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Sample records for quercus spp ectomycorrhizas

  1. Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae of angiosperms: The interaction between Boletus rubropunctus (Boletaceae) and Quercus species (Fagaceae) in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Pfister, Donald H

    2009-09-01

    Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae (TECM) are unique structures in which aggregates of ectomycorrhizal roots are encased in a covering of fungal hyphae. The function of TECM is unknown, but they probably enhance the nitrogen nutrition and disease resistance of host plants. Trees in the Pinaceae form TECM with species of Rhizopogon and Suillus (Suillineae, Boletales). Similar tubercules are found with diverse angiosperms, but their mycobionts have not been phylogenetically characterized. We collected TECM in Mexico and the USA that were similar to TECM in previous reports. We describe these TECM and identify both the plant and fungal symbionts. Plant DNA confirms that TECM hosts are Quercus species. ITS sequences from tubercules and sclerotia (hyphal aggregations that serve as survival structures) matched sporocarps of Boletus rubropunctus. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that this fungus belongs to the suborder Boletineae (Boletales). This is the first published report of TECM formation in the Boletineae and of sclerotia formation by a Boletus species. Our data suggest that the TECM morphology is an adaptive feature that has evolved separately in two suborders of Boletales (Suillineae and Boletineae) and that TECM formation is controlled by the mycobiont because TECM are found on distantly related angiosperm and gymnosperm host plants.

  2. ( Quercus spp. ) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quercus is one of the most important woody genera of the Northern hemisphere and considered as one of the main forest tree species in Iran. In this study, genetic relationships in the genus Quercus, using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was examined. Five species, including: Quercus robur, Quercus ...

  3. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  4. Assessment of Virulence of Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae and Raffaelea spp. Isolates by Artificial Inoculation of Quercus mongolica Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Son

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the virulence of geographically different isolates of oak wilt pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae and other Raffaelea species. In this study, mature trees of Quercus mongolica were inoculated with the various isolates of Raffaelea spp. and their virulence was evaluated by measuring the extent of sapwood discoloration resulting from the inoculation. The average length of discolored sapwood in a lateral direction was longest in the trees inoculated with the isolates from Korea (8.69 cm followed by R. quercivora (7.51 cm and the other Raffaelea spp. (3.35 cm. The lateral length of discolored sapwood caused by the inoculation with Korean strains varied from 4.71 to 14.90 cm indicating their differences in virulence. The area of discolored sapwood caused by the inoculation with Raffaelea spp. varied from 1.57 to 8.42 cm2 indicating their differences in virulence. Based on the length and area of the discolored sapwoods, isolated YY and wj43 appeared to have the highest virulence among all the Raffaelea isolates tested. Each of the two isolates was obtained from Gangwon Province and Jeonbuk Province, respectively.

  5. Structure of herbivore communities in two oak (Quercus spp.) hybrid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecklen, William J; Spellenberg, Richard

    1990-11-01

    We examined patterns of density and species diversity for leaf-mining Lepidopterans and gall-forming Hymenopterans in two oak (Quercus spp.) hybrid zones: Quercus depressipes x Q. rugosa and Q. emoryi x Q. coccolobifolia. In both species complexes, hybrid hosts typically supported significantly lower densities and species diversity of parasites than did parental types. This contradicts the findings of Whitham (1989) that suggested that hybrid hosts may act as parasite sinks both in ecological and evolutionary time. We discuss features of hybrid zones that are likely to influence patterns of herbivory.

  6. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

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    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  7. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  8. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: < 0.1 - 45.2 cm h-1) during 3 years of measurements. In addition, nocturnal/diurnal ratios of volumetric sap flows were significantly higher in the drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the

  9. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented.

  10. Espécies de Botryosphaeria em Quercus spp. e outros hospedeiros lenhosos: taxonomia e filogenia

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Artur Jorge da Costa Peixoto

    2006-01-01

    O género Botryosphaeria é bem conhecido devido ás espécies que causam doenças numa grande diversidade de plantas. A taxonomia deste género e seus géneros anamórficos, assim como das espécies tem sido algo confusa. Neste trabalho foram caracterizadas espécies de Botryosphaeria associadas a Quercus spp. e outros hospedeiros lenhosos, com base em características morfológicas e sequências nucleotídicas de um ou vários genes. A utilização desta abordagem permitiu a clarificação d...

  11. Rapid production of trees. [Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robus, Sorbus, Picea, and Abies spp. , Betula verrucose, Populus trichocarpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarjorg, A.

    1976-01-01

    Seedlings of Acer platanoides approximately 2 m tall were produced in southern Norway in one year by seed stratification indoors. Similar results were obtained with Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robus and Sorbus spp. Trails were also carried out with Betula verrucose (B. pendula), Populus trichocarpa, Picea spp., Abies spp., and other conifers. In all trials growth was increased when plants were raised in a plastic house, and depended on the time that Spring growth was started or whether supplementary light was given and also depended on the seed strain. For northern and high altitude strains it was important to maintain critical day length.

  12. Vertical distribution of spiders associated to Quercus humboldtii and clusia spp. at sanctuary of fauna and flora Iguaque, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanegas, Silvia; Fagua, Giovanny; Florez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    the vertical distribution of spiders associated to trees of quercus humboldtii and clusia spp. with different architectural model, was studied at sanctuary of fauna and flora of Iguaque; for this, we selected trees of each architectural model, stratified them each three m in high starting at the base to the canopy of the tree. We took samples in each stratus for 20 min during the day and at night. Also, we took samples in the nearest ground plot (4 m 2) . We collected 1,261 specimens of 104 morphospecies and 20 families. The most frequent families were theridiidae, salticidae, araneidae, linyphiidae, anyphaenidae, and theridiosomatidae. We observed differences in the spiders' vertical distribution in abundance, richness, composition, time period, and sex ratio, all of them attributable to plant architectures and its stratification. Clusia spider community was the most diverse, quercus spider community was the richest rain, period of time at day, and support availability affected the spiders' composition.

  13. Effects of tornado damage, prescribed fire, and salvage logging on natural oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in a xeric southern USA Coastal Plain oak/pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; J. Stephen Brewer

    2013-01-01

    Due in large part to fire exclusion, many oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests, woodlands, and savannas throughout eastern North America are being replaced by less diverse forest ecosystems. In the interior coastal plain of the southern United States, these forests are dominated in the mid- and understory by mesophytic species such as Acer...

  14. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero; Domingo Moreno; Vicente J. Monleon; Fernando Arredondo-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to...

  15. Tree species richness, diversity, and regeneration status in different oak (Quercus spp. dominated forests of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan forests are dominated by different species of oaks (Quercus spp. at different altitudes. These oaks are intimately linked with hill agriculture as they protect soil fertility, watershed, and local biodiversity. They also play an important role in maintaining ecosystem stability. This work was carried out to study the diversity and regeneration status of some oak forests in Garhwal Himalaya, India. A total of 18 tree species belonging to 16 genera and 12 families were reported from the study area. Species richness varied for trees (4–7, saplings (3–10, and seedlings (2–6. Seedling and sapling densities (Ind/ha varied between 1,376 Ind/ha and 9,600 Ind/ha and 167 Ind/ha and 1,296 Ind/ha, respectively. Species diversity varied from 1.27 to 1.86 (trees, from 0.93 to 3.18 (saplings, and from 0.68 to 2.26 (seedlings. Total basal area (m2/ha of trees and saplings was 2.2–87.07 m2/ha and 0.20–2.24 m2/ha, respectively, whereas that of seedlings varied from 299 cm2/ha to 8,177 cm2/ha. Maximum tree species (20–80% had “good” regeneration. Quercus floribunda, the dominant tree species in the study area, showed “poor” regeneration, which is a matter of concern, and therefore, proper management and conservation strategies need to be developed for maintenance and sustainability of this oak species along with other tree species that show poor or no regeneration.

  16. Evidence for hybridization and introgression within a species-rich oak (Quercus spp. community

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    Finkeldey Reiner

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of interspecific gene flow is crucial for the understanding of speciation processes and maintenance of species integrity. Oaks (genus Quercus, Fagaceae are among the model species for the study of hybridization. Natural co-occurrence of four closely related oak species is a very rare case in the temperate forests of Europe. We used both morphological characters and genetic markers to characterize hybridization in a natural community situated in west-central Romania and which consists of Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, and Q. frainetto, respectively. Results On the basis of pubescence and leaf morphological characters ~94% of the sampled individuals were assigned to pure species. Only 16 (~6% individual trees exhibited intermediate morphologies or a combination of characters of different species. Four chloroplast DNA haplotypes were identified in the study area. The distribution of haplotypes within the white oak complex showed substantial differences among species. However, the most common haplotypes were present in all four species. Furthermore, based on a set of 7 isozyme and 6 microsatellite markers and using a Bayesian admixture analysis without any a priori information on morphology we found that four genetic clusters best fit the data. There was a very good correspondence of each species with one of the inferred genetic clusters. The estimated introgression level varied markedly between pairs of species ranging from 1.7% between Q. robur and Q. frainetto to 16.2% between Q. pubescens and Q. frainetto. Only nine individuals (3.4% appeared to be first-generation hybrids. Conclusion Our data indicate that natural hybridization has occurred at relatively low rates. The different levels of gene flow among species might be explained by differences in flowering time and spatial position within the stand. In addition, a partial congruence between phenotypically and genetically intermediate individuals was

  17. DISTRIBUCIÓN VERTICAL DE ARAÑAS ASOCIADAS A Quercus humboldtii Y Clusia spp. EN EL SANTUARIO DE FAUNA Y FLORA IGUAQUE, COLOMBIA

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    SILVIA VANEGAS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la distribución vertical de arañas asociadas a Quercus humboldtii y Clusia spp. en el Santuario de Fauna y Flora Iguaque, para esto se seleccionaron 10 árboles de cada género estratificándolos verticalmente cada 3m desde la base hasta el dosel. Se realizaron colectas en cada estrato por 20 min durante el día y en la noche. También se tomaron muestras en la parcela aledaña (4 m2. Se colectaron 1.261 individuos pertenecientes a 104 morfoespecies y 20 familias; las más frecuentes fueron Theridiidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Linyphiidae, Anyphaenidae y Theridiosomatidae. Se encontraron diferencias en la distribución vertical de arañas en cuanto a la abundancia, riqueza, composición, distribución de sexos y épocas atribuibles a las arquitecturas vegetales y a su  estratificación. Clusia presentó la comunidad de arañas más diversa, Quercus la de mayor dominancia. La composición estuvo influida por las lluvias, el periodo del día y la disponibilidad de soportes vegetales.

  18. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B.; Stewart, G.

    1990-01-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH 4 + into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH 4 + feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH 4 + fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of 15 N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the 15 N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited

  19. Phenolic compounds and fatty acids from acorns (Quercus spp.), the main dietary constituent of free-ranged Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos; López-Bote, Clemente; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Ordóñez, Juan A; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-10-08

    The aim of the present work was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and fatty acids in acorns from Quercus ilex, Quercus rotundifolia, and Quercus suber. The concentration of oleic acid was >63% of total fatty acids in all cases, followed by palmitic and linoleic acids at similar concentrations (12-20%). The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in Q. rotundifolia, Q. ilex, and Q. suber were 19, 31, and 38 mg/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively, whereas the concentrations of gamma-tocopherol were 113, 66, and 74 mg/kg of DM, respectively. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were distinguished. All of them were gallic acid derivatives, in the form of either galloyl esters of glucose, combinations of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of glucose, tergallic O- or C-glucosides, or ellagic acid derivatives. Several tergallic acid C-glucosides were also present in the extracts obtained from Q. suber. Acorns from Q. ilex and Q. rotundifolia showed similar polyphenol patterns mainly with gallic acid-like spectra. Chromatograms of Q. suber showed mainly polyphenols with ellagic acid-like spectra. Valoneic acid dilactone was especially abundant in Q. suber skin. The contribution of skin to the total phenolics of the acorn was relatively small in Q. rotundifolia and Q. ilex but relatively high in Q. suber. Skin extracts from Q. suber, Q. rotundifolia, and Q. ilex showed 1.3, 1.4, and 1.0 antioxidant efficiencies, respectively (compared to that of butylhydroxyanisole). Endosperm extracts showed lower capacity to prevent lipid peroxidation than skin extracts.

  20. Using common mycorrhizal networks for controlled inoculation of Quercus spp. with Tuber melanosporum: the nurse plant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Guillermo; Palfner, Götz; Chávez, Daniel; Suz, Laura M; Machuca, Angela; Honrubia, Mario

    2013-07-01

    The high cost and restricted availability of black truffle spore inoculum for controlled mycorrhiza formation of host trees produced for truffle orchards worldwide encourage the search for more efficient and sustainable inoculation methods that can be applied globally. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the nurse plant method for the controlled inoculation of Quercus cerris and Quercus robur with Tuber melanosporum by mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures. Pine bark compost, adjusted to pH 7.8 by liming, was used as substrate for all assays. Initially, Q. robur seedlings were inoculated with truffle spores and cultured for 12 months. After this period, the plants presenting 74 % mycorrhizal fine roots were transferred to larger containers. Nurse plants were used for two treatments of two different nursling species: five sterilized acorns or five 45-day-old, axenically grown Q. robur or Q. cerris seedlings, planted in containers around the nurse plant. After 6 months, colonized nursling plant root tips showed that mycorrhiza formation by T. melanosporum was higher than 45 % in the seedlings tested, with the most successful nursling combination being Q. cerris seedlings, reaching 81 % colonization. Bulk identification of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae was based on morphological and anatomical features and confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of selected root tips. Our results show that the nurse plant method yields attractive rates of mycorrhiza formation by the Périgord black truffle and suggest that establishing and maintaining common mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures enables sustained use of the initial spore inoculum.

  1. Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... improving conservation, restoration and reforestation strategies of Quercus in Jordan. Key words: Quercus spp., genetic ..... High variation leads to develop- ment of subspecies and varieties (Zohary, 1962). .... genetic diversity and differentiation of Quercus crispula in the. Chichibu Mountains, central Japan.

  2. Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... improving conservation, restoration and reforestation strategies of Quercus in Jordan. Key words: Quercus spp., genetic ... ciation of the Mediterranean sclerophyllous broad-leaf forests (Schiller et al., 2004a). ..... genetic diversity and differentiation of Quercus crispula in the. Chichibu Mountains, central ...

  3. Synthesis of Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizae on Pecan Seedlings in Fumigated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald H. Marx

    1979-01-01

    Curtis variety of pecan (Carya illinoensis) seedlings were grown for 8 months in fumigated soil infested at sowing with mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius. Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae were formed on all inoculated seedlings and significantly improved their growth over control seedlings. Inoculated and control seedlings also formed ectomycorrhizae with naturally...

  4. Molecular and morphological diversity of pezizalean ectomycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Hansen, Karen; Perry, Brian A

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of molecular research is discovering a high diversity of pezizalean ectomycorrhiza (EcM), yet most remain unidentified at the genus or species level. This study describes EcM-forming taxa within the Pezizales. EcM-forming Pezizales were revealed by morphotyping and sequencing of EcM...... root tips from forests in Estonia and Denmark. The taxa on EcM root tips were identified using phylogenetic analyses of large-subunit rDNA sequences derived from sporocarps of 301 pezizalean species, and comparisons with internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences. Thirty-three species are suggested...... as EcM symbionts, representing all three major clades of Pezizales, the genera Genea, Geopora, Humaria, Tarzetta, Trichophaea, Wilcoxina, Helvella, Hydnotrya, Tuber, Pachyphloeus, Peziza and Sarcosphaera, and two Pezizaceae anamorphs. EcM of Pezizales species are easily distinguished by their anatomy...

  5. Aplicaciones de la embriogénesis somática para la propagación y mejora de Quercus ilex L. y Pinus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Carlos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis está enfocada a la aplicación de la embriogénesis somática para la conservación y mejora de Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinaster Aiton y Pinus pinea L., especies forestales representativas de los bosques de la Península Ibérica. La propagación clonal mediante embriogénesis somática (ES) es la herramienta más adecuada para la propagación de genotipos de élite y para la implementación de la llamada silvicultura multivarietal. Además los cultivos embriogénicos son explantos adecuados para ...

  6. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifH) from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) were examined. DNA and RNA were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized Corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis. DNA-derived nifH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription PCRs for nifH mRNA were successful, suggesting that nitrogenase genes were not always transcribed. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR. Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

  7. [Effect of ectomycorrhizae on the growth of Picea koraiensis seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui-Qing; Wu, Ke

    2005-12-01

    Basidioscarps of Agaricales in different Picea koraiensis forest plantations were collected during August-October, 2000. 36 isolaters of species of Agaricales were obtained by isolating and culturing to the basidioscarps. Through indoor inoculation test on seedlings of Picea koraiensis, 6 ectomycorrhizae fungi cultures were obtained from 36 isolaters. The inoculation results show that the period for ectomycorrhizae inoculation to 1-year seedlings of Picea koraiensis should be about 30 days after seedlings emerging, the suitable temperature for ectomycorrhizae forming is about 20 degrees C. 6 ectomycorrhizae strains all have growth-promoting effect to the seedlings of Picea koraiensis. The contents of chlorophyll a of the seedlings inoculated strains of Agaricus silvaticus, 031 and L15 were significantly higher than other strains and control. The contents of chlorophyll b in the seedlings inoculated strains 009, 004, Agaricus silvaticus and L15 were significantly higher than other strains and control. The weights of seedlings which inoculated strains 009, 025, 031, Agaricus silvaticus and L15 were significantly different to control, the weight of seedlings inoculated strains of Agaricus silvaticus and L15 are 19.23% and 23.08% more than control; The heights of the seedlings inoculated 6 strains all have significant difference to control, the weight of seedlings inoculated strains of Agaricus silvaticus and L15 are 17.83% and 16.37% more than control. The results of outdoor inoculation show that the seedlings inoculated Agaricus silvaticus grow best on height, 9.25% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the seedlings inoculated strain L15 grow best on collar diameter, 9.92% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the lateral root numbers of seedlings inoculated strain 009 is largest, 51.91% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the main roots of seedlings inoculated strain 009 are longest, 3.36% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the

  8. Draft genome sequence of the fungus associated with oak-wilt mortality in South Korea, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae KACC44405

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbum Jeon; Ki-Tae Kim; Hyeunjeong Song; Gir-Won Lee; Kyeongchae Cheong; Hyunbin Kim; Gobong Choi; Yong-Hwan Lee; Jane E. Stewart; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2017-01-01

    The fungus Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is the causal agent of Korean oak wilt, a disease associated with mass mortality of oak trees (e.g., Quercus spp.). The fungus is vectored and dispersed by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis. Here, we present the 27.0-Mb draft genome sequence of R. quercus-mongolicae strain KACC44405.

  9. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals, metalloids, and chlorine in ectomycorrhizae from smelter-polluted area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cejpková, J.; Gryndler, M.; Hršelová, H.; Kotrba, P.; Řanda, Z.; Synková, I.; Borovička, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 218, November (2016), s. 176-185 ISSN 0269-7491 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : cadmium * ectomycorrhiza * ectomycorrhizal fungi * quantitative real-time PCR * roots * silver * soil Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  10. El estatus taxonómico del encino mexicano Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Sección Quercus)

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Jeffrey R.; Dávila-Aranda, Patricia Dolores; Spellenberg, Richard; González-Elizondo, M. Socorro

    2011-01-01

    Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus) has a complex taxonomic and nomenclatural history. Intensive sampling of oaks at the type locality of Q. undata Trel. in Durango, Mexico and evaluation of herbarium specimens and plants in the field indicate that Q. undata represents variation in Quercus chihuahuensis Trel. in white oak communities where introgressive hybridization among Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., and a third white oak, Q. arizonica Sarg. made species identifi...

  11. Influence of gap-scale disturbance on developmental and successional pathways in Quercus-Pinus stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Weber; J.L. Hart; C. Schweitzer; D.C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Quercus-Pinus forests of the eastern USA cover millions of hectares and span a variety of ecoregions. Understanding the influence of natural disturbance on developmental and successional pathways is important for managers that wish to sustain Pinus spp. in these mixtures. Quantifying developmental and successional patterns in this...

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.

  13. Determining seed moisture in Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1974-01-01

    The air-oven method with drying times 7 to 8 hours shorter than those now prescribed in the ISTA rules proved adequate for determining moisture contents in acorns of several North American oaks. Schedules of 8 hours at 105°C for Quercus muehlenbergii and 9 hours at 105°C for Q.shumardii and Q.nigra gave moisture contents within three percentage points of those obtained...

  14. Artificial regeneration of major oak (Quercus) species in the eastern United States - a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Douglass Jacobs; Ken McNabb; Gary W. Miller; V. Baldwin; G. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Although natural regeneration is often the best method for establishing new oak (Quercus spp.) stands, there are increasingly more situations in which high potential for oak regeneration failure dictates the use of artificial regeneration including direct seeding and planting seedlings. Additionally, afforestation planting programs frequently...

  15. The cultivable endophytic community of Norway spruce ectomycorrhizas from microhabitats lacking ericaceous hosts is dominated by ericoid mycorrhizal Meliniomyces variabilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vohník, Martin; Mrnka, Libor; Lukešová, Tereza; Bruzone, M. C.; Kohout, Petr; Fehrer, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2013), s. 281-292 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P340 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : ectomycorrhiza * endophytes * Meliniomyces variabilis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.992, year: 2013

  16. Culturable bacterial populations associated with ectomycorrhizae of Norway spruce stands with different degrees of decline in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avidano, L.; Rinaldi, M.; Gindro, R.; Cudlín, Pavel; Martinotti, M G.; Fracchia, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2010), s. 52-64 ISSN 0008-4166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Ectomycorrhizae * Norway spruce * forest decline Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2010

  17. Sap-flow velocities and distribution of wet-wood in trunks of healthy and unhealthy Quercus robur, Quercus petraea and Quercus cerris oak trees in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenyvesi, A.; Béres, C.; Raschi, A.; Tognietti, R.; Ridder, H.W.; Molnár, T.; Röfler, J.; Lakatos, T.; Csiha, I.

    1998-01-01

    Sap-flow of Quercus robur, Quercus petraea and Quercus cerris oak trees were studied. 43 K radioisotope tracing, the heat pulse velocity technique and the Granier-method were employed. Numerous intense pulses were observed in healthy Quercus petraea superposing onto the usual diurnal change. Only a few pulses were observed in unhealthy Quercus petraea, in healthy Quercus cerris and healthy and unhealthy Quercus robur trees. Proportion of wet-wood assessed by γ- and X-ray computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was significantly less in healthy Quercus petraea trees than in healthy Quercus cerris trees. Proportion of wet-wood was higher in healthy trees than unhealthy trees of both species. (author)

  18. The taxonomic status of the Mexican oak Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus El estatus taxonómico del encino mexicano Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Sección Quercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Bacon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus has a complex taxonomic and nomenclatural history. Intensive sampling of oaks at the type locality of Q. undata Trel. in Durango, Mexico and evaluation of herbarium specimens and plants in the field indicate that Q. undata represents variation in Quercus chihuahuensis Trel. in white oak communities where introgressive hybridization among Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., and a third white oak, Q. arizonica Sarg. made species identification difficult. Endlich's type specimen of Q. undata, as designated by Trelease, was apparently destroyed in bombing raids on Berlin during World War II, and we propose herein as lectotype the Trelease illustration of the type. An epitype is also designated in support of the lectotype, given that some features cannot be critically observed on the illustration. The long peduncles of the specimen illustrated by Trelease indicate a close relation to Q. chihuahuensis.Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus tiene una compleja historia taxonómica y de nomenclatura. Un muestreo intensivo de los encinos en la localidad tipo de Q. undata en Durango, México y análisis de ejemplares en herbario y en el campo indican que Q. undata representa variación en Q. chihuahuensis Trel. en los sitios donde la hibridación introgresiva entre Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., y un tercer encino blanco, Q. arizonica Sarg., dificultan la identificación de especies. El ejemplar tipo designado por Trelease aparentemente fue destruido en el bombardeo de Berlín durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, por lo que se propone como lectotipo a la ilustración del tipo en la obra de Trelease. Se designa también un epitipo dado que algunos rasgos no pueden ser críticamente observados en la ilustración. Los largos pedúnculos del espécimen ilustrado por Trelease indican la relación cercana a Q. chihuahuensis.

  19. Bioaccumulation of gold in macrofungi and ectomycorrhizae from the vicinity of the Mokrsko gold deposit, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jan; Dunn, C. E.; Gryndler, Milan; Mihaljevič, M.; Jelínek, E.; Rohovec, Jan; Rohošková, M.; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2010), s. 83-91 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600480801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : bioaccumulation * Ectomycorrhiza * EDTA extraction * Fungi * gold * mobility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.242, year: 2010

  20. Tuber indicum shapes the microbial communities of ectomycorhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree (Pinus armandii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Jian; Xiong, Chuan; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Zuqin; Li, Ping; Huang, Wenli

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tuber indicum) on the diversity of microbial communities associated with an indigenous tree, Pinus armandii, and the microbial communities in the surrounding ectomycorhizosphere soil. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the richness of microbial communities in the roots or rhizosphere of treatments with or without ectomycorrhizae. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of ectomycorhizosphere soil was significantly lower compared with the control soil. Presumably, the dominance of truffle mycelia in ectomycorhizosphere soil (80.91%) and ectomycorrhizae (97.64%) was the main factor that resulted in lower diversity and abundance of endophytic pathogenic fungi, including Fusarium, Monographella, Ustilago and Rhizopus and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Amanita, Lactarius and Boletus. Bacterial genera Reyranena, Rhizomicrobium, Nordella, Pseudomonas and fungal genera, Cuphophyllus, Leucangium, Histoplasma were significantly more abundant in ectomycorrhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the similarities between rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere soil based on the soil properties differed significantly, indicating the mycorrhizal synthesis may have a feedback effect on soil properties. Meanwhile, some soil properties were significantly correlated with bacterial and fungal diversity in the rhizosphere or root tips. Overall, this work illustrates the interactive network that exists among ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil properties and microbial communities associated with the host plant and furthers our understanding of the ecology and cultivation of T. indicum. PMID:28410376

  1. Tuber indicum shapes the microbial communities of ectomycorhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree (Pinus armandii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tuber indicum on the diversity of microbial communities associated with an indigenous tree, Pinus armandii, and the microbial communities in the surrounding ectomycorhizosphere soil. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the richness of microbial communities in the roots or rhizosphere of treatments with or without ectomycorrhizae. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of ectomycorhizosphere soil was significantly lower compared with the control soil. Presumably, the dominance of truffle mycelia in ectomycorhizosphere soil (80.91% and ectomycorrhizae (97.64% was the main factor that resulted in lower diversity and abundance of endophytic pathogenic fungi, including Fusarium, Monographella, Ustilago and Rhizopus and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Amanita, Lactarius and Boletus. Bacterial genera Reyranena, Rhizomicrobium, Nordella, Pseudomonas and fungal genera, Cuphophyllus, Leucangium, Histoplasma were significantly more abundant in ectomycorrhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the similarities between rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere soil based on the soil properties differed significantly, indicating the mycorrhizal synthesis may have a feedback effect on soil properties. Meanwhile, some soil properties were significantly correlated with bacterial and fungal diversity in the rhizosphere or root tips. Overall, this work illustrates the interactive network that exists among ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil properties and microbial communities associated with the host plant and furthers our understanding of the ecology and cultivation of T. indicum.

  2. Estudio cariológico de Quercus humboldtti Bonpl Caryological study of Quercus humboldtii Bonpl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado de Coral Cecilia

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comprobó que la especie del roble Ouercus humboldtii Bonpl. tiene 2 n= 24 cromosomas, al igual que la mayoría de las especies estudiadas de Quercus. Utilizando pretratamiento y tinción con orceina lactopropiónica fue posible obtener el cariotipo e ideograma.Using lactopropionic orceine for a previus tintion we obtained the Caryotype and ideogram of Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. and we observed that it has 2 n = 24 chromosomes as most studied species of Quercus do.

  3. Drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition and autumn recovery in two Mediterranean oak species (Quercus ilex and Quercus suber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Gazarini, L C; David, T S; David, J S; Rodrigues, A; Maroco, J; Chaves, M M

    2010-08-01

    Responses of leaf water relations and photosynthesis to summer drought and autumn rewetting were studied in two evergreen Mediterranean oak species, Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia and Quercus suber. The predawn leaf water potential (Ψ(lPD)), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A) at ambient conditions were measured seasonally over a 3-year period. We also measured the photosynthetic response to light and to intercellular CO₂ (A/PPFD and A/C(i) response curves) under water stress (summer) and after recovery due to autumn rainfall. Photosynthetic parameters, Vc(max), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) rate, were estimated using the Farquhar model. RuBisCo activity, leaf chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf carbohydrate concentration were also measured. All measurements were performed in the spring leaves of the current year. In both species, the predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate peaked in spring, progressively declined throughout the summer and recovered upon autumn rainfall. During the drought period, Q. ilex maintained a higher predawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance than Q. suber. During this period, we found that photosynthesis was not only limited by stomatal closure, but was also downregulated as a consequence of a decrease in the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) in both species. The Vc(max) and J(max) increased after the first autumnal rains and this increase was related to RuBisCo activity, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll concentration. In addition, an increase in the TPU rate and in soluble leaf sugar concentration was observed in this period. The results obtained indicate a high resilience of the photosynthetic apparatus to summer drought as well as good recovery in the following autumn rains of these evergreen oak species.

  4. Ectomycorrhizas impede phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both within and beyond the rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joner, Erik J. [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere Organique dans les Sols (LIMOS), Universite H. Poincare Nancy 1, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: erik.joner@jordforsk.no; Leyval, Corinne [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere Organique dans les Sols (LIMOS), Universite H. Poincare Nancy 1, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Colpaert, Jan V. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biology Group, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2006-07-15

    Exploitation of mycorrhizas to enhance phytoremediation of organic pollutants has received attention recently due to their positive effects on establishment of plants in polluted soils. Some evidence exist that ectomycorrhizas enhance the degradation of pollutants of low recalcitrance, while less easily degradable polyaromatic molecules have been degraded only by some of these fungi in vitro. Natural polyaromatic (humic) substances are degraded more slowly in soil where ectomycorrhizal fungi are present, thus phytoremediation of recalcitrant pollutants may not benefit from the presence of these fungi. Using a soil spiked with three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an industrially polluted soil (1 g kg{sup -1} of {sigma}12 PAHs), we show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus bovinus, forming hydrophobic mycelium in soil that would easily enter into contact with hydrophobic pollutants, impedes rather than promotes PAH degradation. This result is likely to be a nutrient depletion effect caused by fungal scavenging of mineral nutrients. - The ectomycorrhizal fungus S. bovinus impeded degradation of PAHs in soil, probably due to its negative effect on the availability of mineral nutrients of more potent PAH degraders.

  5. Molecular approach to characterize ectomycorrhizae fungi from Mediterranean pine stands in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ragonezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone pine (Pinus pinea L., like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM, which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop. Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr. S.F. Gray fungi, were collected, pure cultured and used in in vitro co-culture with stone pine microshoots. Samples of P. arhizus and L. deliciosus for the in vitro co-cultures were collected from the pine stands southwest Portugal. The in situ characterization was based on their morphotypes. To confirm the identity of the collected material, ITS amplification was applied using the pure cultures derived from the sporocarps. Additionally, a molecular profile using PCR based genomic fingerprinting comparison was executed with other genera of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Our results showed the effectiveness of the techniques used to amplify DNA polymorphic sequences, which enhances the characterization of the genetic profile of ECM fungi and also provides an option to verify the fungus identity at any stage of plant mycorrhization.

  6. Molecular approach to characterize ectomycorrhizae fungi from Mediterranean pine stands in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonezi, Carla; Caldeira, A. Teresa; Martins, M. Rosário; Salvador, Cátia; Santos-Silva, Celeste; Ganhão, Elsa; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Zavattieri, Amely

    2013-01-01

    Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM), which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray fungi, were collected, pure cultured and used in in vitro co-culture with stone pine microshoots. Samples of P. arhizus and L. deliciosus for the in vitro co-cultures were collected from the pine stands southwest Portugal. The in situ characterization was based on their morphotypes. To confirm the identity of the collected material, ITS amplification was applied using the pure cultures derived from the sporocarps. Additionally, a molecular profile using PCR based genomic fingerprinting comparison was executed with other genera of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Our results showed the effectiveness of the techniques used to amplify DNA polymorphic sequences, which enhances the characterization of the genetic profile of ECM fungi and also provides an option to verify the fungus identity at any stage of plant mycorrhization. PMID:24294266

  7. Ectomycorrhizas impede phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both within and beyond the rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joner, Erik J.; Leyval, Corinne; Colpaert, Jan V.

    2006-01-01

    Exploitation of mycorrhizas to enhance phytoremediation of organic pollutants has received attention recently due to their positive effects on establishment of plants in polluted soils. Some evidence exist that ectomycorrhizas enhance the degradation of pollutants of low recalcitrance, while less easily degradable polyaromatic molecules have been degraded only by some of these fungi in vitro. Natural polyaromatic (humic) substances are degraded more slowly in soil where ectomycorrhizal fungi are present, thus phytoremediation of recalcitrant pollutants may not benefit from the presence of these fungi. Using a soil spiked with three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an industrially polluted soil (1 g kg -1 of Σ12 PAHs), we show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus bovinus, forming hydrophobic mycelium in soil that would easily enter into contact with hydrophobic pollutants, impedes rather than promotes PAH degradation. This result is likely to be a nutrient depletion effect caused by fungal scavenging of mineral nutrients. - The ectomycorrhizal fungus S. bovinus impeded degradation of PAHs in soil, probably due to its negative effect on the availability of mineral nutrients of more potent PAH degraders

  8. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  9. Growth, ectomycorrhization and biochemical parameters of Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought conditions are the major constraint to the early establishment of Quercus suber species. However, drought responses of this species depend on provenances. The objective of this study was to obtain more comprehensive knowledge on the influence of drought conditions on the response of Q. suber L. seedlings ...

  10. Growth of Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; Warren D. Devine

    2011-01-01

    Many land managers are interested in maintaining or restoring plant communities that contain Oregon white oak (OWO, Quercus garryana), yet there is relatively little information available about the species' growth rates and survival to guide management decisions. We used two studies to characterize growth (over multi-year periods and within...

  11. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals, metalloids, and chlorine in ectomycorrhizae from smelter-polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejpková, Jaroslava; Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Kotrba, Pavel; Řanda, Zdeněk; Synková, Iva; Borovička, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi contribute to the survival of host trees on metal-rich soils by reducing the transfer of toxic metals into roots. However, little is known about the ability of ECM fungi to accumulate elements in ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). Here we report Ag, As, Cd, Cl, Cu, Sb, V, and Zn contents in wild-grown Norway spruce ECMs collected in a smelter-polluted area at Lhota near Příbram, Czech Republic. The ECMs data were compared with the element concentrations determined in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal fine roots, soils, and soil extracts. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated to differentiate the element accumulation ability of ECMs inhabited by different mycobionts, which were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing. Among the target elements, the highest contents were observed for Ag, Cl, Cd, and Zn; Imleria badia ECMs showed the highest capability to accumulate these elements. ECMs of Amanita muscaria, but not of other species, accumulated V. The analysis of the proportions of I. badia and A. muscaria mycelia in ECMs by using species-specific quantitative real-time PCR revealed variable extent of the colonization of roots, with median values close to 5% (w/w). Calculated Ag, Cd, Zn and Cl concentrations in the mycelium of I. badia ECMs were 1 680, 1 510, 2 670, and 37,100 mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively, indicating substantial element accumulation capacity of hyphae of this species in ECMs. Our data strengthen the idea of an active role of ECM fungi in soil-fungal-plant interactions in polluted environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. El ciclo del potasio en dehesas de Quercus rotundifolia y Quercus pyrenaica

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero Berián, Alfonso; García Criado, Balbino; Alonso Peloche, Herminio

    1985-01-01

    Hemos estudiado el ciclo del potasio en dehesas de Quercus rotundifolia Lam. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd. de la provincia de Salamanca. El potasio es el elemento que se transfiere en mayores proporciones a través de frutos y de material herbáceo, que son materias altamente digestibles. Por ello, su transferencia al subsistema herbívoro es mayor que para los restantes nutrientes. El potasio es también el macronutriente más intensamente extraído de los tejidos vegetables por el ...

  13. Large-scale patterns of Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Quercus pyrenaica regeneration in central-western Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Rolo, Víctor; Moreno, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    In Central-Western Spain, forests and woodlands composed of Quercus sp. support outstanding levels of biodiversity, but there is increasing concern about their long-term persistence due to a lack of regeneration. We hypothesize that this regenerative lack is operating on a large geographic scale....... Regeneration was positively correlated with tree cover and density, especially of small and medium-sized trees, and negatively correlated with the presence of large trees, indicating that regeneration failure is mostly associated with more open, uniform, and/or aged woodlands. Regeneration densities of Q. ilex...

  14. Identification of fungal plant pathogens associated with oak (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.), In the municipalities of Encino (Santander), Arcabuco, and Tipacoque (Boyaca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy Castro, Leidi Yunari; Lizarazo Forero, Luz Marina

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to isolate and determine the presence of the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum and other potential pathogens of Quercus humboldtii, and evaluate the possibility of using the antagonistic capacity of bacteria isolated from rhizosphere and phyllosphere against them. The study was conducted in the conservation corridor Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque, in the municipalities of Encino (Santander), Arcabuco and Tipacoque (Boyaca). The phytopathogenic fungi were isolated using direct seeding of leaves with symptoms of fungal infection in OGY, Sabouraud, and PDA + Lactic acid at 0.2%. We used the plate counting technique for the isolation of bacteria from rhizospheric and bulk soil. Phytophthora ramorum was not isolated, but phytopathogenic fungi of the genus Fusarium spp., and Pestalotia spp., were obtained in the isolates. Microbial populations of rhizospheric and bulk soil were scarce, exhibited low diversity, and were dominated by few morphotypes. We identified four species of bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus macerans, Pinus sylvestris and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The phyllosphere community was dominated by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The species Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pinus sylvestris did not exhibited antagonistic properties against Pestalotia spp. Further studies are required to confirm Fusarium spp., and Pestalotia spp., pathogenic activity against Quercus humboldtii.

  15. Air pollution effects on Quercus Ilex plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavone, P.; Salmeri, C.; Spampinato, G.; Fallico, R.; Ferrante, M.

    1996-01-01

    To test air pollution effects on natural forest vegetation, the soil chemistry and the floristic composition of two Quercus ilex L. woods in the Hyblean region (S-E Sicily), unequally exposed to air pollutants are compared. Acidification phenomena are investigated by the soil chemical changes between the trunk base areas, affected by stem flow water, and the surrounding soil, only influenced by canopy drip. Soil chemical changes, floristic poorness and direct damage to the Q. ilex leaves are only detected in the Climiti Mountains holm-oak woods, located near the Siracusa petrochemical complex, while they do not appear at Cava d'Ispica, sited far from any industry and seldom exposed to winds carrying pollutants

  16. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (17), pp. ... Liebl.), Balkan (Quercus dalechampii Ten.) and .... west Serbia; that is on the mountains Goč and Zlatibor. (Map 1 ... supported by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and.

  17. Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using morphological and molecular markers. Mohammad S Jawarneh, Mohammad H Brake, Riyadh Muhaidat, Hussein M Migdadi, Jamil N Lahham, Ahmad Ali El-Oqlah ...

  18. Evaluation of extractive content in Albanian white oak ( Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , have an important impact on wood properties and its utilization. The study was carried on extractives content of white oak (Quercus petraea Liebl). Eighteen sawdust samples were taken from cuts in six different heights of three trees.

  19. The Effect of Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae Inoculations on the Formation of Non-conductive Sapwood of Quercus mongolica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Masato; Matsuda, Yosuke; Seo, Sang Tae; Kim, Kyung Hee; Ito, Shin-Ichiro; Moon, Myung Jin; Kim, Seong Hwan; Yamada, Toshihiro

    2014-06-01

    In Korea, mass mortality of Quercus mongolica trees has become obvious since 2004. Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is believed to be a causal fungus contributing the mortality. To evaluate the pathogenicity of the fungus to the trees, the fungus was multiple- and single-inoculated to the seedlings and twigs of the mature trees, respectively. In both the inoculations, the fungus was reisolated from more than 50% of inoculated twigs and seedlings. In the single inoculations, proportions of the transverse area of non-conductive sapwood at inoculation points and vertical lengths of discoloration expanded from the points were significantly different between the inoculation treatment and the control. In the multiple inoculations, no mortality was confirmed among the seedlings examined. These results showed that R. quercus-mongolicae can colonize sapwood, contribute to sapwood discoloration and disrupt sap flows around inoculation sites of Q. mongolica, although the pathogenicity of the fungus was not proven.

  20. Capturing forest dependency in the central Himalayan region: Variations between Oak (Quercus spp.) and Pine (Pinus spp.) dominated forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anusheema; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Sachdeva, Kamna

    2018-05-01

    Our study explores the nexus between forests and local communities through participatory assessments and household surveys in the central Himalayan region. Forest dependency was compared among villages surrounded by oak-dominated forests (n = 8) and pine-dominated forests (n = 9). Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate variations in the degree of dependency based on proximity to nearest forest type. Households near oak-dominated forests were more dependent on forests (83.8%) compared to households near pine-dominated forests (69.1%). Forest dependency is mainly subsistence-oriented for meeting basic household requirements. Livestock population, cultivated land per household, and non-usage of alternative fuels are the major explanatory drivers of forest dependency. Our findings can help decision and policy makers to establish nested governance mechanisms encouraging prioritized site-specific conservation options among forest-adjacent households. Additionally, income diversification with respect to alternate livelihood sources, institutional reforms, and infrastructure facilities can reduce forest dependency, thereby, allowing sustainable forest management.

  1. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sessile oak ( Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) genetic variability in Serbia was estimated applying cpDNA universal primer pairs. Five different haplotypes were detected in the analyzed sample material from populations in Serbia. The areas in West and Southwest Serbia, with all their specificities, represent an ...

  2. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  3. A discrimination between Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.G.; Dam, van B.C.; Eck, van H.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    In natural populations, Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl. comprise a morphological continuum due to hybridization and/or an overlap in variation between the two species. In order to obtain diagnostic markers to investigate these morphological intermediate forms, leaf morphology and AFLP

  4. Interspecific variation in functional traits of oak seedlings (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana, Quercus virgiliana) grown under artificial drought and fire conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatante, D; Tognetti, R; Scippa, G S; Congiu, T; Baesso, B; Terzaghi, M; Montagnoli, A

    2015-07-01

    To face summer drought and wildfire in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, plants adopt different strategies that involve considerable rearrangements of biomass allocation and physiological activity. This paper analyses morphological and physiological traits in seedlings of three oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana and Quercus virgiliana) co-occurring under natural conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate species-specific characteristics and the response of these oak seedlings to drought stress and fire treatment. Seedlings were kept in a growth chamber that mimicked natural environmental conditions. All three species showed a good degree of tolerance to drought and fire treatments. Differences in specific biomass allocation patterns and physiological traits resulted in phenotypic differences between species. In Q. ilex, drought tolerance depended upon adjustment of the allocation pattern. Q. trojana seedlings undergoing mild to severe drought presented a higher photosystem II (PSII) efficiency than control seedlings. Moreover, Q. trojana showed a very large root system, which corresponded to higher soil area exploitation, and bigger leaf midrib vascular bundles than the other two species. Morphological and physiological performances indicated Q. trojana as the most tolerant to drought and fire. These characteristics contribute to a high recruitment potential of Q. trojana seedlings, which might be the reason for the dominance of this species under natural conditions. Drought increase as a result of climate change is expected to favour Q. trojana, leading to an increase in its spatial distribution.

  5. Quantification of extraradical soil mycelium and ectomycorrhizas of Boletus edulis in a Scots pine forest with variable sporocarp productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, Herminia; Agueda, Beatriz; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan

    2012-01-01

    concentration of soil mycelium or with the presence or abundance of ectomycorrhizas.

  6. variability in foliar phenolic composition of several quercus species in northern mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, J.A.A.; Antuna, E.M.; Abarca, N.A.; Alvarado, E.A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative composition of the foliar phenolic compounds were investigated in 81 individual specimens of several white oak species (Quercus spp.). The trees were growing in twelve locations in Durango, Mexico. The phenol profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD and a Folin-Ciocateuprocedure. The results revealed that: (i) the foliar phenol profiles of all species analysed were complex and formed by 6 to 30 compounds, (ii) the flavonols mostly quercetin glycoside, isorhamnetin glycoside, kaempferol glycoside and phenolic acids were the main identified compounds, (iii) there was a high intra and inter-specific variability in the foliar phenol profiles both at the quantitative and qualitative levels, and (iv) the foliar phenol profiles indicated a slight species-specific tendency for phenols to be accumulated, although this was not clearly distinguished. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the content and composition of the foliar flavonoids between species were observed due to the large environmental and soil conditions variability between localities. (author)

  7. First discovery of Quercus feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Schuster, Jack

    2013-11-18

    Despite the high taxonomic diversity of oaks in Mexico and Central America, no Quercus feeding Nepticulidae have ever been recorded from the region. Here, we present seven species whose larvae are leaf-miners of Quercus (section Lobatae) in Guatemala. Except Stigmella nigriverticella (Chambers 1875), which was previously known from the United States, all other discovered species are new. We describe and name five new species (Stigmella jaguari Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lauta Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sublauta Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. aurifasciata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. guatemalensis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.); the remaining new species is described but left unnamed because of lack of adults (i. e. moths and genitalia are described from developed pupae). All seven treated species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, adults, and genitalia.

  8. Development of tree hollows in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur)

    OpenAIRE

    Ranius, Thomas; Niklasson, Mats; Berg, Niclas

    2009-01-01

    Many invertebrates, birds and mammals are dependent on hollow trees. For landscape planning that aims at persistence of species inhabiting hollow trees it is crucial to understand the development of such trees. In this study we constructed an individual-based simulation model to predict diameter distribution and formation of hollows in oak tree populations. Based on tree-ring data from individual trees, we estimated the ages when hollow formation commences for pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) ...

  9. Commensal Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANTHONY

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be ..... among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish .... independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial .... Functional.

  10. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  11. The Quercus feeding Stigmella species of the West Palaearctic: new species, key and distribution (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Johansson, R.

    2003-01-01

    The species of the Stigmella ruficapitella group occurring in the Western Palaearctic and feeding on Quercus are reviewed. We recognise 19 species, five of which are described as new: Stigmella fasciata sp. n. on Quercus pubescens from Slovenia, Croatia, Greece and Turkey, S. cocciferae sp. n. on Q.

  12. Myxomycetes from the bark of the evergreen oak Quercus ilex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrigley de Basanta, Diana

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of 81 moist chamber cultures of bark from living Quercus ilex trees are reponed. A total of 37 taxa are cited, extending the number of species found on this substrate to 55. The presence of Licea deplanata on the Iberian Península is confirmed. Seven new records are included for the province of Madrid. Some data are contributed on species frequency and incubation times.Se presentan los resultados de 81 cultivos en cámara húmeda de corteza de Quercus ilex vivo. Se citan 37 táxones, que amplían a 55 el número de especies de mixomicetes encontrados sobre este sustrato. Se confirma la presencia en la Península Ibérica de Licea deplanata, y se incluyen siete nuevas citas para la provincia de Madrid. Se aportan datos sobre frecuencia de aparición y tiempos de incubación de algunas especies.

  13. Volatiles from a rare Acer spp. honey sample from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Malenica-Staver, Mladenka; Lusić, Drazen

    2010-06-24

    A rare sample of maple (Acer spp.) honey from Croatia was analysed. Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) using: 1) pentane, 2) diethyl ether, 3) a mixture of pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v) and 4) dichloromethane as solvents was applied. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The most representative extracts were 3) and 4). Syringaldehyde was the most striking compound, being dominant in the extracts 2), 3) and 4) with percentages 34.5%, 33.1% and 35.9%, respectively. In comparison to USE results of other single Croatian tree honey samples (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar honey, Salix spp. nectar and honeydew honeys, Quercus frainetto Ten. honeydew as well as Abies alba Mill. and Picea abies L. honeydew) and literature data the presence of syringaldehyde, previously identified in maple sap and syrup, can be pointed out as a distinct characteristic of the Acer spp. honey sample. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC and GC/MS identified benzaldehyde (16.5%), trans-linalool oxide (20.5%) and 2-phenylethanol (14.9%) as the major compounds that are common in different honey headspace compositions.

  14. Soil properties and understory herbaceous biomass in forests of three species of Quercus in Northeast Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to characterize some soil properties within the first 25 cm of the soil profile and the herbaceous biomass in Quercus forests, and the possible relationships between soil properties and understory standing biomass.Area of study: Three monoespecific Quercus forests (Q. suber L., Q. ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd in NE Portugal.Material and methods: During 1999 and 2000 soil properties (pH-KCl, total soil nitrogen (N, soil organic carbon (SOC, C/N ratio, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K and herbaceous biomass production of three forest types: Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd were studied.Main results: The results showed a different pattern of soil fertility (N, SOC, P, K in Quercus forests in NE of Portugal. The C/N ratio and the herbaceous biomass confirmed this pattern. Research highlights: There is a pattern of Quercus sp. distribution that correlates with different soil characteristics by soil characteristics in NE Portugal. Q. pyrenaica ecosystems were found in more favoured areas (mesic conditions; Q. rotundifolia developed in nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic conditions; and Q. suber were found in intermediate zones.Keywords: fertility; biomass; C/N ratio; cork oak; holm oak; pyrenean oak.

  15. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon. ... organisms such as Klebsiella spp. are frequent causes of nosocomial infections."o The larrer ... Accepted 11 Sep 1992. recognised cause of community-acquired Gram-nega-.

  16. A PCR based method to detect Russula spp. in soil samples and Limodorum abortivum roots in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Larriba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Orchidaceaehas the largest number of species of any family in the plant kingdom. This family is subject to a high risk of extinction in natural environments, such as natural parks and protected areas. Recent studies have shown the prevalence of many species of orchids to be linked to fungal soil diversity, due to their myco-heterotrophic behaviour. Plant communities determine fungal soil diversity, and both generate optimal conditions for orchid development. Area of study: The work was carried out in n the two most important natural parks in Alicante (Font Roja and Sierra Mariola, in South-eastern of Spain. Material and Methods: We designed a molecular tool to monitor the presence of Russula spp. in soil and orchids roots, combined with phytosociological methods. Main results: Using a PCR-based method, we detected the presence in the soil and Limodorum abortivum orchid roots of the mycorrhizal fungi Russula spp. The species with highest coverage was Quercus rotundifolia in areas where the orchid was present. Research highlights: We present a useful tool based on PCR to detect the presence of Russula spp. in a natural environment. These results are consistent with those obtained in different studies that linked the presence of the mycorrhizal fungi Russula spp. in roots of the species Limodorum and the interaction between these fungal species and Quercus ilex trees in Mediterranean forest environments.

  17. Seasonal dynamics of secondary growth and xylem anatomy in two coexisting Mediterranean Quercus; Dinamica estacional del crecimiento secundario y anatomia del xilema en dos Quercus mediterraneos que coexisten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuixech, J.; Camarero, J. J.; Montserrat-Marti, G.

    2012-11-01

    The contribution of secondary growth's patterns and wood anatomy on the coexistence of two species of Quercus (Quercus ilex subsp ballota diffused porous wood and Quercus faginea ring porous wood) were studied in a location with continental Mediterranean climate, which has been studied during two years with contrasted climatology. According to our results secondary growth pattern of Q. faginea is concentrated in the spring, starting before, and responding more than Q. ilex to a rainfall increase during this period. Q. ilex extends wood formation into the fall and late summer growth. Q. ilex growth during the fall and late summer has a greater importance in terms of theoretical hydraulic conductivity than in Q. faginea, which concentrates hydraulic conductivity in spring vessels. Therefore, different response of wood phenology formation and xylem anatomy in both species to the seasonal pattern of precipitation could contribute to explain the coexistence of Q. ilex and Q. faginea. (Author) 48 refs.

  18. Tvorba marketingovej stratégie internetového obchodu Quercus

    OpenAIRE

    Krahulcová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on creation of new marketing strategy for company QUERCUS' electronic store. Theoretical part deals with basic concepts of marketing and strategic marketing planning. It further introduces marketing mix specifics on the internet, basic aspects of electronic commerce and consumer behavior on internet. Practical part includes introduction of company QUERCUS, e-shop SWOT analysis, brief characteristic of current marketing strategy and finally proposal of new marketing s...

  19. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA BIOMASA FORESTAL PARA LAS ESPECIES QUERCUS ROTUNDIFOLIA Y QUERCUS SUBER BASADA EN IMÁGENES DEL SATÉLITE QUICKBIRD

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Adélia; Marques da Silva, José; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Mesquita, Paulo; Silva, Luis; Baptista, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    para una buena gestión. Actualmente las técnicas de inventario y monitoreo de biomasa forestal son usualmente lentas, muy trabajosas y de elevado coste, verificándose así la necesidad de desarrollar otras técnicas, que sean fiables y con costes relativamente reducidos. El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar una metodología para estimar la biomasa forestal de las especies Quercus rotundifolia y Quercus suber basada en imágenes del satélite QuickBird. La estimación de la biomasa...

  20. Desenvolupament d'una tècnica d'empelt de surera ("Quercus suber L.") sobre alzina ("Quercus ilex L.")

    OpenAIRE

    PERIS RODRIGO, JOSEP ENRIC

    2013-01-01

    El Trabajo Final de Carrera trata principalmente de buscar la técnica de injerto que más se ajuste para realizar injertos de alcornoque (Quercus suber L.) sobre encina (Quercus ilex L.). Para ello se han probado diferentes técnicas de injerto realizadas en diferentes épocas del año, en condiciones ambientales de exterior y en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando material vegetal de alcornoque adulto y juvenil. Con ello se persigue determinar qué técnica de injerto ofrece mejores resultados ...

  1. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  2. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savitri Shrestha; Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik; Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa; Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha; Latha Muuaiah Ramanna; Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results:Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions:The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.

  3. Microsatellite Primer Development for Post Oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren B. Chatwin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata. This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial, activity of Quercus incana Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana eSarwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity of Quercus incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Quercus incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Quercus incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55 and Aspergillus flavus (28 mm ± 0.45. Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21μg/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 μg/mL was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Quercus incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  5. Oak (Quercus spp.) response to climate differs more among sites than among species in central Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybníček, Michal; Čermák, P.; Prokop, O.; Žid, T.; Trnka, Miroslav; Kolář, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, jan (2016), s. 55-65 ISSN 1641-1307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0265; GA ČR GA13-04291S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Central Europe * oak * precipitation * temperature * tree rings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2016

  6. Recent growth coherence in long-term oak (Quercus spp.) ring width chronologies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobrovolný, Petr; Rybníček, Michal; Büntgen, Ulf; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Stachoň, Z.; Prokop, O.; Kolář, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, 2-3 (2016), s. 133-141 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Tree-ring width chronology * Oak species * Tree-age structure * Site-specific conditions * Hydroclimate sensitivity * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.578, year: 2016

  7. Preliminary Comparative Analysis of Phenological Varieties of Quercus robur by ISSR-Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Chokheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus robur L. is a valuable wood species having long ontogeny and promising to create long-living artificial plantings of recreational and ameliorative purposes in the steppes zone of Russia and other countries. In this work we have performed the genotyping of varieties of Quercus robur L. obtained from collection of Botanical Garden of Southern Federal University using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR molecular markers. The most polymorphic ISSR-marker (GA 8YC was found in the collection. The polymorphic DNA markers identified in the present study can be used for the future breeding works to obtain valuable genotypes of Quercus genus. In addition we have performed DNA fingerprinting of the prospective sample of the variety Q. robur var. tardiflora Czern.

  8. Southern European Phyllonorycter species mining Quercus, with two new species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Laštůvka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of 14 species of the genus Phyllonorycter Hübner, 1822, mining Quercus in southern Europe, is presented with descriptions of two new species, viz. Phyllonorycter graecus sp. n. developing on Quercus ithaburensis Decne. subsp. macrolepis (Kotschy Hedge & Yalt. from Peloponnisos, Greece, and P. gerfriedi sp. n. mining Quercus coccifera L. from Crete. Six new synonyms have been established: Phyllonorycter joviella (Constant, 1890 and P. anatolica (Deschka, 1970 of P. belotella (Staudinger, 1859, P. arkadiella Derra, 1985 of P. olympica Deschka, 1983, P. neli Buvat, 1996 of P. barbarella (Rebel, 1901, P. glaserorum (Deschka, 1969 of P. rebimbasi (Mendes, 1910, and P. sardiniensis (Amsel, 1939 of P. sublautella (Stainton, 1869. The lectotype of Lithocolletis belotella Staudinger, 1859 has been designated. Diagnostic characters with figures of all species, brief data on their biology and distribution are given with several new country records. The record of Phyllonorycter obtusifoliella Deschka, 1974 in Europe has been mentioned.

  9. Characteristic of Tuber spp. localities in natural stands with emphasis on plant species composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Hilszczanska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Tuber establish ectomycorrhizal symbioses with shrubs, trees and some herbaceous plants. Some Tuber species, for example, T. melanosporum, T. magnatum, T. aestivum are economically important because they produce edible fruiting bodies with a distinctive taste and flavor. Our concept of truffle ecophysiology is dominated by the symbiosis with deciduous hosts, such as: Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, Castanea sativa, Corylus spp., Carpinus betulus, Ostrya carpinifolia, Betula verrucosa, and Tilia spp., whereas the real range of hosts in nature seems to be much wider. Moreover, interactions between Tuber mycelium and plant community could be more complex than just forming the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Here we show our inventory of plants and soils at six truffle’ sites in the southern part of Poland (Nida Basin and Przedbórz Upland. The aim of this study was to widen our understanding of ecological factors affecting Tuber spp., in the context of pioneering stage of research on truffles in Poland. We hope our findings will have a practical application and will help to choose suitable soils for truffle orchards.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, a fungus associated with oak mortality in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. -S. Kim; P. A. Hohenlohe; K. -H. Kim; S. -T. Seo; Ned Klopfenstein

    2016-01-01

    Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is a fungus associated with oak wilt and deemed to cause extensive oak mortality in South Korea. Since the discovery of this fungus on a dead Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) in 2004, the mortality continued to spread southwards in South Korea. Despite continued expansion of the disease and associated significant impacts on forest...

  11. Indicator values for lichens on Quercus as a tool to monitor ammonia pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, K.; Olsen, H. B.; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen vegetation on solitary Quercus trees was investigated on 13 locations in Denmark in order to test the usability of indicator values to quantify ammonia deposition from the ambient air. Indicator values calculated for each location corresponded well with the expected ecological...... conditions. The indicator values for nitrogenous nutrients significantly correlated with measured nitrogen content in Xanthoria parietina thalli sampled from the investigated Quercus trees. Indicator values for some species are critically evaluated, and it is suggested that indicator values can serve...

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  13. Growth overcompensation against O3 exposure in two Japanese oak species, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, grown under elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Tobita, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) on the growth of two mid-successional oak species native to East Asia, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, we measured gas exchange and biomass allocation in seedlings (initially 1-year-old) grown under combinations of elevated CO 2 (550 μmol mol −1 ) and O 3 (twice-ambient) for two growing seasons in an open-field experiment in which root growth was not limited. Both the oak species showed a significant growth enhancement under the combination of elevated CO 2 and O 3 (indicated by total dry mass; over twice of ambient-grown plants, p < .05), which probably resulted from a preferable biomass partitioning into leaves induced by O 3 and a predominant enhancement of photosynthesis under elevated CO 2 . Such an over-compensative response in the two Japanese oak species resulted in greater plant growth under the combination of elevated CO 2 and O 3 than elevated CO 2 alone. - Highlights: • Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata were grown under elevated CO 2 and O 3 . • O 3 induced a preferable biomass allocation into leaves. • Photosynthesis was predominantly enhanced under elevated CO 2 exceeding O 3 impacts. • Combination of elevated CO 2 and O 3 enhanced the growth of two oak species. - O 3 -induced carbon allocation into leaves and CO 2 -enhanced photosynthesis result in a significant growth enhancement in Japanese oak species under the combination of gases.

  14. Ultraviolet-B radiation influences the abundance and distribution of phylloplane fungi on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, K.K.; Low, M.N.R.; McLeod, A.R.; Greenslade, P.D.; Emmett, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of u.v.-B radiation (280-315 nm) on the fungi occurring on the lammas leaves of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) were examined using saplings that were exposed at an outdoor facility to supplemental levels of u.v.-B radiation under treatment arrays of cellulose diacetate-filtered fluorescent lamps, which also produce u.v.-A radiation (315-400 nm). Saplings were also exposed to u.v.-A radiation alone under control arrays of polyester-filtered lamps, and to ambient levels of solar radiation under arrays of unenergized lamps. The u.v.-B treatment corresponded to a 30% elevation above the ambient level of erythemally-weighted u.v.-B radiation. The fungi were examined weekly over a 4-month-period in summer and autumn 1995 using two techniques, the spore fall and leaf impression methods, which differentiated between those fungi occurring on the upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) surfaces of the leaves. The abundances of Aureobasidium pullulans (De Bary) Arnaud and Sporobolomyces roseus Kluy. et van Niel, two leaf yeasts which had adaxial:abaxial ratios of < 1 under ambient levels of u.v.-B radiation, were negatively correlated with increasing ambient levels of u.v.-B radiation and were significantly reduced on adaxial leaf surfaces by supplemental levels of u.v.-B. There were few effects of supplemental u.v.-B radiation on the abundances of these yeasts on abaxial leaf surfaces. The abundances of the dematiaceous hyphomycetes, Cladosporium spp. and Epicoccum nigrum Link., species with adaxial:abaxial ratios of ⩾ 1 under ambient levels of u.v.-B radiation, were not correlated with ambient levels of u.v.-B radiation, nor were they usually affected on either leaf surface by supplemental u.v.-B radiation. Alternaria spp. and Microdochium nivale (Fr.) Samuels & Hallet showed consistent responses on adaxial leaf surfaces to u.v.-A radiation applied under control and treatment arrays. Our results suggest that current levels of shortwave radiation already

  15. An analysis of phenotypic selection in natural stands of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery W. Stringer; David B. Wagner; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Daniel B. Houston

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of growth and stem quality parameters of 19-year-old progeny from superior and comparison trees indicates that rigorous phenotypic selection of trees in natural stands may not be an efficient method of parent tree selection for Quercus rubra L. Total tree height, dbh, number of branches in the butt log, fork height, and number of mainstem...

  16. Particulate Matter deposition on Quercus ilex leaves in an industrial city of central Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sgrigna, G.; Saebo, A.; Gawronski, S.; Popek, R.; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 197, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 187-194 ISSN 0269-7491 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : PM10 * PM2.5 * Leaf deposition * Quercus ilex * urban environment * atmospheric pollution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.839, year: 2015

  17. Regeneration of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) using shelterwood systems: Ecophysiology, silviculture and management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. parker

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing relaible methods for regenerating red oak (Quercus rubra) in Ontario. Traditional silviculture methods have not been successful in maintaining the curent levels of oak growing stock. In this paper, we review the ecology, physiology and reproductive biology of red oak. This discussion stresses the...

  18. Epiphytic bryophytes of Quercus forests in Central and North inland Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore García Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity patterns are governed by a complex network of interacting factors. Studies directed to disentangle the most important factors affecting diversity have frequently shown divergent results, which has encouraged a rewarding debate about the relative importance of each factor. Scale dependency has been identified as a direct cause of at least part of such divergences. However, studies with spatially-explicit measurements at different scales are costly and therefore they are relatively scarce despite their importance. Here, we present a database to disentangle the cross-scale variation in the importance of factors affecting the diversity of epiphytic bryophyte communities in Quercus dominated forests (Quercus ilex L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus faginea Lam. in the North-western region of the Iberian Peninsula. We provide species-per-site abundance information with more than 9000 entries and an environmental table containing 20 in situ measured variables at three different scales (forest, stand, and sample. The database will help to advance the research of cross-scale effects of diversity patterns while at the same time providing valuable information on the distribution of a poorly known group of organisms. 

  19. Heritability of first-order lateral root number in Quercus: implication for artificial regeneration of stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Taryn L. Kormanik; Stanley L. Zarnoch; Scott Schlarbaum

    2000-01-01

    Natural regeneration of oak (Quercus) species in the USA has been easy to obtain on the lower quality xeric sites (site index less than or equal to 20 m at age 50) by developing advanced oak reproduction before stands are harvested. This approach has not been successful with Q. rubra, Q. pagoda, or Q. alba...

  20. Analysis of cyclitols in different Quercus species by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Ruiz-Matute, Ana I; Alañón, María Elena; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad; de Julio-Torres, Luis F; Morales, Ramón; Martínez-Castro, Isabel

    2010-08-15

    The carbohydrate profile of some woods used for aging wines and spirits has been recently studied using a pressurized liquid extraction method, the main differences found being related to cyclitol content. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed study of these compounds in woods of different Quercus species in order to identify two unknown compounds which appeared in the extracts and to verify whether the obtained profile was homogeneous for other Quercus species. Besides the known monosaccharides and five cyclitols previously described, three deoxy-inositols (epi-, vibo- and scyllo-quercitol) were identified. The presence of these eight cyclitols was confirmed in all subgenera and species of Quercus analyzed, allowing a characteristic cyclitol profile. Three deoxy-inositols (quercitols) have been identified in the carbohydrate profile of oak wood. All examined Quercus species displayed a common profile consisting of four inositols and four quercitols, which represent a good dataset for characterization of this genus. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The phenolic extractives in southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiji Ohara; Richard W. Hemingway

    1989-01-01

    The bark of southern red oak (Quercus falcala Michx. var. falcala) is a rich source of quercitrin (quercetin-3-rhamnoside). It contains only low concentrations of (+)-catechin and no significant amounts of epicatechin or gallocatechin. The three major dimeric proanthocyanidins present are epicatechin-(4β→8)-...

  2. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  3. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa W. Alexander; Keith E. Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score from 304 to 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and to place clones into early, intermediate, and late phenology classes. Although the absolute number of clones in each phenological class...

  4. In Situ Dark Adaptation Enhances the Efficiency of DNA Extraction from Mature Pin Oak (Quercus palustris Leaves, Facilitating the Identification of Partial Sequences of the 18S rRNA and Isoprene Synthase (IspS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csengele E. Barta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mature oak (Quercus spp. leaves, although abundantly available during the plants’ developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites. We optimized a rapid, commercial kit based method to extract genomic DNA from dark- and light-adapted leaves. We demonstrated that in situ dark adaptation increases the yield and quality of genomic DNA obtained from mature oak leaves, yielding templates of sufficiently high quality for direct downstream applications, such as PCR amplification and gene identification. The quality of templates isolated from dark-adapted pin oak leaves particularly improved the amplification of larger fragments in our experiments. From DNA extracts prepared with our optimized method, we identified for the first time partial segments of the genes encoding 18S rRNA and isoprene synthase (IspS from pin oak (Quercus palustris, whose full genome has not yet been sequenced.

  5. Nuevas especies de Pythium que causan podredumbre radical de Quercus en España y Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, M.; Sánchez Hernández, Esperanza; Trapero Casas, Antonio; Jiménez, J.J.; Fernández, P.; Serrano Moral, María Socorro

    2008-01-01

    Pythium spiculum, una nueva especie recientemente descrita, se viene aislando desde 2003 de raíces y rizosfera de Quercus rotundifolia y Q. suber que sufren decaimiento en el sur de España y Portugal. En los suelos donde crecen formaciones de Quercus, esta especie ha sido aislada con frecuencias similares a las encontradas para Phytophthora cinnamomi, especie que, hasta el momento, ha sido el único oomiceto descrito como patógeno radical de Quercus en esta región. Las inoculaciones artificial...

  6. Estudio morfométrico de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae Morphometric study of Quercus sartorii and Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorismilda Martínez-Cabrera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio morfométrico con la finalidad de contribuir en la delimitación taxonómica de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis. Para ello, se revisó material de herbario y se recolectó material en 11 poblaciones distribuidas en los estados de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas y Veracruz, en México, incluyendo 2 poblaciones simpátricas. Los resultados del análisis de componentes principales y discriminante mostraron que los caracteres que contribuyeron a agrupar los individuos en su respectiva especie son los relacionados con el tamaño del fruto, en particular el diámetro de la bellota, de la nuez y de la cúpula. La bellota de Q. sartorii es de menor tamaño que la de Q. xalapensis. La variación detectada no se atribuyó a la latitud o altitud. El fenograma mostró la separación de 2 grupos que corresponden a los individuos de las 2 especies estudiadas, si los caracteres del fruto son incluidos. Además, de los caracteres cuantitativos ya mencionados, 3 del patrón de venación y 2 anatómicos contribuyeron a reconocer los individuos de cada especie. Estas diferencias se mantuvieron en los individuos de las poblaciones simpátricas, por lo que los resultados apoyaron la distinción de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis.A morphometric study was carried out in order to evaluate morphological variation of Quercus sartorii and Q. xalapensis and to contribute to their taxonomic delimitation. Herbarium specimens and material of 11 populations from Mexico in the states of Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz, including 2 sympatric populations, were studied. Characters from foliar architecture, fruits and anatomical features of periderm and wood were analyzed through multivariate and phenetic methods. Principal component and discriminant analyses showed that fruit characters such as acorn, nut, and cupule diameters contributed to group individuals in their species, the acorn of Q. sartorii being smaller than that of Q

  7. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  8. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza; Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose; Reig-Arminana, Jose; Sanz, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD 1.6 ) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  9. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: calatayud_viclor@gva.e [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose [Laboratorio de Anatomia e Histologia Vegetal ' Julio Iranzo' , Jardin Botanico, Universitat de Valencia, c/Quart 80, 46008 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Reig-Arminana, Jose [Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD{sub 1.6}) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  10. Pattern recognition of acorns from different Quercus species based on oil content and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (i to characterize different species of Quercus genus and (ii to discriminate among them on the basis of the content and fatty acid composition of the oil in their fruits and/or their morphological aspects via pattern recognition techniques (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Cluster Analysis, CA, and Discriminant Analysis, DA. Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd., grown in the same stand in the centre of Portugal, were investigated. When oil content and respective fatty acid composition were used to characterize samples, well-separated groups corresponding to each of the species were observed by PCA and confirmed by CA and DA. The ‘‘width’’ and ‘‘length’’ of acorns exhibited a low discriminant power. Acorns from Q. rotundifolia showed the highest average oil content followed by Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica acorns (9.1, 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of Q. rotundifolia and Q. suber oils are similar to olive oil while the oil from Q. pyrenaica acorns is more unsaturated.El objetivo de este estudio fué (i la caracterización de diferentes especies del género Quercus y (ii la clasificación de las mismas en base al contenido y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite de sus frutos y/o en sus caracteres morfológicos, via técnicas de patrón de reconocimiento (Análisis de Componentes Principales, ACP, Análisis de Cluster, AC, y Análisis Discriminante, AD. Se han estudiado Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd., pertenecientes a la misma zona del centro de Portugal. Al emplear el contenido de aceite y sus respectivas composiciones de ácidos grasos para caracterizar a las muestras, el ACP reveló grupos bien separados correspondientes a cada especie, los cuales, a su vez, se confirmarón con el AC y el AD. El ‘‘ancho’’ y ‘‘longitud’’ de las bellotas

  11. Comparative Studies Of Oak (Quercus Petraea L. Reservations Within Cluj Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian FUSTOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania it is necessary a sustained effort to extend the forest areas through artificial regeneration. The purpose of this study is to show the correlation between the heights and diameters of Quercus petraea trees from seed reserves and their seed production. They were chosen 80 trees situated in four Quercus petraea seed reserves of Cluj County. The trees selected were located at a distance of 30 meters from each other. It has been found that the two measured variables (core diameter and trees height are direct positive correlated, in the sense that increasing the value of a variable and thus leads to an increase in the other. Choosing trees with special qualities have great importance when it comes to transmitting genetic gain new generations. Comprehensive analysis of stationary and vegetation characteristics result in reproductive material with significant values as seeds quality and adaptability.

  12. A neighborhood analysis of the consequences of Quercus suber decline for regeneration dynamics in Mediterranean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ibáñez

    Full Text Available In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Mediterranean forests affected by the decline of their dominant species (Quercus suber. Our objective was to understand how the impacts of neighbor trees and shrubs on recruitment could affect future dynamics of these declining forests. Seeds of the three dominant tree species (Quercus suber, Olea europaea and Quercus canariensis were sown in six sites during two consecutive years. Using a spatially-explicit, neighborhood approach we developed models that explained the observed spatial variation in seedling emergence, survival, growth and photochemical efficiency as a function of the size, identity, health, abundance and distribution of adult trees and shrubs in the neighborhood. We found strong neighborhood effects for all the performance estimators, particularly seedling emergence and survival. Tree neighbors positively affected emergence, independently of species identity or health. Alternatively, seedling survival was much lower in neighborhoods dominated by defoliated and dead Q. suber trees than in neighborhoods dominated by healthy trees. For the two oak species, these negative effects were consistent over the three years of the experimental seedlings. These results indicate that ongoing changes in species' relative abundance and canopy trees' health might alter the successional trajectories of Mediterranean oak-forests through neighbor-specific impacts on seedlings. The recruitment failure of dominant late-successional oaks in the gaps opened after Q. suber death would indirectly favor the establishment of other coexisting woody species, such as drought-tolerant shrubs. This could lead current

  13. Seasonal Dynamics of Mobile Carbon Supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the Upper Elevational Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wan-Ze; Cao, Min; Wang, San-Gen; Xiao, Wen-Fan; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (treeline formation. PMID:22479567

  14. COENOTICAL CHAINS OF ACER PLATANOIDES AND QUERCUS ROBUR IN THE FORESTS OF NOVGOROD-SEVERSKOYE POLESYE

    OpenAIRE

    Skliar V. G.

    2012-01-01

    We summarized information on association of small undergrowth of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and English oak (Quercus robur L.) under the canopy of the forest with plants that form the grass-shrub layer within Novgorod-Severskoye Polesye. We founded that the association at certain extent depends on the type of population behavior of undergrowth and grasses. Small undergrowth of A. platanoides being the tolerant species according to the type of population behavior demonstrates negati...

  15. Monitoring Genetic Stability in Quercus serrata Thunb. Somatic Embryogenesis Using RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh C., Thakur; Susumu, Goto; Katsuaki, Ishii; S. Mohan, Jain; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; University of Helsinki

    1999-01-01

    Genetic stability of propagules regenerated via somatic embryogenesis is of paramount importance for its application to clonal forestry. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to determine the genetic stability in somatic embryogenesis of Quercus serrata Thunb. (Japanese white oak). Forty samples from an embryogenic line, consisting of regenerated plantlets, somatic embryos, and embryogenic calli, were examined using 54 decanucleotide primers. A total of 6520 clear reproduc...

  16. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  17. Growth overcompensation against O3 exposure in two Japanese oak species, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, grown under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Tobita, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on the growth of two mid-successional oak species native to East Asia, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, we measured gas exchange and biomass allocation in seedlings (initially 1-year-old) grown under combinations of elevated CO2 (550 μmol mol(-1)) and O3 (twice-ambient) for two growing seasons in an open-field experiment in which root growth was not limited. Both the oak species showed a significant growth enhancement under the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 (indicated by total dry mass; over twice of ambient-grown plants, p CO2. Such an over-compensative response in the two Japanese oak species resulted in greater plant growth under the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 than elevated CO2 alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Population structure and post-glacial migration routes of Quercus robur and Quercus petraea in Denmark, based on chloroplast DNA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joehnk, N.; Siegismund, H.R. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Hoersholm (Denmark). The Arboretum

    1997-07-01

    Populations of Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl. were shown previously to be fixed for the same chloroplast DNA marker in western Europe and for another form of this marker in eastern Europe. Application of this marker to 17 Danish populations of Q. robur showed significant population differentiation (G{sub ST} 0.6). Restricted gene flow, low effective population size, restricted colonization ability of oak in dense forest and historical data might explain this. In addition, the genetic structure in eastern and western Denmark was quite different. In Jutland the populations were homogeneous for the western marker, in eastern Denmark, significant population differentiation and high diversity within populations were found. Post-glacial migration is likely to explain the geographical structure. Oaks have immigrated to Jutland from the west, whereas eastern Denmark was colonized from both east and west, forming a hybrid zone where immigrants met. Data from three populations of Q. petraea and from two hybrid populations also support this. 22 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Effect of Wind on the Relation of Leaf N, P Stoichiometry with Leaf Morphology in Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry correlates closely to leaf morphology, which is strongly impacted by wind at multiple scales. However, it is not clear how leaf N, P stoichiometry and its relationship to leaf morphology changes with wind load. We determined the leaf N and P concentrations and leaf morphology—including specific leaf area (SLA and leaf dissection index (LDI—for eight Quercus species under a simulated wind load for seven months. Leaf N and P concentrations increased significantly under these conditions for Quercus acutissima, Quercus rubra, Quercus texana, and Quercus palustris—which have elliptic leaves—due to their higher N, P requirements and a resultant leaf biomass decrease, which is a tolerance strategy for Quercus species under a wind load. Leaf N:P was relatively stable under wind for all species, which supports stoichiometric homeostasis. Leaf N concentrations showed a positive correlation to SLA, leaf N and P concentrations showed positive correlations to LDI under each wind treatment, and the slope of correlations was not affected by wind, which indicates synchronous variations between leaf stoichiometry and leaf morphology under wind. However, the intercept of correlations was affected by wind, and leaf N and P use efficiency decreased under the wind load, which suggests that the Quercus species changes from “fast investment-return” in the control to “slow investment-return” under windy conditions. These results will be valuable to understanding functional strategies for plants under varying wind loads, especially synchronous variations in leaf traits along a wind gradient.

  20. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.

  1. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  2. In vitro and in vivo assessment of anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of Oak leaves (Quercus convallata and Quercus arizonica) infusions and fermented beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; González-Laredo, Rubén F; Alcantar-Orozco, Esteban J; Monserrat-Juarez, Victor H; Ramírez-España, Julio C; Gallegos-Infante, Jose Alberto; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of oak leaves infusions and fermented beverages from Quercus convallata and Q. arizonica in vitro and in vivo. Female C57BL/6 mice fed with high saturated fat and fructose diet-induced obesity were treated with oak leaves beverages (200 μL/per day equivalent to 15mg of lyophilized sample/Kg of body weight for infusions and 31mg of lyophilized sample/Kg of body weight for fermented beverages) for 3months and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Blood plasma was obtained for determination of glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress markers (ABTS, nitric oxide, and ORAC assays). Insulin resistance was estimated using the product of triglycerides and glucose (TyG). Oak leaves infusions and fermented beverages exhibited exerted inhibition of α-amylase (8-15% and 5-9%, respectively) and α-glucosidase (98% and 99%, respectively) enzymes. After OGTT, the groups treated with either oak leaves infusions or fermented beverages showed lower glucose levels compared with the obesity control group (18%) and a similar glucose tolerance to healthy control group. On long-term evaluation, intervention groups showed a significant reduction in fasting glucose concentrations (41-50% for oak leaves infusions and 52-66% for fermented beverages) and TyG index (4.2-4.6% for oak leaves infusions and 5.9-7.5% for fermented beverages) compared with the obese control group. Oak leaves infusions and fermented beverages had antioxidant potential in vitro and scavenging activity for radicals such as peroxyl and peroxynitrite anions. Our results suggest anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of beverages prepared with leaves of Quercus species in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Climate Trends and Drought Events on the Growth of Oaks (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. within and beyond Their Natural Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Perkins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to predicted climate change, it is important to know to what extent trees and forests will be impacted by chronic and episodic drought stress. As oaks play an important role in European forestry, this study focuses on the growth response of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur (L. under contrasting climatic conditions. Analyses cover both site conditions of their natural occurrence (Southern Germany and Northeast Italy and site conditions beyond their natural range (South Africa. The sites beyond their natural range represent possible future climate conditions. Tree-ring series from three different sites were compared and analysed using dendrochronological methods. The long-term growth development of oak trees appears to be similar across the sites, yet the growth level over time is higher in the drier and warmer climate than in the temperate zone. When compared with previous growth periods, growth models reveal that oak trees grew more than expected during the last decades. A recent setback in growth can be observed, although growth is still higher than the model predicts. By focusing on the short-term reactions of the trees, distinct drought events and periods were discovered. In each climatic region, similar growth reactions developed after drought periods. A decline in growth rate occurred in the second or third year after the drought event. Oaks in South Africa are currently exposed to a warmer climate with more frequent drought events. This climatic condition is a future prediction also for Europe. In view of this climate change, we discuss the consequences of the long- and short- term growth behaviour of oaks grown in the climate of South Africa for a tree species selection that naturally occurs in Europe.

  4. Quercus pollen season dynamics in the Iberian peninsula: response to meteorological parameters and possible consequences of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Galan, Carmen; Jato, Victoria; Belmonte, Jordina; de la Guardia, Consuelo; Fernandez, Delia; Gutierrez, Montserrat; Aira, M; Roure, Joan; Ruiz, Luis; Trigo, Mar; Dominguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of the Quercus pollination season were studied in 14 different localities of the Iberian Peninsula from 1992-2004. Results show that Quercus flowering season has tended to start earlier in recent years, probably due to the increased temperatures in the pre-flowering period, detected at study sites over the second half of the 20th century. A Growing Degree Days forecasting model was used, together with future meteorological data forecast using the Regional Climate Model developed by the Hadley Meteorological Centre, in order to determine the expected advance in the start of Quercus pollination in future years. At each study site, airborne pollen curves presented a similar pattern in all study years, with different peaks over the season attributable in many cases to the presence of several species. High pollen concentrations were recorded, particularly at Mediterranean sites. This study also proposes forecasting models to predict both daily pollen values and annual pollen emission. All models were externally validated using data for 2001 and 2004, with acceptable results. Finally, the impact of the highly-likely climate change on Iberian Quercus pollen concentration values was studied by applying RCM meteorological data for different future years, 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2099. Results indicate that under a doubled CO(2) scenario at the end of the 21st century Quercus pollination season could start on average one month earlier and airborne pollen concentrations will increase by 50 % with respect to current levels, with higher values in Mediterranean inland areas.

  5. Characterization of Acorn Fruit Oils Extracted from Selected Mediterranean Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rousan, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to identifying the acorn fruit oil composition of three Mediterranean white oak group species, Quercus aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI, and Quercus calliprinus (QC. Samples were estimated for the oil contents of acorn fruits, oil chemical and physical constants, fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and sterols.The oil content, expressed as dry weight, was found to be 3.40-7.51%. The physical and chemical constants included specific gravity 0.912-0.922, refractive index 1.4529-1.4645, specific extinction at 232 nm 2.497-2.536 and at 270 nm 1.495-2.037, iodine value 75.2-87.6, and saponification value 192.6-219.4. The fatty acid compositions were determined by GC as methyl esters. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (53.3-56.1%, linoleic 21.3-23.4%, palmitic 17.8-18.7%, linolenic 1.5-1.6% and stearic acid 1.02-1.60%. The Tocopherol content was high in the range of 1440-1783 mg kg-1, γ-tocopherol constituted 84-91% of total tocopherols. Phenolic compounds were in remarkable amounts in all the three species 84-109 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil. Total sterol contents were between 2040-2480 mg kg-1 oil, with β-sitosterol being the main component comprising of 77.20-84.61%, followed by ∆5-avenasterol (5.8-11.4%, campesterol (3.6-4.5%, and stigmasterol (2.6-3.8. The cholesterol content was relatively high (0.42-0.55%.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la composición de aceites de bellota de tres especies del grupo del roble blanco del Mediterráneo, Quercus Aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI y Quercus calliprinus (QC. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por el contenido de aceite, parámetros físico-químicos del aceite, perfil de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, compuestos fenólicos y esteroles. El contenido de aceite, expresado en peso seco encontrado fue de 3,40 a 7,51%. Las constantes físico-químicas fueron: densidad 0,912-0,922, índice de refracción 1,4529 a 1,4645, extinción espec

  6. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. Method: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. Results: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent,...

  7. Diversidade funcional em sistemas de montado: fluxo de nutrientes em Quercus rotundifolia Lam. Functional diversity in “montado” systems: nutrients fluxes in Quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes dos ciclos de nutrientes em montados de Quercus rotundifolia Lam., relacionados com a precipitação foram estudados na região de Évora, de Novembro de 1996 a Dezembro de 2000. A precipitação bruta, o gotejo a diferentes distâncias do tronco e o escorrimento ao longo do tronco das árvores foram quantificados de modo contínuo, sendo colhidas amostras semanalmente para se proceder à respectiva caracterização química. A quantidade de nutrientes transferidos para o solo através das diferentes soluções foi também determinada. Verificou-se um acréscimo da concentração das espécies iónicas no gotejo em relação à precipitação bruta, o qual foi ainda mais manifesto no escorrimento ao longo do tronco. Estudaram-se, igualmente, as características físico-químicas do solo sob e fora da influência da copa destas árvores, num montado relativamente esparso. Além disso, também se avaliou a quantidade das camadas orgânicas e a quantidade de nutrientes aí retidos. As características físicas e químicas do solo apresentaram, de um modo geral, uma diferenciação positiva em resultado da presença das árvores. Avaliou-se a taxa de mineralização de N nas áreas sob e fora da acção do coberto das árvores, tendo-se observado uma mais elevada disponibilidade deste nutriente nas áreas do sob coberto.Nutrient cycling in Quercus rotundifolia Lam. systems, regarding precipitation was studied at Évora (Southern Portugal, since November of 1996 until December of 2000. The amounts of gross rainfall, throughfall (at different distances from the tree trunk and stemflow were measured continuously and samples for chemical analysis were collected weekly. The concentration of nutrients was higher in the throughfall than in the gross rainfall, especially in the areas closer to the tree trunk. Nutrients transferred to soil, through bulk rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were quantified. The highest concentration of nutrients

  8. Coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, susceptibility and response to goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, injury in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Nancy E. Grulke; Miles Daly; Cesar Godinez; Susan L. Schilling; Philip J. Riggan; Steven J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    Oak mortality is often associated with a complex of decline factors. We describe the morphological and physiological responses of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, in California to an invasive insect, the goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and evaluate drought as a...

  9. Comparative gas-exchange in leaves of intact and clipped, natural and planted cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Lockhart; John D. Hodges

    2005-01-01

    Gas-exchange measurements, including C022-exchange rate (net photosynthesis), stomatal conductance, and transpiration, were conducted on intact and clipped cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings growing in the field and in a nursery bed. Seedlings in the field, released from midstory and understory woody competition,...

  10. High-light acclimation in Quercus robur L.seedlings upon over-topped a shaded environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna M. Jensen; Emile S. Gardiner; Kevin C. Vaughn

    2012-01-01

    High developmental plasticity at the seedling-level during acclimation to the light environment may be an important determinant of seedling establishment and growth in temperate broadleaf forests, especially in dense understories where spatial light availability can vary greatly. Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings were raised beneath a...

  11. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  12. Effects of above- and below-ground competition from shrubs on photosynthesis, transpiration and growth in Quercus robur L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna M. Jensen; Magnus Lof; Emile S. Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    For a tree seedling to successfully establish in dense shrubbery, it must maintain function under heterogeneous resource availability. We evaluated leaf-level acclimation in photosynthetic capacity, seedling-level transpiration, and seedling morphology and growth to gain an understanding of the effects of above- and below-ground competition on Quercus robur seedlings....

  13. Recalcitrant Behavior of Cherrybark Oak Seed: An FT-IR Study of Desiccation Sensitivity in Quercus pagoda Raf. Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Sowa; Kristina F. Connor

    2003-01-01

    The recalcitrant behavior of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) acorns was examined in terms of effects of moisture content on seed storage longevity and (short term) seed germination. Seed samples collected over two consecutive years were fully hydrated, then subjected to drying under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity on the...

  14. Ecología y gestión de las especies de Quercus frente al cambio global

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón, Teodoro; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio Manuel; Villar Montero, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Comunicación oral S.04-20-O, presentada en la Sesión 04: Quercus: decaimiento, regeneración y gestión frente al cambio global, del citado congreso celebrado del 6-10, mayo, 2013, en Pamplona-Iruña, España.

  15. Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bareroot Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to shortterm (1, 3, and 5...

  16. The influence of cultural treatments of the long-term survival and growth of planted Quercus rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; Kim C. Steiner

    2011-01-01

    A northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantation testing 20 nursery stock and planting methods was used to evaluate treatments 3, 6, 10, and 17 years after planting. Survival over all treatments was 92 percent at age 3 and declined to 74 percent, 56 percent, and 39 percent at ages 6, 10, and 17, respectively. At age 17, survival was highest for...

  17. Container volume and subirrigation schedule influence Quercus variabilis seedling growth and nutrient status in the nursery and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiaoyu Sun; R. Kasten Dumroese; Yong Liu

    2018-01-01

    Container volume and irrigation management affect seedling growth in the nursery and field. We evaluated the effects of container volumes (D40, 656 ml; D60, 983 ml) and subirrigation schedules (85%, 75%, 65%, and 55% of 100% total substrate moisture content, TSMC) on seedling growth in a greenhouse and outplanting performance of Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis...

  18. Distribution of Quercus agrifolia mycorrhizae deep within weathered bedrock: a potential mechanism for transport of stored water

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Bornyasz; R. Graham; M. Allen

    2002-01-01

    In southwestern California, Quercus agrifolia distribution closely matches regions of granitic regolith. High annual evapotranspiration demand and inherent shallow soil conditions lead to a dependence on a deep rooting system and an ability to access water from deep within the regolith. Most of the plant available water in weathered granitic rock is...

  19. Photosynthesis and xanthophyll cycle-mediated photoprotection in leaves of Quercus rubra and Q. alba seedlings of different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Dianpeng Xu; Paul P. Kormanik; Clanton C. Black

    1997-01-01

    Two and three years after the outplanting of 1-0 northern red oak (Quercus rubra, NRO) and white oak (Q. alba, WO) nursery stocks, the highest net photosynthetic rates (Amax) were observed from seedlings growing on a clearcut site, followed by those under a pine stand. Both NRO and WO...

  20. Field performance of Quercus bicolor established as repeatedly air-root-pruned container and bareroot planting stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek; Larry D. Godsey; William D. Walter; Harold E. Garrett; John P. Dwyer

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of repeated air-root-pruning of seedlings when stepping up to progressively larger containers include excellent lateral root distribution immediately below the root collar and an exceptionally fibrous root ball. To evaluate long-term field performance of repeatedly air-root-pruned container stock, three plantings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor...

  1. Agrilus auroguttatus exit hole distributions on Quercus agrifolia boles and a sampling method to estimate their density on individual trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Mary Louise Flint; Robert C. Venette; Steven J. Seybold

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, invasive phloem and wood borers have become important pests in North America. To aid tree sampling and survey efforts for the newly introduced goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), we examined spatial patterns of exit holes on the boles (trunks) of 58 coast live oak, Quercus...

  2. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  3. Adaptive and plastic responses of Quercus petraea populations to climate across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sáenz-Romero, Cuauhtémoc; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Ducousso, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    geographically diverse populations. The tests were planted on 23 field sites in six European countries, in order to expose them to a wide range of climates, including sites reflecting future warmer and drier climates. By assessing tree height and survival, our objectives were twofold: (i) to identify the source......How temperate forests will respond to climate change is uncertain; projections range from severe decline to increased growth. We conducted field tests of sessile oak (Quercus petraea), a widespread keystone European forest tree species, including more than 150 000 trees sourced from 116...... of differential population responses to climate (genetic differentiation due to past divergent climatic selection vs. plastic responses to ongoing climate change) and (ii) to explore which climatic variables (temperature or precipitation) trigger the population responses. Tree growth and survival were modeled...

  4. Properties of Hungarian oak(quercus conferta Kit. wood from the Hilandar Monastery forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zdravko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study results of the basic physical and strength properties of Hungarian oak (Quercus conferta Kit. wood from the Kakovo Monastery forests of Hilandar Monastery in Greece. Wood properties were analyzed in detail, as an indispensable proof of wood quality and its use for joinery, interiors and wooden floors. The basic physical properties of wood (moisture content at the time of tree felling, density and volume porosity and the basic strength properties (compressive strength, bending strength and module of elasticity were researched. The results are presented in Tables and in Diagrams with statistical parameters and compared to the literature data. The correlation of the study properties of wood was also analyzed.

  5. RESISTENCIA AL IMPACTO DE LA MADERA DE DIEZ ENCINOS (Quercus MEXICANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dávalos-Sotelo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los valores de resistencia al impacto o tenacidad de la madera de diez especies de encinos mexicanos de los estados de Jalisco, México, Puebla y Veracruz ensayados en condición verde con una máquina tipo FPL. No se detectaron diferencias significativas en los valores entre los individuos de la misma especie que crecen en diferentes estados, por lo que puede establecerse un valor común. Existe un efecto directamente proporcional de la densidad básica sobre la tenacidad, el cual se acentúa al incluir los valores del espesor de la pared celular como una variable independiente adicional en los análisis de regresión múltiple. Finalmente, en este trabajo se incluyen los valores de las características anatómicas, físicas y mecánicas de la madera de Quercus crassipes.

  6. Grazing effects on forage production and botanical composition in a Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis silvopastoral system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, A.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is considered as a major factor affecting forage production as well as botanical composition of many silvopastoral systems. In order to study these effects, three pairs of grazed and protected plots were established in a Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis silvopastoral system. The experiment was carried out in western Greece, 15 km west of the city of Agrinion. Data were collected for two continuous years and included the determination of palatable and unpalatable to animals plant species as well as the botanical composition. The results suggest that heavy grazing decreased biomass production approximately threefold. Grazing also affected number of acorns, botanical composition as well as vegetation cover whereas had no effect on natural regeneration in the study period.

  7. Winter season corticular photosynthesis in Cornus florida, Acer rubrum, Quercus alba, and Liriodendron tulipifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, J.M.; McLaughlin, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    Winter season corticular photosynthesis was studied in four species of deciduous trees: dogwood (Cornus florida), red maple (Acer rubrum), white oak (Quercus alba), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). Techniques included measuring CO 2 uptake at varying light intensities, relating the apparent photosynthetic capacities to seasonal changes in chlorophyll content of twigs and determining the fate of assimilated carbon over time. Dogwood was the most photosynthetically active of the four species studied; however, gross photosynthesis did not exceed respiration in any of the four species. Photosynthetic activity of dogwood twigs was estimated at 10% of that of dogwood leaves on a weight basis and 85% on a surface area basis. Photosynthetic activity was generally related to shade tolerance ranking and was on the order of dogwood much greater than red maple much greater than white oak approx. = yellow-poplar. Little change in chlorophyll content occurred over the January-April 1979 study interval

  8. Experimental minimum threshold for Phytophthora cinnamomi root disease expression on Quercus suber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Socorro SERRANO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus suber seedlings were potted in soils infested with increasing concentrations of Phytophthora cinnamomi chlamydospores and submitted to weekly flooding for 3 months to favour root infections. Increasing quantities of chlamydospores led to an exponential increase in their ability to germinate. Root symptoms (necrosis and/or absence of feeder roots were significantly more severe than those recorded in uninfested soil only for plants potted in soils infested with 61 cfu g-1 or more. Although generated using potting mix, this minimum threshold represents a tool for checking the potential infectivity of infested soils or to assess the effectiveness of some control methods to reduce soil inoculum. However, a low level of root infection was recorded even at 3 cfu g-1. Therefore, long-term disease risk may be present whenever the pathogen is detectable in oak forest soils.

  9. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching

  10. Chemical composition of barks from Quercus faginea trees and characterization of their lipophilic and polar extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joana P A; Miranda, Isabel; Sousa, Vicelina B; Pereira, Helena

    2018-01-01

    The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine.

  11. In vitro ectomycorrhiza formation by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus in Eucalyptus grandis Formação de ectomicorrizas in vitro por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus em Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Dutra Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of ectomycorrhizas by monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. in Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. was studied by in vitro synthesis in Petri dishes. The formation of ectomycorrhizas was observed for all strains tested. Ectomycorrhizas formed by the monokaryotic strains presented a sheath of hyphae around the roots and a Hartig net limited to the epidermis layer, typical of the angiosperm ectomycorrhizas. Colonization rates, a measure of the number of ectomycorrhizas in relation to the total number of lateral root tips, varied from 23 to 62%. Some monokaryotic strains stimulated the formation of lateral roots, promoting increases of up to 109% above the control. The presence of some of the isolates in the in vitro synthesis medium stimulated the production of thicker lateral root tips. The dimensions of the lateral roots tips and ectomycorrhizas varied from one isolate to the next, indicating a variation in their capacity to provoke morphological changes in the host plant roots. The dikaryotic strain M5M11 presented higher values for lateral root yield, number of ectomycorrhizas, and colonization percentage than the corresponding monokaryotic strains, M5 and M11. This indicated the possibility of selecting compatible performing monokaryotic isolates for the yield of superior dikaryotic strains. The set of monokaryotic strains tested varied greatly in their ability to colonize E. grandis roots and cause secondary metabolism-related morphological changes in roots, providing a wealth of model systems for the study of genetic, physiological, and morphogenetic processes involved in Pisolithus-Eucalyptus ectomycorrhiza formation.A formação de ectomicorrizas por isolados monocarióticos e dicarióticos de Pisolithus microcarpus (Cooke & Massee G. Cunn. em Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maid. foi estudada usando-se o método de síntese in vitro em placas de Petri. A formação de

  12. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...

  13. Removal of acorns of the alien oak Quercus rubra on the ground by scatter-hoarding animals in Belgian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merceron, NR.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Quercus rubra L. is considered an invasive species in several European countries. However, little is known about its dispersal in the introduced range. Objectives. We investigated the significance of animal dispersal of Q. rubra acorns on the ground by vertebrates in its introduced range, and identified the animal species involved. Method. During two consecutive autumns, the removal of acorns from Q. rubra and from a native oak was assessed weekly in forest sites in Belgium. We used automated detection camera traps to identify the animals that removed acorns. Results. Quercus rubra acorns were removed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L., red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L., rats (Rattus sp., and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.. The two former are scatter-hoarding rodents and can be considered potential dispersers. Conclusions. Dispersal of Q. rubra acorns in Western Europe by scatter-hoarding animals may help the species increasingly colonize forest ecosystems.

  14. Leptospira spp. y leptospirosis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Romero-Vivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis, la enfermedad bacteriana zoonótica y emergente más importante en el mundo, es causada por las especies patógenas de Leptospira spp. Han sido descritas veinte especies de Leptospira spp.; se ha determinado la secuencia del ADN genómico de algunas cepas patógenas; la función de la mayoría de los genes involucrados en su patogénesis permanece desconocida. La leptospirosis humana presenta un rango de síntomas que van desde una fiebre indiferenciada hasta una ictericia, hemorragia, fallas renales y pulmonares severas. La administración temprana e intravenosa de penicilina G es requerida para reducir las tasas de mortalidad, pero los antibióticos pueden no ser efectivos en la enfermedad pulmonar severa. En las Américas, las áreas de alto riesgo son Brasil, Centroamérica y el Caribe. En Colombia se han realizado pocos estudios. La prueba serológica de oro, la microaglutinación, tiene alta sesibilidad y especificidad cuando se usan baterías de serovariedades locales, pero es serogrupo específica. Las vacunas generan respuestas específicas para la serovariedad usada, pero no previenen la infección o trasmisión. Problemas en el diagnóstico de laboratorio de la leptospirosis conllevan a un subregistro en el número de casos; altas tasas de mortalidad asociadas a fallas renal y pulmonar son resultado de las dificultades en el manejo de los casos.

  15. A data mining approach to improve multiple regression models of soil nitrate concentration predictions in Quercus rotundifolia montados (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Jorge; Madeira, Manuel; Gazarini, Luiz; Neves, José; Vicente, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The changes in the soil nitrate concentration were studied during 2 years in a ‘‘montado’’ ecosystem, in the South of Portugal. Total rainfall, air and soil temperature and soil water content under and outside Quercus rotundifolia canopy were also evaluated. A cluster analysis was carried out using climatic and microclimatic parameters in order to maximize the intraclass similarity and minimize the interclass similarity. It was used the k-Means Clustering Method. Se...

  16. Efectos del ataque de fitófagos perforadores en el fruto de la encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Cano Sánchez, Esperanza; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1996-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizan pruebas de germinación de frutos de encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) afectadas por los fitófagos Curculio elephas Gyll. (COL., CURCULIONIDAE) y las especies del género Cydia, C. penkleriana (D. & Schiff.) y C. fagiglandana (Zel.) (LER, TORTRICIDAE). También recoge una serie de mediciones del fruto cuya finalidad es valorar los daños directos de estas especies.

  17. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on growth and leaf litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Sangsub; Chae, Hee-Myung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Shim, Jae-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched C...

  18. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-García, Marcela; Rosales-Castro, Martha; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.

    2016-01-01

    Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE) and organic extract (OE). The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1 ± 12.0 GAE/g). Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC); OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and the extracts (50 mg/kg) were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets. PMID:27867402

  20. Seasonally dynamic fungal communities in the Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere differ between urban and nonurban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, A; Jones, K L

    2010-04-01

    *The fungal richness, diversity and community composition in the Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere were compared across a growing season in trees located in six stands within and outside a small urban center using 454-sequencing and DNA tagging. The approaches did not differentiate between endophytic and epiphytic fungal communities. *Fungi accumulated in the phyllosphere rapidly and communities were temporally dynamic, with more than a third of the analyzed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and half of the BLAST-inferred genera showing distinct seasonal patterns. The seasonal patterns could be explained by fungal life cycles or environmental tolerances. *The communities were hyperdiverse and differed between the urban and nonurban stands, albeit not consistently across the growing season. Foliar macronutrients (nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and sulfur (S)), micronutrients (boron (B), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se)) and trace elements (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) were enriched in the urban trees, probably as a result of anthropogenic activities. Because of correlations with the experimental layout, these chemical elements should not be considered as community drivers without further empirical studies. *We suggest that a combination of mechanisms leads to differences between urban and nonurban communities. Among those are stand isolation and size, nutrient and pollutant accumulation plus stand management, including fertilization and litter removal.

  1. Quercus macrocarpa annual, early- and latewood widths as hydroclimatic proxies, southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstone, Jessica R; Sauchyn, David J

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in size of annual ring-widths of Quercus species suggest that environmental factors influence the size and density of vessels within the ring, either by acting as a limiting factor for growth or through fine tuning of the wood structure to environmental factors. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of Q. macrocarpa to provide multiple dendroclimatic proxies for the Canadian Prairies, by investigating growth responses of annual, early- and latewood widths to regional climate variability. Results indicate that ring width chronologies, from southeastern Saskatchewan capture regional signals related to moisture and drought conditions. Correlations suggest that late-wood widths are more representative of annual ring-widths, than are early-wood widths, and are the best proxy of seasonal fluctuations in climate. Thus regression models that include latewood widths were able to account for more variance in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) than when annual ring-widths are used as the only proxy. This study demonstrates that Q. macrocarpa can provide multiple dendroclimatic proxies for investigating large scale climatic fluctuations at annual and sub-annual time scales. It is novel in terms of sub-annual analysis of tree-rings in a region that previously lacked dendrochronological research.

  2. Back to America: tracking the origin of European introduced populations of Quercus rubra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Nastasia R; Leroy, Thibault; Chancerel, Emilie; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Borkowski, Daniel S; Ducousso, Alexis; Monty, Arnaud; Porté, Annabel J; Kremer, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    Quercus rubra has been introduced in Europe since the end of the 17th century. It is widely distributed today across this continent and considered invasive in some countries. Here, we investigated the distribution of genetic diversity of both native and introduced populations with the aim of tracing the origin of introduced populations. A large sampling of 883 individuals from 73 native and 38 European locations were genotyped at 69 SNPs. In the natural range, we found a continuous geographic gradient of variation with a predominant latitudinal component. We explored the existence of ancestral populations by performing Bayesian clustering analysis and found support for two or three ancestral genetic clusters. Approximate Bayesian Computations analyses based on these two or three clusters support recent extensive secondary contacts between them, suggesting that present-day continuous genetic variation resulted from recent admixture. In the introduced range, one main genetic cluster was not recovered in Europe, suggesting that source populations were preferentially located in the northern part of the natural distribution. However, our results cannot refute the introduction of populations from the southern states that did not survive in Europe.

  3. Genetic stability evaluation of quercus suber l. somatic embryogenesis by rapd analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, P.; Costa, A.; Rocha, A.C.C.; Santos, C.

    2011-01-01

    A reliable protocol for adult Quercus suber L. somatic embryogenesis (SE) was developed recently. To evaluate the potential use of this protocol in cork oak forest breeding programs, it is essential to guarantee somatic embryos/emblings genetic stability. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is currently used to assess somaclonal variation providing information on genetic variability of the micropropagation process. In this work, SE was induced from adult trees by growing leaf explants on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and zeatin. Embling conversion took place on MS medium without growth regulators. DNA from donor tree, somatic embryos and emblings was used to assess genetic variability by RAPD fingerprinting. Fourteen primers produced 165 genetic loci with high quality and reproducibility. Despite somatic embryos originated some poor quality PCR-profiles, replicable and excellent fingerprints were obtained for both donor plant and embling. Results presented no differences among regenerated emblings and donor plant. Hence, the SE protocol used did not induce, up to moment, any genetic variability, confirming data previously obtained with other molecular/genetic techniques, supporting that this protocol may be used to provide true-to-type plants from important forestry species. (author)

  4. Biomass estimation with high resolution satellite images: A case study of Quercus rotundifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Adélia M. O.; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Mesquita, Paulo; Marques da Silva, José R.

    2015-03-01

    Forest biomass has had a growing importance in the world economy as a global strategic reserve, due to applications in bioenergy, bioproduct development and issues related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Current techniques used for forest inventory are usually time consuming and expensive. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop reliable, low cost methods that can be used for forest biomass estimation and monitoring. This study uses new techniques to process high spatial resolution satellite images (0.70 m) in order to assess and monitor forest biomass. Multi-resolution segmentation method and object oriented classification are used to obtain the area of tree canopy horizontal projection for Quercus rotundifolia. Forest inventory allows for calculation of tree and canopy horizontal projection and biomass, the latter with allometric functions. The two data sets are used to develop linear functions to assess above ground biomass, with crown horizontal projection as an independent variable. The functions for the cumulative values, both for inventory and satellite data, for a prediction error equal or smaller than the Portuguese national forest inventory (7%), correspond to stand areas of 0.5 ha, which include most of the Q.rotundifolia stands.

  5. Response of two populations of holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) to sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Rodríguez, J; Sanz, J M; Merino, J

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with seedlings of Quercus rotundifolia Lam., an evergreen schlerophyllous tree typical of the Spanish Mediterranean climate environments. Fruits were collected in two distant (800 km) populations located in the center (southern Spain) and northern border (northern Spain) of the area of distribution of the species. One-month-old potted plants were grown for 130 days in an enriched atmosphere of SO2 (0.23 ppm, 14 h/day) in controlled (growth chamber) conditions. Both northern and southern plants underwent a significant decrease in growth rate as a consequence of the treatment. Even so, plants appear to be quite resistant to SO2 compared with either more temperate or more productive species. The southern population was more sensitive to the treatment, as reflected by the bigger decrease in both growth and photosynthetic rates. Differences in resistance appear to be related to the biogeographic origin of the populations studied, which underlines the importance of biogeographic aspects in studies of resistance to air pollutants.

  6. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardans, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF - Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: j.sardans@creaf.uab.cat; Penuelas, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF, Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 g ha{sup -1}) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. - Drought increased biomass concentrations of As and Cd and favors exportation of some trace elements to continental waters in a Mediterranean forest.

  7. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardans, J.; Penuelas, J.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 g ha -1 ) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. - Drought increased biomass concentrations of As and Cd and favors exportation of some trace elements to continental waters in a Mediterranean forest

  8. A 20-Year Overview of Quercus robur L. Mortality and Crown Conditions in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Čater

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. forests in Slovenia are experiencing widespread mortality. Changes in lowlands are reflected in decline of complete forest complexes, high mortality, uneven stand structure and associated forest regeneration problems. Prediction of the present-tree response in disturbed forest ecosystems may significantly contribute to better guideline policies for the silvicultural and forest management practice in the changing environment in both stressed and stabile forest ecosystems. Data from annual crown condition surveys for the 1995–2014 period from four permanent plots have been compared with parameters from hemispherical photo analysis and hydrometeorological data. Good agreement has been confirmed between crown defoliation and total openness; all parameters from the hemispherical photo analysis, which were corrected for winter period values, also indicated a better agreement. Mortality rate and crown defoliation correlated well with extreme drought events in 2003 and 2013. Pattern of agreement among compared parameters was different for the plots Krakovski gozd, Dobrava and some other plots. Mortality is influenced by the average air temperatures much more than by precipitation and groundwater table oscillations.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Natural Quercus variabilis Population in China as Revealed by Microsatellites Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus variabilis is a tree species of ecological and economic value that is widely distributed in China. To effectively evaluate, use, and conserve resources, we applied 25 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers to study its genetic diversity and genetic structure in 19 natural forest or natural secondary forest populations of Q. variabilis (a total of 879 samples. A total of 277 alleles were detected. Overall, the average expected heterozygosity (He was 0.707 and average allelic richness (AR was 7.79. Q. variabilis manifested a loss of heterozygosity, and the mean of inbreeding coefficient (FIS was 0.044. Less differentiation among populations was observed, and the genetic differentiation coefficient (FST was 0.063. Bayesian clustering analysis indicated that the 19 studied populations could be divided into three groups based on their genetic makeup, namely, the Southwest group, Central group, and Northeastern group. The Central group, compared to the populations of the Southwest and Northeast group, showed higher genetic diversities and lower genetic differentiations. As a widely distributed species, the historical migration of Q. variabilis contributed to its genetic differentiation.

  10. Photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron flow in the alpine evergreen species Quercus guyavifolia in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap, stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm, CO2 assimilation rate (An, and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap, the diurnal values of gs, gm, An and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures.

  11. Analysis of Valonia Oak (Quercus aegylops Acorn Tannin and Wood Adhesives Application

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    Soliman Abdalla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR is a suitable method for examining the composition of hydrolysable tannins and has been applied to the investigation of valonia oak (Quercus aegylops acorn tannin extract. Such methods can determine the extract’s structural aspects and other characteristics. It was determined that valonia oak acorn tannin extract is composed of mainly pentagalloylglucose structures; their rearrangement structures, vescalagin/castalagin (with linkages to flavogallonic acid and vescalin/castalin; ellagic acid and vescavaloneic/castavaloneic acid; and free gallic acid and glucose. Traces of catechin gallate were also observed in this tannin extract. The tannin from acorns of valonia oak was used to substitute up to 50% of the phenol used in the preparation of phenolic resins as adhesives for wood particleboard. These phenol-tannin-formaldehyde resins showed comparable performance to phenol-formaldehyde resins.

  12. PAH detection in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles: A fast method for biomonitoring purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Concha Graña, E; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J Á; López Mahía, P; Prada Rodríguez, D; Muniategui Lorenzo, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of plant matrices, new procedure should be standardized for each single biomonitor. Thus, here is described a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, previously used for moss samples, improved and modified for the analyses of PAHs in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles, species widely used in biomonitoring studies across Europe. The improvements compared to the previous procedure are the use of Florisil added with further clean-up sorbents, 10% deactivated silica for pine needles and PSA for oak leaves, being these matrices rich in interfering compounds, as shown by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses acquired in full scan mode. Good trueness, with values in the range 90-120% for the most of compounds, high precision (intermediate precision between 2% and 12%) and good sensitivity using only 250mg of samples (limits of quantification lower than 3 and 1.5ngg(-1), respectively for pine and oak) were achieved by the selected procedures. These methods proved to be reliable for PAH analyses and, having advantage of fastness, can be used in biomonitoring studies of PAH air contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Uptake of Nitrogen Dioxide by Quercus robur - is There a Compensation Point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, A.; Chaparro, G.; Kuhn, U.; Dindorf, T.; Lehmann, L.; Kortner, M.; Tritsch, C.; Kesselmeier, J.; Meixner, F. X.

    2003-12-01

    Within the German Atmospheric-Research-Program 2000, the project ECHO (Emission and CHemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) has been carried out in a mixed forest stand during the summer of 2002. The contribution of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry was the complete characterization of the NOx-flux within the forest, including (a) the quantification of the biogenic NO-release from forest soils, (b) the measurement of the vertical distribution of NOx within and above the canopy and (c) the turbulent transport within and above the forest. The profile measurements allow to identify the participating processes: soil NO emission and subsequent titration of emitted NO by ozone, advection of highly polluted air masses to the site and the uptake of nitrogen dioxide within the crown area. The latter, i.e. the role of vegetation in the NOx-budget within a particular ecosystem is still a matter in controversy, which translates into considerable uncertainties in the global NOx-budget. To assess this issue, dynamic cuvette measurements were performed on a Quercus robur branch. The concurrent measurement of plant physiological (leaf temperature, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis/respiration) and ambient parameters (radiation, ambient NOx mixing ratios) allows to put the exchange rate into context. The question whether a compensation point may be identified will especially be addressed.

  14. [Predicting the impact of global warming on the geographical distribution pattern of Quercus variabilis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xing-wang; Fang, Yan-ming

    2014-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Quercus variabilis in China with its climate characteristics was analyzed based on DIVA-GIS which was also used to estimate the response of future potential distribution to global warming by Bioclim and Domain models. Analysis results showed the geographical distribution of Q. variabilis could be divided into 7 subregions: Henduan Mountains, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China, East China, Liaodong-Shandong Peninsula, Taiwan Island, and Qinling-Daba Mountains. These subregions are across 7 temperature zones, 2 moisture regions and 17 climatic subregions, including 8 climate types. The modern abundance center of Q. variabilis is Qinling, Daba and Funiu mountains. The condition of mean annual temperature 7.5-19.8 degrees C annual precipitation 471-1511 mm, is suitable for Q. variabilis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values), of Domain and Boiclim models were 0.910, 0.779; the former predicted that the potential regions of high suitability for Q. variabilis are Qinling, Daba, Funiu, Tongbai, and Dabie mountains, eastern and western Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, hills of southern Jiangsu and Anhui, part of the mountains in North China. Global warming might lead to the shrinking in suitable region and retreating from the south for Q. variabilis.

  15. Foliage nitrogen turnover: differences among nitrogen absorbed at different times by Quercus serrata saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Miki U.; Mizumachi, Eri; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen turnover within plants has been intensively studied to better understand nitrogen use strategies. However, differences among the nitrogen absorbed at different times are not completely understood and the fate of nitrogen absorbed during winter is largely uncharacterized. In the present study, nitrogen absorbed at different times of the year (growing season, winter and previous growing season) was traced, and the within-leaf nitrogen turnover of a temperate deciduous oak Quercus serrata was investigated. Methods The contributions of nitrogen absorbed at the three different times to leaf construction, translocation during the growing season, and the leaf-level resorption efficiency during leaf senescence were compared using 15N. Key Results Winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen significantly contributed to leaf construction, although the contribution was smaller than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen. On the other hand, the leaf-level resorption efficiency of winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen was higher than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen, suggesting that older nitrogen is better retained in leaves than recently absorbed nitrogen. Conclusions The results demonstrate that nitrogen turnover in leaves varies with nitrogen absorption times. These findings are important for understanding plant nitrogen use strategies and nitrogen cycles in forest ecosystems. PMID:21515608

  16. Detecting Sulfuric and Nitric Acid Rain Stresses on Quercus glauca through Hyperspectral Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Xiuying; Ma, Yuandan; Li, Xinhui; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Lei

    2018-03-09

    Acid rain, which has become one of the most severe global environmental issues, is detrimental to plant growth. However, effective methods for monitoring plant responses to acid rain stress are currently lacking. The hyperspectral technique provides a cost-effective and nondestructive way to diagnose acid rain stresses. Taking a widely distributed species ( Quercus glauca ) in Southern China as an example, this study aims to monitor the hyperspectral responses of Q. glauca to simulated sulfuric acid rain (SAR) and nitric acid rain (NAR). A total of 15 periods of leaf hyperspectral data under four pH levels of SAR and NAR were obtained during the experiment. The results showed that hyperspectral information could be used to distinguish plant responses under acid rain stress. An index (green peak area index, GPAI) was proposed to indicate acid rain stresses, based on the significantly variations in the region of 500-660 nm. Light acid rain (pH 4.5 SAR and NAR) promoted Q. glauca growth relative to the control groups (pH 5.6 SAR and NAR); moderate acid rain (pH 3.0 SAR) firstly promoted and then inhibited plant growth, while pH 3.0 NAR showed mild inhibitory effects during the experiment; and heavy acid rain (pH 2.0) significantly inhibited plant growth. Compared with NAR, SAR induced more serious damages to Q. glauca . These results could help monitor acid rain stress on plants on a regional scale using remote sensing techniques.

  17. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

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    Marcela Soto-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE and organic extract (OE. The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1±12.0 GAE/g. Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC; OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg and the extracts (50 mg/kg were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets.

  18. Function of defensive volatiles in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) is tricked by the moth Tortrix viridana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Heller, Werner; Fladung, Matthias; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Schroeder, Hilke

    2012-12-01

    The indirect defences of plants are comprised of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that among other things attract the natural enemies of insects. However, the actual extent of the benefits of HIPV emissions in complex co-evolved plant-herbivore systems is only poorly understood. The observation that a few Quercus robur L. trees constantly tolerated (T-oaks) infestation by a major pest of oaks (Tortrix viridana L.), compared with heavily defoliated trees (susceptible: S-oaks), lead us to a combined biochemical and behavioural study. We used these evidently different phenotypes to analyse whether the resistance of T-oaks to the herbivore was dependent on the amount and scent of HIPVs and/or differences in non-volatile polyphenolic leaf constituents (as quercetin-, kaempferol- and flavonol glycosides). In addition to non-volatile metabolic differences, typically defensive HIPV emissions differed between S-oaks and T-oaks. Female moths were attracted by the blend of HIPVs from S-oaks, showing significantly higher amounts of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and (E)-β-ocimene and avoid T-oaks with relative high fraction of the sesquiterpenes α-farnesene and germacrene D. Hence, the strategy of T-oaks exhibiting directly herbivore-repellent HIPV emissions instead of high emissions of predator-attracting HIPVs of the S-oaks appears to be the better mechanism for avoiding defoliation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. COENOTICAL CHAINS OF ACER PLATANOIDES AND QUERCUS ROBUR IN THE FORESTS OF NOVGOROD-SEVERSKOYE POLESYE

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    Skliar V. G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarized information on association of small undergrowth of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. and English oak (Quercus robur L. under the canopy of the forest with plants that form the grass-shrub layer within Novgorod-Severskoye Polesye. We founded that the association at certain extent depends on the type of population behavior of undergrowth and grasses. Small undergrowth of A. platanoides being the tolerant species according to the type of population behavior demonstrates negative association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. The pattern of association of A. platanoides with tolerant species depends on their vegetative mobility: the maple has positive association with species with no vegetative mobility and positive and negative association with species characterized by high extent of vegetative mobility. The undergrowth of Q. robur which is the competitive species due to population behavior shows positive association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. We estimated the coenotic parameters that are required for successful resumption of maple and oak in the region of research. We also shown that coenotic optimum for A. platanoides corresponds to the environment with weak intensity of competition in the living soil cover with thin grass layer and density of coverage does not exceed 50%. Q. robur has coenotic optimum among habitats in the herbaceous layer with domination of green moss and (or Convallaria majalis L., Fragaria vesca L. with no grains and density of coverage in living ground cover not more than 60%.

  20. Soil respiration in relation to photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica trees at elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie

    2010-12-06

    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO(2) is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO(2)-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO(2) (EC = 500 µmol mol(-1)) and ambient CO(2) (AC = 370 µmol mol(-1)) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO(2) assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO(2) fixation of plants in a CO(2)-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration.

  1. Isoprene emission rates and fluxes measured above a Mediterranean oak ( Quercus pubescens) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, V.; Dumergues, L.; Bouchou, P.; Torres, L.; Lopez, A.

    2005-03-01

    The present work, carried out as part of the European fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions project (ESCOMPTE), brings a new contribution to the inventory of the main natural hydrocarbons sources that are liable to participate in the production of ozone. The measurement campaign was conducted in Montmeyan, a site close to Marseilles (France), with the aim of quantifying the terpenic emission pattern and the behaviour of Quercus pubescens, an important Mediterranean tree species. Biogenic emissions by Q. pubescens were determined by the enclosure of an intact branch of this tree in a Teflon cuvette. The total monoterpenic emission rates thus recorded were found to reach maximum values ranged between 40 and 350 μg g Dry Weight-1 h -1. Emissions were correlated strongly with leaf temperature and Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR). The fluxes were also determined by extrapolating the results of the enclosure method and by using aerodynamic gradient method. They reach around 73 mg m -2 h -1 with the first method and 55 mg m -2 h -1 with the second one. The obtained values fit with a maximal ratio of 2.

  2. Triterpenoid Components from Oak Heartwood (Quercus robur) and Their Potential Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Oleszek, Wiesław; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-06-14

    For centuries oak wood (Quercus robur) has been used in aging of wines and spirits, which is based on pleasant flavors given to beverages by phenolics transferred to the liquid during the maturation process. Other metabolites, such as triterpenoids, can also be released. Searching for extractable triterpenoids in oak heartwood, 12 new, 1-12, and five known, 13-17, oleanane types were isolated and characterized. Their cytotoxicities were tested against cancer cells (PC3 and MCF-7) and lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were the most affected by triterpenoids, with roburgenic acid, 4, being the most active compound (IC 50 = 19.7 μM). Selectivity was observed for compounds 1-3, 8, 9, and 16, exhibiting an IC 50 > 200 μM against lymphocytes, while active against cancer cells. A galloyl unit attached to the triterpenoid moiety was established as the key feature for such effect. These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoids in oak heartwood and their relevance for chemoprevention of breast cancer.

  3. Seawater spray injury to Quercus acutissima leaves: crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo; Koo, Kyosang; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2011-05-01

    Effects of seawater spray on leaf structure were investigated in Quercus acutissima by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Two-year-old seedlings of Q. acutissima were sprayed with seawater and kept in a greenhouse maintained at 25°C. The most recognizable symptoms of seawater-sprayed seedlings included leaf necrosis, crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the leaf surface was covered with additional layers of remnants of seawater spray. Composed of sodium and chloride, cube-shaped crystals (halite) were prevalently found on trichomes and epidermis, and formed aggregates. Meanwhile, wedge-shaped crystals were deposited on epidermis and consisted of calcium and sulfur. As a result of stomatal clogging by crystal deposition on the abaxial surface, it was conceivable that plant respiration became severely hampered. Transmission electron microscopy showed degenerated cytoplasm of seawater-sprayed leaves. It was common to observe severe plasmolysis and disrupted chloroplasts with a reduced number of thylakoids in grana. These results indicate that foliar applications of seawater were sufficient to induce necrosis of Q. acutissima seedlings as an abiotic disturbance factor. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Effect of Drying Method on the Permeability Coefficient of Oak Wood (Quercus infactoria

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    Shuboo Salehpour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of drying method on the permeability coefficient of the oak wood (Quercus infectoria Oliv was studied. Freshly-cut logs of oak were prepared from Oureman, the east area of Kourdistan in Iran. Then, boards with nominal thickness of 6 cm were cut. The boards were dried using two methods. In the first method, the boards were air dried to the moisture content close to FSP for 45 days and then they were kiln dried using T5-D1 schedule. In the second method, the boards were dried from green condition to the final moisture content of 10% using T5-D1 schedule. Then, the permeability coefficient in the transverse and longitudinal directions in both heartwood and sapwood regions was measured, separately. Results showed that the permeability of oak boards dried by kiln drying method both in the transverse and longitudinal directions and also in the heartwood and sapwood regions was greater than that of those dried by the combined method (air drying + kiln drying.

  5. Quercus Suber L. Cork Extracts Induce Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukaemia HL-60 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ignacio; Godoy-Cancho, Belén; Franco, Lourdes; Martínez-Cañas, Manuel A; Tormo, María A

    2015-08-01

    Quercus suber L. cork contains a diversity of phenolic compounds, mostly low molecular weight phenols. A rising number of reports support with convergent findings that polyphenols evoke pro-apoptotic events in cancerous cells. However, the literature related to the anti-cancer bioactivity of Q. suber L. cork extractives (QSE) is still limited. Herein, we aim to describe the antitumor potential displayed by cork extractives obtained by different extraction methods in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. In order to quantify the effects of QSE on cancer cells viability, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle were evaluated. The results indicated that the QSE present a time-dependent and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. Such a noxious effect leads these leukaemia cells to their death through apoptotic processes by altering the mitochondrial outer membrane potential, activating caspase-3 and externalizing phosphatidylserine. However, cells cycle progression was not affected by the treatments. This study contributes to open a new way to use this natural resource by exploiting its anti-cancer properties. Moreover, it opens new possibilities of application of cork by-products, being more efficient in the sector of cork-based agriculture. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Vera; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level.

  7. [Effects of precipitation and interspecific competition on Quercus mongolica and pinus koraiensis seedlings growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Lian; Wang, Miao; Lin, Fei; Hao, Zhan-Qing; Ji, Lan-Zhu; Liu, Ya-Qin

    2009-02-01

    Aiming at the variation of precipitation pattern caused by global warming, a field simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of 30% increase (+W) and decrease (-W) of precipitation on the morphology, growth, and biomass partitioning of mono- and mixed cultured seedlings of Quercus mongolica and Pinus koraiensis, the two dominant tree species in temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains. Comparing with monoculture, mixed culture increased the canopy width and main root length of Q. mongolica seedlings, but decreased the basal diameter, plant height, leaf number, and dry masses of root, stem, leaf and whole plant of P. koraiensis seedlings significantly. Treatment (-W) increased the stem/mass ratio while decreased the main root length of Q. mongolica seedlings, and decreased the main root length, leaf number, dry masses of leaf and whole plant, and leaf/mass ratio, while increased the stem/mass ratio of P. koraiensis seedlings significantly, compared with treatment CK. Treatment (+W) had no significant effect on these indices of the two species. At early growth stage, interspecific competition and precipitation pattern had significant effects on the morphology and growth of the seedlings, and the responses were much stronger for P. koraiensis than for Q. mongolica.

  8. Quercus rubra-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of disturbed urban sites and mature forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Amy S; Handel, Steven N; Dighton, John; Horton, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    The presence and quality of the belowground mycorrhizal fungal community could greatly influence plant community structure and host species response. This study tests whether mycorrhizal fungal communities in areas highly impacted by anthropogenic disturbance and urbanization are less species rich or exhibit lower host root colonization rates when compared to those of less disturbed systems. Using a soil bioassay, we sampled the ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities associating with Quercus rubra (northern red oak) seedlings in soil collected from seven sites: two mature forest reference sites and five urban sites of varying levels of disturbance. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fungi colonizing root tips revealed that colonization rates and fungal species richness were significantly lower on root systems of seedlings grown in disturbed site soils. Analysis of similarity showed that EMF community composition was not significantly different among several urban site soils but did differ significantly between mature forest sites and all but one urban site. We identified a suite of fungal species that occurred across several urban sites. Lack of a diverse community of belowground mutualists could be a constraint on urban plant community development, especially of late-successional woodlands. Analysis of urban EMF communities can add to our understanding of urban plant community structure and should be addressed during ecological assessment before pragmatic decisions to restore habitats are framed.

  9. Pedunculate oak forests (Quercus robur L. survey in the Ticino Regional Park (Italy by remote sensing

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    Rossini M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedunculate oak forests (Quercus robur L. in the Ticino Regional Park (Italy show sensible damage conditions due to different environmental stresses: insect attacks, summer drought and air pollution. Knowing whether oaks are healthy or stressed can provide useful information in order to conserve the forest ecosystems and avoid the lost of valuable natural resources. Environmental stresses can affect tree biochemical and structural variables, such as the concentration, composition and efficiency in light harvesting of foliar pigments, and the Leaf Area Index (LAI. Interest in the use of these variables for forest condition assessment has recently increased because they can be indirectly estimated from remote observations at leaf and canopy level. In particular, in this research we found that total chlorophyll (Chl concentration, a biochemical variable related to crown discoloration rate, was the most suitable variable for the detection of pedunculate oak decline in the Ticino Park. A regression analysis between Chl concentration and optical indices computed from hyperspectral MIVIS data was performed in order to estimate Chl concentration from remote observations. The good correlation between field measurements of Chl concentration and MIVIS optical indices allowed the development of a model to map Chl concentration across the Ticino Park forested area. Promising results demonstrated that remotely sensed data can provide an accurate estimation of Chl concentration and indicated the potential of this technique for forest condition monitoring.

  10. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D

    2003-08-01

    Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.

  11. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

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    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  12. The macrofungal diversity and community of Atlantic oak (Quercus petraea and Q. robur forests in Ireland

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    Harrington, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The oak species Quercus petraea and Q. Robur are dominant canopy tree species of native deciduous forests in Ireland and coastal regions of Western Europe. These forests are typically plant species-rich, and can also have a rich fungal flora. This survey examined macrofungi found in five native oak sites across Ireland over three years. Overall, 94 macrofungal species belonging to 39 genera were discovered with Mycena, Lactarius, Russula and Cortinarius the most species-rich genera. The species accumulation curve did not show signs of levelling off, indicating that more sampling would reveal more new species. Species richness estimation using the Chao2 estimator indicated that up to 135 species may be present across all of our plots, with individual plots receiving estimates from 19 to 61 species per plot. Sampled-based rarefaction analysis showed no significant differences in macrofungal species richness between our plots. The five most common species were Laccaria amethystina, L. laccata, Stereum hirsutum, Armillaria mellea and Cortinarius flexipes. Comparisons of the results with results from oak forests in similar regions found that the communities in Great Britain were most similar to those found in Ireland. There were some key oak forest distinguishing fungal species from the family Boletaceae lacking from Irish oak forests. It is hypothesised that the historic deforestation of Ireland, caused a reduction of suitable habitats for Irish oak associated macrofungi, leading to the unspecific mycota found in the oak forests of this study. The threats to Atlantic oak forests in Ireland are briefly discussed.Las especies de Quercus petraea y Q. Robur se encuentran en bosques de Irlanda y regiones de influencia atlántica de Europa Occidental. Estos bosques, típicamente ricos en especies de plantas, presentan una abundante micobiota. Este estudio examina la diversidad de macromicetes en cinco bosques naturales de roble en Irlanda durante un

  13. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

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    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  14. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  15. Effects of cadmium on cork oak (Quercus suber L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

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    Gogorcena, Yolanda; Larbi, Ajmi; Andaluz, Sofia; Carpena, Ramón O; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an autochthonous tree species that is being used for reforestation in heavy-metal-contaminated areas in Spain. A hydroponics experiment was carried out to characterize the effects of Cd on several morphological and physiological parameters in this species, including shoot length, nutrient concentrations and allocation in different organs, leaf pigment concentrations, photosynthetic efficiency, root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and organic acid concentrations in xylem sap. Four different Cd treatments were applied, adding Cd chelated with EDTA or as chloride salt at two different concentrations (10 and 50 µM Cd). After 1 month of Cd treatment, plant growth was significantly inhibited in all treatments. Results indicate that Cd accumulates in all organs 7- to 500-fold when compared with control plants. The highest Cd concentration was found in the 50 µM CdCl(2) treatment, which led to concentrations of ~30, 123 and 1153 µg Cd g(-1) dry weight in leaves, stems and roots, respectively. In the strongest Cd treatments the concentrations of P and Ca decreased in some plant parts, whereas the Mn leaf concentrations decreased with three of the four Cd treatments applied. The concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids on an area basis decreased, whereas the (zeaxanthin plus antheraxanthin)/(total violaxanthin cycle carotenoids) ratio and the non-photochemical quenching increased significantly in all Cd treatments. Cadmium treatments caused significant increases in the activity of the enzyme FCR in roots and in the concentrations of organic acids in xylem sap. Some of the physiological changes found support the fact that Cd induces a deficiency of Fe in cork oak, although the plant Fe concentrations were not reduced significantly. At higher concentrations the effects of Cd were more pronounced, and were more marked when Cd was in the free ion form than when present in the form of Cd-EDTA.

  16. Canopy structural alterations to nitrogen functions of the soil microbial community in a Quercus virginiana forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Gay, T. E.; Wu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy structure controls the timing, amount and chemical character of precipitation supply to soils through interception and drainage along crown surfaces. Yet, few studies have examined forest canopy structural connections to soil microbial communities (SMCs), and none have measured how this affects SMC N functions. The maritime Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) forests of St Catherine's Island, GA, USA provide an ideal opportunity to examine canopy structural alterations to SMCs and their functioning, as their throughfall varies substantially across space due to dense Tillandsia usneoides L. (spanish moss) mats bestrewn throughout. To examine the impact of throughfall variability on SMC N functions, we examined points along the canopy coverage continuum: large canopy gaps (0%), bare canopy (50-60%), and canopy of heavy T. usneoides coverage (>=85%). Five sites beneath each of the canopy cover types were monitored for throughfall water/ions and soil leachates chemistry for one storm each month over the growing period (7 months, Mar-2014 to Sep-2014) to compare with soil chemistry and SMC communities sampled every two months throughout that same period (Mar, May, Jul, Sep). DGGE and QPCR analysis of the N functioning genes (NFGs) to characterize the ammonia oxidizing bacterial (AOB-amoA), archaea (AOA-amoA), and ammonification (chiA) communities were used to determine the nitrification and decomposition potential of these microbial communities. PRS™-probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc., Saskatoon, Canada) were then used to determine the availability of NO3-N and NH4+N in the soils over a 6-week period to evaluate whether the differing NFG abundance and community structures resulted in altered N cycling.

  17. How drought severity constrains GPP and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-06-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments has a crucial role in the carbon sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought prone forests. We analyzed the fate of GPP in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Gross and net carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy-covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy-covariance fluxes with annual productions we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic and heterotrophic respirations, NPP and carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly NEP, GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding ANPP components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems. Gross and net carbon exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected, the stem growth, to the least affected, the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease more slightly in response to drought than GPP and NPP, probably due to drought-acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem and highlight the value of maintaining continuous experimental

  18. ECUACIONES ALOMÉTRICAS PARA ESTIMAR BIOMASA Y CARBONO EN Quercus magnoliaefolia

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    Jesús D. Gómez-Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ejido El Zapote de la Reserva de la Biosfera "Sierra de Huautla", estado de Morelos, México, se seleccionaron doce árboles de Quercus magnoliaefolia Née y se determinó su biomasa en la parte aérea. El modelo alométrico quedó expresado como: B = 0.0345 * DAP2.9334 en donde B es la biomasa (kg y DAP es el diámetro a la altura del pecho (cm, con un coeficiente de determinación (R2= 0.98; P<0.001. Adicionalmente, se estimó la biomasa mediante una regresión lineal múltiple que consideró el área basal (AB, la densidad específica de la madera (DEM y la altura de los árboles (H. Una alta proporción de la varianza de la biomasa fue explicada solamente por el área basal. La DEM y H no incrementaron significativamente la precisión de los modelos. El porcentaje promedio de carbono en los árboles de Q. magnoliaefolia fue de 47.14 con valores de 46.29 % para el fuste, 46.83 % para las ramas y 48.31 % para el follaje. La proporción promedio de los componentes de la especie estudiada fue de 2.5 % para el fuste, 27.8 % para las ramas y 9.6 % para el follaje.

  19. Phylogeographical variation of chloroplast DNA in holm oak (Quercus ilex L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaret, R; Mir, C; Michaud, H; Raynal, V

    2002-11-01

    Variation in the lengths of restriction fragments (RFLPs) of the whole chloroplast DNA molecule was studied in 174 populations of Quercus ilex L. sampled over the entire distribution of this evergreen and mainly Mediterranean oak species. By using five endonucleases, 323 distinct fragments were obtained. From the 29 and 17 cpDNA changes identified as site and length mutations, respectively, 25 distinct chlorotypes were distinguished, mapped and treated cladistically with a parsimony analysis, using as an outgroup Q. alnifolia Poech, a closely related evergreen oak species endemic to Cyprus where Q. ilex does not grow. The predominant role of Q. ilex as maternal parent in hybridization with other species was reflected by the occurrence of a single very specific lineage of related chlorotypes, the most ancestral and recent ones being located in the southeastern and in the northwestern parts of the species' geographical distribution, respectively. The lineage was constituted of two clusters of chlorotypes observed in the 'ilex' morphotyped populations of the Balkan and Italian Peninsulas (including the contiguous French Riviera), respectively. A third cluster was divided into two subclusters identified in the 'rotundifolia' morphotyped populations of North Africa, and of Iberia and the adjacent French regions, respectively. Postglacial colonization probably started from three distinct southerly refugia located in each of the three European peninsulas, and a contact area between the Italian and the Iberian migration routes was identified in the Rhône valley (France). Chlorotypes identical or related to those of the Iberian cluster were identified in the populations from Catalonia and the French Languedoc region, which showed intermediate morphotypes, and in the French Atlantic populations which possessed the 'ilex' morphotype, suggesting the occurrence of adaptive morphological changes in the northern part of the species' distribution.

  20. Adaptive and plastic responses of Quercus petraea populations to climate across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Romero, Cuauhtémoc; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Ducousso, Alexis; Musch, Brigitte; Ehrenmann, François; Delzon, Sylvain; Cavers, Stephen; Chałupka, Władysław; Dağdaş, Said; Hansen, Jon Kehlet; Lee, Steve J; Liesebach, Mirko; Rau, Hans-Martin; Psomas, Achilleas; Schneck, Volker; Steiner, Wilfried; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Kremer, Antoine

    2017-07-01

    How temperate forests will respond to climate change is uncertain; projections range from severe decline to increased growth. We conducted field tests of sessile oak (Quercus petraea), a widespread keystone European forest tree species, including more than 150 000 trees sourced from 116 geographically diverse populations. The tests were planted on 23 field sites in six European countries, in order to expose them to a wide range of climates, including sites reflecting future warmer and drier climates. By assessing tree height and survival, our objectives were twofold: (i) to identify the source of differential population responses to climate (genetic differentiation due to past divergent climatic selection vs. plastic responses to ongoing climate change) and (ii) to explore which climatic variables (temperature or precipitation) trigger the population responses. Tree growth and survival were modeled for contemporary climate and then projected using data from four regional climate models for years 2071-2100, using two greenhouse gas concentration trajectory scenarios each. Overall, results indicated a moderate response of tree height and survival to climate variation, with changes in dryness (either annual or during the growing season) explaining the major part of the response. While, on average, populations exhibited local adaptation, there was significant clinal population differentiation for height growth with winter temperature at the site of origin. The most moderate climate model (HIRHAM5-EC; rcp4.5) predicted minor decreases in height and survival, while the most extreme model (CCLM4-GEM2-ES; rcp8.5) predicted large decreases in survival and growth for southern and southeastern edge populations (Hungary and Turkey). Other nonmarginal populations with continental climates were predicted to be severely and negatively affected (Bercé, France), while populations at the contemporary northern limit (colder and humid maritime regions; Denmark and Norway) will

  1. Conservation biogeography of red oaks (Quercus, section Lobatae) in Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Miranda, Andrés; Luna-Vega, Isolda; Oyama, Ken

    2011-02-01

    Oaks are dominant trees and key species in many temperate and subtropical forests in the world. In this study, we analyzed patterns of distribution of red oaks (Quercus, section Lobatae) occurring in Mexico and Central America to determine areas of species richness and endemism to propose areas of conservation. Patterns of richness and endemism of 75 red oak species were analyzed using three different units. Two complementarity algorithms based on species richness and three algorithms based on species rarity were used to identify important areas for conservation. A simulated annealing analysis was performed to evaluate and formulate effective new reserves for red oaks that are useful for conserving the ecosystems associated with them after the systematic conservation planning approach. Two main centers of species richness were detected. The northern Sierra Madre Oriental and Serranías Meridionales of Jalisco had the highest values of endemism. Fourteen areas were considered as priorities for conservation of red oak species based on the 26 priority political entities, 11 floristic units and the priority grid-cells obtained in the complementarity analysis. In the present network of Natural Protected Areas in Mexico and Central America, only 41.3% (31 species) of the red oak species are protected. The simulated annealing analysis indicated that to protect all 75 species of red oaks, 12 current natural protected areas need to be expanded by 120000 ha of additional land, and 26 new natural protected areas with 512500 ha need to be created. Red oaks are a useful model to identify areas for conservation based on species richness and endemism as a result of their wide geographic distribution and a high number of species. We evaluated and reformulated new reserves for red oaks that are also useful for the conservation of ecosystems associated with them.

  2. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

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    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbon supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the upper elevational limit.

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    Wan-Ze Zhu

    Full Text Available Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (<3 m in height are determined by carbon limitation or growth limitation. We studied the seasonal variations in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC and its pool size in Q. aquifolioides grown at 3000 m, 3500 m, and at its elevational limit of 3950 m above sea level (a.s.l. on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation.

  4. Influence of pericarp, cotyledon and inhibitory substances on sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata germination.

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    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (STO, mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS, removing the pericarp (RP, and cutting off 1/2 (HC and 2/3 (TC cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis seeds (CCS were also investigated for CCS cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol. The results showed that the majority of roots and shoots from acorns with RP and HC treatment emerged two weeks earlier, more simultaneously, and their total emergencies were more than 46% and 28% higher, respectively. TC accelerated root and shoot emergence time and root length, but root and shoot germination rate and shoot height had no significant difference from the control. Positive consequences were not observed on all indices of RS treatment. The germination rates of CCS watered by 1.0 g · ml(-1 methanol extracts from the embryo and cotyledon were significantly lower than those from the pericarp, and all concentrations resulted in decreased growth of root and shoot. Methanol extracts from pericarp significantly reduced root length of CCS, but presented little response in germination percentage and shoot length. The inhibitory effect was gradually increased with the increasing concentration of the methanol extract. We conclude that both the mechanical restriction of the pericarp and the presence of germination inhibitors in the embryo, cotyledon and pericarp are the causes for delayed and asynchronous germination of STO acorns.

  5. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduous species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.

  6. Biomonitoring of PAHs by using Quercus ilex leaves: Source diagnostic and toxicity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Flavia; Claudia, Lancellotti; MariaVittoria, Prati; Giulia, Maisto; Anna, Alfani

    2011-03-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were sampled at nineteen urban sites and two remote sites in order to evaluate PAH contamination degree. One-, two- and three-year-old leaves were collected and leaf lipid content was measured to investigate the influence of leaf age and lipids in PAH accumulation. Some PAH diagnostic ratios, such as Ant/Ant + Phen, Flt/Flt + Pyr, B[a]A/B[a]A + Crys and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P, were calculated. The results suggest that Q. ilex leaves are effective biomonitors of PAH air contamination: in fact, a great PAH accumulation in leaves from the urban areas, until 30-time higher compared to those from the remote sites, has been observed. At each site, the similar total PAH concentrations in leaves of different age, probably due to a canopy effect, indicate an ability of all leaf age classes to monitor local PAH concentrations in air, remarking practical implications for air biomonitoring. The findings suggest that PAH adsorption in Q. ilex leaves does not result limited by leaf lipid content. Moreover, this study demonstrates the source-diagnostic potential of Q. ilex leaves, because, in particular, the Flt/Flt + Pyr and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P ratios indicate vehicular traffic as the main source of PAHs in the urban areas and wood combustion in the remote areas. Moreover, to distinguish biomass combustion source, a promising tracer PAH as DB[a,h]A could be used. The high contribution of DB[a,h]A to total PAH concentrations at the remote sites determines a high carcinogenic potential in this area, similar to that calculated for the urban area where the carcinogenic PAH concentrations in absolute values are often higher.

  7. [Effects of simulated acid rain on Quercus glauca seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Jiang, Fu-wei; Yin, Xiu-min; Lu, Mei-juan

    2009-09-01

    Taking the seedlings of Quercus glauca, a dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species in subtropical area, as test materials, this paper studied their photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content under effects of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 4.0, and 5.6 (CK). After 2-year acid rain stress, the net photosynthetic rate of Q. glauca increased significantly with decreasing pH of acid rain. The acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0 increased the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and the effect was more significant under pH 2.5. The intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0. The maximum photosynthetic rate, light compensation point, light saturation point, and dark respiration rate were significantly higher under pH 2.5 and 4.0 than under pH 5.6, while the apparent quantum yield was not sensitive to acid rain stress. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II and the potential activity of PS II under pH 2.5 and 4.0 were significantly higher than those under pH 5.6. The relative chlorophyll content was in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0, and there was a significant difference between pH 2.5 and 4.0. All the results suggested that the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of Q. glauca increased under the effects of acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0, and the acid rain with pH 2.5 had more obvious effects.

  8. Water metabolism of leaves of Quercus robur in antierosion stands in the south of its range

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    V. P. Bessonova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the main parameters of water exchange in leaves of Quercus robur L. which grow on the south-facing slope of the Viyskoviy ravine in a variety of water supply conditions. We established that the greatest intensity of transpiration of leaves of Q. robur occurred in the forest vegetation conditions of SG2, the smallest in SG1–0. In all study periods the largest amplitude of daily fluctuations in intensity of transpiration occurred in leaves of plants along the talweg, at other test sites the limits were much lower. The highest rates of transpiration were in September, which is connected with the high temperatures and lower relative air humidity compared with the days of measurement in July and May. We established that at the beginning of the growing season there was no difference in the total amount of water in the leaves of the trees that grow on the middle and upper parts of the slope, but that it was greater in plants along the talweg. In the following months the difference between the water content in the leaves of trees along the talweg and upper third of the slope increased. The leaves of trees that grow in the poorest conditions of water supply were characterized by the highest water-holding capacity, which is coordinated with their containing the highest content of hydrophilic colloids. The values for water deficit in May and in July fell within the maximum fluctuations for the species studied, but in early September they exceeded the maximum value in the leaves of trees on the upper third of the slope.

  9. Recurrent fires and environment shape the vegetation in Quercus suber L. woodlands and maquis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Curt, Thomas; Véla, Errol; Tatoni, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    The effects of fire recurrence on vegetation patterns in Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus communities in Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems of south-eastern France were examined on stands belonging to 5 fire classes, corresponding to different numbers of fires (from 0 to 4) and time intervals between fires since 1959. A common pool of species was identified among the plots, which was typical of both open and closed maquis. Fire recurrence reduced the abundance of trees and herbs, whereas it increased the abundance of small shrubs. Richness differed significantly between the most contrasting classes of fire recurrence, with maximal values found in control plots and minimal values in plots that had burned recurrently and recently. Equitability indices did not vary significantly, in contrast to Shannon's diversity index which mostly correlated with richness. Forest ecosystems that have burnt once or twice in the last 50 years were resilient; that is to say they recovered a biomass and composition similar to that of the pre-fire state. However, after more than 3-4 fires, shrubland communities displayed lower species richness and diversity indices than unburned plots. The time since the last fire and the number of fires were the most explanatory fire variables, governing the structure of post-fire plant communities. However, environmental factors, such as slope or exposure, also made a significant contribution. Higher rates of fire recurrence can affect the persistence or expansion of shrublands in the future, as observed in other Mediterranean areas. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecophysiological characteristics and cadmium accumulation in Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocozza C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals provoke environmental pollution with potentially toxic effects on human and plants systems. Recently, investigations are conducted on plants that may play a relevant role on pollutants absorption or stabilization, focusing on fast growing tree species in agronomic conditions; little is known on the effects of contaminants on tree species colonizing abandoned fields to be used in restoration ecology. The effects of Cd on photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation were investigated in Quercus pubescens Willd. seedlings grown in pots containing a mixture of sand, clay, turf and Cd-treatments (0, 25 and 75 mg kg-1 dry soil. The studied photosynthetic parameters (Asat= net phytosynthesis; Rday= day respiration; Γcomp= CO2 compensation point; Vcmax= maximum carboxylation rate; Jmax = electron transport rate; TPU = triose phosphate use; Ci/Ca = ratio of intercellular (Ci to ambient (Ca [CO2] (Ci/Ca; Jmax/Vcmax = ratio; (gsmax = maximum stomatal conductance; (lg = stomatal conductance estimated relative to the photosynthetic rate; (Fv/Fm = maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry; (ΔF/F’m = effective photochemical efficiency varied progressively with increasing Cd concentration in the soil, highlighting a negative impact on photosynthetic potential and PSII functioning. Approximately 10% of added Cd was found to be extractable from the substrate, at the maximum concentration applied, with about 12 and 0.75 as bioaccumulation and translocation factors, respectively. Analogously, Cd accumulated up to 34, 30 and 46 mg kg−1 in leaves, stem and roots, respectively. While it is not possible to extrapolate from the present study with seedlings to effects on mature pine trees, there are clear implications for regeneration in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may lead to ecosystem deterioration.

  11. Associations between growth, wood anatomy, carbon isotope discrimination and mortality in a Quercus robur forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanic, Tom; Cater, Matjaz; McDowell, Nate G

    2011-03-01

    Observations of forest mortality are increasing globally, but relatively little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms driving these events. Tree rings carry physiological signatures that may be used as a tool for retrospective analyses. We capitalized on a local soil water drainage event in 1982 that resulted in increased mortality within a stand of oak trees (Quercus robur), to examine the underlying physiological patterns associated with survival and death in response to soil water limitations. Pre-dawn water potentials showed more negative values for trees in the process of dying compared with those that survived. We used tree rings formed over the 123 years prior to mortality to estimate productivity from basal area increment (BAI, mm(2)), multiple xylem hydraulic parameters via anatomical measurements and crown-level gas exchange via carbon isotope discrimination (Δ, ‰). Oaks that died had significantly higher BAI values than trees that survived until the drainage event, after which the BAI of trees that died declined dramatically. Hydraulic diameter and conductivity of vessels in trees that died were higher than in surviving trees until the last 5 years prior to mortality, at which time both groups had similar values. Trees that died had consistently lower Δ values than trees that survived. Therefore, tree mortality in this stand was associated with physiological differences prior to the onset of soil water reduction. We propose that trees that died may have been hydraulically underbuilt for dry conditions, which predisposes them to severe hydraulic constraints and subsequent mortality. Measurements of above-ground/below-ground dry mass partitioning will be critical to future tests of this hypothesis. Based on these results, it is probable that pedunculate oak trees will experience greater future mortality if climate changes cause more severe droughts than the trees have experienced previously.

  12. Antiviral activity of Quercus persica L.: High efficacy and low toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-resistant strain of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-I has increased the interest in the use of natural substances. Aims: This study was aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of hydroalchoholic extract of a traditionally used herbal plant, Quercus persica L., on HSV-1 replication on baby hamster kidney (BHK cells. Setting: The study was conducted in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Design: This was an experimental study. Materials and Methods: BHK cells were grown in monolayer culture with Dulbecco′s modified Eagle′s medium (DMEM supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum and plated onto 48-well culture plates. Fifty percent cytotoxic concentration (CC50% of Q. persica L. on BHK cells was determined. Subsequently, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50% of the extract on replication of HSV-1 both in interacellular and exteracellular cases was assessed. Statistical Analysis: Statistic Probit model was used for statistical analysis. The dose-dependent effect of antiviral activity of the extracts was determined by linear regression. Results: Q. persica L. had no cytotoxic effect on this cell line. There was significant relationship between the concentration of the extract and cell death (P<0.01. IC50s of Q. persica L. on HSV-1, before and after attachment to BHK cells were 1.02 and 0.257 μg/mL, respectively. There was significant relationship between the concentration of this extract and inhibition of cytopathic effect (CPE (P<0.05. Antioxidant capacity of the extract was 67.5%. Conclusions: The hydroalchoholic extract of Q. persica L. is potentially an appropriate and promising anti herpetic herbal medicine.

  13. Molecular characterization of Quercus suber MYB1, a transcription factor up-regulated in cork tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tânia; Menéndez, Esther; Capote, Tiago; Ribeiro, Teresa; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2013-01-15

    The molecular processes associated with cork development in Quercus suber L. are poorly understood. A previous molecular approach identified a list of genes potentially important for cork formation and differentiation, providing a new basis for further molecular studies. This report is the first molecular characterization of one of these candidate genes, QsMYB1, coding for an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. The R2R3-MYB gene sub-family has been described as being involved in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways, both involved in cork biosynthesis. The results showed that the expression of QsMYB1 is putatively mediated by an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism that originates two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2), differing only in the 5'-untranslated region, due to retention of the first intron in one of the variants. Moreover, within the retained intron, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) was identified. The upstream regulatory region of QsMYB1 was extended by a genome walking approach, which allowed the identification of the putative gene promoter region. The relative expression pattern of QsMYB1 transcripts determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that both transcripts were up-regulated in cork tissues; the detected expression was several times higher in newly formed cork harvested from trees producing virgin, second or reproduction cork when compared with wood. Moreover, the expression analysis of QsMYB1 in several Q. suber organs showed very low expression in young branches and roots, whereas in leaves, immature acorns or male flowers, no expression was detected. These preliminary results suggest that QsMYB1 may be related to secondary growth and, in particular, with the cork biosynthesis process with a possible alternative splicing mechanism associated with its regulatory function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. A comprehensive assessment of the transcriptome of cork oak (Quercus suber) through EST sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Leal, José B; Abreu, Isabel A; Alabaça, Cláudia S; Almeida, Maria Helena; Almeida, Paulo; Almeida, Tânia; Amorim, Maria Isabel; Araújo, Susana; Azevedo, Herlânder; Badia, Aleix; Batista, Dora; Bohn, Andreas; Capote, Tiago; Carrasquinho, Isabel; Chaves, Inês; Coelho, Ana Cristina; Costa, Maria Manuela Ribeiro; Costa, Rita; Cravador, Alfredo; Egas, Conceição; Faro, Carlos; Fortes, Ana M; Fortunato, Ana S; Gaspar, Maria João; Gonçalves, Sónia; Graça, José; Horta, Marília; Inácio, Vera; Leitão, José M; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Marum, Liliana; Matos, José; Mendonça, Diogo; Miguel, Andreia; Miguel, Célia M; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Neves, Isabel; Nóbrega, Filomena; Oliveira, Maria Margarida; Oliveira, Rute; Pais, Maria Salomé; Paiva, Jorge A; Paulo, Octávio S; Pinheiro, Miguel; Raimundo, João A P; Ramalho, José C; Ribeiro, Ana I; Ribeiro, Teresa; Rocheta, Margarida; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Rodrigues, José C; Saibo, Nelson J M; Santo, Tatiana E; Santos, Ana Margarida; Sá-Pereira, Paula; Sebastiana, Mónica; Simões, Fernanda; Sobral, Rómulo S; Tavares, Rui; Teixeira, Rita; Varela, Carolina; Veloso, Maria Manuela; Ricardo, Cândido P P

    2014-05-15

    Cork oak (Quercus suber) is one of the rare trees with the ability to produce cork, a material widely used to make wine bottle stoppers, flooring and insulation materials, among many other uses. The molecular mechanisms of cork formation are still poorly understood, in great part due to the difficulty in studying a species with a long life-cycle and for which there is scarce molecular/genomic information. Cork oak forests are of great ecological importance and represent a major economic and social resource in Southern Europe and Northern Africa. However, global warming is threatening the cork oak forests by imposing thermal, hydric and many types of novel biotic stresses. Despite the economic and social value of the Q. suber species, few genomic resources have been developed, useful for biotechnological applications and improved forest management. We generated in excess of 7 million sequence reads, by pyrosequencing 21 normalized cDNA libraries derived from multiple Q. suber tissues and organs, developmental stages and physiological conditions. We deployed a stringent sequence processing and assembly pipeline that resulted in the identification of ~159,000 unigenes. These were annotated according to their similarity to known plant genes, to known Interpro domains, GO classes and E.C. numbers. The phylogenetic extent of this ESTs set was investigated, and we found that cork oak revealed a significant new gene space that is not covered by other model species or EST sequencing projects. The raw data, as well as the full annotated assembly, are now available to the community in a dedicated web portal at http://www.corkoakdb.org. This genomic resource represents the first trancriptome study in a cork producing species. It can be explored to develop new tools and approaches to understand stress responses and developmental processes in forest trees, as well as the molecular cascades underlying cork differentiation and disease response.

  15. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  16. Anti-Toxoplasma Effects of Methanol Extracts of Feijoa sellowiana, Quercus castaneifolia, and Allium paradoxum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The currently available agents for use against toxoplasmosis have serious limitations. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii activities of methanol extracts of Feijoa sellowiana (F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits, Quercus castaneifolia (Q. castaneifolia (fruits, and Allium paradoxum (A. paradoxum (leaves in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Vero cells were treated with different concentrations (from 0 to 400 μg/mL of the above extracts or with pyrimethamine at a dose of 50 mg/mL (positive control. Then, the viabilities of the T. gondii-infected cells were measured by using colorimetric MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. In addition, the survival rates of mice acutely infected with 2 × 104 RH strain tachyzoites of T. gondii were examined in vivo after intraperitoneal injection of the extracts at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Results: In the in vitro anti- T. gondii assay, the IC50 values were 12.77, 180.2, 74.73, 213.2 and 163.8 μg/mL, and the selectivity indices were 6.05, 1.31, 0.35, 0.69 and 1.30 for the F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits, Q. castaneifolia, and A. paradoxum extracts and pyrimethamine, respectively. Moreover, the mice treated with F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits achieved better results in terms of survival than the others (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that methanol extract of F. sellowiana has significant anti-Toxoplasma activity. Further study should be conducted to investigate the potential bioactivity of this extract through bioactivity-guided fractionation.

  17. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  18. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  19. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  20. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-06-01

    A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent, and the opposite. The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance. Copyright © 2016 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  2. Penicillium cecidicola, a new species on cynipid insect galls on Quercus pacifica in the western United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, K.A.; Hoekstra, E.H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    A synnematous species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was found inside emergence tunnels from insect galls (Cynipidae, Hymenoptera, the so-called gall wasps) on scrub oaks (Quercus pacifica Nixon & C.H. Muller) collected in the western United States. The fungus produces synnemata with white...... isolates exposed to light after 10 days. The fungus produces the extrolite apiculide A and a series of unidentified extrolites also produced by P. panamense. The oak gall species is described here as Penicillium cecidicola and compared with similar species. An ITS phylogeny suggests that P. cecidicola...

  3. Chromatographic analysis of natural pigments L. and quercus infectoria oliv: produced from datisca cannabina plants and their antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveoglu, O.; Muhammed, A.; Fouad, A.; Torgan, E.; Karadag, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, natural pigments from the hemp (Datisca cannabina L.) and dyer's oak ). 12H/sub 2/O (alum) mordant. A (Quercus infectoria Oliv.) dye plants were prepared by using KAl(SO/sub 4)/sub 2/ reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) method was used in the identification of dyes in the natural pigments. The dye extractions from the natural pigments were carried out with 37% HCl/MeOH/H/sub 2/O (2:1:1 v/v/v) mixture. Also, antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of plants and pigments were investigated. (author)

  4. Altertoxins with potent anti-HIV activity from Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se, a fungal endophyte of Quercus emoryi

    OpenAIRE

    Bashyal, Bharat P.; Wellensiek, Brian P.; Ramakrishnan, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H.; Ahmad, Nafees; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Screening of a small library of natural product extracts derived from endophytic fungi of the Sonoran desert plants in a cell-based anti-HIV assay involving T-cells infected with the HIV-1 virus identified the EtOAc extract of a fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se inhabiting the stem tissue of Quercus emoryi as a promising candidate for further investigation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of two new metabolites, alterto...

  5. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. First discovery of Quercus-feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in South America, with description of new species and designation of the S. nigriverticella complex in the S. saginella group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeikis, Andrius; Stonis, Jonas R

    2015-12-11

    We describe three new species: Stigmella crassifoliae Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (a leaf-miner on Quercus crassifolia and Q. crispipilis from the highlands of Guatemala), S. robleae Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. humboldti Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (leaf-miners on Quercus humboldtii from the Colombian Andes). No Quercus-feeding Nepticulidae species were previously known from South America. All new species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, cocoons, adults, and genitalia. In the S. saginella species group, for the species possessing in male genitalia M-shaped gnathos with caudal processes closely juxtaposed and phallus without cornuti, a new species complex (the S. nigriverticella complex) is defined. We also provide a pictorial key to the species of the new complex.

  7. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-03

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  8. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

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    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2007-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  10. Physiological Responses to Prolonged Drought Differ Among Three Oak (Quercus) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. E.; Moore, G. W.; Vogel, J. G.; Muir, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The physiological response of plants to water stress provides insights into which species may survive in exceptional drought conditions. This study conducted on a remnant post oak savanna site in College Station, Texas, examined how drought affected the physiology of three native oak species. In June 2014, after a period of equal watering, we subjected three year old Quercus shumardii (Shumard oak; SO), Q. virginiana (live oak; LO), and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak; BO) saplings to one of two watering treatments: 1) watered, receiving the equivalent of theaverage precipitation rate and 2) droughted, receiving a 100% reduction in precipitation. We measured predawn (ΨPD) and midday (ΨMD) leaf water potential; midday gas exchange (MGE) parameters including photosynthesis (Al), transpiration (T), stomatal conductance (gsw); and leaf soluble (SS) and non-soluble sugar (NSS) concentrations monthly between June and October 2014. Drought stress responses were evident after only one month of induced drought. Droughted saplings showed reduced ΨPD, ΨMD, and MGE (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to watered saplings of the same species. LO saplings exhibited greater MGE (P ≤ 0.05) while maintaining similar LWP to their respective watered and droughted BO and SO counterparts. Droughted LO exhibited MGE rates similar to those of watered BO and SO (P ≤ 0.05), while watered LO adjusted its MGE rates to changes in water availability better than BO and LO during short-term drought. Compared to water saplings, droughted saplings had greater leaf SS (P = 0.08) and lower NSS concentrations (P = 0.10), possibly due to the conversion of NSS to SS and other simple compounds and reduced consumption of SS for growth by the droughted saplings. Although SO and BO exhibited similar photosynthesis rates, leaf total sugar (SS+NSS) concentration was greater in SO (P ≤ 0.05). By displaying the greatest average photosynthesis rate (P ≤ 0.05), LO should have accumulated the greatest amount of carbon

  11. Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Anne; Boissard, Christophe; Ormeño, Elena; Lathière, Juliette; Guenet, Bertrand; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) released by plants mostly originate from their secondary metabolism. Their emissions are modulated, in terms of intensity and molecule diversity, by environmental conditions. Among BVOCs, isoprene has been especially studied due to its high emission fluxes and its contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, both in the gaseous and particulate phases. However, the way isoprene emissions are impacted by some abiotic factors, especially water stress, is still under debate. In a world facing climatic changes, global climate models expect air temperature and drought intensity to strengthen in the Mediterranean area by 2100. Our work focuses on the impact of water stress on isoprene emissions (ERiso) from Quercus pubescens Willd. This species covers large areas of the Mediterranean area where it appears to be the main isoprene emitter. An in situ experimentation was performed at the O3HP (Oak Observatory at OHP, southern France) in a pubescent oak forest with trees adapted to long lasting stress periods. We investigated during a whole seasonal cycle (from June 2012 to June 2013) the course of ERiso under both natural water stress (control treatment: C) and intensified water stress (stress treatment: S) by artificially reducing rain by 30% using a specific rain exclusion device. Restricted rain did not modify either the net CO2 assimilation or ERiso during the whole season. However, isoprene emission factors (Is) for trees under S were significantly higher (a factor of ˜ 2) than for trees growing under C in August (137.8 compared to 75.3 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively) and September (75.3 compared to 40.2 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively). Based on our experimental emission database, an appropriate isoprene emission algorithm (GZ2014) was developed using a statistic approach (an artificial neural network). Using ambient and edaphic environmental parameters integrated over up to 3 weeks, GZ2014 was found to represent more than 80% of

  12. Chemical characterization and extractives composition of heartwood and sapwood from Quercus faginea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda

    Full Text Available Heartwood and sapwood of Quercus faginea were evaluated in relation to summative chemical composition and non-polar and polar extracts composition, including an assessment of antioxidant properties (DPPH and FRAP. Twenty trees from two sites in Portugal were analysed. Heartwood had approximately two times more solvent extractible compounds than sapwood (on average 19.0% and 9.5%. The lipophilic extractible compounds were below 1%, and most of them were polar e.g. ethanol-soluble compounds corresponded to 65% of total extractives in heartwood and 43% in sapwood. Lignin content was similar in sapwood and heartwood (28.1% and 28.6% of extractive-free wood respectively as well as the sugar composition. Site did not influence the chemical composition. The lipophilic extractible compounds from both sapwood and heartwood included mainly saturated fatty acids (23.0% and 36.9% respectively and aromatic compounds were also abundant in sapwood (22.9%. The ethanol-water extractibles had a high content of phenolic substances (558.0 and 319.4 mg GAE/g extract, respectively of heartwood and sapwood. The polyphenolic composition was similar in heartwood and sapwood with higher content of ellagitannins (168.9 and 153.5 mg tannic acid/g of extract in sapwood and heartwood respectively and very low content of condensed tannins. The antioxidant activity was very high with IC50 of 2.6 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml for sapwood and heartwood respectively, as compared to standard antioxidants (IC50 of 3.8 μg/ml for Trolox. The ferric reducing ability was 2.8 and 2.0 mMol Trolox equivalents/g extract of heartwood and sapwood respectively. The variability between trees was low and no differences between the two sites were found. Q. faginea showed a very good potential for cooperage and other applications for which a source of compounds with antioxidant properties is desirable.

  13. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Quercus coccifera exhibit interacting responses to light and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Staudt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Light and temperature are known to be the most important environmental factors controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions from plants, but little is known about their interdependencies especially for BVOCs other than isoprene. We studied light responses at different temperatures and temperature responses at different light levels of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence on Quercus coccifera, an evergreen oak widespread in Mediterranean shrublands. More than 50 BVOCs were detected in the emissions from Q. coccifera leaves most of them being isoprenoids plus a few green leaf volatiles (GLVs. Under standard conditions non-oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-hc accounted for about 90% of the total BVOC release (mean ± SD: 738 ± 378 ng m−2 projected leaf area s−1 or 13.1 ± 6.9 μg g−1 leaf dry weight h−1 and oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-ox and sesquiterpenes (SQTs accounted for the rest in about equal proportions. Except GLVs, emissions of all BVOCs responded positively to light and temperature. The light responses of MT and SQT emissions resembled that of CO2-assimilation and were little influenced by the assay temperature: at high assay temperature, MT-hc emissions saturated at lower light levels than at standard assay temperature and tended even to decrease in the highest light range. The emission responses to temperature showed mostly Arrhenius-type response curves, whose shapes in the high temperature range were clearly affected by the assay light level and were markedly different between isoprenoid classes: at non-saturating light, all isoprenoids showed a similar temperature optimum (~43 °C, but, at higher temperatures, MT-hc emissions decreased faster than MT-ox and SQT emissions. At saturating light, MT-hc emissions peaked around 37 °C and rapidly dropped at higher temperatures, whereas MT-ox and SQT emissions strongly increased between 40 and 50 °C accompanied by a burst of GLVs. In all

  14. Where the woodland ends: How edges affect landscape structure and physiological responses of Quercus agrifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chant, Timothy Paul

    Forests and woodlands are integral parts of ecosystems across the globe, but they are threatened by a variety of factors, including urbanization and introduced forest pathogens. These two forces are fundamentally altering ecosystems, both by removing forest cover and reshaping landscapes. Comprehending how these two processes have changed forest ecosystems is an important step toward understanding how the affected systems will function in the future. I investigated the range of edge effects that result from disturbance brought about by forest pathogens and urbanization in two coastal oak woodlands in Marin County, California. Oak woodlands are a dynamic part of California's landscape, reacting to changes in their biotic and abiotic environments across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Sudden Oak Death, caused by the introduced forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, has led to widespread mortality of many tree species in California's oak woodlands. I investigated how the remaining trees respond to such rapid changes in canopy structure (Chapter 2), and my results revealed a forest canopy quick to respond to the new openings. Urbanization, another disturbance regime, operates on a longer time scale. Immediately following urban development, forest edges are strikingly linear, but both forest processes and homeowner actions likely work in concert to disrupt the straight edge (Chapter 3). Forest edges grew more sinuous within 14 years of the initial disturbance, and continued to do so for the remainder of the study, another 21 years. Individual Quercus agrifolia trees also respond to urban edges decades after disturbance (Chapter 4), and their reaction is reflected in declining stable carbon isotope values (delta13C). This change suggests trees may have increased their stomatal conductance in response to greater water availability, reduced their photosynthetic rate as a result of stress, or some combination of both. Edges have far reaching and long lasting effects

  15. Rates of Water Loss and Uptake in Recalcitrant Fruits of Quercus Species Are Determined by Pericarp Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Daws, Matthew I.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; Zhou, Zhe-Kun; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    Desiccation-sensitive recalcitrant seeds and fruits are killed by the loss of even moderate quantities of water. Consequently, minimizing the rate of water loss may be an important ecological factor and evolutionary driver by reducing the risk of mortality during post-dispersal dry-spells. For recalcitrant fruits of a range of Quercus species, prolonged drying times have been observed previously. However, the underlying mechanism(s) for this variation is unknown. Using nine Quercus species we investigated the major route(s) of water flow into and out of the fruits and analysed the relative importance of the different pericarp components and their anatomy on water uptake/loss. During imbibition (rehydration), the surface area of the cupule scar and the frequency and area of the vascular bundles contained therein were significantly correlated with the rates of water uptake across the scar. The vascular bundles serving the apex of the fruit were a minor contributor to overall water. Further, the rate of water uptake across the remainder of the pericarp surface was significantly correlated with the thickness of the vascularised inner layer in the pericarp. Fruits of Q. franchetii and Q. schottkyana dried most slowly and had a comparatively small scar surface area with few vascular bundles per unit area. These species inhabit drier regions than the other species studied, suggesting these anatomical features may have ecological value by reducing the risk of desiccation stress. However, this remains to be tested in the field. PMID:23071795

  16. Direct and indirect impact of sewage sludge compost spreading on Quercus coccifera monoterpene emissions in a Mediterranean shrubland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Romain; Staudt, Michael; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Ormeno, Elena; Rizvi, Syed Hussain; Baldy, Virginie; Rivoal, Annabelle; Greff, Stephane; Lecareux, Caroline; Fernandez, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Monoterpene emissions of Quercus coccifera L. were repeatedly measured during the two years following the spreading of a sewage sludge compost at rates of 50 Mg ha -1 and 100 Mg ha -1 , in a twelve-year-old post-fire Mediterranean shrubland. We also monitored the patterns of change in soil and leaf nutrient content, plant water potential, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant growth. Compost spreading resulted in weak changes in leaf nutrient content and plant water status, and therefore no significant effect on monoterpene emissions at leaf scale, except during one summer sampling, probably related to advanced leaf maturity with the highest compost rate. However, compost increased plant growth, particularly the leaf biomass. The results suggest that compost spreading in Mediterranean shrublands has no strong short-term effect on Q. coccifera monoterpene emissions at leaf level, but may indirectly increase volatile organic compound fluxes at the stand scale, which may contribute to regional ozone pollution. - Research highlights: → Compost spreading had weak effects on leaf terpene emissions of Quercus coccifera. → Compost spreading increased leaf biomass of Q. coccifera. → Compost spreading indirectly increased Q. coccifera biogenic emissions, at the landscape scale. - Compost spreading in Mediterranean shrublands has no strong short-term effect on Q. coccifera monoterpene emissions at leaf level.

  17. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Conservation and fruit biology of Sichou oak (Quercus sichourensis, Fagaceae – A critically endangered species in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several conservation programs have been started for the critically endangered Sichou oak (Quercus sichourensis since 2007. These programs include detailed field investigations, seedling cultivation and research on the fruit biology of the species. In this study, we first report on the five mature individual trees found in our 9-year field investigation. Thus far, a total of 10 mature individuals have been recorded. All Q. sichourensis trees are healthy and most produce healthy acorns. Acorns of Q. sichourensis are large with dry masses of 8.0–14.0 g. These acorns had high moisture contents at collection and died shortly after (7–28 d when dried with silica gel. Characteristics of Q. sichourensis acorns varied between populations. Compared with the acorns from Funing, the acorns collected from Ceheng were bigger, more viable (germination percentage was up to 96%, less sensitive to desiccation, and germinated faster. Q. sichourensis occurs in regions with a distinct 5–6 month dry season. Habitat degradation is largely responsible for the rareness of Quercus sichorensis, but desiccation sensitivity of the acorns may also limit the regeneration of the species and potentially lead to its continued rareness. As a species with extremely small populations (PSESP, Q. sichourensis is facing high risk of extinction and should be defined as a Critically Endangered species in the global IUCN Red List.

  19. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Ha Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  20. Direct and indirect impact of sewage sludge compost spreading on Quercus coccifera monoterpene emissions in a Mediterranean shrubland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, Romain [Aix-Marseille Universite - Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie (IMEP), UMR 6111, Equipe Diversite Fonctionnelle des Communautes Vegetales - Centre de St Charles, Case 4, 13331 Marseille Cedex 03 (France); Staudt, Michael [Departement Fonctionnement des Ecosystemes, Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE, UMR 5175), 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Ormeno, Elena; Rizvi, Syed Hussain; Baldy, Virginie; Rivoal, Annabelle; Greff, Stephane; Lecareux, Caroline [Aix-Marseille Universite - Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie (IMEP), UMR 6111, Equipe Diversite Fonctionnelle des Communautes Vegetales - Centre de St Charles, Case 4, 13331 Marseille Cedex 03 (France); Fernandez, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.fernandez@univ-provence.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite - Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie (IMEP), UMR 6111, Equipe Diversite Fonctionnelle des Communautes Vegetales - Centre de St Charles, Case 4, 13331 Marseille Cedex 03 (France)

    2011-04-15

    Monoterpene emissions of Quercus coccifera L. were repeatedly measured during the two years following the spreading of a sewage sludge compost at rates of 50 Mg ha{sup -1} and 100 Mg ha{sup -1}, in a twelve-year-old post-fire Mediterranean shrubland. We also monitored the patterns of change in soil and leaf nutrient content, plant water potential, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant growth. Compost spreading resulted in weak changes in leaf nutrient content and plant water status, and therefore no significant effect on monoterpene emissions at leaf scale, except during one summer sampling, probably related to advanced leaf maturity with the highest compost rate. However, compost increased plant growth, particularly the leaf biomass. The results suggest that compost spreading in Mediterranean shrublands has no strong short-term effect on Q. coccifera monoterpene emissions at leaf level, but may indirectly increase volatile organic compound fluxes at the stand scale, which may contribute to regional ozone pollution. - Research highlights: > Compost spreading had weak effects on leaf terpene emissions of Quercus coccifera. > Compost spreading increased leaf biomass of Q. coccifera. > Compost spreading indirectly increased Q. coccifera biogenic emissions, at the landscape scale. - Compost spreading in Mediterranean shrublands has no strong short-term effect on Q. coccifera monoterpene emissions at leaf level.

  1. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...

  4. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  5. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  6. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, T. E.; Cox, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Dunn, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two years of data collected from the Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service and 4 years of data from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, were compiled to find out the distribution of Pasteuria spp. on nematodes in Florida soils. Information recorded came from 335 samples and included nematode genera with Pasteuria endospores attached, host plants associated with the samples, and the origins of the samples. Pasteuria spp. were detected on 14 different plant-parasitic nematode genera in 41 Florida counties and associated with over 39 different plant species and in seven fallow fields. Pasteuria-infected nematodes were associated with a wide range of plant hosts, although frequency of associations with these hosts reflected the sample bias of the laboratories involved. Meloidogyne and Hoplolaimus spp. were the two nematode genera most frequently associated with Pasteuria. Pasteuria spp. were observed attached to members of these two genera in 176 and 59 soil samples, respectively. PMID:19279936

  7. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in retail foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265 ISSN 1364-5072 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012

  8. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  9. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  10. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  11. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...

  15. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  16. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  17. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  18. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  19. Drivers of radial growth and carbon isotope discrimination of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) across continental gradients in precipitation, vapour pressure deficit and irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Frederick C. Meinzer; Barbara Lachenbruch; J. Renee Brooks; Richard P. Guyette

    2014-01-01

    Tree-ring characteristics are commonly used to reconstruct climate variables, but divergence from the assumption of a single biophysical control may reduce the accuracy of these reconstructions. Here, we present data from bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) sampled within and beyond the current species bioclimatic envelope to identify the primary...

  20. Experimental drought reduced acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and increased organic extractable P in soil in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardans, J.; Penuelas, J.; Ogaya, R.

    2008-01-01

    A six-year (1999-2005) experiment of drought manipulation was conducted in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest (Southern Catalonia) to simulate predicted climatic conditions projected for the decades to come. The aim was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of drought conditions on acid

  1. Migration and population expansion of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus since 15000 years in and across the Alps, based on pollen-percentage threshold values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, W.O. van der; Leeuwen, J.F.N. van; Finsinger, W.; Gobet, E.; Pini, R.; Schweizer, A.; Valsecchi, V.; Ammann, B.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the migration (colonization of new areas) and subsequent population expansion (within an area) since 15 ka cal BP of Abies, Fagus, Picea, and Quercus into and through the Alps solely on the basis of high-quality pollen data. Methods: Chronologies of 101

  2. Effects of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, in southern California before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California (Flint and others 2013). The primary oak species colonized and killed in this area include coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (...

  3. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a secondgrowth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first...

  4. Population genetics of indigenous quercus robur L. populations and of derived half-sib families has implications for the reproductive management of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.G.; Dam, van B.C.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Jacobsen, E.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands indigenous Quercus robur L. populations are rare and have been maintained as patches in ancient woodland. For adequate conservation of these populations, information about genetic variation and population structure is necessary. in order to assess the genetic variation and

  5. The sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus SPP., Taenia SPP. and Toxocara SPP. in Portugal : coprologic and molecular diagnosis in canids

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. and Toxocara spp. are important parasites of domestic and wild canids and neglected zoonotic helminths. Despite their relevance in Public Health, little is known about their prevalence in Portugal. An epidemiological study was conducted to clarify the role of canids in the sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of these pathogens in our country. Fecal samples from dog (n = 51), red fox (n = 62) and Iberia...

  6. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  8. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  9. Visitor preferences of thinning practice in young even-aged stands of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petucco, Claudio; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Meilby, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    This study compared visitor preferences of forestry professionals across six European countries (Sweden, Denmark, Great Britain, Austria, Romania and Portugal) using a questionnaire survey. The 598 interviewees were asked to rank photographs depicting recently thinned experimental plots in a 13......-year old stand of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) according to the criterion: “Which forest environment do you prefer as a visitor?” The plots represented five different residual stem densities: 7000 (no thinning, very high stem density), 5300 (heavy thinning, high stem density), 1000 (very heavy...... rows, indicating a preference for scenes offering perspective and accessibility. The results indicate a variation of visitor preferences among forestry professionals for different silvicultural regimes. We interpret this in the context of national traditions and forestry paradigms that influence...

  10. Spatial Segregation and Aggregation of Ectomycorrhizal and Root-Endophytic Fungi in the Seedlings of Two Quercus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Hidaka, Amane; Kadowaki, Kohmei; Toju, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on massively-parallel pyrosequencing, we analyzed the root-associated fungal community composition for each of the 249 Quercus serrata and 188 Quercus glauca seedlings sampled in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Pairs of fungi that co-occurred more or less often than expected by chance were identified based on randomization tests. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that not only ectomycorrhizal fungi but also endophytic fungi were common in the root-associated fungal community. Intriguingly, specific pairs of these ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi showed spatially aggregated patterns, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions between fungi in different functional groups. Due to the large number of fungal pairs examined, many of the observed aggregated/segregated patterns with very low P values (e.g., fungi could influence each other through interspecific competitive/facilitative interactions in root. To test the potential of host-plants' control of fungus–fungus ecological interactions in roots, we further examined whether the aggregated/segregated patterns could vary depending on the identity of host plant species. Potentially due to the physiological properties shared between the congeneric host plant species, the sign of hosts' control was not detected in the present study. The pyrosequencing-based randomization analyses shown in this study provide a platform of the high-throughput investigation of fungus–fungus interactions in plant root systems. PMID:24801150

  11. Responses of leaf nitrogen and mobile carbohydrates in different Quercus species/provenances to moderate climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M-H; Cherubini, P; Dobbertin, M; Arend, M; Xiao, W-F; Rigling, A

    2013-01-01

    Global warming and shortage of water have been evidenced in the recent past and are predicted for the future. Climate change will inevitably have considerable impact on plant physiology, growth, productivity and forest ecosystem functions. The present study determined the effects of simulated daytime air warming (+1 to 1.5 °C during the growing season), drought (-40% and -57% of mean precipitation of 728 mm during the 2007 and 2008 growing season, respectively) and their combination, on leaf nitrogen (N) and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) of two Quercus species (Q. robur and Q. petraea) and provenances (two provenances for each species) grown in two soil types in Switzerland across two treatment years, to test the hypothesis that leaf N and NSC in the more water-sensitive species (Q. robur) and provenances (originating from water-rich locations) will more strongly respond to global warming and water deficit, compared to those in the more drought-tolerant species (Q. petraea) or provenances. No species- and provenance-specific responses in leaf N and NSC to the climate treatment were found, indicating that the results failed to support our hypothesis. The between-species variation of leaf N and NSC concentrations mainly reflected differences in biology of the two species, and the between-provenance variation of N and NSC concentrations apparently mirrored the climate of their origins. Hence, we conclude that (i) the two Quercus species studied are somewhat insensitive, due to their distribution covering a wide geographical and climate range, to moderate climate change within Switzerland, and (ii) a moderate global warming of B1 scenario (IPCC 2007) will not, or at least less, negatively affect the N and carbon physiology in Q. robur and Q. petraea. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Abundancia y distribución de agallas foliosas en Quercus resinosa Liemb. (Fagaceae en Aguascalientes, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Clark-Tapia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Las agallas son estructuras de crecimiento anormal en los tejidos de las plantas debido a la actividad parasítica de otro organismo. El estudio de este tipo de estructuras como microhábitat de avispas es escaso en la literatura y no se presenta una descripción detallada de su conformación. En este trabajo se describe la anatomía y morfología de las agallas foliosas, y se evalúan los factores que restringen su abundancia y distribución a nivel foliar, individual y poblacional en los encinosQuercus resinosa. Se encontró que la agalla es generada por una avispa de la familia Cynipidae, específica deQuercus resinosaLiemb. A nivel foliar, las agallas presentan características anatómicas y morfológicas similares a las del hospedero. A nivel del individuo, el 72.52% de las agallas están ubicadas en el envés de la hoja, mientras que sólo el 27.48% de estas estructuras se forman en el haz. A nivel de la población, el número de agallas varía de una a diez agallas por árbol. En promedio, cada árbol puede tener 4.88 ± 2.34 agallas. Los árboles mayormente infectados son los de categorías intermedias (X2=9.67; P

  13. Spatial segregation and aggregation of ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in the seedlings of two Quercus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on massively-parallel pyrosequencing, we analyzed the root-associated fungal community composition for each of the 249 Quercus serrata and 188 Quercus glauca seedlings sampled in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Pairs of fungi that co-occurred more or less often than expected by chance were identified based on randomization tests. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that not only ectomycorrhizal fungi but also endophytic fungi were common in the root-associated fungal community. Intriguingly, specific pairs of these ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi showed spatially aggregated patterns, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions between fungi in different functional groups. Due to the large number of fungal pairs examined, many of the observed aggregated/segregated patterns with very low P values (e.g., < 0.005 turned non-significant after the application of a multiple comparison method. However, our overall results imply that the community structures of ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi could influence each other through interspecific competitive/facilitative interactions in root. To test the potential of host-plants' control of fungus-fungus ecological interactions in roots, we further examined whether the aggregated/segregated patterns could vary depending on the identity of host plant species. Potentially due to the physiological properties shared between the congeneric host plant species, the sign of hosts' control was not detected in the present study. The pyrosequencing-based randomization analyses shown in this study provide a platform of the high

  14. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  15. Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) canopy as interceptor of airborne trace elements and their accumulation in the litter and topsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, Federica; Monaci, Fabrizio; Blanusa, Tijana; Bargagli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of urban Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees as an airborne metal accumulators and metals' environmental fate. Analyses confirmed Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn as a main contaminants in Siena's urban environment; only Pb concentrations decreased significantly compared to earlier surveys. Additionally, we determined chemical composition of tree leaves, litter and topsoil (underneath/outside tree crown) in urban and extra-urban oak stands. Most notably, litter in urban samples collected outside the canopy had significantly lower concentrations of organic matter and higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn than litter collected underneath the canopy. There was a greater metals' accumulation in topsoil, in samples collected under the tree canopy and especially near the trunk (‘stemflow area’). Thus, in urban ecosystems the Holm Oak stands likely increase the soil capability to bind metals. -- Highlights: ► Of the main metal contaminants only leaf Pb concentrations decreased in the period 1994–2011. ► Leaf Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher in urban than in extra urban park. ► In urban park litter, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were higher outside than underneath the tree crown. ► Conversely, in urban park soil, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were lower outside the crown. ► Soil therefore behaves as a sink for metal contaminants such as Cu, Pb and Cd. -- Quercus ilex leaves are efficient interceptors of airborne trace elements in urban environments and we found an increased accumulation of metals in topsoil under the tree canopy

  16. Application of plant DNA markers in forensic botany: genetic comparison of Quercus evidence leaves to crime scene trees using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kathleen J; Owens, Jeffrey D; Ashley, Mary V

    2007-01-05

    As highly polymorphic DNA markers become increasingly available for a wide range of plant and animal species, there will be increasing opportunities for applications to forensic investigations. To date, however, relatively few studies have reported using DNA profiles of non-human species to place suspects at or near crime scenes. Here we describe an investigation of a double homicide of a female and her near-term fetus. Leaf material taken from a suspect's vehicle was identified to be that of sand live oak, Quercus geminata, the same tree species that occurred near a shallow grave where the victims were found. Quercus-specific DNA microsatellites were used to genotype both dried and fresh material from trees located near the burial site and from the material taken from the suspect's car. Samples from the local population of Q. geminata were also collected and genotyped in order to demonstrate that genetic variation at four microsatellite loci was sufficient to assign leaves to an individual tree with high statistical certainty. The cumulative average probability of identity for these four loci was 2.06x10(-6). DNA was successfully obtained from the dried leaf material although PCR amplification was more difficult than amplification of DNA from fresh leaves. The DNA profiles of the dried leaves from the suspect's car did not match those of the trees near the crime scene. Although this investigation did not provide evidence that could be used against the suspect, it does demonstrate the potential for plant microsatellite markers providing physical evidence that links plant materials to live plants at or near crime scenes.

  17. RNA-seq analysis of Quercus pubescens Leaves: de novo transcriptome assembly, annotation and functional markers development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Torre

    Full Text Available Quercus pubescens Willd., a species distributed from Spain to southwest Asia, ranks high for drought tolerance among European oaks. Q. pubescens performs a role of outstanding significance in most Mediterranean forest ecosystems, but few mechanistic studies have been conducted to explore its response to environmental constrains, due to the lack of genomic resources. In our study, we performed a deep transcriptomic sequencing in Q. pubescens leaves, including de novo assembly, functional annotation and the identification of new molecular markers. Our results are a pre-requisite for undertaking molecular functional studies, and may give support in population and association genetic studies. 254,265,700 clean reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, with an average length of 98 bp. De novo assembly, using CLC Genomics, produced 96,006 contigs, having a mean length of 618 bp. Sequence similarity analyses against seven public databases (Uniprot, NR, RefSeq and KOGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG resulted in 83,065 transcripts annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. These annotations and local BLAST allowed identify genes specifically associated with mechanisms of drought avoidance. Finally, 14,202 microsatellite markers and 18,425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were, in silico, discovered in assembled and annotated sequences. We completed a successful global analysis of the Q. pubescens leaf transcriptome using RNA-seq. The assembled and annotated sequences together with newly discovered molecular markers provide genomic information for functional genomic studies in Q. pubescens, with special emphasis to response mechanisms to severe constrain of the Mediterranean climate. Our tools enable comparative genomics studies on other Quercus species taking advantage of large intra-specific ecophysiological differences.

  18. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    B. Riet-Correa; M.B. Castro; R.A. Lemos; G. Riet-Correa; V. Mustafa; F. Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences...

  19. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in bat ectoparasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive

  20. Mycorrhization helper bacteria: a case of specificity for altering ectomycorrhiza architecture but not ectomycorrhiza formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspray, Thomas J; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Jones, Julie E; Whipps, John M; Garbaye, Jean; Bending, Gary D

    2006-11-01

    Mycorrhization helper bacteria (MHB), isolated from phylogenetically distinct ectomycorrhizal symbioses involving Lactarius rufus, Laccaria bicolor or Suillus luteus, were tested for fungus specificity to enhance L. rufus-Pinus sylvestris or L. bicolor-P. sylvestris mycorrhiza formation. As MHB isolated from the L. rufus and S. luteus mycorrhiza were originally characterised using a microcosm system, we assessed their ability to enhance mycorrhiza formation in a glasshouse system in order to determine the extent to which MHB are system-specific. Paenibacillus sp. EJP73, an MHB for L. rufus in the microcosm, significantly enhanced L. bicolor mycorrhiza formation in the glasshouse, demonstrating that the MHB effect of this bacterium is neither fungus-specific nor limited to the original experimental system. Although the five MHB strains studied were unable to significantly enhance L. rufus mycorrhiza formation, two of them did have a significant effect on dichotomous short root branching by L. rufus. The effect was specific to Paenibacillus sp. EJP73 and Burkholderia sp. EJP67, the two strains isolated from L. rufus mycorrhiza, and was not associated with auxin production. Altered mycorrhiza architecture rather than absolute number of mycorrhizal roots may be an important previously overlooked parameter for defining MHB effects.

  1. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  2. Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlata Juraskova, E; Sedlackova, H; Janska, J; Holy, O; Lalova, I; Matouskova, I

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current presence of Legionella spp. in the output water of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and examine its mitigation by disinfection at the Institute of Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc. The first stage of our survey involved collecting samples of DUWL output water from 50 dental chair units (DCUs), and 2 samples of the incoming potable water. In October 2015, a one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) of DUWLs was conducted. This was followed by collecting 10 control samples (survey stage 2). From the total of 50 samples (survey stage 1), 18 samples (36.0 %) tested positive for Legionella spp. Following the disinfection, nine of the ten samples no longer showed any presence of Legionella. Based on culture results, the one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) was effective. We are unable to comment on the duration of positive effect of disinfection on the occurrence of Legionella spp. in the outlet water. It was a one-time survey (Tab. 2, Ref. 32).

  3. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...

  5. Respuesta plástica a la luz y al agua en cuatro especies mediterráneas del género Quercus (Fagaceae Plastic response to light and water in four Mediterranean Quercus species (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ L QUERO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La luz y el agua son dos de los principales factores que regulan el crecimiento y la supervivencia de las plantas leñosas mediterráneas. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer el nivel de respuesta plástica de plántulas de cuatro especies de Quercus a tratamientos de sombra y sequía. Además queremos evaluar qué variables son más plásticas a uno u otro factor, y probar la hipótesis de que los rasgos fisiológicos son más plásticos que los rasgos estructurales. Se cultivaron en condiciones controladas plántulas de Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Q. súber, Q. pyrenaica y Q. canariensis en tres tratamientos de luz (100, 27 y 3 % de luz incidente y con agua abundante. A partir de mediados de primavera, a la mitad de las plántulas se les suprimió el agua, de forma que recibieron dos tratamientos de agua (riego versus no riego dentro de cada tratamiento de luz. Se analizaron distintos rasgos fisiológicos como la tasa de fotosíntesis y respiración, el punto de compensación y de saturación a la luz, la conductancia estomática, la eficiencia en el uso del agua y de nitrógeno y la eficiencia fotosintética a la luz. También se estudiaron distintos rasgos morfológicos o estructurales, como el área foliar, el área específica foliar, las concentraciones foliares de N y C, y un índice de clorofila. En general, la respuesta plástica de las variables estructurales al factor agua fue muy baja, mientras que la respuesta de las fisiológicas fue relativamente alta. Con la luz, no se detectaron diferencias significativas en la respuesta plástica entre las variables estructurales y fisiológicas. En estas especies de Quercus mediterráneos, la mayor respuesta plástica a la luz podría estar ligada con una estrategia de tolerancia a la sombra, mientras que la baja respuesta plástica al agua (i.e., canalización respondería a una estrategia de tolerancia a la sequía, indicando que la tolerancia a bajos niveles de recursos puede ser

  6. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  7. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  9. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flow measurement is a key aspect for understanding how plants use water and their impacts on the ecosystems. A variety of sensors have been developed to measure sap flow, each one with its unique characteristics. When the aim of a research is to have accurate tree water use calculations, with high temporal and spatial resolution (i.e. scaled), a sensor with high accuracy, high measurement efficiency, low signal-to-noise ratio and low price is ideal, but such has not been developed yet. Granier's thermal dissipation probes (TDP) have been widely used in many studies and various environmental conditions because of its simplicity, reliability, efficiency and low cost. However, it has two major flaws when is used in semi-arid environments and broad-stem tree species: it is often affected by high natural thermal gradients (NTG), which distorts the measurements, and it cannot measure the radial variability of sap-flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than two centimeters. The new, multi point heat field deformation sensor (HFD) is theoretically not affected by NTG, and it can measure the radial variability of the sap flow at different depths. However, its high cost is a serious limitation when simultaneous measurements are required in several trees (e.g. catchment-scale studies). The underlying challenge is to develop a monitoring schema in which HFD and TDP are combined to satisfy the needs of measurement efficiency and accuracy in water accounting. To assess the level of agreement between TDP and HFD methods in quantifying sap flow rates and temporal patterns on Quercus ilex (Q.i ) and Quercus pyrenaica trees (Q.p.), three measurement schemas: standard TDP, TDP-NTG-corrected and HFD were compared in dry season at the semi-arid Sardon area, near Salamanca in Spain in the period from June to September 2009. To correct TDP measurements with regard to radial sap flow variability, a radial sap flux density correction factor was applied and tested by adjusting TDP

  11. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  13. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  14. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...

  16. Comparison of the autoecology of Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka Liebl. stands in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodriguez-Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to characterize the functioning of the ecosystems of semideciduous and deciduous Atlantic oaks in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The studied species were: Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Mattuschka Liebl. To advance in the knowledge of the autecology of these species it is necessary to descend at the regional level and describe in detail the variability of the environment to determine their potential, and to decide the silvicultural treatments to be applied to preserve them and to analyze future actuations in order to a possible expansion. The analysis of the results allows knowing differences in continentality and site conditions, with more precipitation, soil variability and humidification in Q. petraea forests respect to Q. robur. These information represent appropriate measures for the sustainable and multifunctional management of these forests, useful as indicators environmental and forestry parameters as well as the conservation status of these formations.

  17. Tendencias en la investigación sobre ecología y gestión de las especies de Quercus

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón, Teodoro; Padilla Díaz, C. M.; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio Manuel; Villar Montero, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    [ES]: El género Quercus reúne algunas de las especies arbóreas más relevantes en los bosques del hemisferio norte, tanto por su amplia distribución geográfica como por su gran importancia ecológica y económica. Algunas de estas especies han sido y continúan siendo foco central en numerosos estudios científicos relacionados con la ecología y gestión de ecosistemas forestales. Los objetivos de este artículo son: 1) conocer la evolución del número de artículos relacionados con Quercus, así como ...

  18. Comparison of the autoecology of Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka Liebl. stands in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodriguez-Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to characterize the functioning of the ecosystems of semideciduous and deciduous Atlantic oaks in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The studied species were: Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Mattuschka Liebl. To advance in the knowledge of the autecology of these species it is necessary to descend at the regional level and describe in detail the variability of the environment to determine their potential, and to decide the silvicultural treatments to be applied to preserve them and to analyze future actuations in order to a possible expansion. The analysis of the results allows knowing differences in continentalityand site conditions, with more precipitation, soil variability and humidification in Q. petraea forests respect to Q. robur. These information represent appropriate measures for the sustainable and multifunctional management of these forests, useful as indicators environmental and forestry parameters as well as the conservationstatus of these formations.

  19. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  20. Deteksi Keberadaan Phytophthora Spp. Di Air

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyawati, Purnamila

    2014-01-01

    The genus of Phytophthora is a destructive plants pathogen. However the existence of these species in plant tissue was hardly to detect because the fungus may also be present as resistant propagules in soil or spread through waterways. This study aimed to test the FTA card as a direct bait to obtain the DNA of Phytophthora spp and also to investigate the suitability of FTA card as a sampling method. This research used several Phytophthora baits including FTA card followed by DNA extraction a...

  1. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  2. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  3. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  4. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis Based on Chloroplast DNA Sequence in East Asia : Multiple Glacial Refugia and Mainland-Migrated Island Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dongmei; Zhang, Xianxian; Kang, Hongzhang; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Shan; Du, Hongmei; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Gapare, Washington; Wu, Harry X.; Liu, Chunjiang

    2012-01-01

    The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Kor...

  6. Seasonal abundance and biology of sporophagous thrips and notes on other thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) on the Mediterranean oak, Quercus rotundifolia L. in Navarra (N Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Goldarazena, A.; Mound, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    This paperrecords the seasonal abundance of four species of sporophagous thrips collected on the Mediterranean oak, Quercus rotundifolia L., in the Mediterranean area of Navarra (N Spain). The life cycles of Cornpsothrips albosignatus (Reuter), Priesneriella clavicornis (Knechtel); Megalothrips bonannii Uzel and Cryptohrips nigripes (Reuter) are reported, and notes given about habitat specificity and wing development. Notes about host specific Terebrantia thrips of the Mediterranean oak are a...

  7. The macrofungal diversity and community of Atlantic oak (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) forests in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Thomas J.; O’Hanlon, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The oak species Quercus petraea and Q. Robur are dominant canopy tree species of native deciduous forests in Ireland and coastal regions of Western Europe. These forests are typically plant species-rich, and can also have a rich fungal flora. This survey examined macrofungi found in five native oak sites across Ireland over three years. Overall, 94 macrofungal species belonging to 39 genera were discovered with Mycena, Lactarius, Russula and Cortinarius the most species-rich genera. The speci...

  8. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P < 0.005), while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of H. canis infection between these two canid species. A fair agreement beyond chance between identification in the blood and spleen of H. canis was found in 21 animals from which both blood and spleen samples were available (k = 0.33). This study describes a high prevalence of H. canis infection in

  9. Redimiento de Quercus humboldtii Bonpland (Roble en condiciones de interacción micorrizas ectotróficas - humus

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    Lyda Minelly Zarate Quiroga

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el rendimiento de Quercus humboldtii(roble en hidroponía de soporte sólido (virutade madera a través del análisis de las variables peso seco (g, peso fresco (g, altura (cm, áreafoliar (cm2, índice foliar específico (IF, cm2/g y tasa de asimilación neta (TAN, g/cm2*días,en dos fases, durante 14 meses, así: en la fase 1 (10 meses se aplicó inóculo ectomicorrízico,posteriormente se comprobó la colonización por ectomicorrizas (ECM. Se encontró diferenciaestadísticamente significativa (95% de confianza entre los 2 tratamientos (con y sin ECM, endonde las plantas ectomicorrizadas presentan incrementos en las variables evaluadas. En lafase 2 (4 meses, se adicionaron 5 humus, disímiles en los contenidos de elementos y pH, perocon valores de capacidad de intercambio catiónico (CIC altos (superiores a 25 meq/100g.A los tratamientos (12, resultado de combinar árboles con y sin ECM con cada uno de loshumus, se les confirmó la presencia de ECM y mostraron diferencias significativas (95% deconfianza, en donde se vió que la interacción ECM - humus genera los mejores rendimientos,y que la ectomicorriza actúa como reguladora de los cambios en la disponibilidad de elementosen el medio. Los análisis de elementos a nivel foliar mostraron una amplia tolerancia del roblepara macro y micro elementos, desde valores bajos a altos, según los referentes empleados. Seestableció un sistema interactuante soporte - raíz - ECM - humus, que permite una adecuadadinámica nutricional. Se analizó el inóculo ectomicorrízico (obtenido de árboles en condicionesde campo, y se obtuvo por morfotipificación la caracterización de 12 morfotipos, más uno delensayo de rendimiento. Al contrastar los morfotipos obtenidos con los árboles fuente se corro-boró el comportamiento poli-simbióntico de la especie. Se encontraron las condiciones necesa-rias para establecer hidroponía en medio líquido de Quercus humboldtii.

  10. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  11. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

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    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  12. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  13. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...

  14. Different sources of reduced carbon contribute to form three classes of terpenoid emitted by Quercus ilex L. leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loreto, F.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Frattoni, M.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves emit terpenes but do not have specialized structures for terpene storage. We exploited this unique feature to investigate terpene biosynthesis in intact leaves of Q. ilex. Light induction allowed us to distinguish three classes of terpenes: (i) a rapidly induced class including alpha-pinene; (ii) a more slowly induced class, including cis-beta-ocimene; and (iii) the most slowly induced class, including 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol. Using 13C, we found that alpha-pinene and cis-beta-ocimene were labeled quickly and almost completely while there was a delay before label appeared in linalool and 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol. The acetyl group of 3-methyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate was labeled quickly but label was limited to 20% of the moiety. It is suggested that the ocimene class of monoterpenes is made from one or more terpenes of the alpha-pinene class and that both classes are made entirely from reduced carbon pools inside the chloroplasts. Linalool and 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol are made from a different pool of reduced carbon, possibly in nonphotosynthetic plastids. The acetyl group of the 3-methyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate is derived mostly from carbon that does not participate in photosynthetic reactions. Low humidity and prolonged exposure to light favored ocimenes emission and induced linalool emission. This may indicate conversion between terpene classes

  15. Photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 and O3 in Quercus ilex leaves at a natural CO2 spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, E.; Seufert, G.; Della Rocca, G.; Thomsen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Photosynthetic stimulation and stomatal conductance (Gs) depression in Quercus ilex leaves at a CO 2 spring suggested no down-regulation. The insensitivity of Gs to a CO 2 increase (from ambient 1500 to 2000 μmol mol -1 ) suggested stomatal acclimation. Both responses are likely adaptations to the special environment of CO 2 springs. At the CO 2 -enriched site, not at the control site, photosynthesis decreased 9% in leaves exposed to 2x ambient O 3 concentrations in branch enclosures, compared to controls in charcoal-filtered air. The stomatal density reduction at high CO 2 was one-third lower than the concomitant Gs reduction, so that the O 3 uptake per single stoma was lower than at ambient CO 2 . No significant variation in monoterpene emission was measured. Higher trichome and mesophyll density were recorded at the CO 2 -enriched site, accounting for lower O 3 sensitivity. A long-term exposure to H 2 S, reflected by higher foliar S-content, and CO 2 might depress the antioxidant capacity of leaves close to the vent and increase their O 3 sensitivity. - Very high CO 2 concentrations did not compensate for the effects of O 3 on holm oak photosynthesis

  16. Changes in DNA methylation fingerprint of Quercus ilex trees in response to experimental field drought simulating projected climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, L; Ogaya, R; Barbeta, A; Peñuelas, J

    2014-03-01

    Rapid genetic changes in plants have been reported in response to current climate change. We assessed the capacity of trees in a natural forest to produce rapid acclimation responses based on epigenetic modifications. We analysed natural populations of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species of Mediterranean forests, using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to assess patterns and levels of methylation in individuals from unstressed forest plots and from plots experimentally exposed to drought for 12 years at levels projected for the coming decades. The percentage of hypermethylated loci increased, and the percentage of fully methylated loci clearly decreased in plants exposed to drought. Multivariate analyses exploring the status of methylation at MSAP loci also showed clear differentiation depending on stress. The PCA scores for the MSAP profiles clearly separated the genetic from the epigenetic structure, and also significantly separated the samples within each group in response to drought. Changes in DNA methylation highlight the large capacity of plants to rapidly acclimate to changing environmental conditions, including trees with long life spans, and our results demonstrate those changes. These changes, although unable to prevent the decreased growth and higher mortality associated with this experimental drought, occurred together with a dampening in such decreases as the long-term treatment progressed. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Morphological and physiological divergences within Quercus ilex support the existence of different ecotypes depending on climatic dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Barrón, Eduardo; Camarero, Julio Jesús; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show apparently contradictory findings about the functional convergence within the Mediterranean woody flora. In this context, this study evaluates the variability of functional traits within holm oak (Quercus ilex) to elucidate whether provenances corresponding to different morphotypes represent different ecotypes locally adapted to the prevaling stress levels. Several morphological and physiological traits were measured at leaf and shoot levels in 9-year-old seedlings of seven Q. ilex provenances including all recognized morphotypes. Plants were grown in a common garden for 9 years under the same environmental conditions to avoid possible biases due to site-specific characteristics. Leaf morphometry clearly separates holm oak provenances into 'ilex' (more elongated leaves with low vein density) and 'rotundifolia' (short and rounded leaves with high vein density) morphotypes. Moreover, these morphotypes represent two consistent and very contrasting functional types in response to dry climates, mainly in terms of leaf area, major vein density, leaf specific conductivity, resistance to drought-induced cavitation and turgor loss point. The 'ilex' and 'rotundifolia' morphotypes correspond to different ecotypes as inferred from their contrasting functional traits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the combined use of morphological and physiological traits has provided support for the concept of these two holm oak morphotypes being regarded as two different species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Facilitated establishment of Quercus ilex in shrub-dominated communities within a Mediterranean ecosystem: do mycorrhizal partners matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Gardes, Monique

    2009-04-01

    Positive plant-plant interaction is a widespread phenomenon, especially in harsh environments, which can contribute to secondary successions. Here, we investigated whether Arbutus unedo positively influences Quercus ilex establishment in shrub communities by abiotic and/or biotic interactions in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem, where we previously showed that A. unedo and Q. ilex share numerous species of mycorrhizal fungi. In a first field experiment, patterns of Q. ilex survivorship were documented. During the summer following germination, a majority of seedlings survived in A. unedo chaparral (AU), whereas most of them died in previous succession stages dominated by Erica arborea (EA). These results showed that survival of the Q. ilex seedling is succession stage dependent, probably due to the differential effects of the summer drought. In a second experiment, Q. ilex seedlings were used as bait plants to investigate the mycorrhizal inoculum in EA and AU. Morphotyping and molecular typing revealed 2.5 times higher colonization in AU than in EA, with more diverse fungi. Our results demonstrate that A. unedo facilitates mycorrhization of Q. ilex by hosting compatible ectomycorrhizal symbionts and positively influences seedling survival by buffering abiotic conditions. A comprehensive understanding of facilitation should thus include investigations of the soil biological patterns.

  19. Fungal Community and Ligninolytic Enzyme Activities in Quercus deserticola Trel. Litter from Forest Fragments with Increasing Levels of Disturbance

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    Jesús A. Rosales-Castillo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Litter fungal communities and their ligninolytic enzyme activities (laccase, Mn-peroxidase, and lignin-peroxidase play a vital role in forest biogeochemical cycles by breaking down plant cell wall polymers, including recalcitrant lignin. However, litter fungal communities and ligninolytic enzyme activities have rarely been studied in Neotropical, non-coniferous forests. Here, we found no significant differences in litter ligninolytic enzyme activities from well preserved, moderately disturbed, and heavily disturbed Quercus deserticola Trel. forests in central Mexico. However, we did find seasonal effects on enzyme activities: during the dry season, we observed lower laccase, and increased Mn-peroxidase and lignin-peroxidase activities, and in the rainy season, Mn-peroxidase and lignin-peroxidase activities were lower, while laccase activity peaked. Fungal diversity (Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices based on ITS-rDNA analyses decreased with increased disturbance, and principal component analysis showed that litter fungal communities are structured differently between forest types. White-rot Polyporales and Auriculariales only occurred in the well preserved forest, and a high number of Ascomycota were shared between forests. While the degree of forest disturbance significantly affected the litter fungal community structure, the ligninolytic enzyme activities remained unaffected, suggesting functional redundancy and a possible role of generalist Ascomycota taxa in litter delignification. Forest conservation and restoration strategies must account for leaf litter and its associated fungal community.

  20. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  1. [Spatial pattern analysis and associations of Quercus aquifolioides population at different growth stages in Southeast Tibet, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-qiang; Hua, Min; Dan, Qu; Lu, Jie; Fang, Jiang-ping

    2016-02-01

    This article analyzed the spatial pattern and its correlation of Quercus aquifolioides, Southeast Tibet at different growing stages by using Ripley' s L function in the method of point pattern, analysis. The results showed the diameter structure of Q. aquifolioides population in Southeast Tibet followed a 'single peak' shape and the saplings and medium trees predominated in number in the whole population. The population had a high regeneration rate and was of increase type. In the growth process of Q. aquifolioides from saplings to large trees, saplings and medium trees showed aggregation distribution at.small scale, while large trees showed basically random distribution at whole scale. There was significant correlation between saplings with medium or large trees at small scale, however, there was no correlation between medium and large trees. In the growth process of Q. aquifolioides population from saplings, medium trees to large trees, its spatial pattern developed from aggregative distribution to random distribution. The natural regeneration of Q. aquifolioides population was affected not only by interspecific competition, but also by intraspecific competition. In the similar natural environment, the most important factors affecting the spatial pattern of Q. aquifoioides population were its own biological and ecological characteristics.

  2. Comparative Drought Responses of Quercus ilex L. and Pinus sylvestris L. in a Montane Forest Undergoing a Vegetation Shift

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    David Aguadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different functional and structural strategies to cope with water shortage exist both within and across plant communities. The current trend towards increasing drought in many regions could drive some species to their physiological limits of drought tolerance, potentially leading to mortality episodes and vegetation shifts. In this paper, we study the drought responses of Quercus ilex and Pinus sylvestris in a montane Mediterranean forest where the former species is replacing the latter in association with recent episodes of drought-induced mortality. Our aim was to compare the physiological responses to variations in soil water content (SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD of the two species when living together in a mixed stand or separately in pure stands, where the canopies of both species are completely exposed to high radiation and VPD. P. sylvestris showed typical isohydric behavior, with greater losses of stomatal conductance with declining SWC and greater reductions of stored non-structural carbohydrates during drought, consistent with carbon starvation being an important factor in the mortality of this species. On the other hand, Q. ilex trees showed a more anisohydric behavior, experiencing more negative water potentials and higher levels of xylem embolism under extreme drought, presumably putting them at higher risk of hydraulic failure. In addition, our results show relatively small changes in the physiological responses of Q. ilex in mixed vs. pure stands, suggesting that the current replacement of P. sylvestris by Q. ilex will continue.

  3. Variation in sclerophylly among Iberian populations of Quercus coccifera L. is associated with genetic differentiation across contrasting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio de Casas, R; Vargas, P; Pérez-Corona, E; Cano, E; Manrique, E; García-Verdugo, C; Balaguer, L

    2009-05-01

    Evergreen oaks are an emblematic element of the Mediterranean vegetation and have a leaf phenotype that seems to have remained unchanged since the Miocene. We hypothesise that variation of the sclerophyll phenotype among Iberian populations of Quercus coccifera is partly due to an ulterior process of ecotypic differentiation. We analysed the genetic structure of nine Iberian populations using ISSR fingerprints, and their leaf phenotypes using mean and intracanopy plasticity values of eight morphological (leaf angle, area, spinescence, lobation and specific area) and biochemical traits (VAZ pool, chlorophyll and beta-carotene content). Climate and soil were also characterised at the population sites. Significant genetic and phenotypic differences were found among populations and between NE Iberia and the rest of the populations of the peninsula. Mean phenotypes showed a strong and independent correlation with both genetic and geographic distances. Northeastern plants were smaller, less plastic, with smaller, spinier and thicker leaves, a phenotype consistent with the stressful conditions that prevailed in the steppe environments of the refugia within this geographic area during glaciations. These genetic, phenotypic, geographic and environmental patterns are consistent with previously reported palaeoecological and common evidence. Such consistency leads us to conclude that there has been a Quaternary divergence within the sclerophyllous syndrome that was at least partially driven by ecological factors.

  4. Seed production differences of the Andean oak Quercus Humboldtii Bonpl. in two Andean forests of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Melo, Andres; Parrado Rosselli Angela

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms of tree species reproduction under natural situations including fruit and seed production patterns is very important for forest management strategies. Considering the influence of abiotic factors such as soil characteristics, humidity and rainfall on fruiting phenology, we studied fruit production patterns of the Andean oak (Quercus humboldtii: Fagaceae) in two forest sites of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera (Cachalu and Patios Altos), under contrasting environmental conditions. At both sites, we monitored monthly fruit production of 15 trees in Cachalu and 11 in Patios Altos using fruit/seed traps placed under the tree crowns. In each site soil cores were extracted below the litter layer 20 cm depth, and soil characteristics and nutrients were analyzed. In general, trees in Cachalu produced more fruits than in Patios Altos, as well as mean fruit mass (wet and dry weight) was significantly higher in Cachalu. At both sites, oak fruiting peaked from April to May, when the highest rainfall occurs. We found positive correlations between fruit production and rainfall one month prior. High phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were the main variables for explaining the high production. In contrast, high aluminum (Al) contents explained the low production found in Patios Altos. We discuss the importance of including fruit production for oak management strategies, such as restoration and reforestation programs.

  5. Altertoxins with potent anti-HIV activity from Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se, a fungal endophyte of Quercus emoryi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Bharat P; Wellensiek, Brian P; Ramakrishnan, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H; Ahmad, Nafees; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2014-11-01

    Screening of a small library of natural product extracts derived from endophytic fungi of the Sonoran desert plants in a cell-based anti-HIV assay involving T-cells infected with the HIV-1 virus identified the EtOAc extract of a fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se inhabiting the stem tissue of Quercus emoryi as a promising candidate for further investigation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of two new metabolites, altertoxins V (1) and VI (2) together with the known compounds, altertoxins I (3), II (4), and III (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis and those of 3-5 were established by comparison with reported data. When tested in our cell-based assay at concentrations insignificantly toxic to T-cells, altertoxins V (1), I (3), II (4), and III (5) completely inhibited replication of the HIV-1 virus at concentrations of 0.50, 2.20, 0.30, and 1.50 μM, respectively. Our findings suggest that the epoxyperylene structural scaffold in altertoxins may be manipulated to produce potent anti-HIV therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Paisang ( Quercus griffithii): A Keystone Tree Species in Sustainable Agroecosystem Management and Livelihoods in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Singh, Anshuman; Garnett, Stephen T.; Zander, Kerstin K.; Lobsang; Tsering, Darge

    2015-01-01

    In a study of the traditional livelihoods of 12 Monpa and Brokpa villages in Arunachal Pradesh, India using social-ecological and participatory rural appraisal techniques, we found that the forest tree species paisang ( Quercus griffithii, a species of oak) is vital to agroecosystem sustainability. Paisang trees are conserved both by individuals and through community governance, because their leaves play a crucial role in sustaining 11 traditional cropping systems of the Monpa peoples. An Indigenous institution, Chhopa, regulates access to paisang leaves, ensuring that the relationship between paisang and traditional field crop species within Monpa agroecosystems is sustainable. The Monpa farmers also exchange leaves and agricultural products for yak-based foods produced by the transhumant Brokpa, who are primarily yak herders. Yak herds also graze in paisang groves during winter. These practices have enabled the conservation of about 33 landraces, yak breeds, and a number of wild plants. Paisang thus emerged as a culturally important keystone species in the cultures and livelihoods of both Monpa and Brokpa. Ecological and conservation knowledge and ethics about paisang vary with gender, social systems, and altitudes. Labor shortages, however, have already caused some changes to the ways in which paisang leaves are used and yak grazing patterns are also changing in the face of changes in attitude among local landowners. Given new competing interests, incentives schemes are now needed to conserve the ecologically sustainable traditional livelihoods.

  7. Responses of nutrients and mobile carbohydrates in Quercus variabilis seedlings to environmental variations using in situ and ex situ experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Pin Lei

    Full Text Available Forest tree species distributed across a wide range of geographical areas are subjected to differential climatic and edaphic conditions and long-term selection, leading to genotypes with morphological and physiological adaptation to the local environment. To test the ability of species to cope with changing environmental conditions, we studied the ecophysiological features of Quercus variabilis using seedlings grown in geographically widely isolated populations (Exp. I, in situ and in a common garden (Exp. II, ex situ using seedlings originating from those populations. We found that Q. variabilis plants grown in different locations along a south-north gradient had different levels of nutrients (N, P, K and carbon-physiological performance (photosynthesis, non-structural carbohydrates, such as soluble sugars and starch, and that these physiological differences were not correlated with local soil properties. These geographic variations of plant physiology disappeared when plants from different locations were grown in the same environment. Our results indicate that the physiological performance of Q. variabilis plants is mainly determined by the climatic variations across latitude rather than by their soils or by genetic differentiation. The adaptive ability of Q. variabilis found in the present study suggests that this species has the potential to cope, at least to some extent, with changing environmental conditions.

  8. Efecto de calidad de planta, exposición y micrositio en una plantación de Quercus rugosa

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    A. Ramírez Contreras

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Sierra de Guadalupe, Estado de México, fueron plantados árboles de Quercus rugosa Née de dos calidades (planta chica, con 8-15 cm de altura y <2 mm de diámetro en la base, y planta grande con 16-24 cm de altura y 2-4 mm de diámetro, sobre dos exposiciones (NE y SO y en tres condiciones de micrositio (al NE y al SO de rocas y un testigo sin roca. Lo anterior para evaluar su supervivencia y crecimiento un año después de plantados. El experimento fue analizado con un procedimiento mixto. Se encontró que los tres factores fueron significativos, mas no sus interacciones. La planta grande tuvo mayor supervivencia que la chica (37 y 26 %; la exposición noreste arrojó mejor supervivencia que la suroeste (45 y 16 %; y las plantas con micrositio tuvieron mayores valores que el testigo (41 % al NE, 32 % al SO y 20 % para el testigo. El efecto aditivo de la mejor condición de cada factor (planta grande, exposición noreste, al noreste de roca implica una supervivencia igual a 64 %. La peor condición fue para los árboles chicos, sobre exposición suroeste y sin micrositio, con 0 % de supervivencia.

  9. Age trends and within-site effects in wood density and radial growth in Quercus faginea mature trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicelina B. Sousa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: This paper aims to valorize the wood of Quercus faginea Lam. for high quality end uses (e.g. furniture by studying growth and quality properties using mature trees. Age trends in tree-ring width and wood density are shown and the main factors responsible for variations in tree-ring width and wood density within and between trees are investigated. Area of study: The study site is in the center of Portugal within the natural species distribution area.Material and methods: Radial samples from ten mature trees were collected at 6 heights (from base to 9.7 m and prepared for X-ray microdensity.Main results: Wood density showed high values, ranging from 0.868 g/cm3 to 0.957 g/cm3. Wood density decreased from pith to bark and with stem height. Cambial age showed a linear relationship with wood density and most of the variation in wood is explained by age. Intra-ring and axial within-tree homogeneity was good.Research highlights: Mature trees of Q. faginea showed high wood density and a high potential for high quality end uses, comparable to other oaks. Wood density is influenced by cambial age and tree-ring width. Wood quality may be improved by tree growth rates adjustment e.g. through an adequate tree stand density (e.g. thinning operations. 

  10. Age trends and within-site effects in wood density and radial growth in Quercus faginea mature trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, V.B.; Louzada, J.L.; Pereira, H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: This paper aims to valorize the wood of Quercus faginea Lam. for high quality end uses (e.g. furniture) by studying growth and quality properties using mature trees. Age trends in tree-ring width and wood density are shown and the main factors responsible for variations in tree-ring width and wood density within and between trees are investigated. Area of study: The study site is in the center of Portugal within the natural species distribution area. Material and methods: Radial samples from ten mature trees were collected at 6 heights (from base to 9.7 m) and prepared for X-ray microdensity. Main results: Wood density showed high values, ranging from 0.868 g/cm3 to 0.957 g/cm3. Wood density decreased from pith to bark and with stem height. Cambial age showed a linear relationship with wood density and most of the variation in wood is explained by age. Intra-ring and axial within-tree homogeneity was good. Research highlights: Mature trees of Q. faginea showed high wood density and a high potential for high quality end uses, comparable to other oaks. Wood density is influenced by cambial age and tree-ring width. Wood quality may be improved by tree growth rates adjustment e.g. through an adequate tree stand density (e.g. thinning operations). (Author)

  11. Age trends and within-site effects in wood density and radial growth in Quercus faginea mature trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, V.B.; Louzada, J.L.; Pereira, H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of study: This paper aims to valorize the wood of Quercus faginea Lam. for high quality end uses (e.g. furniture) by studying growth and quality properties using mature trees. Age trends in tree-ring width and wood density are shown and the main factors responsible for variations in tree-ring width and wood density within and between trees are investigated. Area of study: The study site is in the center of Portugal within the natural species distribution area. Material and methods: Radial samples from ten mature trees were collected at 6 heights (from base to 9.7 m) and prepared for X-ray microdensity. Main results: Wood density showed high values, ranging from 0.868 g/cm3 to 0.957 g/cm3. Wood density decreased from pith to bark and with stem height. Cambial age showed a linear relationship with wood density and most of the variation in wood is explained by age. Intra-ring and axial within-tree homogeneity was good. Research highlights: Mature trees of Q. faginea showed high wood density and a high potential for high quality end uses, comparable to other oaks. Wood density is influenced by cambial age and tree-ring width. Wood quality may be improved by tree growth rates adjustment e.g. through an adequate tree stand density (e.g. thinning operations). (Author)

  12. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Word-wide meta-analysis of Quercus forests ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity reveals southwestern Mexico as a hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guzmán, Olimpia Mariana; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Hernández, Edith; Arellano-Torres, Elsa; Oyama, Ken

    2017-11-01

    Quercus is the most diverse genus of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host plants; it is distributed in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, from temperate to tropical regions. However, their ECM communities have been scarcely studied in comparison to those of conifers. The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of ECM fungi associated with oak forests in the Cuitzeo basin in southwestern Mexico; and to determine the level of richness, potential endemism and species similarity among ECM fungal communities associated with natural oak forests worldwide through a meta-analysis. The ITS DNA sequences of ECM root tips from 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 1065 species of ECM fungi have been documented worldwide; however, 812 species have been only found at one site. Oak forests in Europe contain 416 species, Mexico 307, USA 285, and China 151. Species with wider distributions are Sebacinaceae sp. SH197130, Amanita subjunquillea, Cenococcum geophilum, Cortinarius decipiens, Russula hortensis, R. risigallina, R. subrubescens, Sebacinaceae sp. SH214607, Tomentella ferruginea, and T. lapida. The meta-analysis revealed (1) that Mexico is not only a hotspot for oak species but also for their ECM mycobionts. (2) There is a particularly high diversity of ECM Pezizales in oak seasonal forests from western USA to southwestern Mexico. (3) The oak forests in southwestern Mexico have the largest number of potential endemic species. (4) Globally, there is a high turnover of ECM fungal species associated with oaks, which indicates high levels of alpha and beta diversity in these communities.

  14. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on growth and leaf litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsub Cha

    Full Text Available The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R and decreased specific leaf area (SLA under CO2-enriched conditions. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly reduced the nitrogen concentration in leaf litter while increasing lignin concentrations and carbon/nitrogen (C/N and lignin/N ratios. The microbial biomass associated with decomposing Q. acutissima leaf litter was suppressed in CO2 enrichment chambers, while that of F. rhynchophylla was not. The leaf litter of Q. acutissima from the CO2-enriched chambers, in contrast with F. rhynchophylla, contained much lower nutrient concentrations than that of the litter in the ambient air chambers. Consequently, poorer litter quality suppressed decomposition.

  15. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on growth and leaf litter decomposition of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sangsub; Chae, Hee-Myung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Shim, Jae-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) level is expected to increase substantially, which may change the global climate and carbon dynamics in ecosystems. We examined the effects of an elevated atmospheric CO2 level on the growth of Quercus acutissima and Fraxinus rhynchophylla seedlings. We investigated changes in the chemical composition of leaf litter, as well as litter decomposition. Q. acutissima and F. rhynchophylla did not show differences in dry weight between ambient CO2 and enriched CO2 treatments, but they exhibited different patterns of carbon allocation, namely, lower shoot/root ratio (S/R) and decreased specific leaf area (SLA) under CO2-enriched conditions. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly reduced the nitrogen concentration in leaf litter while increasing lignin concentrations and carbon/nitrogen (C/N) and lignin/N ratios. The microbial biomass associated with decomposing Q. acutissima leaf litter was suppressed in CO2 enrichment chambers, while that of F. rhynchophylla was not. The leaf litter of Q. acutissima from the CO2-enriched chambers, in contrast with F. rhynchophylla, contained much lower nutrient concentrations than that of the litter in the ambient air chambers. Consequently, poorer litter quality suppressed decomposition.

  16. Water relations, stomatal response and transpiration of Quercus pubescens trees during summer in a Mediterranean carbon dioxide spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognetti, R.; Miglietta, F.; Raschi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale della Ricerche, Firenze (Italy); Longobucco, A. [Centro Studi per l`Informatica applicata all`Agricoltura, Firenze (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    Variations in water relations and stomatal response of downy oak (Quercus pubescens) were analyzed under Mediterranean field conditions during two consecutive summers at two locations characterized by different atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations due to the presence of a CO{sub 2} spring at one of the locations. The heat-pulse velocity technique was used to estimate water use during a five-month period from June to November 1994. At the end of the sap flow measurements, the trees were harvested and foliage and sapwood area measured. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on leaf conductance was less at high leaf-to-air water vapour pressure difference than at low leaf-to-air water vapour pressure difference. Mean and diurnal sap fluxes were consistently higher in trees at the control site than in the trees at the CO{sub 2} spring site. Results are discussed in terms of effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on plant water use at the organ and whole-tree level. 76 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Variation of Ring Width and Wood Density in Two Unmanaged Stands of the Mediterranean Oak Quercus faginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicelina B. Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring width and wood density variation were studied from pith-to-bark and along the stem in two naturally regenerated stands of Quercus faginea Lam. in Portugal. Ring width was significantly different between sites, in both heartwood and sapwood rings, ranging from 1.83 mm to 2.52 mm and from 0.77 mm to 2.11 mm, respectively. Wood density was significantly different between sites only in the heartwood, i.e., 914 kg m−3 and 1037 kg m−3. Site effects were the main source of variation for ring width and wood density within the heartwood as well as for sapwood ring width, while the between-tree effects explained more the density variation within the sapwood. Wood density showed within-tree uniformity that was not affected by site. The stand characteristics such as basal area and tree age may override the environmental growth conditions. There was also a weak correlation between wood density and ring width components therefore suggesting the possibility of forestry management for both fast tree growth and high wood density.

  18. Tree competition and species coexistence in a Quercus--Betula forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ji-hua; Mi, Xiang-cheng; Liu, Can-ran; Ma, Ke-ping

    2006-09-01

    The population size structure, growth dynamics and mode of competition among adult trees (≥ 4 cm DBH) of six abundant tree species in a 5 ha study plot of a temperate deciduous forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China were investigated using diffusion and growth dynamics models. In the year of 2000, two dominant species, Quercus liaotungensis and Betula dahurica accounted for ca. 68.69% of the total basal area and 52.71% of the total density of adult plants. Q. liaotungensis, Populus davidiana and Acer mono exhibited inverse J-shaped DBH distributions whereas Betula dahurica, B. platyphylla and Salix caprea had unimodal DBH distributions. One-sided interspecific competition was detected between some species combinations at the scale of the 5 ha study plot, and the competitive effect was mainly size-dependent rather than from species-specific interactions with large individuals in the canopy layer out competing smaller individuals in the understory. Symmetric competition was found between Q. liaotungensis and A. mono only. However, considering the straight line relationship of G ( t, x) - √{D(t, x)}, which suggests that competitive asymmetry is very low or absent, combined with the relatively low mortality of trees with a DBH larger than 4 cm, we speculate that asymmetric interspecific competition was not important in structuring this tree community. Regeneration characteristics of each species are most likely important in regulating species coexistence and stand dynamics in this forest.

  19. The effects of host age and spatial location on bacterial community composition in the English Oak tree (Quercus robur).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaden, S; Metcalf, C J E; Koskella, B

    2016-04-27

    Drivers of bacterial community assemblages associated with plants are diverse and include biotic factors, such as competitors and host traits, and abiotic factors, including environmental conditions and dispersal mechanisms. We examine the roles of spatial distribution and host size, as an approximation for age, in shaping the microbiome associated with Quercus robur woody tissue using culture-independent 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. In addition to providing a baseline survey of the Q. robur microbiome, we screened for the pathogen of acute oak decline. Our results suggest that age is a predictor of bacterial community composition, demonstrating a surprising negative correlation between tree age and alpha diversity. We find no signature of dispersal limitation within the Wytham Woods plot sampled. Together, these results provide evidence for niche-based hypotheses of community assembly and the importance of tree age in bacterial community structure, as well as highlighting that caution must be applied when diagnosing dysbiosis in a long-lived plant host. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Effects of elevated O3 on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release of Quercus mongolica in city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-li; Xu, Sheng; Fu, Wei; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yi; Ping, Qin

    2016-02-01

    The leaf litters of 10-year-old Quercus mongolica were put in nylon bags and exposed to elevated 03 level (120 nmol . mol-1) with the control of 40 nmol . mol-1 in open top chambers (OTCs) for 150 days to test the effect of high O3 on the litter decomposition. The results showed that no significant difference was observed in residual mass between elevated O3 treatment and the control. Elevated 03 inhibited the release of C and K during the decomposition, the residual rate of K under elevated O3 treatment (23.9%) was significantly higher than that of the control (17.1%) after 150-day decomposition. Compared with the control, N mineralization and lignin degradation in elevated O3 treatment were inhibited during early period of decomposition (0-60 d), but were promoted in later period (90-150 d). The changes of lignin/N showed no significant difference between elevated O3 treatment and the control during the decomposition. Elevated O3 generally promoted the release of P in leaf litter of Q. mongolica during the decomposition. C/P ratio was higher under elevated 03 than that under control. Significant positive correlation was shown between residual dry mass of leaf litters and the residual rate of C, N, K, C/N ratio during decomposition. Elevated 03 might play an important role in the nutrient cycle of forest ecosystem in high-O3 pollution area.

  1. Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. In the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Mota, Lúcio Tadeu; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cysts of Giardia spp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in waters of the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil. Samples of river and spring water and of treated water were filtered and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio). Of 21 samples, 7 from each locality, 3 (3/7, 42.8%) from a river were positive for Giardia (mean concentration 2.57 cysts/L), and 1 (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). From springs, 1 sample (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). One sample (1/7, 14.3%) from treated water was positive for both, with 4 oocysts/L and 2 cysts/L. Giardia was the more frequent protozoan present.

  2. [Amblyomma spp. case related to overseas travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Mungan, Mesut; Babür, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are a threat to human health by blood sucking and vectoring many disease agents. Tick-borne diseases are seen all over the world and play an important role in the dissemination of diseases. Although many of the tick species are present in Turkey, Amblyomma genus is seen more in South America and Africa. In this case,a person returning to the country after travelling to Africa who presented to the hospital complaining of tick bites and brought ticks to the parasitology laboratory was identified as Ablyomma spp. nymph. This case is a report concerning care of tick bites when travelling abroad and shows that these ticks can transmit disease agents from abroad.

  3. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  4. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  5. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  6. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  7. How drought severity constrains gross primary production(GPP) and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments plays a crucial role in the carbon (C) sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought-prone forests. We analyzed the fate of gross primary production (GPP) in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns, and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy covariance fluxes with annual net primary productions (NPP), we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic, heterotrophic respirations and carbon-use efficiency (CUE; the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly net ecosystem production (NEP), GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding aboveground net primary production (ANPP) components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems, respectively. NEP, GPP and Reco were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected - the stem growth - to the least affected - the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease less drastically in response to drought than GPP and NPP did, probably due to drought acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem, and

  8. Losing the Warning Signal: Drought Compromises the Cross-Talk of Signaling Molecules in Quercus ilex Exposed to Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cotrozzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interactions between drought and acute ozone (O3 stress in terms of signaling molecules and cell death would improve the predictions of plant responses to climate change. The aim was to investigate whether drought stress influences the responses of plants to acute episodes of O3 exposure. In this study, the behavior of 84 Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex plants was evaluated in terms of cross-talk responses among signaling molecules. Half of the sample was subjected to drought (20% of the effective daily evapotranspiration, for 15 days and was later exposed to an acute O3 exposure (200 nL L-1 for 5 h. First, our results indicate that in well-water conditions, O3 induced a signaling pathway specific to O3-sensitive behavior. Second, different trends and consequently different roles of phytohormones and signaling molecules (ethylene, ET; abscisic acid, ABA; salycilic acid, SA and jasmonic acid, JA were observed in relation to water stress and O3. A spatial and functional correlation between these signaling molecules was observed in modulating O3-induced responses in well-watered plants. In contrast, in drought-stressed plants, these compounds were not involved either in O3-induced signaling mechanisms or in leaf senescence (a response observed in water-stressed plants before the O3-exposure. Third, these differences were ascribable to the fact that in drought conditions, most defense processes induced by O3 were compromised and/or altered. Our results highlight how Q. ilex plants suffering from water deprivation respond differently to an acute O3 episode compared to well-watered plants, and suggest new effect to be considered in plant responses to environmental changes. This poses the serious question as to whether or not multiple high-magnitude O3 events (as predicted can change these cross-talk responses, thus opening it up possible further investigations.

  9. Aqueous-acetone extraction improves the drawbacks of using dimethylsulfoxide as solvent for photometric pigment quantification in Quercus ilex leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Cascon, R.; Jiménez-Fenoy, L.; Verdú-Fillola, I.; Martín, M.P.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: We evaluated the use of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for the photometric determination of chlorophyll (Chla and Chlb) and carotenoids in Quercus ilex L. leaves by comparative analysis using aqueous-acetone extraction. Area of study: a Q. ilex dehesa in Las Majadas del Tietar, Cáceres, Spain Material and methods: Q. ilex leaves were sampled during two vegetative periods. Field SPAD-502 Chlorophyll measurements and photometric chlorophyll determinations were performed. Two procedures were used: extraction of intact foliar discs at 65ºC with DMSO and fine foliar powder with cold aqueous-acetone. Main results: DMSO produced Chlb overestimation and different fitting performance for SPAD vs pigment calibrations (R2=0.64, RMSE=0.20, p<0.0001 for Chla (µg/cm2); R2=0.33, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for Chlb (µg/cm2) and R2=0.50, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for carotenoids (µg/cm2)). Aqueous-acetone provided more accurate predictions (R2=0.90, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chla and R2=0.91, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chlb, R2=0.90, RMSE=0.02, p<0.0001 for carotenoids) and mean ratio Chla/Chlb=3.6 inside the range for sun exposed leaves. Research highlights: Oxidizing conditions and polyphenol concentrations in Q. ilex leaves generated brown coloration in the DMSO extraction procedure, interfering with the photometric measurements in the red-orange region. Aqueous-acetone extraction was free from interference. DMSO should be avoided for pigment determination in Q. ilex leaves or when comparing different tree species.

  10. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  11. Specific polyphenols and tannins are associated with defense against insect herbivores in the tropical oak Quercus oleoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, Coral; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Heil, Martin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Oyama, Ken

    2014-05-01

    The role of plant polyphenols as defenses against insect herbivores is controversial. We combined correlative field studies across three geographic regions (Northern Mexico, Southern Mexico, and Costa Rica) with induction experiments under controlled conditions to search for candidate compounds that might play a defensive role in the foliage of the tropical oak, Quercus oleoides. We quantified leaf damage caused by four herbivore guilds (chewers, skeletonizers, leaf miners, and gall forming insects) and analyzed the content of 18 polyphenols (including hydrolyzable tannins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonol glycosides) in the same set of leaves using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Foliar damage ranged from two to eight percent per region, and nearly 90% of all the damage was caused by chewing herbivores. Damage due to chewing herbivores was positively correlated with acutissimin B, catechin, and catechin dimer, and damage by mining herbivores was positively correlated with mongolinin A. By contrast, gall presence was negatively correlated with vescalagin and acutissimin B. By using redundancy analysis, we searched for the combinations of polyphenols that were associated to natural herbivory: the combination of mongolinin A and acutissimin B had the highest association to herbivory. In a common garden experiment with oak saplings, artificial damage increased the content of acutissimin B, mongolinin A, and vescalagin, whereas the content of catechin decreased. Specific polyphenols, either individually or in combination, rather than total polyphenols, were associated with standing leaf damage in this tropical oak. Future studies aimed at understanding the ecological role of polyphenols can use similar correlative studies to identify candidate compounds that could be used individually and in biologically meaningful combinations in tests with herbivores and pathogens.

  12. [Sap flow characteristics of Quercus liaotungensis in response to sapwood area and soil moisture in the loess hilly region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jin Lin; He, Qiu Yue; Yan, Mei Jie; Li, Guo Qing; Du, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    To examine the characteristics of sap flow in Quercus liaotungensis and their response to environmental factors under different soil moisture conditions, Granier-type thermal dissipation probes were used to measure xylem sap flow of trees with different sapwood area in a natural Q. liaotungensis forest in the loess hilly region. Solar radiation, air temperature, relative air humidity, precipitation, and soil moisture were monitored during the study period. The results showed that sap flux of Q. liaotungensis reached daily peaks earlier than solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The diurnal dynamics of sap flux showed a similar pattern to those of the environmental factors. Trees had larger sap flux during the period with higher soil moisture. Under the same soil moisture conditions, trees with larger diameter and sapwood areas had significantly higher sap flux than those with smaller diameter and sapwood areas. Sap flux could be fitted with vapor pressure deficit, solar radiation, and the integrated index of the two factors using exponential saturation function. Differences in the fitted curves and parameters suggested that sap flux tended to reach saturation faster under higher soil moisture. Furthermore, trees in the smaller diameter class were more sensitive to the changes of soil moisture. The ratio of daily sap flux per unit vapor pressure deficit under lower soil moisture condition to that under higher soil moisture condition was linearly correlated to sapwood area. The regressive slope in smaller diameter class was larger than that in bigger diameter class, which further indicated the higher sensitivity of trees with smaller diameter class to soil moisture. These results indicated that wider sapwood of larger diameter class provided a buffer against drought stress.

  13. Aqueous-acetone extraction improves the drawbacks of using dimethylsulfoxide as solvent for photometric pigment quantification in Quercus ilex leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Cascon, R.; Jiménez-Fenoy, L.; Verdú-Fillola, I.; Martín, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: We evaluated the use of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for the photometric determination of chlorophyll (Chla and Chlb) and carotenoids in Quercus ilex L. leaves by comparative analysis using aqueous-acetone extraction. Area of study: a Q. ilex dehesa in Las Majadas del Tietar, Cáceres, Spain Material and methods: Q. ilex leaves were sampled during two vegetative periods. Field SPAD-502 Chlorophyll measurements and photometric chlorophyll determinations were performed. Two procedures were used: extraction of intact foliar discs at 65ºC with DMSO and fine foliar powder with cold aqueous-acetone. Main results: DMSO produced Chlb overestimation and different fitting performance for SPAD vs pigment calibrations (R2=0.64, RMSE=0.20, p<0.0001 for Chla (µg/cm2); R2=0.33, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for Chlb (µg/cm2) and R2=0.50, RMSE=0.23, p<0.0001 for carotenoids (µg/cm2)). Aqueous-acetone provided more accurate predictions (R2=0.90, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chla and R2=0.91, RMSE=0.16, p<0.0001 for Chlb, R2=0.90, RMSE=0.02, p<0.0001 for carotenoids) and mean ratio Chla/Chlb=3.6 inside the range for sun exposed leaves. Research highlights: Oxidizing conditions and polyphenol concentrations in Q. ilex leaves generated brown coloration in the DMSO extraction procedure, interfering with the photometric measurements in the red-orange region. Aqueous-acetone extraction was free from interference. DMSO should be avoided for pigment determination in Q. ilex leaves or when comparing different tree species.

  14. Relative importance of various regeneration mechanisms in different restoration stages of Quercus variabilis forest after selective logging

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    Yaoqin Xue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak reproduces asexually and sexually. This study aimed to determine the status and growth of asexual and sexual recruits of Q. variabilis in different forest recovery stages.Area of study: Three selective logged stands and one unlogged stand in Q. variabilis forest, Shaanxi Province, China.Material and Methods: Origin, number, basal diameter, height and size structure of Q. variabilis shoots (height ≤200 cm were investigated in the plots of 5, 10, and 20-years post-logging stands and unlogged stand. Effects of recovery stage on the density and growth of the three original recruits (stump sprouts, stem base sprouts and true seedlings were analysis by One-way ANOVA.Main results: Sprouts dominated logged stands, whereas true seedlings dominated unlogged stand, stem base sprouts only existed in 20-years post-logging and unlogged stands. Stump sprout density and sprout number per stump both declined with extended post-logging time. True seedlings density increased from 7 to 20 shoots/100 m2 as the postlogging time extended, and peaked in unlogged stand (94 shoots/100 m2. An ongoing size structure was observed in true seedlings in all stands. Stump sprouts were taller and greater than true seedlings.Research highlights: Stump sprouts contributed more to Q. variabilis forest recovery in the early stage after disturbance. The contribution of true seedlings was limited in the same stage, but they were beneficial for population long-term development. Stem base sprouts were most likely to be a survival strategy rather than a reproductive strategy.Key words: asexual reproduction; true seedling; post-logging time; Chinese cork oak.

  15. Fragmentation effect in the leaf morphometry and environment of Quercus germana Schldl. & Cham. (Fagaceae in Xalapa, Veracruz

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    Anantli Martínez-Munguía

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus germana es una especie endémica del bosque mesófilo de montaña de México. La presión de selección que la fragmentación y los cambios ambientales ejercen, sugieren diferenciación fenotípica. Por lo anterior, la relación de la diferenciación foliar de Q. germana con la fragmentación y las condiciones ambientales se evaluó en seis sitios del bosque mesófilo de Xalapa, Veracruz. Para ello, se colectaron 10 hojas de las ramas nones de 30 individuos por sitio; se midieron 10 características morfométricas foliares y siete ambientales. Los análisis de varianza se realizaron con el modelo linear generalizado; se utilizó un análisis discriminante, se construyeron árboles de ligamiento UPGMA y se proyectaron las poblaciones tridimensionalmente. Las distancias de Mahalanobis se compararon con una prueba de Mantel para estimar la relación morfométrica y ambiental. Las variables morfológicas que mejor separan los sitios son mucrones, nervaduras y tamaño del peciolo. Ambientalmente, las variables más discriminantes son luz, temperatura y pérdida de humedad. La prueba de Mantel no mostró relación entre las diferencias morfométricas y ambientales (r = 0.090, P = 0.306. Las subpoblaciones de Q. germana son morfológicamente diferentes a pesar de la distancia corta que las separa, lo cual indica que posiblemente son afectadas por la fragmentación aún sin influencia ambiental.

  16. Experimentally reduced root–microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H.; Callahan, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. Methods To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Key Results Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10–20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10–30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. Conclusions The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root

  17. Experimentally reduced root-microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10-20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10-30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root trait variation, interactions with symbionts and recent

  18. Differences in the environmental control of leaf senescence of four Quercus species coexisting in a Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa del Río-García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: Our aim is to check the effect of different environmental factors on the leaf senescence of four Quercus species with different leaf longevities, to help us better understand the implications of climate change on leaf demography. Area of study: The study was carried out in two sites of the province of Salamanca (central-western Spain, both sites showing differences in their temperatures and soil water availability. Material and Methods: Over four years (2007-2010 we monitored the number of leaves of the different cohorts labelled on five specimens of each species at both sites to elaborate life-tables and calculate mortality rates. Mortality rates were then related to several other variables measured during the same period: air temperature, soil water availability, precipitation, predawn water potentials (Ψpd and leaf N resorption. Main results: In the two deciduous species maximum daily temperatures and the time during which their values remain above a certain threshold (between 11 and 12ºC of maximum daily temperature are the main factors controlling the timing of leaf abscission. In the evergreen species abscission of old leaves showed no relationship with the environmental factors analyzed. By contrast, mortality rates of old leaves were related to seasonal N resorption values, with the maximum mortality of old leaves coinciding in time with the maximum withdrawal of N from shed leaves and also with the emergence of the new leaf cohort. Research highlights: The increase in the duration of the leaves of the two deciduous species, as a result of the delayed senescence by warmer autumnal temperatures, could contribute to reducing the differences in the length of the productive leaf life with respect to the evergreen species. This could improve the competitive capacity of deciduous species as opposed to that of evergreen species, and thus alter their respective distribution patterns.

  19. Limited Pollen Dispersal Contributes to Population Genetic Structure but Not Local Adaptation in Quercus oleoides Forests of Costa Rica.

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    Nicholas John Deacon

    Full Text Available Quercus oleoides Cham. and Schlect., tropical live oak, is a species of conservation importance in its southern range limit of northwestern Costa Rica. It occurs in high-density stands across a fragmented landscape spanning a contrasting elevation and precipitation gradient. We examined genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure in this geographically isolated and genetically distinct population. We characterized population genetic diversity at 11 nuclear microsatellite loci in 260 individuals from 13 sites. We monitored flowering time at 10 sites, and characterized the local environment in order to compare observed spatial genetic structure to hypotheses of isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment. Finally, we quantified pollen dispersal distances and tested for local adaptation through a reciprocal transplant experiment in order to experimentally address these hypotheses.High genetic diversity is maintained in the population and the genetic variation is significantly structured among sampled sites. We identified 5 distinct genetic clusters and average pollen dispersal predominately occurred over short distances. Differences among sites in flowering phenology and environmental factors, however, were not strictly associated with genetic differentiation. Growth and survival of upland and lowland progeny in their native and foreign environments was expected to exhibit evidence of local adaptation due to the more extreme dry season in the lowlands. Seedlings planted in the lowland garden experienced much higher mortality than seedlings in the upland garden, but we did not identify evidence for local adaptation.Overall, this study indicates that the Costa Rican Q. oleoides population has a rich population genetic history. Despite environmental heterogeneity and habitat fragmentation, isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment alone do not explain spatial genetic structure. These results add to studies of genetic structure by

  20. Limited Pollen Dispersal Contributes to Population Genetic Structure but Not Local Adaptation in Quercus oleoides Forests of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Nicholas John; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2015-01-01

    Quercus oleoides Cham. and Schlect., tropical live oak, is a species of conservation importance in its southern range limit of northwestern Costa Rica. It occurs in high-density stands across a fragmented landscape spanning a contrasting elevation and precipitation gradient. We examined genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure in this geographically isolated and genetically distinct population. We characterized population genetic diversity at 11 nuclear microsatellite loci in 260 individuals from 13 sites. We monitored flowering time at 10 sites, and characterized the local environment in order to compare observed spatial genetic structure to hypotheses of isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment. Finally, we quantified pollen dispersal distances and tested for local adaptation through a reciprocal transplant experiment in order to experimentally address these hypotheses. High genetic diversity is maintained in the population and the genetic variation is significantly structured among sampled sites. We identified 5 distinct genetic clusters and average pollen dispersal predominately occurred over short distances. Differences among sites in flowering phenology and environmental factors, however, were not strictly associated with genetic differentiation. Growth and survival of upland and lowland progeny in their native and foreign environments was expected to exhibit evidence of local adaptation due to the more extreme dry season in the lowlands. Seedlings planted in the lowland garden experienced much higher mortality than seedlings in the upland garden, but we did not identify evidence for local adaptation. Overall, this study indicates that the Costa Rican Q. oleoides population has a rich population genetic history. Despite environmental heterogeneity and habitat fragmentation, isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment alone do not explain spatial genetic structure. These results add to studies of genetic structure by examining a common

  1. Mercury Distribution and Seasonal and Inter annual Variation of Mercury in Oak (Quercus ilex L.) in Almadenejos (Ciudad Real, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Alonso, J.; Sierra, M. J.; Millan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Plants that are exposed to environmental pollutants are able to accumulate them in their organs depending on plant species, type of organ or age among others. Evergreen plants can hold stems and leaves of the different age over the same branch. Thus, the amount of contaminants of these former organs could vary with its age because the contamination exposure time is different. The aim of this study is to know in a tree species, the mercury (Hg) distribution in it and the variation of Hg concentration in leaves and stems between consecutive years and along the same year. In order to carry this objective out, three different trees of Quercus ilex L. were selected and two branches were taken from each of them. Such trees are located in Almadenejos, a village from the Almaden mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain), an area well known due to the developed Hg mining activities for centuries. Considering each branch and each year, on average the results show that leaves had higher Hg concentration than stems. Furthermore, the lowest Hg concentration was measured in fruit (acorn). With regard to ageing effect on Hg concentration and taking into account each branch separately, the results show that the older leaves had higher Hg concentration than younger ones. Nevertheless, the oldest stems had not always higher Hg concentration than youngest ones. A seasonal variation in Hg content appeared both in leaves and in stems in 2010, increasing in 6.2 times on average, in about six months. This result suggests that this kind of organs should be analyzed in winter months. Finally, the results show a very high positive correlation between the Hg of the bark and the Hg of the wood in the sampled branches. Such result suggests that if bark is sampled and its Hg content is analyzed, we could know the Hg content in the big branches or in the trunk, avoiding the cutting of the branches or the whole tree. (Author)

  2. Quercus infectoria and Terminalia chebula decrease melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cell lines

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    Akram Jamshidzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: One of the most complained skin cares in ethnic skin like Asian women is hyperpigmentation, and lightening preparations have been long-standing desired. Due to the side effects of current drugs, medicinal plants have attracted more attentions as a source of novel drugs. Mazo (Quercus infectoria galls and Terminalia chebula fruits have been suggested in Persian Traditional Medicine as a safe treatment for hyperpigmentation. Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and the effect on melanin synthesis in B16/F10 melanoma of Q. infectoria and T. chebula extracts. Methods: After collection and scientific authentication, plants were extracted by maceration method with methanol and were standardized based on total phenolic content. MTT assay and colorimetric method were used for cytotoxicity and determination of melanin content and tyrosinase activity in B16/F10 cells, respectively. Kojic acid was used as a reference compound. Results: Total phenolic content of Q. infectoria and T. chebula was determined as 287.34 ± 4.21 and 172.61 ± 8.67 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract, respectively. Both plants decreased cell viability at 100 µg/mL and significantly reduced intercellular melanin to 66.25% and 71.1%, respectively in comparison to kojic acid (56.63% at 50 µg/mL. In the same concentration, 65.7% and 71.2% tyrosinase activity was inhibited by Q. infectoria and T. chebula, which significantly were different from control (p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings suggest that both plants especially Q. infectoria could inhibit melanogenesis in non-toxic concentrations and would be a good candidate for further studies.

  3. A quantitative and molecular examination of Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizal in Quercus ilex seedlings from different suppliers in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro, P.; Manjon, J. L.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the work was to determine the degree of mycorrhization of Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. by the black truffle fungus T. melanosporum Vittad. by quantitative and molecular analyses. Area of study: seedlings inoculated by different Spanish suppliers. Material and methods: The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of mycorrhizae from different plants were amplified by nested PCR involving fluorescently-labelled primers, and the amplicons either directly sized by ARISA or analysed by TRFLP following their digestion with restriction endonucleases. TRFLP analysis distinguished between mycorrhizae of T. melanosporum, T. indicum Cooke and Massee and T. borchii Vittad., as suggested possible by virtual (in silico) TRFLP analysis and real TRFLP analysis of the ascomata of these species. Main results: Significant differences between suppliers were detected in terms of the mean number of mycorrhizae established per plant and percentage mycorrhization. These results allowed the following quality standards for 2 yearold plants to be proposed: a) good quality: > 3,000 mycorrhizae/plant, > 40% mycorrhization, b) medium (acceptable): > 3,000 mycorrhizae/plant, > 30% mycorrhization, c) low quality: < 3,000 mycorrhizae/plant or <30% mycorrhization, always supposing the mycorrhizae counted represent the species of interest as confirmed by the presence of its DNA and the absence of DNA belonging to contaminating species. Finally, a new microsatellite allelic map obtained from the analysis of several T. melanosporum populations across Spain was used to provide a tool capable of determining the geographic origin of the fungi used to inoculate plants. Research highlights: The proposed quality standards can be useful for the evaluation and certification of commercialized Q. ilex plants mycorrhized with T. melanosporum. (Author)

  4. Do Quercus ilex woodlands undergo abrupt non-linear functional changes in response to human disturbance along a climatic gradient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio; José Molina, Maria; Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Espigares, Tíscar; Nicolau, Jose Manuel; Monleon, Vicente

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that drylands are particularly prone to suffer critical transitions with abrupt non-linear changes in their structure and functions as a result of the existing complex interactions between climatic fluctuations and human disturbances. However, so far, few studies provide empirical data to validate these models. We aim at determining how holm oak (Quercus ilex) woodlands undergo changes in their functions in response to human disturbance along an aridity gradient (from semi-arid to sub-humid conditions), in eastern Spain. For that purpose, we used (a) remote-sensing estimations of precipitation-use-efficiency (PUE) from enhanced vegetation index (EVI) observations performed in 231x231 m plots of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS); (b) biological and chemical soil parameter determinations (extracellular soil enzyme activity, soil respiration, nutrient cycling processes) from soil sampled in the same plots; (c) vegetation parameter determinations (ratio of functional groups) from vegetation surveys performed in the same plots. We analyzed and compared the shape of the functional change (in terms of PUE and soil and vegetation parameters) in response to human disturbance intensity for our holm oak sites along the aridity gradient. Overall, our results evidenced important differences in the shape of the functional change in response to human disturbance between climatic conditions. Semi-arid areas experienced a more accelerated non-linear decrease with an increasing disturbance intensity than sub-humid ones. The proportion of functional groups (herbaceous vs. woody cover) played a relevant role in the shape of the functional response of the holm oak sites to human disturbance.

  5. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

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    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  6. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

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    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  7. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  8. Hábitat y distribución de cinco especies de Quercus (Fagaceae) en la Meseta Central de Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    J.G. Alvarez-Moctezuma; S. Ochoa-Gaona; B.H.J. de Jong; M.L. Soto-Pinto

    1999-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el hábitat de las especies del subgénero Lepidobalanus en la Meseta Central de Chiapas e identificar las principales variables que condicionan su distribución. En 258 parcelas se utilizó un índice de dominancia, basado en la abundancia y cobertura de las especies, para conocer la distribución de Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera y Q. segoviensis. Además se midieron las variables ambientales: altitud, precipitación de noviembr...

  9. Hábitat y distribución de cinco especies de Quercus (Fagaceae en la Meseta Central de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Alvarez-Moctezuma

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el hábitat de las especies del subgénero Lepidobalanus en la Meseta Central de Chiapas e identificar las principales variables que condicionan su distribución. En 258 parcelas se utilizó un índice de dominancia, basado en la abundancia y cobertura de las especies, para conocer la distribución de Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera y Q. segoviensis. Además se midieron las variables ambientales: altitud, precipitación de noviembre a abril (PPNA, exposición, pendiente, intensidad de extracción de leña y pastoreo. Se utilizó el Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis para la evaluación estadística de los datos. Se encontró una relación negativa entre el índice de dominancia de Q. peduncularis y Q. segoviensis con la altitud y la PPNA. El índice de dominancia de Q. rugosa y Q. segoviensis mostró correlación con la exposición y la intensidad de extracción de leña. La altitud fue la variable ambiental que condiciona la distribución diferencial de las especies, seguida por la PPNA. El resultado de este estudio sugiere que hay hábitat diferenciados para Q. peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera y Q. segoviensis determinados por variables naturales (altitud y PPNA, aunque también las variables culturales (pastoreo y extracción de leña pueden condicionar la distribución y abundancia de estas especies.We describe the habitat of species within the Fagaceae subgenus Lepidobalanus (genus Quercus and identify environmental variables related to their distribution in the Meseta Central of Chiapas, Southern Mexico. In 258 plots a dominance index was used, combining tree density and crown cover, for Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera and Q. segoviensis. The following variables were measured: altitude, precipitation from November through April (PPNA, exposure, slope, fuel-wood harvesting and grazing. Detrended Canonical

  10. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  11. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Introduction. Application of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial ... Keywords: Bacillus spp, antibacterial activity, eyes pathogens, conjunctiva. African Health ... ml of respective test organism and allowed to dry. In the agar ...

  12. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Holospora spp., Intranuclear Symbionts of Paramecia

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    Sofya K. Garushyants

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula, a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria, and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp. can persist outside the host, they cannot synthesize most of the essential small molecules, such as amino acids, and lack some central energy metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. As the main energy source, Holospora spp. likely rely on nucleotides pirated from the host. Holospora-specific genes absent from other Rickettsiales are possibly involved in the lifestyle switch from the infectious to the reproductive form and in cell invasion.

  13. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Trypanosoma spp. in...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella... serological tests to identify Bordetella spp. from cultured isolates or directly from clinical specimens. The...

  16. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  17. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method

  18. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  19. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  20. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... rapidly expanding and is currently composed of over.

  1. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  2. POTENSI BEBERAPA ISOLAT PROBIOTIK SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    HASBIAH

    2015-01-01

    The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...

  3. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  4. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  5. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  6. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  7. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, D.W

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm 3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  8. Multiple genetic resistances in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; de Souza, A G; Sudré, C P; Pimenta, S; Rodrigues, R

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype. For PepYMV resistance was performed with five replications. Each genotype reaction was evaluated by a scoring scale, using the area under the disease progress curve for each pathosystem, and incubation period for the three systems. The latent period was evaluated only for the pathosystem Capsicum-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test. Measures of dissimilarity matrix among the genotypes were obtained by Gower's algorithm and the grouping was obtained by the UPGMA clustering method. The accessions belonging to the Capsicum frutescens were the most susceptible to the three diseases. At least one genotype of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense showed resistance potential to BS and PepYMV, for use in breeding programs. The accession UENF 1381 (C. annuum) was resistant to the three pathogens.

  9. Radiosensitization of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carmen; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The FDA recently approved irradiation treatment of leafy greens such as spinach up to 1 kGy; however, it is important to reduce the dose required to decontaminate the produce while maintaining its quality. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the radiation sensitivities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. inoculated in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and irradiated using a 1.35-MeV Van de Graff accelerator (the leaves were irradiated both at room temperature and at -5 °C); and (2) to understand and optimize the synergistic effect of MAP and irradiation by studying the radiolysis of ozone formation under different temperatures, the effect of dose rate on its formation, and its decomposition. Results showed that increased concentrations of oxygen in the packaging significantly increased the radiation sensitivity of the test organisms, ranging from 7% up to 25% reduction in D(10)-values. In particular, radiosensitization could be effected (P radiation under modified atmosphere packaging (100% O(2) and N(2):O(2)[1:1]) may be a viable tool for reducing microbial populations or eliminating Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. from baby spinach. A suggested treatment to achieve a 5-log reduction of the test organisms would be irradiation at room temperature under 100% O(2) atmosphere at a dose level of 0.7 kGy. Practical Application: Decontamination of minimally processed fruits and vegetables from food-borne pathogens presents technical and economical challenges to the produce industry. Internalized microorganisms cannot be eliminated by the current procedure (water-washed or treated with 200-ppm chlorine). The only technology available commercially is ionizing radiation; however, the actual radiation dose required to inactivate pathogens is too high to be tolerated by the product without unwanted changes. This study shows a new approach in using MAP with 100% O(2), which is converted to ozone to radiosensitize

  10. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  11. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  12. Understanding serine proteases implications on Leishmania spp lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Raquel Santos de; Charret, Karen Dos Santos; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; Sá-Silva, Matheus Pereira de; Barral-Veloso, Laura; Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; da Silva, Franklin Souza

    2018-01-01

    Serine proteases have significant functions over a broad range of relevant biological processes to the Leishmania spp lifecycle. Data gathered here present an update on the Leishmania spp serine proteases and the status of these enzymes as part of the parasite degradome. The serine protease genes (n = 26 to 28) in Leishmania spp, which encode proteins with a wide range of molecular masses (35 kDa-115 kDa), are described along with their degrees of chromosomal and allelic synteny. Amid 17 putative Leishmania spp serine proteases, only ∼18% were experimentally demonstrated, as: signal peptidases that remove the signal peptide from secretory pre-proteins, maturases of other proteins and with metacaspase-like activity. These enzymes include those of clans SB, SC and SF. Classical inhibitors of serine proteases are used as tools for the characterization and investigation of Leishmania spp. Endogenous serine protease inhibitors, which are ecotin-like, can act modulating host actions. However, crude or synthetic based-natural serine protease inhibitors, such as potato tuber extract, Stichodactyla helianthus protease inhibitor I, fukugetin and epoxy-α-lapachone act on parasitic serine proteases and are promising leishmanicidal agents. The functional interrelationship between serine proteases and other Leishmania spp proteins demonstrate essential functions of these enzymes in parasite physiology and therefore their value as targets for leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  14. Trichoderma spp. dan Penicillium spp. dari Tanah Rizosfer Lahan Rawa Lebak dalam Menginduksi Ketahanan Tanaman Cabai Terhadap Serangan Penyakit Rebah Kecambah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muslim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes associated with rhizosphere are important for promoting plant growth and inducing resistance to diseases. The research was conducted to study the ability of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. isolated from rhizosphere in lowland swampy area for controlling damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were cultured in bran, corn meal, and rice straw containing media and applied as inoculum to 2-weeks old seedlings. Application of two fungi isolates effectively induced resistance of chili plants to damping-off disease. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were significantly reduced disease incidence by 61.5–100% to 46.2–100%, respectively and disease severity by 50–100% and 30–95.9%, respectively. This experiment showed the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. as biocontrol agents to control damping-off disease on chili.  

  15. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  16. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  17. Biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for pine (pinus spp.), spruce (picea spp.) and broadleaved dominated stands in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Viken, Knut Ole

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were (1) to develop models for estimation of stand-level tree biomass for spruce (picea spp.)- pine (pinus spp.)- and broadleaved-dominated forest in Norway and, (2) develop biomass expansion factors (BEFs; ratio of stem volume to biomass) which convert stem volume to whole tree biomass for Norwegian forest conditions. A dataset from a 5 year period (2006 – 2010) from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to develop the...

  18. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH 2 O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10 -3  ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth-Climate Response of Young Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris L. Coppice Forest Stands along Longitudinal Gradient in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Stafasani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. is the most widespread species in Albania and less investigated from dendroclimatological point of view. Previous studies have reported that Q. cerris is sensitive to the environment when growing at different latitudes and ecological conditions. Based on this fact we have explored the response of different Q. cerris populations located along the longitudinal gradient. Materials and Methods: The stem discs were sampled from six sites (Kukes, Diber, Rreshen, Ulez, Elbasan, Belsh along longitudinal gradient ranging from north-east to central Albania. All oak forests stands grow under the influence of specific local Mediterranean climate. Tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using a linear table, LINTAB and the TSAP-Win program. Following the standard dendrochronological procedures residual tree-ring width chronologies were built for each site. Statistical parameters commonly used in dendrochronology were calculated for each site chronology. Relations between the tree-ring chronologies were explored using Hierarchical Factor Classification (HFC and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, while the radial growth-climate relationship was analyzed through correlation analysis using a 19-month window from April in the year prior to tree-ring formation (year t - 1 until October in the year of growth (year t. Results and Conclusions: The length of the site chronologies ranged from 16 to 36 years, with the Elbasan site chronology being the longest and the Belsh site chronology the shortest one. Trees at lower elevation were younger than trees at higher elevation. Statistical parameters (mean sensitivity (MS and auto correlation (AC of site chronologies were different among them and lower values of AC1 showed a weaker dependence of radial growth from climatic conditions of the previous growing year. Principal component analysis showed that Belsh, Rreshen and Elbasan site chronologies were

  20. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Uña, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Aranda, Ismael; Fonti, Patrick; González-González, Borja D; Cañellas, Isabel; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1-3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris . The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought-stressed P. sylvestris

  1. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-de-Uña

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1–3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris. The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought

  2. Variability of BVOC emissions from a Mediterranean mixed forest in southern France with a focus on Quercus pubescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genard-Zielinski, A.-C.; Boissard, C.; Fernandez, C.; Kalogridis, C.; Lathière, J.; Gros, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Ormeño, E.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed at quantifying biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in June from three Mediterranean species located at the O3HP site (southern France): Quercus pubescens, Acer monspessulanum and C. coggygria (for isoprene only). As Q. pubescens was shown to be the main BVOC emitter with isoprene representing ≈ 99% of the carbon emitted as BVOC, we mainly focused on this species. C. coggygria was found to be a non-isoprene emitter (no other BVOCs were investigated). To fully understand both the canopy effect on Q. pubescens isoprene emissions and the inter-individual variability (tree to tree and within canopy), diurnal variations of isoprene were investigated from nine branches (seven branches located to the top of canopy at ≈ 4 m above ground level (a.g.l.), and two inside the canopy at ≈ 2 m a.g.l.). The Q. pubescens daily mean isoprene emission rate (ERd) fluctuated between 23 and 98 μgC gDM-1 h-1. Q. pubescens daily mean net assimilation (Pn) ranged between 5.4 and 13.8, and 2.8 and 6.4 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 for sunlit and shaded branches respectively. Both ERd and isoprene emission factors (Is), assessed according to Guenther et al. (1993) algorithm, varied by a factor of 4.3 among the sunlit branches. While sunlit branches ERd was clearly higher than for shaded branches, there was a non-significant variability of Is (59 to 77 μgC gDM-1 h-1). Diurnal variations of isoprene emission rates (ERs) for sunlit branches were also investigated. ERs were detected at dawn 2 h after Pn became positive and were mostly exponentially dependent on Pn. Diurnal variations of ERs were not equally well described throughout the day by temperature (CT) and light (CL) parameters according to G93 algorithm. Temperature had more impact than photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the morning emissions increase, and ER was no longer correlated to CL × CT between solar noon (maximum ER) and mid-afternoon, possibly due to thermal stress of the plant. A comparison

  3. Leaf anatomical changes in Populus trichocarpa, Quercus rubra, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, L.M.; Bassman, J.H.; Edwards, G.E.; Robberecht, R.; Franceshi, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf anatomical characteristics are important in determining the degree of injury sustained when plants are exposed to natural and enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280–320 nm). The degree to which leaf anatomy can adapt to the increasing levels of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is poorly understood in most tree species. We examined four tree species, representing a wide range of leaf anatomical characteristics, to determine responses of leaf area, specific leaf weight, and leaf tissue parameters after exposure to ambient and enhanced levels of UV-B radiation. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with photosynthetically active radiation of 39 mol m −2 day −1 and under one of three daily irradiances of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) supplied for 10 h per day: (1) approximate ambient level received at Pullman, Washington on June 21 (1 x ); two times ambient (2 x ), or three times ambient (3 x ). We hypothesized the response of each species to UV-B radiation would be related to inherent anatomical differences. We found that the conifers responded anatomically to nearly an equal degree as the broad-leaved trees, but that different tissues were involved. Populus trichocarpa, an indeterminate broadleaf species, showed significantly thicker palisade parenchyma in recently mature leaves at the 3 x level and in older leaves under the 2 x level. In addition, individual leaf area was generally greater with increased UV-B irradiance. Quercus rubra, a semi-determinate broadleaf species, exhibited significantly thicker palisade parenchyma at the 2 x and 3 x levels as compared to controls. Psuedotsuga menziesii, an evergreen coniferous species with bifacially flattened needles, and Pinus ponderosa, an evergreen coniferous species with a complete hypodermis, showed no significant change in leaf area or specific leaf weight under enhanced UV-B radiation. Epidermal thickness was unchanged in P. menziesii. However, P. ponderosa

  4. Elevated UV-B radiation incident on Quercus robur leaf canopies enhances decomposition of resulting leaf litter in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, K.K.; Greenslade, P.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; McLeod, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    We examined whether the exposure of Quercus robur L. to elevated UV-B radiation (280–315 nm) during growth would influence leaf decomposition rate through effects on litter quality. Saplings were exposed for eight months at an outdoor facility in the UK to a 30% elevation above the ambient level of erythemally weighted UV-B radiation under UV-B treatment arrays of fluorescent lamps filtered with cellulose diacetate, which transmitted both UV-B and UV-A (315–400 nm) radiation. Saplings were exposed to elevated UV-A alone under control arrays of lamps filtered with polyester and to ambient radiation under unenergised arrays of lamps. Abscised leaves from saplings were enclosed in 1 mm2 mesh nylon bags, placed in a Quercus–Fraxinus woodland and were sampled at 0.11, 0.53, 1.10 and 1.33 years for dry weight loss, chemical composition and saprotrophic fungal colonization. At abscission, litters from UV-A control arrays had ≈ 7.5% higher lignin/nitrogen ratios than those from UV-B treatment and ambient arrays (P < 0.06). Dry weight loss of leaves treated with elevated UV-B radiation during growth was 2.5% and 5% greater than that of leaves from UV-A control arrays at 0.53 and 1.33 years, respectively. Litter samples from UV-B treatment arrays lost more nitrogen and phosphorus than samples from ambient arrays and more carbon than samples from UV-A control arrays. The annual fractional weight loss of litter from UV-B treatment arrays was 8% and 6% greater than that of litter from UV-A control and ambient arrays, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that the increased decomposition rate of UV-B treated litters was associated with enhanced colonization of leaves by basidiomycete fungi, the most active members of the soil fungal community, and that the frequency of these fungi was negatively associated with the initial lignin/nitrogen ratio of leaves. (author)

  5. Flood-Ring Formation and Root Development in Response to Experimental Flooding of Young Quercus robur Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Loesberg, Walter A.; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of ‘flood rings’ that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm. The effect of flooding on root and vessel development was assessed immediately after the flooding treatment and at the end of the growing season. Ring width and earlywood-vessel size and density were measured at 25- and 75-cm stem height and collapsed vessels were recorded. Stem flooding inhibited earlywood-vessel development in flooded stem parts. In addition, flooding upon budswell and internode expansion led to collapsed earlywood vessels below the water level. At the end of the growing season, mean earlywood-vessel size in the flooded stem parts (upon budswell and internode expansion) was always reduced by approximately 50% compared to non-flooded stem parts and 55% compared to control trees. This reduction was already present 2 weeks after flooding and occurred independent of flooding duration. Stem and root flooding were associated with significant root dieback after 4 and 6 weeks and mean radial growth was always reduced with increasing flooding duration. By comparing stem and root flooding, we conclude that flood rings only occur after stem flooding. As earlywood-vessel development was hampered during flooding, a considerable number of narrow earlywood vessels present later in the season, must have been formed after the actual flooding events. Our study indicates that root dieback, together with strongly reduced hydraulic

  6. Adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of Croatian and Austrian Quercus robur L. populations at a drought prone field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials, where populations of different geographical origin are tested in a common environment (common garden test, are a tool suited to allow the study of intraspecific adaptive genetic variation. Research of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. adaptive genetic variability through analyses of populations in common garden tests has a long tradition. However, pedunculated oak populations originating south-eastern from the Alps have been scarcely studied in this way. This study addresses the adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of pedunculate oak populations originating from Austria and Croatia in a provenance/progeny field trial. Studied plants were six years old and were growing at the trial for three years. After two years of unusually low precipitations height and survival were analysed. The total mean height of all plants in the trial was 137.8 cm and ranged from 123.0 cm to 151.8 cm. The overall mean survival rate was rather high (0.85. Mean population survival ranged from 0.64 to 0.94. Individual narrow-sense heritabilities (hi2, family mean heritabilities (hf2, the coefficients of additive genetic variation (CVA and quantitative genetic differentiation coefficients (QST were calculated. A multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis was used to determine the pattern of genetic differentiation of the populations. Individual heritabilities for height ranged between 0.00 and 0.39. Family mean heritabilities for height were rather low in most populations as well (<0.5. Family mean heritabilities for survival were higher than for height (ranging between 0.00 and 0.77. Calculated QST coefficients (0.25 for height and 0.14 for survival indicated between-population genetic differentiation. The populations were separated into two clusters by MRT analysis regarding a climatic variable, namely Hargreaves’ reference evapotranspiration. Populations originating from comparatively more humid habitats were grouped in the first

  7. Evolutionary trade-offs between drought resistance mechanisms across a precipitation gradient in a seasonally dry tropical oak (Quercus oleoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Valiente, Jose A; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2017-07-01

    In seasonally dry tropical forest regions, drought avoidance during the dry season coupled with high assimilation rates in the wet season is hypothesized to be an advantageous strategy for forest trees in regions with severe and long dry seasons. In contrast, where dry seasons are milder, drought tolerance coupled with a conservative resource-use strategy is expected to maximize carbon assimilation throughout the year. Tests of this hypothesis, particularly at the intraspecific level, have been seldom conducted. In this study, we tested the extent to which drought resistance mechanisms and rates of carbon assimilation have evolved under climates with varying dry season length and severity within Quercus oleoidesCham. and Schlect., a tropical dry forest species that is widely distributed in Central America. For this purpose, we conducted a greenhouse experiment where seedlings originating from five populations that vary in rainfall patterns were grown under different watering treatments. Our results revealed that populations from xeric climates with more severe dry seasons exhibited large mesophyllous leaves (with high specific leaf area, SLA), and leaf abscission in response to drought, consistent with a drought-avoidance strategy. In contrast, populations from more mesic climates with less severe dry seasons had small and thick sclerophyllous leaves with low SLA and reduced water potential at the turgor loss point (πtlp), consistent with a drought-tolerance strategy. Mesic populations also showed high plasticity in πtlp in response to water availability, indicating that osmotic adjustment to drought is an important component of this strategy. However, populations with mesophyllous leaves did not have higher maximum carbon assimilation rates under well-watered conditions. Furthermore, SLA was negatively associated with mass-based photosynthetic rates, contrary to expectations of the leaf economics spectrum, indicating that drought-resistance strategies are not

  8. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  9. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, J A; Stoffel, M; Bollschweiler, M; Bodoque, J M; Díez-Herrero, A

    2010-06-01

    Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to determine wounding-related changes in radial width, tangential width and lumen of earlywood vessels, and fibers and parenchyma cells (FPC). In diffuse-porous A. glutinosa, the lumen area of vessels shows a significant (non-parametric test, P-value <0.05) decrease by almost 39% after wounding. For ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, significant decreases in vessel lumen area are observed as well by 59 and 42%, respectively. Radial width of vessels was generally more sensitive to the decrease than tangential width, but statistically significant values were only observed in F. angustifolia. Changes in the dimensions of earlywood FPC largely differed between species. While in ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica the lumen of FPC dropped by 22 and 34% after wounding, we observed an increase in FPC lumen area in diffuse-porous A. glutinosa of approximately 35%. Our data clearly show that A. glutinosa represents a valuable species for flash-flood research in vulnerable Mediterranean environments. For this species, it will be possible in the future to gather information on past flash floods with non-destructive sampling based on increment cores. In ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, flash floods leave less drastic, yet still recognizable, signatures of flash-flood activity through significant changes in vessel lumen area. In contrast, the use of changes in FPC dimensions appears less feasible for the determination of

  10. Trichocomaceae: biodiversity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp residing in libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Diniz Pereira; Yamamoto, Ana Caroline Akeme; Amadio, Janaína Vasconcellos Ribeiro de Souza; Martins, Evelin Rodrigues; do Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2012-10-19

    Atmospheric air is the most common vehicle for the dispersion of fungi. Fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are cosmopolitan and are classified in the family Trichocomaceae. Species of the genera are commonly found in soil, decaying organic materials, animal feed, stored grains, and other materials. This study aimed to determine the taxonomic diversity of airborne fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium residing in the dust of library environments to contribute to current knowledge of these characteristic genera. Three libraries in the city of Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were selected as the study areas. A total of 168 samples were collected at randomized sites within each library in areas containing journals, archives, in study rooms, and in collection storage areas in two different periods, the dry season (n = 42)  and the rainy season (n = 42). Samples were collected by exposing Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol to the environmental air. Additional samples were collected with sterile swabs which were rubbed over the surface of randomly chosen books on the shelves; the swabs were subsequently incubated in the laboratory. The genus Aspergillus was highlighted as one of the principal airborne fungi present in indoor environments. Aspergillus spp was identified in 1,277 (89.6%) samples and Penicillium spp in 148 (10.4%). The dry period exhibited a greater number of isolates of the two taxons.

  11. Assessment of Duplex PCR for the simultaneous diagnose of Mycobacterium spp. and Brucella spp. in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Escobar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis and brucellosis remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, for the detection of both diseases requires efficient and sensitive tool for effectuate the diagnosis. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the duplex PCR versus the nested PCR, for detection of Brucella spp. (BR and Mycobacterium spp. (TB. A total of 100 samples of tissues from tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes, bovine lung and bacterial isolate as positive controls were used. Were evaluated ten combinations of primers which were designed to flank the segment of the 16S rRNA sequence (RB and antigen gen MPB70 (TB, the best result for the Duplex PCR was obtained with the primers Bru-2F/Bru-2R for BR and Tub-1F/Tub-N-R for TB. The amplification of the products was 225 and 230-bp respectively. In order to compare the results of the proposed technique, all samples were initially analyzed and compared between PCR and nested PCR (Kappa, k = 0.85 and the concordance between Duplex PCR and nested PCR (k = 0.88 for the two bacteria was very good.

  12. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  14. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gottlieb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  15. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  16. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The healing effect of combined hydroalcoholic extract of Teocurium polium and the seed hull of Quercus brantii on burn wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Jamshid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants and their extracts have considerable potential for wound healing. So, The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound healing effect of combined hydroalcoholic extract of Teocurium Polium (TP and the seed hull of Quercus brantii (Persian oak (QB and comparing with silver sulfadiazine (SSD ointment (1% in rats. Animals were divided into six groups consist of normal (untreated, physiologic serum, TP, seed hulls of Quercus brantii (QB, combination of TP and QB and the other group was SSD. Burn area size, epidermal and dermal diameter, number of hair follicle, histopathology of the burn skin and concentration of plasma malondialdehide (MDA were determined in different groups. Animals treated with QB and TP, SSD and combination of two extracts (QB +TP showed a significant reduction in the burn area. Serum MDA decreased significantly in animals treated with QB, TP and QB+TP. Histological comparison has shown that TP, QB and combination of them significantly increased reepithelialization in burn wounds, as compared to normal group. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that topical application of TP and QB has a significant effect on the burn wound healing.

  18. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

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    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  19. Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Manners, G D; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L; Schoch, T K

    1999-02-01

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic plants that contain numerous diterpenoid alkaloids which occur as one of two structural types: (1) lycotonine, and (2) 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL-type). Among the lycoctonine type alkaloids are three N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL-type) alkaloids which appear to be most toxic: methyllycaconitine (MLA), 14-deacetylnudicauline (DAN), and nudicauline. An ester function at C-18 is an important structural requirement for toxicity. Intoxication results from neuromuscular paralysis, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the muscle and brain are blocked by toxic alkaloids. Clinical signs include labored breathing, rapid and irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and collapse. Toxic alkaloid concentration generally declines in tall larkspurs with maturation, but alkaloid concentration varies over years and from plant to plant, and is of little use for predicting consumption by cattle. Knowledge of toxic alkaloid concentration is valuable for management purposes when cattle begin to eat larkspur. Cattle generally begin consuming tall larkspur after flowering racemes are elongated, and consumption increases as larkspur matures. Weather is also a major factor in cattle consumption, as cattle tend to eat more larkspur during or just after summer storms. Management options that may be useful for livestock producers include conditioning cattle to avoid larkspur (food aversion learning), grazing tall larkspur ranges before flowering (early grazing) and after seed shatter (late grazing), grazing sheep before cattle, herbicidal control of larkspur plants, and drug therapy for intoxicated animals. Some potentially fruitful research avenues include examining alkaloid chemistry in low and plains larkspurs, developing immunologic methods for analyzing larkspur alkaloids, developing drug therapy, and devising grazing regimes specifically for low and plains larkspur.

  20. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks infesting cats: a large-scale survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, Florent; Davies, Saran; Filler, Serina; Abdullah, Swaid; Keyte, Sophie; Newbury, Hannah; Helps, Chris R; Wall, Richard; Tasker, Séverine

    2018-03-20

    Ticks derived from cats have rarely been evaluated for the presence of pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks collected from cats in the UK. Five hundred and forty DNA samples extracted from 540 ticks collected from cats presenting to veterinarians in UK practices were used. Samples underwent a conventional generic PCR assay for detection of Hepatozoon spp. and real-time quantitative PCR assays for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and three feline haemoplasma species and a generic qPCR for detection of Bartonella spp. Feline 28S rDNA served as an endogenous internal PCR control and was assessed within the haemoplasma qPCR assays. Samples positive on the conventional and quantitative generic PCRs were submitted for DNA sequencing for species identification. Feline 28S rDNA was amplified from 475 of the 540 (88.0%) ticks. No evidence of PCR inhibition was found using an internal amplification control. Of 540 ticks, 19 (3.5%) contained DNA from one of the tick-borne pathogens evaluated. Pathogens detected were: A. phagocytophilum (n = 5; 0.9%), Bartonella spp. (n = 7; 1.3%) [including Bartonella henselae (n = 3; 0.6%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (n = 1; 0.2%)], haemoplasma species (n = 5; 0.9%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (n = 3; 0.6%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (n = 1; 0.2%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (n = 1; 0.2%), Hepatozoon spp. (n = 2; 0.4%), Hepatozoon felis (n = 1; 0.2%) and Hepatozoon silvestris (n = 1; 0.2%). These data provide important information on the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks infesting cats, with the identification of haemoplasma species, A. phagocytophilum, H. felis and Bartonella spp. (including B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). This study also documents the first report of H. silvestris in ticks collected from domestic cats.

  3. Padrão sazonal do regime estomático em azinheiras (Quercus rotundifolia Lam. regadas Seasonal pattern of the stomatal regime of irrigated holm-oak (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Melhorado

    2007-01-01

    êntico tanto no Verão como no Inverno. Conclui-se que a diferença entre o Verão e o Inverno no padrão comportamental da espécie, ou seja, a passagem de aumento exponencial das resistências para bimodal no Inverno, onde se evidencia o “midday-closure”, se deve, provavelmente, à menor solicitação evaporativa durante o ocaso no período de Inverno. Confirmou-se a existência do “middayclosure” na espécie como uma adaptação não rígida, dependente da disponibilidade hídrica do solo.This project aims to study the possible variation in stomata regime between irrigated oak trees Quercus rotundifolia Lam. and the same trees under natural environmental conditions at the different seasons of the year. The study was carried in a montado situated in Mitra, southeast of Portugal, at 13 km from Évora. For this project two isolated trees were selected, one irrigated to keep the plant regularly water supplied and the other subjected to the typical dryness of our summer (we will call this the standard tree. The stomatal resistance was measured with a porometer (?AP4 at three daily periods (morning, noon and sunset in the hydrologic year of 2001-02. During the summer the stomata resistances of the irrigated tree were significantly different from the standard (99%; alfa = 0,01, presenting always the double of the stomatic aperture of the standard tree. This relation lasted through all daily periods of the season. In the summer the average of stomata resistances in both trees follows an exponential curve (r² = 0,99, with a maximum of resistance at the sunset. In winter, the differences in stomata resistance between the two trees are significative (at 99%; alfa = 0,01 over all daily period. And we have observed a change in the daily variation pattern of the resistances, becoming more visible a midday-closure, especially in the standard tree. The resistance curves follow a bimodal pattern (r² = 1 in both trees with the maximum at noon. In the irrigated tree, however, the

  4. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine. PMID:28491239

  5. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  6. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica , the domesticated O . species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated ( O. ficus-indica ) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia -enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  7. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  8. Acúmulo de ácido oxálico e cristais de cálcio em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto.: II- formação de cristais de oxalato de cálcio induzida por fungos ectomicorrízicos em raízes laterais finas Accumulation of oxalic acid and calcium crystals in ectomycorrhizas of eucalypt.: II- calcium oxalate crystal formation induced by ectomicorrhizal fungi in fine lateral roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alexander Zambrano Gonzalez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O eucalipto é eficiente na aquisição de Ca do solo, mas pouco se sabe sobre a participação das ectomicorrizas e dos ácidos orgânicos nesse processo em campo. O acúmulo de cristais de Ca (CaOx foi avaliado em, aproximadamente, 2.100 raízes laterais finas e ectomicorrizas do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla, cultivado por 2,5 anos em área com topografia típica em meia laranja, com vertente côncavo-convexa, na região de Viçosa, MG. Técnicas de microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram usadas para a visualização dos CaOx. Em 73,7 % das raízes, ocorreu abundante acúmulo de drusas e grânulos de CaOx nas células do córtex. A presença conspícua de CaOx foi observada em 56,2 % das ectomicorrizas e em 17,5 % das raízes laterais finas não colonizadas, evidenciando o papel das micorrizas no acúmulo de Ca em eucalipto. A forma predominante dos CaOx foram as drusas nas ectomicorrizas e os grânulos cristalinos nas raízes. Os dez morfotipos de ectomicorrizas observados na área diferiram quanto à presença e à morfologia dos CaOx, o que pode representar distintas capacidades dos fungos ectomicorrízicos em fornecer Ca para a planta hospedeira. A análise da superfície do manto das ectomicorrizas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura não evidenciou a presença de CaOx nessa estrutura, confirmando que, nas condições avaliadas, o acúmulo de cristais limita-se ao córtex radicular. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de CaOx em ectomicorrizas de eucalipto no Brasil, com dados que comprovam que há mecanismos de armazenamento de Ca nas ectomicorrizas em áreas com baixa disponibilidade do elemento.Eucalypt is efficient at taking up Ca from the soil, however little is known about the contribution of ectomycorrhizas and organic acids to this process under field conditions. The accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx was evaluated in, approximately, 2,100 fine lateral roots

  9. Proyecto de reforestación de tierras agrarias con encina (Quercus ilex L ballota Samp) para la producción de trufa (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.), en el término municipal de Peralveche, Guadalajara

    OpenAIRE

    RUIPÉREZ MARTÍNEZ, DIEGO

    2010-01-01

    Ruipérez Martínez, D. (2010). Proyecto de reforestación de tierras agrarias con encina (Quercus ilex L ballota Samp) para la producción de trufa (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.), en el término municipal de Peralveche, Guadalajara. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/8975. Archivo delegado

  10. Proyecto de forestación con carrasca (Quercus ilex ssp. Rotundifolia) micorrizada con trufa negra (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) en el término municipal de San Agustín

    OpenAIRE

    MAYO SANZ, ELOY

    2012-01-01

    Mayo Sanz, E. (2011). Proyecto de forestación con carrasca (Quercus ilex ssp. Rotundifolia) micorrizada con trufa negra (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) en el término municipal de San Agustín. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/14231. Archivo delegado

  11. Presence of understory shrubs constrains carbon gain in sunflecks by advance-regeneration seedlings: evidence from Quercus Rubra seedling grouwing in understory forest patches with or without evergreen shrubs present

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.T. Nilsen; T.T. Lei; S.W. Semones

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether dynamic photosynthesis of understory Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae) seedlings can acclimate to the altered pattern of sunflecks in forest patches with Rhododendron maximum L. (Ericaceae), an understory evergreen shrub. Maximum photosynthesis (A) and total CO2 accumulated during lightflecks was greatest for 400-s lightflecks, intermediate for 150-s...

  12. Screening of Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. for glycosidase activities that are important in oenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, A; Bartowsky, E; Jiranek, V

    2005-01-01

    To assess glycosidase activities from a range of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species and characterize these activities under conditions pertinent to the wine industry. Lactic acid bacteria were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with apple juice before being harvested, washed and assayed for glycosidase activity using p-nitrophenol-linked substrates. All strains exhibited a detectable capacity for the hydrolysis of the beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosides. The magnitude of these activities and their response to the physico-chemical parameters investigated varied in a strain-dependent manner. The use of an assay buffer with a pH below 4 generally resulted in a reduced hydrolysis of both substrates while temperature optima ranged between 35 and 45 degrees C. The effect of the inclusion of ethanol in the assay buffer (up to 12%, v/v) ranged from near complete inhibition to increases in activity approaching 80%. With the clear exception of a single strain, glucose and fructose (0.1-20 g l(-1)) acted as inhibitors. An assessment of glycosidase activity during simultaneous exposure to glucose and ethanol at a pH of 3.5 suggested that ethanol decreased loss of activity under these wine-like conditions. Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. possess varying degrees of beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosidase activities, which in turn are influenced differently by exposure to ethanol and/or sugars, temperature and pH. Several strains appeared suited for further evaluation under winemaking conditions. This work highlights the fact that strains of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus have the potential to influence the glycoside composition of wine. Tailoring of wine may therefore be possible through selective application of strains or enzymatic extracts thereof.

  13. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PCR detection of Bartonella spp. in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Konvalinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.

  15. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  16. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  17. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. [Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus: case report on an uncommon pathogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Antunes, Ana Lúcia Sousa; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos

    2008-01-01

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus has emerged as an important agent in nosocomial infections. In this study, we report a case of bacteremia associated with a central venous catheter, caused by Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus that was isolated in blood cultures from a 53-year-old male patient who was admitted to a general hospital in the city of São Paulo. We discuss in this report the difficulty in routinely identifying this microorganism in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus is a microorganism found in human skin as part of the normal microbiota, and it can cause serious infections in humans, in some situations.

  19. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  20. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  1. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  3. Identification of Potential Metabolic Markers for the Selection of a High-Yield Clone of Quercus acutissima in Clonal Seed Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quercus acutissima Carruth. is one of the most economically important deciduous tree species in Korea. The acorns of Q. acutissima are used for both food and medicinal purposes in Korea and China. In this study, we analyzed plant hormones and metabolite profiles to identify their correlation with the yield production of Q. acutissima. The contents of sucrose and inositol in the leaves of high-yield clones were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than those of low-yield clones. In addition, high-yield clones have a higher content of phosphoric acid, succinic acid, malic acid, and butane-1,3-diol in stems compared with low-yield clones. Among the identified metabolites, zeatin-9-glucoside showed highly significant negative correlations with tree height, crown volume, and acorn production. It is considered that these metabolites could be useful metabolic markers for the selection of a high yield clone of Q. acutissima.

  4. Variation of Oriental Oak (Quercus variabilis Leaf δ13C across Temperate and Subtropical China: Spatial Patterns and Sensitivity to Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoming Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the carbon-13 isotope (leaf δ13C in leaves is negatively correlated with the mean annual precipitation (MAP atlarge geographical scales. In this paper, we explain the spatial pattern of leaf δ13C variation for deciduous oriental oak (Quercus variabilis Bl. across temperate and subtropical biomes and its sensitivity to climate factors such as MAP. There was a 6‰ variation in the leaf δ13C values of oak with a significant positive correlation with latitude and negative correlations with the mean annual temperature (MAT and MAP. There was no correlation between leaf δ13C and altitude or longitude. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that leaf δ13C decreased 0.3‰ per 100 mm increase in MAP. MAP alone could account for 68% of the observed variation in leaf δ13C. These results can be used to improve predictions for plant responses to climate change and particularly lower rainfall.

  5. Air pollution effects on quercus ilex plants; Effetti dell`inquinamento atmosferico sulle leccete dei monti Climiti (Sicilia sud-Orientale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavone, P.; Salmeri, C. [Catania Univ. (Italy), Dip. di Botanica; Spampinato, G. [Reggio Calabria Univ. (Italy), Dip. di Agrochimica e Agrobiologia; Fallico, R.; Ferrante, M. [Catania Univ. (Italy), Ist. di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva

    1996-07-01

    To test air pollution effects on natural forest vegetation, the soil chemistry and the floristic composition of two Quercus ilex L. woods in the Hyblean region (S-E Sicily), unequally exposed to air pollutants are compared. Acidification phenomena are investigated by the soil chemical changes between the trunk base areas, affected by stem flow water, and the surrounding soil, only influenced by canopy drip. Soil chemical changes, floristic poorness and direct damage to the Q. ilex leaves are only detected in the Climiti Mountains holm-oak woods, located near the Siracusa petrochemical complex, while they do not appear at Cava d`Ispica, sited far from any industry and seldom exposed to winds carrying pollutants.

  6. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  7. Population-Level Differentiation in Growth Rates and Leaf Traits in Seedlings of the Neotropical Live Oak Quercus oleoides Grown under Natural and Manipulated Precipitation Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Ramírez-Valiente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed species are normally subjected to spatial heterogeneity in environmental conditions. In sessile organisms like plants, adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity of key functional traits are the main mechanisms through which species can respond to environmental heterogeneity and climate change. While extended research has been carried out in temperate species in this regard, there is still limited knowledge as to how species from seasonally-dry tropical climates respond to spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions. In fact, studies of intraspecific genetically-based differences in functional traits are still largely unknown and studies in these ecosystems have largely focused on in situ comparisons where environmental and genetic effects cannot be differentiated. In this study, we tested for ecotypic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity in leaf economics spectrum (LES traits, water use efficiency and growth rates under natural and manipulated precipitation regimes in a common garden experiment where seedlings of eight populations of the neotropical live oak Quercus oleoides were established. We also examined the extent to which intraspecific trait variation was associated with plant performance under different water availability. Similar to interspecific patterns among seasonally-dry tropical tree species, live oak populations with long and severe dry seasons had higher leaf nitrogen content and growth rates than mesic populations, which is consistent with a “fast” resource-acquisition strategy aimed to maximize carbon uptake during the wet season. Specific leaf area (SLA was the best predictor of plant performance, but contrary to expectations, it was negatively associated with relative and absolute growth rates. This observation was partially explained by the negative association between SLA and area-based photosynthetic rates, which is contrary to LES expectations but similar to other recent

  8. Contribución al conocimiento de los encinos (Quercus: Fagaceae en los departamentos de Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz y Petén, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Liseth Quezada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del género Quercus son de importancia ecológica y económica dentro de los bosques donde se desarrollan. Pueden encontrarse desde zonas cálidas y secas hasta selvas lluviosas. Estos bosques, también son reconocidos por presentar alto grado de endemismo y gran número de interacciones ecológicas. Sin embargo, en Guatemala las especies de encino han sido poco estudiadas y están fuertemente amenazadas; a pesar de poseer un alto potencial para aprovechamiento, manejo y uso en la restauración de ecosistemas. Este estudio se orientó hacia la actualización de la riqueza y distribución geográfica de las especies de encino para Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz y Petén, a partir de la revisión de registros en herbarios nacionales, bases de datos en línea de herbarios extranjeros y colectas de campo. Se registraron 19 especies de encinos en Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz y Petén, nueve especies más de las reportadas previamente, actualizándose los rangos de distribución departamental de 18 especies a excepción de Quercus sapotifolia Liebm. De las especies registradas, 16 se encuentran con algún grado de amenaza, según el Listado de Especies Amenazadas y listas rojas de UICN. También se identificaron vacíos de información acerca de la distribución de estas especies dentro de remanentes boscosos importantes en los departamentos evaluados. Se espera que a partir de este estudio se incrementen los esfuerzos por comprenden la riqueza y distribución de las especies de encino para Guatemala.

  9. Alteration of foliar flavonoid chemistry induced by enhanced UV-B radiation in field-grown Pinus ponderosa, Quercus rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Bassman, John H; Mattinson, D Scott; Fellman, John K; Edwards, Gerald E; Robberecht, Ronald

    2002-03-01

    Chromatographic analyses of foliage from several tree species illustrate the species-specific effects of UV-B radiation on both quantity and composition of foliar flavonoids. Pinus ponderosa, Quercus rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii were field-grown under modulated ambient (1x) and enhanced (2x) biologically effective UV-B radiation. Foliage was harvested seasonally over a 3-year period, extracted, purified and the flavonoid fraction applied to a mu Bondapak/C(18) column HPLC system sampling at 254 nm. Total flavonoid concentrations in Quercus rubra foliage were more than twice (leaf area basis) that of the other species; Pseudotsuga menziesii foliage had intermediate levels and P. ponderosa had the lowest concentrations of total flavonoids. No statistically significant UV-B radiation-induced effects were found in total foliar flavonoid concentrations for any species; however, concentrations of specific compounds within each species exhibited significant treatment effects. Higher (but statistically insignificant) levels of flavonoids were induced by UV-B irradiation in 1- and 2-year-old P. ponderosa foliage. Total flavonoid concentrations in 2-year-old needles increased by 50% (1x ambient UV-B radiation) or 70% (2x ambient UV-B radiation) from that of 1-year-old tissue. Foliar flavonoids of Q. rubra under enhanced UV-B radiation tended to shift from early-eluting compounds to less polar flavonoids eluting later. There were no clear patterns of UV-B radiation effects on 1-year-old P. menziesii foliage. However, 2-year-old tissue had slightly higher foliar flavonoids under the 2x UV-B radiation treatment compared to ambient levels. Results suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation will alter foliar flavonoid composition and concentrations in forest tree species, which could impact tissue protection, and ultimately, competition, herbivory or litter decomposition.

  10. La expansión del quejigo (Quercus faginea en el Prepirineo Aragonés durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouba, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Quercus faginea Lam. -due to a decrease in human pressure- was investigated in seven municipalities of the Aragón’s Pre-Pyrenees over the second half of the twentieth century. The rural emigration that occurred in this area since 1960s has generated a massive abandonment of agricultural lands and a decrease in livestock pressure. As a result, some abandoned fields have been colonized by Q. faginea; specially, in the municipalities that have known a marked decrease in the numbers of farmers and livestock. With the continued decrease of human pressure in the territory, it is expected that Q. faginea will colonize new areas during the next years as a result of secondary succession.Se investigó la expansión de Quercus faginea Lam. (quejigo debida a la disminución de la presión antrópica en siete municipios del Prepirineo Aragonés durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. La emigración rural que ha ocurrido en esta zona a partir de los años sesenta ha producido un abandono masivo de las tierras agrícolas junto con la disminución de la presión pastoral. Como resultado algunos de los campos abandonados han sido colonizados por el quejigo, sobre todo en los municipios con una disminución notable en el número de agricultores y cabezas de ganado. Se espera que, con la continua disminución de la presión humana en el territorio, los quejigares colonicen nuevas áreas en los próximos años como resultado de la sucesión secundaria.

  11. Climatic origins predict variation in photoprotective leaf pigments in response to drought and low temperatures in live oaks (Quercus series Virentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Valiente, Jose A; Koehler, Kari; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2015-05-01

    Climate is a major selective force in nature. Exploring patterns of inter- and intraspecific genetic variation in functional traits may explain how species have evolved and may continue evolving under future climate change. Photoprotective pigments play an important role in short-term responses to climate stress in plants but knowledge of their long-term role in adaptive processes is lacking. In this study, our goal was to determine how photoprotective mechanisms, morphological traits and their plasticity have evolved in live oaks (Quercus series Virentes) in response to different climatic conditions. For this purpose, seedlings originating from 11 populations from four live oak species (Quercus virginiana, Q. geminata, Q. fusiformis and Q. oleoides) were grown under contrasting common environmental conditions of temperature (tropical vs temperate) and water availability (droughted vs well-watered). Xanthophyll cycle pigments, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and leaf anatomical traits were measured. Seedlings originating from more mesic source populations of Q. oleoides and Q. fusiformis increased the xanthophyll de-epoxidation state under water-limiting conditions and showed higher phenotypic plasticity for this trait, suggesting adaptation to local climate. Likewise, seedlings originating from warmer climates had higher anthocyanin concentration in leaves under cold winter conditions but not higher de-epoxidation state. Overall, our findings suggest that (i) climate has been a key factor in shaping species and population differences in stress tolerance for live oaks, (ii) anthocyanins are used under cold stress in species with limited freezing tolerance and (iii) xanthophyll cycle pigments are used when photoprotection under drought conditions is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex, through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps.Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain.Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages.Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%.Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands.Abbreviations used: Ectomycorrhiza (ECM fungus; Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM; Operational taxonomic unit (OTU.

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  14. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop

  15. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  16. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  17. Identification of intergeneric hybrids between Saccharum spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-27

    Feb 27, 2009 ... The reason was that there might be a certain maternal-specific marker just on one homologous chromosome, while the other one without this marker, among the highly heterozygous genome of Saccharum spp., and that the recombination of genes and chromosome happened in the period of meiosis might ...

  18. Susceptibility Breakpoint for Enrofloxacin against Swine Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Pan, Huafang; Ahmad, Ijaz; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Yulian; Dai, Menghong; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility breakpoints are crucial for prudent use of antimicrobials. This study has developed the first susceptibility breakpoint (MIC ≤ 0.25 μg/ml) for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp. based on wild-type cutoff (COWT) and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) cutoff (COPD) values, consequently providing a criterion for susceptibility testing and clinical usage of enrofloxacin. PMID:23784134

  19. Preliminary studies on pathogenic Leptospira spp . In slaughtered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and the associated renal morphological changes in pigs slaughtered in slaughter slabs within Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 42 pigs' kidney samples were randomly collected for the study. The samples were examined using ...

  20. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  1. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... serological tests to identify Haemophilus spp. directly from clinical specimens or tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...

  2. Biological response of Azospirillum spp. to different types of stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Sangoquiza Caiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum is one of the most studied free-living rhizobacteria currently of great agricultural interest because of its ability to bind biological nitrogen and produce phytohormones. The present research aimed at the biological response of Azospirillum spp. facing different types of stress. For this purpose, the micro and macro morphological characterization of Azospirillum spp. And its biological response to stress temperature, pH, salinity. The results revealed that the isolates (C2, C3 and C4 of Azospirillum spp. Grow in greater abundance at temperatures between 28-38 °C and pH between 7-8. The C2 and C3 isolates showed good growth up to 3.5 % (m / v NaCl, whereas the C4 strain was less tolerant. These results have biotechnological applicability and are of great importance when defining and controlling the mass production conditions of Azospirillum spp. for future formulations as biofertilizer in several crops of interest in Ecuador.

  3. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  4. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  5. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...

  6. Taxonomic variation in oviposition by tailed frogs (Aschaphus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Karraker; David S. Pilliod; Michael J. Adams; Evelyn L. Bull; Paul Stephen Corn; Lowell V. Diller; Linda A. Dupuis; Marc P. Hayes; Blake R. Hossack; Garth R. Hodgson; Erin J. Hyde; Kirk Lohman; Bradford R. Norman; Lisa M. Ollivier; Christopher A. Pearl; Charles R. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    Tailed frogs (Ascaphus spp.) oviposit in cryptic locations in streams of the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains. This aspect of their life history has restricted our understanding of their reproductive ecology. The recent split of A. montanus in the Rocky Mountains from A. truei was based on molecular...

  7. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter specific medium. We observed that they were present in both seasons. The phylogenetic tree revealed that our isolated Azotobacter spp. was distantly related ...

  8. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  9. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  10. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  11. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Demodex spp. are more common in alcohol-dependent patients due conditions of reduced self-care and immunosuppression. Demodex parasites should be considered in alcohol-dependent patients with skin lesions, especially on the face, and should to be treated if needed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 259-263

  12. Prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility profile of Enterococcus spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolated from patients and some selected hospital environment in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples included clinical and environmental. The clinical samples included stool, urine and wound swabs while the environmental samples ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  14. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml

  15. Cement bonded wood wool boards from podocarpus spp. for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sound insulation in walls, ceilings and floors, roofs, sound barriers and thermal insulation. Further research is required to investigate the use of different wood species and different mineral binders. Keywords: podocarpus spp, wood-wool, wood-cement composites. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  16. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.

  17. Identification and characterisation of Thiobacilli spp. from Chaliyar Estuary - Malabar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, O.; Kumaran, S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Thiobacilli spp. occurring in surface and bottom water and sediment from seven stations in the Chaliyar Estuary, for a period of one year, were isolated and cultured. A total of 231 sample of water and sediments were analysed of which 77 gave...

  18. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  20. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  1. Fine roots and ectomycorrhizas as indicators of environmental change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cudlín, Pavel; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B.; Rudawska, M.; Grebenc, T.; Alberton, O.; Lehto, T.; Bakker, M. R.; Borja, I.; Konopka, B.; Leski, T.; Kraigher, H.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 3 (2007), s. 406-425 ISSN 1126-3504 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC E38.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Environmental change * indicators * meta-analysis * temperate and boreal zones * woody plants Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2007

  2. Isolation of bacteria from ectomycorrhizae of Tuber aestivum Vittad

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2012), s. 155-160 ISSN 0001-625X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0382 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : culture * summer truffle * streptomyces Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. [Incidence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in raw and roasted chicken in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D

    1993-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.

  4. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.

  5. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  6. Salmonella spp. on chicken carcasses in processing plants in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczysław

    2002-09-01

    Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries.

  7. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  8. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  9. Canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E

    2017-05-19

    Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.

  10. ESCMID and ECMM joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of hyalohyphomycosis: Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorano, A M; Richardson, M; Roilides, E; van Diepeningen, A; Caira, M; Munoz, P; Johnson, E; Meletiadis, J; Pana, Z-D; Lackner, M; Verweij, P; Freiberger, T; Cornely, O A; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Dannaoui, E; Groll, A H; Lagrou, K; Chakrabarti, A; Lanternier, F; Pagano, L; Skiada, A; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Boekhout, T; Chowdhary, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Guinea, J; Guarro, J; de Hoog, S; Hope, W; Kathuria, S; Lortholary, O; Meis, J F; Ullmann, A J; Petrikkos, G; Lass-Flörl, C

    2014-04-01

    Mycoses summarized in the hyalohyphomycosis group are heterogeneous, defined by the presence of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphae. The number of organisms implicated in hyalohyphomycosis is increasing and the most clinically important species belong to the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Purpureocillium and Paecilomyces. Severely immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and clinical manifestations range from colonization to chronic localized lesions to acute invasive and/or disseminated diseases. Diagnosis usually requires isolation and identification of the infecting pathogen. A poor prognosis is associated with fusariosis and early therapy of localized disease is important to prevent progression to a more aggressive or disseminated infection. Therapy should include voriconazole and surgical debridement where possible or posaconazole as salvage treatment. Voriconazole represents the first-line treatment of infections due to members of the genus Scedosporium. For Acremonium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Purpureocillium spp. and Paecilomyces spp. the optimal antifungal treatment has not been established. Management usually consists of surgery and antifungal treatment, depending on the clinical presentation. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. Comparing root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) effects on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and grapevine (Vitis spp.) metabolic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) can negatively impact both herbaceous annual and woody perennial hosts. RKN infestations also may increase plant host susceptibility to other stresses such as those imposed by water deficits or various diseases. However, little is known about direct or ind...

  12. Detection of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and Antimicrobial Residues in Raw and Processed Cow Milk from Selected Smallholder Farms of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tryness Anastazia Mhone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the presence of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and antimicrobial residues in raw milk (n=120 and processed cow milk (n=20 from smallholder dairy farms from three sites in Zimbabwe. Culture and isolation of Salmonella spp., C. albicans, and Aspergillus spp. were performed using selective media, while antimicrobial residues were detected by a dye reduction test. No Salmonella, but C. albicans (17.5%; 21/120, Aspergillus spp. (0.8%; 1/120, and antimicrobial residues (2.5%; 3/120 were detected from raw milk. C. albicans was isolated from all three sites, while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were detected from sites 1 and 3, respectively. From processed milk, only C. albicans (5% was isolated while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were not detected. These results suggested low prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Aspergillus spp. and a relatively high prevalence of C. albicans in raw milk from the smallholder farms. The potential public health risks of C. albicans and the detected antimicrobial residues need to be considered. Thus, educating farmers on improving milking hygiene and storage of milk and establishing programmes for monitoring antimicrobial residues may help to improve the safety of milk from smallholder farms.

  13. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  14. Uso estructural del hábitat por una comunidad de aves en bosques de rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica, Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, Jesús M.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence on the bird community of 9 structural zones in two plots of Iberian oak-woodland (Quercus pyrenaica with differences in vegetation structure was studied. Bird utilization of vegetation was measured by taking samples of each observed individual every 30 seconds, specifying the zone used as a food resource. Existence of a preferential selection in tree top and shrub was verified in the "Monte" plot, whereas tree top and ground in "Dehesa" plot were the preferential zones. The incidence of the seasons in the utilization of some zones (tree top, shrub and air was proven, while others zones (ground and trunks maintained an uniform level of utilization all year round. Shrub is used more in Iberian-oak forest than in other evergreen Quercus woods, while the opposite happens for the ground. The hardest period for birds in the study forest in the winter, while in other evergreen Mediterranean woods It is the summer.

    Depto. de Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Salamanca, 37071- Salamanca, España [es] Se estudia la influencia que ejercen sobre la comunidad de aves, las 9 zonas estructurales definidas dentro de dos parcelas de rebollar que presentan diferente estructura de su vegetación. La utilización del medio se midió observando cada individuo a intervalos de 30 segundos, anotando la zona sobre la que se encontraba buscando alimento. Se comprueba la selección preferencial de la copa de los árboles y del matorral en la parcela "Monte" y de la copa y el suelo en la parcela "Dehesa". Se pone de manifiesto la incidencia de la estacionalidad sobre la selección de algunos sustratos (copa de árboles, matorral y aire, mientras que otros mantienen una utilización más uniforme durante todo el año (suelo y troncos. El matorral es más ampliamente empleado en el rebollar que en bosques de Quercus perennes ibéricos, mientras que sucede lo contrario respecto al empleo del suelo. El invierno

  15. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  16. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-04-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnAj360, which was obtained from Amblyomma javanense ticks collected on a pangolin; and (iii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnHl446, which was closely related to Anaplasma bovis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks collected from a bear. Three Ehrlichia spp. were identified, including (i) Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52, which was obtained from Boophilus microplus ticks collected from cattle from Thailand; (ii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh324, which was closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam; and (iii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh317, which was closely related to Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52 and which was also detected in H. hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam. Two Rickettsia spp. were detected in Thailand, including (i) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420, which was detected in Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from a bear, and (ii) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla440, which was identified from two pools of Dermacentor larvae collected from a wild pig nest. Finally, two bacteria named Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191 were identified in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks collected from chicken in Thailand; these strains could belong to a new group of bacteria.

  17. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and Other Eubacteria in Ticks from the Thai-Myanmar Border and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R. Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R.; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-01-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order Rickettsiales. Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor ...

  18. Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: Epidemiology and resistance features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad B. Almasaudi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter is a major cause of nosocomial infections; it is increasingly being associated with various epidemics and has become a widespread concern in a variety of hospitals worldwide. Multi-antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, is now recognized to be of great clinical significance. Numerous reports relay to the spread of A. baumannii in the hospital settings which leads to enhanced nosocomial outbreaks associated with high death rates. However, many other Acinetobacter spp. also can cause nosocomial infections. This review focused on the role of Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens in addition to their persistence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and epidemiology. Keywords: Acinetobacter, Nosocomial infections, Multi-drug resistance, Epidemiology, Characteristics

  19. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  20. Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2011-11-01

    The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.