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Sample records for question appraisal system

  1. Evaluating Library Staff: A Performance Appraisal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Patricia

    This manual provides librarians and library managers with a performance appraisal system that measures staff fairly and objectively and links performance to the goals of the library. The following topics are addressed: (1) identifying expectations for quality service or standards of performance; (2) the importance of a library's code of service,…

  2. The System of Employee Appraisal in a Company

    OpenAIRE

    Vaverová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor study called "The System of Employee Appraisal in a Company" deals with a general subscription of a personal process "Employee appraisal". It describes the principles of the system of employee appraisal and also covers the conditions necessary for its efficiency and operation. The bachelor study is focused on the system of employee appraisal centrally implemented in company ČEZ, a. s. This system is analyzed and compared with generally stated theoretical principles. The study in...

  3. Health system guidance appraisal--concept evaluation and usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako-Arrey, Denis E; Brouwers, Melissa C; Lavis, John N; Giacomini, Mita K

    2016-01-05

    Health system guidance (HSG) provides recommendations aimed to address health system challenges. However, there is a paucity of methods to direct, appraise, and report HSG. Earlier research identified 30 candidate criteria (concepts) that can be used to evaluate the quality of HSG and guide development and reporting requirements. The objective of this paper was to describe two studies aimed at evaluating the importance of these 30 criteria, design a draft HSG appraisal tool, and test its usability. This study involved a two-step survey process. In step 1, respondents rated the 30 concepts for appropriateness to, relevance to, and priority for health system decisions and HSG. This led to a draft tool. In step 2, respondents reviewed HSG documents, appraised them using the tool, and answered a series of questions. Descriptive analyses were computed. Fifty participants were invited in step 1, and we had a response rate of 82 %. The mean response rates for each concept within each survey question were universally favorable. There was also an overall agreement about the need for a high-quality tool to systematically direct the development, appraisal, and reporting of HSG. Qualitative feedback and a consensus process by the team led to refinements to some of the concepts and the creation of a beta (draft) version of the HSG tool. In step 2, 35 participants were invited and we had a response rate of 74 %. Exploratory analyses showed that the quality of the HSGs reviewed varied as a function of the HSG item and the specific document assessed. A favorable consensus was reached with participants agreeing that the HSG items were easy to understand and easy to apply. Moreover, the overall agreement was high for the usability of the tool to systematically direct the development (85 %), appraisal (92 %), and reporting (81 %) of HSG. From this process, version 1.0 of the HSG appraisal tool was generated complete with 32 items (and their descriptions) and 4 domains. The final

  4. Problems of Clinical Nurse Performance Appraisal System: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Nikpeyma

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal that the nurse performance appraisal system confronts with various problems. Some of these problems are related to organizational context while the others concerned structure, process and results of the performance appraisal system. In order to achieve high quality of patient care as the final goal of performance appraisal, changing and revision of this system is necessary.

  5. Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job…

  6. Student-generated questions during chemistry lectures: Patterns, self-appraisals, and relations with motivational beliefs and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, Bradley W.

    Self-generated questions are a central mechanism for learning, yet students' questions are often infrequent during classroom instruction. As a result, little is known about the nature of student questioning during typical instructional contexts such as listening to a lecture, including the extent and nature of student-generated questions, how students evaluate their questions, and the relations among questions, motivations, and achievement. This study examined the questions undergraduate students (N = 103) generated during 8 lectures in an introductory chemistry course. Students recorded and appraised their question in daily question logs and reported lecture-specific self-efficacy beliefs. Self-efficacy, personal interest, goal orientations, and other motivational self-beliefs were measured before and after the unit. Primary analyses included testing path models, multiple regressions, and latent class analyses. Overall, results indicated that several characteristics of student questioning during lectures were significantly related to various motivations and achievement. Higher end-of-class self-efficacy was associated with fewer procedural questions and more questions that reflected smaller knowledge deficits. Lower exam scores were associated with questions reflecting broader knowledge deficits and students' appraisals that their questions had less value for others than for themselves. Individual goal orientations collectively and positively predicted question appraisals. The questions students generated and their relations with motivational variables and achievement are discussed in light of the learning task and academic context.

  7. Health systems guidance appraisal--a critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako-Arrey, Denis E; Brouwers, Melissa C; Lavis, John N; Giacomini, Mita K

    2016-01-22

    Health systems guidance (HSG) are systematically developed statements that assist with decisions about options for addressing health systems challenges, including related changes in health systems arrangements. However, the development, appraisal, and reporting of HSG poses unique conceptual and methodological challenges related to the varied types of evidence that are relevant, the complexity of health systems, and the pre-eminence of contextual factors. To address this gap, we are conducting a program of research that aims to create a tool to support the appraisal of HSG and further enhance HSG development and reporting. The focus of this paper was to conduct a knowledge synthesis of the published and grey literatures to determine quality criteria (concepts) relevant for this process. We applied a critical interpretive synthesis (CIS) approach to knowledge synthesis that enabled an iterative, flexible, and dynamic analysis of diverse bodies of literature in order to generate a candidate list of concepts that will constitute the foundational components of the HSG tool. Using our review questions as compasses, we were able to guide the search strategy to look for papers based on their potential relevance to HSG appraisal, development, and reporting. The search strategy included various electronic databases and sources, subject-specific journals, conference abstracts, research reports, book chapters, unpublished data, dissertations, and policy documents. Screening the papers and data extraction was completed independently and in duplicate, and a narrative approach to data synthesis was executed. We identified 43 papers that met eligibility criteria. No existing review was found on this topic, and no HSG appraisal tool was identified. Over one third of the authors implicitly or explicitly identified the need for a high-quality tool aimed to systematically evaluate HSG and contribute to its development/reporting. We identified 30 concepts that may be relevant to the

  8. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  9. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  10. Productivity Implications of Employee Performance Appraisal System : A Critical Survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. VSR Subramaniam

    2004-01-01

    The Productivity of any organisation is directly correlated to the Effectiveness of the Employee Performance Appraisal System, subject to the Effectiveness of the Support Systems, depending upon the type of organizational business. INFERENCE : Technology, Systems and Manpower are linked in an inter- related circle focusing towards Productivity =============================================================== DOCTORAL (Ph.D) RESEARCH WORK OF DR.VSR.SUBRAMANIAM IN JAMNALAL BAJAJ INSTITUTE OF MANA...

  11. COMMUNICATION OPENNESS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEMS ENHANCING JOB SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMAIL Azman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between communication openness in performance appraisal systems and job satisfaction. A survey method was employed to gather data from employees who have worked in a privatized postal company in Sarawak, Malaysia. SmartPLS version 2.0 was used to determine the validity and reliability of instrument and test the research hypotheses. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed that explanation and feedback were positively and significantly related to job satisfaction. This result confirms that the ability of appraisers to clearly explain the performance appraisal practices and adequately provide feedback in determining performance scores have been important predictors of appraises’ job satisfaction in the studied organization. Further, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  12. Texas Teacher Evaluation & Support System (T-TESS) Appraiser Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency's (TEA) approved instrument for evaluating teachers, the Professional Development and Appraisal System (PDAS), was the primary instrument used by 86 percent of local education agencies (LEAs) in the state and has been in place since 1997. In acknowledging the vital roles teachers play in student achievement, and based on…

  13. World-System and Evolution: An Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes six arguments. First, socio-cultural evolution must be studied from a "world-system" or intersocietal interaction perspective. A focus on change in individual "societies" or "groups" fails to attend adequately to the effects of intersocietal interaction on social and cultural change. Second, in order to be useful, theories of the modern world-system must be modified extensively to deal with non-capitalist settings. In particular, changes in system boundaries marked by exchange networks (for information, luxury or prestige goods, political/military interactions, and bulk goods seldom coincide,and follow different patterns of change. Third, all such systems tend to pulsate, that is, expand and contract, or at least expand rapidly and less rapidly. Fourth, once hierarchical forms of social organization develop such systems typically have cycles of rise and fall in the relative positions of constituent politics. Fifth, expansion of world-systems forms and transforms social relations in newly incorporated areas. While complex in the modern world-system, these changes are even more complex in precapitalist settings. Sixth, thesetwo cycles combine with demographic and epidemiological processes to shape long -term socio-cultural evolution.

  14. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  15. Some Notes on Critical Appraisal of Prevalence Studies; Comment on: “The Development of a Critical Appraisal Tool for Use in Systematic Reviews Addressing Questions of Prevalence”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Harder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions in healthcare should be based on information obtained according to the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM. An increasing number of systematic reviews are published which summarize the results of prevalence studies. Interpretation of the results of these reviews should be accompanied by an appraisal of the methodological quality of the included data and studies. The critical appraisal tool for prevalence studies developed and tested by Munn et al. comprises 10 items and aims at targeting all kinds of prevalence studies. This comment discusses the pros and cons of different designs of quality appraisal tools and highlights their importance for systematic reviews of prevalence studies. Beyond piloting, which has been performed in the study by Munn et al., it is suggested here that the validity of the tool should be tested, including reproducibility and inter-rater reliability. It is concluded that studies as the one by Munn et al. will help to establish a critical understanding of methodological quality and will support the use of systematic reviews of non-intervention studies for health policy making.

  16. Some notes on critical appraisal of prevalence studies: Comment on: "The development of a critical appraisal tool for use in systematic reviews addressing questions of prevalence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Decisions in healthcare should be based on information obtained according to the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). An increasing number of systematic reviews are published which summarize the results of prevalence studies. Interpretation of the results of these reviews should be accompanied by an appraisal of the methodological quality of the included data and studies. The critical appraisal tool for prevalence studies developed and tested by Munn et al. comprises 10 items and aims at targeting all kinds of prevalence studies. This comment discusses the pros and cons of different designs of quality appraisal tools and highlights their importance for systematic reviews of prevalence studies. Beyond piloting, which has been performed in the study by Munn et al., it is suggested here that the validity of the tool should be tested, including reproducibility and inter-rater reliability. It is concluded that studies as the one by Munn et al. will help to establish a critical understanding of methodological quality and will support the use of systematic reviews of non-intervention studies for health policy making.

  17. The Falsehood of a Single Appraisal System: The Case of the Free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the appraisal system, popularly called the Employee Performance Management and Development System (EPMDS) of the Free State Health Department. The objective of the study was to establish gaps in the successful application of performance appraisals, and identify the major factors required for ...

  18. 5 CFR 1330.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Certification for Pay Purposes § 1330.405 Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems. (a) General. To... senior employees based on appraisals of their relative performance against performance expectations in... responsibilities— (A) The performance standards, requirements, or expectations for the employees they supervise to...

  19. Analysis of appraisal tool of system security engineering capability maturity based on component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenghai; Yang Xiaohua; Zou Shuliang; Liu Yachun; Xiao Jiantian; Liu Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Spent Fuel Reprocessing is a part of nuclear fuel cycle and is the inevitably choice of nuclear power sustainable development. Reprocessing needs to face with radiological, criticality, chemical hazards. Besides using the tradition appraisal methods based on the security goals, it is a beneficial supplement that using the appraisal method of system security engineering capability maturity model based on the process. Experts should check and approve large numbers of documents during the appraisal based on system security engineering capability maturity model, so it is necessary that developing a tool to assist the expert to complete the appraisal. The method of developing software based on component is highly effective, nimble and reliable. Component technology is analyzed, the methods of extraction model domain components and general components is introduced, and the appraisal system is developed based on component technology. (authors)

  20. Autoantibodies in systemic sclerosis: Unanswered questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANE eKAYSER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disease characterized by vascular abnormalities, and cutaneous and visceral fibrosis. Serum autoantibodies directed to multiple intracellular antigens are present in more than 95% of patients and are considered a hallmark of SSc. They are helpful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of SSc and are associated with distinctive clinical manifestations. With the advent of more sensitive, multiplexed immunoassays, new and old questions about the relevance of autoantibodies in SSc are emerging. In this review we discuss the clinical relevance of autoantibodies in SSc emphasizing the more recently published data. Moreover, we will summarize recent advances regarding the stability of SSc autoantibodies over the course of disease, whether they are mutually exclusive and their potential roles in the disease pathogenesis.

  1. A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Griffiths, Frances; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique

    2009-04-01

    A new form of literature review has emerged, Mixed Studies Review (MSR). These reviews include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In the present paper, we examine MSRs in health sciences, and provide guidance on processes that should be included and reported. However, there are no valid and usable criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of the qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. To propose criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies or study components. A three-step critical review was conducted. 2322 references were identified in MEDLINE, and their titles and abstracts were screened; 149 potentially relevant references were selected and the full-text papers were examined; 59 MSRs were retained and scrutinized using a deductive-inductive qualitative thematic data analysis. This revealed three types of MSR: convenience, reproducible, and systematic. Guided by a proposal, we conducted a qualitative thematic data analysis of the quality appraisal procedures used in the 17 systematic MSRs (SMSRs). Of 17 SMSRs, 12 showed clear quality appraisal procedures with explicit criteria but no SMSR used valid checklists to concomitantly appraise qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In two SMSRs, criteria were developed following a specific procedure. Checklists usually contained more criteria than needed. In four SMSRs, a reliability assessment was described or mentioned. While criteria for quality appraisal were usually based on descriptors that require specific methodological expertise (e.g., appropriateness), no SMSR described the fit between reviewers' expertise and appraised studies. Quality appraisal usually resulted in studies being ranked by methodological quality. A scoring system is proposed for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies for SMSRs. This

  2. Research on Appraisal System of Procurator Performance by Using High-Order CFA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-mao Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosecutor is the main body of procuratorial organs. The performance appraisal system plays an important role in promoting the work efficiency of procurator. In this paper, we establish the performance appraisal system of procurators by high-order confirmatory factor analysis method and evaluate procurators’ performance by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on the 360 degrees. The results have some help to performance management of procuratorial organs.

  3. Job Analysis, Job Descriptions, and Performance Appraisal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Johnnie M.; Foxley, Cecelia H.

    1980-01-01

    Job analysis, job descriptions, and performance appraisal can benefit student services administration in many ways. Involving staff members in the development and implementation of these techniques can increase commitment to and understanding of the overall objectives of the office, as well as communication and cooperation among colleagues.…

  4. Disease scoring systems for oral lichen planus; a critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity of both the objective and subjective parameters used in these systems and the lack of acceptance of one of these systems for uniform use, there is a need for an international, authorized consensus meeting on this subject. Because of the natural course of OLP characterized by remissions and exacerbations and also due to the varying distribution pattern and the varying clinical types, e.g. reticular and erosive, the relevance of a DSS based on morphologic parameters is somewhat questionable. Instead, one may consider to only look for a quality of life scoring system adapted for use in OLP patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, disease scoring system, classification. PMID:25681372

  5. Current state of the employee performance appraisal system in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Venclová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee performance appraisal is one of the most important human resource management tools. The first part of the article concentrates on the theoretical background. The second part evaluates the results of the quantitative survey. The aim of the article is to evaluate the use of formal appraisal of employees in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic and to test dependencies between selected qualitative characteristics. The results of the survey show that only 12.3% of agricultural organizations (n = 332 use formal appraisal of employees. They also confirm that the application of the formal appraisal of employees in agricultural organizations depends on the size of the agricultural organization (p-value 0.006, Phi coefficient 0.151 and the existence of a personnel department (p-value 0.000, Phi coefficient 0.210. 49.1% of agricultural organizations did not consider formal appraisal important. Only 5.8% of agricultural organizations that do not use any system of formal employee performance appraisal plan its implementation, despite the fact that currently people are considered to be the most important strategic asset of any organization for achieving a competitive advantage.

  6. [Discussion on appraisal methods and key technologies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and medicinal plant symbiosis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanping; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Yang, Li; Huang, Luqi

    2011-11-01

    Applications of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in research of medicinal plant cultivation are increased in recent years. Medicinal plants habitat is complicated and many inclusions are in root, however crop habitat is simple and few inclusions in root. So appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of crop and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can't completely suitable for the symbiotic system of medicinal plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This article discuss the appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of medicinal plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from the isolation and identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza, and the appraisal of colonization intensity. This article provides guidance for application research of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in cultivation of medicinal plants.

  7. THE ROLE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN THE CONTEXT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria HERMEL-STĂNESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Performance management is a complex concept that integrates all business activities and creates a continuous system for improvement. One of the key ingredients in an efficient performance management system is a well-designed performance appraisal that integrates the individual goals with the team and organization goals. When designing a performance appraisal system one has to consider the many existing techniques, tools and sources of error. Also, when defining the expected results and KPI’s for measurement, it is important to know the difference between output and outcome. The present paper aims to synthetize, through a literature review, the main aspects of performance appraisal in the context of performance management, pointing out its advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Designing effective questions for classroom response system teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Ian D.; Gerace, William J.; Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom response systems can be powerful tools for teaching physics. Their efficacy depends strongly on the quality of the questions. Creating effective questions is difficult and differs from creating exam and homework problems. Each classroom response system question should have an explicit pedagogic purpose consisting of a content goal, a process goal, and a metacognitive goal. Questions can be designed to fulfill their purpose through four complementary mechanisms: directing students' attention, stimulating specific cognitive processes, communicating information to the instructor and students via classroom response system-tabulated answer counts, and facilitating the articulation and confrontation of ideas. We identify several tactics that are useful for designing potent questions and present four "makeovers" to show how these tactics can be used to convert traditional physics questions into more powerful questions for a classroom response system.

  9. Determining Difficulty of Questions in Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunel, Korhan; Asliyan, Rifat

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study is to model the level of a question difficulty by a differential equation at a pre-specified domain knowledge, to be used in an educational support system. For this purpose, we have developed an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics education. Intelligent Tutoring Systems are computer systems designed for improvement…

  10. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    to extend the applicability of the RHC system are providing the continuous impetus for research on RHC systems. This paper summarizes the important issues involved in the research on RHC system, whereby ten questions and answers concerning the RHC system are discussed, which will help researchers to conduct...

  11. Whole systems appraisal of a UK Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system: Energy, environmental, and economic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Harajli, Hassan A.; Jones, Craig I.; Winnett, Adrian B.

    2012-01-01

    Energy analysis, environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) and economic appraisals have been utilised to study the performance of a domestic building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system on a ‘whole systems’ basis. Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in just 4.5 years. LCA revealed that the embodied impacts were offset by the electricity generated to provide a net environmental benefit in most categories. Only carcinogens, ecotoxicity and minerals had a small net lifetime burden. A financial analysis was undertaken from the householder's perspective, alongside cost-benefit analysis from a societal perspective. The results of both indicated that the systems are unlikely to pay back their investment over the 25 year lifetime. However, the UK is in an important period (2010/11) of policy transition with a move away from the ‘technology subsidies’ of the Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP) and towards a ‘market development policy’ of feed-in tariffs. Representing the next stage on an innovation S-curve this is expected to facilitate rapid PV uptake, as experienced in countries such as Germany, Denmark, and Spain. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the importance of the new government support scheme to the future uptake of BIPV. - Highlights: ► LCA and economic appraisals of a UK domestic building integrated PV system. ► Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in 4.5 years. ► UK moved towards a market development policy of feed-in tariffs. ► Financial analysis shows the importance of the new FiT scheme to the uptake of PV.

  12. Performance appraisal of multibeam system - Hydrosweep at different seabed provinces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.; Chakraborty, B.

    The performance of the multibeam sounding system (hydrosweep system) has been assessed at three varying zones of the seabed-continental shelf, continental slope, and deepsea seamount areas. Statistical studies were performed on the beamwise time...

  13. The Impact of Performance Appraisal, Reward System, Job Stress, and Work Life Conflict to Employee Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rumambie, Yuliana Fransisca

    2014-01-01

    Employee Performance is an important part in a company or organization. It plays a very important role in an organization because performance of the company or organization largely depends on the performance of its employee. Recently, organizations realize that there are several factors that can affect employee performance. Several factors that can considered as the major determinants of employee performance, such as Performance Appraisal, Reward System, Job Stress, and Work life conflict. Th...

  14. INTELLIGENT QUESTION-ANSWERING SYSTEM “MIVAR VIRTUAL CONSULTANT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Evgen’evna Adamova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of designing question-answering system “Mivar Virtual Consultant” using specialized information-technology platform for understanding meaning of text in the natural Russian language. The system is capable of accumulating knowledge from texts in the natural Russian language and managing this knowledge. The methodology for training virtual consultant is described.

  15. Appraisal of Cashless Policy on the Nigerian Financial System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    security.Taking it from another perspective, Ochei [13], studying the effective strategies for monitoring and controlling overspending in a cashless society as lessons for citizenship .... sophisticated system as to scale the hurdle of cyber- attacks which are ... upper class citizens of Nigeria who do business beyond the stated ...

  16. Critical Appraisal of the System of Education and Prospects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this article is to review the South African system of education and assess the country's prospects of meeting current and future manpower and developmental needs. This inquiry is based primarily on an assessment of the current status quo in education in South Africa in order to gain a better ...

  17. Disease scoring systems for oral lichen planus; a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; van der Waal, I.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to critically review 22 disease scoring systems (DSSs) on oral lichen planus (OLP) that have been reported in the literature during the past decades. Although the presently available DSSs may all have some merit, particularly for research purposes, the diversity

  18. Incremental picture archiving and communication system (PACS) - an appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, K.

    2000-01-01

    Digital storage phosphor radiography is slowly being introduced in Australia with more sites making the conversion from film/screen to computed radiography or a fully integrated Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne (SVHM) introduced partial PACS for general radiography in June 1996. This involved networking two Fuji CR Image Plate Readers and an existing Kodak KESPR400 Reader with viewing stations strategically placed in Medical Imaging, Casualty and the Intensive and Coronary Care units. No long-term storage device or archive facility was purchased. This installation coincided with the relocation of the Medical Imaging Department (MID) to a fully equipped new site as well as the introduction of the Kestral Radiology Management System. The transition has involved significant changes to the department's design, workflow and the radiographers' work practices. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  19. Assessing Children's Appraisals of Security in the Family System: The Development of the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although delineating the processes by which children appraise the family as a source of security from their collective experiences in the family subsystem has assumed center stage in many conceptualizations of child development, the dearth of measures of child adaptation in the family system has hindered empirical advances. Therefore,…

  20. The Applicability of 360 Degree Feedback Performance Appraisal System: A Brigade Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan TURGUT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On the subject of measuring individual performances, which considered to be one of the fundamental functions of the human resources management process, 360 Degree Feedback Performance Appraisal System (360 DFPAS preferred for taking into account more than one aspect while providing opportunities in order to achieve more objective results. It’s been thought that the applicability of the above mentioned method is not investigated enough in the public sector where most of the employments take place in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to probe into the applicability of the 360 DFPAS on low and mid-level managers in a brigade. Within this framework, differences between the raters (manager, subordinate, peer, client, self-evaluation have been examined and comparisons made between traditional performance appraisal and 360 DFPAS. There are meaningful differences only inner client between two different evaluation methods (Traditional manager evalution-360 DFPAS within evaluation raters. But there aren’t any meaningful differences between traditional performance appraisal and 360 DFPAS as whole method.

  1. Multi-model approach to petroleum resource appraisal using analytic methodologies for probabilistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic appraisal model that is selected for a petroleum resource assessment depends upon purpose of the assessment, basic geologic assumptions of the area, type of available data, time available before deadlines, available human and financial resources, available computer facilities, and, most importantly, the available quantitative methodology with corresponding computer software and any new quantitative methodology that would have to be developed. Therefore, different resource assessment projects usually require different geologic models. Also, more than one geologic model might be needed in a single project for assessing different regions of the study or for cross-checking resource estimates of the area. Some geologic analyses used in the past for petroleum resource appraisal involved play analysis. The corresponding quantitative methodologies of these analyses usually consisted of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. A probabilistic system of petroleum resource appraisal for play analysis has been designed to meet the following requirements: (1) includes a variety of geologic models, (2) uses an analytic methodology instead of Monte Carlo simulation, (3) possesses the capacity to aggregate estimates from many areas that have been assessed by different geologic models, and (4) runs quickly on a microcomputer. Geologic models consist of four basic types: reservoir engineering, volumetric yield, field size, and direct assessment. Several case histories and present studies by the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. Appraisal of Fire Safety Management Systems at Educational Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzim N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational buildings are one type of government asset that should be protected, and they play an important role as temporary communal meeting places for children, teachers and communities. In terms of management, schools need to emphasize fire safety for their buildings. It is well known that fires are not only a threat to the building’s occupants, but also to the property and the school environment. A study on fire safety management has been carried out on schools that have recently experienced fires in Penang. From the study, it was found that the school buildings require further enhancement in terms of both active and passive fire protection systems. For instance, adequate fire extinguishers should be provided to the school and the management should inspect and maintain fire protection devices regularly. The most effective methods to increase the level of awareness on fire safety are by organizing related programs on the management of fire safety involving all staff, teachers and students, educational talks on the dangers of fire and important actions to take in the event of an emergency, and, lastly, to appoint particular staff to join the management safety team in schools.

  3. Probabilistic endowment appraisal system based upon the formalization of geologic decisions. General description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.P.; Carrigan, F.J.

    1980-04-01

    The objectives of this study include the design of an appraisal system which has the following features: estimates uranium endowment, not resources; formalizes the geologist's geoscience and assists the geologist in the exercise of his geoscience; describes the probability distribution for uranium endowment; diminishes or at least does not contribute to psychometric biases; provides for anonymous exchange among multiple experts of tenets of geoscience, but not the exchange of endowment estimates; provides an endowment estimate based upon geoscience only; is not easily gamed or manipulated; and provides for a quick and easy review of geoscience and resource information. This report is reflective of its title, a general description. The appraisal system resulting from this research is complex in the detail of its design and use. However, the major concepts which are reflected by the system are simple. The purpose of this report is to establish clearly these major concepts and the manner in which the system applies these concepts. Many details, refinements, and caveats are purposefully suppressed in order to provide this general description. While this suppression is a loss to some readers, it is a benefit to a wider spectrum of readers. Those interested in the nuts and bolts of the system will also want to read the user's manual which accompanies this general description

  4. 5 CFR 430.405 - Procedures for certifying agency appraisal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal Certification for Pay Purposes § 430.405... appraisals of their relative performance against performance expectations in any given appraisal period..., requirements, or expectations for the employees they supervise to ensure that they clearly link to...

  5. Questions asked concerning energy savings in lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the question why information on the power consumption of lighting fixtures is not often to be found in articles in lifestyle magazines or in the displays of designer-boutiques. The efficiency of various types of lighting is discussed. In particular, the differences between traditional incandescent bulbs and energy-saving lighting systems are examined from the aesthetical, colour-reproduction and energy-consumption points of view. Further information presented includes details on colour-reproduction indexes and colour temperature. The lighting needs of various types of room are looked at and the influence of the physical form of the lighting fixtures on purchasing decisions is examined

  6. RAAIS: Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (Part II). Integrated analysis of parasitic weed problems in rice in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Rodenburg, J.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Kayeke, J.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic weeds such as Striga spp and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa in smallholder rice production systems form an increasing problem for food and income security in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper we implement the Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS) as a diagnostic tool to

  7. DYNAMIC SYSTEM APPROACH IN PSYCHOLOGY: PROPOSITION AND APPLICATION IN THE STUDY OF EMOTION, APPRAISAL AND COGNITIVE ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano M. A. Gomes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychological processes are difficult to be studied due to their complexity. The dynamic system approach shows itself as a good tool for psychology to deal with this complexity issue. We propose two fundamental contributions of the dynamic system approach to psychology and apply it in the study of achievement emotions, appraisal and cognitive achievement. Two hypotheses were investigated: 1 More than one correlation pattern between test achievement, appraisal and emotion will be found; 2 Test achievement, appraisal and emotion form a dynamic system which will be explained by a latent variable that is dependent on the previous state of the system. A sample of thirteen students from seventh to ninth grades performed an inductive reasoning test, appraised their achievement, and declared their emotional valences (from extreme positive to extreme negative. Each variable was measured in 20 different occasions. One correlation matrix of each individual was generated and seven qualitative profiles were identified. Then four different states of relations between the variables were identified through a hidden Markov model. The two hypotheses were not refuted. It’s concluded that the dynamic system approach brings new possibilities to the study of psychological processes.

  8. Complex systems dynamics in aging: new evidence, continuing questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A

    2016-02-01

    There have long been suggestions that aging is tightly linked to the complex dynamics of the physiological systems that maintain homeostasis, and in particular to dysregulation of regulatory networks of molecules. This review synthesizes recent work that is starting to provide evidence for the importance of such complex systems dynamics in aging. There is now clear evidence that physiological dysregulation--the gradual breakdown in the capacity of complex regulatory networks to maintain homeostasis--is an emergent property of these regulatory networks, and that it plays an important role in aging. It can be measured simply using small numbers of biomarkers. Additionally, there are indications of the importance during aging of emergent physiological processes, functional processes that cannot be easily understood through clear metabolic pathways, but can nonetheless be precisely quantified and studied. The overall role of such complex systems dynamics in aging remains an important open question, and to understand it future studies will need to distinguish and integrate related aspects of aging research, including multi-factorial theories of aging, systems biology, bioinformatics, network approaches, robustness, and loss of complexity.

  9. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... value of the collateral. All real property appraisals associated with Agency guaranteed loanmaking and... appraise the property in question. All appraisals will include consideration of the potential effects from... value of the collateral. For additional guidance and information concerning the completion of real...

  10. Appraisal Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimann, Finn; Enemark, Ulrika; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    Appraisal of continued support to Ghana's health sector for a third phase covering 2003 - 2007. Funding recommended with DKK 340 million over five years.......Appraisal of continued support to Ghana's health sector for a third phase covering 2003 - 2007. Funding recommended with DKK 340 million over five years....

  11. Still a Deadly Disease? Performance Appraisal Systems in Academic Libraries in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr; Byrd, Allison S.; Mazza, Emily Rose; Bergman, Shawn M.

    2018-01-01

    Performance appraisal of professional librarians in academic libraries is important because of the critical role these employees play. Professional librarians ensure that the library's resources and services are effective, relevant, and integrated within the parent institution. Performance appraisal and job feedback have been understudied in the…

  12. Earth Systems Questions in Experimental Climate Change Science: Pressing Questions and Necessary Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmond, B.

    2002-05-20

    Sixty-four scientists from universities, national laboratories, and other research institutions worldwide met to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Biosphere2 Laboratory (B2L) as an inclusive multi-user scientific facility (i.e., a facility open to researchers from all institutions, according to agreed principles of access) for earth system studies and engineering research, education, and training relevant to the mission of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. Technical appraisal of solar home systems in Bangladesh: A field investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Shahriar A.; Islam, Moududul; Khan, M. Rezwan; Mourshed, Monjur; Morshed, Tanvir; Kabir, S.M. Raiyan; Patwary, Mohammad N.

    2011-01-01

    Solar Home System (SHS) based rural electrification has experienced a considerable growth in Bangladesh since the start of the Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy Development Project (REREDP) in 2003. The initial target of 50,000 SHS installations in off-grid areas was achieved within 2.5 years, 3 years ahead of schedule. After achieving a revised target of 200,000 SHSs, ahead of schedule in early 2009, a new target of 1 million SHS installations by 2012 was set. The installation of about 0.5 million systems by March 2010 indicates that the current target may well be achieved before the deadline. The size of the SHS market and its impact on the regeneration of the rural economy make it necessary to investigate the quality and reliability of the installed SHSs, if the continued success of the initiative is to be maintained. This paper reports on the findings from a field-based technical appraisal of SHS installations in Bangladesh. Sixty geographically dispersed installation sites were visited. Physical characteristics of the SHSs and their system components were tested to ascertain compliance with and deviations from the approved specifications. Despite the overwhelming success of the REREDP project, the study revealed various shortcomings. Notable among these are: incompatible and sub-optimal component configurations, faulty installations and a lack of effective quality assurance mechanism. The findings are contextualized and the ways to address the identified shortcomings are discussed. (author)

  14. Financial capital appraisal in the system of industrial enterprise development management

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtyamov M.K.; Gonchar E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper studies an objective appraisal of financial capital value in industrial enterprise development management. The authors draw attention to a limited scope of work in the area of financial management under application of a traditional approach to appraisal of enterprise financial capital value and describe a new advanced approach to this problem solving. The paper focuses on reformation of balance sheet statement, in which economic benefit and reserves of financial capital are included...

  15. Participatory Rural Appraisal for Diagnostic Analysis of spate irrigation systems in Raya Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Castelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spate irrigation is a complex and unique form of water management, which represent the main source of irrigation water in semi-arid river catchments. Water is diverted from seasonal rivers by using diversion structures made by stones, earth and brushwood, located within the river bed. The modernisation of spate irrigation realised in Raya Valley (northern Ethiopia resulted in disappointing performances. One of the main reasons for this failure was the poor consideration of the characteristics of seasonal catchments and local communities’ needs and preferences. Local farmers, who showed a deep knowledge of the river system, were involved only at the level of consultation. The aim of this research was to develop a participatory Diagnostic Analysis (DA for a traditional non-modernised spate irrigation system in Raya Valley, in order to involve local farmers within the development process, and to build a solid knowledge basis for effective improvements. A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA of the Harosha spate irrigation system was undertaken. PRA techniques focusing on spatial, temporal, socio-economical and spatiotemporal aspects of the system were performed with local farmers in order to identify and rank main problems and constraints to development. Farmers recognised the need of more resistant diversion structures and gabion walls for the stabilisation of the river bank. The involvement of farmers also helped to highlight that not only irrigation-related problems, but also flood-related problems threaten agricultural production and rural livelihoods. Rather than an irrigation system approach, an approach integrating irrigation development and flood risk mitigation is suggested for framing future development strategies.

  16. Appraising the quality of sub-Saharan African cancer registration systems that contributed to GLOBOCAN 2008: a review of the literature and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker-Buque, Tim; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-02-01

    To critically appraise the quality of sub-Saharan African cancer registration systems that submitted data to GLOBOCAN 2008 with respect to population coverage using publicly available information and to show the use of GLOBOCAN statistics in determining global health priorities. Sources of cancer registration data for twenty-six sub-Saharan African cancer registries were identified from GLOBOCAN 2008 factsheets. Additional information was extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer publications. A literature search was conducted to identify studies that reported additional information on data collection methods and provided 27 studies. The websites of the 10 largest funders of development assistance for health were searched for GLOBOCAN citations. Twenty-six sub-Saharan African cancer registration systems submitting data to GLOBOCAN 2008 in relation to 21 countries. Information on 15 quality variables were extracted and compared with the international gold standard for cancer registration systems. Population coverage of the cancer registries ranged from from 2.3% of the population in Kenya to 100% in The Gambia, with a heavy urban bias in all countries. However, 20 countries (300 million people) had no cancer registration systems. Nineteen of the 26 registries failed to meet more than five of the 15 quality criteria and only one country met more than 10. Seven of the 10 largest funders of development assistance for health cite GLOBOCAN statistics in support of policy priorities. GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates are based on data drawn from poor quality cancer registration systems, with limited or no population registry coverage. It is essential the GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates should provide information on the quality of the data collection and explain the limitations of the estimates. Development organisations and the World Health Organization need to take a more cautious approach when using these data to determine priorities and allocating resources. © The

  17. Funding New Zealand's public healthcare system: time for an honest appraisal and public debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Lyndon; Bagshaw, Philip; Nicholls, M Gary; Rosenberg, Bill; Frampton, Christopher M; Powell, Ian

    2016-05-27

    Successive New Zealand governments have claimed that the cost of funding the country's public healthcare services is excessive and unsustainable. We contest that these claims are based on a misrepresentation of healthcare spending. Using data from the New Zealand Treasury and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), we show how government spending as a whole is low compared with most other OECD countries and is falling as a proportion of GDP. New Zealand has a modest level of health spending overall, but government health spending is also falling as a proportion of GDP. Together, the data indicate the New Zealand Government can afford to spend more on healthcare. We identify compelling reasons why it should do so, including forecast growing health need, signs of increasing unmet need, and the fact that if health needs are not met the costs still have to be borne by the economy. The evidence further suggests it is economically and socially beneficial to meet health needs through a public health system. An honest appraisal and public debate is needed to determine more appropriate levels of healthcare spending.

  18. CORRELATES OF EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION WITH PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM IN FOREIGN MNC BPOs OPERATING IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERALD MONIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an empirical study of five foreign MNC BPO firms operating in India, ranked among the top 100 by the International Association of Outsourcing Professionals (IAOP for the year 2009. The data was collected using quantitative methods from 163 employees constituting 1% of the population under study. The level of satisfaction among the respondents towards the performance appraisal system is at 69.94 per cent. Regression analysis, using a significance level of 5 per cent, shows that three of the variables used in the study are significantly influencing the satisfaction and all these three significant variables are positively associated with satisfaction and all other variables have emerged as the insignificant variables. All the variables used in our study collectively account for 42.6 per cent of the satisfaction. The factor analysis has identified four factors: the variables of factor one contribute 34.786 per cent variation, followed by 12.788 per cent, 11.961 per cent and 8.389 per cent variation being contributed by factor two, three and four respectively.

  19. Identification of Conflicting Questions in the PARES System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avgoustos Tsinakos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Student testing and knowledge assessment is a significant aspect of the learning process. In a number of cases, it is expedient not to present the exact same test to all learners all the time (Pritchett, 1999. This may be desired so that cheating in the exam is made harder to carry out or so that the learners can take several practice tests on the same subject as part of the course.This study presents an e-testing platform, namely PARES, which aims to provide assessment services to academic staff by facilitating the creation and management of question banks and powering the delivery of nondeterministically generated test suites. PARES uses a conflict detection algorithm based on the vector space model to compute the similarity between questions and exclude questions which are deemed to have an unacceptably large similarity from appearing in the same test suite. The conflict detection algorithm and a statistical evaluation of its accuracy are presented. Evaluation results show that PARES succeeds in detecting question types at about 90% and its efficiency can be further increased through continuing education and enrichment of the system’s correlation vocabulary.

  20. Financial capital appraisal in the system of industrial enterprise development management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtyamov M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies an objective appraisal of financial capital value in industrial enterprise development management. The authors draw attention to a limited scope of work in the area of financial management under application of a traditional approach to appraisal of enterprise financial capital value and describe a new advanced approach to this problem solving. The paper focuses on reformation of balance sheet statement, in which economic benefit and reserves of financial capital are included by the authors; the author’s methodology for appraisal of financial capital value and its application sphere are denoted. In accordance with a case study, we confirm possibility of more accurate appraisal of enterprise investment opportunities by taking into account economic benefit from reserve of liquidity and borrowing capacity, which increases financial capital value. The practical approval results affirm that application of proprietary methodology for appraisal of financial capital and its elements has practical utility in solving problems of determination of required amount of attracted foreign investments and problems of determination of fair value of company take of an external investor, which are aimed at minimizing risks of corporate ownership dissemination and improving managerial efficiency of an industrial enterprise.

  1. Remote sensing and geographic information system for appraisal of salt-affected soils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurbachan; Bundela, D S; Sethi, Madhurama; Lal, Khajanchi; Kamra, S K

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of the nature, extent, and spatial distribution of salt-affected soils (SAS) for India and the world is essential for planning and implementing reclamation programs in a timely and cost-effective manner for sustained crop production. The national extent of SAS for India over the last four decades was assessed by conventional and remote sensing approaches using diverse methodologies and class definitions and ranged from 6.0 to 26.1 million hectares (Mha) and 1.2 to 10.1 Mha, respectively. In 1966, an area of 6 Mha under SAS was first reported using the former approach. Three national estimates, obtained using remote sensing, were reconciled using a geographic information system, resulting in an acceptable extent of 6.73 Mha. Moderately and severely salt-encrusted lands having large contiguous area have been correctly mapped, but slightly salt-encrusted land having smaller affected areas within croplands has not been accurately mapped. Recent satellite sensors (e.g., Resourcesat-1, Cartosat-2, IKONOS-II, and RISAT-2), along with improved image processing techniques integrated with terrain and other spatial data using a geographic information system, are enabling mapping at large scale. Significant variations in salt encrustation at the surface caused by soil moisture, waterlogging conditions, salt-tolerant crops, and dynamics of subsurface salts present constraints in appraisal, delineation, and mapping efforts. The article provides an overview of development, identification, characterization, and delineation of SAS, past and current national scenarios of SAS using conventional and remote sensing approaches, reconciliation of national estimates, issues of SAS mapping, and future scope.

  2. Using Expectancy Theory to Explain Performance Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... appraisal conducting style, the relation between the performance appraisal system and task ... the article first explains the theory model which is based expectancy theory. II. ... which in return lead to rewards. According to [12],.

  3. Conducting effective performance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    According to experts, performance appraisals rate just below firing someone as the least favorite thing managers do. Many factors contribute to this view--one is that current systems do a poor job of evaluating performance and in fact often impede both evaluation and performance. When used as part of an ongoing supportive process of goal setting and feedback, performance appraisals can enhance performance and morale. One alternative to traditional employee evaluation methods is full-circle or 360-degree feedback. Contained in this issue are practical suggestions for preparing employees for performance appraisals which, when followed daily, encourage employees to put their best feet forward as part of their regular routine. Also included is a template specific to assessing the performance of clinical laboratory technologists . Additionally, numerous resources are provided to help you refine appraisal systems to fit your needs. Full-circle feedback is proving to be a boon to managers. It relieves them from being the exclusive "heavies" in evaluating performance, integrates appraisal input from several sources, and incorporates increasing employee skills, competencies, and satisfaction, thus improving productivity of people and processes. And aren't integration and continuous improvement what the laboratory is all about?

  4. Answer selection in a multi-stream open domain question answering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; McDonald, S.; Tait, J.

    2004-01-01

    Question answering systems aim to meet users' information needs by returning exact answers in response to a question. Traditional open domain question answering systems are built around a single pipeline architecture. In an attempt to exploit multiple resources as well as multiple answering

  5. Multi-criteria appraisal of multi-modal urban public transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Cats, O.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) modelling framework for the appraisal of multi-modal urban public transportation services. MCDM is commonly used to obtain choice alternatives that satisfy a range of performance indicators. The framework embraces both compensatory and

  6. Superconductivity in strongly correlated electron systems: successes and open questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastry, B. Sriram

    2000-01-01

    Correlated electronic systems and superconductivity is a field which has unique track record of producing exciting new phases of matter. The article gives an overview of trends in solving the problems of superconductivity and correlated electronic systems

  7. Understanding the modifiable health systems barriers to hypertension management in Malaysia: a multi-method health systems appraisal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; Balabanova, Dina; Majid, Fadhlina; Ng, Kien Keat; Yusoff, Khalid; Mustapha, Feisul; Kuhlbrandt, Charlotte; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Schwalm, J-D; McCready, Tara; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin

    2015-07-03

    The growing burden of non-communicable diseases in middle-income countries demands models of care that are appropriate to local contexts and acceptable to patients in order to be effective. We describe a multi-method health system appraisal to inform the design of an intervention that will be used in a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve hypertension control in Malaysia. A health systems appraisal was undertaken in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and poorer-resourced rural sites in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. Building on two systematic reviews of barriers to hypertension control, a conceptual framework was developed that guided analysis of survey data, documentary review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, health professionals and patients. The analysis followed the patients as they move through the health system, exploring the main modifiable system-level barriers to effective hypertension management, and seeking to explain obstacles to improved access and health outcomes. The study highlighted the need for the proposed intervention to take account of how Malaysian patients seek treatment in both the public and private sectors, and from western and various traditional practitioners, with many patients choosing to seek care across different services. Patients typically choose private care if they can afford to, while others attend heavily subsidised public clinics. Public hypertension clinics are often overwhelmed by numbers of patients attending, so health workers have little time to engage effectively with patients. Treatment adherence is poor, with a widespread belief, stemming from concepts of traditional medicine, that hypertension is a transient disturbance rather than a permanent asymptomatic condition. Drug supplies can be erratic in rural areas. Hypertension awareness and education material are limited, and what exist are poorly developed and ineffective. Despite having a relatively well funded health system offering good access to

  8. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    studies on RHC systems in terms of comfort, heat transfer analysis, energy simulation, control strategy, system configurations and so on. Many studies have demonstrated that the RHC system is a good solution to improve indoor environmental quality while reducing building energy consumption for heating......Radiant heating and cooling (RHC) systems are being increasingly applied not only in residential but also in non-residential buildings such as commercial buildings, education facilities, and even large scale buildings such as airport terminals. Furthermore, with the combined ventilation system used...

  9. Intrinsic Variability in Multiple Systems and Clusters: Open Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampens, P.

    2006-04-01

    It is most interesting and rewarding to probe the stellar structure of stars which belong to a system originating from the same parent cloud as this provides additional and more accurate constraints for the models. New results on pulsating components in multiple systems and clusters are beginning to emerge regularly. Based on concrete studies, I will present still unsolved problems and discuss some of the issues which may affect our understanding of the pulsation physics in such systems but also in general.

  10. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Historical Questions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1984-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). BRFSS Survey Data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information...

  11. THE QUESTION OF DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED SYSTEMS FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shirin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current systems and methods for automated traffic management in cities are analyzed. The management in cities is analyzed. The management levels are specified. There were fermulated the general requirements, objectives and funnctions of the automated sistems for traffic management with regard to the modern transport problems as well as proposed their aditional managemrnt and infor-maton functions. A phased approach to the implementation of projects on creation of automated sys-tems of traffic management is offered.

  12. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  13. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Ricarda; Waiswa, Peter; Neuhann, Florian; Scheibe, Florian; de Savigny, Don

    2011-08-01

    Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to enable systems that can match and accommodate investments in

  14. Answering biological questions: Querying a systems biology database for nutrigenomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelo, C.T.; Bochove, K. van; Saito, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of systems biology for connecting different levels of biological research leads directly to a need for integrating vast amounts of diverse information in general and of omics data in particular. The nutritional phenotype database addresses this challenge for nutrigenomics. A

  15. Questioning the Scholarly Discussion around Decentralization in Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Soner Onder

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of Turkish Republic till date, Turkish Education System (TES) has been steered by a handful of politicians and civil servants, who enjoy maximum centralized authority. Over the years, therefore, centralized management has repeatedly been blamed for the deadlocks hampering progress in the TES. Turkish scholars often seem to find…

  16. Proposal for a Similar Question Search System on a Q&A Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Kanamori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a service to help Internet users obtain answers to specific questions when they visit a Q&A site. A Q&A site is very useful for the Internet user, but posted questions are often not answered immediately. This delay in answering occurs because in most cases another site user is answering the question manually. In this study, we propose a system that can present a question that is similar to a question posted by a user. An advantage of this system is that a user can refer to an answer to a similar question. This research measures the similarity of a candidate question based on word and dependency parsing. In an experiment, we examined the effectiveness of the proposed system for questions actually posted on the Q&A site. The result indicates that the system can show the questioner the answer to a similar question. However, the system still has a number of aspects that should be improved.

  17. Varied Search Protocols Lead to Clinically Relevant Results. A review of: Patel, Manesh R., Connie M. Schardt, Linda L. Sanders, and Sheri A. Keitz. “Randomized Trial for Answers to Clinical Questions: Evaluating a Pre‐Appraised Versus a MEDLINE Search Protocol.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94.4 (2006: 382‐6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. Brown

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the success rate of electronic resources for answering clinical questions by comparing speed, validity, and applicability of two different protocols for searching the medical literature.Design – Randomized trial with results judged by blinded panel.Setting – Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, United States ofAmerica.Subjects – Thirty‐two 2nd and 3rd year internal medicine residents on an eight week general medicine rotation at the Duke University Medical Center.Methods – Two search protocols were developed:Protocol A: Participants searched MEDLINE first, and then searched pre‐appraised resources if needed.Protocol B: Participants searched pre‐appraised resources first, which included UpToDate, ACP JournalClub, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and DARE. The residents then searched MEDLINE if an answer could not be found in the 66 initial group of pre‐appraised resources. Residents were randomised by computer-assisted block order into four blocks of eight residents each. Two blocks were assigned to Protocol A, and two to Protocol B. Each day, residents developed at least one clinical question related to caring for patients. The questions were transcribed onto pocket-sized cards, with the answer sought later using the assigned protocol. If answers weren’t found using either protocol, searches were permitted in other available resources. When an article that answered a question was found, the resident recorded basic information about the question and the answer as well as the time required to find the answer (less than five minutes; between five and ten minutes; or more than ten minutes. Residents were to select answers that were “methodologically sound and clinically important” (384. Ten faculty members formally trained in evidence‐based medicine (EBM reviewed a subset of therapy‐related questions and answers. The reviewers, who were blinded to the search protocols

  18. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhann Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART. ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. Methods This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Results Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. Conclusion The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to

  19. Multimodal follow-up questions to multimodal answers in a QA system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a dialogue manager (DM) for a multimodal interactive Question Answering (QA) system. Our QA system presents answers using text and pictures, and the user may pose follow-up questions using text or speech, while indicating screen elements with the mouse. We developed a corpus of

  20. Automatic Generation System of Multiple-Choice Cloze Questions and its Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Goto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since English expressions vary according to the genres, it is important for students to study questions that are generated from sentences of the target genre. Although various questions are prepared, it is still not enough to satisfy various genres which students want to learn. On the other hand, when producing English questions, sufficient grammatical knowledge and vocabulary are needed, so it is difficult for non-expert to prepare English questions by themselves. In this paper, we propose an automatic generation system of multiple-choice cloze questions from English texts. Empirical knowledge is necessary to produce appropriate questions, so machine learning is introduced to acquire knowledge from existing questions. To generate the questions from texts automatically, the system (1 extracts appropriate sentences for questions from texts based on Preference Learning, (2 estimates a blank part based on Conditional Random Field, and (3 generates distracters based on statistical patterns of existing questions. Experimental results show our method is workable for selecting appropriate sentences and blank part. Moreover, our method is appropriate to generate the available distracters, especially for the sentence that does not contain the proper noun.

  1. Top 40 questions in coupled human and natural systems (CHANS research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boyd. Kramer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems (CHANS is a central challenge of the 21st century, but more focus is needed to pursue the most important questions within this vast field given limited research capacity and funding. We present 40 important questions for CHANS research, identified through a two-part crowdsourcing exercise within the CHANS community. We solicited members of the International Network of Research on Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS-Net to submit up to three questions that they considered transformative, receiving 540 questions from 207 respondents. After editing for clarity and consistency, we asked the network's members to each evaluate a random subset of 20 questions in importance on a scale from 1 (least important to 7 (extremely important. Questions on land use and agriculture topped the list, with a median importance ranking of 5.7, followed by questions of scale, climate change and energy, sustainability and development, adaptation and resilience, in addition to seven other categories. We identified 40 questions with a median importance of 6.0 or above, which we highlight as the current view of researchers active in the field as research questions to pursue in order to maximize impact on understanding and managing coupled human and natural systems for achieving sustainable development goals and addressing emerging global challenges.

  2. Models for mature T-cell lymphomas--a critical appraisal of experimental systems and their contribution to current T-cell tumorigenic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kathrin; Crispatzu, Giuliano; Al-Ghaili, Nabil; Weit, Nicole; Florou, Vaia; You, M James; Newrzela, Sebastian; Herling, Marco

    2013-12-01

    Mature T-cell lymphomas/leukemias (MTCL) have been understudied lymphoid neoplasms that currently receive growing attention. Our historically rudimentary molecular understanding and dissatisfactory interventional success in this complex and for the most part poor-prognostic group of tumors is only slightly improving. A major limiting aspect in further progress in these rare neoplasms is the lack of suitable model systems that would substantially facilitate pathogenic studies and pre-clinical drug evaluations. Such representations of MTCL have thus far not been systematically appraised. We therefore provide an overview on existing models and point out their particular advantages and limitations in the context of the specific scientific questions. After addressing issues of species-specific differences and classifications, we summarize data on MTCL cell lines of human as well as murine origin, on murine strain predispositions to MTCL, on available models of genetically engineered mice, and on transplant systems. From an in-silico meta-analysis of available primary data of gene expression profiles on human MTCL we cross-reference genes reported to transform T-cells in mice and reflect on their general vs entity-restricted relevance and on target-promoter influences. Overall, we identify the urgent need for new models of higher fidelity to human MTCL with respect to their increasingly recognized diversity and to predictions of drug response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  4. The Power of a Question: A Case Study of Two Organizational Knowledge Capture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynn P.

    2003-01-01

    This document represents a presentation regarding organizational knowledge capture systems which was delivered at the HICSS-36 conference held from January 6-9, 2003. An exploratory case study of two knowledge resources is offered. Then, two organizational knowledge capture systems are briefly described: knowledge transfer from practitioner and the use of questions to represent knowledge. Finally, the creation of a database of peer review questions is suggested as a method of promoting organizational discussions and knowledge representation and exchange.

  5. Questioning the Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  6. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

  7. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  8. Industrial Control System Cyber Security: Questions And Answers Relevant To Nuclear Facilities, Safeguards And Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; Moskowitz, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  9. The Power of Developmental Performance Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Salim Alghanabousi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of employee performance is a must that any organization should take into account to be a successful in achieving its goals. However, the tools of developing that performance are varying based on the type of the organization and the nature of the work performed. Performance appraisal is one of the effective tools that help the organization to measure the accomplishment of its goals, if implemented effectively. In education, it became evident that performance appraisal of educators is an essential element of the development of any educational institution. To make the performance appraisal fruitful, the development element should be dominant in the sense that other elements of the appraisal should serve the broad aim of the appraisal process. Therefore, a well-designed and comprehensive system is needed to cover all the aspects of appraisal process that include of the goals, criteria, instruments, and continuous support.

  10. CERN's Merit Appraisal and Recognition System from the point of view of the supervisor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The required training consists of 2 parts : This presentation explaining “CERN’s merit recognition system”, followed by a session of questions/answers – duration : 2 hours A training session on “How to get, as a supervisor, the most out of the annual interview” – duration : 1 day. This hands-on training focuses on how to set smart work and development objectives, how to give feedback and how to run the annual interview in a constructive way.

  11. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai N. Lee

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  12. Experimental evaluation of ontology-based HIV/AIDS frequently asked question retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Yirsaw; Moeng, Barbara; Mosweunyane, Gontlafetse

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the results of experimental evaluations of an ontology-based frequently asked question retrieval system in the domain of HIV and AIDS. The main purpose of the system is to provide answers to questions on HIV/AIDS using ontology. To evaluate the effectiveness of the frequently asked question retrieval system, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment focused on the evaluation of the quality of the ontology we developed using the OQuaRE evaluation framework which is based on software quality metrics and metrics designed for ontology quality evaluation. The second experiment focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the ontology in retrieving relevant answers. For this we used an open-source information retrieval platform, Terrier, with retrieval models BM25 and PL2. For the measurement of performance, we used the measures mean average precision, mean reciprocal rank, and precision at 5. The results suggest that frequently asked question retrieval with ontology is more effective than frequently asked question retrieval without ontology in the domain of HIV/AIDS.

  13. Appraisal Psychology, Neurobiology, and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that the confluence of stimulus appraisal and social cognition that is effected by the neural system in the brain has important implications for language and learning theories. Describes the anatomy and functions of this neural system and discusses how it may operate in motivation for second language acquisition and how in conjunction…

  14. The advocacy of an appraisal system for teachers: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education systems all over the world, like all other organisations, have certain organisational goals that they set and wish to achieve. It is argued that for increased pupil performance, in the case of education systems, teachers must work harder and smarter. A performance system is regarded as part of the process to achieve ...

  15. Wireless "Questions-Bank" System to Enhance M-Learning in School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Abou El-Seoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Through wireless devices and wireless applications, M-learning supports an integrated access to Web content and services in education anytime and anywhere. This paper describes the analysis, design, and implementation of "Wireless Questions-Bank System", that allows the students to take web-based quizzes, web-based free exercises, web-based exams (midterm, and final, to download course reviews, to download previous exams and their model answers, to access the system through the Mobile and take quick quizzes and exercises. The system facilitates generation of automatic, balanced, and different exam sheets, that containing different types of questions, covering the entire curriculum, and displaying gradually from easiness to difficulty. The exam sheet produced by the system, takes into account the different levels of the students from excellent, good, to fair, and avoids any mistakes of language and non-clear terminologies

  16. Emotional and Utilitarian Appraisals of Moral Dilemmas Are Encoded in Separate Areas and Integrated in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Woodward, James; Rangel, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Moral judgment often requires making difficult tradeoffs (e.g., is it appropriate to torture to save the lives of innocents at risk?). Previous research suggests that both emotional appraisals and more deliberative utilitarian appraisals influence such judgments and that these appraisals often conflict. However, it is unclear how these different types of appraisals are represented in the brain, or how they are integrated into an overall moral judgment. We addressed these questions using an fMRI paradigm in which human subjects provide separate emotional and utilitarian appraisals for different potential actions, and then make difficult moral judgments constructed from combinations of these actions. We found that anterior cingulate, insula, and superior temporal gyrus correlated with emotional appraisals, whereas temporoparietal junction and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with utilitarian appraisals. Overall moral value judgments were represented in an anterior portion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Critically, the pattern of responses and functional interactions between these three sets of regions are consistent with a model in which emotional and utilitarian appraisals are computed independently and in parallel, and passed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex where they are integrated into an overall moral value judgment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Popular accounts of moral judgment often describe it as a battle for control between two systems, one intuitive and emotional, the other rational and utilitarian, engaged in winner-take-all inhibitory competition. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we identified distinct neural signatures of emotional and utilitarian appraisals and used them to test different models of how they compete for the control of moral behavior. Importantly, we find little support for competitive inhibition accounts. Instead, moral judgments resembled the architecture of simple economic choices: distinct regions represented emotional

  17. Emotional and Utilitarian Appraisals of Moral Dilemmas Are Encoded in Separate Areas and Integrated in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Woodward, James; Rangel, Antonio

    2015-09-09

    Moral judgment often requires making difficult tradeoffs (e.g., is it appropriate to torture to save the lives of innocents at risk?). Previous research suggests that both emotional appraisals and more deliberative utilitarian appraisals influence such judgments and that these appraisals often conflict. However, it is unclear how these different types of appraisals are represented in the brain, or how they are integrated into an overall moral judgment. We addressed these questions using an fMRI paradigm in which human subjects provide separate emotional and utilitarian appraisals for different potential actions, and then make difficult moral judgments constructed from combinations of these actions. We found that anterior cingulate, insula, and superior temporal gyrus correlated with emotional appraisals, whereas temporoparietal junction and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with utilitarian appraisals. Overall moral value judgments were represented in an anterior portion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Critically, the pattern of responses and functional interactions between these three sets of regions are consistent with a model in which emotional and utilitarian appraisals are computed independently and in parallel, and passed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex where they are integrated into an overall moral value judgment. Significance statement: Popular accounts of moral judgment often describe it as a battle for control between two systems, one intuitive and emotional, the other rational and utilitarian, engaged in winner-take-all inhibitory competition. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we identified distinct neural signatures of emotional and utilitarian appraisals and used them to test different models of how they compete for the control of moral behavior. Importantly, we find little support for competitive inhibition accounts. Instead, moral judgments resembled the architecture of simple economic choices: distinct regions represented emotional

  18. An American System of Staff Appraisal. Coombe Lodge Case Study. Information Bank Number 1017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latcham, J.

    Prepared for staff in the British further education system, this report describes and explains the formal staff assessment model used at Richland College, Texas. Introductory material describes the college, its student body, and its organization and structure. Next, the four components of the teacher evaluation system used in the Dallas Community…

  19. An appraisal of procedures used to give the criterion for instability of a through-wall circumferential crack in a stainless steel piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1989-01-01

    Against the background of the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking of 304 stainless steel in Boiling Water Reactor piping systems, this paper presents a critical appraisal of procedures that are currently used to give the criterion for instability of a through-wall circumferential crack in a stainless steel piping system. Particular attention is focussed on a simple procedure developed by Cotter, Chang and Zahoor, which has been applied to specific piping systems, the objective being to underpin its viability. The considerations are applicable to not only Boiling Water Reactor piping systems, but to other piping systems where pipe failure due to circumferential cracking is a potential problem. (author)

  20. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin Azwary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering System in the chatbot using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language are able to communicate and deliver information. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Template Matching, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML Teknologi kecerdasan buatan saat ini dapat diolah dengan berbagai macam bentuk, seperti ChatBot, dan berbagai macam metode, salah satunya menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML menggunakan metode template matching yaitu dengan membandingkan pola-pola tertentu pada database. Proses perancangan template AIML diawali dengan menentukan informasi yang diperlukan, kemudian dibentuk menjadi pertanyaan, pertanyaan tersebut disesuaikan dengan bentuk pattern AIML. Hasil penelitian dapat diperoleh bahwa Question-Answering System dalam bentuk ChatBot menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language dapat berkomunikasi dan menyampaikan informasi. Kata kunci : Kecerdasan Buatan, Pencocokan Pola, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML

  1. Appraisal of Passive and Active Fire Protection Systems in Student’s Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection systems are very important systems that must be included in buildings. They have a great significance in reducing or preventing the occurrences of fire. This paper presents an assessment of fire protection systems in student’s accommodation. Student accommodation is a particular type of building that provides shelter for students at University. In addition, it is also supposed to be an attractive environment, conducive to learning, and importantly, safe for occupation. The fire safety of occupants in a building, must be in accordance with the requirements of the building’s code. Therefore, the design of the building must comply with the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL 1984 of Malaysia, and provide all of the required safety features. This paper describes the findings from investigations of passive and active fire protection systems installed in buildings, based on fire safety requirements, UBBL (1984.

  2. Method of Modeling Questions for Automated Grading of Students’ Responses in E-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gurchenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Problem relevance. The capability to check a solution of practical problems automatically is an important functionality of any learning management system (LMS. Complex types of questions, implying creative approach to problem solving are of particular interest. There are a lot of studies presenting automated scoring algorithms of students' answers, such as mathematical expressions, graphs, molecules, etc. However, the most common types of problems in the open LMS that are being actively implemented in Russian and foreign universities (Moodle, Sakai, Ilias etc. remain simple types of questions such as, for example, multiple choice.Study subject and goal. The purpose of study is to create a method that allows integrating arbitrary algorithms of answer scoring into any existing LMS, as well as its practical implementation in the form of an independent software module, which will handle questions in LMS.Method. The model for objects of type "algorithmic question" is considered. A unified format for storing objects of this type, allowing keeping their state, is developed. The algorithm is a set of variables, which defines the responses versus input data (or vice versa. Basis variables (input are selected pseudo-randomly from a predetermined range, and based on these values resulting variables (responses are calculated. This approach allows us to synthesize variations of the same question. State of the question is saved by means of "seed" of pseudo-random number generator. A set of algorithmic problems was used to build the lifecycle management functions, namely: initialization create (, rendering render (, and evaluation answer (. These functions lay the foundation for the Application Program Interface (API and allow us to control software module responsible for the questions in LMS.Practical results. This study is completed with the implementation of software module responsible for mapping the interaction with the student and automated

  3. Oro-facial pain and temporomandibular disorders classification systems: A critical appraisal and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasser, G D; Manfredini, D; Goulet, J-P; De Laat, A

    2018-03-01

    It is a difficult undertaking to design a classification system for any disease entity, let alone for oro-facial pain (OFP) and more specifically for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A further complication of this task is that both physical and psychosocial variables must be included. To augment this process, a two-step systematic review, adhering to PRISMA guidelines, of the classification systems published during the last 20 years for OFP and TMD was performed. The first search step identified 190 potential citations which ultimately resulted in only 17 articles being included for in-depth analysis and review. The second step resulted in only 5 articles being selected for inclusion in this review. Five additional articles and four classification guidelines/criteria were also included due to expansion of the search criteria. Thus, in total, 14 documents comprising articles and guidelines/criteria (8 proposals of classification systems for OFP; 6 for TMD) were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. For each, a discussion as to their advantages, strengths and limitations was provided. Suggestions regarding the future direction for improving the classification process with the use of ontological principles rather than taxonomy are discussed. Furthermore, the potential for expanding the scope of axes included in existing classification systems, to include genetic, epigenetic and neurobiological variables, is explored. It is therefore recommended that future classification system proposals be based on combined approaches aiming to provide archetypal treatment-oriented classifications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Appraising design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Acronyms ADM Army Design Methodology AFRICOM Africa Command CAS Complex Adaptive System COCOM...the case studies. It does not analyze the moral forces of training, quality of troops, and readiness. It also does not analyze national strength in...Second Lebanese War.110 Issues included a lack of vests, medical equipment, radios, ammunition, night vision devices (NVD), and food and water for the

  5. Principals' Instructional Leadership within a Teacher Performance Appraisal System: Enhancing Students' Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovando, Martha N.; Ramirez, Alfredo, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify principals' instructional leadership actions within a comprehensive teacher evaluation system in successful schools rated as recognized or exemplary by the accountability measures in place. The study followed a multiple case study approach. Participants included six school administrators within the same…

  6. Dabigatran for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in atrial fibrillation: A NICE single technology appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Rita; Spackman, Eldon; Burch, Jane; Corbacho, Belen; Todd, Derick; Pepper, Chris; Woolacott, Nerys; Palmer, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of dabigatran etexilate (Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this drug for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) as part of the NICE single technology appraisal process. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Centre for Health Economics at the University of York were commissioned to act as the evidence review group (ERG). This article presents a summary of the manufacturer's submission, the ERG report and the subsequent development of NICE guidance for the use of dabigatran within the UK National Health Service. Dabigatran was granted marketing authorisation by the European Medicines Agency for a sequential dosing regimen (DBG sequential), in which patients under 80 years are treated with dabigatran 150 mg twice daily (DBG150) and patients 80 years and over are given dabigatran 110 mg twice daily (DBG110). NICE decisions are bound by the marketing authorisation; therefore, the decision problem faced by the committee was whether the DBG sequential regimen was effective and cost-effective compared with warfarin or aspirin for patients with non-valvular AF and one or more risk factors. The RE-LY trial, a large multi-centre non-inferiority randomised clinical trial, was the primary source of clinical evidence. DBG150 was shown to be non-inferior, and subsequently superior to warfarin, for the primary outcome of all stroke/systemic embolism. DBG110 was found to be non-inferior to warfarin. Results were presented for a post hoc subgroup analysis for patients under and over 80 years of age, where DBG110 showed a statistically significant reduction of haemorrhagic stroke and intracranial haemorrhage in comparison to warfarin in patients over 80 years of age. This post hoc subgroup analysis by age was the basis for the licensed DBG sequential regimen

  7. Relaxin family peptides in the male reproductive system--a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivell, Richard; Kotula-Balak, Malgorzata; Glynn, Danielle; Heng, Kee; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

    2011-02-01

    The human genome project has identified, besides ovarian relaxin (RLN), six other relaxin-like molecules (RLN3, H1-RLN, INSL3-6), most of which appear to be expressed in the testis and/or male reproductive system, together with four different G-protein-coupled receptors responsive to one or other of these peptides. Earlier work on relaxin in the male assumed the simplistic hypothesis of only a single relaxin-like entity. This review systematically examines the expression and physiology of relaxin-like molecules in the male reproductive system in order to reappraise the importance of this hormone system for male reproductive function. Although there are important species differences, only INSL3 and INSL6 appear to be generally expressed at a moderately high level within the testis, whereas ovarian RLN is consistently a major secretory product of the prostate epithelium. However, all members of this relaxin-like family appear to be expressed also at a low level in different organs of the male reproductive system, suggesting possible autocrine/paracrine effects. The four receptors (RXFP1-4) for these peptides are also expressed to differing levels in both somatic and seminiferous compartments of the testis and in the prostate, supporting relevant functions for most members of this interesting peptide family. Recent studies of relaxin family peptides in prostate pathology highlight their functional importance in the clinical context as potential causative, diagnostic and therapeutic agents and warrant more specific and detailed studies of their roles also in regard to male fertility and other aspects of male reproductive function.

  8. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  9. Investment appraisal of automatic milking and conventional milking technologies in a pasture-based dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, J; Shalloo, L; Foley, C; Sleator, R D; O'Brien, B

    2016-09-01

    The successful integration of automatic milking (AM) systems and grazing has resulted in AM becoming a feasible alternative to conventional milking (CM) in pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to identify the profitability of AM in a pasture-based system, relative to CM herringbone parlors with 2 different levels of automation, across 2 farm sizes, over a 10-yr period following initial investment. The scenarios which were evaluated were (1) a medium farm milking 70 cows twice daily, with 1 AM unit, a 12-unit CM medium-specification (MS) parlor and a 12-unit CM high-specification (HS) parlor, and (2) a large farm milking 140 cows twice daily with 2 AM units, a 20-unit CM MS parlor and a 20-unit CM HS parlor. A stochastic whole-farm budgetary simulation model combined capital investment costs and annual labor and maintenance costs for each investment scenario, with each scenario evaluated using multiple financial metrics, such as annual net profit, annual net cash flow, total discounted net profitability, total discounted net cash flow, and return on investment. The capital required for each investment was financed from borrowings at an interest rate of 5% and repaid over 10-yr, whereas milking equipment and building infrastructure were depreciated over 10 and 20 yr, respectively. A supporting labor audit (conducted on both AM and CM farms) showed a 36% reduction in labor demand associated with AM. However, despite this reduction in labor, MS CM technologies consistently achieved greater profitability, irrespective of farm size. The AM system achieved intermediate profitability at medium farm size; it was 0.5% less profitable than HS technology at the large farm size. The difference in profitability was greatest in the years after the initial investment. This study indicated that although milking with AM was less profitable than MS technologies, it was competitive when compared with a CM parlor of similar technology. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy

  10. A critical appraisal of radiographic scoring systems for assessment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Andrea S.; Babyn, Paul S.; Feldman, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Assessing structural damage to joints over time is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions for patients with inflammatory arthritis. Although radiography is able to quantify joint damage, the changes found with conventional radiography early in the disease course are nonspecific, and late radiographic changes are often irreversible. Although many clinical trials on drug development for children still use radiographic scales as endpoints for the study, more specific therapies have been developed for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) that would enable imaging to ''fine-tune'' patients to placement into specific treatment algorithms. As a result, new imaging scales to identify early abnormalities are clearly needed. Many pediatric rheumatology centers around the world persistently apply adult-designed radiographic scoring systems to evaluate the progression of JIA. Few pediatric-targeted radiographic scales are available for assessment of progression of JIA in growing joints, and the clinimetric and psychometric properties of such scales have been poorly investigated. We present a critique to the evaluative, discriminative, and predictive roles of the van der Heijde modification of Sharp's radiographic method, a scale originally designed to assess damage to joints of adults with rheumatoid arthritis, when it is applied to a pediatric population. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of this radiographic scoring system for assessing growing joints and the ability of MRI to overcome inadequacies of conventional radiography. (orig.)

  11. Nailfold capillaroscopy in systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Melsens, Karin; Wijnant, Sara; Ingegnoli, Francesca; Thevissen, Kristof; De Keyser, Filip; Decuman, Saskia; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Piette, Yves; Riccieri, Valeria; Ughi, Nicola; Vandecasteele, Els; Vanhaecke, Amber; Smith, Vanessa

    2018-04-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is an easy, non-invasive technique to assess microvascular involvement in rheumatic diseases. Multiple studies describe capillaroscopic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including a wide range of non-specific findings. On behalf of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) study group on microcirculation in rheumatic diseases, a systematic review was done to obtain all original research studies (in English) in which SLE patients had capillaroscopy. Forty such studies are identified. This article firstly provides a résumé of the results of these studies according to capillaroscopic parameters (density, dimensions, morphology, haemorrhages), semi-quantitative assessment and qualitative assessment of capillaroscopy in SLE patients. Secondly, the correlations between capillaroscopic parameters in SLE patients and clinical and laboratory parameters (including auto-immune parameters) are outlined. The following capillaroscopic parameters are found to be significantly more prevalent in SLE patients compared to healthy controls: tortuous capillaries, abnormal morphology and haemorrhages. Hairpin-shaped capillaries are significantly less prevalent than in healthy persons. The semi-quantitatively determined nailfold capillaroscopic score (NFC score) in SLE patients is also higher than in healthy controls. Several correlations between clinical and laboratory parameters and capillaroscopic parameters are identified in the review. Disease activity is correlated with NFC score in seven studies, with abnormal morphology (i.e. "meandering") in one study and with haemorrhages in one study. Frequent attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and gangrene are significantly correlated with dilated capillaries. In two studies a possible correlation between anti-SSA antibodies and lower density of capillaries is withheld. About other immune parameters conflicting results are found. In one study a significant negative correlation is found between 24

  12. Appraising the viability of wind energy conversion system in the Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Mohd Rashid, Muhd Ikram; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan; Mohamed, Norainon Binti; Ab Ghani, Suliana Binti

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Capacity factors and annual turbine availability are computed for case study sites. • Annual energy yield and levelised cost of energy are determined for each site. • Results obtained reveal that large-scale wind energy is not viable in Malaysia. • 57.58 W/m 2 power density and 4.39% capacity factor are obtained for the best site. • Wind speeds standard deviation is a good index for sites ranking for energy yield. - Abstract: To harvest the wind energy resource for power production, it is crucially important to carry out a preliminary study to understand the site-specific nature of wind at the intended site. Such knowledge is required to estimate the performance of a wind energy project in the area. This study investigates the wind energy potential for production of electric power in the Peninsular Malaysia. Wind speed data of six selected sites across the country collected over a period of 10–20 years are employed for the study. A statistical analysis of the wind speeds is carried out using the Weibull distribution model. Six identified commercially available wind turbines with rated capacity ranging from 20 kW to 1500 kW, with different speed parameters are simulated at the selected locations. Of the six sites evaluated in this paper, it is revealed that Mersing, having the highest monthly average wind speed and consequently the most viable, produces an average power density of 57.58 W/m 2 with a capacity factor of only 4.39%. This is equivalent to 378 MW h energy production per annum at a levelised cost of 22 cents per kW h. This study also shows that the standard deviation of the average monthly wind speeds is a better factor than the average annual wind speed for ranking of selected sites in terms of annual energy production. Overall, the results obtained from this investigation show that large-scale wind energy is not viable in Malaysia due to weak wind regimes; however, small-scale wind energy system may be economically viable in a

  13. Use of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) methodology in health-physics program appraisals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, T.H.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1981-06-01

    In January 1980, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assumed a major role in helping the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conduct comprehensive health physics appraisals at 47 operating nuclear power plants. These appraisals required the development of an analytical technique that permitted a deductive analysis of a health-physics program on an element-by-element basis. The technique employed was a modification of the Management Oversight and risk Tree (MORT) analytical logic methodology used in probabilistic assessments. This paper includes the method used in establishing the appraisal guidelines and assigning the proper level of importance within the analytical tree structure. The system for ensuring the proper subdivision necessary for an adequate assessment of each area (e.g., exposure controls and radioactive waste management) will also be discussed. In addition to these major subjects, the generation of specific review questions that correspond to the analytical trees is addressed

  14. How Should an Effective Performance Appraisal Be: EFL Teachers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holi Ibrahim Holi Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is set to examine EFL teachers’ perceptions, views about what makes an effective performance appraisal system by adopting a quantitative survey design for data collection. A total number of 45 college instructors in the Sultanate of Oman responded to survey on: how is an effective performance appraisal perceived by EFL teachers? How do teachers perceive their participation in developing the appraisal system? And how might the present performance appraisal practices be improved? The result reveals that staff participation in developing performance appraisal system and goals, feedback confidentiality, quality appraiser, quality of place and time of appraisal, appraiser-appraisee relationships, and developmental nature of performance appraisal would help in making effective appraisal and the overall PA effectiveness depends mostly on these factors. The result has a significant implication for improving the process of teacher performance appraisal in Oman and enriches the body knowledge of PA in general. The study puts forwards suggestions and recommendations for improving PA practices and exercises in EFL contexts.

  15. LANGUAGE APPRAISAL ON ATTITUDINAL SYSTEMS FOR EXPLORING IDEOLOGY IN DEATH PENALTY IN SYDNEY MORNING HERALD AND HERALD SUN EDITORIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyida Ekawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the ideology represented by newspaper editorials. It is from the idea that every language use is never neutral and not ideology-free. Language is used to convey meanings in a broad sense. There are meanings related to the opinions through the language as resources of evaluation. Editorial is one practice of language use full of opinions towards a certain issue on people or things. Sydney Morning Herald and Herald Sun are used as both Australian newspaper posit themselves as the high-rank newspaper in terms of circulation and online accessed. This article tries to uncover the ideologies represented by both newspaper editorials concerning death penalty of Bali Nine executed in Indonesia. Attitudinal perspective proposed by Martin and White (2005 in term of affect, judgement, and appreciation of language appraisal is used to explore ideology in the newspaper. From appraisal analysis, it is found that Indonesia dominantly appraised in negative There is no positive appreciation for Indonesia in both newspaper editorials. judgement while Australia is portrayed in positive view for the issue of death penalty in Indonesia.

  16. Appraisal of seven critical reading strategies employed by teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal of seven critical reading strategies employed by teachers in Ogun State senior secondary schools to teach reading comprehension. ... as a result of the teachers' ability to engage the students in skilful and well- framed questions.

  17. Methodical features of appraisal of partial rights on land

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, V. V.; Semenenko, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical and practical questions of appraisal of right for the permanent using lot lands, and rights for their lease, are examined. The methods of decision of the indicated tasks are offered in evaluation practice.

  18. A rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in Pakistan; Evaluacion rapida de una zona de riego tipica de Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Carmona, Victor Manuel; Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Contijoch, Manuel [Banco Mundial (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results obtained on the implementation of a rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The purpose of the evaluation was to know the present irrigation service quality and to propose some alternative to improve it. The evaluation results were: the canal inflow is smaller than peak crop water requirement; net aquifer loss; crops are always under stress which is reflected on low crop yields, the secondary canal network has not control structures and was not designed for rotation, insufficient human-human communication between canal operators; the operators have no complementary training course to enhance their capacity; discrepancy between the service the canal is supposed to provide and the real service it offers. The suggested actions to improve the irrigation service were: the irrigation service must be client oriented; the irrigation users should participate to determine the irrigation service characteristics; the difference between actual and stage irrigation service must be eliminated; clear definition on water allocation; implement a modernization program to provide the irrigation service required. The evaluation methodology used can be applied in other countries like Mexico for the analysis of large irrigation systems making an optimal use of time and resources. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al aplicar una metodologia de evaluacion rapida de sistemas de riego a una zona de la provincia del Punjab, Pakistan. El objetivo de la evaluacion fue conocer el estado actual del servicio de riego que ofrece la agencia responsable del manejo del riego en un distrito del Punjab y proponer alternativas para mejorarlo. Los principales resultados de esta evaluacion fueron los siguientes: la falta de capacidad de los canales, el abatimiento neto del acuifero; el estres hidrico continuo de los cultivos, que propicia un bajo rendimiento; la red secundaria de canales no

  19. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  20. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  1. Systemic Synthesis Questions [SSynQs] as Tools to Help Students to Build Their Cognitive Structures in a Systemic Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrin, Tamara N.; Fahmy, Ameen F. M.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Milenković, Dušica D.

    2016-08-01

    Many studies dedicated to the teaching and learning of organic chemistry courses have emphasized that high school students have shown significant difficulties in mastering the concepts of this discipline. Therefore, the aim of our study was to help students to overcome these difficulties by applying systemic synthesis questions, [SSynQs], as the instructional method in our intervention. This work shows that students from the group exposed to the new teaching method achieved higher scores on final testing than students from the control group, who were taught by the traditional method, when students' achievements in conventional, linear questions [LQs] and in [SSynQs] were studied. These results were followed by observation of lower levels of mental effort by students from the intervention group, and higher levels of mental effort in the control group, invested during solving both types of questions. This correlation between achievement and mental effort resulted in high instructional efficiency for the applied method in the intervention group, [SSynQs], and low instructional efficiency for the traditional teaching and learning method applied in the control group. A systemic triangular relation between achievement, mental effort, and instructional efficiency, established by each group and gender, emphasized that the application of [SSynQs] was more suited to female students than for male students because of [SSynQs] characteristics as teaching and learning tools and because of learning style and ability differences between genders.

  2. APPRAISAL ANALYSIS IN FREEDOM WRITERS MOVIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Hidayati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to find out conveyed messages in the movie from the realization of the appraisal and narrative structure as well as to describe the use of the Appraisal System to express LaGravenese's (a Attitudes, (bEngagement & (c Graduation towards the main characters in Freedom Writers movie screenplay. Using both quantitative and qualitative descriptive approach for discourse appraisal system analysis, the result of this study reveals several messages of tolerance, earning respect and trust, honor diversity, and striving for success and trust from the realization of Appraisal and Narrative Structure either in the dialogues or monologues of Freedom Writers’ characters. The result from the Appraisal Devices realizing (a Attitudes reveals that LaGravenese likes to express characters’ negative emotion explicitly than implicitly. He likes to express characters’ negative capability than other kinds of Judgments. He appreciates the characters using more Negative Value which denotes that in his opinion, they see each other negatively. (bEngagement used in the screenplay describes that he emphasizes more on characters’ denial towards each other’s opinion and existence with the use of more Disclaim Heterogloss in the screenplay. (cGraduation used in the screenplay describes that the use of more Sharpening Focus indicates he emphasizes on characters’ category boundary more than scaling of intensity. Keywords: Appraisal Devices, Attitude, Engagement, and Graduation.

  3. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must be...

  4. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    OpenAIRE

    Fajrin Azwary; Fatma Indriani; Dodon T. Nugrahadi

    2016-01-01

    Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML). AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering...

  5. A Proposal of a Mass Appraisal System in Greece with CAMA System: Evaluating GWR and MRA techniques in Thessaloniki Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimopoulos Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Property tax in Greece is levied since 1985 not on Market Values but on the “objective value” of the properties as it is defined by the Ministry of Economics. It forms a non-flexible system, with market-irrelevant and unrealistic values, inducing land-policy practices and potential political cost to each periodical update. Furthermore, instead of adjusting taxation levels to the current economic reality, the real estate market is experiencing further burdening through approximately 40 different property taxes and levies, leading to further shrinking and depreciation. The authors believe that a fairer taxation system could significantly assist the property sector in Greece. Thus, through this paper and by studying and analyzing best practices from other countries, they propose models that can be applied with the use of existing data in Greece. This work aims to identify the critical parameters that affecting property values in Thessaloniki to create a Market Value forecasting tool for a fairer taxation system, to highlight the importance of a GIS system for this purpose and to compare the results of MRA with the use of SPSS with those of GWR in ArcGIS environment. For the purposes of this study, the Municipality of Thessaloniki was chosen due to its very well organized portal with significant and well organized geographical data and because authors manage to access some data from the Central Bank of Greece, regarding property valuations.

  6. A Proposal of a Mass Appraisal System in Greece with CAMA System: Evaluating GWR and MRA techniques in Thessaloniki Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Thomas; Moulas, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Property tax in Greece is levied since 1985 not on Market Values but on the "objective value" of the properties as it is defined by the Ministry of Economics. It forms a non-flexible system, with market-irrelevant and unrealistic values, inducing land-policy practices and potential political cost to each periodical update. Furthermore, instead of adjusting taxation levels to the current economic reality, the real estate market is experiencing further burdening through approximately 40 different property taxes and levies, leading to further shrinking and depreciation. The authors believe that a fairer taxation system could significantly assist the property sector in Greece. Thus, through this paper and by studying and analyzing best practices from other countries, they propose models that can be applied with the use of existing data in Greece. This work aims to identify the critical parameters that affecting property values in Thessaloniki to create a Market Value forecasting tool for a fairer taxation system, to highlight the importance of a GIS system for this purpose and to compare the results of MRA with the use of SPSS with those of GWR in ArcGIS environment. For the purposes of this study, the Municipality of Thessaloniki was chosen due to its very well organized portal with significant and well organized geographical data and because authors manage to access some data from the Central Bank of Greece, regarding property valuations.

  7. A Proposal of a Mass Appraisal System in Greece with CAMA System: Evaluating GWR and MRA techniques in Thessaloniki Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Thomas; Moulas, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Property tax in Greece is levied since 1985 not on Market Values but on the "objective value" of the properties as it is defined by the Ministry of Economics. It forms a non-flexible system, with market-irrelevant and unrealistic values, inducing land-policy practices and potential political cost to each periodical update. Furthermore, instead of adjusting taxation levels to the current economic reality, the real estate market is experiencing further burdening through approximately 40 different property taxes and levies, leading to further shrinking and depreciation. The authors believe that a fairer taxation system could significantly assist the property sector in Greece. Thus, through this paper and by studying and analyzing best practices from other countries, they propose models that can be applied with the use of existing data in Greece. This work aims to identify the critical parameters that affecting property values in Thessaloniki to create a Market Value forecasting tool for a fairer taxation system, to highlight the importance of a GIS system for this purpose and to compare the results of MRA with the use of SPSS with those of GWR in ArcGIS environment. For the purposes of this study, the Municipality of Thessaloniki was chosen due to its very well organized portal with significant and well organized geographical data and because authors manage to access some data from the Central Bank of Greece, regarding property valuations.

  8. Young (gold deposits and active geothermal systems of the Great Basin: Enigmas, questions, and exploration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Vikre, Peter G.; Faulds, James E.

    2011-01-01

    remobilized from older gold mineralization? Current research is investigating these and other questions to improve our genetic understanding of these young gold systems, which in turn can lead to improved exploration targeting. The recent rapid growth in resources for both young gold deposits and geothermal systems underscores their underdeveloped exploration potential. Even though many young gold deposits exhibit relatively shallow hot-springs-style mineralization, their young age may preclude exposure by erosion. Uplift along active normal faults has exposed some deposits (e.g., Florida Canyon, Dixie Comstock, Wind Mountain), but in other areas, such as the Walker Lane, where strike-slip faulting is prevalent, the opportunities for exposure can be limited. Many active geothermal systems are also concealed below the surface in that hot springs or steam vents may be absent above areas of thermal groundwater.With sources of energy to support mine production becoming more problematic, the potential advantages of simultaneously exploring for young gold deposits and spatially associated geothermal systems are becoming more apparent. Exploration methods recently proven effective in geothermal exploration that can be adapted to gold exploration include temperature surveys, hyperspectral remote sensing, geophysical surveys, water analyses, and detailed mapping of geothermal-related features and related fault systems.

  9. Enhancement and assessment of students’ systems thinking skills by application of systemic synthesis questions in the organic chemistry course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrin Tamara N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies in the field of science education have emphasized the fact that systems thinking is a very important higher-order thinking skill which should be fostered during classes. However, more attention has been dedicated to the different ways of systems thinking skills assessment, and less to their enhancement. Taking this into consideration, the goal of our study was not only to validate secondary school students’ systems thinking skills, but also to help students in the complex process of their development. With this goal, new instructional and assessment tools - systemic synthesis questions [SSynQs], were constructed, and an experiment with one experimental (E and one control (C group was conducted during organic chemistry classes. Namely, the instructional teaching/learning method for both E and C groups was the same in processing the new contents, but different on classes for the revision of the selected organic chemistry contents. The results showed that students exposed to the new instructional method (E group achieved higher performance scores on three different types of systems thinking than students from the C group, who were taught by the traditional method. The greatest difference between the groups was found in the most complex dimension of systems thinking construct - in the II level of procedural systems thinking. Along with this dimension, structural systems thinking and I level of procedural systems thinking were also observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179010

  10. Promoting independence, health and well-being for older people: a feasibility study of computer-aided health and social risk appraisal system in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kate; Kharicha, Kalpa; Goodman, Claire; Handley, Melanie; Manthorpe, Jill; Cattan, Mima; Morris, Steve; Clarke, Caroline S; Round, Jeff; Iliffe, Steve

    2017-03-24

    With population ageing, research is needed into new low-cost, scalable methods of effective promotion of health and wellbeing for older people. We aimed to assess feasibility, reach and costs of implementing a new tailored computer-aided health and social risk appraisal system in primary care. Design: Feasibility study. Five General Practices in London (Ealing) and Hertfordshire, United Kingdom (UK) Participants: Random sample of patients aged 65 + years. The Multi-dimensional Risk Appraisal for Older people (MRA-O) system includes: 1) Postal questionnaire including health, lifestyle, social and environmental domains; 2) Software system generating a personalised feedback report with advice on health and wellbeing; 3) Follow-up of people with new concerning or complex needs by GPs or practice nurses. Feasibility of implementation; participant wellbeing, functional ability and quality of life; social needs, health risks, potential lifestyle changes; and costs of implementation. Response rates to initial postal invitations were low (526/1550, 34%). Of these, 454/526 (86%) completed MRA-O assessments. Compared to local UK Census data on older people, participants were younger, more were owner-occupiers and fewer were from ethnic minority groups than expected. A range of problems was identified by participants, including pain in last week (269/438, 61.4%), low physical activity (173/453, 38.2%), sedentary lifestyle (174/447, 38.3%), falls (117/439, 26.7%), incontinence (111/441 25.2%), impaired vision 116/451 (25.7%), impaired hearing (145/431, 33.6%), depressed mood (71/451, 15.7%), impaired memory (44/444 9.9%), social isolation (46/449, 10.2%) and loneliness (31/442, 7.0%). Self-rated health was good/excellent in 312/437 (71.4%), and quality of life and well-being were slightly above age-specific population norms. Implementation costs were low. Practices reviewed medical records of 143/454 (31.5%) of participants as a consequence of their responses, and actively

  11. A question of fit: reflections on boundaries, organizations and social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlieb, Faith; Bixler, R Patrick; Huber-Stearns, Heidi; Huayhuaca, Ch'aska

    2013-11-30

    Although there is acknowledgment that the complexity of social-ecological systems governance demands representation from diverse perspectives, there is little agreement in the literature on how to cross both fiat (human-demarcated) and bona fide (physical) boundaries to address such complexities. As a cohort of interdisciplinary scholars, we navigate the boundary between science and practice to address the question of fit regarding the role of organizations in transcending boundaries. We found there is a need to rectify discrepancies between theories about boundaries and theories about organizations. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework to analyze transboundary organizations, an umbrella term to group the literature on boundary organizations, intermediaries and bridging organizations; we introduce this term to illustrate they are not mutually exclusive and to facilitate interdisciplinary research. We first examine social-ecological systems (SES), a framework intended to improve understandings of boundaries and governance. We then continue to unpack the complexity of boundaries and organizations, specifically through important transboundary concepts such as scale and organizational learning. This helps frame our examination of the literature on: 1) boundary organizations; 2) bridging organizations (third-party entities); and 3) intermediaries (distinguished by their position between other actors). Our review identifies a number of discrepancies that pertain to the types of boundaries discussed and the roles assigned to organizations governing SES. Important characteristics have emerged from our review of transboundary organizations including legitimacy, saliency, urgency, and credibility. In developing a conceptual framework, we argue that transboundary organizations: 1) expand upon the boundary spectrum, 2) incorporate transboundary concepts, and 3) hybridize characteristics of boundary, bridging, and intermediary organizations. We conclude with a number

  12. Targeting Cannabinoid Signaling in the Immune System: “High”-ly Exciting Questions, Possibilities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Oláh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that certain active ingredients of the plants of Cannabis genus, i.e., the “phytocannabinoids” [pCBs; e.g., (−-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, (−-cannabidiol, etc.] can influence a wide array of biological processes, and the human body is able to produce endogenous analogs of these substances [“endocannabinoids” (eCB, e.g., arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, etc.]. These ligands, together with multiple receptors (e.g., CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, etc., and a complex enzyme and transporter apparatus involved in the synthesis and degradation of the ligands constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS, a recently emerging regulator of several physiological processes. The ECS is widely expressed in the human body, including several members of the innate and adaptive immune system, where eCBs, as well as several pCBs were shown to deeply influence immune functions thereby regulating inflammation, autoimmunity, antitumor, as well as antipathogen immune responses, etc. Based on this knowledge, many in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at exploiting the putative therapeutic potential of cannabinoid signaling in inflammation-accompanied diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis or in organ transplantation, and to dissect the complex immunological effects of medical and “recreational” marijuana consumption. Thus, the objective of the current article is (i to summarize the most recent findings of the field; (ii to highlight the putative therapeutic potential of targeting cannabinoid signaling; (iii to identify open questions and key challenges; and (iv to suggest promising future directions for cannabinoid-based drug development.

  13. Innovation et système des brevets aux États-Unis : un modèle en question(s Innovation and the U.S. Patent System: A model questioned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Azuelos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to promote economic growth by stimulating innovation, the Founding Fathers engraved the concept of patent in the Constitution of the United States by granting Congress the power “to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.” This article focuses first on the origins of the inclusion of this reference to intellectual/industrial property rights in the U.S. Constitution and its enduring influence on the U.S. patent system in the 19th and 20th centuries. It also stresses the impact of this patent system on the development of innovation in the U.S. during this period, and its influence on industrial property protection systems developed abroad. Last but not least, it shows that the advent of globalisation and the knowledge economy have recently led to a questioning of the model, both in the U.S. and abroad.

  14. Four Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  15. Appraisal of Transport Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard

    and robustness measures have been elaborated, which examine the subjective part of the MCDA (in form of criteria weights) and its role in decision support making. For this purpose both deterministic and stochastic sensitivity analyses have been developed. In addition, the focus has been formulating a framework...... into account the interests and preferences of different stakeholders. These various interests and preferences have been revealed by the use of decision conferencing, which engage the stakeholders and provide a common platform for understanding the decision problem. Leading up to this framework, this thesis has......, as robustness of a recommended solution is major concern in the final steps of decision making. As mentioned, the appraisal of transport projects is a complex issues involving conflict of various interests and this calls for new approaches to the practice of appraisal. The presented appraisal framework...

  16. Using automated environmental management information systems to enable compliance: Ten questions to answer before selecting a software system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    As technology invades the arena of environmental information management, hundreds of software packages have become available in the marketplace. How does the already overwhelmed environmental manager or IT professional decide what's right for the organization? Is there a software package that meets the needs of the organization, and is there a successful way to implement the system? Does this require abandoning existing systems with which users are comfortable? Can the system really save time and/or money? This paper discusses three topics: What drives the need for a system; Ten questions to aid in selecting a system that is right for your organization; and enabling technology and software systems available today, and the future application of technology to environmental data management. Motivating factors for EMIS include regulatory, business and IT drivers. Because of the ever-increasing regulatory burden, the need to demonstrate compliance often is the strongest driver. But they cannot ignore business and IT drivers from the discussion, especially with issues such as Enterprise Resource Planning and The Year 2000 impacting many systems projects. Before selecting a system, the organization should address, at a minimum, the following ten issues: (1) Organization objectives; (2) Organization readiness; (3) High-level processes to be automated; (4) Integration and interfaces; (5) User community and needs; (6) Technical requirements; (7) Degree of customization; (8) Project timing; (9) Implementation resource needs; and (10) System justification. Today, there are hundreds of EH and S software packages available too help automate daily business processes. Only a few are multimedia packages, and all require significant implementation efforts. The EMIS market is still evolving, and software vendors continue to enhance product features and usability.

  17. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a…

  18. Linking the Teacher Appraisal Process to the School Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddekopp, Therese

    2007-01-01

    If a school improvement plan includes input from all stakeholders and focuses on data-driven processes that are linked to teacher appraisal, it can be powerful in leading the school toward the common mission of achieving student success. Linking the school improvement plan to the teacher appraisal process creates a system whereby all individuals…

  19. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  20. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  1. Questioning the parental right to educational authority - arguments for a pluralist public education system

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    What could the principle of a parental right to educational authority mean for democracy in the long run? Taking its starting point in three models of educational authority, this article questions the current permissive attitude to a parental right in this area. It does so in the light of the shortcomings of such a right with regard to pluralism in education for each child and a development towards a democracy with deliberative qualities, which is used here as a normative point of reference. ...

  2. Questioning the parental right to educational authority – arguments for a pluralist public education system1

    OpenAIRE

    Englund, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    What could the principle of a parental right to educational authority mean for democracy in the long run? Taking its starting point in three models of educational authority, this article questions the current permissive attitude to a parental right in this area. It does so in the light of the shortcomings of such a right with regard to pluralism in education for each child and a development towards a democracy with deliberative qualities, which is used here as a normative point of reference. ...

  3. Lessons from first generation biofuels and implications for the sustainability appraisal of second generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Alison; Raman, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The emergence of second generation (2G) biofuels is widely seen as a sustainable response to the increasing controversy surrounding the first generation (1G). Yet, sustainability credentials of 2G biofuels are also being questioned. Drawing on work in Science and Technology Studies, we argue that controversies help focus attention on key, often value-related questions that need to be posed to address broader societal concerns. This paper examines lessons drawn from the 1G controversy to assess implications for the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels. Scope: We present an overview of key 1G sustainability challenges, assess their relevance for 2G, and highlight the challenges for policy in managing the transition. We address limitations of existing sustainability assessments by exploring where challenges might emerge across the whole system of bioenergy and the wider context of the social system in which bioenergy research and policy are done. Conclusions: Key lessons arising from 1G are potentially relevant to the sustainability appraisal of 2G biofuels depending on the particular circumstances or conditions under which 2G is introduced. We conclude that sustainability challenges commonly categorised as either economic, environmental or social are, in reality, more complexly interconnected (so that an artificial separation of these categories is problematic). - Highlights: • Controversy surrounding 1G biofuels is relevant to sustainability appraisal of 2G. • Challenges for policy in managing the transition to 2G biofuels are highlighted. • A key lesson is that sustainability challenges are complexly interconnected

  4. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  5. Appraisal of work ability in relation to job-specific health requirements in ambulance workers

    OpenAIRE

    van Schaaijk, A.; Boschman, J. S.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Method Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance worker...

  6. Intelligence Defined and Undefined: A Relativistic Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, David

    1975-01-01

    Major reasons for the continuing divergency of opinion as regards the nature and meaning of intelligence are examined. An appraisal of intelligence as a relative concept is proposed which advocates the necessity of specifying the reference systems to which a statement about intelligence refers. (EH)

  7. Understanding cohort differences in appraisals of reconstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding cohort differences in appraisals of reconstruction priorities of mental health systems in postconflict Liberia. ... Conclusion: This study provides additional support for the premise that the utilization of ... of Liberians and that there are differences in preferences across groups. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. To the question about the states of workability for automatic control systems with complicated structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Losev, V. V.; Kalinin, A. O.; Murygin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The article discusses the reliability of automated control systems. Analyzes the approach to the classification systems for health States. This approach can be as traditional binary approach, operating with the concept of "serviceability", and other variants of estimation of the system state. This article provides one such option, providing selective evaluation of components for the reliability of the entire system. Introduced description of various automatic control systems and their elements from the point of view of health and risk, mathematical method of determining the transition object from state to state, they differ from each other in the implementation of the objective function. Explores the interplay of elements in different States, the aggregate state of the elements connected in series or in parallel. Are the tables of various logic States and the principles of their calculation in series and parallel connection. Through simulation the proposed approach is illustrated by finding the probability of getting into the system state data in parallel and serially connected elements, with their different probabilities of moving from state to state. In general, the materials of article will be useful for analyzing of the reliability the automated control systems and engineering of the highly-reliable systems. Thus, this mechanism to determine the State of the system provides more detailed information about it and allows a selective approach to the reliability of the system as a whole. Detailed results when assessing the reliability of the automated control systems allows the engineer to make an informed decision when designing means of improving reliability.

  9. A System for Individualizing Instruction. Practical Answers to U-SAIL Implementation Questions. Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah System Approach to Individualized Learning Project.

    The U-SAIL system is a practical approach to individualization of instruction in which a problem-solving process is employed to install a program in logical sequential phases. U-SAIL is a nationally validated, successfully replicated, cost-feasible system for individualization of instruction which can be implemented in a variety of settings with…

  10. Big questions come in bundles, hence they should be tackled systemically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A big problem is, by definition, one involving either multiple traits of a thing, or a collection of things. Because such problems are systemic or global rather than local or sectoral, they call for a systemic approach, and often a multidisciplinary one as well. Just think of individual and public health problems, or of income inequality, gender discrimination, housing, environmental, or political participation issues. All of them are inter-related, so that focusing on one of them at a time is bound to produce either short-term solutions or utter failure. This is also why single-issue political movements are bound to fail. In other words, big problems are systemic and must, therefore be approached systemically--though with the provisos that systemism must not be confused with holism and that synthesis complements analysis instead of replacing it.

  11. Designing a performance appraisal system based on balanced scorecard for improving productivity: Case study in Semnan technology and science park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hemati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, organizations for holding and improving their competing merit use performance measurement for evaluation, control, supervision and improvement of their trading processes. Medium and small companies in technology and science parks are very useful in economic revivification and technology development. Technology and science parks have provided necessary consultations, information, suitable equipments, and services for developing technology unites and prepare them for independent presence in industry. One of the necessary elements for the success and improvement of performance in these companies is to establish and implement balanced scorecard, which can be used to reach desired goals, strategies and to improve performance. In this article, we use a structured method for calculating efficiency of four perspectives of balanced scorecard. Statistical society of this research was Semnan technology and Science Park and seven experts are selected for answering questions of the survey. We also complete questionnaire and determine index and relative importance of all indices. For developing strategic goals of Semnan technology and science park according to four perspectives of balanced score card (finance, growth and learning, internal process, six meetings were hold and finally all crisis macro goals index were identified and they were analyzed for evaluating performance.

  12. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  13. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  14. 32 CFR 644.44 - Fee appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.44 Fee appraisals. (a) Definitions and procedures. (1) The complete and.... The keynote of this approach lies in the sound development of a proper rate. The appraiser must have a...

  15. An ontology-based question system for a virtual coach assisting in trauma recollection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielman, M.; Meggelen, M. van; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based guided self-therapy systems provide a novel method for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder patients to follow therapy at home with the assistance of a virtual coach. One of the main challenges for such a coach is assisting patients with recollecting their traumatic memories, a vital part

  16. Network Theory: A Primer and Questions for Air Transportation Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    A new understanding (with potential applications to air transportation systems) has emerged in the past five years in the scientific field of networks. This development emerges in large part because we now have a new laboratory for developing theories about complex networks: The Internet. The premise of this new understanding is that most complex networks of interest, both of nature and of human contrivance, exhibit a fundamentally different behavior than thought for over two hundred years under classical graph theory. Classical theory held that networks exhibited random behavior, characterized by normal, (e.g., Gaussian or Poisson) degree distributions of the connectivity between nodes by links. The new understanding turns this idea on its head: networks of interest exhibit scale-free (or small world) degree distributions of connectivity, characterized by power law distributions. The implications of scale-free behavior for air transportation systems include the potential that some behaviors of complex system architectures might be analyzed through relatively simple approximations of local elements of the system. For air transportation applications, this presentation proposes a framework for constructing topologies (architectures) that represent the relationships between mobility, flight operations, aircraft requirements, and airspace capacity, and the related externalities in airspace procedures and architectures. The proposed architectures or topologies may serve as a framework for posing comparative and combinative analyses of performance, cost, security, environmental, and related metrics.

  17. On the question of the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems in timber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, E. R.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenor, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems on the level of forest farms management and timber industry. Main areas of activity, which currently subjected to automation, are revealed. Objectives, which solved by implementation of APCS, are identified.

  18. The research of electrical tracing system construction management and related questions of BOP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lining; Li Jingmin; Ma Ding; Tu Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Based on Hongyanhe nuclear power plant in Liaoning province, the paper studies the anti-freeze and heat tracing work of BOP project. It compares several different heat tracing solutions in terms of technicality and applicability, and gave the most suitable scheme by using electrical tracing. It also presents the construction details of the electrical tracing system, analyzes the key points of the construction management from quantity, safety and schedule aspects, and gave the improvement suggestions. (authors)

  19. An appraisal profile of nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Bruder, Martin; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Göritz, Anja S

    2018-03-05

    The authors aimed to (a) identify the cognitive appraisals underlying nostalgia and (b) compare nostalgia with other emotions in terms of its appraisal profile. In Study 1, participants (N = 1,125) generated narratives. Next, they reported the level of nostalgia and 31 other emotions that these narratives elicited. Subsequently, participants evaluated the narrative events on several cognitive appraisals. Events that elicited nostalgia were pleasant, involved an irretrievable loss, felt psychologically distant, and were unique-an appraisal profile that differed from all other emotions. In Study 2 (N = 1,261), the authors experimentally varied these appraisals in a vignette paradigm and measured anticipated nostalgia and 10 other emotions. Participants anticipated most nostalgia when events were pleasant, involved irretrievable loss, were distant, and were unique-a profile shared only with longing. In Study 3 (N = 994), the authors used a guided autobiographical recall procedure in which they manipulated appraisals and measured the resultant emotions. Corroborating Studies 1-2, nostalgia was most intense for events that were pleasant, irretrievably lost, temporally distant, and unique. This appraisal profile was not shared by other emotions. The findings delineate the distinguishing cognitive appraisal profile of nostalgia. Nostalgia occupies a special place in the pantheon of emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Current practices in economic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mossink, J.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    By means of economic appraisal, the costs and the benefits of health, environment and safety management can be made clear, both at the national level and at the company level. As such it is a tool in advocating good practices. This paper explores the possibilities of economic appraisal for policy

  1. Appraisal tools for clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Siering

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines can improve healthcare processes and patient outcomes, but are often of low quality. Guideline appraisal tools aim to help potential guideline users in assessing guideline quality. We conducted a systematic review of publications describing guideline appraisal tools in order to identify and compare existing tools.Among others we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1995 to May 2011 for relevant primary and secondary publications. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant publications. On the basis of the available literature we firstly generated 34 items to be used in the comparison of appraisal tools and grouped them into thirteen quality dimensions. We then extracted formal characteristics as well as questions and statements of the appraisal tools and assigned them to the items.We identified 40 different appraisal tools. They covered between three and thirteen of the thirteen possible quality dimensions and between three and 29 of the possible 34 items. The main focus of the appraisal tools were the quality dimensions "evaluation of evidence" (mentioned in 35 tools; 88%, "presentation of guideline content" (34 tools; 85%, "transferability" (33 tools; 83%, "independence" (32 tools; 80%, "scope" (30 tools; 75%, and "information retrieval" (29 tools; 73%. The quality dimensions "consideration of different perspectives" and "dissemination, implementation and evaluation of the guideline" were covered by only twenty (50% and eighteen tools (45% respectively.Most guideline appraisal tools assess whether the literature search and the evaluation, synthesis and presentation of the evidence in guidelines follow the principles of evidence-based medicine. Although conflicts of interest and norms and values of guideline developers, as well as patient involvement, affect the trustworthiness of guidelines, they are currently insufficiently considered. Greater focus should be

  2. Security management: a question of integration between people, systems and organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukaroff, M. C.; Romano, A.

    2015-01-01

    Safety Management has always been the most important process of the Juzbado Factory since beginning of operations in 1985. this process has evolved, moving from focusing primary on preventive control of operation risks by means of adequate exploitation of Safety Systems, to integrating aspects related with Safety culture and Organization Factors, as key players in order to achieve sustainable safety improvements. This paper presents how Safety Management has evolved at the Factory, emphasizing especially on the integration process of the three main factors affecting safety: people, technology and organizations. (Author)

  3. Appraising and comparing pressure ulcer guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, Peter; van Zelm, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    Whilst considerable activity has been related to guideline development for nurses regarding pressure ulcer prevention and management, no attempt has been made to comparatively evaluate these guidelines against some form of quality indicators. To compare and contrast four national pressure ulcer guidelines, and identify similarities and differences in their quality and content. An international comparative appraisal method, using the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation) instrument, was undertaken to appraise four published pressure ulcer guidelines. Two further domains were added to the AGREE instrument to assess comparability of the guidelines and their perceived contribution to practice. An international group undertook the comparative appraisal. The domain scores for each guideline show some but not total agreement among reviewers. One particular set of guidelines was identified as scoring highest in a majority of AGREE domains. Overall, evidence of variability exists between pressure ulcer guidelines and common areas of development to consider for all guidelines. The results raise many questions concerning the "best" pressure ulcer guideline to use, particularly related to the AGREE scoring. Some notable shortcomings exist in all the pressure ulcer guidelines reviewed and these shortcomings need to be addressed from a quality perspective. However, other issues such as style of reporting and potential contribution to practice might more fully affect choice by practitioners as opposed to guideline developers. Notable differences exist among the four guidelines that are possibly explained by different approaches to development and also because of different cultural factors and intentions for use. Whilst the AGREE tool identifies the quality of the guideline development process it still requires local engagement with practitioners to determine which guideline should be implemented.

  4. Level and Appraisal of Fatigue are Not Specific in Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a main feature of the burnout syndrome but also very common in other psychiatric disorders such as major depression and anxiety disorders. This raises the question of whether the level and appraisal of fatigue is experienced differently by individuals suffering from burnout than by those

  5. 116 Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... The fundamental question this work seeks to answer. Appraisal as a Determinant for ..... Organizations should invest richly on people and strive to ... Human Resource Management, New York, McGraw. Hill/Irwin. Drucker P. E. ...

  6. Appraisal of the European Commission's Energy Roadmap 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeus, L.

    2012-01-01

    What is the European energy strategy for 2050? How different is it from the 2020 energy strategy? What are the technology options? What are the policy options? The European Commission provided a first answer to these questions in its Energy Roadmap 2050. This article gives an appraisal of that answer based on the recommendations we made during the preparation of the roadmap.

  7. Diseases of the nervous system among miners of the Far North and questions of prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignat' eva, A G

    1982-10-01

    In the Far North and arctic regions of the USSR mine workers experience effects on the organism of extreme meteorologic factors (low temperature, shortened daylight and permafrost) in addition to professional hazards of vibration and noise. Diets may be deficient in water-soluble vitamins necessary for normal functioning of the nervous system. For 4 years 3,575 miners of the Far North and Arctic were observed. At times, noise and vibration are more intense in areas of permafrost. Temperature of mine air in winter is -20 to -40/sup 0/C, in summer -4 to -15/sup 0/C. As miners adapt to work in cold climates, their resistance weakens. Data showed only 1% of miners developed vibrational disease. Major neuropathology was damage to the peripheral nervous system caused by osteochondrosis, particularly of the spine with or without inflammation of spinal nerve roots. Other neurological diseases (vascular pathology of brain, diffuse neuritis, cerebral arachnoiditis) were observed in miners of different professional groups. Preventive treatment is recommended: observation of hygienic norms of work; rational rearrangement of work regimens of sick miners; periodic work on related tasks; hospital rest; twice yearly study units on physical therapy, massage, conditioning; use of preventive measures. (5 refs.)

  8. 'Post-deployment appraisal' and the relationship with stress and psychological health in Australian veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Breanna; Forbes, Andrew; Kelsall, Helen; Clarke, David; Ikin, Jill; Sim, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how veterans appraise their post-deployment experiences could provide insight into better assisting their deployment transitions. We aimed to assess the factor structure of positive and negative post-deployment appraisals in Australian veterans and to examine the resultant factors in their relationship with military stress and psychological health. Questions capturing post-deployment attitudes were developed by the researchers in collaboration with veterans. The questions were administered to 1938 veterans and the results factor analysed. The relationships between post-deployment appraisal, military stress and psychological health were examined using Structural Equation Modelling. A three-factor solution was found for the post-deployment appraisal questions; representing personal development, lack of recognition, and appreciation of life and country. Military stress was associated with the three factors and psychological health. The three factors were weakly to moderately associated with psychological health. Mediation between military stress and psychological health by any post-deployment appraisal factor was minimal. Post-deployment appraisal measures three important attitudes and concerns of veterans after deployment. Military stress is associated with the post-deployment appraisal factors. However, the factors did not mediate the relationship between military stress and psychological health. These factors provide insight into how veterans appraise their complex array of post-deployment experiences, and may provide useful in regard to transitions and integration into civilian life.

  9. Evolution and integration of innate immune systems from fruit flies to man: lessons and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Cosimo; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    Despite broad differences in morphology, ecology and behavior, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and humans show a remarkably high degree of conservation for many molecular, cellular, and developmental aspects of their biology. During the last decade, similarities have also been discovered in some of the mechanisms regulating their innate immune system. These parallels regard mainly the Toll-like receptor family and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the control of the immune response. However, if the overall similarities are important, the detailed pathogen recognition mechanisms differ significantly between fly and humans, highlighting a complicated evolutionary history of the metazoan innate defenses. In this review, we will discuss the main similarities and differences between the two types of organisms. We hope that this current knowledge will be used as a starting point for a more comprehensive view of innate immunity within the broad variety of metazoan phyla.

  10. The role of Clinical Officers in the Kenyan health system: a question of perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbindyo, Patrick; Blaauw, Duane; English, Mike

    2013-07-17

    Despite the increasing interest in using non-physician clinicians in many low-income countries, little is known about the roles they play in typical health system settings. Prior research has concentrated on evaluating their technical competencies compared to those of doctors. This work explored perceptions of the roles of Kenyan non-physician clinicians (Clinical Officers (COs). Qualitative methods including in-depth interviews (with COs, nurses, doctors, hospital management, and policymakers, among others), participant observation and document analysis were used. A nomothetic-idiographic framework was used to examine tensions between institutions and individuals within them. A comparative approach was used to examine institutional versus individual notions of CO roles, how these roles play out in government and faith-based hospital (FBH) settings as well as differences arising from three specific work settings for COs within hospitals. The main finding was the discrepancy between policy documents that outline a broad role for COs that covers both technical and managerial roles, while respondents articulated a narrow technical role that focused on patient care and management. Respondents described a variety of images of COs, ranging from 'filter' to 'primary healthcare physician', when asked about CO roles. COs argued for a defined role associated with primary healthcare, feeling constrained by their technical role. FBH settings were found to additionally clarify CO roles when compared with public hospitals. Tensions between formal prescriptions of CO roles and actual practice were reported and coalesced around lack of recognition over COs work, role conflict among specialist COs, and role ambiguity. Even though COs are important service providers their role is not clearly understood, which has resulted in role conflict. It is suggested that their role be redefined, moving from that of 'substitute clinician' to professional 'primary care clinician', with this

  11. A critical appraisal of the zero-multipole method: Structural, thermodynamic, dielectric, and dynamical properties of a water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Han, E-mail: wang-han@iapcm.ac.cn [CAEP Software Center for High Performance Numerical Simulation, Huayuan Road 6, 100088 Beijing, China and Zuse Institute Berlin (ZIB), Berlin (Germany); Nakamura, Haruki [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fukuda, Ikuo, E-mail: ifukuda@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-03-21

    We performed extensive and strict tests for the reliability of the zero-multipole (summation) method (ZMM), which is a method for estimating the electrostatic interactions among charged particles in a classical physical system, by investigating a set of various physical quantities. This set covers a broad range of water properties, including the thermodynamic properties (pressure, excess chemical potential, constant volume/pressure heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient), dielectric properties (dielectric constant and Kirkwood-G factor), dynamical properties (diffusion constant and viscosity), and the structural property (radial distribution function). We selected a bulk water system, the most important solvent, and applied the widely used TIP3P model to this test. In result, the ZMM works well for almost all cases, compared with the smooth particle mesh Ewald (SPME) method that was carefully optimized. In particular, at cut-off radius of 1.2 nm, the recommended choices of ZMM parameters for the TIP3P system are α ≤ 1 nm{sup −1} for the splitting parameter and l = 2 or l = 3 for the order of the multipole moment. We discussed the origin of the deviations of the ZMM and found that they are intimately related to the deviations of the equilibrated densities between the ZMM and SPME, while the magnitude of the density deviations is very small.

  12. A critical appraisal of the zero-multipole method: Structural, thermodynamic, dielectric, and dynamical properties of a water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Nakamura, Haruki; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2016-03-21

    We performed extensive and strict tests for the reliability of the zero-multipole (summation) method (ZMM), which is a method for estimating the electrostatic interactions among charged particles in a classical physical system, by investigating a set of various physical quantities. This set covers a broad range of water properties, including the thermodynamic properties (pressure, excess chemical potential, constant volume/pressure heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, and thermal expansion coefficient), dielectric properties (dielectric constant and Kirkwood-G factor), dynamical properties (diffusion constant and viscosity), and the structural property (radial distribution function). We selected a bulk water system, the most important solvent, and applied the widely used TIP3P model to this test. In result, the ZMM works well for almost all cases, compared with the smooth particle mesh Ewald (SPME) method that was carefully optimized. In particular, at cut-off radius of 1.2 nm, the recommended choices of ZMM parameters for the TIP3P system are α ≤ 1 nm(-1) for the splitting parameter and l = 2 or l = 3 for the order of the multipole moment. We discussed the origin of the deviations of the ZMM and found that they are intimately related to the deviations of the equilibrated densities between the ZMM and SPME, while the magnitude of the density deviations is very small.

  13. A critical appraisal of the phene-plate biochemical fingerprinting system for epidemiological subtyping of Salmonella typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, S.L.W.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy and reproducibility of the Phene-Plate (PhP) system (Biosys Inova, Stockholm, Sweden) for biochemical fingerprinting of Salmonella typhimurium was investigated. Duplicate and replicate assays on 40 epidemiologically related and unrelated strains were performed in two batches of PhP-48......P-types which are epidemiologically unjustified, (ii) tests currently recommended for PhP-typing S. typhimurium may be somewhat unstable and not satisfactory for fingerprinting purposes, (iii) caution must be exercised when comparing data from different batches of PhP-48 plates, and (iv) best results...

  14. Do questions help? The impact of audience response systems on medical student learning: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Tyler E; Cofrancesco, Joseph; Milner, Stephen M; Shah, Nina G; Goldberg, Harry

    2015-07-01

    Audience response systems (ARSs) are electronic devices that allow educators to pose questions during lectures and receive immediate feedback on student knowledge. The current literature on the effectiveness of ARSs is contradictory, and their impact on student learning remains unclear. This randomised controlled trial was designed to isolate the impact of ARSs on student learning and students' perception of ARSs during a lecture. First-year medical student volunteers at Johns Hopkins were randomly assigned to either (i) watch a recorded lecture on an unfamiliar topic in which three ARS questions were embedded or (ii) watch the same lecture without the ARS questions. Immediately after the lecture on 5 June 2012, and again 2 weeks later, both groups were asked to complete a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of the lecture content and satisfaction with the learning experience. 92 students participated. The mean (95% CI) initial knowledge assessment score was 7.63 (7.17 to 8.09) for the ARS group (N=45) and 6.39 (5.81 to 6.97) for the control group (N=47), p=0.001. Similarly, the second knowledge assessment mean score was 6.95 (6.38 to 7.52) for the ARS group and 5.88 (5.29 to 6.47) for the control group, p=0.001. The ARS group also reported higher levels of engagement and enjoyment. Embedding three ARS questions within a 30 min lecture increased students' knowledge immediately after the lecture and 2 weeks later. We hypothesise that this increase was due to forced information retrieval by students during the learning process, a form of the testing effect. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Radiosensitivity of the developing central nervous system: an important question in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Maria del R.; Gisone, Pablo A.; Dubner, Diana L.; Robello, Elizabeth; Michelin, Severino C.

    2004-01-01

    The high radiosensitivity of the human developing brain has been demonstrated by epidemiological data . The maximal incidence of microcephaly and mental retardation in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cohort was observed among survivors exposed between 8 and 15 weeks of gestation. Experimental studies indicate that this period corresponds to gestational days (g.d.) 14-18 in the rat. Apoptosis, the typical mode of radiation-induced cell death in developing Central Nervous System (CNS), is closely related with the oxidative status. Enhanced radiation-induced generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) has been observed after low-dose radiation exposure, leading to the amplification of signal transduction and further molecular and cellular radiation-responses. This study is an attempt to address the participation of ROS/RNS in the early radiation-induced apoptosis of neural cortical precursors. Cortical cells obtained from Wistar rat fetuses at 17 g.d. were irradiated with a dose of 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.3 Gy/minute. Nitric oxide (NO) content estimated by measuring the stable products NO 2 and NO 3 released to the culture medium, has shown a time-dependent accumulation from 30 min post-irradiation (pi). ROS/RNS content was determined by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. A significant decrease of chemiluminescence was evident 30 min pi, reaching basal levels at 120 min, followed by an important augmentation by 4 hs after irradiation. The early decrease in ROS/RNS was not observed in samples irradiated in the presence of L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. Incubations with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased significantly the chemiluminescence in irradiated samples. Apoptotic cell death, already evident from 4 hs pi., was significantly increased in irradiated cells after incubation with L-NAME. We conclude that ROS/RNS play a pivotal role in the early signaling pathway leading to a radiation-induced cell death of cortical

  16. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  17. Appraisal of the PREP, KITT, and SAMPLE computer codes for the evaluation of the reliability characteristics of engineered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P; White, R F

    1976-01-01

    For the probabilistic approach to reactor safety assessment by the use of event tree and fault tree techniques it is essential to be able to estimate the probabilities of failure of the various engineered safety features provided to mitigate the effects of postulated accident sequences. The PREP, KITT and SAMPLE computer codes, which incorporate Kinetic Tree Theory, perform these calculations and have been used extensively to evaluate the reliability characteristics of engineered safety features of American nuclear reactors. Working versions of these computer codes are now available in SRD, and this report explains the merits, capabilities and ease of application of the PREP, KITT, and SAMPLE programs for the solution of system reliability problems.

  18. 基于KPI在医院行政后勤部门的绩效考核管理体系构建%The Construction of Performance Appraisal Management System in the Hospital based on the KPI Administrative Departments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范艺馨; 续小霞; 张茹雪; 白靖平

    2015-01-01

    Performance appraisal has become a hot issue. How to carry out the performance appraisal,improve the work efficiency, promote the innovation in health service management,standard administrative behavior in the health functions of the administrative organs and institutions has become a major problem in the development of the hospital. A 3 armour hospital in xinjiang sets up logistics department performance appraisal to the administration management system from the BSC′s financial,customer,internal business and learning growth four aspects based on the KPI,so as to provide reference for other hospitals performance reform.%绩效考核已经成为热点问题。如何在卫生行政机关及事业单位职能部门开展绩效考核,提高工作效率,推进卫生事业管理创新,规范行政行为,已经成为医院发展中的重大难题。新疆某三甲医院主要从BSC的财务、客户、内部运营和学习成长4个方面出发,基于KPI建立针对行政后勤部门绩效考核管理体系,以期为其他医院绩效改革提供参考。

  19. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  20. Appraisal of medicinal plants used in alternative systems of medicines for microbial contamination, physiochemical parameters and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, F.; Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2014-01-01

    The safety of herbal products has become a foremost apprehension in public health with their recognition and worldwide market growth and due in part to the widespread assumption that natural implies harmless. The global market of medicinal plants has been growing at a rate of 7-10% annually; capitalizing on the growing awareness of herbal and aromatic plants globally. The present study was conducted to assess the physiochemical parameters, microbial contamination and presence of heavy metals. The 24 medicinal plants were collected from open market places of various cities of Pakistan and tested by employing WHO and AOAC guidelines. Medicinal plants were found polluted with wide variety of potentially pathogenic bacterias. Microbial count and levels of arsenic and mercury in some plants were found elevated. The percentage (%) of physiochemical parameters i.e., foreign organic matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extract, water soluble extract and moisture count of these medicinal plants were found statistically noteworthy. The nonexistence of quality control values for medicinal plants has been one of the key lacunas. Quality assurance system and WHO's guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices be methodically enforced in the medicinal plants supply chain i.e., cultivation, collection and distribution, although it is tricky task. (author)

  1. The SPARK Tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in health policy and systems research: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Ghandour, Lilian; Kdouh, Ola; Langlois, Etienne; Lavis, John N; Schünemann, Holger; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-04

    Groups or institutions funding or conducting systematic reviews in health policy and systems research (HPSR) should prioritise topics according to the needs of policymakers and stakeholders. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR. We developed the tool following a four-step approach consisting of (1) the definition of the purpose and scope of tool, (2) item generation and reduction, (3) testing for content and face validity, (4) and pilot testing of the tool. The research team involved international experts in HPSR, systematic review methodology and tool development, led by the Center for Systematic Reviews on Health Policy and Systems Research (SPARK). We followed an inclusive approach in determining the final selection of items to allow customisation to the user's needs. The purpose of the SPARK tool was to prioritise questions in HPSR in order to address them in systematic reviews. In the item generation and reduction phase, an extensive literature search yielded 40 relevant articles, which were reviewed by the research team to create a preliminary list of 19 candidate items for inclusion in the tool. As part of testing for content and face validity, input from international experts led to the refining, changing, merging and addition of new items, and to organisation of the tool into two modules. Following pilot testing, we finalised the tool, with 22 items organised in two modules - the first module including 13 items to be rated by policymakers and stakeholders, and the second including 9 items to be rated by systematic review teams. Users can customise the tool to their needs, by omitting items that may not be applicable to their settings. We also developed a user manual that provides guidance on how to use the SPARK tool, along with signaling questions. We have developed and conducted initial validation of the SPARK tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR, along with

  2. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  3. The English and northern (Sweden and Norway) systems regarding the questions posed by the white book; Les systemes anglais et nordiques (Suede et Norvege) au regard des questions posees dans le livre blanc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie [ed.] [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie, Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    1999-06-15

    This report issued at request of Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry - State Secretariat for Industry, presents an analysis of the way the European countries have liberalized their markets, which will be used to answer the questions posed by the white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the French electricity sector'. In the United Kingdom the reform, initiated on 1 April 1990, occurred as a genuine revolution, with the blow-up of CEGB, the equivalent of EDF in France. In Swede and Norway the evolution was progressive; the electric industry was actually not nationalized and the local collectivities, often owners of the production means, have remained the prominent actors. Other characteristic of these countries is the abundance of natural energetic resources, especially for United Kingdom and Norway where the objective of the power policy is of turning profitable the existent potential and not as in France, where the problem is to cope with the consequences of the lack of natural resources. This report contains two parts. The first part presents the main characteristics of the liberalized systems. Indeed while in an integrated system the logic is 'top - down', in a liberalized system the logic is 'bottom - up' i.e., the coordination is based on the market in a decentralized way. The instrument of this coordination is a contract by which the risks are shared among the actors (producers, bankers, distributors, customers). The central actor of the liberalized system is the network authority, so-called 'independent' with rather large autonomy, nominated by the Minister in charge with the energy policy. The network authority has essentially two functions: control and surveillance. In United Kingdom this agency has among his duties the promotion of competition, particularly in production sector, considered as still having monopole capabilities. In Swede and Norway this authority contents itself of only issuing

  4. Naturalizing aesthetics: brain areas for aesthetic appraisal across sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Gao, Xiaoqing; Tisdelle, Loren; Eickhoff, Simon B; Liotti, Mario

    2011-09-01

    We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, an area typically associated with visceral perception, especially of negative valence (disgust, pain, etc.). We argue that aesthetic processing is, at its core, the appraisal of the valence of perceived objects. This appraisal is in no way limited to artworks but is instead applicable to all types of perceived objects. Therefore, one way to naturalize aesthetics is to argue that such a system evolved first for the appraisal of objects of survival advantage, such as food sources, and was later co-opted in humans for the experience of artworks for the satisfaction of social needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Cain, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  6. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun B Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc., traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye, metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc., toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc. are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract.

  7. HOW APPRAISERS DEVELOP FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ŠKODA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management is responsible for its own financial decisions. If we take into account, that fair value concept was shown in financial crisis as something that does not work anymore in this way; there is a big need to develop it for the future. Non-professional readers of financial statements believe, however, that company financials are the work of the public accounting firm that had signed the audit certificate. The main reason for bringing this point up is that when companies disclose Fair Value (FV information in their financial statements, they are taking responsibility for the values disclosed. Management may often be encouraged to utilize the services of an outside professional, but at the end of the day, the outside appraiser is a hired gun. Although the appraiser has to take responsibility for his own work, hiring the appraiser does not absolve management of its ultimate responsibility. The obverse of this is also true. Management does not have to hire the appraiser to develop any fair value disclosures made in the financial statements. Developing FV information is not recommended as a do-it yourself undertaking, there is nothing in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP or Securities Exchange Commission (SEC regulations, however, that requires an outside appraiser.

  8. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  9. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  10. [Informed consent right of the appraised individuals in forensic clinical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ju-Ping; Han, Wei; Gu, Shan-Zhi; Chen, Teng

    2015-02-01

    Informed consent right is not just for basic ethical consideration, but is important for protecting patient's right by law, which is expressed through informed consent contract. The appraised individuals of forensic clinical examination have the similar legal status as the patients in medical system. However, the law does not require informed consent right for the appraised individuals. I recommend giving certain informed consent right to the appraised individuals in the forensic clinical examination. Under the contracted relationship with the institution, the appraised individuals could participate in the examination process, know the necessary information, and make a selected consent on the examination results, which can assure the justice and fairness of judicial examination procedure.

  11. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part must be appraised at their fair market value by an appraiser selected by APHIS. APHIS may decline... veterinarian in charge may grant a reasonable time for the presentation of their registration papers. [67 FR...

  12. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  13. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 564.3 Section 564.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...

  14. Appraisal of family doctors: an evaluation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, M.I.; Elwyn, G.; Wood, F.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appraisal has evolved to become a key component of workforce management. However, it is not clear from existing proposals for appraisal of doctors whether employers, health authorities or primary care organisations should take responsibility for appraisal processes. AIMS: To evaluate the

  15. The European system and the Egyptian question 1827-1841 : a study in the theory of balance of power

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Sattar El Badri, Mohammed

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 289-295. This work aims at explaining the events of the Egyptian Question through the tools of balance of power theory. It is the main hypothesis of this work that the Egyptian Question affected the balance of power in Europe, i.e. Equilibrium, and therefore, was subjecte...

  16. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. These interviews should be held in the period from 15 November 2004 to 15 February 2005 [see Administrative Circular No 26 (Rev. 5) Annex II, § 3. For this exercise, the paper MAPS form has been replaced by an electronic form in the EDH system, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  17. Performance Appraisal and Merit Compensation. Community Colleges: Quality Education for a Learning Society. Round Table Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert A., Jr.

    Detailed information is provided on the Performance Appraisal/Salary System adopted by the New Mexico Junior College (NMJC) Board in 1981 as the basis for the performance evaluation of all college employees. Introductory material discusses the concepts of performance appraisal and merit compensation and provides an update on changes in NMJC's…

  18. Investment appraisal using quantitative risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik

    2002-07-01

    Investment appraisal concerned with investments in fire safety systems is discussed. Particular attention is directed at evaluating, in terms of the Bayesian decision theory, the risk reduction that investment in a fire safety system involves. It is shown how the monetary value of the change from a building design without any specific fire protection system to one including such a system can be estimated by use of quantitative risk analysis, the results of which are expressed in terms of a Risk-adjusted net present value. This represents the intrinsic monetary value of investing in the fire safety system. The method suggested is exemplified by a case study performed in an Avesta Sheffield factory.

  19. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Blake P.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) conducted November 14 to 18 and November 28 to December 9, 1988. This appraisal covered the effectiveness and improvements in the RFP safety program across the site, evaluating progress to date against standards of accepted practice. The appraisal included coverage of the timeliness and effectiveness of actions taken in response to the recommendations/concerns in three previous Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of RFP Bldg. 707 conducted in July 1986, Bldgs. 771/774 conducted in October/November 1986, and Bldgs. 776/777 conducted in January/February 1988. Results of this appraisal are given in Section IV for each of 14 technical safety areas at RFP. These results include a discussion, conclusions and any new safety concerns for each technical safety area. Appendix A contains a description of the system for categorizing concerns, and the concerns are tabulated in Appendix B. Appendix C reports on the evaluation of the contractor's actions and the current status of each of the 230 recommendations and concerns contained in the three previous TSA reports.

  20. Ash erupted during normal activity at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) raises questions on how the feeding system works

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Pompilio, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    2007). This new finding has important implications on how the feeding system of the volcano works and raises two main questions: i) is this an occasional occurrence or is a normal feature of the persistent activity? and ii) how volatile-rich parcels of deep magma rise through a crystal-rich body without significant mixing ?

  1. Guiding Students to the Right Questions: Adaptive Navigation Support in an E-Learning System for Java Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, I.-H.; Sosnovsky, S.; Brusilovsky, P.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of interactive questions available to the students of modern E-Learning courses placed the problem of personalized guidance on the agenda of E-Learning researchers. Without proper guidance, students frequently select too simple or too complicated problems and ended either bored or discouraged. This paper explores a…

  2. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  3. Self-appraisal of hockey players of high class of different playing position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy Mikhnov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to expose the features of display of self-appraisal for the hockey players of high class of different playing position. Material and Methods: for the exposure of level of self-appraisal for hockey players, information of sportsmen of high class, taking part in the matches of the Kontinental hockey league (KHL in a season 2013–2014 was probed sixteen hockey players, having a sporting digit MS and MSWC, took part in researches. Methods were used: pedagogical supervision, pedagogical analysis and generalization of front-rank experience, psychological testing, analysis of data of the special scientific-methodical literature, expert questioning, an analysis of data is the Internet. Results: findings allowed to set that the players of line of attack (central and extreme forward have more high level of self-appraisal for certain, than players of defence and hockey goalkeepers. This tendency is looked over both on the separate constituents of self-appraisal and on the whole on all spectrums of the studied indexes. The got results of researches rotined that the hockey players of high class had or middle or high level of self-appraisal. Among testable hockey players, players were not exposed with the low level of self-appraisal. Conclusions: the exposed distinctions in the level of self-appraisal of hockey players of high class can be used for diagnostics of playing predisposition and choice of playing line of business in a command.

  4. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Sean M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89, subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming's indices shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the

  5. A psychometric appraisal of the DREEM

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hammond, Sean M

    2012-01-12

    Abstract Background The quality of the Educational environment is a key determinant of a student centred curriculum. Evaluation of the educational environment is an important component of programme appraisal. In order to conduct such evaluation use of a comprehensive, valid and reliable instrument is essential. One of most widely used contemporary tools for evaluation of the learning environment is the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM). Apart from the initial psychometric evaluation of the DREEM, few published studies report its psychometric properties in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric quality of the DREEM measure in the context of medical education in Ireland and to explore the construct validity of the device. Methods 239 final year medical students were asked to complete the DREEM inventory. Anonymised responses were entered into a database. Data analysis was performed using PASW 18 and confirmatory factor analysis performed. Results Whilst the total DREEM score had an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha 0.89), subscale analysis shows that two subscales had sub-optimal internal consistency. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (using Fleming\\'s indices) shows an overall fit of 0.76, representing a weak but acceptable level of fit. 17 of the 50 items manifest fit indices less than 0.70. We sought the best fitting oblique solution to the 5-subscale structure, which showed large correlations, suggesting that the independence of the separate scales is open to question. Conclusions There has perhaps been an inadequate focus on establishing and maintaining the psychometric credentials of the DREEM. The present study highlights two concerns. Firstly, the internal consistency of the 5 scales is quite variable and, in our sample, appears rather low. Secondly, the construct validity is not well supported. We suggest that users of the DREEM will provide basic psychometric appraisal of the device in future

  6. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  7. Analysis of Appraising Agricultural Intangible Asset Value by Cost Method

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Juan

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of describing the connotation of agricultural intangible asset and cost method, the technical ideas of appraising by cost method are introduced. The article analyzes the advantages (simple appraisal principle and easy to understand and grasp; overall consideration of various factors related to appraisal result value) and disadvantages (high appraisal cost; difficult to appraise and grasp various appraisal factors) of appraising by cost method. The article also summarizes the prec...

  8. An APPRAISAL analysis of the language of real estate advertisements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the linguistic choices made by estate agencies in their advertisements of houses, and how these choices compare across two competing agencies in Grahamstown, South Africa – Remax Frontier and Pam Golding Properties. Using Martin and White's (2005) APPRAISAL system, it investigates the ...

  9. 50 CFR 34.7 - Fair market value appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value appraisals. 34.7 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.7 Fair market value... procedures in order to estimate the fair market value of each area as a whole. The evaluation will be...

  10. Measuring quality of health care from the user's perspective in 41 countries: psychometric properties of WHO's questions on health systems responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentine, N. B.; Bonsel, G. J.; Murray, C. J. L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, for different populations, psychometric properties of questions on "health systems responsiveness", a concept developed by World Health Organization (WHO) to describe non-clinical and non-financial aspects of quality of health care. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING/DATA COLLECTION:

  11. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions

    OpenAIRE

    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik

    2011-01-01

    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one’s own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and control potential differentiated both types of envy. We manipulated these appraisals in Study 2 and found that while both did not influence the intensity of envy, they did determine the type of envy ...

  12. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  13. A motivational account of the undergraduate experience in science: brief measures of students' self-system appraisals, engagement in coursework, and identity as a scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ellen; Saxton, Emily; Currie, Cailin; Shusterman, Gwen

    2017-11-01

    As part of long-standing efforts to promote undergraduates' success in science, researchers have investigated the instructional strategies and motivational factors that promote student learning and persistence in science coursework and majors. This study aimed to create a set of brief measures that educators and researchers can use as tools to examine the undergraduate motivational experience in science classes. To identify key motivational processes, we drew on self-determination theory (SDT), which holds that students have fundamental needs - to feel competent, related, and autonomous - that fuel their intrinsic motivation. When educational experiences meet these needs, students engage more energetically and learn more, cumulatively contributing to a positive identity as a scientist. Based on information provided by 1013 students from 8 classes in biology, chemistry, and physics, we constructed conceptually focused and psychometrically sound survey measures of three sets of motivational factors: (1) students' appraisals of their own competence, autonomy, and relatedness; (2) the quality of students' behavioural and emotional engagement in academic work; and (3) students' emerging identities as scientists, including their science identity, purpose in science, and science career plans. Using an iterative confirmatory process, we tested short item sets for unidimensionality and internal consistency, and then cross-validated them. Tests of measurement invariance showed that scales were generally comparable across disciplines. Most importantly, scales and final course grades showed correlations consistent with predictions from SDT. These measures may provide a window on the student motivational experience for educators, researchers, and interventionists who aim to improve the quality of undergraduate science teaching and learning.

  14. 76 FR 72306 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Appraiser Roster: Appraiser Qualifications for Placement on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... disciplinary action in any state in which the appraiser is certified; * * * * * (c) * * * (1) Appraisers subject to state disciplinary action. An appraiser whose state certification in any state has been revoked, suspended, or surrendered as a result of a state disciplinary action is automatically suspended from the...

  15. Positive emotion, appraisal, and the role of appraisal overlap in positive emotion co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eddie M W; Jia, Lile

    2017-02-01

    Appraisal research has traditionally focused on negative emotions but has not addressed issues concerning the relationships between several positive emotions and appraisals in daily life and the extent to which co-occurrence of positive emotions can be explained by overlap in appraisals. Driven by a priori hypotheses on appraisal-emotion relationships, this study investigated 12 positive emotions and 13 appraisal dimensions using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The results provide strong evidence that positive emotions and appraisals correlate significantly in daily life. Importantly, we found that the positive emotions' overlap on theoretically relevant, as compared to irrelevant, appraisals was stronger and more predictive of their co-occurrence. Furthermore, appraisal overlap on theoretically relevant appraisals predicted the co-occurrence of positive emotions even when the appraisal of pleasantness was excluded, indicating that positive emotions do not co-occur just by virtue of their shared valence. Our findings affirmed and refined the appraisal profiles of positive emotions and underscore the importance of appraisals in accounting for the commonality and differences among positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  17. Appraisal of Meconium at Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Bosco A.; Thompson, Penelope

    1992-01-01

    A critical appraisal of the scientific literature on managing mesconium in labor identified 15 studies which were used to evaluate intervention strategies. Only four were randomized trials: two on the use of amnioinfusion in labor, one on the technique of bulb versus DeLee catheter suction of the newborn, and one on the need for endotracheal intubation and suction in meconium-stained neonates. Current practice is dictated by the most favorable tradeoff between benefit and risk because of limited scientific evidence. PMID:21221284

  18. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  19. Square Pegs and Round Holes: Ruminations on the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Performance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Nicole E.; Siers, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Models of comprehensive Performance Management systems include both employee development and evaluative components. The Organizational Behavior Management discipline focuses almost exclusively on the developmental component, while the Industrial and Organizational Psychology discipline is focused on use of performance appraisals. Performance…

  20. Nailfold capillaroscopy microscopy - an interdisciplinary appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Weigel, Peter Franz; Sunderkötter, Cord; Sander, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a method of great diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of primary versus secondary Raynaud´s phenomenon, of systemic sclerosis versus other so called connective tissue diseases and of additional diagnostic value in other entities. Rheumatologists, dermatologists, and angiologists in Germany have convened in an interdisciplinary working group in which they synergistically combined their expertise to develop a common nomenclature and standards for the technical performance of nailfold capillary microscopy. The article gives an overview of historical and technical aspects of capillaroscopy, morphologic findings, and disease-specific patterns. It also provides a critical appraisal of its significance in the diagnosis and sequelae of these interdisciplinarily-managed diseases including its performance in children and gives an excursion in the potential perspectives of capillaroscopy in less common indications.

  1. To the question of definition of fissile material mass and neutron multiplication in deep sub-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulin, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    A method of determination neutrons multiplication in deep sub-critical multiplying media has been developed. It is based on a modified of Rossi - alpha method. It will consist in use of integral on time (a method of the areas) from correlated parts of distribution and integral in area, independent of time a part of distribution (area of a constant background). It allows to spend the calculated analysis, using the integrated equation on time for a neutrons flux and to not use representation of point kinetic model. A calculation spatially-correlation factor the adjoint (relative the detector count rate) inhomogeneous equation is used. Its calculation takes into account fission both in multiplying media and in a spontaneous neutron source. Measurements with plutonium-steel and uranium-steel blocks, and blocks from uranium and plutonium dioxide of different enrichment are have been carried out. The measured values of neutrons multiplication in a range 1.03-1.82 will be well coordinated to results of calculations. The question on an opportunity of definition of weight of the measured blocks of fissile material is considered [ru

  2. Social appraisal influences recognition of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  3. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND... appraiser shall be engaged directly by the regulated institution or its agent, and have no direct or...

  4. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS... interest, financial or otherwise, in the property. If the only qualified persons available to perform an...

  5. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, N.; Zeelenberg, M.; Pieters, R.

    2012-01-01

    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one’s own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and

  6. Performance appraisal of coaches: Acomparative study | Surujlal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the sport environment, the performance appraisal of coaches continues to be an issue. The performance appraisal of coaches is critical to sport organizations since major decisions like rewarding or terminating coaches is based on it. The purpose of this study was to examine whether any differences exist with regard ...

  7. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the amount of partial loss, or damage to, or any reduction in the fair market value as a result..., any reduction in the fair market value of, the indemnified item(s). The appraisers' agreement with... appropriate, such reduction in the fair market value. Disputes between the appraisers with respect to partial...

  8. Small Steps Forward Through Critical Appraisal (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available As a vocal proponent of evidence based information practice, I have actively encouraged my co‐workers and anyone else who might listen, to take small steps in order to move towards incorporating research evidence into their decision making. I prompt colleagues to search in databases for research articles that may be useful, gather these articles and incorporate research results as part of their decision making process. I am often told of the difficulties faced despite one’s best attempts to make their practice more evidence‐based. A major difficulty is access to the research itself since librarians and information professionals often lack access to databases and journals in our field, particularly those of us working outside of academic libraries. An even more daunting question is how to critically read the existing research to determine whether it is valuable in a specific situation. Not all research is good, and how do we sort out the good from the bad? This inaugural issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice brings us one small step closer to addressing some of these concerns by equipping practitioners with information to help in their decision making process. Every issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice will incorporate approximately 10 evidence summaries to help readers sort through recently published research and determine if that research was done well. Evidence summaries provide a critical appraisal synthesis for a specific research article, so that practitioners may more readily determine if the evidence in that research study is valid and reliable, and whether they can apply it to their own practice. Evidence summaries are indeed a small step, but an important one. Published in an open‐access forum, these summaries will address three barriers to evidence based practice that we have faced in the past. First of all, they will bring awareness of previously published research to readers who may

  9. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik

    2012-06-01

    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one's own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and control potential differentiated both types of envy. We manipulated these appraisals in Study 2 and found that while both did not influence the intensity of envy, they did determine the type of envy that resulted. The more a situation was appraised as undeserved, the more participants experienced malicious envy. Benign envy was experienced more when the situation was not undeserved, and the most when the situation was appraised as both deserved and controllable. The current research also clarifies how the types of envy differ from the related emotions admiration and resentment.

  10. The appraisal of clinical guidelines in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Clarkson, Jan E; Esposito, Marco

    2009-01-01

    To appraise the reported processes involved in the development of published dental guidelines. Electronic databases were searched to identify guidelines making recommendations for any health professional within dentistry. All included guidelines were appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument. A total of 105 guidelines met the inclusion criteria. The appraised guidelines showed lack of rigour in their development (median score 14.3%; range 0% to 100%). Only 10 (9.5%) were coded as 'strongly recommend' by at least two assessors. If recommendations within clinical guidelines are to be relied upon, the methods used in their development must be explicit and free from bias. When using the AGREE checklist to make decisions on whether or not to implement individual sets of guidelines, the findings of the present assessment reinforce the need for more than two assessors to be included in the appraisal of each set of guidelines.

  11. Level and appraisal of fatigue are not specific in burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, A.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a main feature of the burnout syndrome but also very common in other psychiatric disorders such as major depression and anxiety disorders. This raises the question of whether the level and appraisal of fatigue is experienced differently by individuals suffering from burnout than by those

  12. [To the question of pathophysiological fundamentals of endocrine system functioning in patients with a first psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, L N

    2015-01-01

    To study the characteristics of prolactin secretion in patients with a first psychotic episode (FPE) with regard to disease severity, gender and patient's neuromediator system state. Author studied 76 patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and 34 normals (control group). There was a significant negative sex-related correlation between the severity of psychopathologic symptoms and plasma prolactin levels. Based on the results author attempted to explain the hormonal disbalance in the patients with FPE taking into account the state of monoaminergic mediator systems in patients.

  13. [The questions of improving the information-analytical component in the reform of the health care system in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Беликова, Инна В; Руденко, Леся А

    2016-01-01

    A priority task of the development strategy of the Ukrainian health care system is the saving and improving of public health. With the development of new economic relations, health care restructuring, the introduction of new financing mechanisms to policy-makers have an important task of the organization of operational management on the basis of timely quality information. According to many authors, the ability to improve the quality of the received information is possible due to the intercalation of information technologies. The main aim of our study is to determine the main directions of modernization of information-analytical component during the health care reform. The medical institutions reporting forms (f.20, f.12, f.17, f.47) were analyzed to achieve the goal, were conducted a survey of primary care physicians. The survey was attended by 265 family doctors, 80 of whom are family doctors of family medicine clinic of the regional center, 185 - medical centers of primary health care district centers. The analysis of the sociological research indicates that the work of the family doctor is accompanied by filling a large number of records, so according to the survey, an average of doctors per day filled about 15.74 +2.2 registration forms, on average per month 333,7+ 30 a month. The necessity of reform of the information-analytical component of the health care system have noted by 94% 1.4. Do not have a automated workstation 34.5% + 5.3 physicians of the regional center and 68% + 3.4 countryside. Possession of the computer at user level observed by 92% + 1.6, which is a good basis for the introduction of information in healthcare system. The data of the sociological survey confirm the necession of structural-functional procuring of the system of information-analytical supporting of the healthcare system of Ukraine. Annual health statistics reports are still relevant, but they need to improve and adapt to the new conditions of functioning of healthcare system and

  14. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice. PMID:27729695

  15. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goneppanavar Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader′s work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice.

  16. Testing the reliability and efficiency of the pilot Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) for systematic mixed studies review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Romina; Pluye, Pierre; Bartlett, Gillian; Macaulay, Ann C; Salsberg, Jon; Jagosh, Justin; Seller, Robbyn

    2012-01-01

    Systematic literature reviews identify, select, appraise, and synthesize relevant literature on a particular topic. Typically, these reviews examine primary studies based on similar methods, e.g., experimental trials. In contrast, interest in a new form of review, known as mixed studies review (MSR), which includes qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies, is growing. In MSRs, reviewers appraise studies that use different methods allowing them to obtain in-depth answers to complex research questions. However, appraising the quality of studies with different methods remains challenging. To facilitate systematic MSRs, a pilot Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) has been developed at McGill University (a checklist and a tutorial), which can be used to concurrently appraise the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies. The purpose of the present study is to test the reliability and efficiency of a pilot version of the MMAT. The Center for Participatory Research at McGill conducted a systematic MSR on the benefits of Participatory Research (PR). Thirty-two PR evaluation studies were appraised by two independent reviewers using the pilot MMAT. Among these, 11 (34%) involved nurses as researchers or research partners. Appraisal time was measured to assess efficiency. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by calculating a kappa statistic based on dichotomized responses for each criterion. An appraisal score was determined for each study, which allowed the calculation of an overall intra-class correlation. On average, it took 14 min to appraise a study (excluding the initial reading of articles). Agreement between reviewers was moderate to perfect with regards to MMAT criteria, and substantial with respect to the overall quality score of appraised studies. The MMAT is unique, thus the reliability of the pilot MMAT is promising, and encourages further development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The appraisal rationalisation of real estate expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ciuna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian appraisal practice is characterized by valuations developed in subjective opinions formulated by the valuers, according to the experience and the competence rather than on the survey of the market data of comparable properties. This practice makes up for the lack of information on the real estate market and to the consequent absence of systematic collections of market data. This tradition is in the cadastral appraisal for the rural (1886 and urban properties (1939. The assessed income is appraised for a representative property and wide to all the other properties with arbitrary scores (pure number. The assessed value is derived from the income with fixed multipliers. The reform of the cadastral appraisals (2013 provides the employment of predetermined statistic functions rather than the automated valuation models applied in the mass appraisal. There are therefore ample spaces to rationalize the Italian valuations. For the market appraisal the process of rationalization is based on the comparison between the expertise and the market comparison approach. For the cadastral appraisal the process of rationalization is based on the statistic application to the fixed functions with the survey of a sample of market prices and the ratios study according to the valuation standards.

  18. A Global Capacity Building Vision for Societal Applications of Earth Observing Systems and Data: Key Questions and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faisal; Serrat-Capdevila, Aleix; Granger, Stephanie; Thomas, Amy; Saah, David; Ganz, David; Mugo, Robinson; Murthy, M. S. R.; Ramos, Victor Hugo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; hide

    2016-01-01

    Capacity building using Earth observing (EO) systems and data (i.e., from orbital and nonorbital platforms) to enable societal applications includes the network of human, nonhuman, technical, nontechnical, hardware, and software dimensions that are necessary to successfully cross the valley [of death; see NRC (2001)] between science and research (port of departure) and societal application (port of arrival). In many parts of the world (especially where ground-based measurements are scarce or insufficient), applications of EO data still struggle for longevity or continuity for a variety of reasons, foremost among them being the lack of resilient capacity. An organization is said to have resilient capacity when it can retain and continue to build capacity in the face of unexpected shocks or stresses. Stresses can include intermittent power and limited Internet bandwidth, constant need for education on ever-increasing complexity of EO systems and data, communication challenges between the ports of departure and arrival (especially across time zones), and financial limitations and instability. Shocks may also include extreme events such as disasters and losing key staff with technical and institutional knowledge.

  19. Quantum theory from questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  20. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  1. Reconsidering the psychometrics of quality of life assessment in light of response shift and appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Carolyn E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing evidence for response shift phenomena in quality of life (QOL assessment points to the necessity to reconsider both the measurement model and the application of psychometric analyses. The proposed psychometric model posits that the QOL true score is always contingent upon parameters of the appraisal process. This new model calls into question existing methods for establishing the reliability and validity of QOL assessment tools and suggests several new approaches for describing the psychometric properties of these scales. Recommendations for integrating the assessment of appraisal into QOL research and clinical practice are discussed.

  2. Reconsidering the psychometrics of quality of life assessment in light of response shift and appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Rapkin, Bruce D

    2004-01-01

    The increasing evidence for response shift phenomena in quality of life (QOL) assessment points to the necessity to reconsider both the measurement model and the application of psychometric analyses. The proposed psychometric model posits that the QOL true score is always contingent upon parameters of the appraisal process. This new model calls into question existing methods for establishing the reliability and validity of QOL assessment tools and suggests several new approaches for describing the psychometric properties of these scales. Recommendations for integrating the assessment of appraisal into QOL research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:15038830

  3. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  4. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  5. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  6. Male infertility: actual questions of physiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis of disorders of the reproductive system in male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nikiforov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Infertility in men is the important problem, and not only medical, this is the most serious social problems in developed countries. It concerns both the individual and the family, and society in general. Actuality of this problem increases with age. Over the last 20 years the number infertile men rose from 30% to 50%. Male infertility gets 25-50% of all causes of infertility, the share of is. The situation is caused by multi-dimensionality of factors inherent in the present. The most significant are: socio-economic, environmental, lifestyle, marriage and family relations. And although the level of development of modern medicine is very high, often the cause of infertility in men can not be determined. Research objective To analyze the main issues of pathogenesis and diagnosis of male infertility. Materials and methods The next methods were used: the semantic evaluation of scientific documents, comparison, system and structural-logical analysis. Spermatogenesis is a complex process. It is estimated that out of testicular tank sperm contains about 440 million of cells. Male infertility can becaused by the inability of the sperm penetration in mature female egg. Secretory infertility is usually caused by two main reasons. The first- testicles pathology due to congenital or acquired factors. A special place in the development of secretory infertility has endocrine pathology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system (congenital and acquired hypogonadism, testosterone-deficient state and diabetes mellitus. Diagnosis of infertility in men is based on medical history, clinical, laboratory and special methods of examination. Conclusions Infertility in men is important problem, and not only medical, this is the most serious social problems in developed countries, which relate both to the individual and the family, and society in general. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, in which primitive germ cells, or spermatogonia, share

  7. Health physics appraisal guidelines for fusion/confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeson, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Several types of fusion/confinement devices have been developed for a variety of research applications. The health physics considerations for these devices can vary, depending on a number of parameters. This paper presents guidelines for health physics appraisal of such devices, which can be tailored to apply to specific systems. The guidelines can also be useful for establishing ongoing health physics programs for safe operation of the devices

  8. Appraisal of the Effectiveness of CODE; The Coordinated Delivery System for the South Central Research Library Council, January to December 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faibisoff, Sylvia G.

    A major concern of the South Central Research Library Council in establishing an interlibrary loan network was the development of a Coordinated Delivery system (CODE). Several means of delivery were considered--the U.S. mails, commercial trucking (Greyhound, United Parcel Service), and use of the public library system's delivery services. A…

  9. 12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a...

  10. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  11. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an APHIS employee alone. (b) The appraisal of swine will be based on the fair market value as determined by the meat or breeding value of the animals. Animals may be appraised in groups, provided that where appraisal is by the head, each animal in the group is the same value per head, and where appraisal...

  12. Lower extremity amputation rates in people with diabetes as an indicator of health systems performance. A critical appraisal of the data collection 2000-2011 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, F; Massi Benedetti, M; Klazinga, N S; Uccioli, L

    2016-10-01

    Critical appraisal of secondary data made available by the OECD for the time frame 2000-2011. Comparison of trends and variation of amputations in people with diabetes across OECD countries. Generalized estimating equations to test the statistical significance of the annual change adjusting for major potential confounders. A total of 26 OECD countries contributed to the OECD data collection for at least 1 year in the reference time frame, showing a decline in rates of over 40 %, from a mean of 13.2 (median 9.4, range 5.1-28.1) to 7.8 amputations per 100,000 in the general population (9.9, 1.0-18.4). The multivariate model showed an average decrease equal to -0.27 per 100,000 per year (p = 0.015), adjusted by structural characteristics of health systems, showing lower amputation rates for health systems financed by public taxation (-4.55 per 100,000 compared to insurance based, p = 0.002) and non-ICD coding mechanisms (-7.04 per 100,000 compared to ICD-derived, p = 0.001). Twelve-year decrease was stronger among insurance-based financing systems (tax based: -0.16 per 100,000, p = 0.064; insurance based: -0.36 per 100,000; p = 0.046). In OECD countries, amputation rates in diabetes continuously decreased over 12 years. Still, in 2011, one amputation every 7 min could be directly attributed to diabetes. Although interesting, these results should be taken with extreme caution, until common definitions are improved and data quality issues, e.g., a different ability in capturing diabetes diagnoses, are fully resolved.

  13. Using functional analysis in archival appraisal a practical and effective alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Marcus C

    2014-01-01

    In an age of scarcity and the challenge of electronic records, can archivists and records managers continue to rely upon traditional methodology essentially unchanged since the early 1950s? Using Functional Analysis in Archival Appraisal: A Practical and Effective Alternative to Traditional Appraisal Methodologies shows how archivists in other countries are already using functional analysis, which offers a better, more effective, and imminently more practical alternative to traditional appraisal methodologies that rely upon an analysis of the records themselves.

  14. Formal appraisal of undergraduate medical students: is it worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah G; Levene, Malcolm I

    2004-02-01

    Medical student stress is most often related to difficulties of adjusting to university academic standards, and work-social life balance. Faculty systems identify academically failing students for counselling, whilst the majority of students do not have opportunities for individual discussion about progress. This study reports a pilot formal appraisal process for first-year undergraduates. Preparatory material required students to reflect on their academic performance, factors contributing to their university life and satisfaction with career choice. Individual appraisal sessions were held with trained, experienced senior faculty staff, with completion of an appraisal record to document agreed outcomes. Individualized study skills advice was the commonest documented outcome on appraisal records. Students were overwhelmingly positive about the experience, reporting both enhanced perceptions of faculty and reduced anxiety about academic performance. Medical schools have responsibilities to consider ways to optimize students' performance; attainment can be related more to personal and motivational factors than academic ability.

  15. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appraisal report shall be divided into four parts as outlined below: PART I—INTRODUCTION 1. TITLE PAGE. This... photograph. The use of color film and photographs is encouraged, especially wherein development cost either...

  16. Theoretical foundations of shareholders' right to appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shareholders' right to appraisal represents a controversial topic of corporation law, which is why a relatively small number of countries accept it. In this article, the authors analyze the goals that are supposed to be achieved with the introduction of shareholders' appraisal rights. In this respect, traditional and modern explanations for the introduction or maintaining of this right have been presented. In the second part of this article, shareholders' right to appraisal has been critically examined, mostly from corporations' perspective. Afterwards, several potential causes of inefficiency of using this right have been identified. Perceiving pros and cons of shareholders' right to appraisal is of particular importance for Serbia, in order to draw a conclusion about harmonization of our legislative solutions with the theoretical foundations of this right.

  17. The McDonaldization of appraisal? Doctors' views of the early impacts of medical revalidation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Julian; Nunn, Suzanne; Regan de Bere, Sam

    2017-09-01

    Medical regulation is rapidly changing with claims that systems such as revalidation/relicensing will reassure the public. Yet the impact of such initiatives is unknown. Using the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability and control through technology, identified by Ritzer, and exampled by the McDonalds business model, we analyzed interviews with doctors between May 2012-Dec 2013 which focused on doctor experiences of appraisal and revalidation in SW England. The research found significant changes in appraisals since the launch of revalidation in December 2012. Appraisal has been standardized with a list of supporting information that must be collected by doctors. The success of implementation is measured in the numbers of appraisals completed but less is known about the quality of the appraisal itself. Such efficiencies have been supported by IT systems that themselves might be at risk of driving the process. There are potential advantages to McDonaldization including appraisals available to all, not just for doctors working in the NHS, and a potentially more appetizing recipe for their completion. As yet a state of McAppraisal has not been reached; with a complete transfer of trust in the doctor to trust in the appraisal process within revalidation. However policymakers will need to continue to ensure that regulatory initiatives, such as revalidation, are not just a process for their own sake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical appraisal of first-generation renal tumor complexity scoring systems: Creation of a second-generation model of tumor complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobert, Conrad M; Shoemaker, Allen; Kahnoski, Richard J; Lane, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether a combination of variables from each nephrometry system improves performance. There are 3 first-generation systems that quantify tumor complexity: R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score (RNS), preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical (PADUA) classification (PC), and centrality index (CI). Although each has been subjected to validation and comparative analysis, to our knowledge, no work has been done to combine variables from each method to optimize their performance. Scores were assigned to each of 276 patients undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN). Individual components of all 3 systems were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression analysis of surgery type (PN vs. RN) and combined into a "second-generation model." In multivariable analysis, each scoring system was a significant predictor of PN vs. RN (Psystems, CI was most highly correlated with surgery type (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91), followed by RNS (AUC = 0.90) and PC (AUC = 0.88). Each individual component of these scoring systems was also a predictor of surgery type (Psystem (RNS), location along the lateral rim (PC), and centrality (CI). A novel model in which these 4 variables were rescaled outperformed each first-generation system (AUC = 0.91). Optimization of first-generation models of renal tumor complexity results in a novel scoring system, which strongly predicts surgery type. This second-generation model should aid comprehension, but future work is still needed to establish the most clinically useful model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How Adolescents Search for and Appraise Online Health Information: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jaimie L; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Bennett, Patricia A; Scott, Karen M

    2018-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the evidence concerning whether and how adolescents search for online health information and the extent to which they appraise the credibility of information they retrieve. A systematic search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC) was performed. Reference lists of included papers were searched manually for additional articles. Included were studies on whether and how adolescents searched for and appraised online health information, where adolescent participants were aged 13-18 years. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize the findings. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. In line with the research questions, 2 key concepts were identified within the papers: whether and how adolescents search for online health information, and the extent to which adolescents appraise online health information. Four themes were identified regarding whether and how adolescents search for online health information: use of search engines, difficulties in selecting appropriate search strings, barriers to searching, and absence of searching. Four themes emerged concerning the extent to which adolescents appraise the credibility of online health information: evaluation based on Web site name and reputation, evaluation based on first impression of Web site, evaluation of Web site content, and absence of a sophisticated appraisal strategy. Adolescents are aware of the varying quality of online health information. Strategies used by individuals for searching and appraising online health information differ in their sophistication. It is important to develop resources to enhance search and appraisal skills and to collaborate with adolescents to ensure that such resources are appropriate for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Critical Appraisal of the "Day" Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew P.; Tauxe, Lisa; Heslop, David; Zhao, Xiang; Jiang, Zhaoxia

    2018-04-01

    The "Day" diagram (Day et al., 1977, https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9201(77)90108-X) is used widely to make inferences about the domain state of magnetic mineral assemblages. Based on theoretical and empirical arguments, the Day diagram is demarcated into stable "single domain" (SD), "pseudo single domain" ("PSD"), and "multidomain" (MD) zones. It is straightforward to make the necessary measurements for a sample and to plot results within the "domain state" framework based on the boundaries defined by Day et al. (1977, https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9201(77)90108-X). We discuss 10 issues that limit Day diagram interpretation, including (1) magnetic mineralogy, (2) the associated magnetocrystalline anisotropy type, (3) mineral stoichiometry, (4) stress state, (5) surface oxidation, (6) magnetostatic interactions, (7) particle shape, (8) thermal relaxation, (9) magnetic particle mixtures, and (10) definitional/measurement issues. In most studies, these variables are unknowns and cannot be controlled for, so that hysteresis parameters for single bulk samples are nonunique and any data point in a Day diagram could result from infinite combinations of relevant variables. From this critical appraisal, we argue that the Day diagram is fundamentally ambiguous for domain state diagnosis. Widespread use of the Day diagram has also contributed significantly to prevalent but questionable views, including underrecognition of the importance of stable SD particles in the geological record and reinforcement of the unhelpful PSD concept and of its geological importance. Adoption of approaches that enable correct domain state diagnosis should be an urgent priority for component-specific understanding of magnetic mineral assemblages and for quantitative rock magnetic interpretation.

  1. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  2. Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS): constraints and opportunities for innovation in controlling parasitic weeds in rainfed rice production in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Rodenburg, J.; Kayeke, J.M.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) approaches have been advocated as a framework for integrated and holistic analyses of complex agricultural problems. The potential of AIS approaches to address complex agricultural problems remains largely unexplored. One of the reasons is the lack of a coherent

  3. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  4. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  5. An appraisal on the degradation of paracetamol by TiO2/UV system in aqueous medium: product identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmázio,Ilza; Alves,Tânia M. A.; Augusti,Rodinei

    2008-01-01

    The advanced oxidation of paracetamol (1) promoted by TiO2/UV system in aqueous medium was investigated. Continuous monitoring by several techniques, such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), TOC (total organic carbon), and ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry), revealed that whereas the removal of paracetamol was highly efficient under these conditions, its mineralization was not likewise accomplished. GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...

  6. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens. PMID:27366358

  7. Season of birth and primary central nervous system tumors: a systematic review of the literature with critical appraisal of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Ntinopoulou, Erato; Chatzopoulou, Despoina; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-09-01

    Season of birth has been considered a proxy of seasonally varying exposures around perinatal period, potentially implicated in the etiology of several health outcomes, including malignancies. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we have systematically reviewed published literature on the association of birth seasonality with risk of central nervous system tumors in children and adults. Seventeen eligible studies using various methodologies were identified, encompassing 20,523 cases. Eight of 10 studies in children versus four of eight in adults showed some statistically significant associations between birth seasonality and central nervous system tumor or tumor subtype occurrence, pointing to a clustering of births mostly in fall and winter months, albeit no consistent pattern was identified by histologic subtype. A plethora of perinatal factors might underlie or confound the associations, such as variations in birth weight, maternal diet during pregnancy, perinatal vitamin D levels, pesticides, infectious agents, immune system maturity, and epigenetic modifications. Inherent methodological weaknesses of to-date published individual investigations, including mainly underpowered size to explore the hypothesis by histological subtype, call for more elegant concerted actions using primary data of large datasets taking also into account the interplay between the potential underlying etiologic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world's medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens.

  9. Trends and challenges towards integration of traditional medicine in formal health care system: Historical perspectives and An Appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Innocent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The population residing Sub Sahara Africa (SSA continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, various Neglected Tropical as well as Non-Communicable Diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medicine and medical devices. Also, the population in most countries in this region still and has minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian traditional medicine system is one of the oldest documented form of traditional medicine practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health care system. Challenging issues that drags back integration is the development of education curricula for training Traditional medicine experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana has managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone and Tanzania have traditional medicine products being sold over the counters due to availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should taken in the integration process in order to safeguard the Sub-Sahara Africa population from disease burdens [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(3.000: 312-316

  10. A critical appraisal of 11th century treatise by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) on the anatomy of the vascular system: Comparison with modern anatomic descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, P; Bhikha, R

    2018-06-01

    Ibn Sina (also known as Avicenna in the West) was the most famous physician and medical scientist of the medieval era. His book, the Canon of Medicine comprised a vast collection of medical information ranging from basic medical sciences to specialised medical fields. Herein, we present an analysis of the cardiovascular system, particularly giving an in-depth comparison of the structural and functional anatomy of the arteries and veins of the body as described by Avicenna in the Canon of Medicine and comparing them to modern extant anatomical literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A moving story: Whole-body motor training selectively improves the appraisal of action meanings in naturalistic narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Piergiorgio; Sedeño, Lucas; Birba, Agustina; Ibáñez, Agustín; García, Adolfo M

    2017-10-02

    This study examined whether systematic whole-body stimulation and increased attention to visuospatial motion patterns can enhance the appraisal of action meanings evoked by naturalistic texts. Participants listened to action and neutral (non-action) narratives before and after videogame-based bodily training, and responded to questions on information realized by verbs (denoting abstract and action processes) and circumstances (conveying locative or temporal details, for example). Strategically, we worked with dyslexic children, whose potential comprehension deficits could give room to post-training improvements. Results showed a selective boost in understanding of action information, even when controlling for baseline performance. Also, this effect proved uninfluenced by short-term memory skills, and it was absent when training relied on non-action videogames requiring minimal bodily engagement. Of note, the movements described in the texts did not match those performed by participants, suggesting that well-established effector- and direction-specific language embodiment effects may be accompanied by more coarse-grained sensorimotor resonance, driven by activation of motor and visuospatial sensory systems. In sum, the stimulation of movement-related mechanisms seems to selectively boost the appraisal of actions evoked by naturalistic texts. By demonstrating such links between two real-life activities, our study offers an empirical tie between embodied and situated accounts of cognition.

  12. Lower extremity amputation rates in people with diabetes as an indicator of health systems performance. A critical appraisal of the data collection 2000-2011 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carinci, F.; Massi Benedetti, M.; Klazinga, N. S.; Uccioli, L.

    2016-01-01

    Critical appraisal of secondary data made available by the OECD for the time frame 2000-2011. Comparison of trends and variation of amputations in people with diabetes across OECD countries. Generalized estimating equations to test the statistical significance of the annual change adjusting for

  13. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  14. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  15. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  16. Combined heat and power generation: encouraged insertion plan systemic appraisal; Cogeracao no setor eletrico: avaliacao sistemica de um plano de insercao incentivada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio P; Sauer, Ildo L [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2004-07-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for self-production of combined heat and power - CHP generation - in the expansion of the Brazilian electric power supply system. The potential was determined by simulating operation of CHP plants in industries which had previously used oil derivates to supply process heat, as well as of plants for service sectors, which had consumed electricity for air conditioning. The final part of the thesis describes the policy incentives which should be implemented so that CHP can make a significant contribution at the national level, permitting better use of natural resources and leverage the penetration of natural gas in the energy market, with favorable impacts on national development. (author)

  17. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural

  18. Dental Students' Use of AMSTAR to Critically Appraise Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Sorin T; Heima, Masahiro; Lang, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The idea of basing clinical procedures upon evidence gathered by observation is less than 200 years old, with the first set of evidence-based position papers dating back only to the early 1970s. The relationship between evidence-based education and health outcomes is difficult to test and may be indirect, but teaching critical appraisal skills may be beneficial in developing knowledge. Systematic reviews have a central role in the process of clinical decision making in practice and therefore should be of high quality, following a rigorous protocol that can be evaluated with validated tools. The aim of this study was to assess how dental students utilized the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) appraisal tool to evaluate systematic reviews in the context of a treatment planning course. During the in-class final exam, students were required to appraise the quality of a systematic review and to justify their answers. Of the 74 third-year students who took the exam, 100% answered all questions on the AMSTAR form. The mean number of correct answers was nine (SD=1.047, Min=6, Max=10), with no student providing all 11 correct answers. The fact that nearly 90% of the students provided eight or more correct answers suggests that AMSTAR can be used by students to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews. It also was evident that although the AMSTAR tool requires less than 15 minutes to complete an evaluation, using it requires extensive training and repetition to achieve consistent and reliable results.

  19. Appraising and applying evidence about a diagnostic test during a performance-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Ellen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of Evidence-based Medicine requires that clinicians assess the validity of published research and then apply the results to patient care. We wanted to assess whether our soon-to-graduate medical students could appraise and apply research about a diagnostic test within a clinical context and to compare our students with peers trained at other institutions. Methods 4th year medical students who previously had demonstrated competency at probability revision and just starting first-year Internal Medicine residents were used for this research. Following an encounter with a simulated patient, subjects critically appraised a paper about an applicable diagnostic test and revised the patient's pretest probability given the test result. Results The medical students and residents demonstrated similar skills at critical appraisal, correctly answering 4.7 and 4.9, respectively, of 6 questions (p = 0.67. Only one out of 28 (3% medical students and none of the 15 residents were able to correctly complete the probability revision task (p = 1.00. Conclusions This study found that most students completing medical school are able to appraise an article about a diagnostic test but few are able to apply the information from the article to a patient. These findings raise questions about the clinical usefulness of the EBM skills possessed by graduating medical students within the area of diagnostic testing.

  20. Spent fuel storage options: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Bale, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The delayed decisions on nuclear fuel reprocessing strategies in the USA and other countries have forced the development of new long-term irradiated fuel storage techniques, to allow a larger volume of fuel to be held on the nuclear station site after removal from the reactor. The nuclear power industry has responded to the challenge by developing several viable options for long-term onsite storage, which can be employed individually or in tandem. They are: densification of storage in the existing spent fuel pool; building another fuel pool facility at the plant site; onsite cask park, and on site vault clusters. Desirable attributes of a storage option are: Safety: minimise the number of fuel handling steps; Economy: minimise total installed, and O and M cost; Security: protection from anti-nuclear protesters; Site adaptability: available site space, earthquake characteristics of the region and so on; Non-intrusiveness: minimise required modifications to existing plant systems; Modularisation: afford the option to adapt a modular approach for staged capital outlays; and Maturity: extent of industry experience with the technology. A critical appraisal is made of each of the four aforementioned storage options in the light of these criteria. (2 figures, 1 table, 4 references) (Author)

  1. CEO performance appraisal: review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J F; Tyler, L; Dunbar, D M

    2001-01-01

    CEO performance appraisal (PA) is very valuable to an organization, but the chances of obtaining a PA of high quality decrease as executive responsibility increases. The realities of CEO PA are that it: (1) is inevitable; (2) is creative and complex; (3) involves politics; and (4) has a significant effect on the organization and the executive. PA is conducted for legal and social requirements, to enhance communication, to provide opportunities for improvement, and to relate performance to compensation. This article discusses several problems with chief executive officer (CEO) PA and the contemporary approaches that seek to improve it. Three fundamental areas for evaluation are identified: (1) organizational success; (2) areawide health status; and (3) professional role fulfillment. These provide an outline for successful healthcare PA. In addition to a discussion of the strategic considerations behind a successful CEO PA system, several recommendations are offered for the implementation of the annual evaluation process. The final goal of CEO PA is to link its results to CEO incentive compensation. It is strongly recommended that some portion of the CEO's salary directly hinge on his performance in two critical areas: organizational effectiveness and community health status.

  2. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  3. Landfills in Jiangsu province, China, and potential threats for public health: Leachate appraisal and spatial analysis using geographic information system and remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Kun; Zhou Xiaonong; Yan Weian; Hang Derong; Steinmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Waste disposal is of growing environmental and public health concern in China where landfilling is the predominant method of disposal. The assessment of potential health hazards posed by existing landfills requires sound information, and processing of a significant amount of spatial data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) are valuable tools for assessing health impacts due to landfills. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the leachate and gas emissions from landfills used for domestic waste disposal in a metropolitan area of Jiangsu province, China, (ii) to investigate remotely-sensed environmental features in close proximity to landfills, and (iii) to evaluate the compliance of their location and leachate quality with the relevant national regulations. We randomly selected five landfills in the metropolitan areas of Wuxi and Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, established a GIS database and examined whether data were in compliance with national environmental and public health regulations. The leachates of the sampled landfills contained heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr 6+ and Hg) and organic compounds in concentrations considered harmful to human health. Measured methane concentrations on landfill surfaces were low. Spatial analysis of the location of landfills with regard to distance from major water bodies, sensible infrastructure and environmental conditions according to current national legislation resulted in the rejection of four of the five sites as inappropriate for landfills. Our results call for rigorous evaluation of the spatial location of landfills in China that must take into consideration environmental and public health criteria

  4. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  5. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  6. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  7. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  8. Towards a nanorisk appraisal framework

    OpenAIRE

    Senjen , Rye; Hansen , Steffen Foss

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses in the context of nanotechnology whether current concepts of chemical risk assessment can be used to assess nanorisk. Nanorisk can be defined from the narrow (eco) toxicological perspective to the broader sense to include societal/cultural impacts or even to the fundamental philosophical level i.e. questioning societies need for the technology. We outline here the limitations of chemical risk assessment and other recent proposed risk governance paradigms in relation to nan...

  9. [Evaluation of Wits appraisal with superimposition method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    1999-07-01

    To compare the conventional Wits appraisal with superimposed Wits appraisal in evaluation of sagittal jaw relationship change between pre and post orthodontic treatment. The sample consists of 48-case pre and post treatment lateral head films. Computerized digitizing is used to get the cephalometric landmarks and measure conventional Wits value, superimposed Wits value and ANB angle. The correlation analysis among these three measures was done by SAS statistical package. The change of ANB angle has higher correlation with the change of superimposed Wits than that of the conventional Wits. The r-value is as high as 0.849 (P < 0.001). The superimposed Wits appraisal reflects the change of sagittal jaw relationship more objectively than the conventional one.

  10. Chemical and molecular factors in irritable bowel syndrome: current knowledge, challenges, and unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Oduyebo, Ibironke; Halawi, Houssam

    2016-11-01

    Several chemical and molecular factors in the intestine are reported to be altered and to have a potentially significant role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), particularly in IBS with diarrhea. These include bile acids; short-chain fatty acids; mucosal barrier proteins; mast cell products such as histamine, proteases, and tryptase; enteroendocrine cell products; and mucosal mRNAs, proteins, and microRNAs. This article reviews the current knowledge and unanswered questions in the pathobiology of the chemical and molecular factors in IBS. Evidence continues to point to significant roles in pathogenesis of these chemical and molecular mechanisms, which may therefore constitute potential targets for future research and therapy. However, it is still necessary to address the interaction between these factors in the gut and to appraise how they may influence hypervigilance in the central nervous system in patients with IBS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. How to design the cost-effectiveness appraisal process of new healthcare technologies to maximise population health: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Kasper M; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark J; Wailoo, Allan J

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyse the design of the cost-effectiveness appraisal process of new healthcare technologies. The framework characterises the appraisal processes as a diagnostic test aimed at identifying cost-effective (true positive) and non-cost-effective (true negative) technologies. Using the framework, factors that influence the value of operating an appraisal process, in terms of net gain to population health, are identified. The framework is used to gain insight into current policy questions including (a) how rigorous the process should be, (b) who should have the burden of proof, and (c) how optimal design changes when allowing for appeals, price reductions, resubmissions, and re-evaluations. The paper demonstrates that there is no one optimal appraisal process and the process should be adapted over time and to the specific technology under assessment. Optimal design depends on country-specific features of (future) technologies, for example, effect, price, and size of the patient population, which might explain the difference in appraisal processes across countries. It is shown that burden of proof should be placed on the producers and that the impact of price reductions and patient access schemes on the producer's price setting should be considered when designing the appraisal process. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Performance Appraisals Systems in the Middle Eeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea; Pilati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    ) articulated around five main logics: control, continuity, formality, information and motivation. On the basis of this literature review and exemplified through a case study, we show that research on PAS in the ME cannot be conducted assuming the same logics. The evaluation of success and failure of PAS...

  13. Appraising into the Sun: Six-State Solar Home Paired-Sale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2015-11-12

    Although residential solar photovoltaic (PV) installations have proliferated, PV systems on some U.S. homes still receive no value during an appraisal because comparable home sales are lacking. To value residential PV, some previous studies have employed paired-sales appraisal methods to analyze small PV home samples in depth, while others have used statistical methods to analyze large samples. Our first-of-its-kind study connects the two approaches. It uses appraisal methods to evaluate sales price premiums for owned PV systems on single-unit detached houses that were also evaluated in a large statistical study. Independent appraisers evaluated 43 recent home sales pairs in six states: California, Oregon, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. We compare these results with contributory-value estimates—based on income (using the PV Value® tool), gross cost, and net cost—as well as hedonic modeling results from the recent statistical study. The results provide strong, appraisal-based evidence of PV premiums in all states. More importantly, the results support the use of cost- and incomebased PV premium estimates when paired-sales analysis is impossible. PV premiums from the paired-sales analysis are most similar to net PV cost estimates. PV Value® income results generally track the appraised premiums, although conservatively. The appraised premiums are in agreement with the hedonic modeling results as well, which bolsters the suitability of both approaches for estimating PV home premiums. Therefore, these results will benefit valuation professionals and mortgage lenders who increasingly are encountering homes equipped with PV and need to understand the factors that can both contribute to and detract from market value.

  14. A Critical Appraisal of the `Day' Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. P.; Tauxe, L.; Heslop, D.

    2017-12-01

    The `Day' diagram [Day et al., 1977; doi:10.1016/0031-9201(77)90108-X] is used widely to infer the mean domain state of magnetic mineral assemblages. The Day plot coordinates are the ratios of the saturation remanent magnetization to saturation magnetization (Mrs/Ms) and the coercivity of remanence to coercivity (Bcr/Bc), as determined from a major hysteresis loop and a backfield demagnetization curve. Based on theoretical and empirical arguments, Day plots are typically demarcated into stable single domain (SD), `pseudosingle domain' (`PSD'), and multidomain (MD) zones. It is a simple task to determine Mrs/Ms and Bcr/Bc for a sample and to assign a mean domain state based on the boundaries defined by Day et al. [1977]. Many other parameters contribute to variability in a Day diagram, including surface oxidation, mineral stoichiometry, stress state, magnetostatic interactions, and mixtures of magnetic particles with different sizes and shapes. Bulk magnetic measurements usually lack detailed independent evidence to constrain each free parameter, which makes the Day diagram fundamentally ambiguous. This raises questions about its usefulness for diagnosing magnetic particle size variations. The Day diagram is also used to make inferences about binary mixing of magnetic particles, where, for example, mixtures of SD and MD particles give rise to a bulk `PSD' response even though the concentration of `PSD' grains could be zero. In our assessment of thousands of hysteresis measurements of geological samples, binary mixing occurs in a tiny number of cases. Ternary, quaternary, and higher order mixing are usually observed. Also, uniaxial SD and MD end-members are nearly always inappropriate for considering mixing because uniaxial SD particles are virtually non-existent in igneous rocks. Thus, use of mixing lines in Day diagrams routinely provides unsatisfactory representations of particle size variations. We critically appraise the Day diagram and argue that its many

  15. Performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The 2007 performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 8 January 2007 to 16 April 2007. Interconnection with the 5-yearly review, a number of modifications to the procedures relating to the performance appraisal and merit recognition are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from January onwards. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  16. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Orok Duke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence. Religion being an expression of human culture is equally affected by this cultural revolution. The main objective of this paper is to examine how religious affiliation, among Christians, influences attitudes towards the application of psychological sciences to the assuagement of human suffering. The sociological theory of structural functionalism was deployed to explain attitudinal appraisal. Ethnographic methodology, through quantitative analysis of administered questionnaire, was also used. The study reveals that religious tenets largely shape attitudinal appraisal and redefine the borders of globalisation’s metanarratives.

  17. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  18. ORIGINAL Is the Role of Teacher Performance Appraisal in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aware of the purposes of the current teacher performance appraisal. However, the ... building, and expensive equipment (Daniel,. 2009). ... development of teachers, teachers' job ...... Appraisers' tend to rate high a person who is similar.

  19. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  20. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  1. 12 CFR 528.2a - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. 528.2a Section 528.2a Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2a Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings...

  2. Handbook for Conducting Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) B and C Appraisals, Version 1.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayes, Will; Miluk, Gene; Ming, Lisa; Glover, Margaret; Bisgrove, Jane; Cort, Corrine; Penn, Lynn; Jacobson, Nils; Beynon, Don; Allgood, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) provides a well-defined, publicly available set of methodologies for providing appraisals relative to Capability Maturity Model (trademark) Integration (CMMI) models...

  3. Introduction of energy-production systems from plant resources. The question of transferring to agricultural-production systems in tropical Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current economic and food situations of the African countries located in the semi-arid zones are introduced. The case of the region north of Maradi, Niger, is taken as an example of the ecological use of a rural environment. The results of the experimental unit at Thysse Kaynor Sonkorong, Senegambia, are examined with regard to the energy balance of the rural eco-system. The use of technologies for biomass production to develop small irrigated fields is examined.

  4. Evaluating Housing Problems through Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lokoja, a medium sized community in the Middle Belt of Nigeria experienced a massive influx of population in the last twelve years. This study examined housing problems that resulted thereafter. Through a participatory appraisal using group discussion and brainstorming, transect walk and matrix ranking, a sampled ...

  5. Evaluating Housing Problems through Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Whether in research, development or policy analysis, in social, forestry, irrigation ... Action, Participatory Rural Appraisal involves interaction between the planners and the ..... Park, Obasanjo Layout, the Kogi People Consumer Shops as well as the confluence .... The institutional arrangements under which a person gains ...

  6. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  7. Implementing performance appraisal : Exploring the employee experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farndale, E.; Kelliher, C.

    2013-01-01

    Line managers play an important role as implementers of performance appraisal, enacting procedures designed by the HR function. However, the actual employee experience of these procedures (which may differ from how they were intended or enacted) in terms of perceptions of justice in the process is

  8. Embodied Appraisals and Non-emotional States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvorecký, Juraj

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2010), s. 215-223 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB900090802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : embodied appraisal * non-emotional mental states * valence * emotion Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Appraisal and financing of electric power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    This paper starts with the origin, nature and functions of the World Bank Group, reviews the past lending, describes the criteria used by the Bank in its power project appraisals, discusses the Bank's views on nuclear power, and concludes with a look at the probable future sources of financing of electrical expansion in the less developed countries. (orig./UA) [de

  10. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... type of properties (such as large farms and business property) requiring valuation. For Farmer Programs... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Use of Contractors to Dispose of Inventory Property § 1955.128 Appraisers. (a) Real property. The State Director may authorize the County...

  11. Elective abdominal hysterectomy: Appraisal of indications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of hysterectomy did not occur until the 19th century, earlier attempts are known. Some references to hysterectomy date back to 5th century BC, in the time of Hippocrates. In. 1600, Schenck of Grabenberg cataloged 26 cases of vaginal hysterectomy in Europe.[2]. Elective abdominal hysterectomy: Appraisal of indications and.

  12. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  13. 78 FR 31924 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Policy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... financial institutions regulatory agency engages in, contracts for, or regulates; and b) requires the... officer, director, employee or agent of a federally regulated financial institution would not be permitted... FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL [Docket No. AS13-13] Appraisal Subcommittee...

  14. United Nations and multilateralism: appraising USA's unilateralism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multilateralism as symbolized by the United Nations Organization, seems to have come under threat today, and nowhere is this more evident than in the United States-United Nations relations particularly in the area of military interventions around the world. The aim of this paper is to appraise the practice of the principle of ...

  15. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP... contributory value of any interest in land such as water rights, minerals, or timber, to the extent they are... the physical characteristics of the land being appraised; a statement of all encumbrances; title...

  16. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  17. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  18. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  19. Assessment vs. appraisal of ethical aspects of health technology assessment: can the distinction be upheld?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandman, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] An essential component of health technology assessment (HTA is the assessment of ethical aspects. In some healthcare contexts, tasks are strictly relegated to different expert groups: the HTA-agencies are limited to assessment of the technology and other actors within the health care sector are responsible for appraisal and recommendations. Ethical aspects of health technologies are considered with reference to values or norms in such a way that may be prescriptive, or offer guidance as to how to act or relate to the issue in question. Given this internal prescriptivity, the distinction between assessment and appraisal seems difficult to uphold, unless the scrutiny stops short of a full ethical analysis of the technology. In the present article we analyse the distinction between assessment and appraisal, using as an example ethical aspects of implementation of GPS-bracelets for people with dementia. It is concluded that for HTA-agencies with a strictly delineated assessment role, the question of how to deal with the internal prescriptivity of ethics may be confusing. A full ethical analysis might result in a definite conclusion as to whether the technology in question is ethically acceptable or not, thereby limiting choices for decision-makers, who are required to uphold certain ethical values and norms. At the same time, depending on the exact nature of such a conclusion, different action strategies can be supported. A positive appraisal within HTA could result in a decision on implementation, or of the technology, thereby making it available to patients, or decisions to and even the use of the technology (even if someone else will have to fund it. A neutral appraisal, giving no definite answer as to whether implementation is recommended or not, could result in a towards the technology. A negative appraisal could result in a decision to or even implementation. This paper presents an overview of the implications of different outcomes

  20. Does napping enhance the effects of Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Cwik, Jan C; Blackwell, Simon E; Kleim, Birgit; Holmes, Emily A; Adolph, Dirk; Zhang, Hui; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App) training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i.e., a nap) enhances the effects of CBM-App. All participants watched a stressful movie as an analogue trauma induction. After that, participants received either positive or negative CBM-App training. Within each training, half of the participants then had a 90-minute nap or watched a neutral movie. Results showed that the CBM training induced training-congruent appraisals. Sleep did not enhance this effect. Participants who slept, however, experienced fewer intrusive memories of the analogue trauma, but this effect was independent of the CBM condition. These results provide valuable information about the effects of sleep during a 90-minute nap period on encoding of analogue trauma and emotional learning in the context of appraisal, and highlight the importance of sleep as a focus for continued research.

  1. Does napping enhance the effects of Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training? An experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L Woud

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i.e., a nap enhances the effects of CBM-App. All participants watched a stressful movie as an analogue trauma induction. After that, participants received either positive or negative CBM-App training. Within each training, half of the participants then had a 90-minute nap or watched a neutral movie. Results showed that the CBM training induced training-congruent appraisals. Sleep did not enhance this effect. Participants who slept, however, experienced fewer intrusive memories of the analogue trauma, but this effect was independent of the CBM condition. These results provide valuable information about the effects of sleep during a 90-minute nap period on encoding of analogue trauma and emotional learning in the context of appraisal, and highlight the importance of sleep as a focus for continued research.

  2. Towards a nanorisk appraisal framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senjen, Rye; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses, in the context of nanotechnology, whether current concepts of chemical risk assessment can be used to assess nanorisk. Nanorisk can be defined from the narrow (eco)toxicological perspective to the broader sense to include societal/cultural impacts or even to the fundamental...... philosophical level, i.e. questioning societies need for the technology. We outline here the limitations of chemical risk assessment and other recent proposed risk governance paradigms in relation to nanotechnology and nanomaterials, including its inability to include societal risks (ownership, privacy......, security, nanodivide,1 convergence of nano-, bio-, etc.) and metaphysical risk (including the lay persons perspective on the risks of nanotechnology). Finally, we outline the fundamental principles and criteria that an alternative comprehensive framework should be based on....

  3. DEĞERLENDİRİCİLER ARASI GÜVENİLİRLİK VE TATMİN BAĞLAMINDA 360 DERECE PERFORMANS DEĞERLENDİRME - 360-DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERRATER RELIABILITY AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem BALTACI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetGünümüzün en popüler değerlendirme sistemi olarak kabul edilen 360 derece değerlendirme sistemi gücünü, farklı kaynaklardan elde edilecek olan sonuçların daha objektif ve kapsayıcı olacağı görüşünden almaktadır. Ancak burada hangi değerlendiricinin daha geçerli ve güvenilir bilgi sağladığı halen belirsizliğini koruyan bir konudur. Bu belirsizliğe rağmen 360 derece değerlendirme sistemi çalışana kendini ve diğerlerini değerlendirme şansı tanıyor olması nedeniyle sistemden duyulan tatmini arttırmaktadır. Bu bağlamda yapılan bu çalışmada, değerlendirme sisteminden duyulan tatmin ve değerlendiriciler arası güvenilirlik özelinde 360 derece değerlendirme sistemi ele alınmıştır. Bu amaçla bu sistemi uygulayan bir işletmenin çalışanlarının değerlendirme sonuçları incelenmiş ve ayrıca çalışanlara sistemden duydukları tatmini ölçen bir anket uygulanmıştır. Analizler sonucunda demografik değişkenlerin performans puanları üzerinde olmasa da farklı kaynaklardan gelen değerlendirmeler üzerinde etkili olabildiği görülmüştür. Ayrıca üstlerin çalışanların gerçek performans puanlarına en yakın değerlendirmeleri yaptığı incelemeler sonucunda ortaya çıkmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra sisteme karşı duyulan tatmin ile çalışanların performansları arasında kuvvetli bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir.AbstractThe 360-degree appraisal system, viewed as today’s most popular appraisal system, gets its strength from the view that results from different sources would be much more objective and inclusive. Yet, the question of exactly which rating source provides relatively more valid and reliable information remains to be answered. This uncertainty notwithstanding, the 360-degree performance appraisal system leads to higher satisfaction with the system as it allows employees to assess both themselves and others. Against this background, this study addresses the

  4. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  5. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  6. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of a 360-degree performance appraisal and feedback in a selected steel organisation / Koetlisi Eugene Lithakong

    OpenAIRE

    Lithakong, Koetlisi Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Most companies are competing in the diverse global markets, and competitive advantage through human capital is becoming very important. Employee development for high productivity and the use of effective tools to measure their performance are therefore paramount. One such tool is the 360-degree performance appraisal system. The study on the effectiveness of the 360-degree performance appraisal was conducted on a selected steel organisation. The primary objective of the research...

  8. A new composite decision support framework for strategic and sustainable transport appraisals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    . The proposed framework is based on the use of cost-benefit analysis featuring feasibility risk assessment in combination with multi-criteria decision analysis and is supported by the concept of decision conferencing. The framework is applied for a transport related case study dealing with the complex decision....... The outcome of the case study demonstrates the decision making framework as a valuable decision support system (DSS), and it is concluded that appraisals of transport projects can be effectively supported by the use of the DSS. Finally, perspectives of the future modelling work are given.......This paper concerns the development of a new decision support framework for the appraisal of transport infrastructure projects. In such appraisals there will often be a need for including both conventional transport impacts as well as criteria of a more strategic and/or sustainable character...

  9. Questions, pictures, answers: introducing pictures in question-answering systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariet; van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bosma, W.E.; Hofs, D.H.W.; Nijholt, Antinus; Krahmer, E.J.; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Marsi, E.C.; Ruiz Miyarez, L.; Munoz Alvarado, A.; Alvarez Moreno, C.

    We present the Dutch IMIX research programme on multimodal interaction, speech and language technology. We discuss our contributions to this programme in the form of two research projects, IMOGEN and VIDIAM, and the technical integration of the various modules developed by IMIX subprojects to build

  10. Appraising the value of independent EIA follow-up verifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessels, Jan-Albert, E-mail: janalbert.wessels@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Department of Geography and Environmental Management, North-West University, C/O Hoffman and Borcherd Street, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Environmental Assessment, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Australia. (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Independent Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) follow-up verifiers such as monitoring agencies, checkers, supervisors and control officers are active on various construction sites across the world. There are, however, differing views on the value that these verifiers add and very limited learning in EIA has been drawn from independent verifiers. This paper aims to appraise how and to what extent independent EIA follow-up verifiers add value in major construction projects in the developing country context of South Africa. A framework for appraising the role of independent verifiers was established and four South African case studies were examined through a mixture of site visits, project document analysis, and interviews. Appraisal results were documented in the performance areas of: planning, doing, checking, acting, public participating and integration with other programs. The results indicate that independent verifiers add most value to major construction projects when involved with screening EIA requirements of new projects, allocation of financial and human resources, checking legal compliance, influencing implementation, reporting conformance results, community and stakeholder engagement, integration with self-responsibility programs such as environmental management systems (EMS), and controlling records. It was apparent that verifiers could be more creatively utilized in pre-construction preparation, providing feedback of knowledge into assessment of new projects, giving input to the planning and design phase of projects, and performance evaluation. The study confirms the benefits of proponent and regulator follow-up, specifically in having independent verifiers that disclose information, facilitate discussion among stakeholders, are adaptable and proactive, aid in the integration of EIA with other programs, and instill trust in EIA enforcement by conformance evaluation. Overall, the study provides insight on how to harness the learning opportunities

  11. Appraising the value of independent EIA follow-up verifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, Jan-Albert; Retief, Francois; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Independent Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) follow-up verifiers such as monitoring agencies, checkers, supervisors and control officers are active on various construction sites across the world. There are, however, differing views on the value that these verifiers add and very limited learning in EIA has been drawn from independent verifiers. This paper aims to appraise how and to what extent independent EIA follow-up verifiers add value in major construction projects in the developing country context of South Africa. A framework for appraising the role of independent verifiers was established and four South African case studies were examined through a mixture of site visits, project document analysis, and interviews. Appraisal results were documented in the performance areas of: planning, doing, checking, acting, public participating and integration with other programs. The results indicate that independent verifiers add most value to major construction projects when involved with screening EIA requirements of new projects, allocation of financial and human resources, checking legal compliance, influencing implementation, reporting conformance results, community and stakeholder engagement, integration with self-responsibility programs such as environmental management systems (EMS), and controlling records. It was apparent that verifiers could be more creatively utilized in pre-construction preparation, providing feedback of knowledge into assessment of new projects, giving input to the planning and design phase of projects, and performance evaluation. The study confirms the benefits of proponent and regulator follow-up, specifically in having independent verifiers that disclose information, facilitate discussion among stakeholders, are adaptable and proactive, aid in the integration of EIA with other programs, and instill trust in EIA enforcement by conformance evaluation. Overall, the study provides insight on how to harness the learning opportunities

  12. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  13. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  14. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  15. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The 2006 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 1 December 2005 to 31 March 2006. In this connection, a number of improvements to the procedures relating to the interviews and performance appraisal are currently under study. Administrative Circular No 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from December onwards. In the meantime supervisors can start the interview procedure. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. The 2005 MAPS report can be retrieved for consultation at any time via EDH. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  16. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2006 (Rev)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The 2006 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 1 December 2005 to 15 March 2006*. In this connection, a number of improvements to the procedures relating to the interviews and performance appraisals are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures Governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from December onwards. In the meantime supervisors can start the interview procedure. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. The 2005 MAPS report can be retrieved for consultation at any time via EDH. * Instead of 31 March, as indicated in the electronic Bulletin No. 47 of 21 November 2005 Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  17. Naturalizing language: human appraisal and (quasi) technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Using contemporary science, the paper builds on Wittgenstein’s views of human language. Rather than ascribing reality to inscription-like entities, it links embodiment with distributed cognition. The verbal or (quasi) technological aspect of language is traced to not action, but human specific...... interactivity. This species-specific form of sense-making sustains, among other things, using texts, making/construing phonetic gestures and thinking. Human action is thus grounded in appraisals or sense-saturated coordination. To illustrate interactivity at work, the paper focuses on a case study. Over 11 s......, a crime scene investigator infers that she is probably dealing with an inside job: she uses not words, but intelligent gaze. This connects professional expertise to circumstances and the feeling of thinking. It is suggested that, as for other species, human appraisal is based in synergies. However, since...

  18. Not so critical appraisal of dapagliflozin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doggrell SA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sheila A Doggrell School of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaA recent review by Salvo et al published in Patient Preference and Adherence concerned dapagliflozin, and was titled “Patient considerations in the management of type 2 diabetes – critical appraisal of dapagliflozin”.1 Having read the article, I do not consider it to be a critical appraisal of dapagliflozin. Thus, after comparing dapagliflozin with other oral antidiabetic medications, the authors concluded that “Dapagliflozin’s noted blood pressure reduction, weight loss, and low potential to cause hypoglycemia are advantageous, when compared with currently available oral medications”.1 This statement is not supported by the content of the review and/or the literature. Read the original article 

  19. Appraisal of work ability in relation to job-specific health requirements in ambulance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaaijk, A; Boschman, J S; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2017-01-01

    To gain insight into which job-specific health requirements relate to work ability, the following two research questions were formulated: Which job-specific health requirements are associated with the appraisal of work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? How are appraisals of physical and mental work ability associated with the appraisal of overall work ability in ambulance drivers and paramedics? Workers Health Surveillance cross-sectional data of 506 ambulance workers (236 drivers and 270 paramedics) were used. The tests for specific job requirements were divided into six categories. Work ability was appraised as overall, physical and mental/emotional. Multiple linear stepwise regression analyses were used to model the associations. Outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' (R 2  = 0.09), 'job-specific physical abilities' (R 2  = 0.10) and 'emotional peak load' (R 2  = 0.07) significantly explained appraised overall, physical and mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability together explained 48.3% of the variance of overall work ability. The explained variance by physical and mental/emotional work ability was almost 4% higher in drivers than in paramedics. Overall work ability was significantly explained by outcomes in 'raised alertness and judgment ability' and 'emotional peak load.' Physical work ability was significantly explained by 'job-specific physical abilities' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes, while 'emotional peak load' and 'raised alertness and judgment ability' outcomes significantly explained mental/emotional work ability. Physical and mental/emotional work ability explains the same proportion of variance in overall work ability.

  20. Appraisal of emotions in media use

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Anne; Vorderer, Peter; Mangold, Roland; Reinhold, Viehoff

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research on meta-emotion and related concepts such as meta-mood and need for affect has become fruitful and prominent across a variety of disciplines, including media psychology. This paper reviews the literature on meta-emotion and considers problems regarding the definition and operationalization of this construct. We propose a process model of meta-emotion and emotion regulation to integrate and extend existing work. Drawing on appraisal theories of emotion, we unde...

  1. The problem of appraising qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon-Woods, M; Shaw, R; Agarwal, S; Smith, J

    2004-01-01

    

 Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with the assessme...

  2. Bristol cylinder. Vol. 3A - technical appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    A consultants' report is presented on a UK funded wave energy device known as the Bristol Cylinder. A detailed engineering appraisal is given for each component and aspects of the device including installation, power generation and maintenance. Finally the discounted cost of energy from the device is assessed. For all topics the views of the consultants are compared with those of the team developing the Bristol Cylinder and where discrepancies occur, these are explained and discussed.

  3. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  4. Sustainability appraisal and flood risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Jeremy G.; White, Iain; Richards, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    This research establishes that sustainability appraisal (SA) has a role to play in strengthening spatial plans in the context of flooding issues. Indeed, evidence has been gathered to indicate that tentative steps are being taken in this direction during the SA of English regional spatial plans, which are used as an illustrative case study. In England as in many other countries, appraisal procedures including SA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are enshrined in planning law. An opportunity therefore exists to utilise existing and familiar planning tools to embed flooding considerations within spatial plans at an early stage in the planning process. SA (and similar appraisal tools such as SEA) can therefore usefully aid in the implementation of decision making principles and government policy relating to flooding. Moreover, with the threats associated with climate change becoming increasingly apparent, of which increased flood risk is a particular concern in many countries, there is a need develop appropriate adaptation responses. This article emphasizes the role that SA can play in managing future flood risk in this context

  5. MCDA and Risk Analysis in Transport Infrastructure Appraisals: the Rail Baltica Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrasaite, Inga; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Salling, Kim Bang

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out a decision support system (DSS), COSIMA, involving the combination of cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) for transport infrastructure appraisals embracing both economic and strategic impacts. However, some shortcomings appear in the methodology re...

  6. The Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect: Paradigm for Educational Neuroscience and Neuropedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents emotion as a function of brain-body interaction, as a vital part of a multi-tiered phylogenetic set of neural mechanisms, evoked by both instinctive processes and learned appraisal systems, and argues to establish the primacy of emotion in relation to cognition. Primarily based on Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, but also…

  7. 41 CFR 102-75.320 - Does appraisal information need to be kept confidential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does appraisal information need to be kept confidential? 102-75.320 Section 102-75.320 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real...

  8. 360 Derece Performans Değerlendirme ve Geri Bildirim: Bir Üniversite Mediko-Sosyal Merkezi Birim Amirlerinin Yönetsel Yetkinliklerinin Değerlendirilmesi Üzerine Pilot Uygulama Örneği(360 Degree Performance Appraisal And Feedback: “A Pilot Study Illustration in Appraising the Managerial Skills of Supervisors Working in Health Care Centre of a University”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Metin CAMGÖZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, “360 Degree Performance Appraisal” which is one of the most current and controversial issues of human resource practices is extensively examined and supported with an empirical research. The study contains 2 parts. After explaining the necessity and the general utilities of the classical performance appraisal system, the first theoretical part shifts to the emergence of 360 degree performance appraisal, discusses its distinctive benefits over the classical appraisal system and focuses its attention to the raters (superiors, subordinates, peers, self involving in the 360 degree performance appraisal.The second empirical part illustrates the development of 360 degree performance appraisal system as well as its application and sample feedback reports for feedback purposes in order to appraise the managerial skills of supervisors working in Health Care Centre of a public university.

  9. Reward and attitudes: The unintended outcomes of an effective performance appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon M. Semakula-Katende

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Focus was on the role of reward and attitudes as major determinants in enhancing the effectiveness of performance appraisal systems. Research purpose: To develop a structural model from the qualitative and quantitative findings from which to address the identified gaps in order to improve the effectiveness of appraisals. Motivation for the study: The attention that role players tended to give to the rewarding of employees during the appraisal process made it appear as the only important determinant of an appraisal’s success. In appraisals in many public institutions, reward has been given unnecessary prominence over other drivers, such as management and development. That led most key role players (leaders, managers and employees to perceive the current employee performance management and development system (EPMDS to be purely for monetary (salary increments and cash bonuses and non-monetary (promotion purposes, which, in turn, compromised its effectiveness. Research design, approach and method: Structural equation modelling (SEM was utilised as a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relations using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. This allowed both confirmatory and exploratory modelling to be undertaken, which is suited to both theory testing and theory development. A triangulation of quantitative (questionnaire and qualitative (interview study was conducted. A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed to nine government hospitals in the Free State province, namely Mofumahadi Manapo Mopeli, Dihlabeng, and Boitumelo regional hospitals, as well as Elizabeth Ross, Thebe, Phekolong, Mpumelelo, Reitz and Ficksburg district hospitals. There was a high response rate of 96 per cent, a total of 287 completed questionnaires. Respondents ranged from top executives, middle management, line management, to employees of all categories. Main findings: Reward and attitudes were found to

  10. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  11. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  12. The Coding Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  14. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  15. MASS APPRAISAL AND REAL ESTATE TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VORONIN V. О.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The government at the legislative level fixed the definition of market value for tax purposes as mandatory in the implementation of real estate transactions. In order to meet the requirements of objectivity, uniformity and consistency of the results obtained during the evaluation procedures, as well as minimize the influence of subjective factors, there is a need to develop a methodology for evaluating an automated procedure for determining the estimated value of the property based on its market value. To solve this problem, we use special techniques and methods of mass appraisal that incorporates computer-supported statistical analyses, such as multiple regression analysis and adaptive estimation procedure for use in the field of property valuation and property rights. Purpose. Realization of this goal involves the development of the concept of a computer-assisted mass appraisal. The basis of this concept is an adaptive hybrid models of market pricing in different market segments that incorporates software adaptive algorithms for determining the market value by the three evaluation approaches using the results of a multi-level real estate market analysis. It was proposed the utility automated valuation models which is intended for the implementation of a computerized real estate valuation based on the developed software adaptive algorithms. Con-clusion. To achieve this goal have been developed and used concepts underlying of computerized mass appraisal. The basis of this concept is adaptive hybrid pricing models in various segments of the real estate market of Ukraine. The problem is solved by the application of the developed software-based adaptive algorithms for determining the market value of three evaluation approaches using the results of a multi-level analysis of the real estate market. It was pro-posed the model of automated appraisal, according to it was implemented computerization of appraisal procedures on the

  16. Postsecondary Education Issues: Visible Questions. Invisible Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    With some justification, the inability to answer most of the important questions in higher education is due to the lack of necessary information. But careful examination of our many faceted questions suggests that more information may not be the only answer. The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) has found other…

  17. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  18. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema): An Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Arthur L.

    1962-01-01

    Atopic (spontaneous) allergies and nonatopic (induced) allergies are often confused. The meaning of these terms is definite, but the occurrence of either (in a given individual) may depend upon his autonomic nervous system control. The evidence that allergens produce the cutaneous changes in atopic dermatitis is flimsy, and neurodermatitis would be a more appropriate term since the entity falls into that pattern of skin changes. Treatment carried out, from infancy sometimes to old age, consists of careful management of the patient in the physical and emotional spheres, avoidance of external irritation and the use of a multiplicity of anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory and sedative agents. PMID:13955448

  19. Appraisal for France of the safety of the transport of radioactive material. Provision for the application of the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA has the specific statutory function within the United Nations system of establishing standards of safety for the protection of health against exposure to ionizing radiation. As part of this mandate, the IAEA has issued Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, and has also established the Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) to carry out, at the request of States, appraisals of the implementation of these regulations. The IAEA carried out such an appraisal in France from 27 March to 8 April 2004. The appraisal addressed all relevant transport activities in France, both national and international, for all modes of transport, with special emphasis on the maritime transport and air transport of radioactive material. This report summarizes the findings of the 13 independent experts who participated in the appraisal

  20. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  1. Research report appraisal: how much understanding is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2014-07-01

    When appraising research papers, how much understanding is enough? More specifically, in deciding whether research results can inform practice, do appraisers need to substantively understand how findings are derived or is it sufficient simply to grasp that suitable analytic techniques were chosen and used by researchers? The degree or depth of understanding that research appraisers need to attain before findings can legitimately/sensibly inform practice is underexplored. In this paper it is argued that, where knowledge/justified beliefs derived from research evidence prompt actions that materially affect patient care, appraisers have an epistemic duty to demand high (maximal) rather than low (minimal) levels of understanding regards finding derivation (i.e. appraisers have a duty to seek a superior epistemic situation). If this argument holds assumptions about appraiser competence/ability and the feasibility of current UK conceptions of evidence based practice are destabilized. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  3. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  4. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000

  5. Evidence appraisal: a scoping review, conceptual framework, and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Andrew; Venker, Eric; Weng, Chunhua

    2017-11-01

    Critical appraisal of clinical evidence promises to help prevent, detect, and address flaws related to study importance, ethics, validity, applicability, and reporting. These research issues are of growing concern. The purpose of this scoping review is to survey the current literature on evidence appraisal to develop a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We conducted an iterative literature search of Medline for discussion or research on the critical appraisal of clinical evidence. After title and abstract review, 121 articles were included in the analysis. We performed qualitative thematic analysis to describe the evidence appraisal architecture and its issues and opportunities. From this analysis, we derived a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We identified 68 themes in 10 categories. This analysis revealed that the practice of evidence appraisal is quite common but is rarely subjected to documentation, organization, validation, integration, or uptake. This is related to underdeveloped tools, scant incentives, and insufficient acquisition of appraisal data and transformation of the data into usable knowledge. The gaps in acquiring appraisal data, transforming the data into actionable information and knowledge, and ensuring its dissemination and adoption can be addressed with proven informatics approaches. Evidence appraisal faces several challenges, but implementing an informatics research agenda would likely help realize the potential of evidence appraisal for improving the rigor and value of clinical evidence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollack, Martha E

    1986-01-01

    The importance of plan inference in models of conversation has been widely noted in the computational-linguistics literature, and its incorporation in question-answering systems has enabled a range...

  7. Diagnosing the Quality of High School Students' and Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Cognitive Structures in Organic Chemistry by Using Students' Generated Systemic Synthesis Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrin, Tamara; Milenkovic, Dušica; Segedinac, Mirjana

    2018-01-01

    The importance of well elaborated cognitive structures in a science knowledge domain has been noted in many studies. Therefore, the main aim of this particular study was to employ a new diagrammatic assessment approach, students' generated systemic synthesis questions (SSynQs), to evaluate and compare the quality of high school students' and…

  8. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  9. 76 FR 41441 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Appraiser Roster: Appraiser Qualifications for Placement on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... verifiable education in the appraisal requirements established by FHA. Under amended section 202(g) of the... areas and hinder use of FHA single-family programs at a time when use of those programs has increased... higher education and experience standards that HERA sought to be used for FHA-insured transactions (all...

  10. The 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-11-15

    Professional Paper 1824 comprises 30 chapters by various U.S. Geological Survey authors, including introduction and methodology chapters, which together provide documentation of the geological basis and methodology of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal, results of which were first released in August 2008.  Twenty-eight chapters summarize the petroleum geology and resource potential of individual, geologically defined provinces north of the Arctic Circle, including those of northern Alaska, northern Canada, east and west Greenland, and most of Arctic Russia, as well as certain offshore areas of the north Atlantic Basin and the Polar Sea. Appendixes tabulate the input and output information used during the assessment.

  11. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  12. Capacity for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries: a rapid appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandy; Bangpan, Mukdarut; Stansfield, Claire; Stewart, Ruth

    2015-04-26

    Systematic reviews of research are increasingly recognised as important for informing decisions across policy sectors and for setting priorities for research. Although reviews draw on international research, the host institutions and countries can focus attention on their own priorities. The uneven capacity for conducting research around the world raises questions about the capacity for conducting systematic reviews. A rapid appraisal was conducted of current capacity and capacity strengthening activities for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A systems approach to analysis considered the capacity of individuals nested within the larger units of research teams, institutions that fund, support, and/or conduct systematic reviews, and systems that support systematic reviewing internationally. International systematic review networks, and their support organisations, are dominated by members from high-income countries. The largest network comprising a skilled workforce and established centres is the Cochrane Collaboration. Other networks, although smaller, provide support for systematic reviews addressing questions beyond effective clinical practice which require a broader range of methods. Capacity constraints were apparent at the levels of individuals, review teams, organisations, and system wide. Constraints at each level limited the capacity at levels nested within them. Skills training for individuals had limited utility if not allied to opportunities for review teams to practice the skills. Skills development was further constrained by language barriers, lack of support from academic organisations, and the limitations of wider systems for communication and knowledge management. All networks hosted some activities for strengthening the capacities of individuals and teams, although these were usually independent of core academic programmes and traditional career progression. Even rarer were efforts to increase demand for

  13. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal...: Reclamation provides assistance for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply... the findings and conclusions of the appraisal investigations that identified the water supply problems...

  14. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  15. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  16. Privatize Candu (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Thomas.

    1981-01-01

    A report sponsored by a group of nuclear suppliers and the Royal Bank suggested that the Candu reactor system would sell better if it were owned by a private company. Licensing of a Candu reactor in the U.S.A. was also suggested. The author of this article agrees with these points, but disagrees with the suggestion that safeguards should be relaxed. He suggests that contracts should stipulate that instrumentation should be supplied as much as possible from Canadian sources

  17. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

  18. How to appraise a diagnostic test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanitharan Manikandan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urologists frequently encounter problems in making a clinical diagnosis whose resolution requires the use of diagnostic tests. With an ever increasing choice of investigations being available, the urologist often has to decide which diagnostic test(s will best resolve the patient′s diagnostic problem. In this article, we aim to help the urologist understand how to critically appraise studies on diagnostic tests and make a rational choice. This article presents the guiding principles in scientifically assessing studies on diagnostic tests by proposing a clinical scenario. The authors describe a standardized protocol to assess the validity of the test and its relevance to the clinical problem that can help the urologist in decision making. The three important issues to be considered when evaluating the validity of the study are to identify how the study population was chosen, how the test was performed and whether there is a comparison to the gold standard test so as to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Then, the urologist would need to know the probability of the test in providing the correct diagnosis in an individual patient in order to decide about its utility in solving the diagnostic dilemma. By performing the steps described in this article, the urologist would be able to critically appraise diagnostic studies and draw meaningful conclusions about the investigations in terms of validity, results and its applicability to the patient′s problem. This would provide a scientific basis for using diagnostic tests for improving patient care.

  19. Teaching critical appraisal skills for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Crookes, Patrick A; Johnson, Keryn M

    2011-09-01

    Evidence-based practice is a major focus in nursing, yet the literature continues to document a research-practice gap. Reasons for this gap stem partly from a lack of skills to critique and synthesize the literature, a lack of search skills and difficulty in understanding research articles, and limited knowledge of research by nursing professionals. An innovative and quality driven subject to improve critical appraisal and critical thinking skills was developed for the School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health at the University of Wollongong, based on formative research with postgraduate students and supervisors. Through face-to-face and online teaching modules students worked through a structured process of analysing the key aspects of published papers using structured analysis tools for each study design. Pre and post surveys of students found improvements in perceived knowledge of all key skills of critical appraisal. External independent evaluation determined that it was a high quality subject showing many hallmarks of good assessment practice and good practice in use of information and communication technology (ICT) in support of the learning outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Marital conflict typology and children's appraisals: the moderating role of family cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M

    2011-04-01

    Intense and frequent marital conflict is associated with greater appraisals of threat and self-blame in children, but little else is known about contextual factors that might affect appraisals. Systemic family theories propose that to understand child adaptation, it is necessary to understand the interconnected nature of family subsystem relationships. In a sample of 257 families with 8- to 12-year-old children, this study examined whether a four-level typology of marital conflict management was related to children's perceptions of marital conflict and their appraisals of perceived threat and self-blame. In addition, family cohesion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between marital conflict style and children's appraisals. Observational coding was used to group couples into Harmonious, Disengaged, Conflictual-Expressive, and Conflictual-Hostile groups. Children's report of the intensity, frequency, and degree of resolution of interparental discord corresponded well with observers' ratings. The relationship between marital conflict style and appraisals of threat and self-blame was moderated by family cohesiveness. At high levels of family cohesiveness, no group differences were found for either perceived threat or self-blame, whereas when family cohesiveness was low, threat was higher for the Harmonious and Conflictual-Hostile groups, as compared to the Conflictual-Expressive group, and self-blame was higher for both conflict groups (expressive and hostile), as compared to the Disengaged group. The results provide further evidence of interconnected nature of family subsystem relationships and the importance of distinguishing among different approaches to marital conflict management for understanding the complex and perhaps subtle but meaningful effects different family system factors have on child adaptation.

  1. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  2. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  3. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  4. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  5. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  6. When is a research question not a research question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  7. Mechanism of West Nile Virus Neuroinvasion: A Critical Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy W. Suen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is an important emerging neurotropic virus, responsible for increasingly severe encephalitis outbreaks in humans and horses worldwide. However, the mechanism by which the virus gains entry to the brain (neuroinvasion remains poorly understood. Hypotheses of hematogenous and transneural entry have been proposed for WNV neuroinvasion, which revolve mainly around the concepts of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption and retrograde axonal transport, respectively. However, an over‑representation of in vitro studies without adequate in vivo validation continues to obscure our understanding of the mechanism(s. Furthermore, WNV infection in the current rodent models does not generate a similar viremia and character of CNS infection, as seen in the common target hosts, humans and horses. These differences ultimately question the applicability of rodent models for pathogenesis investigations. Finally, the role of several barriers against CNS insults, such as the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the CSF-brain and the blood-spinal cord barriers, remain largely unexplored, highlighting the infancy of this field. In this review, a systematic and critical appraisal of the current evidence relevant to the possible mechanism(s of WNV neuroinvasion is conducted.

  8. 25 CFR 11.706 - Appointment and duties of appraiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appointment and duties of appraiser. 11.706 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.706 Appointment and duties of appraiser. (a) Upon ordering an estate to be probated, the court shall appoint a disinterested and competent person as an...

  9. 107 an appraisal of the scope of provisions under

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    EZE & EZE: An Appraisal of the Scope of Provisions Under The 1999 Nigerian Constitution for the Control of Pollution. Arising from the Oil and Gas Industry. AN APPRAISAL OF THE .... However, in a historic judgment, a Federal High Court sitting in Benin-City and presided over by Nwokorie J, held that continued gas flaring ...

  10. Employee performance appraisal and productivity levels in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this study was on performance appraisal of academic staff of Universities in Nigeria and their productivity levels. The prime problem that necessitated this study was to examine the effectiveness of the subjective methods used in appraising qualitative work attributes of the employees and to assess the extent to ...

  11. Appraisal patterns of emotions in human-product interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demir, E.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Hekkert, P.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional design, i.e., designing with an intention to evoke or to prevent a particular emotion, can be facilitated by understanding the processes underlying emotions. A promising approach to understanding these processes in the current psychological literature is appraisal theory. Appraisal theory

  12. 12 CFR 950.10 - Collateral valuation; appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral valuation; appraisals. 950.10...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.10 Collateral valuation; appraisals. (a) Collateral valuation. Each Bank shall determine the value of collateral securing the Bank's advances in accordance with...

  13. Evaluating School Health Appraisal scheme in Primary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study assessed school health appraisal implementation in primary schools within Abakaliki Metropolis. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study of the forms of health appraisal in all 31 primary schools in Abakaliki metropolis. Relevant information was obtained from the head ...

  14. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

  15. The merits of measuring challenge and hindrance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Ben J; Auton, Jaime C

    2015-01-01

    The challenge-hindrance framework has shown that challenge stressors (work characteristics associated with potential personal gain) tend to have positive outcomes, whereas hindrance stressors (those which obstruct goals) have negative outcomes. However, typical research methods assume that stressors allocated to these categories are appraised consistently by different people and across different situations. We validate new measures of challenge and hindrance appraisals and demonstrate their utility in stress research. We used a cross-sectional survey of American employees (Study 1, n = 333), a diary survey of Australian employees (Study 2, n = 241), and a survey of Australian college students whose performance was evaluated independently (Study 3, n = 350). Even after accounting for the effects of stressors, challenge and hindrance appraisals consistently explained unique variance in affective states, with indications that stressors have indirect effects via appraisals. Such effects were seen within- as well as between-participants (Study 2). Appraisals also had expected associations with specific coping behaviors (Study 1), while challenge appraisal was associated with task performance (Study 3). The scales of challenge and hindrance appraisals were psychometrically sound across multiple contexts. RESULTS highlight the merit of considering appraisal in stress research.

  16. Student feedback on an adapted appraisal model in resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. An appraisal model, a type of formal mentorship programme for a cohort of student doctors, is used at the University of Leeds, UK. The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa implemented an adapted version of the appraisal process that uses fewer resources. Objective. To explore ...

  17. 50 CFR 34.6 - Schedule of appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Secretary shall make fair market value appraisals of areas administered by the Service within five years... reappraised on a schedule of at least once every five years. Until areas are appraised, the fair market value... fee lands added to such areas after that date shall be on the basis of fair market value. ...

  18. Questions for Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  19. Compare. An analysis of jurisprudence of the Dutch Real Estate Appraisal in relation with the vicinity of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenschot, J.H.M.

    2005-11-01

    The central question in this report concerns the impact of recent judgements with regard to the devaluation of houses as a result of wind turbines in the vicinity of those houses. More specific: does the installation of wind turbines near houses effect the so-called Real Estate Appraisal tax for those houses. From four cases it appears that three aspects are important: noise pollution, cast shadow hindrance and visual hindrance, caused by wind turbines [nl

  20. Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

  1. Statistical analysis of the uncertainty related to flood hazard appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Vincenza; Freni, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of flood hazard frequency statistics for an urban catchment is of great interest in practice. It provides the evaluation of potential flood risk and related damage and supports decision making for flood risk management. Flood risk is usually defined as function of the probability, that a system deficiency can cause flooding (hazard), and the expected damage, due to the flooding magnitude (damage), taking into account both the exposure and the vulnerability of the goods at risk. The expected flood damage can be evaluated by an a priori estimation of potential damage caused by flooding or by interpolating real damage data. With regard to flood hazard appraisal several procedures propose to identify some hazard indicator (HI) such as flood depth or the combination of flood depth and velocity and to assess the flood hazard corresponding to the analyzed area comparing the HI variables with user-defined threshold values or curves (penalty curves or matrixes). However, flooding data are usually unavailable or piecemeal allowing for carrying out a reliable flood hazard analysis, therefore hazard analysis is often performed by means of mathematical simulations aimed at evaluating water levels and flow velocities over catchment surface. As results a great part of the uncertainties intrinsic to flood risk appraisal can be related to the hazard evaluation due to the uncertainty inherent to modeling results and to the subjectivity of the user defined hazard thresholds applied to link flood depth to a hazard level. In the present work, a statistical methodology was proposed for evaluating and reducing the uncertainties connected with hazard level estimation. The methodology has been applied to a real urban watershed as case study.

  2. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  3. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  4. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  5. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Selena; Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Mytton, Julie; Lease, Helen; Joynt, Jennifer

    2011-11-24

    Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries.The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes), lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury) more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Research is needed to assess (i) the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK) incorporate health; (ii) whether recommendations arising from health

  6. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Selena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. Methods A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. Results A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries. The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes, lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Conclusion Research is needed to assess (i the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK

  7. Effects of appraisal purpose and rating format on performance appraisal accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Marta L.

    1989-01-01

    The principle of encoding specificity states that effective information retrieval relies upon consistency of encoding and retrieval cues. The present study generalized this principle to a complex social interaction in order to investigate the relation between certain combinations of pre- and post-observational cues and their effects on information categorization, recognition accuracy, and judgment accuracy. It was hypothesized that two experimental factors, appraisal pur...

  8. Employees' perceptions of justice in performance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasset, Frøydis; Marnburg, Einar; Furunes, Trude

    2010-05-01

    Of all the tasks undertaken by human resource managers, performance appraisals (PAs) are one of the most unpopular among employees (Meyer 1991, Murphy and Cleveland 1995, Holbrook 2002, Jackman and Strober 2003). As PA guides and plans show (Fletcher 2004, CatalystOne 2010), PAs can be implemented in similar ways in organisations throughout Europe and developed countries elsewhere. But, if employees perceive PA processes as unfair, they may reject the usefulness and validity of the information they receive and so may not be motivated to change behaviour. This article concerns perceptions of organisational justice and explains the results of a study of perceived fairness in PAs among nurses and auxiliary nurses in Norway's municipal health service.

  9. Photographic appraisal of crystal lattice growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Concept of creating mechanical retention for bonding through crystal growth has been successfully achieved in the present study. By using polyacrylic acid, sulphated with sulphuric acid as etchant, abundant crystal growth was demonstrated. Keeping in view the obvious benefits of crystal growth technique, the present SEM study was aimed to observe and compare the changes brought about by different etching agents (phosphoric acid, polyacrylic acid and polyacrylic acid sulphated and to evaluate their advantages and disadvantages in an attempt to reduce iatrogenic trauma caused due to surface enamel alteration. Control and experimental groups were made of 24 and 30 premolars, respectively, for scanning electron microscopic appraisal of normal unetched and etched enamel surface and fracture site and finished surface evaluation. When compared with conventional phosphoric acid and weaker polyacrylic acid, investigations indicated that crystal growth treatment on enamel surface caused minimal iatrogenic trauma and surface alteration were restored to the original untreated condition to a large extent.

  10. Evidence from epidemic appraisals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoteyin O. Ezirim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although HIV prevalence has increased in most-at-risk populations (MARPs across Nigeria, effective programming was difficult because Nigeria lacked information for prevention programmes to target interventions that maximise coverage and cost effectiveness. Epidemic appraisals (EA were conducted in eight states to provide evidence for the planning, implementation and co-ordination of prevention interventions. Component 1: Mapping determined the size, typology and locations of MARPs. Component 2: Venue profiling identified and profiled venues where general populations engaged in high-risk behaviours. Component 3: Rural appraisals provided insights into risk behaviours and sexual networking in villages. States used mapping results to prioritise areas with a MARP coverage of 70% – 80% and then scale up interventions for non-brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs instead of focusing on brothel-based FSWs. The eight states prioritisedf unding for the high-coverage areas to ensure a minimum coverage level of 70% – 80% of MARPs was reached. The refocused resources led to cost efficiencies. Applying venue profiling results, six states implemented interventions at bars and night clubs – previously not covered. States also maximised intervention coverage for high-risk general populations; this led to the use of resources for general population interventions in a focused way rather than across an entire state. States focused on condom programmes in rural areas. EA results provided the evidence for focusing interventions for high MARP coverage as well as forhigh-risk general populations. The states applied the results and rapidly refocused their interventions, increasing the likelihood of having an impact on HIV transmission in those states. Nigeria is now implementing EAs in the remaining 29 states to effect national-level impact.

  11. Making Connections between the Appraisal, Performance Management and Professional Development of Dentists and Teachers: "Right, What Are the Problems We've Got and How Could We Sort This Out?'"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Graham; Macnab, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the connections between the appraisal, or performance management, of different professional groups, and their subsequent uptake of continuing professional development (CPD), is valuable for both employees and managers. The linking of appraisal systems with professional/personal development plans amongst health professionals is now…

  12. Negative Trauma Appraisals and PTSD Symptoms in Sri Lankan Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, Thyagi; Nicolson, Nancy A

    2016-02-01

    The cognitive model posits that negative appraisals play an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder, in children as well as in adults. This study examined correlates of negative appraisals in relation to trauma exposure and their relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 414 Sri Lankan adolescents, aged 12 to 16, living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of negative appraisals, lifetime traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, ongoing adversity, and social support. The majority (70 %) of the participants reported multiple traumatic events; 25 % met DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD. Adolescents who had experienced more severe events, abusive events, greater cumulative trauma, or greater current adversity reported more negative appraisals. In regression analyses controlling for known risk factors such as female gender, cumulative trauma, ongoing adversity, and low social support, negative appraisals were the best predictor of PTSS, explaining 22 % of the variance. This relationship appeared specific to PTSS, as negative appraisals did not predict internalizing symptoms. Findings confirm the link between negative cognitions concerning traumatic events and persistent PTSS in adolescents, but longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether appraisals contribute to symptom maintenance over time.

  13. Exams? Why worry? Interpreting anxiety as facilitative and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.

  14. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfill, Xavier; Osorio, Dimelza; Solà, Ivan; Pijoan, Jose Ignacio; Balasso, Valentina; Quintana, Maria Jesús; Puig, Teresa; Bolibar, Ignasi; Urrútia, Gerard; Zamora, Javier; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Ferreira-González, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database. Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own. We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be focused on

  15. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bonfill

    Full Text Available To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database.Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own.We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be

  16. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  17. Preliminary ethical appraisal of a trial - what's it all about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siipi, Helena

    Preliminary ethical appraisal of medical trials is often based on the following four principles: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Preliminary ethical appraisal should, however, not be understood solely as application of these four principles to practice. Ethical committees will inevitably interpret the principles and make decisions about their reciprocal importance in connection with each trial. Reasoning does not always proceed from above towards practical recommendations of action, but can instead also be based on a moral rule or practice relating to a certain action. A good preliminary ethical appraisal will also take into account everyday standards of morality, law and shared moral values of the society.

  18. New Ideas on the Design of the Web-Based Learning System Oriented to Problem Solving from the Perspective of Question Chain and Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chu, Samuel K. W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning problem solving systems have been put forward. However, many of them stress on technology and neglect the research of problem solving itself, especially the learning mechanism related to problem solving. In this paper, we analyze the learning mechanism of problem solving, and propose that when…

  19. Training IBM Watson using Automatically Generated Question-Answer Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Gyuwan; Yoo, Jaeyoon; Jung, Changwoo; Kim, Minseok; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-01-01

    IBM Watson is a cognitive computing system capable of question answering in natural languages. It is believed that IBM Watson can understand large corpora and answer relevant questions more effectively than any other question-answering system currently available. To unleash the full power of Watson, however, we need to train its instance with a large number of well-prepared question-answer pairs. Obviously, manually generating such pairs in a large quantity is prohibitively time consuming and...

  20. Information retrieval, critical appraisal and knowledge of evidence-based dentistry among Finnish dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, P; Virtanen, J I

    2017-11-01

    One of the core skills of competent dentist is the ability to search and analyse high-quality evidence. Problems in understanding the basic aspects of knowledge-based information may impede its implementation into clinical practice. We examined how Finnish dental students acquire scientific information and how familiar they are with methods for evaluating scientific evidence related to clinical questions. All fifth-year dental students (n = 120) at the three universities in Finland received a self-administered questionnaire. The three most commonly used sources of information were colleagues, the commercial Health Gate Portal for dental practitioners and personal lecture notes. Although students rarely read scientific journals, they did find that they possess at least passable or even good skills in literature retrieval. Three questions related to the appraisal of evidence in dentistry revealed that students' knowledge of evidence-based dentistry was inadequate to critically evaluate clinical research findings. Most students seem to lack knowledge of key methodological evidence-based terms. The present curricula in dental schools fail to encourage the students to search and acquire knowledge wider than their patients themselves do. Universities have the responsibility to teach dentists various methods of critical appraisal to cope with scientific information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 7 CFR 1980.444 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.444... Program § 1980.444 Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (a) Appraisal reports prepared by independent qualified fee appraisers will be required on all property that will serve as collateral. In the...

  2. 41 CFR 102-42.40 - When is an appraisal necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF FOREIGN GIFTS AND DECORATIONS General Provisions Appraisals § 102-42.40 When is an appraisal necessary? An appraisal is necessary when— (a) An employee indicates an interest in purchasing a gift or decoration. In this situation, the appraisal must be obtained before the gift or decoration is reported to...

  3. An Investigation into Appraisal Bias: The Role of Decision Support Tools in Debiasing Valuation Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Owen Alan

    2011-01-01

    Given the nature of the valuation task environment appraisers are often made aware of previous value opinions rendered by appraisers, commonly in the form of an historic appraisal. And, because an appraisal task involves the rendering of market value, a hypothetical, unobservable construct based on probabilities, direct feedback against this…

  4. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  5. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  6. Security management: a question of integration between people, systems and organizations; Gestion de la seguridad: una cuestion de integracion entre personas, sistemas y organizaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukaroff, M. C.; Romano, A.

    2015-07-01

    Safety Management has always been the most important process of the Juzbado Factory since beginning of operations in 1985. this process has evolved, moving from focusing primary on preventive control of operation risks by means of adequate exploitation of Safety Systems, to integrating aspects related with Safety culture and Organization Factors, as key players in order to achieve sustainable safety improvements. This paper presents how Safety Management has evolved at the Factory, emphasizing especially on the integration process of the three main factors affecting safety: people, technology and organizations. (Author)

  7. Facing the truth: An appraisal of the potential contributions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facing the truth: An appraisal of the potential contributions, paradoxes and challenges of implementing the United Nations conventions on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in Nigeria.

  8. Managerial Competencies and the Managerial Performance Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Steven E.; Karns, Lanny A.; Shaw, Kenneth; Mena, Manuel A.

    2001-01-01

    Human resource managers (n=277) identified six management competencies as critical: leadership, customer focus, results orientation, problem solving, communication skills, and teamwork. However, many companies do not assess these competencies in the management performance appraisal process. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)

  9. Enhancing Positive Reactions to Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochrane, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    .... Thus, this study seeks to: (1) assess the psychological distress of 350 women ages 50 to 85 who receive breast cancer risk appraisal and randomization to immediate or delayed group psychosocial counseling (2...

  10. Enhancing Positive Reactions to Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochrane, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    .... Thus, this study seeks to: (1) assess the psychological distress of 350 women ages 50 to 85 who receive breast cancer risk appraisal and randomization to immediate or delayed group psychosocial counseling; (2...

  11. 77 FR 40051 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Foundation March 2012 Grant Reimbursement Request. ASC Appraisal Foundation Grant Policy. How To Attend and... requests, the ASC may refuse attendance on that reasonable basis. The use of any video or audio tape...

  12. 7 CFR 1781.14 - Planning, options, and appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designated agent when a WS loan, WS advance or RCD loan is made. (d) Options and appraisals related to the purchase of real estate for which a WS loan, WS advance, or RCD loan is made must be developed in...

  13. "The nature of morality‟ in Gilbert Harman: As appraisal | Oyedola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "The nature of morality‟ in Gilbert Harman: As appraisal. ... characteristic of scientific beliefs, as espoused by Harman has not undermined the nature of ... Nevertheless, the study concedes that the fact that liar man's grounds are appealing, his ...

  14. An appraisal of the state fund and empowerment programme in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An appraisal of the state fund and empowerment programme in Nigeria. ... Distributive politics is one of the most important and controversial aspects of the policy ... all stakeholders in the federal polity should thread softly, be objective, rational, ...

  15. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate corrective action(s) in the appraisal review process when discrepancies or problems are identified...) Fees. The Secretary may require mortgagees to pay an application fee and/or annual fees, including...

  16. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prescribe appropriate corrective action(s) in the appraisal review process when discrepancies or problems... of SAPP authority. (g) Fees. The Secretary will require servicers to pay a $100.00 application fee...

  17. 41 Appraisal of the Performance of Contingency Cost Provision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology, 4, (1), December 2011. 41. Appraisal of the ... quantitative risks analysis in the determination of contingency fund. Therefore, to improve the ... the financial performance of constructed facilities ...

  18. 36 CFR 228.48 - Appraisal and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... based on knowledge of the extent of the deposit, quality of material, and economic value. A sale must not be made at less than the appraised value which may be expressed as either price per cubic yard or...

  19. Appraisal of biochemical and genetic diversity of mango cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal of biochemical and genetic diversity of mango cultivars using molecular markers. ... Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the oldest fruit crops and is broadly cultivated worldwide. To determine the level of ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  20. An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust Schemes In Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... instead of being invested in shares or in money market instruments as a result of widespread financial illiteracy.

  1. An appraisal of construction management practice in Nigeria | Ugwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An appraisal of construction management practice in Nigeria. ... 108 questionnaires were distributed to the key construction actors as follows: 45 to ... conflicting design information, effective co-ordination of resources, critical path method, ...

  2. Technical Appraisal Of Solar Photovoltaic Pumping In Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonta, A.D; Akinwumi, I.O; Siyanbola, W.O.

    2004-01-01

    Water is essential for life and its portability ensures good health for users. In rural communities of developing countries, solar photovoltaic water pumping (PVP) is becoming a reliable and cost-effective alternative to conventional method off providing potable water from boreholes and deep wells. This paper has reported the outcome of a technical appraisal carried out in Nigeria. It involved an inventorization exercise, administration of questionnaires, physical inspection of some system sites and personal interaction with contractors, government officials and beneficiaries of such system. the data were analysed using graphical displays, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 10.0) and student t-test statistic. During the fifteen years period (1988 to 2003) covered by the study, it was found that a total of about 600 PVP systems wee installed in Nigeria; 96.2 percent by the government and its agencies and 3.8 percent by the Government Organizations. The mean number of modules per systems was found to be 24, the mean array power is 1564 Wp and the mean borehole depth is 51.3m. The average number of people a system is designed for is 1750. the factor found to be responsible for poor system performance include the usage of low quality component parts, poor system design, low borehole yield and poor construction/installation work. It is recommended that for the sustainable development and dissemination of this technology, pilot projects must be installed in different geographical locations of county. These must be intensively monitored in terms of system and component performance efficiencies and data bank be established to provide information of further research and development

  3. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  4. On the question of periodization training content and Paralympic athletes with disorders of the musculoskeletal system in the light of the general theory of sports training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Derkach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To determine theoretically similar trends and differences in the periods of sports training athletes and Paralympic athletes with similar qualifications, without disabilities. Material : analyzed more than 80 references. Results : at present insufficiently developed periodization sports training many years to prepare athletes with disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Also - at the stage of maximum realization of individual empowerment athletes. This applies to the immediate preparation for the main competition. In the first case, periodization can be carried out on the basis of the classical theory. Also on stage, maximizing the individual capabilities. Need to adapt this theory to career achievements of athletes. Also, you must consider the disease. Conclusions : The main factors set differences training tools Paralympic athletes and physically healthy: increased attention to the psychological preparation for the Paralympics, inclusive education and sports training individualization programs already in the first stage of their training.

  5. For society, state and self: juggling the logics of professionalism in general practice appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Tom; Matthews, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Sociologists repeatedly appeal to notions of altruism, bureaucratisation and self interest in their efforts to explain the changing place of the professions in contemporary society. We treat these three readings as institutional logics that are key to understanding the way in which doctors respond to the appraisal system at the heart of the UK's approach to revalidation. Our analysis of a survey of 998 general practitioners (GPs) working in Wales finds an altruistic commitment to learning and improvement, bureaucratic demands for reporting information and self-regarding resentment of changes in the occupational package provided by general practice. But the data also demonstrate that the maintenance of the appraisal regime is dependent on the preparedness and capacity of individual GPs to do micro-level institutional work on all fronts. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  6. Questioning care at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruopp, Patricia; Good, Mary-Jo Delvecchio; Lakoma, Matthew; Gadmer, Nina M; Arnold, Robert M; Block, Susan D

    2005-06-01

    medical error and the culture of medicine. Physicians' questions about care can contribute to designing training experiences for residents and to improving the quality of systems that affect patients' experiences at life's end and physicians' experiences in caring for dying patients.

  7. SCAMPI Lead Appraiser (Service Mark) Body of Knowledge (SLA BOK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    University. 34 | CMU/SEI-2007-TR-019 CC 3 Project Planning and Management Moeller, Robert R. COSO Enterprise Risk Management : Understanding the...appraisal participants) to specific amounts of time when the sponsor agrees to having the appraisal. CMP 3.1.2 Employing risk management techniques...contingency and management reserves appropriately • Ensuring the risk management strategy accounts for the OU’s process improvement history • Assessing

  8. The IAEA Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicke, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Representatives of all Member States of the IAEA meet once a year in September at the General Conference in Vienna, Austria, to consider and approve the Agency's programme and budget and to address matters brought before it by the Board of Governors, the Director General, or Member States. In September 1998 the General Conference adopted resolution GC(42)/RES/13 on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Materials. In adopting that resolution the General Conference recognized that compliance with regulations that take account of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations) is providing a high level of safety during the transport of radioactive material. Good compliance requires that the regulations are implemented effectively. The General Conference therefore requested the IAEA Secretariat to provide a service for carrying out, at the request of any State, an appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations by that State. In response to this request the Director General of the IAEA offered such an appraisal service to all States in letter J1.01.Circ, dated 10 December 1998. The first Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) was undertaken and completed at the request of Slovenia in 1999. A report on the results of that appraisal was published and released for general distribution in the early fall of 1999. In each of the General Conferences since 1998, resolutions focused on transport safety have commended the Secretariat for establishing the TranSAS, commended those States that have requested the appraisal service and encouraged other States to avail themselves of this service see GC(43)/RES/11, GC(44)/RES/17, GC(45)/RES/10, GC(46)/RES/9 and GC(47)/RES/7. Six appraisals have been carried out to date as follows: Slovenia, Brazil, United Kingdom, Turkey, Panama and France. This presentation provides an overview of the Transport Safety Appraisal Service and summarizes the major findings from the

  9. The IAEA Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicke, G.J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Representatives of all Member States of the IAEA meet once a year in September at the General Conference in Vienna, Austria, to consider and approve the Agency's programme and budget and to address matters brought before it by the Board of Governors, the Director General, or Member States. In September 1998 the General Conference adopted resolution GC(42)/RES/13 on the Safety of Transport of Radioactive Materials. In adopting that resolution the General Conference recognized that compliance with regulations that take account of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations) is providing a high level of safety during the transport of radioactive material. Good compliance requires that the regulations are implemented effectively. The General Conference therefore requested the IAEA Secretariat to provide a service for carrying out, at the request of any State, an appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations by that State. In response to this request the Director General of the IAEA offered such an appraisal service to all States in letter J1.01.Circ, dated 10 December 1998. The first Transport Safety Appraisal Service (TranSAS) was undertaken and completed at the request of Slovenia in 1999. A report on the results of that appraisal was published and released for general distribution in the early fall of 1999. In each of the General Conferences since 1998, resolutions focused on transport safety have commended the Secretariat for establishing the TranSAS, commended those States that have requested the appraisal service and encouraged other States to avail themselves of this service see GC(43)/RES/11, GC(44)/RES/17, GC(45)/RES/10, GC(46)/RES/9 and GC(47)/RES/7. Six appraisals have been carried out to date as follows: Slovenia, Brazil, United Kingdom, Turkey, Panama and France. This presentation provides an overview of the Transport Safety Appraisal Service and summarizes the major findings from

  10. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  11. Building of Kemijoki water system and the question of Vuotos reservoir. Thinking of the Law; Kemijoen vesistoen rakentaminen ja Vuotos - oikeuden ajattelu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeyttyjaervi, M.-L.

    2011-07-01

    The application for Vuotos reservoir and regulating project was denied by the Supreme Administrative Court (KHO 2002:86) by virtue of the Finnish Water Act (264/1961) because of the damages it would have caused to the environment (WA 2:5). The decision opens up two angles from which to examine the law. The first angle is directed towards the history of legal rules on building water power utilities and the weight of natural values in those rules and in legal decisions. The evolution of rules is in this study combined with permits on building Kemijoki water system. The Vuotos decision and the new Water Act (587/2011) becoming into force at the beginning of 2012 are studied in connection with different historical roots that are identified in them. The hegemony of water power in the use of water-courses lasted from the beginning of 1940s until the turn of the decade 1980, when the act protecting Ounasjoki (703/1983) was passed and the government decided (at that time) not to build Vuotos reservoir. In water law the legal weight of natural values has been gradually growing. As a result of recent reforms (implementing EU-directives 2000/60/EY and 2004/35/EY) the law has also meaningfully opened up in the direction of the rights of nature. The second angle that the Vuotos decision opens up is directed towards deeper layers of law. Biocentric and ecocentric materials have been identified to be imported into Finnish law by the constitutional environmental right (the Constitution of Finland section 20, 731/1999). In this research the deeper layers are studied by asking about the possibility of biocentric law and possibility to locate a category of biological community rights into law. The grounds for biocentric thinking are studied in the fields of ethics and both philosophy and theory of law. This study concludes that life is sufficient to justify the inherent worth and even moral and legal rights of a living being. The system of law can be assessed to include features and

  12. The effects of conscientiousness on the appraisals of daily stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Nicola; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Conscientiousness (C) is positively associated with health and longevity although the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully understood. Stress may play a role in explaining the C-longevity relationship. This study investigated whether C predicted the cognitive appraisals of daily stressors/hassles. Participants (N=102) completed measures of C and cognitive appraisal in relation to the most stressful hassle they had experienced in the last 7 days. Correlational analysis revealed that Total C, Order and Industriousness were positively correlated with primary appraisals, and Responsibility was positively correlated with secondary appraisals. The facets of C were then entered into hierarchical regression models, controlling for age and gender. This demonstrated that Order (β=0.27, paccounting for 15.8% of the variance. Responsibility significantly predicted secondary appraisals (β=0.44, paccounting for 16.3% of the variance. These findings indicate that higher Order and Industriousness are related to having a greater stake in daily stressors, whereas higher Responsibility is related to greater confidence in one's ability to deal with daily stressors. These results are the first demonstration that C is related to the appraisals of daily hassles and suggest that C may moderate the experience of stress in daily life. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Appraising the Cost Efficiency of Higher Technological and Vocational Education Institutions in Taiwan Using the Metafrontier Cost-Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Ku-Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at appraising the cost efficiency and technology of institutions of higher technological and vocational education. Differing from conventional literature, it considers the potential influence of inherent discrepancies in output quality and characteristics of school systems for institutes of technology (ITs) and universities of…

  15. The Good Appraisal Toolkit for Primary Care Chambers Ruth et al The Good Appraisal Toolkit for Primary Care 189pp Radcliffe Publishing 9781857756029 1857756029.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-02

    The principles and frameworks demonstrated in this book could be used in many other healthcare settings. The text is divided neatly into nine chapters and addresses practical issues such as being an effective appraiser, developing and demonstrating competence, linking appraisal with career development, and evaluation of the appraisal process. The comprehensive approach to all aspects of appraisal makes this a must-have book for all health professionals and managers undertaking appraisals. It should also appeal to clinical governance leads and individuals being appraised. There are excellent tips on how to prepare for appraisals and how to link this with reflection, lifelong learning, career direction, and so on. The book is well referenced and contains an appendix with useful examples for the appraiser.

  16. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Pinellas Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Pinellas Plant in Pinellas County, Florida. The plant is owned and controlled by the US Department of Energy and operated by General Electric Neutron Devices (GEND). The TSA was performed during the period January 15--31, 1989, in support of a Tiger Team Assessment which occurred during the period January 15 to February 2, 1989. The TSA provided the Safety and Health Subteam input to the Tiger Team Assessment. The completion of the assessment process includes: (1) submission of the Team's preliminary findings and concerns, in a Draft Report, to the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office and to the site contractors at the conclusion of the onsite assessment; (2) review of the Draft Report for technical and factual accuracy; incorporation of the appropriate review comments, suggested changes, and modifications, as well as input from all interested Program Secretarial Offices; preparation of a draft Action Plan by the Albuquerque Operations Office to address the Concerns, and submittal of that Action Plan through the Program Office to ES ampersand H for their review and comment. The Secretary approved the final Action Plan on December 16, 1990, and directed its implementation. The comments and suggestions of the Program Secretarial Offices, the Operations Office, and the site contractor have been incorporated, as appropriate, in this report prior to its publication

  17. An annual performance appraisal for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The March Council session is the occasion for CERN’s annual performance appraisal, but instead of the MARS form familiar to CERN staff, the lab’s working document is an Annual Progress Report, linked to the Medium-Term Plan, matching achievements to objectives. This year, I think it’s fair to say, we were firmly able to tick the ‘achieved’ box.   Top of the list of objectives was the LHC, which exceeded expectations in 2011 by delivering over five times the anticipated luminosity for protons while improving the lead-ion integrated luminosity by an order of magnitude compared to 2010.  As a result, the experiments published over 190 papers and made a staggering 1900 conference presentations. Underpinning this was the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, which routinely performs so well that we hardly notice it's there. Non-LHC physics also had its day in the sun in 2011, with experiments at the PS, SPS, AD, n_TOF and ISOLDE, as well ...

  18. How to transform economics? A philosophical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kellecioglu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten years after the global financial crisis there is hardly any evidence that the theories, teaching and policies of mainstream economics have changed. This paper is an attempt to contribute to the greater understanding of this persistence, but also to the discussion on what the requirements are to materialise a transformation in economics, given the dismal outcomes in the world economy. The analytical approach of the paper is to utilise relevant philosophical accounts that point out attributes of dominant discourses, and methodological requirements to supersede an already dominant discourse. The objective is to contribute to an improved understanding of factors that obstruct or construct transformations in a knowledge field such as economics; and thereby contribute to transformation efforts, preferably for a more pluralist and emancipatory economics. Given the complexities and the tensions between different philosophical positions, the conclusions of this appraisal are summarised into five criteria that appear essential to realise a successful transformation in economics: critical juncture; dissimilarity; scholar validation; sensibility; and external power. It is suggested to revise efforts to fulfil these criteria as much, and as soon as possible, given the importance and urgency of changing the trajectory of our economies and societies.

  19. Measuring a Crisis: Questioning the Use of Naloxone Administrations as a Marker for Opioid Overdoses in a Large U.S. EMS System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Joseph M; Alabdrabalnabi, Taibah; Patel, Mehul D; Bachman, Michael W; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Cabanas, Jose G; Williams, Jefferson G

    2018-01-01

    The United States is currently experiencing a public health crisis of opioid overdoses. To determine where resources may be most needed, many public health officials utilize naloxone administration by EMS as an easily-measured surrogate marker for opioid overdoses in a community. Our objective was to evaluate whether naloxone administration by EMS accurately represents EMS calls for opioid overdose. We hypothesize that naloxone administration underestimates opioid overdose. We conducted a chart review of suspected overdose patients and any patients administered naloxone in Wake County, North Carolina, from January 2013 to December 2015. Patient care report narratives and other relevant data were extracted from electronic patient care records and the resultant database was analyzed by two EMS physicians. Cases were divided into categories including "known opioid use," "presumed opioid use," "no known opioid," "altered mental status," "cardiac arrest with known opioid use," "cardiac arrest with no known opioid use," or "suspected alcohol intoxication," and then further separated based on whether naloxone was administered. Patient categories were compared by patient demographics and incident year. Using the chart review classification as the gold standard, we calculated the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of naloxone administration for opioid overdose. A total of 4,758 overdose cases from years 2013-15 were identified. During the same period, 1,351 patients were administered naloxone. Of the 1,431 patients with known or presumed opioid use, 57% (810 patients) received naloxone and 43% (621 patients) did not. The sensitivity of naloxone administration for the identification of patients with known or presumed opioid use was 57% (95% CI: 54%-59%) and the PPV was 60% (95% CI: 57%-63%). Among patients receiving care in this large urban EMS system in the United States, the overall sensitivity and positive predictive value for naloxone administration for

  20. Guiding Questions for Data Analysis, by Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake County Public School System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document, which is provided by the Data and Accountability Department staff at Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), is to be used as a resource to help guide the review of student data. This document provides examples of questions to consider when reviewing frequently accessed reports located in Case21, Quickr, EVAAS®, mClass®, or…

  1. Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-03-17

    Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

  2. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  3. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  4. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  5. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  6. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  7. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  8. Appraisal for Japan of the safety of transport of radioactive material. Provision for the application of the IAEA safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes it to provide for the application of its standards at the request of any State. The objective of a TranSAS appraisal is to assist any requesting State to achieve a high level of safety in the transport of radioactive material by reviewing its implementation of the Transport Regulations and by making recommendations for improvement where appropriate.The IAEA discharges this statutory function through a number of mechanisms, including rendering independent peer review appraisal services to determine the status of compliance with its standards. The appraisal for Japan in December 2005 on the safety of the transport of radioactive material is the seventh TranSAS mission since the inception of the service. This report presents its findings. The TranSAS appraisal team completed a comprehensive appraisal of the implementation of the Transport Regulations in Japan. The cooperation of the authorities in Japan, and of all those who participated in the discussions, was excellent and contributed to the success of the appraisal. The comprehensive legal framework, with responsibilities identified in considerable detail and with clear lines of authority to minimize overlap of responsibilities, provides a sound basis for the implementation of the Transport Regulations. Generally, the Transport Regulations are implemented in accordance with IAEA requirements. Some areas for possible improvement have been identified. These areas relate mainly to reduction of regulations, quality management systems, training, compliance assurance and lessening the administrative burden for incorporating amendments to the IMDG Code. The findings include a considerable number of good practices, in particular in the area of maritime transport

  9. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  10. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Astrid

    2012-08-16

    Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware of methodological deficiencies

  11. Some open questions in 'wave chaos'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonnenmacher, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    The subject area referred to as 'wave chaos', 'quantum chaos' or 'quantum chaology' has been investigated mostly by the theoretical physics community in the last 30 years. The questions it raises have more recently also attracted the attention of mathematicians and mathematical physicists, due to connections with number theory, graph theory, Riemannian, hyperbolic or complex geometry, classical dynamical systems, probability, etc. After giving a rough account on 'what is quantum chaos?', I intend to list some pending questions, some of them having been raised a long time ago, some others more recent. The choice of problems (and of references) is of course partial and personal. (open problem)

  12. Transforming classroom questioning using emerging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Paul; Lyng, Colette; Crotty, Yvonne; Farren, Margaret

    2018-04-12

    Classroom questioning is a common teaching and learning strategy in postgraduate nurse education. Technologies such as audience response systems (ARS) may offer advantage over traditional approaches to classroom questioning. However, despite being available since the 1960s, ARSs are still considered novel in many postgraduate nurse education classroom settings. This article aims to explicate the attitudes of postgraduate nursing students in an Irish academic teaching hospital towards classroom questioning (CQ) and the use of ARSs as an alternative to traditional CQ techniques. The results of this small-scale study demonstrate that ARSs have a role to play in CQ in the postgraduate setting, being regarded by students as beneficial to learning, psychological safety and classroom interaction.

  13. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Jillian, E-mail: jillian.becker@health.qld.gov.au [Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Bridge, Pete [School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet [Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce.

  14. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce

  15. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  16. An appraisal of intraoperative radiotherapy for pancreas cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Monden, Morito; Sakon, Masato; Kanai, Toshio; Umeshita, Koji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Takesada (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-03-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) which was originally used for unresectable cancer has been applied to the cases after pancreas resection. However, it has not been clarified which stages of patients will have the beneficial effect of IORT on their prognosis. In this study, IORT after pancreas resection was appraised on the basis of the patient prognosis. Seventy-two pancreatectomized patients including 6 patients of Stage I, 18 of Stage II, 25 of Stage III and 23 of Stage IV, which was determined by the general rules for cancer of the pancreas in Japan Pancreas Society were employed in this study. Four Stage III and 15 Stage IV patients were treated with IORT (25-30 Gy) after pancreatectomy. Ten of these patients underwent postoperative external beam radiotherapy (22-48 Gy). All but one Stage I patient were currently alive. The median survival time (MST) of Stage II were 908 days and 2 were alive over 5 years after operation. MST of Stage III without IORT was 310 pod and all died within 906 pod. In contrast, all four Stage III patients were currently alive without a sign of recurrence (3, 10, 15, 57 pom). All Stage IV patients died within 462 pod, while three patients treated with IORT were alive over this period. These data suggest IORT improves the prognosis of Stage III patients when combined with radical resection of the pancreas. But it is not the case with the more advanced cases, where systemic anticancer adjuvant therapy might be indicated. (author).

  17. An appraisal of intraoperative radiotherapy for pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Monden, Morito; Sakon, Masato; Kanai, Toshio; Umeshita, Koji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Takesada

    1993-01-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) which was originally used for unresectable cancer has been applied to the cases after pancreas resection. However, it has not been clarified which stages of patients will have the beneficial effect of IORT on their prognosis. In this study, IORT after pancreas resection was appraised on the basis of the patient prognosis. Seventy-two pancreatectomized patients including 6 patients of Stage I, 18 of Stage II, 25 of Stage III and 23 of Stage IV, which was determined by the general rules for cancer of the pancreas in Japan Pancreas Society were employed in this study. Four Stage III and 15 Stage IV patients were treated with IORT (25-30 Gy) after pancreatectomy. Ten of these patients underwent postoperative external beam radiotherapy (22-48 Gy). All but one Stage I patient were currently alive. The median survival time (MST) of Stage II were 908 days and 2 were alive over 5 years after operation. MST of Stage III without IORT was 310 pod and all died within 906 pod. In contrast, all four Stage III patients were currently alive without a sign of recurrence (3, 10, 15, 57 pom). All Stage IV patients died within 462 pod, while three patients treated with IORT were alive over this period. These data suggest IORT improves the prognosis of Stage III patients when combined with radical resection of the pancreas. But it is not the case with the more advanced cases, where systemic anticancer adjuvant therapy might be indicated. (author)

  18. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  19. Clinical Competence Certification: A Critical Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolliscroft, James O.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The American Board of Internal Medicine has requested that residency program directors certify the clinical competence of their candidates. The clinical evaluation exercise (CEX) was used by residents at the University of Michigan Hospitals and the results raised questions as to the validity of the CEX. (Author/MLW)

  20. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  1. An appraisal of the quality of published qualitative dental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mohd; Thaliath, Ebin T; Bower, Elizabeth J; Newton, J Timothy

    2011-06-01

    To appraise the quality of published qualitative research in dentistry and identify aspects of quality, which require attention in future research. Qualitative research studies on dental topics were appraised using the critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) appraisal framework for qualitative research. The percentage of CASP criteria fully met during the assessment was used as an indication of the quality of each paper. Individual criteria were not weighted. Forty-three qualitative studies were identified for appraisal of which 48% had a dental public health focus. Deficiencies in detail of reporting, research design, methodological rigour, presentation of findings, reflexivity, credibility of findings and relevance of study were identified. Problems with quality were apparent irrespective of journal impact factor, although papers from low impact factor journals exhibited the most deficiencies. Journals with the highest impact factors published the least qualitative research. The quality of much of the qualitative research published on dental topics is mediocre. Qualitative methods are underutilized in oral health research. If quality guidelines such as the CASP framework are used in the context of a thorough understanding of qualitative research design and data analysis, they can promote good practice and the systematic assessment of qualitative research. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Sex differences in the appraisal of traumatic events and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2017-09-01

    The current study is an investigation of the relationship between the appraisal of traumatic events and mental disorder symptoms: internalizing symptoms and externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was taken into account. Also, specific effects related to traumatic events of various types (i.e., betrayal trauma, accident involving a family member, physical violence, and natural disaster) were assessed. Participants, 190 young men and 277 young women, were asked to evaluate the strength with which the traumatic event impacted their lives. It was hypothesized that the relationship between traumatic experiences and mental disorder symptoms would be stronger in women than in men, and also that cognitive appraisal, in interaction with gender, would be related to the severity of the symptoms. Women showed higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but lower levels of externalizing/substance-abuse symptoms than men. Still, the correlation between cumulative trauma and both types of symptoms was stronger in women. For all types of trauma, women reported a stronger negative appraisal of the event than men. Interaction of sex and cognitive appraisal was demonstrated to be related to the severity of internalizing disorders. In the present study, women, as compared with men, evaluated traumatic events more negatively (for all types of trauma) and the relationship between trauma and mental disorder symptoms was also stronger in women. These results show the importance of the appraisal of trauma in the development of psychiatric symptoms in women and men following trauma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Dancing in pain: pain appraisal and coping in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury.

  4. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  5. What Children Learn from Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  6. Temporal stability of music perception and appraisal scores of adult cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Jiang, Dingfeng; Oleson, Jacob J; Driscoll, Virginia; Knutson, John F

    2010-01-01

    An extensive body of literature indicates that cochlear implants (CIs) are effective in supporting speech perception of persons with severe to profound hearing losses who do not benefit to any great extent from conventional hearing aids. Adult CI recipients tend to show significant improvement in speech perception within 3 mo following implantation as a result of mere experience. Furthermore, CI recipients continue to show modest improvement as long as 5yr postimplantation. In contrast, data taken from single testing protocols of music perception and appraisal indicate that CIs are less than ideal in transmitting important structural features of music, such as pitch, melody, and timbre. However, there is presently little information documenting changes in music perception or appraisal over extended time as a result of mere experience. This study examined two basic questions: (1) Do adult CI recipients show significant improvement in perceptual acuity or appraisal of specific music listening tasks when tested in two consecutive years? (2) If there are tasks for which CI recipients show significant improvement with time, are there particular demographic variables that predict those CI recipients most likely to show improvement with extended CI use? A longitudinal cohort study. Implant recipients return annually for visits to the clinic. The study included 209 adult cochlear implant recipients with at least 9 mo implant experience before their first year measurement. Outcomes were measured on the patient's annual visit in two consecutive years. Paired t-tests were used to test for significant improvement from one year to the next. Those variables demonstrating significant improvement were subjected to regression analyses performed to detect the demographic variables useful in predicting said improvement. There were no significant differences in music perception outcomes as a function of type of device or processing strategy used. Only familiar melody recognition (FMR

  7. The Efficacy of Performance Appraisal to Increase Employees’ Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iranita Hervi Mahardayani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the effectiveness of implementation performance appraisal toward job satisfaction of employees UMKM Bordir Dahlia in Kabupaten Kudus. Sampling was done by using population studies to 16 employees of UMKM embroidery Dahlia Kudus. The type of this research is quantitative with pra experiment approached by One group pre and posttest design method. Data analysis on this research using non parametric with different test techniques Wilcoxon t-tes. The analysis result of different test scale job satisfaction before and after handling obtained Z = - 1,268, with p = 0,205 (p>0,05, so that there is no differences on job satisfaction on employees of embroidery Dahlia before and after treatment by giving performance appraisal. It means treatment by giving performance appraisal unable to increase employees job satisfaction. Therefore, the hypothesis on this research is rejected.

  8. Why is discrimination stressful? The mediating role of cognitive appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kimberly R

    2005-08-01

    This study attempts to shed light on past findings that experiences of racial and gender discrimination are associated with poor psychological and physical health outcomes by investigating the role of cognitive appraisal as a mediator of the relationship between experiences of discrimination and affective stress reactions. African American female college students (N = 115) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in which they overheard 2 European American male classmates make negative evaluations of them. Participants then completed measures of causal attributions, cognitive appraisal, and affective stress reactions. Multiple regression analyses supported the hypotheses that attributions to racism and to discrimination that combines racism and sexism were associated with increased stress reactions. This relationship was mediated by cognitive appraisals of centrality. (c) 2005 APA

  9. Artificial Neural Networks and the Mass Appraisal of Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of computer, artificial intelligence and big data technology, artificial neural networks have become one of the most powerful machine learning algorithms. In the practice, most of the applications of artificial neural networks use back propagation neural network and its variation. Besides the back propagation neural network, various neural networks have been developing in order to improve the performance of standard models. Though neural networks are well known method in the research of real estate, there is enormous space for future research in order to enhance their function. Some scholars combine genetic algorithm, geospatial information, support vector machine model, particle swarm optimization with artificial neural networks to appraise the real estate, which is helpful for the existing appraisal technology. The mass appraisal of real estate in this paper includes the real estate valuation in the transaction and the tax base valuation in the real estate holding. In this study we focus on the theoretical development of artificial neural networks and mass appraisal of real estate, artificial neural networks model evolution and algorithm improvement, artificial neural networks practice and application, and review the existing literature about artificial neural networks and mass appraisal of real estate. Finally, we provide some suggestions for the mass appraisal of China's real estate.

  10. Routing Questions to the Right Users in Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yanhong; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Online forums contain huge amounts of valuable user-generated content. In current forum systems, users have to passively wait for other users to visit the forum systems and read/answer their questions. The user experience for question answering suffers from this arrangement. In this paper, we...

  11. Procedures for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to give guidance to management and regulators of organisations using ionizing radiations on a technique for systematically appraising their operational radiation protection programme in order that its adequacy and effectiveness can be objectively determined. The appraisal technique is based on analytical trees and can be used to examine either a whole programme, to determine its completion and adequacy or to examine one component of a programme in considerable detail. This document will not develop technical recommendations on particular radiation protection programmes. These will be found in the appropriate Safety Series document on operational radiation protection. 8 refs, figs

  12. Model of investment appraisal of high-rise construction with account of cost of land resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolelova, Ella; Shibaeva, Marina; Trukhina, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    The article considers problems and potential of high-rise construction as a global urbanization. The results of theoretical and practical studies on the appraisal of investments in high-rise construction are provided. High-rise construction has a number of apparent upsides in modern terms of development of megapolises and primarily it is economically efficient. Amid serious lack of construction sites, skyscrapers successfully deal with the need of manufacturing, office and living premises. Nevertheless, there are plenty issues, which are related with high-rise construction, and only thorough scrutiny of them allow to estimate the real economic efficiency of this branch. The article focuses on the question of economic efficiency of high-rise construction. The suggested model allows adjusting the parameters of a facility under construction, setting the tone for market value as well as the coefficient for appreciation of the construction net cost, that depends on the number of storey's, in the form of function or discrete values.

  13. Three questions on Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Alfredo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University of Prague - V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno and I.N.F.N. Naples, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno - Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    We review the basics of the two most widely used approaches to Lorentz violation - the Standard Model Extension and Noncommutative Field Theory - and discuss in some detail the example of the modified spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. Motivated by touching upon such a fundamental issue as Lorentz symmetry, we ask three questions: What is behind the search for Lorentz violation? Is String Theory a physical theory? Is there an alternative to Supersymmetry?.

  14. MPL in Context: Some Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adail Sobral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian translation (2015 of Patrick Sériot's Preface to the French translation (2010 of Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (MPL provides a good opportunity to discuss this work and its relevance for the field of Human Sciences, considering different possible interpretations. In this sense, this work presents a discussion on questions that deserve, in our opinion, to be addressed both in Sériot's work (taken as an example of MPL's interpretation and in Voloshinov's.

  15. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  16. 222 questions about the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina Gomez, M.; Cerrolaza Asenjo, J.A.; Garcia Alonso, J.M.; Iranzo Martin, J.E.; Lopez Perez, B.; Minguez Perres, E.; Minguez Torres, E.; Pascualena Cambra, M.T.; Poza Galiano, A. de la; Secades Ariz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The book presents with an easy language, questions about energy. The main topics are: - Energy and energy sources - Energy and society - The energy in the world - Basic concepts of Nuclear Physics - Basic concepts of radiological protection - Electric power - Nuclear Fuel cycle - Environmental impact - Radioactive wastes management - The risk in the electricity production - Standardization of Nuclear Safety - Economic aspects of electricity generation - Energy and Spanish economy

  17. DMPD: Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17959357 Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. Papadimitraki ...ml) Show Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. PubmedID 17959357 Title Toll like receptors and auto

  18. Examination of decision support systems for composite CBA & MCDA assessments of transport infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Two DSS are in this context examined and compared using a case study dealing with alternatives for a new...... for conducting composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects, and research questions defining future work in the context of composite DSS and their use in decision making processes are set out....... high-speed railway line between the two cities, Norrköping and Bäckeby, in Sweden. Both systems are based on additive value functions and makes use of pair wise comparisons. The first system examined, which is widely used and based on acknowledged methods, comprises the REMBRANDT technique using pair...

  19. Reflecting on mainstreaming through environmental appraisal in times of financial crisis — From ‘greening’ to ‘pricing’?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzola, Paola, E-mail: Paola.Gazzola@ncl.ac.uk

    2013-07-15

    The issue of mainstreaming has witnessed a revival over the last few years, not least because the latest financial crisis has triggered a renewed enthusiasm and a remarkable comeback amongst policy-making and environmental appraisal (EA) communities. Traditionally, environmental mainstreaming is linked to ideas of (environmental) integration and to the ‘greening’ of public policies. Yet, more recent mainstreaming efforts are building on the idea that the achievement of economic growth and of social well-being is not only dependent upon the protection of the environment, but on the fact that the environment should be valued as a source of goods and a provider of services, as well. In this context and despite the many shortcomings that EA has experienced as a mainstreaming tool over the last two decades, calls for EA to engage with ecosystem services and incorporate pricing valuations in its approach to mainstreaming are emerging, raising questions about the role and purpose of EA as an environmental mainstreaming tool. This paper aims to reflect on the role of EA as a mainstreaming tool, in terms of the extent to which it is mainstreaming the environment into policies for sustainable development and changing ‘the mainstream’ by breaking down the false dichotomy of environment and (economic) development. If mainstreaming through EA was to incorporate both greening and pricing logics, could EA be more effective in reframing the environment and development as correlated variables rather than competing variables? -- Highlights: ► Mainstreaming is witnessing a revival over the last few years and a comeback amongst environmental appraisal communities. ► Mainstreaming efforts through environmental appraisal have failed to challenge the deeply rooted belief in economic growth. ► Recent mainstreaming efforts are incorporated in “green deals” following ecological modernisation discourses. ► Environmental appraisal is urged to embrace ecosystem service

  20. Reflecting on mainstreaming through environmental appraisal in times of financial crisis — From ‘greening’ to ‘pricing’?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzola, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The issue of mainstreaming has witnessed a revival over the last few years, not least because the latest financial crisis has triggered a renewed enthusiasm and a remarkable comeback amongst policy-making and environmental appraisal (EA) communities. Traditionally, environmental mainstreaming is linked to ideas of (environmental) integration and to the ‘greening’ of public policies. Yet, more recent mainstreaming efforts are building on the idea that the achievement of economic growth and of social well-being is not only dependent upon the protection of the environment, but on the fact that the environment should be valued as a source of goods and a provider of services, as well. In this context and despite the many shortcomings that EA has experienced as a mainstreaming tool over the last two decades, calls for EA to engage with ecosystem services and incorporate pricing valuations in its approach to mainstreaming are emerging, raising questions about the role and purpose of EA as an environmental mainstreaming tool. This paper aims to reflect on the role of EA as a mainstreaming tool, in terms of the extent to which it is mainstreaming the environment into policies for sustainable development and changing ‘the mainstream’ by breaking down the false dichotomy of environment and (economic) development. If mainstreaming through EA was to incorporate both greening and pricing logics, could EA be more effective in reframing the environment and development as correlated variables rather than competing variables? -- Highlights: ► Mainstreaming is witnessing a revival over the last few years and a comeback amongst environmental appraisal communities. ► Mainstreaming efforts through environmental appraisal have failed to challenge the deeply rooted belief in economic growth. ► Recent mainstreaming efforts are incorporated in “green deals” following ecological modernisation discourses. ► Environmental appraisal is urged to embrace ecosystem service