeted by Bleomycin in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulian; Lan, Ying; He, Yanli; Liu, Yong; Luo, Heng; Yu, Haibo; Song, Ni; Ren, Sumei; Liu, Tianwei; Hao, Cui; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Bleomycin is a clinically used anti-cancer drug that produces DNA breaks once inside of cells. However, bleomycin is a positively charged molecule and cannot get inside of cells by free diffusion. We previously reported that the cell surface negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may be involved in the cellular uptake of bleomycin. We also observed that a class of positively charged small molecules has Golgi localization once inside of the cells. We therefore hypothesized that bleomycin might perturb Golgi-operated GAG biosynthesis. We used stable isotope labeling coupled with LC/MS analysis of GAG disaccharides simultaneously from bleomycin-treated and non-treated cancer cells. To further understand the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and its relationship to GAGs, we used sodium chlorate to inhibit GAG sulfation and commercially available GAGs to compete for cell surface GAG/bleomycin interactions in seven cell lines including CHO745 defective in both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. we discovered that heparan sulfate GAG was significantly undersulfated and the quantity and disaccharide compositions of GAGs were changed in bleomycin-treated cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We revealed that bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity was directly related to cell surface GAGs. GAGs were targeted by bleomycin both at cell surface and at Golgi. Thus, GAGs might be the biological relevant molecules that might be related to the bleomycin-induced fibrosis in certain cancer patients, a severe side effect with largely unknown molecular mechanism. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. High salt intake increases plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentration and produces gut dysbiosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, Klaudia; Radkowski, Marek; Grochowska, Marta; Perlejewski, Karol; Huc, Tomasz; Jaworska, Kinga; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ufnal, Marcin

    2018-03-22

    A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition. High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are allergic to ferrous sulfate, any other medications tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  2. Sulfate as a pivotal factor in regulation of Serratia sp. strain S2B pigment biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari, Banafsheh; Karbalaei-Heidari, Hamid Reza

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, we investigated the prodiginine family as secondary metabolite members. Bacterial strain S2B, with the ability to produce red pigment, was isolated from the Sarcheshmeh copper mine in Iran. 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was placed in the Serratia genus. Pigment production was optimized using low-cost culture medium and the effects of various physicochemical factors were studied via statistical approaches. Purification of the produced pigment by silica gel column chromatography showed a strong red pigment fraction and a weaker orange band. Mass spectrometry, FT-IR spectroscopy and (1)H NMR analysis revealed that the red pigment was prodigiosin and the orange band was a prodigiosin-like analog, with molecular weights of 323 and 317 Da, respectively. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity studies confirmed their membership in the prodiginine family. Analysis of the production pattern of the pigments in the presence of different concentrations of ammonium salts revealed the role of sulfate as an important factor in regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway. Overall, the data showed that regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway in Serratia sp. strain S2B was affected by inorganic micronutrients, particularly the sulfate ions. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human vocal fold lamina propria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Park

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. Objective: To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. Methods: We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12 h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. Results: The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Conclusion: Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly.

  4. Evaluation of the Inhibitory Effects of Different Salts on 2,4-D Efficacy in Control of Kochia (Kochiascoparia L. and Redroot pigweed (Amaranthusretroflexus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of water used in spray tanks can affect herbicide efficacy, especially acidic herbicides such as 2,4-D. Water is the primary carrier for herbicide applications and it usually makes up over 99% of the spray solution. Considering that, it should be no surprise that the chemistry of water added to the spray tank greatly impacts herbicide effectiveness. Some ions such as calcium and magnesium cations that dissolve into the water, creating various levels of hardness in the water supply. 2,4-D is weak acid herbicide that can be influenced by hard water cations or foliar fertilizers. It has shown reduced activity when applied in water containing calcium and magnesium cations. Hence considering the quality of the water tank sprayer especially hardness helps optimize the efficacy of herbicides. Thus this research was conducted to determine the effect of different salts to 2,4-D on kochia and redroot pigweed as indicator weed species. Material and Methods: Greenhouse experiments were conducted during 2014 at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride in 500 ppm and deionized water as the control on the efficacy of 2,4-D in three doses including 135, 270 and 540 g. a.i. ha-1 (SL 72% with and without ammonium sulfate (AMS ( 2% w/v. Kochia and Redroot pigweed were planted after breaking dormancy in plastic pots. Herbicide was applied using a backpack sprayer calibrated to deliver 290 L ha−1 at 200 kPa with flat-fan nozzles (Tee Jet 8002 flat-fan spray nozzles. Spray solutions were thoroughly agitated each time a new solution was prepared and immediately prior to application to bring herbicide into solution. Living plants were recorded 3 weeks after herbicide treatment irrespective of the timing of application. In addition to survival, the above-ground dry weight of Kochia and redroot pigweed in each pot was determined 3 weeks after the

  5. DHEA-sulfate test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHEA sulfate may be due to: Adrenal gland disorders that produce lower than normal amounts of adrenal hormones, including adrenal insufficiency and Addison disease The pituitary gland not producing normal amounts of its hormones ( hypopituitarism ) ...

  6. Behaviour of cementitious materials: sulfates and temperature actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarulo, Remi

    2002-09-01

    The research work presented in this Ph.D. thesis is related to the nuclear waste underground repository concept. Concrete could be used in such a repository, and would be subjected to variations of temperature in presence of sulfate, a situation that could induce expansion of concrete. The research was lead in three parts: an experimental study of the possibility of an internal sulfate attack on mortars; an experimental study and modeling of the chemical equilibriums of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system; and a modeling of the mechanisms of internal and external sulfate attacks, and the effect of temperature. The results show that mortars can develop expansions after a steam-cure during hydration, but also when a long steam-cure is applied to one-year-old mortars, which is a new point. Ettringite precipitation can be considered as responsible for these expansions. The experimental study of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system clarified the role of Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H) on chemical equilibriums of cementitious materials. Sulfate sorption on C-S-H has been studied in detail. The quantity of sulfate bound to the C-S-H mainly depends on the sulfate concentration in solution, on the Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H and is not significantly influenced by temperature. Aluminium inclusion in the C-S-H seems to be a significant phenomenon. Temperature increases the calcium sulfo-aluminate solubilities and thus increases sulfates concentration in solution. A modeling of the chemical system is proposed. Simulations of external sulfate attack (15 mmol/L of Na 2 SO 4 ) predict ettringite precipitation at 20 and 85±C. Simulation of internal sulfate attack was performed at a local scale (a hydrated cement grain). An initial inhomogeneity can lead, after a thermal curing at 85±C, to ettringite precipitation in zones originally free from ettringite. This new-formed ettringite could be the origin of the expansions. (author) [fr

  7. Selenium inhibits sulfate-mediated methylmercury production in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jie; Dang, Fei; Zhao, Jia-Ting; Zhong, Huan

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding factors controlling methylmercury (MeHg) production in mercury-contaminated rice paddy soil. Sulfate has been reported to affect MeHg biogeochemistry under anoxic conditions, and recent studies revealed that selenium (Se) could evidently reduce MeHg production in paddy soil. However, the controls of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in paddy soil under fluctuating redox conditions remain largely unknown. Microcosm experiments were conducted to explore the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil. Soil was added with 0-960 mg/kg sulfate, in the presence or absence of 3.0 mg/kg selenium (selenite or selenate), and incubated under anoxic (40 days) or suboxic conditions (5 days), simulating fluctuating redox conditions in rice paddy field. Sulfate addition moderately affected soil MeHg concentrations under anoxic conditions, while reoxidation resulted in evidently higher (18-40%) MeHg levels in sulfate amended soils than the control. The observed changes in net MeHg production were related to dynamics of sulfate and iron. However, Se could inhibit sulfate-mediated MeHg production in the soils: Se addition largely reduced net MeHg production in the soils (23-86%, compared to the control), despite of sulfate addition. Similarly, results of the pot experiments (i.e., rice cultivation in amended soils) indicated that soil MeHg levels were rather comparable in Se-amended soils during rice growth period, irrespective of added sulfate doses. The more important role of Se than sulfate in controlling MeHg production was explained by the formation of HgSe nanoparticles irrespective of the presence of sulfate, confirmed by TEM-EDX and XANES analysis. Our findings regarding the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil together with the mechanistic explanation of the processes advance our understanding of MeHg dynamics and risk in soil-rice systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  8. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  9. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler-Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  10. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven [ 35 S]-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC 50 , ∼40 μM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation

  11. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  12. Comparative miRomics of Salt-Tolerant and Salt-Sensitive Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami Kavita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in soil salt causes osmotic and ionic stress to plants, which inhibits their growth and productivity. Rice production is also hampered by salinity and the effect of salt is most severe at the seedling and reproductive stages. Salainity tolerance is a quantitative property controlled by multiple genes coding for signaling molecules, ion transporters, metabolic enzymes and transcription regulators. MicroRNAs are key modulators of gene-expression that act at the post-transcriptional level by translation repression or transcript cleavage. They also play an important role in regulating plant’s response to salt-stress. In this work we adopted the approach of comparative and integrated data-mining to understand the miRNA-mediated regulation of salt-stress in rice. We profiled and compared the miRNA regulations using natural varieties and transgenic lines with contrasting behaviors in response to salt-stress. The information obtained from sRNAseq, RNAseq and degradome datasets was integrated to identify the salt-deregulated miRNAs, their targets and the associated metabolic pathways. The analysis revealed the modulation of many biological pathways, which are involved in salt-tolerance and play an important role in plant phenotype and physiology. The end modifications of the miRNAs were also studied in our analysis and isomiRs having a dynamic role in salt-tolerance mechanism were identified.

  13. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  14. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  15. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  16. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  17. Wind-blown sandstones cemented by sulfate and clay minerals in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, R. E.; Ewing, R. C.; Fischer, W. W.; Hurowitz, J.

    2014-02-01

    Gale Crater contains Mount Sharp, a ~5 km thick stratigraphic record of Mars' early environmental history. The strata comprising Mount Sharp are believed to be sedimentary in origin, but the specific depositional environments recorded by the rocks remain speculative. We present orbital evidence for the occurrence of eolian sandstones within Gale Crater and the lower reaches of Mount Sharp, including preservation of wind-blown sand dune topography in sedimentary strata—a phenomenon that is rare on Earth and typically associated with stabilization, rapid sedimentation, transgression, and submergence of the land surface. The preserved bedforms in Gale are associated with clay minerals and elsewhere accompanied by typical dune cross stratification marked by bounding surfaces whose lateral equivalents contain sulfate salts. These observations extend the range of possible habitable environments that may be recorded within Gale Crater and provide hypotheses that can be tested in situ by the Curiosity rover payload.

  18. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  19. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  20. Euglena mitochondria and chloroplasts form tyrosine-O-sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidha, T.; Hanfstingl, U.; Schiff, J.A. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Mitochondria from light-grown wild-type Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris Cori or dark-grown mutant W{sub 10}BSmL incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, or with {sup 14}C-tyrosine, non-radioactive sulfate and ATP accumulate a labeled compound in the medium. Since this compound shows exact coelectrophoresis with tyrosine-O-sulfate (TOS) at pH 2.0, 5.8 or 8.0., yields sulfate and tyrosine on acid hydrolysis, and treatment with aryl sulfatase from Aerobacter aerogenes yields sulfate and tyrosine but no tyrosine methyl ester, it is identified as TOS. No TOS is found outside purified developing chloroplasts incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, but both chloroplasts and mitochondria form to {sup 35}S externally when incubated with adenosine 3{prime} phosphate 5{prime}phospho({sup 35}S) sulfate (PAP{sup 35}S). Since no tyrosine need be added, tyrosine is provided from endogenous sources. Although TOS is found in the free pool of Euglena cells it cannot be detected in proteins of cells or mucus ruling our sulfation of tyrosine of protein or incorporation of TOS into proteins. The system forming TOS is membrane-bound and may be involved in tyrosine transport.

  1. Solvation and Ion Pair Association in Aqueous Metal Sulfates: Interpretation of NDIS raw data by isobaric-isothermal molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chialvo, Ariel A.; Simonson, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the solvation behavior of aqueous lithium, nickel, and ytterbium sulfates at ambient conditions in terms of the relevant radial distributions functions and the corresponding first-order difference of the sulfur-site neutron weighted distribution functions generated by isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulation. We determined of the partial contributions to the neutron weighted distribution functions, to identify the main peaks, and the effect of the contact ion-pair configuration on the resulting H-S coordination number. Finally, we assessed the extent of the ion-pair formation according to Poirier-DeLap formalism and highlighted the significant increase of the ion-pair association exhibited by these salts with cation charge.

  2. COMPARISON OF UASB AND FLUIDIZED-BED REACTORS FOR SULFATE REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bertolino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reactor hydrodynamics is important for sulfidogenesis because sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB do not granulate easily. In this work, the sulfate reduction performance of two continuous anaerobic bioreactors was investigated: (i an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and (ii a fluidized bed reactor (FBR. Organic loading, sulfate reduction, and COD removal were the main parameters monitored during lactate and glycerol degradation. The UASB reactor with biomass recirculation showed a specific sulfate reduction rate of 0.089±0.014 g.gSSV-1.d-1 (89% reduction, whereas values twice as high were achieved in the FBR treating either lactate (0.200±0.017 g.gSSV-1.d-1 or glycerol (0.178±0.010 g.gSSV-1.d-1. Sulfate reduction with pure glycerol produced a smaller residual COD (1700 mg.L-1 than that produced with lactate (2500 mg.L-1 at the same COD.sulfate-1 mass ratio. It was estimated that 50% of glycerol degradation was due to sulfate reduction and 50% to fermentation, which was supported by the presence of butyrate in the FBR effluent. The UASB reactor was unable to produce effluents with sulfate concentrations below 250 mg.L-1 due to poor mixing conditions, whereas the FBR consistently ensured residual sulfate concentrations below such a value.

  3. On the sulfation of O-desmethyltramadol by human cytosolic sulfotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Mohammed I; Bairam, Ahsan F; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sulfate conjugation is involved in the metabolism of the active metabolite of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol (O-DMT). The current study aimed to systematically identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are capable of mediating the sulfation of O-DMT. The sulfation of O-DMT under metabolic conditions was demonstrated using HepG2 hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells. O-DMT-sulfating activity of thirteen known human SULTs and four human organ specimens was examined using an established sulfotransferase assay. pH-Dependency and kinetic parameters were also analyzed using, respectively, buffers at different pHs and varying O-DMT concentrations in the assays. Of the thirteen human SULTs tested, only SULT1A3 and SULT1C4 were found to display O-DMT-sulfating activity, with different pH-dependency profiles. Kinetic analysis revealed that SULT1C4 was 60 times more catalytically efficient in mediating the sulfation of O-DMT than SULT1A3 at respective optimal pH. Of the four human organ specimens tested, the cytosol prepared from the small intestine showed much higher O-DMT-sulfating activity than cytosols prepared from liver, lung, and kidney. Both cultured HepG2 and Caco-2 cells were shown to be capable of sulfating O-DMT and releasing sulfated O-DMT into cultured media. SULT1A3 and SULT1C4 were the major SULTs responsible for the sulfation of O-DMT. Collectively, the results obtained provided a molecular basis underlying the sulfation of O-DMT and contributed to a better understanding about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol in humans. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing [ 3 H]glucosamine, [ 35 S]sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but [ 3 H]glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation

  5. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina ( 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  6. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  7. Acidity enhancement of niobia by sulfation: An experimental and DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Angela S.; Costa, Gustavo C.; Tamiasso-Martinhon, Priscila; Sousa, Célia; Rocha, Alexandre B.

    2017-01-01

    Acidic solids are used as catalyst at several industrial processes and studies to improve their activities have been developed by different groups. One method well known is sulfating oxide to create new acid sites, but investigations about sulfated niobia are still scarce. This work studied the influence of sulfation on the niobia acidity by using a very simple reaction model, the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol, performed at 60 °C and 1 atm. Niobia and sulfated niobia samples were characterized by N 2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR and titration with n-butylamine. To investigate the nature of sulfate groups formed on the surface of niobia, calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed for two models: pure niobia with hydroxylated surface and sulfated niobia where one OH − surface group was replaced by a HSO 4 − . The experimental results indicated that the sulfation treatment leads to an increase in the specific surface area, acidity and, consequently, in the activity of niobia, with small changes in the crystal structure of the solid. The presence of sulfate groups was evidenced by FTIR spectra and calculations have indicated HSO 4 − species bounded to the surface. Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) was also employed to obtain infrared intensities in the region of sulfate vibration bands. - Highlights: • Sulfation treatment has improved the acidity of niobium oxide. • A sulfate group on niobia (T-Nb 2 O 5 ) was proposed using DFT method. • Niobia and sulfated niobia are used for esterification of acetic acid with ethanol.

  8. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Corsaro, Maria Michela; Trifuoggi, Marco; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  10. Sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Janka, K. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland); Frederick, W.J.; Littau, M.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Jivakanun, N.; Waag, K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Sulfate reduction and carbon conversion during pyrolysis and gasification of black liquor particles were experimentally studied in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. A model was also developed to simulate an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. Experimental results were then compared to model calculations. Results indicated that carbon must be present to get a high degree of sulfate reduction during gasification. It is therefore important to balance the rates of carbon conversion and sulfate reduction. High local temperatures in the reactor should be avoided so that carbon does not convert too rapidly, but temperatures of nearly 1000 degrees C are required to achieve good sulfate reduction. It was suggested that a new equation was needed to adequately predict sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W.; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhanc...

  13. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  14. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eTakahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal sulfate transporters (SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26. The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1 to SULTR4 in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologues from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4, and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13 and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT. The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1 and SAC1-like transporters (SLT of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is completely absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  15. Tyrosine sulfation modulates activity of tick-derived thrombin inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert E.; Liu, Xuyu; Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Alonso-García, Noelia; Parker, Benjamin L.; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Madanin-1 and chimadanin are two small cysteine-free thrombin inhibitors that facilitate blood feeding in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Here, we report a post-translational modification—tyrosine sulfation—of these two proteins that is critical for potent anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activity. Inhibitors produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells displayed heterogeneous sulfation of two tyrosine residues within each of the proteins. One-pot ligation-desulfurization chemistry enabled access to homogeneous samples of all possible sulfated variants of the proteins. Tyrosine sulfation of madanin-1 and chimadanin proved crucial for thrombin inhibitory activity, with the doubly sulfated variants three orders of magnitude more potent than the unmodified inhibitors. The three-dimensional structure of madanin-1 in complex with thrombin revealed a unique mode of inhibition, with the sulfated tyrosine residues binding to the basic exosite II of the protease. The importance of tyrosine sulfation within this family of thrombin inhibitors, together with their unique binding mode, paves the way for the development of anti-thrombotic drug leads based on these privileged scaffolds.

  16. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federgrun, L.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF - 4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF - 4 -MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF 4 . To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th 4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed [pt

  17. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Cerezo, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a λ-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author)

  18. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, J.A.; Garcia, E.; Dole, V.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed.

  19. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, James A.; Garcia, Eduardo; Dole, Vonda R.; Griego, Walter J.

    1995-01-01

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  20. Salt consumption and the effect of salt on mineral metabolism in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryver, H F; Parker, M T; Daniluk, P D; Pagan, K I; Williams, J; Soderholm, L V; Hintz, H F

    1987-04-01

    The voluntary salt consumption of mature unexercised horses was measured weekly for up to 45 weeks. Voluntary intake among horses was quite variable ranging from 19 to 143 g of salt per day and was inversely related to total salt intake (salt in feeds plus voluntary intake). Mean daily voluntary salt consumption was 53 g. Season of the year did not influence voluntary intake. In preference tests which evaluated every two choice combination of 0.2% and 4% NaCl in test diets fed daily for four days, ponies generally preferred diets containing the lower amount of salt. In similar preference studies which used NaHCO3 as a sodium source, ponies always preferred the diet containing the lower level of NaHCO3. Metabolism studies employing diets containing 1, 3 or 5% NaCl showed that urinary excretion was the major excretory pathway for sodium and chloride. Fecal excretion, intestinal absorption and retention of sodium were not affected by level of salt intake. Urinary calcium excretion was unaffected by salt intake but calcium and phosphorus absorption and retention were enhanced when ponies were fed diets containing 3 or 5% sodium chloride. Magnesium and copper metabolism were unaffected by salt intake. Horses voluntarily consume relatively large amounts of sodium chloride but it is likely that not all voluntary consumption is related to the salt requirement of the horse. Habit and taste preference could also be involved. Salt consumption at the levels used in these studies does not appear to be detrimental to the metabolism of other minerals in the horse.

  1. Sources et marché du sulfate d'ammonium Sources of and Market for Ammonium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loussouarn C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Engrais azoté le plus utilisé dans le monde jusqu'en 1970, le sulfate d'ammonium ne représente plus aujourd'hui que 4 % de la fertilisation azotée. Avec une teneur en azote de 21 % seulement, il a été peu à peu remplacé comme engrais universel par des produits plus concentrés, notamment l'urée et le nitrate d'ammonium. Obtenu pour plus de 40 % comme sous-produit dans la synthèse de monomères comme le caprolactame, l'acrylonitrile ou le méthacrylate de méthyle, et pour près de 10 % dans le traitement des gaz de cokerie, sa production dépend largement des développements du marché des fibres synthétiques, et, dans une moindre mesure, de la sidérurgie et de la métallurgie. Dans les pays développés, où la production est essentiellement fatale, le volume du marché est et sera plus fonction de la disponibilité du sulfate d'ammonium que de la demande ou de facteurs de marché; sa consommation ne résidera plus que dans des applications spécifiques pour lesquelles il sera bien adapté. Par contre, l'intérêt croissant pour compenser le déficit en soufre de certains sols, et les qualités agronomiques propres du sulfate d'ammonium laissent entrevoir la possibilité d'un essor de son utilisation dans certaines régions en voie de développernent. Ammonium sulfate was the most worldwide nitrogenous fertilizer used up to 1970. Today, it makes up only 4% of nitrogenous fertilization. With a nitrogen content of only 21%, it has gradually been replaced as a universal fertilizer by more concentrated products, particularly urea and ammonium nitrate. More than 40% of the ammonium sulfate is obtained as a by-product from the synthesis of monomers such as caprolactam, acrylonitrile or methyl methacrylate, and nearly 10% from coking gas processing. Its production depends extensively on the development of the market for synthetic fibers and, to a lesser extent, on the steel and metallurgical industries. In the industrialized countries

  2. Redox potentials and kinetics of the Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction and solubility of cerium sulfates in sulfuric acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulenova, A.; Creager, S. E.; Navratil, J. D.; Wei, Y.

    Experimental work was performed with the aim of evaluating the Ce 4+/Ce 3+ redox couple in sulfuric acid electrolyte for use in redox flow battery (RFB) technology. The solubility of cerium sulfates in 0.1-4.0 M sulfuric acid at 20-60 °C was studied. A synergistic effect of both sulfuric acid concentration and temperature on the solubility of cerous sulfate was observed. The solubility of cerous sulfate significantly decreased with rising concentration of sulfuric acid and rising temperature, while the solubility of ceric sulfate goes through a significant maximum at 40 °C. Redox potentials and the kinetics of the cerous/ceric redox reaction were also studied under the same temperature-concentration conditions. The redox potentials were measured using the combined redox electrode (Pt-Ag/AgCl) in equimolar Ce 4+/Ce 3+ solutions (i.e.[Ce 3+]=[Ce 4+]) in sulfuric acid electrolyte. The Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox potentials significantly decrease (i.e. shift to more negative values) with rising sulfuric acid concentration; a small maximum is observed at 40 °C. Cyclic voltammetric experiments confirmed slow electrochemical kinetics of the Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction on carbon glassy electrodes (CGEs) in sulfuric acid solutions. The observed dependencies of solubilities, the redox potentials and the kinetics of Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction on sulfuric acid concentration are thought to be the result of inequivalent complexation of the two redox species by sulfate anions: the ceric ion is much more strongly bound to sulfate than is the cerous ion. The best temperature-concentration conditions for the RFB electrolytes appear to be 40 °C and 1 M sulfuric acid, where the relatively good solubility of both cerium species, the maximum of redox potentials, and the more or less satisfying stability of CGE s were found. Even so, the relatively low solubility of cerium salts in sulfuric acid media and slow redox kinetics of the Ce 3+/Ce 4+ redox reaction at carbon indicate that the Ce 3+/Ce

  3. Tyrosine Sulfation as a Protein Post-Translational Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shyong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of inorganic sulfate into biological molecules plays an important role in biological systems and is directly involved in the instigation of diseases. Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS is a common post-translational modification that was first reported in the literature fifty years ago. However, the significance of PTS under physiological conditions and its link to diseases have just begun to be appreciated in recent years. PTS is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST through transfer of an activated sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to tyrosine in a variety of proteins and peptides. Currently, only a small fraction of sulfated proteins is known and the understanding of the biological sulfation mechanisms is still in progress. In this review, we give an introductory and selective brief review of PTS and then summarize the basic biochemical information including the activity and the preparation of TPST, methods for the determination of PTS, and kinetics and reaction mechanism of TPST. This information is fundamental for the further exploration of the function of PTS that induces protein-protein interactions and the subsequent biochemical and physiological reactions.

  4. Angiotensin II protects primary rat hepatocytes against bile salt-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar Karimian

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Angiotensin II (AT-II is a pro-fibrotic compound that acts via membrane-bound receptors (AT-1R/AT-2R and thereby activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. AT-II receptor blockers (ARBs are thus important candidates in the treatment of liver fibrosis. However, multiple case reports suggest that AT-1R blockers may induce hepatocyte injury. Therefore, we investigated the effect of AT-II and its receptor blockers on cytokine-, oxidative stress- and bile salt-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to TNF-α/Actinomycin D, the ROS-generating agent menadione or the bile salts: glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA and tauro-lithocholic acid-3 sulfate (TLCS, to induce apoptosis. AT-II (100 nmol/L was added 10 minutes prior to the cell death-inducing agent. AT-1R antagonists (Sartans and the AT-2R antagonist PD123319 were used at 1 µmol/L. Apoptosis (caspase-3 activity, acridine orange staining and necrosis (Sytox green staining were quantified. Expression of CHOP (marker for ER stress and AT-II receptor mRNAs were quantified by Q-PCR. AT-II dose-dependently reduced GCDCA-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes (-50%, p<0.05 without inducing necrosis. In addition, AT-II reduced TLCS-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes (-50%, p<0.05. However, AT-II did not suppress TNF/Act-D and menadione-induced apoptosis. Only the AT-1R antagonists abolished the protective effect of AT-II against GCDCA-induced apoptosis. AT-II increased phosphorylation of ERK and a significant reversal of the protective effect of AT-II was observed when signaling kinases, including ERK, were inhibited. Moreover, AT-II prevented the GCDCA-induced expression of CHOP (the marker of the ER-mediated apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Angiotensin II protects hepatocytes from bile salt-induced apoptosis through a combined activation of PI3-kinase, MAPKs, PKC pathways and inhibition of bile salt-induced ER stress. Our results suggest a mechanism for the observed hepatocyte

  5. Acidity enhancement of niobia by sulfation: An experimental and DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Angela S., E-mail: angela.sanches.rocha@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa, Gustavo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tamiasso-Martinhon, Priscila; Sousa, Célia; Rocha, Alexandre B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Acidic solids are used as catalyst at several industrial processes and studies to improve their activities have been developed by different groups. One method well known is sulfating oxide to create new acid sites, but investigations about sulfated niobia are still scarce. This work studied the influence of sulfation on the niobia acidity by using a very simple reaction model, the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol, performed at 60 °C and 1 atm. Niobia and sulfated niobia samples were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR and titration with n-butylamine. To investigate the nature of sulfate groups formed on the surface of niobia, calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed for two models: pure niobia with hydroxylated surface and sulfated niobia where one OH{sup −} surface group was replaced by a HSO{sub 4}{sup −}. The experimental results indicated that the sulfation treatment leads to an increase in the specific surface area, acidity and, consequently, in the activity of niobia, with small changes in the crystal structure of the solid. The presence of sulfate groups was evidenced by FTIR spectra and calculations have indicated HSO{sub 4}{sup −} species bounded to the surface. Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) was also employed to obtain infrared intensities in the region of sulfate vibration bands. - Highlights: • Sulfation treatment has improved the acidity of niobium oxide. • A sulfate group on niobia (T-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was proposed using DFT method. • Niobia and sulfated niobia are used for esterification of acetic acid with ethanol.

  6. X-ray diffraction study of lithium hydrazinium sulfate and lithium ammonium sulfate crystals under a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, M.T.; Becker, R.A.; Klapper, H.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies are made on proton-conducting polar lithium hydrazinium sulfate and ferroelectric lithium ammonium sulfate. The X-ray rocking curves recorded with in situ electric field along the polar b axis of lithium hydrazinium sulfate (direction of proton conductivity) show a strong enhancement of the 0k0 diffraction intensity. The corresponding 0k0 X-ray topographs reveal extinction contrast consisting of striations parallel to the polar axis. They disappear when the electric field is switched off. The effect is very strong in 0k0 but invisible in h0l reflections. It is present only if the electric field is parallel to the polar axis b. This unusual X-ray topographic contrast is correlated with the proton conduction. It is supposed that, under electric field, an inhomogeneous charge distribution develops, distorting the crystal lattice. Similar experiments on lithium ammonium sulfate also show contrast variations, but of quite different behaviour than before. In this case they result from changes of the ferroelectric domain configuration under electric field. (orig.)

  7. Sulfate Reduction Remediation of a Metals Plume Through Organic Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory testing and a field-scale demonstration for the sulfate reduction remediation of an acidic/metals/sulfate groundwater plume at the Savannah River Site has been conducted. The laboratory testing consisted of the use of anaerobic microcosms to test the viability of three organic substrates to promote microbially mediated sulfate reduction. Based upon the laboratory testing, soybean oil and sodium lactate were selected for injection during the subsequent field-scale demonstration. The field-scale demonstration is currently ongoing. Approximately 825 gallons (3,123 L) of soybean oil and 225 gallons (852 L) of 60 percent sodium lactate have been injected into an existing well system within the plume. Since the injections, sulfate concentrations in the injection zone have significantly decreased, sulfate-reducing bacteria concentrations have significantly increased, the pH has increased, the Eh has decreased, and the concentrations of many metals have decreased. Microbially mediated sulfate reduction has been successfully promoted for the remediation of the acidic/metals/sulfate plume by the injection of soybean oil and sodium lactate within the plume

  8. Using Sulfate-Amended Sediment Slurry Batch Reactors to Evaluate Mercury Methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the methylated form, mercury represents a concern to public health primarily through the consumption of contaminated fish tissue. Research conducted on the methylation of mercury strongly suggests the process is microbial in nature and facilitated principally by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This study addressed the potential for mercury methylation by varying sulfate treatments and wetland-based soil in microbial slurry reactors with available inorganic mercury. Under anoxic laboratory conditions conducive to growth of naturally occurring sulfate-reducing bacteria in the soil, it was possible to evaluate how various sulfate additions influenced the methylation of inorganic mercury added to overlying water. Treatments included sulfate amendments ranging FR-om 25 to 500 mg/L (0.26 to 5.2 mM) above the soil's natural sulfate level. This study also provided an assessment of mercury methylation relative to sulfate-reducing bacterial population growth and subsequent sulfide production. Mercury methylation in sulfate treatments did not exceed that of the non-amended control during a 35-day incubation. However, increases in methylmercury concentration were linked to bacterial growth and sulfate reduction. A time lag in methylation in the highest treatment correlated with an equivalent lag in bacterial growth

  9. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  10. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  11. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Ashley J.; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A.; Rudd, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zinc–heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. ► Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. ► Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn–heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled β-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased β-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 °C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn–heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  12. Results of mineral, chemical, and sulfate isotopic analyses of water, soil, rocks, and soil extracts from the Pariette Draw Watershed, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.

    2015-08-06

    In 2010, Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Division of Water Quality (UDWQ, 2010) determined that water quality in Pariette Draw was in violation of Federal and State water quality criteria for total dissolved solids (TDS), selenium (Se), and boron (B). The measure of total dissolved solids is the sum of all the major ion concentrations in solution and in this case, the dominant ions are sodium (Na) and sulfate (SO4), which can form salts like thenardite (Na2SO4) and mirabilite (Na2SO4⋅H2O). The Utah Department of Environmental Quality (2010) classified the contamination as natural background and from nonpoint sources related to regional lithology and irrigation practices. Although the daily loads of the constituents of concern and water chemistry have been characterized for parts of the watershed, little is known about the controls that bedrock and soil mineralogy have on salt, Se, and B storage and the water-rock interactions that influence the mobility of these components in ground and surface waters. Studies in the Uncompahgre River watershed in Colorado by Tuttle and others (2014a, 2014b) show that salt derived from weathering of shale in a semiarid climate is stored in a variety of minerals that contribute solutes to runoff and surface waters based on a complex set of conditions such as water availability, geomorphic position (for example, topography controls the depth of salt accumulation in soils), water-table fluctuations, redox conditions, mineral dissolution kinetics, ion-exchange reactions, and secondary mineral formation. Elements like Se and B commonly reside in soluble salt phases, so knowledge of the behavior of salt minerals also sheds light on the behavior of associated contaminants.

  13. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks...... of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in versican......-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found...

  14. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  15. Chondroitin sulfate effects on neural stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David R; Brelsford, Natalie R; Lovett, Neil W

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the role chondroitin sulfate has on cell interactions during neural plate formation in the early chick embryo. Using tissue culture isolates from the prospective neural plate, we have measured neural gene expression profiles associated with neural stem cell differentiation. Removal of chondroitin sulfate from stage 4 neural plate tissue leads to altered associations of N-cadherin-positive neural progenitors and causes changes in the normal sequence of neural marker gene expression. Absence of chondroitin sulfate in the neural plate leads to reduced Sox2 expression and is accompanied by an increase in the expression of anterior markers of neural regionalization. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of chondroitin sulfate in the anterior chick embryo is instrumental in maintaining cells in the neural precursor state.

  16. Chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 is necessary for chain extension of chondroitin sulfate but not critical for skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Sonoko; Sugiura, Nobuo; Nagai, Naoko; Sato, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Kimata, Koji; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Hideto

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. Based on its structural diversity in chain length and sulfation patterns, CS provides specific biological functions in cell adhesion, morphogenesis, neural network formation, and cell division. To date, six glycosyltransferases are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin saccharide chains, and a hetero-oligomer complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1)/chondroitin synthase-1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2)/chondroitin polymerizing factor is known to have the strongest polymerizing activity. Here, we generated and analyzed CSS2(-/-) mice. Although they were viable and fertile, exhibiting no overt morphological abnormalities or osteoarthritis, their cartilage contained CS chains with a shorter length and at a similar number to wild type. Further analysis using CSS2(-/-) chondrocyte culture systems, together with siRNA of CSS1, revealed the presence of two CS chain species in length, suggesting two steps of CS chain polymerization; i.e., elongation from the linkage region up to Mr ∼10,000, and further extension. There, CSS2 mainly participated in the extension, whereas CSS1 participated in both the extension and the initiation. Our study demonstrates the distinct function of CSS1 and CSS2, providing a clue in the elucidation of the mechanism of CS biosynthesis.

  17. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate...... of ammonium sulfate addition and ferric sulfation addition compared favorably with the experimental results. However, the model for aluminum sulfate addition under-predicted significantly the high sulfation degree of KCl observed in the experiments, possibly because of an under-estimation of the decomposition...... rate of aluminum. Under the boiler conditions of the present work, the simulation results suggested that the desirable temperature for the ferric sulfate injection was around 950-900oC, whereas for ammonium sulfate the preferable injection temperature was below 800oC....

  18. Biological sulfate removal from gypsum contaminated construction and demolition debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-12-15

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) contains high levels of sulfate that can cause detrimental environmental impacts when disposed without adequate treatment. In landfills, sulfate can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under anaerobic conditions. CDD can thus cause health impacts or odor problems to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Reduction of the sulfate content of CDD is an option to overcome these problems. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate removal system to reduce the sulfate content of gypsum contaminated CDD in order to decrease the amount of solid waste, to improve the quality of CDD waste for recycling purposes and to recover sulfur from CDD. The treatment leached out the gypsum contained in CDD by water in a leaching column. The sulfate loaded leachate was then treated in a biological sulfate reducing Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor to convert the sulfate to sulfide. The UASB reactor was operated at 23 ± 3 °C with a hydraulic retention time and upflow velocity of 15.5 h and 0.1 m h(-1), respectively while ethanol was added as electron donor at a final organic loading rate of 3.46 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1). The CDD leachate had a pH of 8-9 and sulfate dissolution rates of 526.4 and 609.8 mg L(-1) d(-1) were achieved in CDD gypsum and CDD sand, respectively. Besides, it was observed that the gypsum dissolution was the rate limiting step for the biological treatment of CDD. The sulfate removal efficiency of the system stabilized at around 85%, enabling the reuse of the UASB effluent for the leaching step, proving the versatility of the bioreactor for practical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Balancing sub- and supra-salt strain in salt-influenced rifts: Implications for extension estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Alexander J.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Duffy, Oliver B.

    2017-09-01

    The structural style of salt-influenced rifts may differ from those formed in predominantly brittle crust. Salt can decouple sub- and supra-salt strain, causing sub-salt faults to be geometrically decoupled from, but kinematically coupled to and responsible for, supra-salt forced folding. Salt-influenced rifts thus contain more folds than their brittle counterparts, an observation often ignored in extension estimates. Fundamental to determining whether sub- and supra-salt structures are kinematically coherent, and the relative contributions of thin- (i.e. gravity-driven) and thick-skinned (i.e. whole-plate stretching) deformation to accommodating rift-related strain, is our ability to measure extension at both structural levels. We here use published physical models of salt-influenced extension to show that line-length estimates yield more accurate values of sub- and supra-salt extension compared to fault-heave, before applying these methods to seismic data from the Halten Terrace, offshore Norway. We show that, given the abundance of ductile deformation in salt-influenced rifts, significant amounts of extension may be ignored, leading to the erroneous interpretations of thin-skinned, gravity-gliding. If a system is kinematically coherent, supra-salt structures can help predict the occurrence and kinematics of sub-salt faults that may be poorly imaged and otherwise poorly constrained.

  20. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Goffe

    Full Text Available To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes, amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty, time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s, and individual serving.Controlled, laboratory, conditions.A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women aged 18-59 years.Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD of 7.86g (4.54 per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22. The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001. This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers' salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

  1. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA; Easter, Richard C. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-02-08

    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.

  2. Human platelet as an independent unit for sulfate conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, B.Y.; Sit, K.H.; Wong, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    The human platelets possess a full complement of enzymes capable of synthesizing N-acetyldopamine (NADA) 35 sulfate from ATP, Mg ++ and sodium 35 sulfate. The pH optimum for this three-step overall sulfate conjugation (comprising of the ATP sulfurylase, APS kinase and phenolsulfotransferase reactions) is 8.6 and the reactions proceeded progressively for several hours. Both ATP and Mg ++ ions, above their respective optimal concentrations of 5 and 7 mM, inhibited the sulfate conjugation of NADA. The apparent Km values for NADA as determined by the phenolsulfotransferase (PST) and overall reactions were similar in magnitude being 2.6 and 4.8 μM, respectively, while that for sodium 35 sulfate was 202 μM. A comparison of these two activities in 62 platelet preparations of normal subjects showed that the rate of the PST reaction was generally higher than the overall reaction even though the PST assay was carried out at suboptimal concentration of PAPS. There was a positive correlation (r=0.82) between the two sets of data, suggesting that the PST reaction probably has some control over the rate of overall sulfate conjugation

  3. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. De Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a {lambda}-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  4. Accelerator molten-salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kuroi, Hideo; Kato, Yoshio; Oomichi, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain fission products and to transmute transuranium elements and other radioactive wastes by the use of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor. Constitution: Beams from an accelerator pipe at one end of a target vessel is injected through a window into target molten salts filled inside of the target vessel. The target molten salts are subjected to pump recycling or spontaneous convection while forcively cooled by blanket molten salts in an outer vessel. Then, energy is recovered from the blanket molten salts or the target molten salts at high temperatures through electric power generation or the like. Those salts containing such as thorium 232 and uranium 238 are used as the blanket molten salts so that fission products may be produced by neutrons generated in the target molten salts. PbCl 2 -PbF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 can be used as the target molten salts and as the blanket molten salts respectively. (Seki, T.)

  5. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  6. Study Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Saksono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Salt Washing Process on Content and Iodium Stability of Salt. Salt washing process should increase the saltquality. It should clean the salt from sludge or clay and also reduce the impurity compound such as Mg, Ca and the reductor content. The objective of these reseach is to assess the effect of washing process on the content og hygroscopic impurities compound (Ca and Mg, and reductor content of salt. The research also investigate the water absorbing, pH, KIO3 content as function of time to obtain effect of washing process on KIO3 stability in salt. The experiment result shows that the lowest content of Mg and reductor compound 0.016 % wt and 2.65 ppm respectively which is reached at the fi ne salt washing process using 27 % wt brine. The analysis of water content indicates an increase the Ca and Mg content, causing an water absorbtion in salt , However the effect on pH the is not clear.

  7. Cell-associated proteoheparan sulfate from bovine arterial smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.; Buddecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    Cell-associated proteoheparan sulfate has been isolated from bovine arterial smooth muscle cells preincubated with [ 35 S]sulfate or a combination of [ 3 H]glucosamine and [ 35 S]methionine. The purified proteoheparan sulfate had an apparent M r of 200,000 on calibrated Sepharose CL-2B columns. The glycosaminoglycan component (M r ∼30,000) was identified as heparan sulfate by its susceptibility to specific enzymatic and chemical degradation. After degradation of the proteoheparan sulfate by microbial heparitinase the resulting protein core had an apparent M r of 92,000 on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Its mobility was similar in the absence and presence of reducing agents indicating that the protein core consists of a single polypeptide chain. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that about 40% of the cell layer-associated proteoheparan sulfate was released into the medium, while the remainder was internalized and converted to smaller species through a series of degradation steps. Initially there was a proteolytical cleavage of the protein core generating glycosaminoglycan peptide intermediates with polysaccharides chains similar in size to the original. The half-life of the native proteoheparan sulfate was found to be about 4 h

  8. Modeling and optimization of sunflower oil methanolysis over quicklime bits in a packed bed tubular reactor using the response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miladinović, Marija R.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Banković, Predrag T.; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra D.; Jovanović, Dušan M.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sunflower oil methanolysis in a continuous packed bed reactor was optimized. • Thermally-activated, low-cost quicklime bits were used as a catalyst. • Process was optimized by 3"3 full factorial design and Box-Behnken design. • Box-Behnken design is recommended for optimizing biodiesel production processes. • FAME content in the ester phase obtained under the optimum conditions was >98%. - Abstract: The effect of the residence time (i.e. liquid flow rate through the reactor), methanol-to-oil molar ratio and reaction temperature on the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content at the output of a continuous packed bed tubular reactor was modeled by the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with the 3"3 full factorial design (FFD) with replication or the Box-Behnken design (BBD) with five center points. The methanolysis of sunflower oil was carried out at the residence time of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h, the methanol-to-oil molar ratios of 6:1, 12:1 and 18:1 and the reaction temperature of 40, 50 and 60 °C under the atmospheric pressure. Based on the used experimental designs, the model equations containing only linear and two-factor interaction terms were developed for predicting the FAME content, which were validated through the use of the unseen data. Applying the analysis of variance (ANOVA), all three factors were shown to have a significant influence on the FAME content. Acceptable statistical predictability and accuracy resulted from both designs since the values of the coefficient of determination were close to unity while the values of the mean relative percentage deviation were relatively low (<±10%). In addition, both designs predicted the maximum FAME content of above 99%, which agreed closely with the actual FAME content (98.8%). The same optimal reaction temperature (60 °C) and residence time (2.0 h) were determined by both designs while the BBD model suggested a slightly lower methanol-to-oil molar ratio (12.2:1) than the 3"3 FFD

  9. Zinc layered hydroxide salts: intercalation and incorporation into low-density polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Jaerger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymer composites using low-density polyethylene (LDPE and layered hydroxide salts (LHS were synthesized. The following compositions of LHS were obtained Zn5(OH8(An-2/n.yH2O, where A was varied in order to obtain hydrophilic (A = NO3- or hydrophobic (A = DDS- - dodecyl sulfate or DBS- - dodecyl benzene sulfonate. Synthesis was carried out by co-precipitation in alkaline medium and drying, being followed by characterization via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. A variable amount of filler was then incorporated into the LDPE via extrusion, which was then injection molded to obtain specimens for evaluating tensile properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength, strain at break and toughness. For comparison, the sodium salts of the surfactants (NaDDS and NaDBS were also used as fillers in LDPE. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that the hydrophobic LHS were exfoliated in the polymer matrix, whereas the hydrophilic LHS was only delaminated. In the LDPE composites, melting and crystallization temperatures were nearly constant, along with the crystallinity indexes. The mechanical properties were mainly varied when the organophilic LHS was used. Overall, fillers based on LHS, especially those containing hydrophobic anions, may be interesting alternatives in the production of reinforced thermoplastics.

  10. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  11. Desulfonatronovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Abbas, B.; Suhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Four strains of lithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enriched and isolated from anoxic sediments of hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) at 2 M NaCl and pH 7.5. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related

  12. Desulfonatronovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from hypersaline chloride–sulfate lakes in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Abbas, B.; Suhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Four strains of lithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enriched and isolated from anoxic sediments of hypersaline chloride–sulfate lakes in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) at 2 M NaCl and pH 7.5. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related

  13. Limited production of sulfate and nitrate on front-associated dust storm particles moving from desert to distant populated areas in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Zhang, Daizhou; Cao, Junji; Guo, Xiao; Xia, Yao; Zhang, Ting; Lu, Hui; Cheng, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate and nitrate compounds can greatly increase the hygroscopicity of mineral particles in the atmosphere and consequently alter the particles' physical and chemical properties. Their uptake on long-distance-transported Asian dust particles within mainland China has been reported to be substantial in previous studies, but the production was very inefficient in other studies. We compared these two salts in particles collected from a synoptic-scale, mid-latitude, cyclone-induced dust storm plume at the Tengger Desert (38.79° N, 105.38° E) and in particles collected in a postfrontal dust plume at an urban site in Xi'an (34.22° N, 108.87° E) when a front-associated dust storm from the Tengger Desert arrived there approximately 700 km downwind. The results showed that the sulfate concentration was not considerably different at the two sites, while the nitrate concentration was slightly larger at the urban site than that at the desert site. The estimated nitrate production rate was 4-5 ng µg-1 of mineral dust per day, which was much less than that in polluted urban air. The adiabatic process of the dust-loading air was suggested to be the reason for the absence of sulfate formation, and the uptake of background HNO3 was suggested to be the reason for the small nitrate production. According to our investigation of the published literature, the significant sulfate and nitrate in dust-storm-associated samples within the continental atmosphere reported in previous studies cannot be confirmed as actually produced on desert dust particles; the contribution from locally emitted and urban mineral particles or from soil-derived sulfate was likely substantial because the weather conditions in those studies indicated that the collection of the samples was started before dust arrival, or the air from which the samples were collected was a mixture of desert dust and locally emitted mineral particles. These results suggest that the production of nitrate and sulfate on dust

  14. Limited production of sulfate and nitrate on front-associated dust storm particles moving from desert to distant populated areas in northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate and nitrate compounds can greatly increase the hygroscopicity of mineral particles in the atmosphere and consequently alter the particles' physical and chemical properties. Their uptake on long-distance-transported Asian dust particles within mainland China has been reported to be substantial in previous studies, but the production was very inefficient in other studies. We compared these two salts in particles collected from a synoptic-scale, mid-latitude, cyclone-induced dust storm plume at the Tengger Desert (38.79° N, 105.38° E and in particles collected in a postfrontal dust plume at an urban site in Xi'an (34.22° N, 108.87° E when a front-associated dust storm from the Tengger Desert arrived there approximately 700 km downwind. The results showed that the sulfate concentration was not considerably different at the two sites, while the nitrate concentration was slightly larger at the urban site than that at the desert site. The estimated nitrate production rate was 4–5 ng µg−1 of mineral dust per day, which was much less than that in polluted urban air. The adiabatic process of the dust-loading air was suggested to be the reason for the absence of sulfate formation, and the uptake of background HNO3 was suggested to be the reason for the small nitrate production. According to our investigation of the published literature, the significant sulfate and nitrate in dust-storm-associated samples within the continental atmosphere reported in previous studies cannot be confirmed as actually produced on desert dust particles; the contribution from locally emitted and urban mineral particles or from soil-derived sulfate was likely substantial because the weather conditions in those studies indicated that the collection of the samples was started before dust arrival, or the air from which the samples were collected was a mixture of desert dust and locally emitted mineral particles. These results suggest that the

  15. Micro-SHINE Uranyl Sulfate Irradiations at the Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kalensky, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schneider, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Byrnes, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Peroxide formation due to water radiolysis in a uranyl sulfate solution is a concern for the SHINE Medical Technologies process in which Mo-99 is generated from the fission of dissolved low enriched uranium. To investigate the effects of power density and fission on peroxide formation and uranyl-peroxide precipitation, uranyl sulfate solutions were irradiated using a 50-MeV electron linac as part of the micro-SHINE experimental setup. Results are given for uranyl sulfate solutions with both high and low enriched uranium irradiated at different linac powers.

  16. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum...... sulfate were obtained from experiments in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were investigated in a tube reactor at 600–900 °C, revealing a constant distribution of about 15% SO2 and 85% SO3 from aluminum sulfate decomposition and a temperature...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  17. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  18. 40 CFR 180.940 - Tolerance exemptions for active and inert ingredients for use in antimicrobial formulations (Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of active silver Sulfuric acid monododecyl ester, sodium salt (sodium lauryl sulfate) 151-21-3 When... (sodium lauryl sulfate) 151-21-3 When ready for use, the end-use concentration is not to exceed 350 ppm (c... acid monododecyl ester, sodium salt (sodium lauryl sulfate) 151-21-3 None 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H...

  19. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  20. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Marquardt, Allison B.

    2009-01-01

    We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  1. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideki; Buchner, Peter; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR, and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26). The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1-SULTR4) in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologs from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4), and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR, and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13) and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT). The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1) and SAC1-like transporters (SLT) of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte, and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  2. Parameterization and evaluation of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, Liisa; Alveteg, Mattias; Warfvinge, Per

    2003-01-01

    Including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the SAFE model. - Sulfate adsorption was implemented in the dynamic, multi-layer soil chemistry model SAFE. The process is modeled by an isotherm in which sulfate adsorption is considered to be fully reversible and dependent on sulfate concentration as well as pH in soil solution. The isotherm was parameterized by a site-specific series of simple batch experiments at different pH (3.8-5.0) and sulfate concentration (10-260 μmol l -1 ) levels. Application of the model to the Lake Gaardsjoen roof covered site shows that including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the model and sulfate adsorption and desorption delay acidification and recovery of the soil. The modeled adsorbed pool of sulfate at the site reached a maximum level of 700 mmol/m 2 in the late 1980s, well in line with experimental data

  3. Characterization of the molten salt reactor experiment fuel and flush salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wise decisions about the handling and disposition of spent fuel from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) must be based upon an understanding of the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the frozen fuel and flush salts. These open-quotes staticclose quotes properties can be inferred from the extensive documentation of process history maintained during reactor operation and the knowledge gained in laboratory development studies. Just as important as the description of the salt itself is an understanding of the dynamic processes which continue to transform the salt composition and govern its present and potential physicochemical behavior. A complete characterization must include a phenomenological characterization in addition to the typical summary of properties. This paper reports on the current state of characterization of the fuel and flush salts needed to support waste management decisions

  4. Role of an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl sulfate in extraction studies of gadolinium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Kamalika [Calcutta Univ., Kolkata (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Wolterbeek, H.T. [Technical Univ. Delft (NL). Section RIH (Radiation and Isotopes in Health)

    2012-07-01

    The room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl sulfate was studied for its extraction behavior for {sup 159}Gd in an environmentally benign liquid-liquid extraction system. The gadolinium oxide when dissolved in nitric acid and extracted in an RTIL/dextran biphasic system, was found to get completely extracted in the IL phase. The otherwise difficult to dissolve gadolinium oxide was found to have some solubility in the IL studied. Biphasic systems consisting of IL/dextran and certain IL/salt were studied for the extraction behavior of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolved in the above RTIL. A similar experiment was also done with acid-dissolved gadolinium oxide for comparison. (orig.)

  5. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winicov, I [Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Univ. of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. `Pokkali`. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with {+-} 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from `Pokkali` seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs.

  6. In vitro selection of induced mutants to salt-tolerance: Inducible gene regulation for salt tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicov, I.

    1997-01-01

    A selection protocol to obtain salt tolerant calli, followed by regeneration and progeny-test of the regenerated plants for salt tolerance in rice was investigated. Callus cultures were initiated from salt-sensitive US elite rice lines and cv. 'Pokkali'. Salt-tolerant cell lines were selected from these by a single step selection procedure. The selected salt-tolerant lines grew well on medium with ± 0.5% or 1% NaCl, while the parent lines occasionally survived, but did not grow at these salt concentrations. Plants were regenerated from these cell lines through different passages on medium containing salt. Seed was collected from the regenerated plants and salt tolerance of R2 seedlings was compared with those regenerated without salt selection. Salt-tolerance was measured by survival and productive growth of newly germinated seedlings in Hoagland solution with 0.3% and 0.5% NaCl for 4 weeks. Heritable improvement in salt tolerance was obtained in R2 seedlings from one plant regenerated after 5 months selection. Survival and growth of these seedlings was equivalent to that from 'Pokkali' seedlings. These results show that cellular tolerance can provide salt-tolerance in rice plants. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  7. Gastrointestinal and microbial responses to sulfate-supplemented drinking water in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplancke, Bart; Finster, Kai; Graham, W Vallen; Collier, Chad T; Thurmond, Joel E; Gaskins, H Rex

    2003-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of chronic diseases such as ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. The activity of SRB, and thus H2S production, is likely determined by the availability of sulfur-containing compounds in the intestine. However, little is known about the impact of dietary or inorganic sulfate on intestinal sulfate and SRB-derived H2S concentrations. In this study, the effects of short-term (7 day) and long-term (1 year) inorganic sulfate supplementation of the drinking water on gastrointestinal (GI) sulfate and H2S concentrations (and thus activity of resident SRBs), and the density of large intestinal sulfomucin-containing goblet cells, were examined in C3H/HeJBir mice. Additionally, a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based molecular ecology technique was used to examine the impact of sulfate-amended drinking water on microbial community structure throughout the GI tract. Average H2S concentrations ranged from 0.1 mM (stomach) to 1 mM (cecum). A sulfate reduction assay demonstrated in situ production of H2S throughout the GI tract, confirming the presence of SRB. However, H2S generation and concentrations were greatest in the cecum and colon. Sulfate supplementation of drinking water did not significantly increase intestinal sulfate or H2S concentrations, suggesting that inorganic sulfate is not an important modulator of intestinal H2S concentrations, although it altered the bacterial profiles of the stomach and distal colon of 1-year-old mice. This change in colonic bacterial profiles may reflect a corresponding increase in the density of sulfomucin-containing goblet cells in sulfate-supplemented compared with control mice.

  8. Characterization of Laboratory Prepared Concrete Pastes Exposed to High Alkaline and High Sodium Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-30

    The objective of this study was to identify potential chemical degradation mechanisms for the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) concretes, which over the performance life of the structures may be exposed to highly alkaline sodium salt solutions containing sulfate, hydroxide, and other potentially corrosive chemicals in salt solution and saltstone flush water, drain water, leachate and / or pore solution. The samples analyzed in this study were cement pastes prepared in the SIMCO Technologies, Inc. concrete laboratory. They were based on the paste fractions of the concretes used to construct the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDUs). SDU 1 and 4 concrete pastes were represented by the PV1 test specimens. The paste in the SDU 2, 3, 5, and 6 concrete was represented by the PV2 test specimens. SIMCO Technologies, Inc. selected the chemicals and proportions in the aggressive solutions to approximate proportions in the saltstone pore solution [2, 3, 5, and 6]. These test specimens were cured for 56 days in curing chamber before being immersed in aggressive solutions. After exposure, the samples were frozen to prevent additional chemical transport and reaction. Selected archived (retrieved from the freezer) samples were sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for additional characterization using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Characterization results are summarized in this report. In addition, a correlation between the oxide composition of the pastes and their chemical durability in the alkaline salt solutions is provided.

  9. Thermochemical study of some inorganic and organic salts of cobalt, nickel and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van, My

    1968-01-01

    Differential enthalpy analysis has been carried out on a certain number of inorganic (halides, halide oxy-acid salts, nitrates and sulfates) and organic (alkanoates, and dicarboxylates) of cobalt, nickel and copper using a Tian-Calvet high-temperature microcalorimeter. Other investigational methods such as thermo-crystallography, thermogravimetry, spectroscopy and gas-phase chromatography have been used to complete this work. An intrinsic study of the microcalorimeter covering thermal leakage, the sensitivity and the aging of the batteries, the deviation of the experimental zero, has been carried out. A satisfactory experimental device has been developed which corresponds to optimum conditions of analysis. We have shown which are the most important factors affecting differential thermal analysis and have detected certain phenomena; we have also demonstrated that intermediate hydrates exist and shown the possibilities of thermal recrystallization. Various enthalpies of transformation have been evaluated. The various possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. The normal formation enthalpies of several series of alkanoates and dicarboxylates have been measured. A graphical method has been devised for evaluating the kinetic parameters of heterogeneous dissociations from the thermograms obtained. Finally, we have developed a simple method for estimating the normal formation enthalpies of carboxylates and oxy-acid salts, both anhydrous and hydrated. The agreement with available experimental data is satisfactory. (author) [fr

  10. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean Andrew; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column...

  11. Partition/Ion-Exclusion Chromatographic Ion Stacking for the Analysis of Trace Anions in Water and Salt Samples by Ion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Fouzia; Saito, Shingo; Tasaki-Handa, Yuiko; Shibukawa, Masami

    2018-01-01

    A new analytical methodology for a simple and efficient on-line preconcentration of trace inorganic anions in water and salt samples prior to ion chromatographic determination is proposed. The preconcentration method is based on partition/ion-exclusion chromatographic ion stacking (PIEC ion stacking) with a hydrophilic polymer gel column containing a small amount of fixed anionic charges. The developed on-line PIEC ion stacking-ion chromatography method was validated by recovery experiments for the determination of nitrate in tap water in terms of both accuracy and precision, and the results showed the reliability of the method. The method proposed was also successfully applied to the determination of trace impurity nitrite and nitrate in reagent-grade salts of sodium sulfate. A low background level can be achieved since pure water is used as the eluant for the PIEC ion stacking. It is possible to reach sensitive detection at sub-μg L -1 levels by on-line PIEC ion stacking-ion chromatography.

  12. Initial kinetics of the direct sulfation of limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Shang, Lei; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The initial kinetics of direct sulfation of Faxe Bryozo, a porous bryozoan limestone was studied in the temperature interval from 873 to 973 K in a pilot entrained flow reactor with very short reaction times (between 0.1 and 0.6 s). The initial conversion rate of the limestone - for conversions...... less than 0.3% - was observed to be significantly promoted by higher SO2 concentrations and lower CO2 concentrations, whereas 02 showed negligible influence. A mathematical model for the sulfation of limestone involving chemical reaction at calcite grain surfaces and solid-state diffusion of carbonate...... ions in calcite grains is established. The validity of the model is limited to the initial sulfation period, in which nucleation of the solid product calcium sulphate is not started. This theoretical reaction-diffusion model gives a good simulation of the initial kinetics of the direct sulfation...

  13. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  14. Prognostic significance of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates in ovarian cancer defined by the single chain antibody GD3A11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Sophieke C H A; van Tilborg, Angela A G; Vallen, Myrtille J E; Bulten, Johan; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2016-03-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of ovarian cancer may provide a number of potential biomarkers. Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a class of sulfated polysaccharides, is abundantly present in the ECM of ovarian cancer. Structural alterations of CS chains (i.e. sulfation pattern) have been demonstrated to play a role in cancer development and progression. In this study we investigate the potential of highly sulfated CS as a biomarker in ovarian cancer using the single chain antibody GD3A11 selected by the phage display technology. The specificity of the antibody was determined by an indirect ELISA. GD3A11 epitope expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in healthy organs, benign and malignant ovarian tumors (N=359) and correlated to clinical parameters. The CHST15 gene, responsible for the biosynthesis of highly sulfated CS was evaluated for mutation and methylation status. The GD3A11 epitope was minimally expressed in normal organs. Intense expression was observed in the ECM of different ovarian cancer subtypes, in contrast to benign ovarian tumors. Expression was independent of tumor grade, FIGO stage, and the use chemotherapy. For the aggressive ovarian cancer phenotype, intense expression was identified as an independent predictor for poor prognosis. CHST15 gene analysis showed no mutations nor an altered methylation status. Specific highly sulfated CS motifs expressed in the tumoral ECM hold biomarker potential in ovarian cancer patients. These matrix motifs constitute a novel class of biomarkers with prognostic significance and may be instrumental for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic applications (e.g. targeted therapy) in management of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Planned investigations for packing materials for a waste package in a salt repository: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Bunnell, L.R.; Thornton, T.A.

    1987-10-01

    A considerable number of materials have been either proposed or investigated as packing materials for nuclear waste package systems. Almost always the expandable clays, such as the smectites contained in commercial bentonites, have received the most attention when their primary function is to retard groundwater flow. Other materials including zeolites, metals, and dessicants are considered as special-purpose additives. Materials that tend to hydrolyze and lead to porosity reduction, such as silicates, oxides, and sulfates, have also been suggested as packing materials. All these types of materials are also considered as components of tailored mixtures to achieve a broad range of packing material performance. Some of these materials are reviewed, along with proposed candidate materials, with respect to the properties required to function in a salt repository. The investigation of packing materials is composed of five studies which are discussed below. Initial candidates will consist of calcium hydroxide, a sodium silicate, and a cement-gypsum mixture in addition to the reference crushed salt. Consequently these tests will be necessary to determine properties of individual components and to optimize properties of mixtures. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Experimental results on salt concrete for barrier elements made of salt concrete in a repository for radioactive waste in a salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsch, Alex-W.; Preuss, Juergen; Mauke, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The Bartensleben rock salt mine in Germany was used as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste from 1971 to 1991 and from 1994 to 1998. The repository with an overall volume of about 6 million m 3 has to be closed. Salt concrete is used for the refill of the voids of the repository. The concrete mixtures contain crushed salt instead of natural aggregates as the void filling material should be as similar to the salt rock as possible. Very high requirements regarding low heat development and little or even no cracking during concrete hardening had to be fulfilled even for the barrier elements made from salt concrete which separate the radioactive waste from the environment. Requirements for the salt concrete were set up with regard to the fluidity of the fresh concrete during the hardening process and its durability. In the view of a comprehensive numerical calculations of the temperature development and thermal stresses in the massive salt concrete elements of the backfill of the voids, experimental results for material properties of the salt concrete are presented: mixture of the salt concrete, thermodynamic properties (adiabatic heat release, thermal dilatation, thermal conductivity and heat capacity), mechanical short term properties, creep (under tension, under compression), autogenous shrinkage

  17. Role of protein sulfation in vasodilation induced by minoxidil sulfate, a K+ channel opener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisheri, K.D.; Oleynek, J.J.; Puddington, L.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from contractile, radioisotope ion flux and electrophysiological studies suggest that minoxidil sulfate (MNXS) acts as a K+ channel opener in vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to examine possible biochemical mechanisms by which MNXS exerts such an effect. Experiments performed in the isolated rabbit mesenteric artery (RMA) showed that MNXS, 5 microM, but not the parent compound minoxidil, was a potent vasodilator. Whereas the relaxant effects of an another K+ channel opener vasodilator, BRL-34915 (cromakalim), were removed by washing with physiological saline solution, the effects of MNXS persisted after repeated washout attempts. Furthermore, after an initial exposure of segments of intact RMA to [35S] MNXS, greater than 30% of the radiolabel was retained 2 hr after removal of the drug. In contrast, retention of radiolabel was not detected with either [3H]MNXS (label on the piperidine ring of MNXS) or [3H]minoxidil (each less than 3% after a 2-hr washout). These data suggested that the sulfate moiety from MNXS was closely associated with the vascular tissue. To determine if proteins were the acceptors of sulfate from MNXS, intact RMAs were incubated with [35S]MNXS, and then 35S-labeled proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed by fluorography. Preferential labeling of a 116 kD protein was detected by 2 and 5 min of treatment. A 43 kD protein (resembling actin) also showed significant labeling. A similar profile of 35S-labeled proteins was observed in [35S] MNXS-treated A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, suggesting that the majority of proteins labeled by [35S]MNXS in intact RMA were components of smooth muscle cells

  18. Influence of Internal Sulfate Attack on Some Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Mahdi Fawzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that faces the concrete industry in Iraq is the deterioration due to internal sulfate attack , since it reduces the compressive strength and increases the expansion of concrete. Consequently, the concrete structure may be damage .The effects of total and total effective sulfate contents on high strength concrete (HSC have been studied in the present study. The research studied the effect of sulfate content in cement , sand and gravel , as well as comparing the total sulfate content with the total effective SO3 content. Materials used were divided into two groups of SO3 in cement ,three groups of SO3 in sand ,and two groups of SO3 in gravel. The results show that considering the total effective sulfate content is better than the total content of sulfates since the effect of sulfate in each constituent of concrete, depends on it's granular size .The smaller the particle size of the material the more effective is the sulfate in it. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the Iraqi specification for total effective sulfate content, because it gives more flexibility to the use of sand and gravel with higher sulfate content. The results of compressive strength at 90-days show that the effect of total effective SO3 content of ( 2.647% , 2.992% , 3.424% that correspond to total sulfate of ( 3.778%, 3.294%, 4.528% decrease the compressive strength by (7.53%, 11.44%, 14.59% respectively.

  19. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pengzhen; Alexander, Becky; Geng, Lei; Chi, Xiyuan; Fan, Shidong; Zhan, Haicong; Kang, Hui; Zheng, Guangjie; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing

    2018-04-01

    Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter) in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m-3 with a mean of (141 ± 88 (1σ)) µg m-3, with SO42- representing 8-25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42-) varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9 ± 0.3) ‰. Δ17O(SO42-) increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5 ≥ 75 µg m-3) of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III-V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet) was estimated to contribute 41-54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48 ± 5) %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV) ( = SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3- + SO32-) oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol