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Sample records for quercus rotundifolia lam

  1. Seed isotopic analysis as a tool to understand ecological processes influencing plant development and physiology: the case study of Quercus rotundifolia Lam. in a desertification gradient in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana; Silva, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carla; Antunes Antunes, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro; Ramos, Alzira; João Pereira, Maria; Branquinho, Cristina; Máguas, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Plant responses to climate change highly depend on the temporal variability in precipitation events and on plant specific strategies, such as drought tolerance and resilience. Within the different plant organs, seeds have become an important research tool in the past years to study plant development and nutrients allocation. Key features of seeds such as the tendency to accumulate and store nutrient compounds open many possibilities to explore isotope analysis (13C, 15N and 18O), with many outcomes in fields from ecology to food traceability. The application of light stable isotopes to plant materials have been used to study both physiological (i.e. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance), nutrients uptake and metabolism (origin of nitrogen and symbiotic associations) as well as many ecological processes, which will produce a distinctive isotope fingerprint on the plant tissues. Thus, the isotopic composition of certain bio and geo-elements of seeds, yielding relevant information on plant ecophysiology, are able to relate the plant functioning with local climatic conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation). The application of isotope analysis in this way can be used as a proxy to understand complex environmental degradation processes such as land degradation in drylands resulting from various factors including climatic variations and human activities. In this study acorns of Quercus ilex plants were sampled during 2012-2013 in a region of southern Portugal, according to (i) soil land-use; (ii) aridity and desertification indexes. The approach developed combined plant seed analysis (seed morphology and compounds quantification) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (δ13C, δ15N and δ18O) as a "tool" to study changes in plant ecophysiology over time and space. Seeds allow studies at specific temporal scale (development period) which varies according to its biology and depends on the climatic conditions where the plant is grown (i.e, seed's biomass integrate

  2. Soil properties and understory herbaceous biomass in forests of three species of Quercus in Northeast Portugal

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    Marina Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to characterize some soil properties within the first 25 cm of the soil profile and the herbaceous biomass in Quercus forests, and the possible relationships between soil properties and understory standing biomass.Area of study: Three monoespecific Quercus forests (Q. suber L., Q. ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd in NE Portugal.Material and methods: During 1999 and 2000 soil properties (pH-KCl, total soil nitrogen (N, soil organic carbon (SOC, C/N ratio, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K and herbaceous biomass production of three forest types: Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd were studied.Main results: The results showed a different pattern of soil fertility (N, SOC, P, K in Quercus forests in NE of Portugal. The C/N ratio and the herbaceous biomass confirmed this pattern. Research highlights: There is a pattern of Quercus sp. distribution that correlates with different soil characteristics by soil characteristics in NE Portugal. Q. pyrenaica ecosystems were found in more favoured areas (mesic conditions; Q. rotundifolia developed in nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic conditions; and Q. suber were found in intermediate zones.Keywords: fertility; biomass; C/N ratio; cork oak; holm oak; pyrenean oak.

  3. Pattern recognition of acorns from different Quercus species based on oil content and fatty acid profile

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    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (i to characterize different species of Quercus genus and (ii to discriminate among them on the basis of the content and fatty acid composition of the oil in their fruits and/or their morphological aspects via pattern recognition techniques (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Cluster Analysis, CA, and Discriminant Analysis, DA. Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd., grown in the same stand in the centre of Portugal, were investigated. When oil content and respective fatty acid composition were used to characterize samples, well-separated groups corresponding to each of the species were observed by PCA and confirmed by CA and DA. The ‘‘width’’ and ‘‘length’’ of acorns exhibited a low discriminant power. Acorns from Q. rotundifolia showed the highest average oil content followed by Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica acorns (9.1, 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of Q. rotundifolia and Q. suber oils are similar to olive oil while the oil from Q. pyrenaica acorns is more unsaturated.El objetivo de este estudio fué (i la caracterización de diferentes especies del género Quercus y (ii la clasificación de las mismas en base al contenido y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite de sus frutos y/o en sus caracteres morfológicos, via técnicas de patrón de reconocimiento (Análisis de Componentes Principales, ACP, Análisis de Cluster, AC, y Análisis Discriminante, AD. Se han estudiado Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd., pertenecientes a la misma zona del centro de Portugal. Al emplear el contenido de aceite y sus respectivas composiciones de ácidos grasos para caracterizar a las muestras, el ACP reveló grupos bien separados correspondientes a cada especie, los cuales, a su vez, se confirmarón con el AC y el AD. El ‘‘ancho’’ y ‘‘longitud’’ de las bellotas

  4. Nutritional evaluation of wild plant Cissus rotundifolia

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    MOHAMED KORISH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and antinutritional components of Cissus rotundifolia leaves. They contain an appreciable amount of protein (12.5%db, fat (7.45% db, crude fiber (8.34 % db and minerals (16.32%db. The protein fraction contains a relatively high level of essential amino acids, which accounted for 44.3% of the total amino acids. The fat contains a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids that comprises 55.1% of total fatty acids. The mineral profile is composed of macro- and microelements. The antinutritional factors oxalate, phytate, tanninsand cyanogenic glycosides are present at very low concentrations. Cissus rotundifolia leaves can be considered a potential source of nutritional components for healthy food purposes.

  5. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

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    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  6. How Is LAM Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no cure for LAM, doctors treat LAM with sirolimus (rapamycin), a medicine that stabilizes lung function, treats an ... new treatment recommendations. Medicines Your doctor may prescribe sirolimus (rapamycin) to treat your condition, or bronchodilators or ...

  7. Essential oils of Mentha pulegium and Mentha rotundifolia from Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lorenzo; Daniel Paz; Eduardo Dellacassa; Philip Davies; Roser Vila; Salvador Cañigueral

    2002-01-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds. from Uruguay were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes were the main group of constituents in both oils. Pulegone, isomenthone and menthone were the major components in the oil of M. pulegium, whereas piperitenone oxide and (Z)-sabinene hydrate were the major ones in M. rotundifolia. Enantiomerically pure (-)-menthone, (+)-isomenthone, (+)-isomenthol, (-)-m...

  8. Phenolic compounds and fatty acids from acorns (Quercus spp.), the main dietary constituent of free-ranged Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos; López-Bote, Clemente; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Ordóñez, Juan A; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-10-08

    The aim of the present work was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and fatty acids in acorns from Quercus ilex, Quercus rotundifolia, and Quercus suber. The concentration of oleic acid was >63% of total fatty acids in all cases, followed by palmitic and linoleic acids at similar concentrations (12-20%). The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in Q. rotundifolia, Q. ilex, and Q. suber were 19, 31, and 38 mg/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively, whereas the concentrations of gamma-tocopherol were 113, 66, and 74 mg/kg of DM, respectively. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were distinguished. All of them were gallic acid derivatives, in the form of either galloyl esters of glucose, combinations of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of glucose, tergallic O- or C-glucosides, or ellagic acid derivatives. Several tergallic acid C-glucosides were also present in the extracts obtained from Q. suber. Acorns from Q. ilex and Q. rotundifolia showed similar polyphenol patterns mainly with gallic acid-like spectra. Chromatograms of Q. suber showed mainly polyphenols with ellagic acid-like spectra. Valoneic acid dilactone was especially abundant in Q. suber skin. The contribution of skin to the total phenolics of the acorn was relatively small in Q. rotundifolia and Q. ilex but relatively high in Q. suber. Skin extracts from Q. suber, Q. rotundifolia, and Q. ilex showed 1.3, 1.4, and 1.0 antioxidant efficiencies, respectively (compared to that of butylhydroxyanisole). Endosperm extracts showed lower capacity to prevent lipid peroxidation than skin extracts.

  9. Essential oils of Mentha pulegium and Mentha rotundifolia from Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds. from Uruguay were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes were the main group of constituents in both oils. Pulegone, isomenthone and menthone were the major components in the oil of M. pulegium, whereas piperitenone oxide and (Z-sabinene hydrate were the major ones in M. rotundifolia. Enantiomerically pure (--menthone, (+-isomenthone, (+-isomenthol, (--menthol and (+-pulegone were detected by multidimensional gas chromatography in the case of M. pulegium oil.Óleos essenciais obtidos por hidrodestilação das folhas de Mentha pulegium L. e Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds. do Uruguay foram analisados por GC-FID e GC-MS. O grupo de monoterpenes oxigenados foi o mais importante em ambos os óleos, sendo que a pulegona, isomenthona e menthona foram os constituintes maioritarios no óleo de Mentha pulegium, no entanto, o ôxido de piperitenona e (Z-hidrato de sabineno foram os maioritarios na Mentha rotundifolia. (--mentone, (+-isomentone, (+-isomenthol, (--menthol e (+-pulegone enantioméricamente puras foram detectadas por cromatografía gasosa multidimensional no caso do óleo de Mentha pulegium.

  10. The acclimation of carnivorous round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) to solar radiation

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    Tkalec, Mirta; Doboš, Marko; Babić, Marija; Jurak, Edita

    2015-01-01

    Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is a carnivorous plant which inhabits nutrient-poor, moist, and sun-exposed areas such as peat bogs and sandpits. These habitats are threatened by succession which could lead to substantial shading of sundews. Nevertheless, D. rotundifolia can also gr

  11. The acclimation of carnivorous round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) to solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tkalec, Mirta; Doboš, Marko; Babić, Marija; Jurak, Edita

    2015-01-01

    Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is a carnivorous plant which inhabits nutrient-poor, moist, and sun-exposed areas such as peat bogs and sandpits. These habitats are threatened by succession which could lead to substantial shading of sundews. Nevertheless, D. rotundifolia can also

  12. Ecogeography of Lippia rotundifolia Cham. in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Messulan Rodrigues Meira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lippia rotundifolia is a specie native to the Brazilian Cerrado, endemic to the Cadeia do Espinhaço mountain range. Due to the limited information about the species, the present study aimed to characterize the ecogeography, climate conditions and physical and chemical characteristics of the soil of Lippia rotundifolia in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Thirteen sites were ecogeographically characterized: Parque Estadual Veredas do Peruaçu; Gigante; Rio do Peixe; AEP of Olhos D’água; Joaquim Felício; Parque Estadual do Rio Preto; São Gonçalo do Rio das Pedras; Rio Tigre; RPPN Brumas do Espinhaço; Lapinha; Poço Bonito; Abóboras; and Parque Estadual de Serra Nova. Environments belonged to Cerrado and Caatinga biomes, specifically in rocky and altitude fields. The species occurs at altitudes between 691-1311m, with precipitation between 700 to 1600mm and average temperature between 14.5 to 24°C. In these vegetation types, the soils were sandy, hyper dystrophic and highly toxic with a low cation exchange capacity. These characteristics make the species undemanding with regard to edaphoclimatic and ecogeographic factors.

  13. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

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    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot.

  14. Effects of diets containing Cissus rotundifolia flour on lipid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of diets containing Cissus rotundifolia flour on lipid profile of rats and ... CR flour was processed using traditional Nigerian method of processing. ... Analysis of variance and repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to ...

  15. Volatile Organic Compound Emission from Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis, and its hybridisation product Quercus afares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, S.; Bracho Nuñez, A.; Staudt, M.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    Oaks represent one of the most important plant genera in the Northern hemisphere and include many intensively VOC emitting species. The major group constitutes the isoprene emitters, but also monoterpene emitters and non-emitters can be found. These variations in the oak species might partly be due to their propensity for inter- and intraspecific hybridisation. This study addresses the foliar VOC production of the former hybridisation product the deciduous Quercus afares and its parents, two very distant species: the evergreen monoterpene emitter Quercus suber and the deciduous isoprene emitter Quercus canariensis. The measurements were performed in Southern France, applying two different methods. Plants were investigated in situ in the field with a portable gas exchange measuring system as well as in the laboratory on cut branches with an adapted enclosure system. Quercus afares was found to be a monoterpene emitting species. However, the monoterpene emission was lower and the composition different to that of Quercus suber. Whereas Quercus suber trees belonged to the pinene type most individuals of Quercus afares were identified to represent a limonene type. Quercus canariensis emitted besides high amounts of isoprene also linalool and (Z)-3-hexenylacetate. Emissions from Quercus suber and Quercus afares were higher in the field measurements than in the laboratory on cut branches whereas Quercus canariensis exhibited lower isoprene emissions from cut branches. The results demonstrate the need of further emission studies on a plant species level.

  16. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in re...

  17. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, J., E-mail: j.millett@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Foot, G.W. [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Svensson, B.M. [Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 D, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  18. y Quercus laurina

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    R. Flores-Velázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las características de maquinado con base en la norma ASTM D 1666-87, en las operaciones de cepillado, barrenado, moldurado, torneado y lijado de la madera de Quercus affinis y Quercus laurina. Los mejores resultados de cepillado para Q. affinis se encontraron al combinar el ángulo de corte de 15º y una velocidad de alimentación de 7.5 m·min-1, para Q. laurina no hubo influencia del ángulo de corte. En el barrenado se obtuvieron excelentes resultados con las dos velocidades de giro de broca probadas. Para el moldurado, los resultados para las dos especies fueron excelentes en ambos cortes. En el torneado se encontró que no existe influencia del contenido de humedad para Q. laurina, mientras que para Q. affinis se clasificó como buena para un contenido de humedad menor y excelente para el mayor contenido de humedad. Y para el lijado los resultados fueron excelentes. De acuerdo a los resultados de las pruebas, las dos especies son apropiadas para ser utilizadas por la industria maderera para la elaboración de productos terminados de alta calidad.

  19. Drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition and autumn recovery in two Mediterranean oak species (Quercus ilex and Quercus suber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Gazarini, L C; David, T S; David, J S; Rodrigues, A; Maroco, J; Chaves, M M

    2010-08-01

    Responses of leaf water relations and photosynthesis to summer drought and autumn rewetting were studied in two evergreen Mediterranean oak species, Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia and Quercus suber. The predawn leaf water potential (Ψ(lPD)), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A) at ambient conditions were measured seasonally over a 3-year period. We also measured the photosynthetic response to light and to intercellular CO₂ (A/PPFD and A/C(i) response curves) under water stress (summer) and after recovery due to autumn rainfall. Photosynthetic parameters, Vc(max), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) rate, were estimated using the Farquhar model. RuBisCo activity, leaf chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf carbohydrate concentration were also measured. All measurements were performed in the spring leaves of the current year. In both species, the predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate peaked in spring, progressively declined throughout the summer and recovered upon autumn rainfall. During the drought period, Q. ilex maintained a higher predawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance than Q. suber. During this period, we found that photosynthesis was not only limited by stomatal closure, but was also downregulated as a consequence of a decrease in the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) in both species. The Vc(max) and J(max) increased after the first autumnal rains and this increase was related to RuBisCo activity, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll concentration. In addition, an increase in the TPU rate and in soluble leaf sugar concentration was observed in this period. The results obtained indicate a high resilience of the photosynthetic apparatus to summer drought as well as good recovery in the following autumn rains of these evergreen oak species.

  20. Prof. Dr Herman Johannes Lam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1958-01-01

    Since this silver jubilee does not mean the end of a career, let it merely be regarded as a landmark from which we may now look back. Herman Johannes Lam, born at Veendam in 1892, received his grammarschool education at the ‘Gymnasium Erasmianum’ in Rotterdam (1904—1911). He studied natural history

  1. The insectivorous sundew (Drosera rotundifolia, L.) might be a novel source of PR genes for biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusikova, I.; Libantova, J.; Moravcikova, J.; Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The gene pool of insectivorous sundew, Drosera rotundifolia L., was studied to identify and analyse sequences encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The digested genomic DNA was in ¿inverted¿ Southern hybridisation probed to 19 clones for PR genes from different plant sources. From represe

  2. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

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    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  3. The insectivorous sundew (Drosera rotundifolia, L.) might be a novel source of PR genes for biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusikova, I.; Libantova, J.; Moravcikova, J.; Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The gene pool of insectivorous sundew, Drosera rotundifolia L., was studied to identify and analyse sequences encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The digested genomic DNA was in ¿inverted¿ Southern hybridisation probed to 19 clones for PR genes from different plant sources. From

  4. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

  5. In vivo assessment of the toxic potential of Dissotis rotundifolia whole plant extract in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Ansah; Michael Buenor Adinortey; Jerry Asiedu-Larbi; Benjamin Aboagye; Du-Bois Asante; Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the toxic potential of Dissotis rotundifolia (D. rotundifolia) whole plant extract in Spraque–Dawley rats within a 2-week period of administration. Methods: Methanolic extract of D. rotundifolia was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 100, 300 and 1 000 mg/kg body weight for 14 days. Toxicity was assessed using mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, hematological indices, serum chemistry parameters and histopathological analyses. Results: There were no treatment-related mortalities or differences in clinical signs, hematology and serum biochemistry. This was confirmed by micrographs obtained from histopathological analysis. Conclusions: The results obtained from the sub-acute toxicological assessment of D. rotundifolia extract suggest that the extract is non-toxic at doses up to 1 000 mg/kg/day administered for a period of 14 days.

  6. In vivo assessment of the toxic potential of Dissotis rotundifolia whole plant extract in Sprague–Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles Ansah; Michael Buenor Adinortey; Jerry Asiedu-Larbi; Benjamin Aboagye; Du-Bois Asante; Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the toxic potential of Dissotis rotundifolia(D.rotundifolia) whole plant extract in Spraque–Dawley rats within a 2-week period of administration.Methods: Methanolic extract of D. rotundifolia was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0,100, 300 and 1 000 mg/kg body weight for 14 days. Toxicity was assessed using mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, hematological indices,serum chemistry parameters and histopathological analyses.Results: There were no treatment-related mortalities or differences in clinical signs,hematology and serum biochemistry. This was confirmed by micrographs obtained from histopathological analysis.Conclusions: The results obtained from the sub-acute toxicological assessment of D. rotundifolia extract suggest that the extract is non-toxic at doses up to 1 000 mg/kg/day administered for a period of 14 days.

  7. Epiphytic bryophytes of Quercus forests in Central and North inland Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore García Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity patterns are governed by a complex network of interacting factors. Studies directed to disentangle the most important factors affecting diversity have frequently shown divergent results, which has encouraged a rewarding debate about the relative importance of each factor. Scale dependency has been identified as a direct cause of at least part of such divergences. However, studies with spatially-explicit measurements at different scales are costly and therefore they are relatively scarce despite their importance. Here, we present a database to disentangle the cross-scale variation in the importance of factors affecting the diversity of epiphytic bryophyte communities in Quercus dominated forests (Quercus ilex L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus faginea Lam. in the North-western region of the Iberian Peninsula. We provide species-per-site abundance information with more than 9000 entries and an environmental table containing 20 in situ measured variables at three different scales (forest, stand, and sample. The database will help to advance the research of cross-scale effects of diversity patterns while at the same time providing valuable information on the distribution of a poorly known group of organisms. 

  8. Cytogenetic relationships among some palearctic and nearctic tetraploid taxa of the Campanula rotundifolia L. group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Bielawska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenetic interrelationships between tetraploid representatives of Campanula rotundifolia L. group were investigated. The F1 hybrids derived from the crosses between plants of European and American origin were fully fertile, however, some symptoms of hybrid sterility in F2s and Bs were noted. In the F1 the course of meiosis was normal. In some B segregants the disturbances in synchronization of meiotic divisions were observed. Although in most respect the F1 hybrids were intermediate between their parental forms, in some characters, like the shape of the corolla, the colour of pollen grains and the unrepeating flowering, they resembled more their American parents. No essential genetic barriers between tetraploid representatives of the C. rotundifolia L. group from Europe and North America were found. In view of the present data Guinochet’s hypothesis of the independent origin of European and American tetraploids is rather questionable.

  9. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids as plant growth regulators from fruit and leaf of Vitex rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takeo; Inokuchi, Tomohisa; Fujioka, Shozo; Kimura, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    Five phenolic compounds, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (1), vanillic acid methyl ester (2), 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (3), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4) and ferulic acid (5), and four flavonoids, 5,5'-dihydroxy-4',6,7-trimethoxyflavanone (6), luteolin (7), vitexicarpin (8) and artemetin (9), were isolated from fruits and leaves of Vitex rotundifolia L. The biological activities of these nine compounds have been examined using a bioassay with lettuce seedlings.

  10. Lolium multiflorum Lam. Welsches Weidelgras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C.U.

    1982-01-01

    Male-steriles of Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied from 1978 to 1981 in order to determine the influence of hereditary and environmental effects. The necessary crossing and back-crossing was carried out and, after visual inspection, the pryogeny was tested for the percentage of sterile-male genotypes. To obtain strictly sterile male pryogeny, a maintainer is required which could not be found in earlier test crossings. For this reason, and on the assumption that male sterility in Lolium multiflorum Lam. is inherited via a combined plasmatic and genetic transmission the ms allele, which together with an (S) plasma causes male sterility, was transferred into normal (N) plasma in a backcrossing programme. In one out of three backcrossing-progeny groups, mostly male-steriles were observed, with only a few fertile plants in between. This means that the pollinators employed have high maintainer quality. A splitting of the progeny not according to expectations and male-sterile clones not remaining sterile caused the author to make an investigation of environmental influences. In this experiment, plant of different fertility groups were studied for male sterility and for nine other characteristics. Male sterility was found to be less variable than the other features. Of the correlations established, only antheral length and colour were correlated with male sterility in an applicable manner.

  11. A progenitor of the outer membrane LamB trimer.

    OpenAIRE

    Stader, J.; Silhavy, T J

    1988-01-01

    During its localization to the outer membrane, LamB possesses distinctive biochemical properties as it passes through the cytoplasmic membrane. Because LamB entered this dynamic state with an attached signal sequence and leaves after cleavage, we call this export-related form of LamB the early-translocation form (et-LamB).

  12. In vivo assessment of the toxic potential of Dissotis rotundifolia whole plant extract in Sprague–Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ansah

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The results obtained from the sub-acute toxicological assessment of D. rotundifolia extract suggest that the extract is non-toxic at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day administered for a period of 14 days.

  13. Variabilité de la composition chimique des huiles essentielles de Mentha rotundifolia du Nord de l’Algérie

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    Georges Lognay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the chemical composition of Mentha rotundifolia from Northern Algeria. Algerian oils of Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds., obtained by steam distillation (yield : 0,8%, have been analysed by means of GC-FID and GC/MS. The results indicate clearly the occurrence of two chemotypes which are presently described. The former contains high proportions of piperitone oxide (19,7–31,4% and piperitenone oxide (27,8–29,4% respectively and the latter revealed piperitenone (54,9% and piperitenone oxide (17,6% as the major constituents. Such particular composition is reported for the first time within the M. rotundifolia species.

  14. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  15. Growth, ectomycorrhization and biochemical parameters of Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daoudi

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... stomatal conductance and photosynthesis of plants, which changes .... polyphenols were quantified after colorimetric reaction using Folin-. Ciocalteu ..... of different water and light intensities on cork oak (Quercus suber L.).

  16. The taxonomic status of the Mexican oak Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus El estatus taxonómico del encino mexicano Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Sección Quercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Bacon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus has a complex taxonomic and nomenclatural history. Intensive sampling of oaks at the type locality of Q. undata Trel. in Durango, Mexico and evaluation of herbarium specimens and plants in the field indicate that Q. undata represents variation in Quercus chihuahuensis Trel. in white oak communities where introgressive hybridization among Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., and a third white oak, Q. arizonica Sarg. made species identification difficult. Endlich's type specimen of Q. undata, as designated by Trelease, was apparently destroyed in bombing raids on Berlin during World War II, and we propose herein as lectotype the Trelease illustration of the type. An epitype is also designated in support of the lectotype, given that some features cannot be critically observed on the illustration. The long peduncles of the specimen illustrated by Trelease indicate a close relation to Q. chihuahuensis.Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus tiene una compleja historia taxonómica y de nomenclatura. Un muestreo intensivo de los encinos en la localidad tipo de Q. undata en Durango, México y análisis de ejemplares en herbario y en el campo indican que Q. undata representa variación en Q. chihuahuensis Trel. en los sitios donde la hibridación introgresiva entre Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., y un tercer encino blanco, Q. arizonica Sarg., dificultan la identificación de especies. El ejemplar tipo designado por Trelease aparentemente fue destruido en el bombardeo de Berlín durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, por lo que se propone como lectotipo a la ilustración del tipo en la obra de Trelease. Se designa también un epitipo dado que algunos rasgos no pueden ser críticamente observados en la ilustración. Los largos pedúnculos del espécimen ilustrado por Trelease indican la relación cercana a Q. chihuahuensis.

  17. O abajurú (Chrysobalanus icaco L. e Eugenia rotundifolia Casar. comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Abajurú (Chrysobalanus icaco L. and Eugenia rotundifolia Casar. commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Machline Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as prováveis razões de introdução e comercialização de uma espécie de uso medicinal em um mercado popular urbano na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - o Mercado de Madureira. Durante os anos de 2005 e 2006 aplicaram-se entrevistas semi-estruturadas a 15 erveiros obtendo-se o freelist das espécies consideradas como mais comercializadas (97 a partir do qual se calculou o índice de saliência, que para o abajurú (Eugenia rotundifolia Casar, foi elevado. A espécie conhecida na literatura e comercializada como abajurú é Chysobalanus icaco L., que apresenta propriedades hipoglicemiantes comprovadas por pesquisas farmacológicas e é utilizada pela população para este fim; no entanto, verificou-se, nesse mercado, a venda quase exclusiva de E. rotundifolia, com esse nome popular e mesma propriedade. Até o momento não existem dados farmacológicos para essa espécie. Ambas são nativas e ocorrem, predominantemente, nas restingas litorâneas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A atribuição da atividade hipoglicemiante a E. rotundifolia pode indicar uma correlação, por parte dos erveiros, com a farmacologia de outras espécies de Myrtaceae. Questões relacionadas à fiscalização ambiental bem como desconhecimento e coleta equivocada podem também estar envolvidos nesse processo.The present paper analyzes the commercialization of a new medicinal specie in a public market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During the years 2005-2006 semi-structured interviews were made with 15 herbalists. A free list of the most commercialized species (97 was made, and calculated the salience index in witch Eugenia rotundifolia presented a high value. Chrysobalanus icaco is known in the literature as sold as abajurú, and has hipoglicemient properties, proven by pharmacological research. The local population uses this species for these properties, however in the market in question, E. rotundifolia is almost exclusively sold with the same popular

  18. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLIEFERA. LAM

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P

  19. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  20. Physiological and morphological adaptations of the fruit tree Ziziphus rotundifolia in response to progressive drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, S K; Clifford, S C; Wanek, W; Jones, H G; Popp, M

    2001-07-01

    The physiological basis of drought resistance in Ziziphus rotundifolia Lamk., which is an important, multipurpose fruit tree of the northwest Indian arid zone, was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Three irrigation regimes were imposed over a 34-day period: an irrigation treatment, a gradual drought stress treatment (50% of water supplied in the irrigation treatment) and a rapid drought stress treatment (no irrigation). Changes in gas exchange, water relations, carbon isotope composition and solute concentrations of leaves, stems and roots were determined. The differential rate of stress development in the two drought treatments did not result in markedly different physiological responses, but merely affected the time at which they were expressed. The initial response to decreasing soil water content was reduced stomatal conductance, effectively maintaining predawn leaf water potential (Psi(leaf)), controlling water loss and increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency, while optimizing carbon gain during drought. Carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of leaf tissue sap provided a more sensitive indicator of changes in short-term water-use efficiency than delta13C of bulk leaf tissue. As drought developed, osmotic potential at full turgor decreased and total solute concentrations increased in leaves, indicating osmotic adjustment. Decreases in leaf starch concentrations and concomitant increases in hexose sugars and sucrose suggested a shift in carbon partitioning in favor of soluble carbohydrates. In severely drought-stressed leaves, high leaf nitrate reductase activities were paralleled by increases in proline concentration, suggesting an osmoprotective role for proline. As water deficit increased, carbon was remobilized from leaves and preferentially redistributed to stems and roots, and leaves were shed, resulting in reduced whole-plant transpiration and enforced dormancy. Thus, Z. rotundifolia showed a range of responses to different drought intensities

  1. Phenological behaviour of Vitis rotundifolia cultivars in Pinhais – PR / Comportamento fenológico de cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia em Pinhais – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Zanette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the phenological cycle of nine Vitis rotundifolia cultivars during the 2004/2005 season. The cultivars were Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. The experiment was performed on an orchard implanted in 1999 at the Canguiri Experimental Station of the Federal University of Paraná in Pinhais-PR. The phenology of two adult plants of each cultivar was monitored. The recorded phenological stages were: 1 Dormant bud; 2 Swollen bud; 3 Wool bud; 4 Green tip; 5 Bud burst (first leaf appearance; 6 Two to three leaves unfolded; 7 Five to six leaves unfolded; 8 Fully developed inflorescence; 9 Trace bloom (flowerhoods detached; 10 Full flowering (50% of the flowerhoods fallen; 11 Fruit set; 12 Groat-sized berries; 13 Pea-sized berries; 14 50% filled berries (beginning to touch berries; 15 Final size; 16 Color change; 17 Berries ripe for harvest; and 18 End of harvesting. A very long phenological cycle was observed when compared to species such as Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca. These evaluations allowed us to conclude that: a there is no difference in the phenological cycle periods between bronze and dark skinned cultivars; b cultivars presented desuniform wool bud to full flowering cycle, ranging from 25 days (‘Regale’ to 81 days (‘Creek’; c the cultivar Regale presented the longest cycle (203 days from full flowering to harvest and the cultivar Creek the shortest (136 days. The evaluated cultivars additionally presented desuniform ripening and a tendency to drop berries. O objetivo foi caracterizar o ciclo fenológico de nove cultivares de Vitis rotundifolia avaliadas na safra de 2004/2005. As cultivares estudadas foram as seguintes: Bontiful, Creek, Dixie, Magnolia, Magoon, Noble, Regale, Roanoke e Topsail. O trabalho foi realizado em um pomar do Setor de Fruticultura da Estação Experimental do Canguiri da Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Pinhais-PR, sendo que

  2. The production of 7-methyljuglone, plumbagin and quercetin in wild and cultivated Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baranyai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent establishment of Sphagnum farming areas has created large artificial habitats where Drosera grows under semi-natural conditions. Here we test the suitability, for pharmaceutical purposes, of two Drosera species collected from such areas. We measured the concentration of the biologically active compounds 7-methyljuglone, plumbagin and quercetin in Drosera rotundifolia and D. intermedia. All three compounds were found in pharmacologically suitable concentrations with 7-methlyjuglone characteristic for D. rotundifolia and plumbagin for D. intermedia. The concentrations required for pharmacological purposes were achieved within one year, but higher concentrations occurred in older plants and plants in flower. Concentrations did not differ between plants collected in the morning and in the afternoon. Drosera plants cultivated under semi-natural conditions are suitable as sources of raw materials for industrial pharmacological applications.

  3. Comparison of the antiinflammatory effects of Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera madagascariensis in the HET-CAM assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paper, Dietrich H; Karall, Elisabeth; Kremser, Michaela; Krenn, Liselotte

    2005-04-01

    The antiinflammatory effects of ethanol and aqueous extracts from Drosera rotundifolia and from Drosera madagascariensis were compared in vivo in the HET-CAM assay. Both extracts from D. rotundifolia and the ethanol extract from D. madagascariensis showed remarkable efficacy at doses of 500 microg/pellet. The inhibition of the inflammation by the extracts was stronger than that by 50 microg hydrocortisone/pellet. In contrast, there was only a very weak effect observed at a dose of 500 microg/pellet of the water extract from D. madagascariensis. The chemical analyses of the extracts showed that the effect cannot be attributed to naphthoquinones, but might be due to flavonoids. Ellagic acid obviously plays an important role in the antiangiogenic effect of the Drosera extracts. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Population Genetic Structure of the Medicinal Plant Vitex rotundifolia in China: Implications for its Use and Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hu; Yu Zhu; Qiao-Yan Zhang; Hai-Liang Xin; Lu-Ping Qin; Bao-Rong Lu; Khalid Rahman; Han-Chen Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Vitexrotundifolia L.is an important plant species used in traditional Chinese medicine.For its efficient use and conservation,genetic diversity and clonal variation of V.rotundifolia populations in China were investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat markers.Fourteen natural populations were included to estimate genetic diversity,and a large population with 135 individuals was used to analyze clonal variation and fine-scale spatial genetic structure.The overall genetic diversity (GD) of V.rotundifolia populations in China was moderate (GD=0.190),with about 40% within-population variation.Across all populations surveyed,the average within-population diversity was moderate (P = 22.6%; GD = 0.086).A relatively high genetic differentiation (Gst=0.587)among populations was detected based on the analysis of molecular variance data.Such characteristics of V.rotundifolia are likely attributed to its sexual/asexual reproduction and limited gene flow.The genotypic diversity (D=0.992) was greater than the average values of a clonal plant,indicating its significant reproduction through seedlings.Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed a clear within-population structure with gene clusters of approximately 20 m.Genetic diversity patterns of V.rotundifolia in China provide a useful guide for its efficient use and conservation by selecting particular populations displaying greater variation that may contain required medicinal compounds,and by sampling individuals in a population at >20 m spatial intervals to avoid collecting individuals with identical or similar genotypes.

  5. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Activity of Boswellia carterii and Cissus rotundifolia in Streptozotocin/Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Al-Mehdar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Boswellia carterii and Cissus rotundifolia in rats compared to that of glibenclamide and metformin as common oral hypoglycemic drugs. Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats, divided into six groups of six rats each, were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg b.w. and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg b.w.. The first two groups were normal and diabetic controls, whereas the other four diabetic groups were treated with water extracts of the medicinal plants; B. carterii (100 mg/kg b.w. and C. rotundifolia (100 mg/kg b.w., glibenclamide (5 mg/kg b.w. and metformin (150 mg/kg b.w.. Body weight and serum glucose were measured on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also measured. Results: Treatment of diabetic rats with the water extracts of B. carterii and C. rotundifolia for four weeks resulted in a significant (p<0.05 increase in their body weights and a significant decrease in the levels of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. The effects of the two plant extracts were almost similar to those of glibenclamide and metformin. Conclusion: Water extracts of B. carterii or C. rotundifolia have a hypoglycemic effect resembling those of glibenclamide and metformin, and these findings provide a pharmacological evidence for their anti-diabetic claims in folk medicine.

  6. Immunomodulatory activity of Bauhinia Racemosa Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Sohrab A.; Ghaisas, Mahesh M.; Deshpande, Avinash D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam swiss albino mice. Material and Methods: The specific humoral immunity was assessed by performing hemagglutinating antibody titer (H.A.Titer) and the non-specific immunity was assessed by performing carbon clearance test and neutrophil adhesion test. Results: The methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia Racemosa (MEBR) was found effective in increasing the H.A.Titer. Primary and sec...

  7. Anti inflammatory activity of moringa oliefera. Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K N; Gopalakrishnan, V; Loganathan, V; Nathan, S S

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant.

  8. Estudio cariológico de Quercus humboldtti Bonpl Caryological study of Quercus humboldtii Bonpl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado de Coral Cecilia

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comprobó que la especie del roble Ouercus humboldtii Bonpl. tiene 2 n= 24 cromosomas, al igual que la mayoría de las especies estudiadas de Quercus. Utilizando pretratamiento y tinción con orceina lactopropiónica fue posible obtener el cariotipo e ideograma.Using lactopropionic orceine for a previus tintion we obtained the Caryotype and ideogram of Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. and we observed that it has 2 n = 24 chromosomes as most studied species of Quercus do.

  9. Dimeric and trimeric hydrolyzable tannins from Quercus coccifera and Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Khennouf, Seddik; Gharzouli, Kamel; Yoshida, Takashi

    2002-03-01

    Three new hydrolyzable tannins, cocciferins D(1) (1), D(2) (2), and T(1) (4), were isolated from the leaves of Quercus coccifera. Cocciferin D(2) (2) and two additional new tannins, cocciferins D(3) (3) and T(2) (5), were also obtained from the leaves of Quercus suber. Their oligomeric structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 were rare oligomers possessing glucose cores with both open-chain and pyranose forms.

  10. IN SILICO ANALYSIS OF CHITINASE PROMOTER ISOLATED FROM DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Ďurechová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitinases occur in dozens of genes in the individual plant species and play diverse roles in plant growth and development, and during the plant defense to biotic and abiotic stress. Here we focused on isolation and in silico characterization of regulatory sequences of chitinase gene that belongs to the first isolated gene sequences from D. rotundifolia overall. For the isolation of the 739 bp sequence of chitinase promoter the genome walking approach was applied. The authenticity of the obtained fragment(s was verified by sequencing and sequence alignment ClustalW program. The core of the chitinase promoter was predicted by Neural Network Promoter Prediction program. In total the PLACE online available database identified 66 various cis-regulatory elements in the analyzed sequence. Some of them might be potentially bound by specific transcription factors, and regulate gene expression in specific plant tissues during the plant development or upon the pathogen attack, dehydration, cold or high salinity stress. However, further analyses are needed to reveal which out of predicted cis-elements participate in the true expression profile of isolated promoter in origin and transgenic plant organism.

  11. Quercus petraea in België

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompaey, van E.

    1957-01-01

    Naar aanleiding van het artikel over Quercus petraea in het Corr. bl. no. 4 zend ik u hierbij een kopie van de Belgische verspreidingskaart, omdat daar m.i. wel een en ander uit af te leiden is, dat ook Nederland aanbelangt: 1. Bij bet massale verspreidingsgebied ten Z. van de lijn Samber-Maas (de l

  12. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  13. Large-scale patterns of Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Quercus pyrenaica regeneration in central-western Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Rolo, Víctor; Moreno, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    categories, from small seedlings to large saplings, and for the three oak species studied, especially the evergreens. Of the Quercus ilex, Q. suber, and Q. pyrenaica plots studied, 49%, 62%, and 20% were lacking any small seedlings, and 82%, 96%, and 56% did not have any large saplings, respectively......In Central-Western Spain, forests and woodlands composed of Quercus sp. support outstanding levels of biodiversity, but there is increasing concern about their long-term persistence due to a lack of regeneration. We hypothesize that this regenerative lack is operating on a large geographic scale...... and Q. suber were positively correlated with all understory variables, suggesting that the presence of pioneer shrubs represent a major safe site for early tree recruitment, independent from specific shrub species. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC....

  14. Color and polyphenolic stability in extracts produced from muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Jorge A; Lee, Joon-Hee; Talcott, Stephen T

    2009-09-23

    The muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia ) industry of the southern United States is largely devoid of value-added processes that capture the phytochemical content of wine and juice byproducts. Methods to recover and stabilize polyphenolics from muscadine grape pomace following juice manufacture were evaluated in laboratory-scale and pilot-scale trials. In laboratory-scale trials using osmotic equilibration, water-based extracts from juice pomace initially extracted 31-42% of total polyphenolics, 26-32% of total ellagic acid, and 36-62% of total anthocyanins. When adsorbed onto Amberlite XAD-4 resin to concentrate polyphenolics, these extracts lost 10.5% of their total ellagic acid from inefficient adsorption to the solid phase support. Subsequent pilot-scale trials were evaluated using hot water extracts from grape juice pomace followed by aerobic yeast fermentation to remove sugars and comparison to reversed phase C(18) and Amberlite XAD-4. Extracts were also concentrated using spray-drying and vacuum evaporation. Fermentation had a minor impact on the retention of most polyphenolic compounds evaluated, yet resulted in a 16.3% decrease in antioxidant capacity. Spray-drying resulted in a 30.3% loss in total anthocyanins, a 21.5% loss in total phenolics, and a 23.3% decrease in antioxidant activity, whereas vacuum evaporation had no deleterious impact on these parameters. The physiology of the muscadine grape and its unique phytochemical composition has limited utilization of pomace from wine and juice manufacture. However, these studies demonstrated the potential to extract and concentrate polyphenolic-rich extracts for use in value-added applications.

  15. Intragenic regions required for LamB export.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, S A; Bremer, E.; Silhavy, T J

    1984-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains containing a series of lamB-lacZ fusions have been isolated and characterized. Each of these fusions specifies a hybrid protein with LamB sequences at the NH2 terminus and a large functional COOH-terminal fragment of beta-galactosidase. The amount of LamB present in the various hybrid proteins ranges from as few as 4 amino acids to a complete signal sequence (25 amino acids) plus 49 amino acids of the mature protein. With respect to hybrid protein export these fusions...

  16. Tentacles of in vitro-grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifoliaL.) show induction of chitinase activity upon mimicking the presence of prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusikova, [No Value; Salaj, J; Moravcikova, J; Mlynarova, L; Nap, JP; Libantova, J

    2005-01-01

    Induction of plant-derived chitinases in the leaves of a carnivorous plant was demonstrated using aseptically grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). The presence of insect prey was mimicked by placing the chemical inducers gelatine, salicylic acid and crustacean chitin on leaves. In

  17. Tentacles of in vitro-grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) show induction of chitinase activity upon mimicking the presence of prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusikova, I.; Salaj, J.; Moravcikova, J.; Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.; Libantova, J.

    2005-01-01

    Induction of plant-derived chitinases in the leaves of a carnivorous plant was demonstrated using aseptically grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). The presence of insect prey was mimicked by placing the chemical inducers gelatine, salicylic acid and crustacean chitin on leaves. In

  18. The first record of the boreal bog species Drosera rotundifolia (Droseraceae) from the Philippines, and a key to the Philippine sundews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coritico, F.P.; Fleischmann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Drosera rotundifolia, a species of the temperate Northern Hemisphere with a disjunct occurrence in high montane West Papua, has been discovered in a highland peat bog on Mt Limbawon, Pantaron Range, Bukidnon on the island of Mindanao, Philippines, which mediates to the only other known tropical, Sou

  19. Antileishmanial compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Preet Kamal; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Inder Pal

    2014-01-01

    The antileishmanial activity of extracts and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. was investigated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donavani. The 70% ethanolic extract of roots and the methanolic extract of leaves showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 83.0 microg/ml and 47.5 microg/ml, respectively. Antileishmanial activity of the methanolic extract of leaves increased upon fractionation, as its ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more active with an IC50 value of 27.5 microg/ml. The most active antileishmanial compound niazinin, a thiocarbamate glycoside isolated from this fraction, showed an IC50 value of 5.25 microM. Results presented in this study indicate that extracts from M. oleifera may be developed as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  20. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  1. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate ( LAMP -1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie...AND SUBTITLE LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate ( LAMP -1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0132 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The LAMP -1 study is

  2. New Secondary Metabolites from Quercus coccifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Şöhretoğlu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new secondary metabolites kermesoside (1, cocciferoside (2 and (--8-chlorocatechin (3, were isolated from the the stems with barks of Quercus coccifera along with five known phenolic compounds, 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-propan-1-one (4 and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-propan-1-one (5, trans-resveratrol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (6 lyoniresinol-9-O-β-xylopyranoside (7, lyoniresinol-9-O-β-glucopyranoside (8. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was performed by spectroscopic methods (UV, 1D- and 2D- NMR and HR-MS.

  3. Cork Oak Trees (Quercus suber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rubén; Toribio, Mariano; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás Fernández, Ricardo-Javier

    2006-01-01

    A transformation system for selected mature Quercus suber L. trees using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses are inoculated with AGL1 strain harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint, which carries the nptII and uidA genes. Evidence of stable transgene integration is obtained by polymerase chain reaction for nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos are germinated and successfully transferred to soil.

  4. A remarkable new species of Coeliccia from the Tuyen Lam Lake area, Lam Dong, southern Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-04-15

    Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed.

  5. The Portuguese montado : conciliating ecological values with human demands within a dynamic agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    Sá-Sousa, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, around 3.5–4.0 million ha of a multi-propose agroforestry system persist, where cork oak (Quercus suber L.), Holm oak [Quercus ilex L. subsp. rotundifolia (Lam.)], or a mixture of both species, coexist with pastures and crops (Acácio et al. 2010; Olea and San Miguel-Ayanz 2006; Pinto-Correira et al. 2011). They are called montado in Portugal and dehesa in Spain but represent quite different structures along a cline from 5 % to 65 ...

  6. Lipoarabinomanano (LAM de Mycobacterium spp: Respuesta inmune inducida en terneros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jolly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La paratuberculosis es una enfermedad que afecta al ganado vacuno cuyo agente etiológico es el Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. El LAM es el principal componente antigénico de superficie de las micobacterias, y se lo considera de relevancia en la patogenia de las enfermedades que éstas causan. Un extracto enriquecido en LAM fue obtenido a partir de un cultivo de Mycobacterium spp. y empleado para inocular terneros. Se evaluó en ellos la respuesta inmune humoral y celular inducida por la vacunación. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el extracto enriquecido en LAM resultó ser inmunogénico en todos los animales inoculados, obteniéndose títulos considerables de anticuerpos específicos, sin generar falsos positivos a la prueba de intradermorreacción con el derivado proteico purificado utilizado para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis bovina. Estos hallazgos justifican continuar el trabajo en esta línea intentando finalmente establecer si el LAM es un candidato potencial para la elaboración de una vacuna a subunidades contra la paratuberculosis bovina.Paratuberculosis is a chronic enteric disease affecting cattle. The causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. LAM is the main antigenic component of mycobacterial surface, and it is considered a key virulence factor involved in its pathogenicity. A LAM-enriched extract obtained from a culture of Mycobacterium spp. was prepared with incomplete Freund's adjuvant for calves inoculation. Specific antibodies response and delayed-type hypersensitivity to intradermal injection of purified protein derivative antigen (PPD from Mycobacterium bovis were then evaluated in inoculated animals. Our results demonstrate that anti-LAM antibodies can be successfully obtained in calves immunized with LAM-enriched extract, without generating cross-reaction with PPD of M. bovis. This work could represent the initial step in order to determine the relevance of

  7. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Elbaz-Alon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure, vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch, and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction. We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication.

  8. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, Sebastian Berthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication. PMID:26119743

  9. PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Kumar Biswas et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to provide advance research information for the future scientists to discover new drug molecules from the medicinal plant, Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae. The plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol and kaempferol. In addition to its high nutritional value, Moringa oleifera Lam is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. This review gives the scientific information regarding pharmacological potentials of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae.

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Lippia origanoides e Lippia rotundifolia frente a enterobactérias isoladas de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils on enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from poultry fecal samples in the cloaca from 49 laying hens. To analyze the antimicrobial sensibility an agar diffusion susceptibility test was performed and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and the Minimum Bactericida Concentration (MBC of Lippia origanoides and Lippia rotundifolia essential oils was determined. The concentrations used were 160, 80 and 40 μL/mL. The L. origanoides essential oil showed antimicrobial effect from 40 μL/mL dose against both microorganisms, with larger efficiency in E. coli. The L.rotundifolia essential oil was more efficient at the concentration of 160μL/mL. Its effect was observed in all microorganisms. These results suggest that L. origanoides oil is more effective than L. rotundifolia oil in inhibiting the growth of microorganism isolated from poultry, although it also has a satisfactory antimicrobial effect. Results indicate the potential use of these plant's essential oils in poultry feed as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial products.

  11. Phylogeographical Variation of Chloroplast DNA in Cork Oak (Quercus suber)

    OpenAIRE

    Lumaret, Roselyne; TRYPHON-DIONNET, MATHIEU; MICHAUD, HENRI; SANUY, AURÉLIE; IPOTESI, EMILIE; Born, Céline; MIR, CÉLINE

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims In the last decades, the geographical location of the centre of origin of Quercus suber (cork oak), a strictly western Mediterranean oak species, has been the subject of controversy.

  12. A New 10-Hydroxyl Anthrone Glycoside from Cassia siamea Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new 10-hydroxyl anthrone glycoside, 1, 8, 10 - trihydroxyl-1-O-β-D-glucopyrano-syl-3-methyl-10- C (S) - β - D- glucopyranosyl-anthrone-9 1 was isolated from the stem of Cassia siamea Lam. The structure was elucidated by spectral evidences, especially by 2 D techniques.

  13. Når TV-kokken ofrer lam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    programmet Jamie’s Italian Escape (Channel 4, 2006) og det franske madprogram Le Chef en France (M6, 2012) med kokken Cyril Lignac. De to analyseeksempler har det til fælles, at det i begge tilfælde er lam, der slås ihjel og tilberedes. I artiklen analyseres, hvordan slagtningerne i disse madprogrammer...

  14. Some pharmacognostical characteristics of moringa oleifera lam. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S K; Mukherjee, P K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    1996-04-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed.

  15. Antimicrobial action of the leaf extract of moringa oleifera lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S K; Mukherjee, P K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive - Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative - Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study.

  16. SOME PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed.

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive – Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative – Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study.

  18. Flower Bud Differentiation in Quercus suber L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Varela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cork oak (Quercus suber L. is one of the most important forest species growing in the Western Mediterranean region. This investigation intends to assess the timing of flowering differentiation of cork oak and contribute to the deepening of the knowledge about the process of the sexual reproduction of the species. Materials and Methods: In 2010 four trees were selected (9, 14, 24, 25 from a plot of 25 trees located at Quinta da Serra, Portugal. A total of 240 buds were collected from these four trees, on three days (8, 14 and 23 March, from 4 branches per tree and 5 positions per branch for the assessment of meristem differentiation. Results: Meristem differentiation analysed on the sampling days revealed there were only vegetative structures by 8 March; a few male and female primordia on 14 March; and fully differentiated reproductive structures on 23 March. Conclusions: Flowering sex determination of cork oak occurs about one month before the flowering onset.

  19. Allometric relationship for estimating above-ground biomass of Aegialitis rotundifolia Roxb.of Sundarbans mangrove forest, in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique·Mahmood Hossain; M d.Rezaul Karim Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Tree biomass plays a key role in sustainable management by providing different aspects of ecosystem.Estimation of above ground biomass by non-destructive means requires the development of allometric equations.Most researchers used DBH (diameter at breast height) and TH (total height) to develop allometric equation for a tree.Very few species-specific allometric equations are currently available for shrubs to estimate of biomass from measured plant attributes.Therefore,we used some of readily measurable variables to develop allometric equations such as girth at collar-height (GCH) and height of girth measuring point (GMH) with total height (TH) for A.rotundifolia,a mangrove species of Sundarbans of Bangladesh,as it is too dwarf to take DBH and too irregular in base to take Girth at a fixed height.Linear,non-linear and logarithmic regression techniques were tried to determine the best regression model to estimate the above-ground biomass of stem,branch and leaf.A total of 186 regression equations were generated from the combination of independent variables.Best fit regression equations were determined by examining co-efficient of determination (R2),co-efficient of variation (Cv),mean-square of the error (Mserror),residual mean error (Rsme),and F-value.Multiple linear regression models showed more efficient over other types of regression equation.The performance of regression equations was increased by inclusion of GMH as an independent variable along with total height and GCH.

  20. 帽蕊木化学成分研究%Study on the Chemical Constituents of Mitragyna rotundifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文艺; 张百让; 许启泰; 李黎; 郝小江

    2006-01-01

    从帽蕊木(Mitragyna rotundifolia Kuntze)的茎皮乙醇提取物乙醇乙酯部分和正丁醇部分分离得到12个化合物,经波谱分析鉴定分别为β-胡萝卜甙(1),3,4-二羟基苯甲酸(2),β-谷甾醇(3),莨菪亭(4),3,4,5-三甲氧基苯醇-1-葡萄糖甙(5),蒲公英赛醇(6),3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯甲酸(7),3-羟基-4-甲氧基苯甲酸(8),咖啡酸(9),Gambirine (10), Gambireine (11),1,1-dimetheyl-2-acetl-diethyl ether (12).这些化合物均为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  1. The diversification of terpene emissions in Mediterranean oaks: lessons from a study of Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis and its hybrid Quercus afares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Saskia; Bracho-Nuñez, Araceli; Mir, Céline; Zimmer, Ina; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lumaret, Roselyne; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Staudt, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Interspecific gene flow is common in oaks. In the Mediterranean, this process produced geographical differentiations and new species, which may have contributed to the diversification of the production of volatile terpenes in the oak species of this region. The endemic North African deciduous oak Quercus afares (Pomel) is considered to be a stabilized hybrid between the evergreen Quercus suber (L.) and the deciduous Quercus canariensis (Willd.), presumably being monoterpene and isoprene emitters, respectively. In a common garden experiment, we examined the terpene emission capacities, terpene synthase (TPS) activities and nuclear genetic markers in 52 trees of these three oak species. All but one of the Q. suber and Q. canariensis trees were found to be genetically pure, whereas most Q. afares trees possessed a mixed genotype with a predominance of Q. suber alleles. Analysis of the foliar terpene emissions and TPS activities revealed that all the Q. canariensis trees strongly produced isoprene while all the Q. suber trees were strong monoterpene producers. Quercus afares trees produced monoterpenes as well but at more variable and significantly lower rates, and with a monoterpene pattern different than that observed in Q. suber. Among 17 individuals tested, one Q. afares tree emitted only an insignificant amount of terpenes. No mixed isoprene/monoterpene emitter was detected. Our results suggest that the capacity and pattern of volatile terpene production in Algerian Q. afares populations have strongly diverged from those of its parental species and became quantitatively and qualitatively reduced, including the complete suppression of isoprene production.

  2. TOLERANCIA AL FUEGO EN Quercus magnoliifolia1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENCon el objetivo de conocer la respuesta de Quercus magnoliifolia al fuego en mortalidad y rebrotación, se aplicó una quema prescrita intensa, en fajas a favor de viento y pendiente, a una parcela de 0.5 ha en el estado de Guerrero, México, en abril de 2009. La quema inició a las 10:20 y duró 1 h 26 min. Se midieron las variables meteorológicas temperatura (25-28 °C, humedad relativa (33-24%, y velocidad del viento (7-25 km/h; y de comportamiento del fuego (largo de llama, de 0.5 a 3 m.Seis meses después se midieron variables de la estructura del arbolado y de severidad de la quema. El análisis de datos involucró regresión logarítmica y regresión logística. Los valores estructurales medios fueron: altura (11.2 m, diámetro normal (12. 2 cm y altura de copas (6.8 m. Se halló relación logarítmica directa entre el largo de llama y la velocidad del viento (R2=0.65. No hubo mortalidad producto de la quema, pero 33 % de los árboles rebrotaron. Las variables explicativas de la probabilidad de rebrotación fueron: altura (p=0.0159, diámetro normal (p=0.0394y altura a la base de copas (p=0.0487. La cicatriz sobre el tronco alcanzó 2.6 m y el chamuscado de copas 62 %, en promedio. La especie muestra resistencia a fuego poco severo, gracias a su corteza, y tolerancia a fuego más severo. Las quemas prescritas contribuirían a reducir impactos negativos de incendios en el arbolado.

  3. SORPTION PERFORMANCE OF QUERCUS CERRIS CORK WITH POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND TOXICITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Àngels Olivella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quercus cerris is an important oak species extended in large areas of Eastern Europe and Minor Asia that has a thick bark which is not utilized at all. The sorption performance of cork from Quercus cerris bark with four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene was investigated. Quercus cerris cork was characterized for elemental analysis, acidic groups, and summative chemical composition, and the results were compared with Quercus suber cork. A Microtox® test was carried out to test for the release of any toxic compounds into the solution. All isotherms fit the Freundlich model and displayed linear n values. Quercus cerris exhibited a high efficiency for sorption of PAHs for the studied concentrations (5 to 50 µg/L with 80-96% removal, while the desorption isotherms showed a very low release of the adsorbed PAHs (<2%. In relation to Quercus suber cork, KF values of Quercus cerris cork are about three times lower. The quantity of Quercus cerris cork required to reduce water pollution by PAHs was estimated to be less than twice the quantity of other adsorbents such as aspen wood and leonardite. Toxicity tests indicated that non-toxic compounds were released into the solution by the Quercus cerris and Quercus suber cork samples. Overall the results indicate the potential use of Quercus cerris cork and of Quercus suber cork as effective and economical biosorbents for the treatment of PAH-contaminated waters.

  4. Bioclimatic characteristic of oak species Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis and Quercus petraea subsp. pinnatiloba in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargioglu, Mustafa; Serteser, Ahmet; Senkul, Cetin; Konuk, Muhsin

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine some bioclimatic characteristics such as humidity category (Q2), winter variant (m), the length of the dry season (LDS) and the dry season water deficit (DSWD) of naturally growing two endemic oak taxa, Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis and Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba, living in Turkey. Our findings showed that bioclimatic tolerance range of Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis possess 7 different types of Mediterranean bioclimate while Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba had 8 of them. Although Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis was ranging among the semiarid, freezing and very cold, Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba was among sub-humid, freezing and very cold ambient. It was briefly established that Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis prefers semi-arid and very cold/freezing conditions and Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba prefers sub-humid and cold/very cold climatic conditions.

  5. Cryopreservation of Quercus suber and Quercus ilex embryonic axes: in vitro culture, desiccation and cooling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M Elena; Prieto, Roberto-Moreno; Herradon, Esther; Martin, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This study examines different factors included in the cryopreservation protocols for Quercus ilex and Q. suber embryonic axes. In vitro incubation temperature played an important role in the appropriate development of Q. ilex axes, as 15 degrees C was superior to 25 degrees C. Q. suber axes proved to be more sensitive to desiccation and cooling. Poor survival (35%) was observed when axes were included into cryovials and then in liquid nitrogen, and none when immersed in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (-210 degrees C). Q. ilex axes showed poorly organised development in vitro (c. 50% of non-cooled axes showed shoot development). However, c. 80% survival was observed after cryopreservation (either in liquid nitrogen or sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at 0.34 g water / g dry weight), of which c. 15% showed shoot development.

  6. Age trends and within-site effects in wood density and radial growth in Quercus faginea mature trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicelina B. Sousa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: This paper aims to valorize the wood of Quercus faginea Lam. for high quality end uses (e.g. furniture by studying growth and quality properties using mature trees. Age trends in tree-ring width and wood density are shown and the main factors responsible for variations in tree-ring width and wood density within and between trees are investigated. Area of study: The study site is in the center of Portugal within the natural species distribution area.Material and methods: Radial samples from ten mature trees were collected at 6 heights (from base to 9.7 m and prepared for X-ray microdensity.Main results: Wood density showed high values, ranging from 0.868 g/cm3 to 0.957 g/cm3. Wood density decreased from pith to bark and with stem height. Cambial age showed a linear relationship with wood density and most of the variation in wood is explained by age. Intra-ring and axial within-tree homogeneity was good.Research highlights: Mature trees of Q. faginea showed high wood density and a high potential for high quality end uses, comparable to other oaks. Wood density is influenced by cambial age and tree-ring width. Wood quality may be improved by tree growth rates adjustment e.g. through an adequate tree stand density (e.g. thinning operations. 

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Maria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.

  8. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    rapamycin treatment. However both Torin 1 treatment and Rictor knockdown, led to reduced COX-2 expression and phospho-Akt-S473. Prostaglandin... rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of cell growth, protein translation, and metabolism. In LAM patients the mTORC1 inhibitor Rapamycin ...published PLOS One 2014. “ Rapamycin -insensitive up-regulation of adipocyte phospholipase A2 in tuberous sclerosis complex and

  9. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Saulo Luis da; Figueiredo, Patrícia Maria; YANO, Tomomasa

    2007-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool) were also tested to ve...

  10. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  11. ASPECTOS ANATÔMICOS DO ENRAIZAMENTO DA VIDEIRA MUSCADÍNIA (Vitis rotundifolia Michx. ATRAVÉS DE ALPORQUIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. PACHECO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available A multiplicação das videiras é comumente realizada através de processos vegetativos como a estaquia e a enxertia, os quais nem sempre apresentam resultados satisfatórios, especialmente para as espécies de difícil enraizamento, comprometendo a produção comercial. A uva muscadínia (Vitis rotundifolia Michx. é considerada uma planta difícil de enraizar. Sua propagação através da estaquia mostra que o emprego de reguladores vegetais proporciona pouco ou nenhum benefício ao enraizamento das estacas. Atualmente, a alporquia em frutíferas vem se apresentando como um método de propagação que proporciona um bom enraizamento, aliado à aplicação de reguladores vegetais. Este trabalho procurou avaliar a eficiência do processo de alporquia com relação ao enraizamento da uva muscadínia bem como estudar a anatomia dos calos e das raízes adventícias. Pode-se concluir que a prática do anelamento mostra-se mais efetiva em proporcionar o enraizamento do que a retirada de lascas. A adição de ácido naftalenacético não afetou significativamente o enraizamento. As raízes adventícias apareceram nas proximidades da região cambial, nas regiões nodais e internodais dos ramos. Não ocorreu a formação de raízes diretamente do calo. O tecido do calo caracterizou-se por ser meristematicamente ativo e não apresentar amido.The propagation of grapes is ordinarily carried out by vegetative methods like cuttings and graftings, which not always present satisfactory results, especially for those species with low rooting ability, endangering the commercial production. The muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx. is considered recalcitrant for rooting. Its propagation by cuttings shows that growth regulators have few or no benefits on rooting. Nowadays, air-layering is reported as a propagation method that promotes good rooting when combined with the application of growth regulators. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of air

  12. Sanitary Risks Connected to the Consumption of Infusion from Senna rotundifolia L. Contaminated with Lead and Cadmium in Cotonou (Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Montcho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out an assessment of sanitary risks connected to the consumption of Senna rotundifolia Linn. contaminated with lead and cadmium. This plant was collected and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results revealed a contamination of plants from markets of Dantokpa, Vossa, and Godomey with heavy metals. Senna from Vossa was higher in cadmium and lead levels (Pb: 2.733 mg/kg ± 0.356 mg/kg; Cd: 0.58 mg/kg ± 0.044 mg/kg compared to the two other places (Pb: 1.825 mg/kg ± 0.133 mg/kg, Cd: 0.062 mg/kg ± 0.015 mg/kg and Pb: 1.902 mg/kg ± 0.265 mg/kg, Cd: 0.328 mg/kg ± 0.024 mg/kg, respectively, for Dantokpa and Godomey. In terms of risk assessment through the consumption of Senna, the values recorded for lead were nine times higher with children and six times higher with adults than the daily permissive intake (Pb: 3.376 × 10−2 mg/kg/day for children and 2.105 × 10−2 mg/kg/day for adults versus 3.6 × 10−3 mg/kg/day for DPI. With respect to cadmium, there was no significant difference between the recorded values and the DPI (Cd: 1 × 14 10−3 mg/ kg/day for children and Cd: 0.71 × 10−3 mg/ kg/day for adults versus Cd: 1 × 10−3 mg/kg/day for adults. This exposure of the population to lead and cadmium through the consumption of antimalarial healing plants could pose public health problems.

  13. Differential induction of antioxidant stilbenoids in hairy roots of Vitis rotundifolia treated with methyl jasmonate and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopo-Olazabal, Cesar; Condori, Jose; Nopo-Olazabal, Luis; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio

    2014-01-01

    Stilbenoids are polyphenolic phytoalexins that exhibit potential health applications in humans. Hairy root cultures of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) were used to study the biochemical and molecular regulation of stilbenoid biosynthesis upon treatment with 100 μM methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or 10 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) over a 96-h period. Resveratrol, piceid, and ε-viniferin were identified in higher concentrations in the tissue whereas resveratrol was the most abundant stilbenoid in the medium under either treatment. An earlier increase in resveratrol accumulation was observed for the MeJA-treated group showing a maximum at 12 h in the tissue and 18 h in the medium. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of extracts from the tissue and medium was determined by the 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid] (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays showing correlation with the stilbenoid content. Fourteen candidate reference genes for qPCR were tested under the described experimental conditions and resulted in the selection of 5 reference genes. Quantitative analyses of transcripts for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), resveratrol synthase (RS), and two stilbene synthases (STS and STS2) showed the highest RNA level induction at 3 h for both treatments with a higher induction for the MeJA treatment. In contrast, the flavonoid-related chalcone synthase (CHS) transcripts showed induction and a decrease in expression for MeJA and H2O2 treatments, respectively. The observed responses could be related to an oxidative burst triggered by the exposure to abiotic stressor compounds with signaling function such as MeJA and H2O2 which have been previously related to the synthesis of secondary metabolites.

  14. DESCOMPOSICIÓN Y LIBERACIÓN DE NITRÓGENO Y MATERIA ORGÁNICA EN HOJAS DE Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Y Moringa oleifera Lam. EN UN BANCO MIXTO DE FORRAJE

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Petit-Aldana; Gabriel Uribe-Valle; Fernando Casanova-Lugo; Javier Solorio-Sánchez; Luis Ramírez-Avilés

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluaron las tasas de descomposición, la liberación de N y MO en hojas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. y Moringa oleifera Lam. en un banco mixto de forraje en Yucatán, México, en las épocas de lluvias y sequía, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Se llenaron 120 bolsas con hojas frescas de las especies colectadas, y se colocaron en cada unidad experimental. Se evaluaron tres periodos de incubación para cada tr...

  15. Mutations that alter the transport function of the LamB protein in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M

    1982-01-01

    Some Escherichia coli K-12 lamB mutants, those producing reduced amounts of LamB protein (one-tenth the wild type amount), grow normally on dextrins but transport maltose when present at a concentration of 1 microM at about one-tenth the normal rate. lamB Dex- mutants were found as derivatives of these strains. These Dex- mutants are considerably impaired in the transport of maltose at low concentrations (below 10 microM), and they have a structurally altered LamB protein which is impaired in...

  16. A discrimination between Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.G.; Dam, van B.C.; Eck, van H.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    In natural populations, Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl. comprise a morphological continuum due to hybridization and/or an overlap in variation between the two species. In order to obtain diagnostic markers to investigate these morphological intermediate forms, leaf morphology and AFLP

  17. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  18. A new cycloartane nortriterpenoid from Quercus variabilis Blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xin; Ling Yun Jia; Jiu Zhi Yuan; Qi Shi Sun

    2009-01-01

    The leaves and stems of Quercus variabilis Blume afforded a new cycloartane nortriterpenoid, 3α-acetyloxy-4α, 14α-dimethyl9β, 19-cycloergost-24-oic acid (1), along with five known compounds (2-6). The structure of I was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopy.

  19. Ellagitannins and complex tannins from Quercus petraea bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, M; Scholz, E; Hartmann, R; Lehmann, W; Rimpler, H

    1994-10-01

    The ellagitannins 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucose, pedunculagin, vescalagin, and castalagin; the flavanoellagitannins acutissimin A, acutissimin B, eugenigrandin A, guajavin B, and stenophyllanin C; and the procyanidinoellagitannin mongolicanin have been isolated from the bark of Quercus petraea. The ellagitannin fraction had a weak antisecretory effect.

  20. Interspecific variation in functional traits of oak seedlings (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana, Quercus virgiliana) grown under artificial drought and fire conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatante, D; Tognetti, R; Scippa, G S; Congiu, T; Baesso, B; Terzaghi, M; Montagnoli, A

    2015-07-01

    To face summer drought and wildfire in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, plants adopt different strategies that involve considerable rearrangements of biomass allocation and physiological activity. This paper analyses morphological and physiological traits in seedlings of three oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana and Quercus virgiliana) co-occurring under natural conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate species-specific characteristics and the response of these oak seedlings to drought stress and fire treatment. Seedlings were kept in a growth chamber that mimicked natural environmental conditions. All three species showed a good degree of tolerance to drought and fire treatments. Differences in specific biomass allocation patterns and physiological traits resulted in phenotypic differences between species. In Q. ilex, drought tolerance depended upon adjustment of the allocation pattern. Q. trojana seedlings undergoing mild to severe drought presented a higher photosystem II (PSII) efficiency than control seedlings. Moreover, Q. trojana showed a very large root system, which corresponded to higher soil area exploitation, and bigger leaf midrib vascular bundles than the other two species. Morphological and physiological performances indicated Q. trojana as the most tolerant to drought and fire. These characteristics contribute to a high recruitment potential of Q. trojana seedlings, which might be the reason for the dominance of this species under natural conditions. Drought increase as a result of climate change is expected to favour Q. trojana, leading to an increase in its spatial distribution.

  1. Antiproliferative activity of flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the MCF7, KB, and NIH/3T3 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedel, Fernanda; Begnini, Karine; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Beira, Fátima T A; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto B

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the antiproliferative effect in vitro of the flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB), and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. A cell density of 2×10(4)/well was seeded in 96-well plates, and samples at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 500 mg/mL were tested. The optical density was determined in an ELISA multiplate reader (Thermo Plate TP-Reader). Results demonstrated that the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity against both the tumor cell lines KB and MCF-7, presenting a GI(50) (MCF-7=13.09 mg/mL), TGI (KB=37.76 mg/mL), and IL(50) (KB=291.07 mg/mL). Also, the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity toward NIH 3T3 cells GI(50) (183.65 mg/mL), TGI (280.54 mg/mL), and IL(50) (384.59 mg/mL). The results indicate that the flower hexane extract obtained from M. spicata associated with M. rotundifolia presents an antineoplastic activity against KB and MCF-7, although an antiproliferative effect at a high concentration of the extract was observed toward NIH 3T3.

  2. 不同处理对鱼香草种子萌发的影响%Effects of different treatments on seed germination of Mentha rotundifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建成; 龚卫华; 向芬; 杨建湘; 符智荣; 彭秀梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究鱼香草的种子形态和不同处理对种子萌发的影响,为鱼香草人工栽培种苗培育提供科学依据.方法 测定种子长宽、千粒质量,对种子设置不同温度、不同光质以及不同浓度的赤霉素(GA3)和KNO3浸种处理,观察记录种子发芽数,计算发芽率、发芽指数和活力指数.结果 鱼香草种子椭圆形,长( 1.77±0.01) mm,宽(1.13±0.01 )mm,千粒质量(1 175.5±21.02) mg,吸水量为其风干种子质量的8.8倍;种子发芽最适宜温度为30℃;白色光照最有利于种子萌发,全黑暗最不利于种子萌发:GA3、0.25% KNO3浸种可显著提高种子发芽率、发芽指数及活力指数.结论 得到鱼香草种子萌发最适宜的处理条件,对鱼香草人工栽培种苗培育具有重要指导作用.%Objective To evaluate the seed morphology of Mentha rotundifolia and the effect of different treatments on seed germination, and to provide a scientific basis for seeding and artificial cultivation of M. rotundifolia. Methods Length and width for seed and weight of one thousand seeds were measured and seed germination percentages were recorded and analyzed statistically, through setting conditions including different culture temperatures, different light qualities, and soaking treatment with different concentration of GA3/KNO3. Results The seed morphology in M. rotundifolia is oval with (1.77 ± 0.01) mm of length and (1.13 ± 0.01) mm of width. The weight of one thousand seeds is (1 175.5 ± 21.02) mg and the weight after seed absorbing water is about 8.8 times more than seed dry weight. The optimal temperature is 30 ℃ for seed germination; Seed germination could be affected under different light qualities and full darkness conditions. White light was the most conductive to seed germination, but full darkness was the least conductive. After soaking treatment with GA3/O.25% KNO3, not only seed germination percentage could be significantly promoted, but also germination

  3. Acclimatization of 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstock Aclimatização do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pre-acclimatization stage can be used to improve micropropagation protocols and increase the yield of produced plants. The influence of sucrose and photon flux density (PFD levels on the acclimatization of in vitro-grown 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstocks was evaluated. Rooted shoots were obtained from 4-week-old in vitro shoots cultivated in QL (Quoirin and Lepoivre, 1977 culture medium supplemented with 15, 30 and 45 g L-1 of sucrose. The experiment was kept in a 25 ± 2ºC growth room, under 16-h photoperiod and PFD of 18 µmol m-2 s-1 or 43 µmol m-2 s-1. Plants were transferred to an intermittent misting system greenhouse for 10 d followed by 20 d of once-a-day watering routine using a handheld hose. Plant height was influenced by sucrose concentration, and shoots produced on media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose were the tallest (5.0 cm. The largest leaf area was obtained with 31.3 g L-1 of sucrose, under the PFD of 43 µmol m-2 s-1 (13.3 cm². Absence of sucrose in the culture medium led to a significant reduction in leaf area at both PFDs. Shoot (aerial part dry matter was largest when 30 or 45 g L-1 of sucrose (17.5 and 16.7 mg per plant, respectively were used. Microcuttings rooted in all sucrose concentrations tested. The highest survival percentage (100% during ex vitro acclimatization was obtained for shoots cultured in media supplemented with 45 g L-1 of sucrose under both PFDs tested.A fase de pré-aclimatização pode ser utilizada para aperfeiçoar os protocolos de micropropagação e aumentar o rendimento na produção de mudas. Avaliou-se a influência da sacarose e níveis de densidade de fluxo de fóton (DFF in vitro, na sobrevivência das mudas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43'(Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia, na fase de aclimatização. Microestacas obtidas de brotações in vitro foram cultivadas em meio de cultura QL suplementado 15, 30 e 45 g L-1 de sacarose. O

  4. Lam Kin Chung Morning Sun China- Japan Friendship Fund Set up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Lam Kin Chung Morning Sun Charity Fund of HoneKong has decided to donate, from January 2004, 100,000 RMB yuan each year for 5 consecutive years, which totals 500,000 RMB yuan, to set up the Lam Kin Chung Morning Sun China-Japan Friendship Fund under the China Friend-

  5. Noves poblacions d'Arundo micrantha Lam. (Poaceae) a la Comunitat Valenciana (Espanya)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer-Gallego, P. Pablo; Roselló Gimeno, Robert; Vázquez Mora, Juan Ramón; Laguna Lumbreras, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Se citen noves poblacions d'Arundo micrantha Lam. (Poaceae) localitzades a les províncies de Castelló i València (Espanya). New records of Arundo micrantha Lam. (Poaceae) from Castellón and Valencia provinces are cited.

  6. X-LAM: Roots of Terror and the Battle Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    perpetrators, this paper refers to this particular brand of Islam as "X-Lam". This paper researches the roots of Islamic extremism. It begins with a medieval ...writings of Egyptian fundamentalist scholar, Sayyid Qutb. Qutb was born in Upper Egypt in 1906.40 Throughout the 1930’s and 40’s he was a literary man...two major literary genres: 1) the roots of jurisprudence and 2) the branches of jurisprudence. In the course of the 9 th and 10 th Centuries AD, the

  7. The Lamé equation in shell membrane theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schief, W. K.; Szereszewski, A.; Rogers, C.

    2007-07-01

    A classical nonlinear shell membrane system has recently been demonstrated to have underlying integrable structure. Here, a wide class of corresponding parallel membranes is shown to be generated via a Schrödinger equation of Lamé type. This class is characterized by the existence of a multiplicity of stress distributions for a given membrane geometry. A variety of viable membrane geometries such as generalized Dupin cyclides are constructed explicitly together with the associated one-parameter families of stress resultants. A Lax pair which encapsulates both the Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi and constrained equilibrium equations is also recorded.

  8. Las Webquest en la docencia universitaria: aprendizaje colaborativo con LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Holgado Sáez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las WebQuest son un recurso didáctico basado en el aprendizaje constructivista y en la metodología colaborativa que está teniendo mucho éxito en las etapas de Infantil, Primaria y Secundaria. En el presente artículo pretendemos ofrecer una propuesta de utilización de este recurso en la etapa universitaria con LAMS -Sistema de Control de Actividades de Aprendizaje- a través de entornos virtuales de aprendizaje, como Moodle.

  9. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  10. Removal of nitrobenzene from aqueous solution by a novel lipoid adsorption material (LAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Qinxue [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); Chen, Zhiqiang, E-mail: czq0521@tom.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); Lian, Jiaxiang; Feng, Yujie; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized a novel adsorbent-lipoid adsorption material (LAM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the adsorption behavior isotherms of nitrobenzene on LAM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the adsorption kinetics of nitrobenzene on LAM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proved that the reaction is spontaneous and is an exothermic reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal efficiency of LAM was higher than that of GAC. - Abstract: In this study, a novel adsorbent referred to as a lipoid adsorption material (LAM) was synthesized with a hydrophobic nucleolus (triolein) and hydrophilic membrane structure (polyamide). The LAM was applied to the adsorption and removal of nitrobenzene from aqueous systems. Experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption behavior of nitrobenzene on LAM, including the development of adsorption isotherms, the determination of adsorption kinetics, and to explore the influence of adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and the initial concentration of nitrobenzene on adsorption. The performance of LAM was compared with equal amounts of granular activated carbon (GAC) for adsorption. The adsorption isotherms for LAM were found to be described by the Linear equation, while the adsorption isotherms for granular activated carbon (GAC) were described by the Freundlich equation. Results indicated that the adsorption of nitrobenzene by LAM occurred mainly due to the partition function caused by the triolein nucleolus. Two kinetics models, pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were used to fit the experimental data for LAM adsorption. By comparing the correlation coefficients, it was found that the pseudo-first-order model was most suitable to describe the adsorption of nitrobenzene on LAM. The results also indicated that the factors that affect the adsorption rate would be either the nitrobenzene concentration or the character of the adsorbent

  11. Effects of desiccation on temperate recalcitrant seeds: differential scanning calorimetry, gas chromatography, electron microscopy, and moisture studies on Quercus nigra and Quercus alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.F. Connor; F.T. Bonner; J.A Vozzo

    1996-01-01

    Investigations into the nature of desiccation-sensitive, or recalcitrant, seed behavior have as yet failed to identify exact causes of this phenomenon. Experiments with Quercus nigra L. and Quercus alba L. were conducted to examine physiological and biochemical changes brought about by seed desiccation and to determine if there...

  12. Extracellular polysaccharidases synthesized by the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, E; Orus, M I; Estevez, M P

    1984-03-01

    Evernia prunastri Ach., an epiphytic lichen growing on Quercus rotundifolia Lam., produces a β-1,4-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and a polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15). The activity of these polysaccharidases increases as a response to incubation of the lichen with carboxymethylcellulose or sodium polygalacturonate, respectively. This increase in activity is thought to be the result of enzyme induction because it is inhibited by both cycloheximide and 8-azaguanine. Both polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are partially secreted into the incubation media.

  13. Morphological Response of Eight Quercus Species to Simulated Wind Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tonggui; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Geoff G; Yu, Mukui

    Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (Pwind load, such as bigger leaf thickness, larger stem diameter, allocation to root biomass, and smaller stem height (Pwind can reduce drag and increase the mechanical strength of the tree. Leaf dissection index (LDI), an important index of leaf shape, was correlated with morphological response to wind load (Pwind load.

  14. SSR markers for Quercus suber tree identification and embryo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; Pintos, B; Aguiriano, E; Manzanera, J A; Bueno, M A

    2001-01-01

    Three Quercus simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from nuclear DNA extracts of trees and in vitro-induced haploid embryos from anther cultures of Quercus suber L. These markers were sufficiently polymorphic to identify 10 of 12 trees located in two Spanish natural areas. The same loci have been analyzed in anther-derived haploid embryos showing the parental tree allele segregation. All the alleles were present in the haploid progeny. The presence of diverse alleles in embryos derived from the same anther demonstrated that they were induced on multiple microspores or pollen grains and they were not clonally propagated. Also, diploid cultures and mixtures of haploid-diploid tissues were obtained. The origin of such cultures, either somatic or gametic, was elucidated by SSR markers. All the embryos showed only one allele, corroborating a haploid origin. Allelic composition of the haploid progeny permitted parental identification among all analyzed trees.

  15. Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings acclimate to elevated

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Leaf gas-exchange, leaf and shoot anatomy, wood density and hydraulic conductivity were investigated in seedlings of Quercus suber L. grown for 15 months either at elevated (700 lmol mol-1) or normal (350 lmol mol-1) ambient atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Plants were grown in greenhouses in a controlled environment: relative humidity 50% (±5), temperature similar to external temperature and natural light conditions. Plants were supplied with nutrients and two water re...

  16. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragunathan Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV, and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

  17. Ladder Operators for Lamé Spheroconal Harmonic Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Méndez-Fragoso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of ladder operators in spheroconal coordinates and their respective actions on Lamé spheroconal harmonic polynomials are presented in this article. The polynomials are common eigenfunctions of the square of the angular momentum operator and of the asymmetry distribution Hamiltonian for the rotations of asymmetric molecules, in the body-fixed frame with principal axes. The first set of operators for Lamé polynomials of a given species and a fixed value of the square of the angular momentum raise and lower and lower and raise in complementary ways the quantum numbers $n_1$ and $n_2$ counting the respective nodal elliptical cones. The second set of operators consisting of the cartesian components $hat L_x$, $hat L_y$, $hat L_z$ of the angular momentum connect pairs of the four species of polynomials of a chosen kind and angular momentum. The third set of operators, the cartesian components $hat p_x$, $hat p_y$, $hat p_z$ of the linear momentum, connect pairs of the polynomials differing in one unit in their angular momentum and in their parities. Relationships among spheroconal harmonics at the levels of the three sets of operators are illustrated.

  18. Morphological Response of Eight Quercus Species to Simulated Wind Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Geoff G.; Yu, Mukui

    2016-01-01

    Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (PSLA), stem base diameter and stem height under windy conditions when compared to the control. The Quercus trees with leaves characterized by lanceolate or sinuous edges, showed positive morphological responses to wind load, such as bigger leaf thickness, larger stem diameter, allocation to root biomass, and smaller stem height (PSLA, in stem base diameter and in allocation to root biomass. These results suggest that trees with higher LDI, such as those with more and/or deeper lobes, are better adapted to wind load. PMID:27662594

  19. Dynamics of Long-lived Foundation Species: The History of Quercus in Southern Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, David Russell; Lindbladh, Matts

    2010-01-01

    (1) The long-term history of Quercus in southern Scandinavia has received little attention despite its important role in modern conservation. In this study the 4000-year dynamics of Quercus, its habitat and other important taxa were analysed with pollen data from 25 small hollows and 6 regional sites across southern Scandinavia. The aim was to provide a context for understanding the species’ current status and managing its future dynamics. (2) The results indicate that Quercus is much less ab...

  20. Effect of tannins from Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khennouf, Seddik; Benabdallah, Hassiba; Gharzouli, Kamel; Amira, Smain; Ito, Hideyuki; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoshida, Takashi; Gharzouli, Akila

    2003-02-26

    The gastroprotective effects of 70% acetone extracts of Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves and of tannins (pedunculagin, castalagin, phillyraeoidin A, and acutissimin B) purified from these extracts were examined in the mouse using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Both extracts (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), given orally, prevented the formation of ethanol-induced lesions in the stomach. The percent protection varied between 68 and 91%. Purified tannins (50 mg/kg) were also effective in protecting the stomach against ethanol, and the percent protection varied from 66 to 83%. Castalagin was the most potent. Both extracts and all of the tannins tested (10, 25, and 50 microg/mL) strongly inhibited (55-65%) the lipid peroxidation of rabbit brain homogenate. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effects of extracts of Q. suber and Q. coccifera leaves and the purified tannins in this experimental model are related to their anti-lipoperoxidant properties.

  1. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  2. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Rocha, Juliana C.B.; Mello, Joao C.P. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: mello@uem.br; Almeida, Glalber C. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 {mu}L and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Sharma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera tree is known as a Miracle tree as almost every part of this tree possesses product useful for humans. The leaves and pods are eaten. The plant is also reported to be medicinally important and almost all parts of the Moringa oleifera tree are considered to possess medicinal properties and are used in the treatment of ascites, rheumatism and venomous bites and as cardiac and circulatory stimulant Leaves are also known to have anti-oxidant properties and are known to cures hallucinations, dry tumors, hiccups and asthma. The root and bark are useful in treatment of heart complaints, eye diseases, inflammation, dyspepsia and enlargement of spleen. In Present study the antimicrobial activity was investigated by employing main model Kirby-bauer disc diffusion method. The results showed that 50% ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf have very little antibacterial activity and it shows mild inhibitory activity at high concentration of extract of Moringa oleifera.

  4. A new tigliane-type diterpene from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lin-Feng; Liang, Qian; Liu, Tie; He, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Wen-Hui

    2016-07-01

    One new tigliane-type diterpene, 4-deoxy-4(β)H-8-hydroperoxyphorbol-12-benzoate-13-isobutyrate (1), together with two known diterpenoids, 3-acetyl-5,8-dibenzoyl-14α-propanoyl-13,17-epoxy-7-myrsinaone diterpene with C9-C10 cyclised to form an additional lactone ring (2), Euphodendriane A (3) have been isolated from the whole plants of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (NMR and HR-ESI-MS) and comparison with data reported in the literature. This is the first isolation of 8-hydroperoxy tigliane diterpene (1) from the genus of Euphorbia. All compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activities.

  5. Analysis of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patent tomograms: Stereology and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, V.; Wing, G.M.; Winter, L.; Zahrt, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computing, Information, and Communications Div.

    1995-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an insidious disease of young women which attacks the lungs and if untreated results in death. Treatment is radical. Currently a woman diagnosed as having LAM (usually by computed tomography (CT) of the lung) is run through an exhausting set of tests and exercises to determine the extent of the disease. Image processing techniques have been able to quantify the tomograms by providing a histogram of the number of cyst intercepts of a given area. The images are digital, so the data are discrete, and the areas are in terms of square pixels. It is hoped that by analyzing the data and by recovering the probability density of the cysts themselves one can provide a set of parameters that will aid in the early diagnosis of the disease and that will correlate well with the physiology. The desire to invert the data, that is to determine the probability density of the cysts from the probability density of the circular intersections of the cysts with the tomographic plane, led to a re-examination of the Wicksell equation. In Section 2, the authors transform Wicksell`s equation in diameter (a generalized Abel equation) into an equation in areas (the original Abel equation). In Section 3 they present the adjoint equation in several equivalent forms. Analytic solutions of the adjoint equation necessary for later use are developed in Section 4. Outside of the framework of integral equations they have done some modeling of the data. They find that, to a very high degree of reliability, the data follows a simple power law. The distribution of spheres likewise follows a simple power law. These considerations are given in Section 5. Then in Section 6 they explore the exponential model as an alternative. Section 7 solves the Wicksell equation and uses the Golberg device, via the adjoint, to solve a related problem. They finally get to the number of cysts and their average size in Section 8. Their conclusions are in Section 9.

  6. Genetic dissection of a TIR-NB-LRR locus from the wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia identifies paralogous genes conferring resistance to major fungal and oomycete pathogens in cultivated grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feechan, Angela; Anderson, Claire; Torregrosa, Laurent; Jermakow, Angelica; Mestre, Pere; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Walker, Amanda R; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce; Aubourg, Sebastien; Bentahar, Nadia; Shrestha, Bipna; Bouquet, Alain; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Thomas, Mark R; Dry, Ian B

    2013-11-01

    The most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete pathogen downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). Currently, grapegrowers rely heavily on the use of agrochemicals to minimize the potentially devastating impact of these pathogens on grape yield and quality. The wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia was recognized as early as 1889 to be resistant to both powdery and downy mildew. We have now mapped resistance to these two mildew pathogens in M. rotundifolia to a single locus on chromosome 12 that contains a family of seven TIR-NB-LRR genes. We further demonstrate that two highly homologous (86% amino acid identity) members of this gene family confer strong resistance to these unrelated pathogens following genetic transformation into susceptible Vitis vinifera winegrape cultivars. These two genes, designated resistance to Uncinula necator (MrRUN1) and resistance to Plasmopara viticola (MrRPV1) are the first resistance genes to be cloned from a grapevine species. Both MrRUN1 and MrRPV1 were found to confer resistance to multiple powdery and downy mildew isolates from France, North America and Australia; however, a single powdery mildew isolate collected from the south-eastern region of North America, to which M. rotundifolia is native, was capable of breaking MrRUN1-mediated resistance. Comparisons of gene organization and coding sequences between M. rotundifolia and the cultivated grapevine V. vinifera at the MrRUN1/MrRPV1 locus revealed a high level of synteny, suggesting that the TIR-NB-LRR genes at this locus share a common ancestor. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A quantitative proteomic approach to identify significantly altered protein networks in the serum of patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nessa Banville

    Full Text Available Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM is a rare and progressive cystic lung condition affecting approximately 3.4-7.5/million women, with an average lag time between symptom onset and diagnosis of upwards of 4 years. The aim of this work was to identify altered proteins in LAM serum which may be potential biomarkers of disease. Serum from LAM patient volunteers and healthy control volunteers were pooled and analysis carried out using quantitative 4-plex iTRAQ technology. Differentially expressed proteins were validated using ELISAs and pathway analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Fourteen proteins were differentially expressed in LAM serum compared to control serum (p<0.05. Further screening validated the observed differences in extracellular matrix remodelling proteins including fibronectin (30% decrease in LAM, p = 0.03, von Willebrand Factor (40% reduction in LAM, p = 0.03 and Kallikrein III (25% increase in LAM, p = 0.03. Pathway networks elucidated the relationships between the ECM and cell trafficking in LAM. This study was the first to highlight an imbalance in networks important for remodelling in LAM, providing a set of novel potential biomarkers. These understandings may lead to a new effective treatment for LAM in the future.

  8. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments...

  9. Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module (R-LAM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R-LAM (Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module), promises a new generation of both integrated navigation modules and stand-alone navigation subsystems including...

  10. Walk1916: Exploring how a mobile walking tour app can provide value for LAMs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cushing, Amber L; Cowan, Benjamin R

    2016-01-01

    ... institutional measures of impact. Understanding the ways in which users value a mobile app that integrates digital collections with a walking tour allows LAMs to develop best practices for use of such tools associated...

  11. Structure of corylifuran: a clerodane-type diterpene from Croton corylifolius Lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, B.A. (Univ. of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica); Chan, W.R.; Prince, E.C.; Manchand, P.S.; Eickman, N.; Clardy, J.

    1976-01-01

    The structure and stereochemistry of corylifuran, a clerodane-type diterpene from Croton corylifolius Lam, have been determined as 2 by chemical and spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  12. The Quercus feeding Stigmella species of the West Palaearctic: new species, key and distribution (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Johansson, R.

    2003-01-01

    The species of the Stigmella ruficapitella group occurring in the Western Palaearctic and feeding on Quercus are reviewed. We recognise 19 species, five of which are described as new: Stigmella fasciata sp. n. on Quercus pubescens from Slovenia, Croatia, Greece and Turkey, S. cocciferae sp. n. on Q.

  13. Improved genetic transformation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernández, Rubén; Ordás, Ricardo-Javier

    2012-01-01

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for selected mature Quercus suber L. trees has been established. Leaf-derived somatic embryos in an early stage of development are inoculated with an AGL1 strain harboring a kanamycin-selectable plasmid carrying the gene of interest. The transformed embryos are induced to germinate and the plantlets transferred to soil. This protocol, from adult cork oak to transformed plantlet, can be completed in about one and a half years. Transformation efficiencies (i.e., percentage of inoculated explants that yield independent transgenic embryogenic lines) vary depending on the cork oak genotype, reaching up to 43%.

  14. Moringa oleifera Lam. improves lipid metabolism during adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, I; Vanella, L; Distefano, A; Nicolosi, D; Maravigna, A; Lazzarino, G; Di Rosa, M; Tibullo, D; Acquaviva, R; Li Volti, G

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including inflammation, cancer and metabolic disorders. We investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism and cellular antioxidant systems. We showed that Moringa oleifera Lam. treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α). In addition, Moringa oleifera Lam. induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a well established protective and antioxidant enzyme. Finally Moringa oleifera Lam. significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that Moringa oleifera Lam. may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis.

  15. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  16. STANDARDIZATION AND CONTAMINATION STUDIES ON NUTGALLS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drug consists of nutgalls of Quercus infectoria (Family-Fagaceae, commonly known as “Mazuphal”. Standardization parameters like, physical constants, ash content, solvent residues, phytochemical screening, fluorescence and microscopical analysis were carried out for the quality, strength and purity of the drug. The present work is an also attempt to evaluate contamination parameters for safety of an herbal drug Quercus infectoria such as microbial contamination, aflatoxins, pesticide residues and heavy metals. Result revealed that the total ash content and acid insoluble siliceous matter were found 2.11% and 0.22% respectively in the drug. The extractive values were varies at different solvent at different condition. Loss on drying and pH at 25(ºC were 9.97 and 6.1 respectively. Study revealed that total bacterial count and total fungal count were found to be within the permissible limit. Heavy metal like cadmium and mercury were not detected in the drug but arsenic (0.31 mg/kg and lead (0.70 mg/kg were found under permissible limit. Pesticide residue such as o, p- DDD, p, p- DDD, o p- DDE, p, p- DDE, o, p- DDT, p, p- DDT, α- Endosulfan, β – Endosulfan, Parathion, α- HCH, β- HCH, γ- HCH, δ- HCH was absent in the nutgalls.

  17. Myxomycetes from the bark of the evergreen oak Quercus ilex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrigley de Basanta, Diana

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of 81 moist chamber cultures of bark from living Quercus ilex trees are reponed. A total of 37 taxa are cited, extending the number of species found on this substrate to 55. The presence of Licea deplanata on the Iberian Península is confirmed. Seven new records are included for the province of Madrid. Some data are contributed on species frequency and incubation times.Se presentan los resultados de 81 cultivos en cámara húmeda de corteza de Quercus ilex vivo. Se citan 37 táxones, que amplían a 55 el número de especies de mixomicetes encontrados sobre este sustrato. Se confirma la presencia en la Península Ibérica de Licea deplanata, y se incluyen siete nuevas citas para la provincia de Madrid. Se aportan datos sobre frecuencia de aparición y tiempos de incubación de algunas especies.

  18. Vulnerability of Quercus ilex facing increasing drought: which functional adjustments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rambal, Serge; Misson, Laurent; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rocheteau, Alain; Rodriguez, Raquel

    2010-05-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, precipitation is expected to decline as a consequence of climate change, and so will induce summer drought duration and intensity increase. The responses of a Quercus ilex coppice to such a decline in water availability were studied for several years within a throughfall exclusion experiment. This study focuses on the ecophysiological and morphological responses that modify transpiration and productivity. The main mechanisms regulating transpiration under decreasing water availability were assessed: stomatal control, twig and stem hydraulic conductance and leaf area adjustment. The decline of transpiration due to the reduced water availability was mainly driven by a reduced leaf area. In the meantime, other hydraulic traits were not significantly modified by the increased drought severity. The phenotypic plasticity of Quercus ilex leaves yielded some modifications of leaf traits, but with slight concurrent consequences on leaf photosynthesis. The decreased water availability reduced carbon assimilation and, in turn, the primary growth and the starch storage of trees. Finally, none of the several adjustments to the long-term experimentally increased drought was observed to reduce the individual vulnerability to water stress.

  19. Allozymes Genetic Diversity of Quercus mongolica Fisch in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenying; GU Wanchun

    2006-01-01

    A gel electrophoresis method was used to study the genetic diversity of 8 Quercus mongolica populations throughout its range in China.Eleven of 21 loci from 13 enzymes assayed were polymorphic.Q.mongolica maintained low level of genetic variation compared with the average Quercus species.At the species level,: the mean number of alleles per locus (A) was 1.905, the percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 52.38%, the observed heterozygosity (He) was 0.092 and the expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.099.At the population level, the estimates were A =1.421, P =28.976%, Ho= 0.088, He =0.085.Genetic differentiation (Gst was high among populations, it was 0.107.According to the UPGMA cluster analysis based on the genetic distance, 4 populations located in northeast and 2 populations in southwest of the geographical distribution are classified into 2 subgroups, but there was no clear relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance among populations.The low level of genetic diversity of Q.mongolica might be related to the long-term exploitation as economic tree species in history are comparatively seriously disturbed and damaged by human beings, and most of the existing stands are secondary forests.

  20. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.: Phytochemical and pharmacological profile : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjoo Kamboj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (Crassulaceae is a perennial herb growing widely and used in folkloric medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China, and Australia. The divine herb contains a wide range of active compounds, including alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, bufadienolides, lipids and organic acids, have been isolated from this species. The plant is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of ailments and well known for its haemostatic and wound healing properties. The pharmacological studies are reviewed and discussed, focussing on that different extracts from this plant have been found to possess pharmacological activities as immunomodulator, CNS depressant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antianaphylactic, antileishmanial, antitumorous, antiulcerous, antibacterial, antifungal, antihistamine, antiviral, febrifuge, gastroprotective, immunosuppressive, insecticidal, muscle relaxant, sedative. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies and also on clinical trials in order to confirm traditional wisdom in the light of a rational phytotherapy. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethnopharmacological and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of B. pinnatum and to discuss them.

  1. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant' Anna, Carlos M.R., E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  2. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF IPOMOEA BATATAS (L. LAM. DURING DROUGHT STRESS

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    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in the world is desertification so we must to know physiological responses and morphological adaptations from species with tolerance to drought stress. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. is one of the most important crops of the world, especially because of its great tolerance to drought stress. Hence, we decided to know what morphophysiological and metabolic responses has I. batatas under drought stress. So, we got cuttings of variety INA-100, from INIA Huaral, and were planted in 22 recipients of 4 L with substrate consisting in a mixing of sand and humus (3:1. Half of them were irrigated monthly and other half only receives water to establish plants and no more after that. We measured transpiration, histological changes in leaves and metabolic changes at protein and starch level. We confirmed transpiration is not affected for air humidity or substrate humidity. But, the effect of drought can be better observed in foliage growth, therefore in histological changes in leaves. No significance in concentration of proteins but significance in carbohydrates concentration shows an osmotic regulation in order to maintain stomata open and also an increase in photosynthetic activity in stressed plants.

  3. New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam

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    Mohammad Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1, n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2, 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3, 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4 and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5 along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6 and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ-α-D-glucopyranoside (7. The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future.

  4. Cytotoxic murine monoclonal antibody LAM8 with specificity for human small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, R A; O'Hara, C J; Mabry, M; Waibel, R; Sabbath, K; Speak, J A; Bernal, S D

    1986-04-01

    The reactivity of the murine immunoglobulin monoclonal antibody LAM8 directed against a membrane antigen of human small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung was investigated on human cell lines and tissues. Indirect immunofluorescence staining, radioimmunoassays, and cytotoxicity assays showed LAM8 antibody to selectively react with SCC but not with non-SCC lung cancer cell lines and extrapulmonary tumor cell lines. Unlike other SCC antibodies, including those we have previously described, highly preferential reactivity with SCC tissues was also demonstrated by immunoperoxidase staining of deparaffinized formalin-fixed tissue sections. Membrane and cytoplasmic staining was seen in of 9 of 12 SCC tissues. No significant staining was seen in non-SCC lung cancer and a wide range of other tumors, including mesothelioma and bronchial carcinoids. Significant LAM8 reactivity was also absent in normal tissues of all major organs. Few tumors and epithelial tissues, including bronchial epithelium had rare LAM8 positive cells which were always less than 2% of the entire cell population. In vitro treatment with antibody and human complement was highly cytotoxic to SCC cells, but had not effect on bone marrow progenitor cells. Immunoblotting of membrane extracts separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels showed the LAM8 antigen to have a band of an approximate molecular weight of 135,000 and a cluster of bands with approximate molecular weights of 90,000. This reactivity was lost after incubation of the extracts with periodate. LAM8 antibody shows a highly preferential reactivity with SCC cell lines and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded SCC tissues and is selectively cytotoxic to cells expressing LAM8 antigen.

  5. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

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    C. Q. Tang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  6. Atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz Antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz

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    D.C. Braz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz pertence a família Crassulaceae e é conhecida vulgarmente como coirama, folha-da-fortuna, ou folha-do-ar, sendo usada popularmente como antifúngico, no tratamento da hipertensão, em úlceras e em inflamações. O presente estudo objetivou analisar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz em modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por indometacina em Rattus norvegicus, machos (150 a 250 g com idade de 70 dias. Os animais receberam por via oral: água, extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (1 e 2 g Kg-1 ou ranitidina (60 mg Kg-1 , fármaco com ação gastroprotetora conhecida que atua bloqueando os receptores de histamina H2. Após uma hora dos tratamentos, todos animais receberam indometacina via intraperitoneal. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz possui ação gastroprotetora; na dose de 1 g Kg-1 inibiu 45,49% o índice de ulceração induzido pela indometacina, e, na dose de 2 g Kg-1, inibiu 49,50%. Sugere-se o envolvimento de vários mecanismos na ação gastroprotetora dessa planta e não somente uma possível participação das prostaglandinas nesse efeito. Estudos futuros com diferentes modelos de indução de úlcera gástrica tornam-se necessários para melhor avaliar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz belongs to the family Crassulaceae, is popularly known as "coirama", "folha-da-fortuna", or "folha-do-ar" and has been commonly used as antifungal, in the treatment of hypertension, ulcers and inflammation. The present study aimed to analyze the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in Rattus norvegicus, males (150-250 g aged 70 days old. The animals received by the oral route: water, aqueous extract from

  7. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of two Algerian Mentha species M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds, M. pulegium L., extracted with different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Fatiha; Dahmoune, Farid; Kadri, Nabil; Chibane, Mohmed; Dairi, Soufiane; Remini, Hocine; Oukmanou-Bensidhoum, Sonia; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2017-07-08

    Background It is important to consider the optimum conditions and processing factors (like solvent type) influencing activity of plant antioxidants for utilization in food and biological systems. Methods The antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of two Mentha species, namely, Mentha pulegium L. (MP) and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds (MR), were studied and six solvent systems were used. The total antioxidant capacity of the mint species extracts was evaluated using phosphomolybdenum method and the free radical-scavenging capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay. Results The efficiency of the used solvents to extract phenols from the two species varied considerably. The highest total phenolic content was obtained from methanol extract of MP (25.3±1.3 mg GAE/gdw) and total flavonoid content from methanol extract of MR (10.1±0.1 mg QE/gdw). High phenol content was significantly correlated with high antioxidant capacity. The methanol extracts showed the highest radical scavenging activity. All the extracts showed variable antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex. Acetone extract of MP and methanol extract of MR exhibited marked reducing power in this method. Conclusions Our findings identified the appropriate solvent for extracting MP and MR phenolics which might provide a rich source of natural antioxidants.

  8. Optimalisation of expression conditions for production of round-leaf sundew chitinase (Drosera rotundifolia L. in three E. coli expression strains

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    Miroslav Rajninec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L., family Droseraceae, genus Drosera, is one of a few plant species with a strong antifungal potential. Chitinases of carnivorous plants play an important role in decomposition of chitin-containing cell structures of insect prey. The cell wall of many phytopathogenic fungi also contains chitin, which can be utilized by chitinases, thus round-leaf sundew represents an interesting gene source for plant biotechnology. The purpose of this study was to compare the suitability of 3 different E. coli expression strains (E. coli BL21- CodonPlus® (DE3-RIPL, E. coli ArcticExpress (DE3RIL and E. coli SHuffle® T7 for production and isolation of heterologous round-leaf sundew chitinase (DrChit. Results showed that the recombinant protein was successfully expressed in all three strains, but occurred in insoluble protein fraction. To get the DrChit protein into soluble protein fraction some modifications concerning to induction temperatures and concentration of the IPTG inductor were tested. In addition, composition of lysis buffer has been modified with supplementation of strong non-ionic detergents, Triton® X100 and Tween® 20, respectively. As these modifications didn’t increase the amount of the DrChit protein in soluble fraction, therefore, its isolation under denaturing conditions and subsequent refolding for activity assays is recommended.

  9. Catalytic Rapid Pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis over Nanoporous Catalysts

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    Hyeon Koo Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic rapid pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis, a Korean native tree species, was carried out using Py-GC/MS. Mesoporous MFI, which has both nanopores and micropores, and three nanoporous materials, Al-MCM-41, Al-SBA-15, and γ-Al2O3, were used as the catalyst. The acid sites of mesoporous MFI were strong Brønsted acid sites, whereas those of nanoporous materials were mostly weak acid sites. The composition of the product bio-oil varied greatly depending on the acid characteristics of the catalyst used. Phenolics were the most abundant species in the bio-oil, followed by acids and furanics, obtained over Al-MCM-41 or Al-SBA-15 with weak acid sites, whereas aromatics were the most abundant species produced over mesoporous MFI with strong acid sites, followed by phenolics. Aromatics, phenolics, and furanics are all important chemicals contributing to the improvement of bio-oil quality.

  10. Antimutagenicity of a suberin extract from Quercus suber cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizková, L; Lopes, M H; Polónyi, J; Belicová, A; Dobias, J; Ebringer, L

    1999-12-13

    The possible protective effect of a suberin extract from Quercus suber cork on acridine orange (AO)-, ofloxacin- and UV radiation-induced mutagenicity (bleaching activity) in Euglena gracilis was examined. To our knowledge, the present results are the first attempt to analyse suberin in relation to mutagenicity of some chemicals. Suberin exhibits a significant dose-dependent protective effect against AO-induced mutagenicity and the concentration of 500 micrograms/ml completely eliminates the Euglena-bleaching activity of AO. The mutagenicity of ofloxacin is also significantly reduced in the presence of suberin (125, 250 and 500 micrograms/ml). However, the moderate protective effect of suberin on UV radiation-induced mutagenicity was observed only at concentrations 500 and 1000 micrograms/ml. Our data shows that suberin extract from Q. suber cork possess antimutagenic properties and can be included in the group of natural antimutagens acting in a desmutagenic manner.

  11. Resprouting of Quercus suber in NE Spain after fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausas, J.G. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, Valencia (Spain)

    1997-11-01

    Many Mediterranean species have evolved strategies that allow them to survive periodic wildfires. Quercus suber trees resprout after fire, some from stem buds and others from basal buds only. In the former case the canopy recovers quickly. In the latter case the stem dies but the tree survives and regrows from basal sprouts. The probability of stem death and the degree of height recovery were studied after a fire in a Q. suber forest in NE Spain using logistic regression analysis. The results suggest that most trees survive after fire; the probability of stem death is negatively related to tree diameter; and recovery is positively related to tree diameter and to bark thickness. Implication for management and conservation of cork-oak forests are discussed 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of Oak wood ( Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis): optimization of the processing parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Rim; Azzouz, Soufien; Remond, Romain; Ouertani, Sahbi; Elaieb, Mohamed Taher; El Cafci, Mohamed Afif

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the moisture desorption isotherms and essentials thermodynamic properties of two Oak wood varieties. Desorption isotherms were measured using a static gravimetric method at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C within the range of 5-90 % relative humidity. The equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature and decreased with decreasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. The `Thermodynamic' sorption equation was found to be the best for describing the experimental moisture sorption isotherms of woods within the range of temperature and water activity investigated. The Fiber saturation point, deduced from the `Thermodynamic' model parameters, depends on the temperature and varying from 22.6 to 54.4 (% kg water/kg dry matter). Isosteric heat of desorption and differential entropy were calculated by applying Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the desorption data fitted by the `Thermodynamic' model. The isosteric heat of desorption and the differential entropy decreased with increasing moisture content according to an exponential law equation and varying from 2.03 to 31.14 kJ/mol and from 73.98 to 4.34 J/(mol K), respectively. The linear relationship between differential enthalpy and entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The sign of Gibbs free energy was found to be positive (+283 J/mol) and (+97 J/mol) for Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis, respectively. The isokinetic temperature was found to be greater than the harmonic temperature. Based on the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory, it could be concluded that the moisture desorption isotherm of Oak wood is a non-spontaneous and enthalpy-controlled process.

  13. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of Oak wood (Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis): optimization of the processing parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Rim; Azzouz, Soufien; Remond, Romain; Ouertani, Sahbi; Elaieb, Mohamed Taher; El Cafci, Mohamed Afif

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the moisture desorption isotherms and essentials thermodynamic properties of two Oak wood varieties. Desorption isotherms were measured using a static gravimetric method at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C within the range of 5-90 % relative humidity. The equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature and decreased with decreasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. The `Thermodynamic' sorption equation was found to be the best for describing the experimental moisture sorption isotherms of woods within the range of temperature and water activity investigated. The Fiber saturation point, deduced from the `Thermodynamic' model parameters, depends on the temperature and varying from 22.6 to 54.4 (% kg water/kg dry matter). Isosteric heat of desorption and differential entropy were calculated by applying Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the desorption data fitted by the `Thermodynamic' model. The isosteric heat of desorption and the differential entropy decreased with increasing moisture content according to an exponential law equation and varying from 2.03 to 31.14 kJ/mol and from 73.98 to 4.34 J/(mol K), respectively. The linear relationship between differential enthalpy and entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The sign of Gibbs free energy was found to be positive (+283 J/mol) and (+97 J/mol) for Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis, respectively. The isokinetic temperature was found to be greater than the harmonic temperature. Based on the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory, it could be concluded that the moisture desorption isotherm of Oak wood is a non-spontaneous and enthalpy-controlled process.

  14. Seasonal dynamics of secondary growth and xylem anatomy in two coexisting Mediterranean Quercus; Dinamica estacional del crecimiento secundario y anatomia del xilema en dos Quercus mediterraneos que coexisten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuixech, J.; Camarero, J. J.; Montserrat-Marti, G.

    2012-11-01

    The contribution of secondary growth's patterns and wood anatomy on the coexistence of two species of Quercus (Quercus ilex subsp ballota diffused porous wood and Quercus faginea ring porous wood) were studied in a location with continental Mediterranean climate, which has been studied during two years with contrasted climatology. According to our results secondary growth pattern of Q. faginea is concentrated in the spring, starting before, and responding more than Q. ilex to a rainfall increase during this period. Q. ilex extends wood formation into the fall and late summer growth. Q. ilex growth during the fall and late summer has a greater importance in terms of theoretical hydraulic conductivity than in Q. faginea, which concentrates hydraulic conductivity in spring vessels. Therefore, different response of wood phenology formation and xylem anatomy in both species to the seasonal pattern of precipitation could contribute to explain the coexistence of Q. ilex and Q. faginea. (Author) 48 refs.

  15. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE MORINGA (Moringa oleifera Lam SOB OMISSÃO DE NUTRIENTES

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    Hugo Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam is a leguminous species well adapted to arid and semi arid conditions and is largely used as ornamental for parks and gardens in the animal feeding and human diet and as medicinal. Since research informations on this plant species are scarce, the current work aimed to evaluate the production of leaves, stems and roots dry matter in Moringa oleifera Lam seedlings hidroponicaly grown under physiological conditions or not. The treatments used were the following: (1 nutrient solution containing all required macronutrients (experimental control or lacking (2 N; (3 P; (4 K; (5 Ca; (6 Mg and (7 S. The Moringa oleifera Lam showed different responses to the imposed treatments. Nutrient solution free of N, P and Mg decreased whole dry matter production (WDM and increased root to shoot ratios (R/S, however both parameters were not affected in plants grown under absence of K, Ca and S in the nutrient solution.

  16. Temperature compensation of silicon Lamé resonators using etch holes: theory and design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschi, Luca; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Pieri, Francesco

    2017-02-09

    We present a new approach to the temperature compensation of MEMS Lamé resonators, based on the combined effect of the doping concentration and of the geometry of etch holes on the equivalent temperature coefficients of silicon. To this purpose, we develop and validate an analytical model which describes the effect of etch holes on the temperature stability of Lamé resonators through comparison with experiments available in the literature and FEM simulations. We show that two interesting regions of the design space for Lamé resonators exist, where a cancellation of the first-order temperature coefficient of the resonance frequency is possible: [100]-oriented silicon with n-doping of 2.5∙1019 cm-3, and [110]-oriented silicon with p-doping higher than 1.4∙1020 cm-3.

  17. Bacteriophage lambda receptor site on the Escherichia coli K-12 LamB protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, K; Charbit, A; Brissaud, E; Hofnung, M

    1987-05-01

    We have analyzed eight new phage-resistant missense mutations in lamB. These mutations identify five new amino acid residues essential for phage lambda adsorption. Two mutations at positions 245 and 382 affect residues which were previously identified, but lead to different amino acid changes. Three mutations at residues 163, 164, and 250 enlarge and confirm previously proposed phage receptor sites. Two different mutations at residue 259 and one at 18 alter residues previously suggested as facing the periplasmic face. The mutation at residue 18 implicates for the first time the amino-terminal region of the LamB protein in phage adsorption. The results are discussed in terms of the topology of the LamB protein.

  18. Tvorba marketingovej stratégie internetového obchodu Quercus

    OpenAIRE

    Krahulcová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on creation of new marketing strategy for company QUERCUS' electronic store. Theoretical part deals with basic concepts of marketing and strategic marketing planning. It further introduces marketing mix specifics on the internet, basic aspects of electronic commerce and consumer behavior on internet. Practical part includes introduction of company QUERCUS, e-shop SWOT analysis, brief characteristic of current marketing strategy and finally proposal of new marketing s...

  19. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae Leaf morphoanatomy of Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae

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    A.M Donato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. são usadas na medicina popular como hipoglicemiantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfológica e anatomicamente as folhas desta planta, de modo que os dados obtidos possam ser utilizados como referência em exames de controle de qualidade de amostras de fármacos, com vistas a verificar a autenticidade. Folhas inteiras foram diafanizadas e coradas para o estudo da nervação. Secções transversais do pecíolo e transversais e paradérmicas da lâmina foliar foram analisadas em microscópio óptico (MO e a superfície do limbo foi observada, também, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Foram aplicados testes histoquímicos em material fresco, para identificação e localização de glicídios, amido, taninos, lignina, cristais e sílica. Morfologicamente, a folha é simples, oval-elíptica, com margem inteira, base aguda, ápice acuminado e textura cartácea. A venação é do tipo camptódromo-broquidódromo. Anatomicamente, a folha é hipostomática, com mesofilo compacto e dorsiventral, com três estratos de parênquima paliçádico. A epiderme é uniestratificada, silicificada em algumas regiões e as células exibem paredes anticlinais retas. Em posição subepidérmica ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais e acompanhados por séries cristalíferas. Os dados obtidos são comparados com os de outras espécies de Myrtaceae e conclui-se que as características morfológicas e anatômicas de M. multiflora contribuem para a diagnose.Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. leaves have been used in folk medicine as hypoglycemic. The aim of this work is to describe morphoanatomically the leaves of this plant in order to use the obtained data as reference in quality control tests of drug samples, investigating their authenticity. Whole leaves were diaphanized and stained for venation study. Petiole transverse sections and leaf blade

  20. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  1. A limited area model (LAM) intercomparison study of a TWP-ICE active monsoon mesoscale convective event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Dudhia, Jim; Field, Paul R.; Wapler, Kathrin; Fridlind, Ann; Varble, Adam; Zipser, Ed; Petch, Jon; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Zhenduo

    2012-06-01

    A limited area model (LAM) intercomparison study is conducted based on a tropical monsoonal deep convection case observed during the Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE). The LAM simulations are compared with the variational analyses (VA) based on the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) observations and the cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations forced by the VA. Driven by the ECMWF analyses or global model forecasts, LAMs are able to produce the large-scale thermodynamic field reasonably well compared with the VA. However, the LAM simulated dynamic fields, such as the large-scale horizontal divergence, vertical velocity, and cyclogenesis in the monsoonal trough, have a large inter-model spread and deviate substantially from observations. Despite the differences in large-scale forcing, there is certain consistency between the CRM and LAM simulations: stratiform (w ≤ 1 m s-1) ice clouds dominate the cloud fraction and convective (w > 3 m s-1) clouds occupy less than 3 percent of the total cloudy area. But the hydrometeor content of stratiform ice clouds is only one tenth of that of convective and transitional (1 m s-1 < w ≤ 3 m s-1) ice clouds. However, there is a large inter-LAM spread in the simulated cloud fraction and hydrometeor mixing ratios. The inter-LAM difference in solid phase hydrometeors (cloud ice, snow, and graupel) can be up to nearly a factor of 10. Among all the hydrometeor types, the stratiform ice clouds are simulated least consistently by the LAMs. The large inter-LAM spread suggests that obtaining consistent and reliable dynamic and cloud fields remains a challenge for the LAM approach.

  2. Variabilité chimique et intérêt économique des huiles essentielles de deux menthes sauvages : Mentha pulegium (Fliou) et Mentha rotundifolia (Domrane) de l’ouest algérien.

    OpenAIRE

    TAALBI, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Notre travail s’est basé principalement sur une étude de la variabilité chimique et l’intérêt économique des huiles essentielles de deux menthes sauvages de l’ouest algérien: Mentha pulegium et Mentha rotundifolia. Ces deux menthes, largement répandue en Algérie, de la famille des Lamiaceae sont connus dans le monde pour leurs propriétés thérapeutiques (antiseptique, antinévralgique, analgésique…) et l’intérêt économique de leurs huiles essentielles....

  3. Ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia Indole butyric acid on rooting ability of semihardwood cutting of grapevine rootstock 'VR 043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba-PR, no período de dezembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. As concentrações de AIB testadas foram 0; 1.000; 2.000 e 3.000 mg L-1, sendo a base das estacas imersas nas soluções dos reguladores vegetais, durante dez segundos. Após 40 dias em câmara de nebulização, as estacas foram avaliadas. As estacas com maior porcentagem de enraizamento foram aquelas que não receberam tratamento com AIB (92,5%. A porcentagem de estacas mortas aumentou com as concentrações de AIB, e a porcentagem de retenção foliar diminuiu. Houve incremento do número médio de raízes primárias por estacas com as maiores concentrações de AIB, porém as matérias fresca e seca das raízes não diferiram significativamente entre os tratamentos. Conclui-se que o AIB não é necessário para o enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas do porta-enxerto 'VR043-43'.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the indolebutyric acid (IBA on the rooting of semi hardwood cuttings of grapevine rootstock 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia. The experiment was set up at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil, in December/2004 to January/2005. The IBA concentrations were 0; 1,000; 2,000 and 3,000 mg L-1, and the cutting base was dipped in the solution for ten seconds. After 40 days under intermittent mist condition the cuttings were evaluated. The results showed that higher percentage of rooted cuttings was obtained with 0 mg L-1 of IBA (92,5%. The percentage of death cuttings increased with the IBA concentrations and decreased leaf retention. There was an increase in the root number per cutting with the increase of IBA concentrations, but there was no

  4. Micropropagação de porta-enxertos híbridos de Vitis labrusca x Vitis rotundifolia com resistência à pérola-da-terra (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis Hempel, Hemiptera: Margarodidae Micro propagation of hybrids of Vitis labrusca x Vitis rotundifolia rootstocks with resistance to perola-da-terra (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis Hempel, Hemiptera: Margarodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Beatriz Bernd

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A produção homogênea de porta-enxertos resistentes à pérola-da-terra (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis Hempel, Hemiptera: Margarodidae e adaptados à região vitivinícola do Sul do País, pela técnica de micropropagação, poderá vir a atender à demanda do setor produtivo de uva e evitar as perdas causadas pela praga. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um protocolo de micropropagação dos híbridos 1 e 2, que possuem as qualidades genéticas e de vigor desejadas para porta-enxerto, e resistência à pérola-da-terra. A partir de gemas axilares cultivadas em meio Galzy adicionado de 3µM de bezilaminopurina (BAP, foi possível induzir a multibrotação, com um número satisfatório de brotos, passível de ser incrementado por subcultivos sucessivos no mesmo meio de cultura. Os brotos obtidos neste meio e transferidos para o meio de cultura Galzy, adicionado de 8µM.10-3 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA, enraizaram em 100%, superando a dificuldade de enraizamento que em geral tem sido a maior barreira apresentada pela espécie V. rotundifolia e seus híbridos.The homogeneous production of rootstock resistant to perola-da-terra (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis Hempel, Hemiptera: Margarodidae and well adapted to the growth conditions of the main grape growing region of Southern Brazil by the use of the micropropagation technique, may come to solve the demand of the grape productive sector and avoid losses caused by this pest. The objective of this work was to develop a protocol of micro propagation for the hybrids 1 and 2, which have the desired genetic qualities and vigor to be used as rootstock resistant to perola-da-terra. From axillaries buds cultivated in Galzy culture medium with 3µM of BAP, it was possible to induce multiple shooting with a reasonable number of shoots, which may be improved by successive subcultures in the same medium. The shoots were transferred to Galzy culture medium with 8µM.10-3 of NAA and all of them rooted

  5. Microsatellite Primer Development for Post Oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae

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    Warren B. Chatwin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata. This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants.

  6. Mycorrhizas on nursery and field seedlings of Quercus garryana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Darlene; Carrington, Elizabeth M; Frank, Jonathan L; Gould, Peter; Harrington, Connie A; Devine, Warren D

    2009-03-01

    Oak woodland regeneration and restoration requires that seedlings develop mycorrhizas, yet the need for this mutualistic association is often overlooked. In this study, we asked whether Quercus garryana seedlings in nursery beds acquire mycorrhizas without artificial inoculation or access to a mycorrhizal network of other ectomycorrhizal hosts. We also assessed the relationship between mycorrhizal infection and seedling growth in a nursery. Further, we compared the mycorrhizal assemblage of oak nursery seedlings to that of conifer seedlings in the nursery and to that of oak seedlings in nearby oak woodlands. Seedlings were excavated and the roots washed and examined microscopically. Mycorrhizas were identified by DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region and by morphotype. On oak nursery seedlings, predominant mycorrhizas were species of Laccaria and Tuber with single occurrences of Entoloma and Peziza. In adjacent beds, seedlings of Pseudotsuga menziesii were mycorrhizal with Hysterangium and a different species of Laccaria; seedlings of Pinus monticola were mycorrhizal with Geneabea, Tarzetta, and Thelephora. Height of Q. garryana seedlings correlated with root biomass and mycorrhizal abundance. Total mycorrhizal abundance and abundance of Laccaria mycorrhizas significantly predicted seedling height in the nursery. Native oak seedlings from nearby Q. garryana woodlands were mycorrhizal with 13 fungal symbionts, none of which occurred on the nursery seedlings. These results demonstrate the value of mycorrhizas to the growth of oak seedlings. Although seedlings in nursery beds developed mycorrhizas without intentional inoculation, their mycorrhizas differed from and were less species rich than those on native seedlings.

  7. Temperature stress effects in Quercus suber leaf metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Inês; Passarinho, José António P; Capitão, Cláudio; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Fevereiro, Pedro; Ricardo, Cândido P P

    2011-10-15

    Based on projections that climate changes are will intensify in the near future, it is important to understand how plants respond to climate. Consequently, we have been studying the effect of contrasting temperatures on leaf metabolism of Quercus suber, an important Mediterranean oak. Potted plants were grown under controlled conditions for 53 days at 28°C or 10°C. The accumulation of major soluble metabolites was analyzed by NMR. The relative levels of transcripts of genes encoding key enzymes of the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathway (CS, PAL, CAD and ChS) were examined by means of quantitative, real-time RT-PCR. At 10°C, in the pre-existing leaves, the concentrations of sucrose, quercitol and catechin were higher, as were PAL and ChS transcripts. At 28°C, however, it was the concentration of quinic acid that was higher, as were the concentrations of CS and CAD transcripts. We conclude that contrasting temperatures greatly influence Q. suber metabolism and that a deeper analysis of the effects of more extreme temperatures is needed to understand the possible effects of temperature changes on Q. suber metabolism and physiology.

  8. Presence of env-like sequences in Quercus suber retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M; Ribeiro, T; Viegas, W; Morais-Cecilio, L; Rocheta, M

    2010-01-01

    The main difference between LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses is the presence of the envelope (env) gene in the latter, downstream of the pol gene. The env gene is involved in their infectious capacity. Here we report the presence of env-like sequences in the genome of Quercus suber (cork oak), one of the most economically important Portuguese species. These gene sequences were isolated through DNA amplification between RNaseH conserved motifs and 3' LTR, based on the structure of copia retrotransposons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that almost all the clones isolated are clustered with Cyclops-2, a Ty3-gypsy element identified in Pisum sativum, except one clustered with gypsy and copia retroelements found in different species. This suggests the existence of a potential ancestral sequence of the env gene, prior to the separation of Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia retrotransposons. Additionally, the isolated env-like sequences showed 26-39% of homology with env-like sequences characterized in viruses. The origin of env-like sequences in retrotransposons from host plant taxa is discussed.

  9. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savitri Shrestha; Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik; Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa; Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha; Latha Muuaiah Ramanna; Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results:Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions:The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.

  10. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia. Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis, and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone. Obtained results revealed certain divergence between genotypes. The thickness of pericarp varied from 418 to 559 mm (genotypes 20 and 22, respectively. On average, the participation of exocarp in the total thickness of pericarp was 36.3%, of mesocarp 61.0%, while of endocarp 2.6%. The thickness of seed coat for individual genotypes ranged from 71 mm (genotype 28 to 157 mm (genotype 38. In addition, anatomic parameters of embryo axis varied among studied genotypes. The lowest cortical zone thickness and stellar zone diameter were measured in genotype 40, while the highest values in genotype 33.

  11. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam Research Corporation, SK hynix Semiconductor (China) Ltd., and SK hynix Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd. in the People's Republic of China; Clarification of Scope of... Semiconductor (China) Ltd. and SK hynix Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd. Finally, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to...

  12. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information.

  13. Analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from Lippia lacunosa Mart. and Schauer and Lippia rotundifolia Cham. (Verbenaceae) by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Suzana G.; Barbosa, Ymira Galico [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Danilo R. de; Leitao, Gilda G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: sgleitao@pharma.ufrj.br; Suelsen, Valeria; Martino, Virginia [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Lopes, Daise [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Viccini, Lyderson F.; Salimena, Fatima R.G.; Peixoto, Paulo H.P. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biolgicas

    2008-07-01

    Lippia lacunosa and L. rotundifolia (Verbenaceae) are two Brazilian species of complex taxonomic delimitation. The composition of the essential oils from leaves and flowers of these plants was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major components of the essential oils of flowers and leaves of L. lacunosa were: myrcene (14.7% and 11.9%), myrcenone (45.2% and 64.2%), Z-ocimenone (5.7% and 5.2%), and E-ocimenone (14.7% and 4.1%), respectively; whereas in L. rotundifolia (flowers and leaves) were ..-pinene (8.7% and 1.8%), myrcene (5.1% and 3.6%), limonene (26.0% and 7.9 %), cis-pinocamphone (4.5% and 3.1%) and myrtenal (22.3% and 16.7%), respectively. The essential oils from L. lacunosa exhibited a strong and pleasant mango aroma, which was related to the presence of myrcene and myrcenone. The marked differences in the chemical composition of their essential oils may represent a powerful tool for the botanical classification. (author)

  14. DESCOMPOSICIÓN Y LIBERACIÓN DE NITRÓGENO Y MATERIA ORGÁNICA EN HOJAS DE Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Y Moringa oleifera Lam. EN UN BANCO MIXTO DE FORRAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Petit-Aldana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las tasas de descomposición, la liberación de N y MO en hojas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. y Moringa oleifera Lam. en un banco mixto de forraje en Yucatán, México, en las épocas de lluvias y sequía, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Se llenaron 120 bolsas con hojas frescas de las especies colectadas, y se colocaron en cada unidad experimental. Se evaluaron tres periodos de incubación para cada tratamiento: cuatro, ocho, y 16 semanas por cada época. A finales del experimento se observó que el proceso de descomposición fue más rápido en la temporada de lluvias. La pérdida de peso y la liberación de N y MO fueron más aceleradas en M. oleifera en monocultivo y en la asociación L. leucocephala con M. oleifera. Los patrones de descomposición de todas las especies siguieron el modelo exponencial simple, con más del 80 % de la masa inicial incorporada al final del periodo de estudio. Se concluye que L. leucocephala, G. ulmifolia y M. oleifera en monocultivo y asociadas, demostraron su capacidad para producir considerables cantidades de materia orgánica y liberar importantes cantidades de N en cortos periodos.

  15. Export-defective lamB protein is a target for translational control caused by ompC porin overexpression.

    OpenAIRE

    Click, E M; Schnaitman, C A

    1989-01-01

    Overexpression of OmpC protein from an inducible plasmid vector reduced the amount of the precursor form of LamB protein in LamB signal sequence mutants. The stability of the precursor form of LamB protein was not affected, indicating that the effect of OmpC overexpression was on the synthesis of the precursor rather than on degradation. These results indicate that a functional signal sequence is not required on an outer membrane protein for it to be a target for translational control.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial, activity of Quercus incana Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana eSarwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity of Quercus incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Quercus incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Quercus incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55 and Aspergillus flavus (28 mm ± 0.45. Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21μg/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 μg/mL was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Quercus incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  17. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  18. Quercus ilex L. carbon sequestration capability related to shrub size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratani, Loretta; Catoni, Rosangela; Varone, Laura

    2011-07-01

    CO(2) sequestration capacity of Quercus ilex L., an evergreen species developing in shrub and forest communities widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, was analysed. Experiments were carried out in the period of January to December 2009 on 20 shrubs of different size, growing at the Botanical Garden of Rome. At shrub level, the largest differences concern total photosynthetic leaf surface area per shrub and shrub volume. Shrubs structure significantly contribute to reduce total irradiance and air temperature below the canopy. Leaf mass per area is higher in sun leaves than in shade ones (20 ± 1 and 12 ± 2 mg cm( -2), respectively). Sun leaves are also characterised by the highest leaf thickness (78% higher in sun than in shade leaves), the spongy parenchyma thickness (71% higher in sun than in shade leaves) and the highest adaxial cuticle thickness (7.2 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 0.5 μm, respectively). Net photosynthetic rates (P (N)) of sun and shade leaves are the highest in spring, and shade leaves contribute 6% to the whole shrub P (N). Q. ilex CO(2) sequestration depends on shrub size. In particular, the CO(2) sequestration per shrub was 0.20 ± 0.02 Kg CO(2) year( -1) in small shrubs, and it was 75% and 98% lower than in medium and large ones. The highest CO(2) sequestration is measured in spring, decreasing 77% during drought. Q. ilex may play a significant role in mitigating carbon dioxide concentration and lowering air and soil temperature in areas around the Mediterranean Basin.

  19. Quercus cerris extracts limit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobby, Gerren H.; Quave, Cassandra L.; Nelson, Katie; Compadre, Cesar M.; Beenken, Karen E.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Quercus cerris L., Fagaceae has been used in traditional Mediterranean medicine for numerous purposes, including anti-infective therapies for diarrhea and wound care. Aim of the study To evaluate the anti-staphylococcal activity of fractions of ethanolic extracts of Q. cerris leaf and stem/fruit samples in models for biofilm and growth inhibition. Materials and methods Ethanolic extracts of Q. cerris leaves and stems/fruits were prepared, resuspended in water and fractioned by successively partitioning with hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol. The ability of the fractions to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation was tested using static crystal violet staining methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Growth studies were conducted to determine if the diminished capacity to form a biofilm was related to growth inhibition. Results The butanol extracts of both the leaf and stem/fruit samples were the most active, and at a dose of 200 μg/ml, the capacity to form a biofilm was limited to a level equivalent to that of the sarA mutant controls. Further examination of the impact of these fractions on S. aureus growth revealed that biofilm inhibition by the leaf butanol fraction was due to its bacteriostatic activity. The stem/fruit butanol fraction, however, showed a limited impact on growth, thus demonstrating that biofilm inhibition in this case is not related to the bacteriostatic activity of the extract. Conclusion Our evaluation of a medicinal plant used in Mediterranean ethnotherapies for infectious disease has demonstrated significant activity in the inhibition of staphylococcal biofilm formation with a mechanism unrelated to staphylococcal growth inhibition. These results contribute towards validation of this botanical remedy and form the groundwork for future studies in the search for novel biofilm inhibiting drugs. PMID:23127649

  20. Preliminary Comparative Analysis of Phenological Varieties of Quercus robur by ISSR-Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Chokheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus robur L. is a valuable wood species having long ontogeny and promising to create long-living artificial plantings of recreational and ameliorative purposes in the steppes zone of Russia and other countries. In this work we have performed the genotyping of varieties of Quercus robur L. obtained from collection of Botanical Garden of Southern Federal University using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR molecular markers. The most polymorphic ISSR-marker (GA 8YC was found in the collection. The polymorphic DNA markers identified in the present study can be used for the future breeding works to obtain valuable genotypes of Quercus genus. In addition we have performed DNA fingerprinting of the prospective sample of the variety Q. robur var. tardiflora Czern.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  2. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TIAN Yang ZENG Yan ZHANG Jing YANG ChengGuang YAN Liang WANG XuanJun SHI ChongYing XIE Jing DAI TianYi PENG Lei ZENG HUAN Yu XU AnNi HUANG YeWei ZHANG JiaJin MA Xiao DONG Yang HAO ShuMei SHENG Jun

    2015-01-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments...

  3. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family.

  4. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Reynaud

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database, this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8% strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains. By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321. Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family.

  5. PITYOPHAGUS QUERCUS REITTER, 1877, A NEW SAPROXYLIC SAP BEETLE FOR THE ITALIAN FAUNA (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Audisio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During ecological investigations on saproxylic beetle communities of central Italy (Latium, at Bosco Polverino (a mixed evergreen/deciduous forest fragment dominated by cork oaks, and at Allumiere (a small fragment of beech forest surrounded by turkey oak stands, the authors found three specimens of Pityophagus quercus Reitter, 1877 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae. These are the first known records of this species in Italy, and the first one in association with an evergreen oak, Quercus suber. This discovery led us to review both bionomical and faunistic data so far available on this exceedingly rare and poorly known species.

  6. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S

    2016-02-11

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (Determine(TM) TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm(3) (IQR 89-256/mm(3)). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1-55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4-33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0-66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51-0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm(3). Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression.

  7. Modeling of stomatal conductance to estimate stomatal ozone uptake by Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Azuchi, Fumika; Uehara, Yui; Kanomata, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To construct stomatal conductance models and estimate stomatal O3 uptake for Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla, stomatal conductance (gs) was measured in seedlings of the four tree species. Better estimates of gs were made by incorporating the acute effects of O3 on gs into the models and the models could explain 34-52% of the variability in gs. Although the O3 concentration was relatively high in spring from April to May, COU of F. crenata, Q. serrata and Q. mongolica var. crispula were relatively low and the ratios of COU in spring to total COU in one year were 16.8% in all tree species because of low gs limited mainly by leaf pre-maturation and/or low temperature. The COU of B. platyphylla were relatively high mainly because of rapid leaf maturation and lower optimal temperature for stomatal opening.

  8. Economic evaluation of micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Chin Fen; Liew, Danny; Slavin, Monica A; Marriott, Debbie; Chen, Sharon C-A; Morrissey, Orla; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2013-09-01

    Micafungin was non-inferior to liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC) in a major clinical trial. The present study investigated the economic impact of micafungin vs. LAmB in treating candidaemia and IC. A decision analytical model was constructed to capture downstream consequences of using micafungin or LAmB as primary definitive therapy. The main outcomes were treatment success and treatment failure due to mycological persistence, or death. Outcome probabilities were derived from key published sources. Resource used was estimated by an expert panel and cost inputs were from the latest Australian resources. The analysis was from an Australian hospital perspective. Sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation were conducted. Micafungin (AU$61 426) had a lower total cost than LAmB (AU$72 382), with a total net cost-saving of AU$10 957 per patient. This was primarily due to the lower cost associated with initial antifungal treatment and shorter length of stay for patients in the micafungin arm. Hospitalisation was the main cost driver for both arms. Results were robust over a wide range of variables. The uncertainty analysis demonstrated that micafungin had a 99.9% chance of being cost-saving compared with LAmB. Micafungin was associated with cost-saving relative to LAmB in the treatment of candidaemia and IC in Australia.

  9. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The results showed that Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract had antidiabetic activity with IC50 less than 100 ppm. However, the activity is lesser than quercetin.

  10. Lunar digital elevation model and elevation distribution model based on Chang’E-1 LAM data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More than 8.2 million effective data samples were obtained by the Chang’E-1 Laser Altimeter (LAM).In order to produce a global topographic model of the moon with improved accuracy,a hierarchical many-knot spline method was proposed in this paper.This algorithm makes use of a hierarchy of control lattices to approximate or interpolate the LAM data.Based on the proposed algorithm,a 0.0625°×0.0625° grid of global lunar DEM was obtained and it was compared with ULCN2005,CLTMs01 and Kaguya models,respectively.At the same time,this paper explored the elevation distribution law and established the elevation distribution model.It is shown that the global lunar and nearside elevation distribution is positively skewed and leptokurtic normal distribution,and the farside elevation distribution is a positively skewed and platykurtic normal distribution.

  11. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae: development of granules from spray dried powder

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovick,Gustavo F.; Pedro R. Petrovick; Valquiria L. Bassani

    2010-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae, is a herbal specie widely used in folk medicine in the south of Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. The technological characteristics of an Achyrocline satureioides spray dried extract powder, produced in semi-industrial scale, as well as the feasibility of the granules are reported in the present work. The spray dried powder was characterized as a fine powder consisting of small spherical particles with rough and porous surface. The Hausn...

  12. Biosorption and removal of chromium from water by using moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Meneghel; Affonso Celso Gonçalves Jr.; Leonardo Strey; Fernanda Rubio; Daniel Schwantes; Juliana Casarin

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of chromium from contaminated aqueous solutions by using Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) calculated to be 3.191 mg g-1 for the biosorbent. Activated carbon was used for comparison purposes in addition to the biosorbent. The best fit was obtained by the Langm...

  13. New α-glucosides of caffeoyl quinic acid from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Ahmed, Fakhruddin Ali; Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kim, Sang-Yong; Shibata, Hirofumi; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Two new caffeoyl quinic acid α-glucosides, together with three known caffeoyl quinic acids and five known flavonoid glucosides, were isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 4-O-(4'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (2) by spectroscopic analyses.

  14. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents.

  15. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound‐assisted and microwave‐assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β‐carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound‐assisted extraction was the most effective method on...

  16. Molecular Characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM-RUS Family Prevalent in Central Russia▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiley, Svetlana; Kirillov, Eugene; Ignatova, Anna; Stepanshina, Valentina; Shemyakin, Igor

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed IS6110-associated polymorphisms in the phospholipase C genes of 107 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis selected to be representative of isolates circulating in central Russia. We found that the majority of Latin American-Mediterranean family strains contained an insertion in a unique position in the plcA gene, suggesting a common ancestor. This insertion can serve as a specific genetic marker for this group, which we designate the LAM-RUS family. PMID:17942651

  17. Molecular Characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM-RUS Family Prevalent in Central Russia▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Dubiley, Svetlana; Kirillov, Eugene; Ignatova, Anna; Stepanshina, Valentina; Shemyakin, Igor

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed IS6110-associated polymorphisms in the phospholipase C genes of 107 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis selected to be representative of isolates circulating in central Russia. We found that the majority of Latin American-Mediterranean family strains contained an insertion in a unique position in the plcA gene, suggesting a common ancestor. This insertion can serve as a specific genetic marker for this group, which we designate the LAM-RUS family.

  18. Hexane soluble extract of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. root possesses anti-leukaemic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Musa; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Hussain, Masroor; Mehmood, Khalid; Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. is a well known medicinal plant of Asia and Australia. Various compounds from different aerial parts of the plant have been reported possessing potent pharmacological, antiviral, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. We were interested to determine the effects of some root extracts from M. philippensis on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell proliferation, cell cycle regulators and apoptosis in order to investigate its anti-leukemic pot...

  19. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  20. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, ph...

  1. Study of Making Fish Meatball With Jackfruit Seed Flour (Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam)

    OpenAIRE

    YUNARNI

    2012-01-01

    - YUNARNI (G61108011) Study of Making Fish Meatball With Jackfruit Seed Flour (Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam) (SUPERVISED BY Prof. Dr. Ir. Hj META MAHENDRADATTA AND Prof. Dr. Ir. H. JALIL GENISA, MS). ABSTRACT Jackfruit fruit is commodity that has a distinctive taste, it is relatively short shelf life. Jackfruit has many benefits, especially the young jackfruit it can be cooked as a vegetable, the flesh can be eat ...

  2. The chemical investigations on the ripe fruits of Ammi visnaga (Lam.) Lamarck growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydin, Keriman; Beyazit, Neslihan

    2004-04-01

    Two furanochromones and one furanochromone glycoside were isolated from the fruits of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. They were identified as khellin, visnagin, and khellol glycoside by interpretation of spectral analyses. Quantitative determination of furanochromones in A. visnaga (L.) ripe fruits from Hatay region (Turkey) was carried out by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and gas chromatography. In addition, photochemical properties of furanochromones and chemical composition of essential oil were determined.

  3. Regeneration of plants from mesophyll protoplasts of the wild crucifer Eruca sativa Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, S R; Chatterjee, G; Das, S; Sen, S K

    1987-12-01

    Protoplasts isolated from mesophyll cells of Eruca sativa Lam., cultured on suitable medium, underwent sustained cell divisions to form calli. The plating efficiency was found to be 0.4%. The protoplast-derived calli subsequently produced plantlets through organogenesis (15.71%) and somatic embryogenesis (11.25%). Regenerated plants exhibited normal appearance. These results indicate potential to introgress desirable traits from this wild crucifer into important oilseed and cole Brassicas by protoplast fusion and hybrid recovery.

  4. Identificação de parentais e híbridos entre Vitis vinifera e Vitis rotundifolia utilizando polimorfismo enzimático e marcador RAPD Identification of parents and hybrids among Vitis vinifera and Vitis rotundifolia using isozyme polymorphism and rapd marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Identificaram-se parentais e híbridos entre Vitis vinifera (videiras comuns e V. rotundifolia (muscadínias, utilizando-se o polimorfismo enzimático e marcador RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Os sistemas GOT (glutamato-oxalo-acetato-transaminase, IDH (isocitrato desidrogenase e PGI (fosfoglucose isomerase diferenciaram a muscadínia, sendo observadas cinco aloenzimas para o GOT, duas para o LAP (leucina aminopeptidase e quatro para o EST (esterase. Os sistemas PGI e IDH apresentaram-se como diméricos com o fenótipo de quatro aloenzimas em duas regiões e três em uma região respectivamente. O marcador RAPD apresentou polimorfismo que permitiu a diferenciação entre todos os cultivares. Os dendrogramas UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with aritmetic mean obtidos pelas isoenzimas e pelo marcador RAPD foram semelhantes, sendo a aproximação mais forte entre 'Itália' e 'Rubi' que se ligaram aos cultivares Patrícia e A Dona. Os cultivares Piratininga e Eugênio, também bastante próximos, foram os seguintes a se ligarem às demais viníferas. Pelo polimorfismo enzimático e marcador RAPD, a muscadínia ficou bastante isolada dos outros grupos. Pelo método RAPD, aplicado às muscadínias, ao híbrido da Carolina do Norte NC66 C203-9, a um possível híbrido e seu parental feminino, observou-se o seguinte: os híbridos foram intermediários às muscadínias e viníferas, porém o possível híbrido se assemelhou ao parental feminino, enquanto o NC66203-9 apresentou bandas provenientes das muscadínias e viníferas, comprovando sua origem híbrida.Aiming to identify parents and hybrids among Vitis vinifera (bunch grapes and Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine grapes isozyme polymorphism and RAPD marker were used. GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase and PGI (phosphoglucoisomerase systems could differentiate the muscadine, being identified five allozymes for GOT, two allozymes for LAP (leucine

  5. Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae en la provincia de Alicante [Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae in the province of Alicante (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se cita por primera vez para la flora de la Comunidad Valenciana la presencia de Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. en la provincia de Alicante, especie hasta el momento únicamente localizada dentro de la Península Ibérica en las provincias de Almería y Murcia, y con una cita dispersa en Córdoba. La planta se ha localizado cerca del límite con la Región de Murcia. Aparentemente se trata de la cita mundial más septentrional para la especie en el Mediterráneo Occidental.. ABSTRACT: A first citation of Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. in the Valencian Community (Spain is reported. Formerly the species was citated in the Iberian peninsule from the provinces of Murcia and Almeria; in addition there is a disperse citation from Cordoba. This plant has been found in the province of Alicante, close to the borderline with the neighbouring Region of Murcia. It deals apparently with the Northernmost site for this species in the Western Mediterranean.

  6. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  7. Interaction of Bacteriophage λ with Its E. coli Receptor, LamB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Rothenberg, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The initial step of viral infection is the binding of a virus onto the host cell surface. This first viral-host interaction would determine subsequent infection steps and the fate of the entire infection process. A basic understating of the underlining mechanism of initial virus-host binding is a prerequisite for establishing the nature of viral infection. Bacteriophage λ and its host Escherichia coli serve as an excellent paradigm for this purpose. λ phages bind to specific receptors, LamB, on the host cell surface during the infection process. The interaction of bacteriophage λ with the LamB receptor has been the topic of many studies, resulting in wealth of information on the structure, biochemical properties and molecular biology of this system. Recently, imaging studies using fluorescently labeled phages and its receptor unveil the role of spatiotemporal dynamics and divulge the importance of stochasticity from hidden variables in the infection outcomes. The scope of this article is to review the present state of research on the interaction of bacteriophage λ and its E. coli receptor, LamB. PMID:23202520

  8. Growth of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit favored by organic waste in the Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. C. Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sources and rates of organic waste and their interaction on the growth of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, in the Southeast region of Piauí State. The treatments consisted of two sources (Copernicia prunifera (Mill. H.E. palm residue and plant compound and six organic waste rates. The study was conducted in the period of March-June 2011 and the following parameters were evaluated: stem diameter, height, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total dry matter, root volume, shoot dry weight/root dry weight ratio, height/stem diameter ratio and the Dickson Quality Index. The Copernicia prunifera (Mill. H.E. palm residue and plant compound showed a great potential to be used in the manufacture of substrates for the production of seedlings Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, since their initial development was influenced by the sources and proportions of these organic residues and by the interaction between these treatments. The substrate containing 50% of plant compound produced better quality of plants of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit in their initial development stage.

  9. INTEGRATING LMSs IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS:Greek Teachers’ Initial Perceptions about LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros PAPADAKIS,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students’ motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits. This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the integration of LAMS, a Learning Activity Management System, in the educational praxis. Through a multifaceted research method, involving a small scale participatory action research, the research team attempted to investigate the preconditions required to integrate LAMS in the everyday lesson. Two tutorial workshops were organized with the participation of 46 educators from geographically diverse urban areas, from K-12 to Tertiary Education. Results indicated that teachers have developed a positive attitude towards LAMS and the use of collaborative online tools during the educational process. Although teachers have certain objections on integrating LMSs, which stem mainly from the current status of the Greek educational system, they accept relative advantages of integrating online collaborative approaches over the traditional face-to-face approach. Well-organized and carefully implemented tutorial workshops can spark teachers’ interest and bring about change in the educational process. Small scale interventions such as these can prove to foster dialogue among teachers of various backgrounds and set the foundations to create online communities of practice for innovative teachers.

  10. Xylem dysfunction in Quercus: vessel sizes, tyloses, cavitation and seasonal changes in embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochard, H; Tyree, M T

    1990-12-01

    The seasonal progression of xylem dysfunction from tyloses and embolism induced both by cavitation and frost was studied in Quercus rubra L. and Quercus alba L. branches. Vessel lengths and diameters were measured in current-year rings of branches of various ages. Vessels in current-year shoots are about the same size as those in many diffuse porous trees, but vessels in older branches are two to six times larger in diameter and typically more than 10 times longer. Large Quercus vessels were more vulnerable to cavitation than small vessels. The small vessels in current-year shoots were more vulnerable to cavitation than vessels of comparable size in diffuse porous species. Earlywood vessels are completely blocked by tyloses within a year of their formation. Tylose growth starts in winter, but the vessels are not fully blocked until the next summer. Many latewood vessels, by contrast, remain free of complete blockage for several years. In Q. rubra, loss of hydraulic conductivity in current-year shoots due to cavitation reaches 20% by August and > 90% after the first hard frost. Both laboratory and field observations confirm that the role of frost in causing loss of hydraulic conduction by embolism is much more dramatic in Quercus than in conifers and diffuse porous hardwoods.

  11. Intraspecific Phenotypic Variation and Ecological Genetics of Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii Hook. & Am.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin J. Rice; Doria R. Gordon; Jeanine L. Hardison; Jeffrey M. Welker

    1991-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of soil water availability on blue oak (Quercus douglasii) seedling establishment. Acorns were planted either into cleared plots of 0, 10, 20, or 40 cm diameter. The cleared plots were located in two grazed and one ungrazed site. Half of the plots received drip irrigation in a split plot design...

  12. The effect of seed size variation in Quercus pacifica on seedling establishment and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario B. Pesendorfer

    2015-01-01

    Quercus pacifica, the island scrub-oak, is the dominant species in oak chaparral on the three largest California Channel Islands. While the population on Santa Cruz Island has experienced a strong recovery, the populations on Santa Rosa and Santa Catalina islands are of conservation concern, and managers are actively restoring oak habitat by...

  13. A bibliography for Quercus garryana and other geographically associated and botanically related oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; Melanie A. Kallas

    2002-01-01

    Interest in Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook., commonly known as Oregon white oak or Garry oak, has increased in recent years as scientists, resource managers, and the general public focus attention on a forest type in decline. To aid those interested in learning what has previously been reported on this species, we have compiled a comprehensive bibliography for Q....

  14. Estudio taxonómico de cuatro especies de encino (Quercus) descritas por Warburg

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Se determinaron como sinónimos de Quercus hintonii Warb. a Q. apiophylla Warb., Q. ochroestes Warb. y Q. sagata Warb., con base en el análisis de las descripciones originales, fototipos y ejemplares existentes en los herbarios. Además se realizaron observaciones de las poblaciones y colectas de ejemplares en las localidades tipo.

  15. Indicator values for lichens on Quercus as a tool to monitor ammonia pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, K.; Olsen, H. B.; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen vegetation on solitary Quercus trees was investigated on 13 locations in Denmark in order to test the usability of indicator values to quantify ammonia deposition from the ambient air. Indicator values calculated for each location corresponded well with the expected ecological...

  16. Concentric Ring Method for generating pollen maps. Quercus as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, Jose; Valencia, Rosa Mª; Del Río, Sara; Vega, Ana Mª; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Pablo; Mandrioli, Paolo; Fernández-González, Delia

    2017-01-15

    Mapping pollen concentrations is of great interest to study the health impact and ecological implications or for forestry or agronomical purposes. A deep knowledge about factors affecting airborne pollen is essential for predicting and understanding its dynamics. The present work sought to predict annual Quercus pollen over the Castilla and León region (Central and Northern Spain). Also to understand the relationship between airborne pollen and landscape. Records of Quercus and Quercus pyrenaica pollen types were collected at 13 monitoring sites over a period of 8years. They were analyzed together with land use data applying the Concentric Ring Method (CRM), a technique that we developed to study the relationship between airborne particle concentrations and emission sources in the region. The maximum correlation between the Quercus pollen and forms of vegetation was determined by shrubland and "dehesa" areas. For the specific Qi pyrenaica model (Q. pyrenaica pollen and Q. pyrenaica forest distribution), the maximum influence of emission sources on airborne pollen was observed at 14km from the pollen trap location with some positive correlations up to a distance of 43km. Apart from meteorological behavior, the local features of the region can explain pollen dispersion patterns. The method that we develop here proved to be a powerful tool for multi-source pollen mapping based on land use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting the height growth of oak species (Quercus) reproduction over a 23-year period following clearcutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Travis Swaim; Daniel C. Dey; Michael R. Saunders; Dale R. Weigel; Christopher D. Thornton; John M. Kabrick; Michael A. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    We resampled plots from a repeated measures study implemented on the Hoosier National Forest (HNF) in southern Indiana in 1988 to investigate the influence of site and seedling physical attributes on height growth and establishment success of oak species (Quercus spp.) reproduction in stands regenerated by the clearcut method. Before harvest, an...

  18. Utility of ITS sequence data for phylogenetic reconstruction of Italian Quercus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellarosa, Rosanna; Simeone, Marco C; Papini, Alessio; Schirone, Bartolomeo

    2005-02-01

    Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences encoding the 5.8S RNA and the flanking internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were used to test the phylogenetic relationships within 12 Italian Quercus taxa (Fagaceae). Hypotheses of sequence orthology are tested by detailed inspection of some basic features of oak ITS sequences (i.e., general patterns of conserved domains, thermodynamic stability and predicted conformation of the secondary structure of transcripts) that also allowed more accurate sequence alignment. Analysis of ITS variation supported three monophyletic groups, corresponding to subg. Cerris, Schlerophyllodrys (=Ilex group sensu Nixon) and Quercus, as proposed by Schwarz [Feddes Rep., Sonderbeih. D, 1-200]. A derivation of the "Cerris group" from the "Ilex group" is suggested, with Q. cerris sister to the rest of the "Cerris group." Quercus pubescens was found to be sister to the rest of the "Quercus group." The status of hybrispecies of Q. crenata (Q. cerrisxQ. suber) and Q. morisii (Q. ilexxQ. suber) was evaluated and discussed. Finally, the phylogenetic position of the Italian species in a broader context of the genus is presented. The utility of the ITS marker to assess the molecular systematics of oaks is therefore confirmed. The importance of Italy as a region with a high degree of diversity at the population and genetic level is discussed.

  19. Maternal influences on seed mass effect and initial seedling growth in four Quercus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Villar, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed mass represents the reserves available for growth in the first stages of plant establishment. Variation in seed mass is an important trait which may have consequences for growth and survival of seedlings. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain how seed mass influences seedling development: the reserve use effect, the metabolic effect and the seedling-size effect. Few studies have evaluated at the same time the three hypotheses within species and none have evaluated the effect of the mother trees. We studied four Quercus species by selecting five mother trees per species. Seeds were sown in a glasshouse and the use of seed reserves, seedling growth and morphology were measured. Considering all mothers of the same species together, we did not find the reserve effect for any species, the metabolic effect was observed in all species except for Quercus suber, and the seedling-size effect was matched for all the species. Within species, maternal origin modified the studied relationships and thus the studied mechanisms as we did not observe seed mass effects on all mothers from each species. Moreover, the metabolic effect was not found in any mother of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea. We concluded that a maternal effect can change seed mass relationships with traits related to seedling establishment. The conservation of this high intra-specific variability must be considered to guarantee species performance in heterogeneous environments and in particular in the current context of climate change.

  20. Indicator values for lichens on Quercus as a tool to monitor ammonia pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, K.; Olsen, H. B.; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen vegetation on solitary Quercus trees was investigated on 13 locations in Denmark in order to test the usability of indicator values to quantify ammonia deposition from the ambient air. Indicator values calculated for each location corresponded well with the expected ecological...... as a tool for quantitative estimation of ammonia deposition in relation to sensitive Danish ecosystems.  ...

  1. O factor de coberto vegetal, para árvores e Arbustos, em modelos de erosão hídrica The vegetation cover factor, for tree and bush canopies, in models of water erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rolo Antunes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo primordial do presente trabalho consiste na análise do comportamento de cobertos arbóreos e arbustivos, em termos do processo de intercepção da precipitação, designadamente, retenção e gotejo, e no estabelecimento de uma componente a incluir em modelos de erosão, que permita quantificar o factor de coberto vegetal em caso de ocupação do solo por estes cobertos, associados a culturas arvenses, em subcoberto, particularmente, na Equação Universal da Perda de Solo Revista (RUSLE. O trabalho experimental utilizou um simulador de chuva, tendo-se obtido valores do diâmetro das gotas (gotejo das folhas de espécies características dos sistemas de uso do solo mais comuns no Sul de Portugal, nomeadamente sobreiro (Quercus suber L., azinheira (Quercus ilex L. ssp. rotundifolia Lam e carrasco (Quercus coccifera L., e quantificado valores de retenção nas folhas. A partir dos resultados obtidos estimou-se a energia cinética para diferentes alturas de queda e, consequentemente, valores correctivos a aplicar aos valores de C tradicionalmente considerados, relativos às culturas agrícolas.The main objective of this work consists on the analyzes of tree and bush canopies behavior, in terms of the rainfall interception process, namely, leave retention, and dripping, and the establishment of a erosion model component to include in to quantify the cover factor (C of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE for mixed land covered systems with arable crops, in association with trees and bushes. In the experimental work a rainfall simulator was used and the characteristic values for the diameter of the dripping drops and retention of the leaves from characteristic species of the more common mixed land-use systems in Southern of Portugal, particularly with Cork oak (Quercus suber L., Holm or evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L. ssp. rotundifolia Lam and Kermes or wild oak (Quercus coccifera L., were obtained. From the obtained results

  2. Estudio morfométrico de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae Morphometric study of Quercus sartorii and Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorismilda Martínez-Cabrera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio morfométrico con la finalidad de contribuir en la delimitación taxonómica de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis. Para ello, se revisó material de herbario y se recolectó material en 11 poblaciones distribuidas en los estados de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas y Veracruz, en México, incluyendo 2 poblaciones simpátricas. Los resultados del análisis de componentes principales y discriminante mostraron que los caracteres que contribuyeron a agrupar los individuos en su respectiva especie son los relacionados con el tamaño del fruto, en particular el diámetro de la bellota, de la nuez y de la cúpula. La bellota de Q. sartorii es de menor tamaño que la de Q. xalapensis. La variación detectada no se atribuyó a la latitud o altitud. El fenograma mostró la separación de 2 grupos que corresponden a los individuos de las 2 especies estudiadas, si los caracteres del fruto son incluidos. Además, de los caracteres cuantitativos ya mencionados, 3 del patrón de venación y 2 anatómicos contribuyeron a reconocer los individuos de cada especie. Estas diferencias se mantuvieron en los individuos de las poblaciones simpátricas, por lo que los resultados apoyaron la distinción de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis.A morphometric study was carried out in order to evaluate morphological variation of Quercus sartorii and Q. xalapensis and to contribute to their taxonomic delimitation. Herbarium specimens and material of 11 populations from Mexico in the states of Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz, including 2 sympatric populations, were studied. Characters from foliar architecture, fruits and anatomical features of periderm and wood were analyzed through multivariate and phenetic methods. Principal component and discriminant analyses showed that fruit characters such as acorn, nut, and cupule diameters contributed to group individuals in their species, the acorn of Q. sartorii being smaller than that of Q

  3. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems.

  4. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit fruit extract and its effect on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Basavegowda

    2015-02-01

    It can be concluded that the fruit of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul E. coli, and Streptobacillus. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  5. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance.

  7. Efficient Design for the Implementation of Wong-Lam Multicast Authentication Protocol Using Two-Levels of Parallelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada F. Elkabbany

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Group communication can benefit from Internet Protocol (IP multicast protocol to achieve efficient exchange of messages. However, IP multicast does not provide any mechanisms for authentication. In literature, many solutions to solve this problem were presented. It has been shown that Wong and Lam protocol is the only protocol that can resist both packet loss and pollution attacks. In contrast, it has high computation and communication overheads. In the present paper, an efficient design for the implementation of Wong and Lam multicast authentication protocol is proposed. In order to solve the computation overhead problem, we use two-levels of parallelism. To reduce the communication overhead, we use Universal Message Authentication Codes (UMAC instead of hash functions. The design is analyzed for both NTRU and elliptic curve cryptography signature algorithms. The analysis shows that the proposed design decreases significantly the execution time of Wong-Lam protocol which makes it suitable for real-time applications.

  8. Achyrocline satureioides (lam.) dc., asteraceae : development of granules from spray dried powder

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovick, Gustavo Freire; Petrovick, Pedro Ros; Bassani, Valquiria Linck

    2010-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae, é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular no sul do Brasil, Uruguai, Argentina e Paraguai. As características tecnológicas do extrato seco por aspersão de Achyrocline satureioides, produzido em escala semi-industrial, assim como a viabilidade da produção de granulados são relatadas no presente trabalho. O extrato seco por aspersão foi caracterizado como um pó fino, composto por pequenas partículas esféricas com superfície rugosa e p...

  9. Transport solutions of the Lamé equations and shock elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeyeva, L. A.; Kaishybaeva, G. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Lamé system describing the dynamics of an isotropic elastic medium affected by a steady transport load moving at subsonic, transonic, or supersonic speed is considered. Its fundamental and generalized solutions in a moving frame of reference tied to the transport load are analyzed. Shock waves arising in the medium at supersonic speeds are studied. Conditions on the jump in the stress, displacement rate, and energy across the shock front are obtained using distribution theory. Numerical results concerning the dynamics of an elastic medium influenced by concentrated transport loads moving at sub-, tran- and supersonic speeds are presented.

  10. Antioxidant action of Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, N; Pari, L

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidants was investigated during antitubercular drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide)-induced toxicity in rats. Enhanced hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation of antitubercular drug treatment was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Administration of Moringa oleifera extract and silymarin significantly decreased hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation with a simultaneous increase in the level of antioxidants. We speculate that Moringa oleifera extract exerts its protective effects by decreasing liver lipid peroxides and enhancing antioxidants.

  11. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitory potential of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammad Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the antimicrobial, antiradical and urease inhibitory potential along with photochemical investigation of the crude extracts of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam. Phytochemical screening of both the crude (hot/cold) alcoholic and aqueous extracts of C. digitatum showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. The crude methanolic extract (hot/cold) exhibited good antioxidant activity, while the aqueous extract was a weak antioxidant. The crude methanolic extract was found to be more active against Bacillus subtilis, while both the extracts showed moderate antifungal potential, the methanolic crude extract showed good urease inhibitory activity compared with the aqueous crude extract.

  12. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam as a natural sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Christian G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Jambolão (java plum, Eugenia jambolana Lam, was used as a natural sensitizer of a wide band-gap semiconductor (TiO2 in photoelectrochemical solar cells. The natural dye, adsorbed onto the semiconductor surface, absorbs visible light and promotes electron transfer across the dye/semiconductor interface. Photogenerated current and voltage as high as 2.3 mA and 711 mV, respectively, were obtained and effective conversion of visible light into electricity was achieved. The use of a natural product as the semiconductor sensitizer enables a faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmentally friendly solar cells.

  13. Isolation, characterization and pharmacological activity of Magydaris pastinacea (Lam) Paol. glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, R; Pintore, G; Dessí, G; Asproni, B; Piseddu, G; Sini, S

    1995-12-01

    The glycoside fraction of fresh rhizomes from Magydaris pastinacea (Lam.) Paol. was separated from the alcoholic extract using the method of Kobayashi et al. The fraction was found to have six main constituents, the most abundant of which had previously been isolated and identified as 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8-(2',3'-dihydroxy-3-methyl-butylcoumarin++ +). The present paper describes the separation and characterization of the other constituents, all with coumarin or furancoumarin structures. Pharmacological experiments to test these compounds as platelet antiaggregants are also reported.

  14. Antipyretic and wound healing activities of moringa oleifera lam. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hukkeri V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative chemical tests confirmed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, tannins, and amino acids in the various leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam., whereas its seed extracts showed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids. The ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of seeds showed significant antipyretic activity in rats, whereas ethyl acetate extract of dried leaves showed significant wound healing activity (10% extracts in the form of ointment on excision, incision and dead space (granuloma wound models in rats.

  15. Firewood yields of individual trees of Guazuma Ulmifolia Lam. In Pastures in Hojancha Guanacaste - Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, R.; Rose, D.

    1984-12-01

    Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (guacimo), because of its wide distribution, easy handling, and high firewood quality, is a promising native species for firewood production in the wet and dry regions of Central America. It is possible to make an accurate estimate of the firewood weight of the crown of a guacimo tree that has been periodically harvested, using regression models based on basal diameter of the branches and diameter at breast height crown diameter and age. Several firewood weight tables were developed which can be used to make estimates for periodically harvested individual trees growing in pastures.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  17. Lithographically defined aluminum nitride cross-sectional Lamé mode resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Cassella, C.; Qian, Z.; Hummel, G. E.; Rinaldi, M.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on aluminum nitride (AlN) cross-sectional Lamé mode resonators (CLMRs) showing high electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt{2} ) in excess of 4% in a lithographically defined 307 MHz frequency range around 920 MHz. In addition, we report the performance of a CLMR showing a figure of merit (FoM, defined as the product of quality factor, Q, and kt{2} ) in excess of 85. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, such FoM value is the highest reported for AlN resonators using interdigitated metal electrodes (IDTs).

  18. Periodic differential equations an introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and allied functions

    CERN Document Server

    Arscott, Felix M; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1964-01-01

    Periodic Differential Equations: An Introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and Allied Functions covers the fundamental problems and techniques of solution of periodic differential equations. This book is composed of 10 chapters that present important equations and the special functions they generate, ranging from Mathieu's equation to the intractable ellipsoidal wave equation.This book starts with a survey of the main problems related to the formation of periodic differential equations. The subsequent chapters deal with the general theory of Mathieu's equation, Mathieu functions of integral order, and

  19. Identification of DNA-microsatellite markers for the characterization of somatic embryos in Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Garay, Arancha; Bueno, Angeles; Pintos, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear DNA-microsatellite markers led the possibility to characterize individually both Quercus suber trees and somatic embryos. The genotype inferred by SSR markers opens the possibility to obtain a fingerprint for clonal lines identification. Furthermore, allow to infer the origin of somatic embryos from haploid cells (microspores) or from diploid tissues. Using few SSR markers from other Quercus species and an automatic system based in fluorescence, it is possible to obtain a high discrimination power between genotypes. This method is sufficient to assign tissues to an individual tree with high statistical certainty. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take care to select the adequate DNA extraction method to avoid PCR inhibitors present in diverse Q. suber tissues.

  20. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: calatayud_viclor@gva.e [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose [Laboratorio de Anatomia e Histologia Vegetal ' Julio Iranzo' , Jardin Botanico, Universitat de Valencia, c/Quart 80, 46008 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Reig-Arminana, Jose [Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD{sub 1.6}) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  1. A neighborhood analysis of the consequences of Quercus suber decline for regeneration dynamics in Mediterranean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Beatriz; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Stoll, Peter; Ávila, José M; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-01-01

    In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Mediterranean forests affected by the decline of their dominant species (Quercus suber). Our objective was to understand how the impacts of neighbor trees and shrubs on recruitment could affect future dynamics of these declining forests. Seeds of the three dominant tree species (Quercus suber, Olea europaea and Quercus canariensis) were sown in six sites during two consecutive years. Using a spatially-explicit, neighborhood approach we developed models that explained the observed spatial variation in seedling emergence, survival, growth and photochemical efficiency as a function of the size, identity, health, abundance and distribution of adult trees and shrubs in the neighborhood. We found strong neighborhood effects for all the performance estimators, particularly seedling emergence and survival. Tree neighbors positively affected emergence, independently of species identity or health. Alternatively, seedling survival was much lower in neighborhoods dominated by defoliated and dead Q. suber trees than in neighborhoods dominated by healthy trees. For the two oak species, these negative effects were consistent over the three years of the experimental seedlings. These results indicate that ongoing changes in species' relative abundance and canopy trees' health might alter the successional trajectories of Mediterranean oak-forests through neighbor-specific impacts on seedlings. The recruitment failure of dominant late-successional oaks in the gaps opened after Q. suber death would indirectly favor the establishment of other coexisting woody species, such as drought-tolerant shrubs. This could lead current forests to shift into

  2. A neighborhood analysis of the consequences of Quercus suber decline for regeneration dynamics in Mediterranean forests.

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    Beatriz Ibáñez

    Full Text Available In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Mediterranean forests affected by the decline of their dominant species (Quercus suber. Our objective was to understand how the impacts of neighbor trees and shrubs on recruitment could affect future dynamics of these declining forests. Seeds of the three dominant tree species (Quercus suber, Olea europaea and Quercus canariensis were sown in six sites during two consecutive years. Using a spatially-explicit, neighborhood approach we developed models that explained the observed spatial variation in seedling emergence, survival, growth and photochemical efficiency as a function of the size, identity, health, abundance and distribution of adult trees and shrubs in the neighborhood. We found strong neighborhood effects for all the performance estimators, particularly seedling emergence and survival. Tree neighbors positively affected emergence, independently of species identity or health. Alternatively, seedling survival was much lower in neighborhoods dominated by defoliated and dead Q. suber trees than in neighborhoods dominated by healthy trees. For the two oak species, these negative effects were consistent over the three years of the experimental seedlings. These results indicate that ongoing changes in species' relative abundance and canopy trees' health might alter the successional trajectories of Mediterranean oak-forests through neighbor-specific impacts on seedlings. The recruitment failure of dominant late-successional oaks in the gaps opened after Q. suber death would indirectly favor the establishment of other coexisting woody species, such as drought-tolerant shrubs. This could lead current

  3. First Report of Erannis defoliaria on Quercus sp. in North West of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaussra Mannai; Olfa Ezzine; Saïd Nouira; Mohamed Lahbib Ben Jamâa

    2015-01-01

    Erannis defoliaria, a spring-feeding moth, caused severe defoliation during springs 2009 and 2010. Larvae were collected from Quercus suber in northwestern forest of Tunisia: Bellif and Ain El Baya. Caterpillars of E. defoliaria were also observed feeding on Q. canariensis, Q. afares and other shrub species such as Pistacia lentiscus, Erica arborea, and E. multiflora. In this paper, we present a first report of this pest in Tunisia.

  4. Removal of chromium (VI in aqueous environments using cork and heat-treated cork samples from Quercus cerris and Quercus suber

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    Ali Şen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (VI removal and its reduction to chromium (III from aqueous solution by untreated and heat-treated Quercus cerris and heat-treated Quercus suber black agglomerate cork granules was investigated. Initial screening studies revealed that among the sorbents tested, untreated Q. cerris and Q. suber black agglomerate are the most efficient in the removal of Cr(VI ions and were selected for adsorption essays. Heat treatment adversely affected chromium adsorption and chromium (VI reduction in Q. cerris cork. The highest metal uptake was found at pH 3.0 for Q. cerris and pH 2.0 for black agglomerate. The experimental data fitted the Langmuir model and the calculated qmax was 22.98 mg/g in black agglomerate and 21.69 mg/g in untreated Q. cerris cork. The FTIR results indicated that while in black agglomerate, lignin is the sole component responsible for Cr(VI sorption, and in untreated Q. cerris cork, suberin and polysaccharides also play a significant role on the sorption. The SEM-EDX results imply that chromium has a homogenous distribution within both cork granules. Also, phloemic residues in Q. cerris granules showed higher chromium concentration. The results obtained in this study show that untreated Q. cerris and black agglomerate cork granules can be an effective and economical alternative to more costly materials for the treatment of liquid wastes containing chromium.

  5. Eupatorium capilifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae, REKAMAN BARU UNTUK FLORA JAWA

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    Arifin Surya Dwipa Irsyam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sebanyak 227 jenis tumbuhan Asteraceae terdapat di Pulau Jawa berdasarkan Flora of Java. Namun, suku Asteraceae di Pulau Jawa belum banyak ditinjau kembali sejak buku tersebut terbit 51 tahun yang lalu, sehingga memungkinkan adanya jenis-jenis tambahan yang belum terekam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi adanya jenis tambahan yang terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di Labuan (Banten, Bogor (Jawa Barat, Malang, dan Situbondo (Jawa Timur. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton merupakan rekaman baru yang dapat melengkapi flora Jawa. Jenis tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam puak Eupatorieae. Abstract There are 227 species of Asteraceae in Java Island recorded in the Flora of Java. However, only few review of this family for Java since Flora of Java has published 51 years ago. Some possibilities of unrecorded species may occur after this Flora of Java published. This research was conducted to provide information on additional species in Java Island. This research was carried out using exploration method in Labuan (Banten, Bogor (West Java, Malang and Situbondo (East Java. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton is a new record for completing the flora of Java Island. This species belongs to Eupatorieae tribe.   

  6. Sirolimus Therapy for Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Leads to Loss of Chylous Ascites and Circulating LAM Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Sergio; Elia, Davide; Torre, Olga; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Provasi, Elena; Moss, Joel

    2016-08-01

    A young woman received a diagnosis of abdominal, sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multiple abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas and was referred for recurrent chylous ascites responding only to a fat-free diet. On admission, pulmonary function test (PFT) results showed a moderate reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide with normal exercise performance. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) level was 2,209 pg/mL. DNA sequences, amplified at loci kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, D16S521, and D16S291 on chromosome 16p13.3, showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) only for kg8. Fat-free total parenteral nutrition in association with sirolimus (2 mg po daily) was initiated. Serum sirolimus levels were maintained at concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/mL. After 1 month, reintroduction of a low-fat oral feeding was achieved without recurrence of ascites. PFT results were stable. Interestingly, clinical improvement was associated with a reduction in the VEGF-D serum level (1,558 pg/mL). LOH at the kg8 biomarker in blood LAM cells was no longer detected.

  7. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

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    Muhammad Afzal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA-induced hepatic injury in rats. Material and Methods: The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Result: Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum (250 mg/kg, p.o. was not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum protects the liver slightly. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. significantly (PFNx01<0.05; PFNx08<0.01 and PFNx18<0.001 treated the liver injury induced by DENA. Conclusion: It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants.

  9. Total polyphenolic (flavonoids content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts

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    Shuge Tian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts of different polarity. Materials and Methods: The total polyphenolic content was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content analysis was performed using the colorimetric method. Results: The total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%, chloroform (4.99% and n-butanol extracts (3.94% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23% and ethanol extracts (1.64% contain almost no polyphenolic content. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%, chloroform (14.36% and n-butanol extracts (10.76% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts contain a large number of polyphenolic compounds (19.27% and flavonoids (65.61% owing to good antioxidant capacity.

  10. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI⁺] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

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    Christine Pampeno

    Full Text Available The laminin receptor (LamR is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C. Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI⁺] and [psi⁻]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI⁺] strains. The presence of [PSI⁺] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI⁺] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI⁺] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases.

  11. Identication of potivirus present in lulo (solanum quitoense lam Identificación de potivirus presentes en plantas de lulo (solanum quitoense lam

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    Peñaranda J.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceous fruit Solanum quitoense Lam, is originally from Andean región of South America. This fruit has commercial prospective. The Leaf Yellowing Disease in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam was first described by Zuluaga in 1991. It causes economically losses and has been associated with a virus attack. The disease's symptoms included stunting, yellow streaking or mosaic patterns in leaves, often with a curling of the leaf margins. In order to diagnostic the presence of virus, we applied two different strategies. The first one consisted of a modified technique of RNA double strand isolation (Morris and Dodds, 1979. The second one consisted on applying RT-PCR system using specific "primers" designed to amplify cDNA fragments spaning the 3'-terminal part of the Nlb cistron and the 5'-terminal part of the potyvirus CP cistron (Langeveld et al 1991. By applying the modified method of Morris and Dodds, it was possible to observe characteristic bands of double strand RNA. Amplification with "primers" POT1 and POT2 yielded a fragment of about 1 Kpb, whose length was in agreement with the known sequences of potyvirus. Here we report by the first time a potyvirus presence in Lulo plants affected with leaf yellowing disease, identified by dsRNA analysis and RT-PCR procedure.El lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam., siendo una planta nativa de la región andina con gran potencial comercial, aún está en proceso de domesticación y presenta problemas fitosanitarios de importancia. La enfermedad del Amarillamiento de la hoja que causa pérdidas importantes fue descrita por Zuluaga (1996; de acuerdo con su sintomatología (enanismo, muestras de patrones de amarillamiento o de mosaico en hojas, las que a su vez sufren enrollamientos de los bordes hacia la parte baja, se atribuía a la acción de un virus no identificado. Dada la especificidad mostrada por los virus y la semejanza de la enfermedad con la causada por potivirus en otras solanáceas, se planteó que

  12. Qualidade de jaca (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. desidratada sob diferentes condições de processo Quality of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. dehydrated under different processing conditions

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    Lenice Freiman de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos da jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. são consumidos na forma in natura pelas mais diversas camadas da população e sua alta perecibilidade leva a um índice elevado de perda pós-colheita, acarretando prejuízos para os produtores dessa frutífera. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura de secagem (50, 60 e 70 °C e do teor de umidade final (20 e 25% sobre as características químicas e sensoriais da jaca desidratada. Foram realizadas análises de matéria seca, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, carboidratos, além da avaliação sensorial. Os resultados globais obtidos mostraram que a jaca desidratada possui teor de matéria seca de 74,2 a 80,9%, cinzas de 3,1 a 3,8%, proteínas de 3,2 a 6,6%, lipídeos de 0,09 a 1,2% e carboidratos de 89,8 a 92,4%. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que o produto de maior aceitação (média de 5,95 foi aquele desidratado a 50 °C e com 20% de umidade final, demonstrando que este pode ser uma alternativa alimentar para as regiões produtoras de jaca.Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. are consumed in natura by the most diverse sectors of the population, and their high perishability lead to high indexes of postharvest losses, leading to prejudice for the producers of this fruit. Thus the objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of the drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C and the final moisture content (20 and 25% on the chemical and sensory characteristics of dried jackfruit. The overall results obtained showed that the dehydrated jackfruit had a dry matter content of from 74.2 to 80.9%, ash content from 3.1 to 3.8%, protein content from 3.2 to 6.6%, fat content from 0.09 to 1.2% and carbohydrate content from 89.8 to 92.4%. The sensory evaluation showed that the most accepted product (average of 5.95 was dehydrated at 50 °C, with a final moisture content of 20%, showing that this could be a food alternative for areas producing jackfruit.

  13. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9 ± 3.6-85.6 ± 0.9) and trehalose (62.3 ± 0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1 ± 1.4-39.8 ± 1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61 ± 2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding.

  14. MicroRNA-21 is induced by rapamycin in a model of tuberous sclerosis (TSC and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM.

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    Anil J Trindade

    Full Text Available Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM, a multisystem disease of women, is manifest by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells in the lung resulting in cystic lung destruction. Women with LAM can also develop renal angiomyolipomas. LAM is caused by mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex genes (TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in hyperactive mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR signaling. The mTOR inhibitor, Rapamycin, stabilizes lung function in LAM and decreases the volume of renal angiomyolipomas, but lung function declines and angiomyolipomas regrow when treatment is discontinued, suggesting that factors induced by mTORC1 inhibition may promote the survival of TSC2-deficient cells. Whether microRNA (miRNA, miR signaling is involved in the response of LAM to mTORC1 inhibition is unknown. We identified Rapamycin-dependent miRNA in LAM patient angiomyolipoma-derived cells using two separate screens. First, we assayed 132 miRNA of known significance to tumor biology. Using a cut-off of >1.5-fold change, 48 microRNA were Rapamycin-induced, while 4 miRs were downregulated. In a second screen encompassing 946 miRNA, 18 miRs were upregulated by Rapamycin, while eight were downregulated. Dysregulation of miRs 29b, 21, 24, 221, 106a and 199a were common to both platforms and were classified as candidate "RapamiRs." Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed that these microRNA were increased. miR-21, a pro-survival miR, was the most significantly increased by mTOR-inhibition (p<0.01. The regulation of miR-21 by Rapamycin is cell type independent. mTOR inhibition promotes the processing of the miR-21 transcript (pri-miR-21 to a premature form (pre-miR-21. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that Rapamycin upregulates multiple miRs, including pro-survival miRs, in TSC2-deficient patient-derived cells. The induction of miRs may contribute to the response of LAM and TSC patients to Rapamycin therapy.

  15. Effects of supplementing a basal diet of Chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some nutritional parameters in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupangwa, J F; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2000-08-01

    Growth and digestibility experiments were conducted on growing East African type goats offered Chloris gayana hay supplemented with one of three high-protein (119-128 g CP/kg DM) legume hays, Cassia rotundifolia (cassia), Lablab purpureus (lablab) or Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro), and crushed maize to investigate the feed intake, digestibility, growth and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Goats in the supplemented groups had higher total dry matter and nitrogen intakes and higher N retention and body mass gains than unsupplemented counterparts. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were increased by protein supplementation. Animals on supplemented diets had higher fractional outflow rates of particulate matter from the rumen. The production of protein by ruminal microbes and the efficiency of microbial N production were increased by supplementation. It was concluded that a mixture of low-quality grass hay (61.9 CP/kg DM) and either cassia, lablab or siratro hay, and maize grain can provide a productive balanced diet for growing goats.

  16. Research on the Isolation, Identification and N-hexadecane Biodegrading Characteristics of Gordonia sp.LAM0048%Gordonia sp.LAM0048的分离鉴定及其降解正十六烷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小蓉; 阮志勇; 王彦伟; 王慧敏; 郭翔; 孔德龙; 邵承斌

    2015-01-01

    以正十六烷为唯一碳源,从长期受石油污染的土壤中筛选到一株高效降解正十六烷的菌株LAM0048。通过形态学观察、生理生化试验、细胞化学组分分析、16S rRNA基因序列分析、细胞脂肪酸和极性脂试验,确定其属于棒杆菌亚目( Corynebacterineae)、诺卡菌科( Nocardiaceae)、戈登氏属( Gordonia),且可能为戈登氏属的一株新种。采用单因素实验对菌株LAM0048在无机盐培养基中降解正十六烷的降解率进行初步探讨,发现该菌株能在以正十六烷为唯一碳源的培养基中生长,菌株LAM0048能够在36 h内完全降解0.05%( V/V)的正十六烷,当烷烃浓度达到1.0%( V/V)时,降解率达46.4%。结果表明LAM0048是一株具有耐受高浓度烷烃的石油降解菌,在石油污染环境的微生物修复中具有一定的应用潜力。%An n-hexadecane-degrading bacterium LAM0048 was isolated from hydrocarbon-polluted soil by using n-hexadecane as sole carbon source.Based on analyses of the morphological, physiological and biochemical character, cellular chemical composition, 16S rRNA sequences, strain LAM0048 was suggested to represent a member of the genus Gordonia of family Nocardiaceae, suborder Corynebacterineae.Comparative analysis of the fatty acids and polar lipid composition revealed that LAM0048T was a novel species within the genus Gordonia.Study on the degradation efficiency of strain LAM0048 with different n-hexadecane concentration indicated that strain LAM0048 was able to degrade 100%of n-hexadecane in the mineral medium containing 0.05%( V/V) n-hexadecane after 36 h incubation at 30℃, and was able to degrade 46.4%of n-hexadecane in the mineral medium containing 1.0% ( V/V ) n-hexadecane.The new isolate was an alkane-degrading bacterium with highly concentration of alkane tolerance ability,and may provide new insight into microbial degradation of alkane.

  17. Fractal dimension does not adequately describe the complexity of leaf margin in seedlings of Quercus species

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    Camarero, Jesús Julio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We quantified the complexity of leaf margin in a set of Quercus tree species using fractal dimension estimated by the box-counting method (FDb. Leaves were sampled from seedlings in a set of 15 Quercus species with a wide range of leaf morphology (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q.faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber, and Q. velutina. To describe leaf-edge roughness, we used simple indices: P/L - the ratio of leaf perimeter (P to maximum leaf length (L along the main nerve; P/A - the ratio of leaf perimeter to leaf-blade area (A and its dimensionless version (P/A0'; and WM/Wm -the ratio of maximum distance from the lobe tip to the main nerve (WM to minimum distance from the lobe incision to the main nerve (Wm. There was a strong positive relationship between FDb and P/A. Clustering analysis revealed the existence of three groups of leaves, namely those with: smooth or spiny margins (e.g., Q. coccifera, Q. velutina, shallow lobes (e.g., Q. petraea, and deep lobes (e.g., Q. pyrenaica. In the studied Quercus species, the ratio WM/Wm is a simple and suitable leaflobation index. It is suggested that the flux rate along the leaf edge is related to the complexity of this boundary.Se ha cuantificado la complejidad del margen de las hojas de varias especies arboreas del genero Quercus utilizando la dimension fractal estimada mediante el modo del recuento de cajas (FDb. Se tomaron hojas procedentes de plantulas pertenecientes a 15 especies de Quercus con un amplio rango de morfologfa foliar (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q. faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber y Q. velutina. Se usaron varios Indices sencillos para describir la complejidad del borde de la hoja: P/L, la relation entre el perimetro foliar (P y la longitud

  18. Characterization of Acorn Fruit Oils Extracted from Selected Mediterranean Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rousan, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to identifying the acorn fruit oil composition of three Mediterranean white oak group species, Quercus aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI, and Quercus calliprinus (QC. Samples were estimated for the oil contents of acorn fruits, oil chemical and physical constants, fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and sterols.The oil content, expressed as dry weight, was found to be 3.40-7.51%. The physical and chemical constants included specific gravity 0.912-0.922, refractive index 1.4529-1.4645, specific extinction at 232 nm 2.497-2.536 and at 270 nm 1.495-2.037, iodine value 75.2-87.6, and saponification value 192.6-219.4. The fatty acid compositions were determined by GC as methyl esters. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (53.3-56.1%, linoleic 21.3-23.4%, palmitic 17.8-18.7%, linolenic 1.5-1.6% and stearic acid 1.02-1.60%. The Tocopherol content was high in the range of 1440-1783 mg kg-1, γ-tocopherol constituted 84-91% of total tocopherols. Phenolic compounds were in remarkable amounts in all the three species 84-109 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil. Total sterol contents were between 2040-2480 mg kg-1 oil, with β-sitosterol being the main component comprising of 77.20-84.61%, followed by ∆5-avenasterol (5.8-11.4%, campesterol (3.6-4.5%, and stigmasterol (2.6-3.8. The cholesterol content was relatively high (0.42-0.55%.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la composición de aceites de bellota de tres especies del grupo del roble blanco del Mediterráneo, Quercus Aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI y Quercus calliprinus (QC. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por el contenido de aceite, parámetros físico-químicos del aceite, perfil de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, compuestos fenólicos y esteroles. El contenido de aceite, expresado en peso seco encontrado fue de 3,40 a 7,51%. Las constantes físico-químicas fueron: densidad 0,912-0,922, índice de refracción 1,4529 a 1,4645, extinción espec

  19. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadi, Ravindra V; Gadge, Navneet B; Alagawadi, K R; Savadi, Rudraprabhu V

    2006-04-21

    In India, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)) is commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied in male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats was also significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment using aqueous and alcoholic extracts. The results indicate that the root-wood of Moringa oleifera is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity.

  20. Responses of Moringa oleifera Lam. plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi and submitted to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séfora Gil Gomes Farias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was to verify the efficiency of mycorrhizal in Moringa oleifera Lam. plants submitted to water deficit. The experiment was conducted in screenhouse distributted a completely randomized design in a 4x2 factorial with four replications. The first factor was the treatment of inoculation with Glomus etunicatum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, an indigenous community treatment and control (without inoculation. The second factor was the treatment of irrigation and water deficit. Plant height, accumulation of dry weight in the shoots, roots and total and mycorrhizal efficiency were evaluated. The plants inoculated with Glomus etunicatum increases in height, biomass and biomass underground when not subject to water stress. There was no contribution of mycorrhizae to increase the resistance of plants to water deficit, independent of the fungus employee. The efficiency of plants in mycorrhizal, was variable according to the species of fungi used.

  1. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera.

  2. In vitro antioxidant studies of Begonia malabarica Lam. and Begonia floccifera Bedd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Velusamy Kalpanadevi; Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Begonia malabarica Lam. and Begonia floccifera Bedd. whole plant.Methods:Total phenolic content was estimated using the Folin Ciocalteu method. The flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride. In vitro antioxidant activities and reducing power capacity were determined using standard methods. Results: The total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated. The methanol extracts of whole plants of Begonia malabarica and Begonia floccifera showed potent in vitro antioxidant activities using various models viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide and ABTS radical scavenging activity. Conclusions: The present study confirmed that methanol extracts have potential in vitro antioxidant activity. The phytochemical phenolics and flavonoids could be the reason for its antioxidant activity.

  3. Biosorption and removal of chromium from water by using moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Meneghel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of chromium from contaminated aqueous solutions by using Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm calculated to be 3.191 mg g-1 for the biosorbent. Activated carbon was used for comparison purposes in addition to the biosorbent. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model for both adsorbents. The average desorption value indicated that both the biosorbent and activated carbon have a strong interaction with the metal. The results showed that the biosorbent has advantages owing to its low cost and efficiency in Cr3+ removal from contaminated waters.

  4. Evaluation of anti-pyretic potential of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam

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    Sutar N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the anti-pyretic effect of an ethanol extract of seeds, of Moringa oleifera Lam. belonging to the family of Moringiaceae, at normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia, in albino rats. An yeast suspension (10 ml/kg body wt. increased rectal temperature 19 hours after the subcutaneous injection. The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera , at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. p.o., showed significant dose-dependent reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature. The effect extended up to five hours after drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera was comparable to that of paracetamol (150 mg/kg body wt., p.o., a standard anti-pyretic agent.

  5. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  6. Screening of Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Leaves (Jackfruit in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability is probably the most distinct characteristics of life which may be defined as sum of all nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it; fundamentally it was a physiological response; primary object of which was to maintain life and to re-establish the normal state. Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. was evaluated by using Eddy’s hot plate method and Swimming endurance test at the dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kg in Swiss albino mice respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of A. heterophyllus were administered to the experimental animals among which the methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus leaves have shown to be exhibit significant analgesic and immunomodulator effect by paw licking and increasing the swimming or survival time (P<0.001 respectively in mice.

  7. DIFFERENT SUBSTRATA EFFECTS IN THE GERMINATION OF Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM. URB. (BOMBACACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of different substrata in the germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae. The experiment was conducted in delineation randomized with three treatments (substratum and four repetitions of 25 seeds. The following substrata had been tested: sand + vermiculite (1:1; vermiculite and, sand + shavings (1:1. The effect of substrata through the percentage of germination of the seeds, average time of germination and index of germination speed (IGS were evaluated. There had been significant difference between the treatments in of all the observed variable. The seeds, when conditioned in vermiculite, had presented the biggest tax of germination, greatest speed and lowest germination time.

  8. Investigation of chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

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    F. Yousefbeyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ziziphora clinopodioides is a perennial herb and grows widely in west and northwest of Iran. The aerial parts are used as appetizer, carminative and antiseptic as well as for the treatment of medical conditions such as high blood pressure, asthma hyperhidrosis, palpitation and insomnia Methods: The aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were extracted by ethanol (70% and fractionated by n-hexane. The n-hexane fraction was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. This fraction and the total extract were further investigated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against HT-29 (colon carcinoma, K-562 (leukemia, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cells using MTT assay. Results:  Nineteen compounds were identified by GC/MS. The main constituents of the n-hexane fraction were pulegone (24.35%, menthol (14% and menthone (9.61%. The results of cytotoxicity evaluation showed that the n-hexane fraction strongly exhibited cytotoxic activity against T-47D and K-562 cells with IC50 value of 77.41±12.89 and 80±2.56 μg/mL. The total extract did not show considerable activity against any of the cell lines in comparison to the n-hexane fraction. Conclusion: The presence of compounds such as pulegone, menthol and menthone could explain the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane fraction of Z. clinopodioides Lam on K-562, T-47D and HT-29 cell lines.

  9. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  10. Chemotherapeutic potential of the volatile oils from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Saulo L; Figueiredo, Patrícia M S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2007-12-08

    In this work, the anti-tumor properties of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves and some terpenes (alpha-humulene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice with 20 mg/kg of the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene for 4 days has significantly increased survival, whereas administration of alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were ineffective in affording protection. Volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene exhibited little direct activity against Ehrlich tumor cells in vitro, while alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene did not such activity. Investigation of the effects of the volatile oil (and terpenes) treatment on total natural killer cells (NK cell) activity from tumor-bearing mice as a possible mechanism of these compounds in vivo revealed that volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene significantly improved NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1, a Moloney virus-induced mouse T-cell lymphoma of A/SN origin and Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene reversed this effect when mice were treated with 20-mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. Summing up, volatile oil exhibits anti-tumor efficacy and significative immunomodulatory action in vivo, which may be related to beta-caryophyllene associated to the synergism of other natural compounds presented in volatile oil from Z. rhoifolium Lam leaves.

  11. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

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    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  12. Fitotoxicidad del fosfonato en brinzales de encina Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Inmaculada; Porras Tejero, Carlos Javier; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V.; Ariza-Mateos, David; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2007-01-01

    El fosfonato es un fertilizante foliar que ha sido utilizado con éxito en el control de P. cinnamomi en varias especies forestales. Aunque se considera que los fosfonatos tienen un bajo nivel de toxicidad, se han observado síntomas de daños en varias especies y utilizando distintos métodos de aplicación. En este trabajo se estudia la fitotoxicidad de los fosfonatos en brinzales de Quercus ilex. Se han ensayado dos concentraciones de fosfonato, 10 y 15 g l-1, y se han realizado medidas de la f...

  13. Caracterización energética de Quercus robur L.

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, Alberto Jesús

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis se buscan justificaciones sólidas que respalden la implantación de un proceso de silvicultura eficaz aplicable a las masas de Quercus con el doble objetivo de sanearlas a la vez que extraer de ellas biomasa forestal de calidad utilizable en procesos de producción energética a pequeña escala. Para conseguir estos dos objetivos debemos primero plantear la importancia actual del carballo en Galicia en su contexto más global y justificar así una inversión importante en labores silví...

  14. Intrapopulation and Interpopulation Genetic Variation ofQuercus in Denmark in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Jensen, Jan Svejgaard

    2001-01-01

    Native Danish oak stands are fragmented and decreasing because of the extensive use of foreign seed sources. Therefore, the population structure of natural Danish oak stands was analysed by means of six polymorphic enzyme loci. A total of 17 stands of Quercus robur L. (including an ‘‘outgroup......-Weinberg proportions, suggesting a low level of inbreeding. The differentiation of the Q. petraea and Q. robur populations was quanti. ed with Wright's F-statistics. The within-species component was populations was quanti. ed with Wright's -statistics. The within-species component was low, 0.022, re¿ ecting the wind...

  15. Drying of the aqueous extract of acorn Quercus robur in a spout-fluid bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the chemical investigations of variously treated acorn samples are presented in this paper with the aim of obtaining data on the amount of nutritious components and biologically active substances. The Quercus robur acorn, which belongs to the Fagaceae family, was investigated in a raw, thermally treated form and as an extract that was subsequently dried in a dryer with a fluidized bed. The obtained results regarding the content of tannin, nitrogen containing compounds, macro- and microelements indicate that acorn maintains its functional characteristics after the investigated treatments.

  16. Comparison between ethanol and hexane for oil extraction from Quercus suber L. fruits

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    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to (i evaluate the feasibility of replacing n-hexane with ethanol for the extraction of oil from Quercus suber fruits and (ii optimize, at lab scale, sample preparation and extraction time for both solvents used (n-hexane vs. anhydrous ethanol. For both solvents, the effect of the conditioning process on extraction yield was evaluated. Therefore, a full factorial design was used as a function of four variables: dehulling (with vs. without husks, and thermal treatment of the crushed material (40ºC vs. 75ºC, at different times (5 min vs. 120 min and pressures (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Higher oil yields were obtained with n-hexane when dehulled fruits were conditioned under atmospheric pressure. Better yields were obtained with n-hexane, when dehulled material was treated at 75ºC for 90 min. Ethanol was not adequate for oil extraction from Quercus fruits, since other materials rather than oil were also extracted.El objetivo de este estudio fue (i evaluar la posibilidad de reemplazar el n-hexano por el etanol para la extracción del aceite de los frutos de Quercus suber y (ii optimizar, a escala de laboratorio, la preparación de la muestra y el tiempo de extracción para ambos solventes (n-hexano vs. etanol anhidro. Para ambos solventes, se ha evaluado el efecto del proceso de acondicionamiento en el rendimiento de la extracción. Para ello, se ha empleado un diseño factorial completo como función de cuatro variables: descascarillado (con vs sin cascarilla, y tratamiento térmico del material triturado (40ºC vs. 75ºC, a diferentes tiempos (5 min vs. 120 min y presiones (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Los rendimientos más elevados de extracción de aceite se obtuvieron con n-hexano cuando los frutos descascarillados se acondicionaron a presión atmosférica. Cuando el material descascarillado fue tratado a 75ºC por 90 min, se obtuvieron mejores rendimientos con n-hexano. El etanol demostró no ser adecuado para la

  17. Genetic transformation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) for herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rubén; Alvarez, José M; Humara, Jaime M; Revilla, Angeles; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2009-09-01

    The bar gene was introduced into the cork oak genome. Cork oak embryogenic masses were transformed using the Agrobacterium strain AGL1 which carried the plasmid pBINUbiBar. This vector harbours the genes, nptII and bar, the latter under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The transgenic embryogenic lines were cryopreserved. Varying activities of phosphinothricin acetyl transferase were detected among the lines, which carried 1-4 copies of the insert. Molecular and biochemical assays confirmed the stability and expression of the transgenes 3 months after thawing the cultures. These results demonstrate genetic engineering of herbicide tolerance in Quercus spp.

  18. Histological investigation of the multiplication step in secondary somatic embryogenesis of Quercus robur L.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Standardized explants composed of hypocotyl and root-tip were prepared from embryonic structures obtained from one embryogenic line of Quercus robur L. maintained by regular transfer onto a solidified reference medium composed of the MS mineral solutions, glucose (0.12 M), casamino acid (0.1% ), and NAA (10.74 $\\mu$M). The regeneration capacity from these explants were tested on the reference medium and on 2 alternative media in which the NAA (10.74 $\\mu$M) was omitted...

  19. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. Pathogenity evaluation on Solanum quitoense Lam. Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.Presence of plant disease caused by pathogens on 42 clones of Solanum quitoense Lam. were evaluated in the north-western region of Popayán, Colombia. The seed of the clons were planted in plastic bags during three weeks and afterwards transplanted to the field. The statistical design

  20. Influencia del clima y la humedad de suelo en la fenología del crecimiento secundario de encina (Quercus iles Lam.) en un gradiente climático peninsular

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Piqué, Javier; Alejano, Reyes; Benavides, Raquel; Martín, Daniel; Lopez Carrasco, Celia; Macías, Rocio; González, Aranzazu; Mutke Regneri, Sven; Roig Gómez, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    La cuantificación del crecimiento de las especies forestales es fundamental para desarrollar una selvicultura basada en criterios técnicos y científicos. El análisis de cómo influyen los factores edafoclimáticos en dicho crecimiento posibilita el paso de modelos de crecimiento estrictamente empíricos a modelos con un mayor componente ecofisiológico, permitiendo un estudio en mayor detalle de las relaciones suelo-clima-planta. Este conocimiento facilita una posterior incorporación a estos mode...

  1. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented.

  2. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  3. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  4. Polyphenol deposition in leaf hairs of Olea europaea (Oleaceae) and Quercus ilex (Fagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabourniotis, G; Kofidis, G; Fasseas, C; Liakoura, V; Drossopoulos, I

    1998-07-01

    The subcellular localization (cytoplasm, vacuoles, cell walls) of polyphenol compounds during the development of the multicellular nonglandular leaf hairs of Olea europaea (scales) and Quercus ilex (stellates), was investigated. Hairs of all developmental stages were treated with specific inducers of polyphenol fluorescence, and the bright yellow-green fluorescence of individual hairs was monitored with epifluorescence microscopy. During the early ontogenetic stages, bright fluorescence was emitted from the cytoplasm of the cells composing the multicellular shield of the scales of O. europaea. Transmission electron micrographs of the same stages showed that these cells possessed poor vacuolation and thin cell walls. The nucleus of these cells may be protected against ultraviolet-B radiation damage. The progressive vacuolation that occurred during maturation was followed by a shifting of the bright green-yellow fluorescence from the perinuclear region and the cytoplasm to the cell walls. The same trends were observed during the development of the nonglandular stellate hairs of Quercus ilex, in which maturation was also accompanied by a considerable secondary thickening of the cell walls. Despite the differences in morphology, high concentrations of polyphenol compounds are initially located mainly in the cytoplasm of the developing nonglandular hairs, and their deposition on the cell walls takes place during the secondary cell wall thickening. These structural changes during the development of the leaf hairs make them a very effective barrier against abiotic (uv-B radiation) and probably biotic (pathogenic) stresses.

  5. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L. used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.

  6. Photosynthesis of Quercus suber is affected by atmospheric NH3 generated by multifunctional agrosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Da Silva, Anabela Bernardes; Flexas, Jaume; Dias, Teresa; Zarrouk, Olfa; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Cruz, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Montados are evergreen oak woodlands dominated by Quercus species, which are considered to be key to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. This ecosystem is often used for cattle breeding in most regions of the Iberian Peninsula, which causes plants to receive extra nitrogen as ammonia (NH(3)) through the atmosphere. The effect of this atmospheric NH(3) (NH(3atm)) on ecosystems is still under discussion. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an NH(3atm) concentration gradient downwind of a cattle barn in a Montado area. Leaves from the selected Quercus suber L. trees along the gradient showed a clear influence of the NH(3) on δ(13)C, as a consequence of a strong limitation on the photosynthetic machinery by a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll conductance. A detailed study of the impact of NH(3atm) on the photosynthetic performance of Q. suber trees is presented, and new mechanisms by which NH(3) affects photosynthesis at the leaf level are suggested.

  7. Post-fire ecological restoration of a mixed Pinus-Quercus forest in northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alanís-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se desarrolló en un bosque de Pinus-Quercus en el Parque Ecológico Chipinque (noreste de México, el cual fue afectado por un incendio forestal y sometido a tratamiento de restauración ecológica. Los objetivos fueron evaluar el establecimiento artificial de Pinus pseudostrobus (Lindl. y analizar el efecto de las barreras de retención de suelo después de 10 años de su instalación. Para ello se estableció un área de estudio con tratamiento de restauración ecológica y otra área sin tratamiento en las que se muestreó la comunidad vegetal y la profundidad del suelo. De acuerdo con los resultados, se registró 35 % de supervivencia de la plantación, la cual se considera como no aceptable. Las barreras de retención de suelo tuvieron efecto positivo, pues incrementaron la profundidad del suelo hasta 25 %. Con la investigación se concluye que las técnicas de restauración post-incendio aplicadas han sido eficaces, ya que incorporan una especie clave de ecosistemas maduros y evitan la pérdida de suelo por arrastre, por lo que se recomienda su uso en rodales de Pinus-Quercus afectados por incendios en la Sierra Madre Oriental.

  8. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    O estudo fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, resultou no isolamento dos derivados benzilnitrilas niazirina, niazirinina e 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila, enquanto que das cascas dos frutos somente o octacosano foi obtido. Os óleos essenciais das folhas, flores e frutos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Os constituintes principais identificados foram: fitol (21,6%) e timol (9,6%) nas folhas, octadecano (27,...

  9. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  10. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  11. Isolation, characterization and pharmacological activity of Magydaris pastinacea (Lam.) Paol. glucosides

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, Riccardo; Pintore, Giorgio Antonio Mario; Dessì, Giuseppina; Asproni, Battistina; Piseddu, Gavino; Sini, Silvia

    1995-01-01

    The glycoside fraction of fresh rhizomes from Magydaris pastinacea (Lam.) Paol. was separated from the alcoholic extract using the method of Kobayashi et al. The fraction was found to have six main constituents, the most abundant of which had previously been isolated and identified as 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-(2',3'-dihydroxy-3-methyl-butylcoumarin). The present paper describes the separation and characterization of the other constituents, all with coumarin or furancoumarin structures....

  12. Karyotypes of two cytotypes of Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. (Poaceae): an alternative technique for small chromosomes in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Speranza; Magdalena Vaio; Cristina Mazzella

    2003-01-01

    Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. is a bunchgrass native to Uruguay, Argentina, and southern Brazil. Diploid, triploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes have been reported for this species of the Quadrifaria group of Paspalum. In this group, a high degree of cytogenetic homology between the genomes of several diploid species has been reported, based on meiotic pairing in interspecific hybrids; multivalent associations would thus be expected in polyploid hybrids. Karyotype analysis could provide us...

  13. Analisis Kandungan Mangan dan Zink Pada Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Kering dan Rebus Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Faza, Afina

    2017-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is included in the family Moringaceae, the utilizaation of moringa plant in indonesia society has been a long a time, but moringa’s leaves is the most common used to be dietary fiber. Moringa contains excess nutrients for body needed, one of them is mineral such as calcium, cromium, cupri, flour, iron, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum, phosphor, potasium, sodium, selenium, sulphur, and zinc. The aim of this study is to determine the differentiation content of m...

  14. Process of nodulation and total amino acids content of leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de wit (fabaceae) at different substrates nutritives

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Alex Rezende de; rondon, josimara nolasco; Ítavo,Luis Carlos Vinhas; Piccinin, Rayssa Caldas

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/223611709196Plants of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit were evaluated for nodulation and nitrogenous compounds. The plants (n = 18) were grown on substrates of sand, in plastic tubes, in treatments with distilled water (control) and Hoagland solution for a period of five months. Growth evaluations (measures of average height and counted the number of leaves, number of active nodes) and determination of total amino acids were performed. Data were subjected to analy...

  15. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  16. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    BERNARDO MELO NETO; JOSEANA M.S.R. LEITÃO; OLIVEIRA,LUCIANO G.C.; SANTOS,SÉRGIO E.M.; SABRINA M.P. CARNEIRO; Rodrigues, Klinger A. F.; Chaves, Mariana H.; DANIEL D.R. ARCANJO; CARVALHO,FERNANDO A.A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated ...

  17. Moringa Oleifera Lam Mitigates Oxidative Damage and Brain Infarct Volume in Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Woranan Kirisattayakul; Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Terdthai Tong-Un; Supaporn Muchimapura; Panakaporn Wannanon

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: At present, the therapeutic outcome of cerebral ischemia is still not in the satisfaction level. Therefore, the preventive strategy is considered. Based on the protective effect against oxidative damage of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves extract, we hypothesized that this plant extract might protect against cerebral ischemia, one of the challenge problems nowadays. In order to test this hypothesis, we aimed to determine the protective effect of M.oleifera leaves extract in ani...

  18. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory activity and melanogenesis inhibition of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeva Nayak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. belongs to Moraceae family and is endemic to Western Ghats and Kerala in India. This species is found to be effective in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer diarrhea and pimples. However extensive biological evaluation on each component of this specific species rarely appears in the literature which restricts its applicability as medicinal herb. The leaf bark and wood of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. were separately extracted with hot ethanol. The wood extract was further fractionated to isolate major active molecule whose structure was determined from its NMR spectra and LCMS analysis. All the extracts of A. hirsutus Lam. were then studied in vitro to evaluate their potential on tyrosinase inhibition free radical scavenging activity by 11-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl DPPH method and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC. Furthermore their effects on melanogenesis inhibition were also evaluated by using murine melanoma cells. Activity guided fractionation of wood extract yielded a pure molecule that was characterized as oxyresveratrol. It was observed that antioxidant activity was higher in wood extract compared to the leaf and bark extracts. Isolated pure oxyresveratrol exhibited a significant antioxidant potential with ORAC value of 366532570 mol Trolox equivalentg and having an IC50 of 4.3 gmL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This molecule was found to be effective for the tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.1 gmL and melanogenesis inhibition in cultured melanoma cells by 44.62 at 0.2 gmL. Oxyresveratrol also exhibited significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide LPS induced tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF-amp945 secretion from J774A1 murine macrophage cell lines. This study provides substantial evidence for the presence of oxyresveratrol in the wood of A. hirsutus Lam. with promising anti-inflammatory antioxidant and skin lightening property.

  19. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Moringa oleifera Lam. EM DIFERENTES SUSTRATOS E TEMPERATURAS

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    KLEANE TARGINO OLIVEIRA PEREIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. is an exotic species, from the Indian Northeast, the Moringaceae family and has significant economic importance, with many applications in industry and medi-cine. This species spreads mainly by seed, so obtaining information on the behavior of different temperature and substrate on germination becomes essential since there is no standardized methodology for installation of the germination test. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the influence of substrate and temperature on germination and vigor of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid (UFERSA. The statistical design was completely randomized in a 5x2 factorial scheme (temperature x substrate, totaling ten treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds. The substrates were tested roll paper and vermiculite. Then the seeds were incubated at room Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D. at constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and 20-30 °C alternating with a photoperiod of 8 hours. We evaluated the percentage, the average time and the germination speed index and the shoot length and root and total dry weight of seedlings. The roll paper substrate at temperatures of 25 to 30 °C, as well as vermiculite of 30 °C temperature are the most suitable combinations to evaluate germination and vigor of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.

  20. Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Claudia; Pellarin, Gabriela; Rojas, María José; Albesa, Inés; Eraso, Alberto F

    2010-01-01

    The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax); above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU) emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC) of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively); whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.

  1. Penicillium cecidicola, a new species on cynipid insect galls on Quercus pacifica in the western United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, K.A.; Hoekstra, E.H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    A synnematous species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was found inside emergence tunnels from insect galls (Cynipidae, Hymenoptera, the so-called gall wasps) on scrub oaks (Quercus pacifica Nixon & C.H. Muller) collected in the western United States. The fungus produces synnemata with white...

  2. Effects of above- and below-ground competition from shrubs on photosynthesis, transpiration and growth in Quercus robur L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna M. Jensen; Magnus Lof; Emile S. Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    For a tree seedling to successfully establish in dense shrubbery, it must maintain function under heterogeneous resource availability. We evaluated leaf-level acclimation in photosynthetic capacity, seedling-level transpiration, and seedling morphology and growth to gain an understanding of the effects of above- and below-ground competition on Quercus robur seedlings....

  3. Distribution of Quercus agrifolia mycorrhizae deep within weathered bedrock: a potential mechanism for transport of stored water

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Bornyasz; R. Graham; M. Allen

    2002-01-01

    In southwestern California, Quercus agrifolia distribution closely matches regions of granitic regolith. High annual evapotranspiration demand and inherent shallow soil conditions lead to a dependence on a deep rooting system and an ability to access water from deep within the regolith. Most of the plant available water in weathered granitic rock is...

  4. Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bareroot Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to shortterm (1, 3, and 5...

  5. Interactive effects of O3 exposure on California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) seedlings with and without N amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Handley; Nancy Grulke

    2008-01-01

    We examined the short-term separate and combined effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (fertilization) and ozone (O3) exposure on California black oak seedlings (Quercus kelloggii Newb.), an ecologically important tree of the San Bernardino Mountains downwind of Los Angeles. Realistic concentrations of O3...

  6. Artificial regeneration of major oak (Quercus) species in the eastern United States - a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Douglass Jacobs; Ken McNabb; Gary W. Miller; V. Baldwin; G. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Although natural regeneration is often the best method for establishing new oak (Quercus spp.) stands, there are increasingly more situations in which high potential for oak regeneration failure dictates the use of artificial regeneration including direct seeding and planting seedlings. Additionally, afforestation planting programs frequently...

  7. Effects of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L. and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Mattusch. Liebl. on the forest soil chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltner Stanislav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L. is one of the most important introduced tree species in the Czech Republic, occupying about 6,000 ha with ca. 900,000 m3 of the standing volume. The presented study aims to evaluate its soil forming effects on natural oak sites. Soil chemistry of the upper soil layers (F+H, Ah, B horizons was studied in three pairs of stands of both species. In each stand, four bulk samples were taken separately for particular horizons, each consisting of 5 soil-borer cores. The soil characteristics analysed were: pH (active and potential, soil adsorption complex characteristics (content of bases, exchangeable cation capacity, base saturation, exchangeable acidity (exchangeable Al and H, total carbon and nitrogen content, and plant available nutrients content (P, K, Ca, Mg. Total macronutrient content (P, K, Ca, Mg was analysed only in holorganic horizons. Results confirmed acidification effects of red oak on the upper forest soil layers such as decreased pH, base content, base saturation, all nutrient contents in total as well as plant-available form and increased soil exchangeable acidity (exchangeable Al in comparison to the sessile oak stands, especially in holorganic horizons and in the uppermost mineral layer (Ah horizon. Northern red oak can be considered as a slightly site-soil degrading species in the studied sites and environmental conditions in comparison to native oak species.

  8. Crecimiento de plántulas y árboles de seis especies de Quercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos principales de este trabajo son: a describir algunas características importantes relativas a los rasgos funcionales en plántulas de las especies del género Quercus, b determinar cómo varía la proporción de hoja, tallo y raíz en adultos, y c estimar las tasas de crecimiento relativo(RGR de estas especies para plántulas e individuos adultos. Para ello, usamos los datos de experimentos realizados en plántulas bajo condiciones controladas, del Inventario Forestal Nacional (IFN2 e IFN3 y de las ecuaciones alométricas desarrolladas por Montero et al. (2005. Las especies de Quercus se caracterizan por tener semillas grandes, y las plántulas presentan una baja RGR y área específica foliar (SLA y una alta proporción de raíz (RMR. Uno de los factores más importantes que explican las diferencias en RGR entre las especies de Quercus (tanto en plántulas como en adultos es la diferencia en SLA. Considerando los datos de biomasa de árboles, se observa que la proporción de hoja (LMR y de raíz (RMR disminuye con el tamaño, mientras que la proporción de tallo (SMR aumenta con éste. Si consideramos un árbol medio de 20 cm de diámetro de tronco, los valores de LMR son de sólo 1-5 % y los de SMR van del 50 al 80 %. Considerando los datos del IFN, dentro de cada especie existe una gran variación en RGR. Aun así, cuando se comparan las RGR de las plántulas con los adultos se observa una relación significativa y positiva. Uno de los factores que afectó significativamente a RGR fue el tamaño del árbol, de forma que árboles de mayor tamaño crecían más lentamente.

  9. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the replenishment of stored water of A. saccharum and L. tulipifera that was lost during the daytime. These results implied different strategies among the

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

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    Gaurav Lodhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE2 and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Daily oral administration of aqueous ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses produced a dose dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necroinflammatory changes in the liver. The QIE treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the hepatoprotective effects of QIE and silymarin were comparable and suggests that QIE could be used as a hepatoprotective agent. Industrial relevance. Research in traditional medicine has lead to the development of many modern medicines. In recent times, focus on plants research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. It is very interesting to note that there is no drug available in the modern system of medicine for treating hepatic disorders; only certain herbal preparations are available to treat this quite vulnerable disease. The situation/background thus explained above warrants for developing a safe, effective and scientifically validated hepatoprotective agent taking lead from traditional medicine, which is affordable for the rural poor

  11. A new myrsinol-type diterpene polyester from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

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    Wang, Li; Yang, Jing; Chi, Yu-Qian; Ouyang, Wen-Bin; Zang, Zhen; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Cao, Pei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A new myrsinol-type diterpene polyester, 14-deoxo-3β-O-propinoyl-2α,5α,7β,15β-tetra-O-acetyl-14α-O-benzoyl-myrsinol (1), and its known analogue, 14-deoxo-3β-O-prorionyl-5α,15β-di-O-acetyl-7β-O-nicotinoyl-myrsinol-14β-acetate (2), together with a monoterpenoid, pubinernoid A (3), two indole alkaloids, neoechinulin A (4) and dihydroxyisoechinulin A (5), two benzene derivatives, siringin (6) and (3-methoxyphenyl) acetic acid (7), were isolated from the 70% acetone extract of the aerial parts of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature reports. The absolute configuration of 1 was deduced by comparing experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Among them, compounds 4 and 5 were first obtained from the plant source. In addition, the (13)C NMR data of compound 2 was reported for the first time.

  12. Growth and Forage Value of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. under Different Organic Fertilization and Cut Intervals

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    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in two UFPB Experimental Stations (NUPEARIDO (Luvissolo Planossólico (Bruno não Cálcico and Lameirão farms (Luvissolo located in the semi-arid region of Brazil, from February to August/2000. Its objective consisted to verify the influence of organic fertilizers (bovine, goat and donkey manures, and organic compost of plants remains and cut intervals (three and six months after seedling planting in the bromatological composition of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam above ground forage. Planting of 15cm high seedlings took place in February, into 0.30m x 0.30m x 0.30m openings in the soil, arranged in a 1.5m x 1.5m grid, in the beginning of the rainy season. Plants were cut three and six months after planting. Also, new stems were cut three months after the first cutting. Collected materials were analyzed for Dry Matter (DM, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF, Crude Protein (CP, ash and Hemicellulose (HC contents. Forage from six-month-old plants showed an increased HC content when fertilized with bovine or goat manure. Forage from three-month old plants showed different NDF, ADF, PB, and ash contents than the older ones, except for stem DM and HC. Three-month-old moringa sprouts showed higher CP and ash contents than material from three or six month old non-cut plants.

  13. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLÂNTULAS DE MORINGA oleifera Lam

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    Naedja Nara Araújo Neves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró - RN, for screening the effect of substrate for germination of seeds and seedling growth of Moringa oleifera Lam. It was utilized a completely randomized design with four treatments (substrates: T1= 75% sand + 25% bovine manure, T2= 100% washed sand, T3= 75% sand + 25% worm castings and T4= 75% sand + 25% sawdust and four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in the substrates contained in wooden boxes (7,5 cm long x 23,5 cm wide x 39 cm deep. Each box was filled with approximately 6 kg of substrate. The substrates were irrigated once a day (until the tenth day, then twice a day until the end experiment (19 th day. Seedling height, root length, number of leaves, whole seedling fresh and dry matter weights, germination velocity index and germination percent were evaluated. It was concluded that the mix 75% sand + 25% worm castings was the most suitable for the initial growth of moringa and the substrate containing 100% sand provided the best germination index for this species.

  14. In vitro wound healing potential and identification of bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  15. Clinical Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Stems Bark in Urinary Tract Infections.

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    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common problem in clinical practice. Usually they are asymptomatic and are commonly present with distressing symptoms like pain and burning sensation on urination. Antibiotics are widely used to treat UTIs; however, they have their own limitations like resistance, reinfection, and relapses. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the value of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark as a potential medicine for UTIs. Study Design. 30 patients with UTI were randomly divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. Shigru bark was given to patients of the first group (trial group) and modern medicines were prescribed to the other group of patients. At least three follow-ups are taken in both groups at the end of every week of treatment. Results. After treatment 66.67 % were cured, 13.33 % improved, 13.33% patients have no change, and 6.67% relapsed in trial group and in control group 46.67% were cured, 26.66% improved, 6.67% patients have no change, and 20% relapsed. Interpretation and Conclusion. The trial drug is significant in the management of UTI. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a long time.

  16. Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled Moringa oleifera Lam. seed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parul; Kumari, Pushpa; Srivastava, M M; Srivastava, Shalini

    2006-01-01

    The present study explores the unexploited sorption properties of the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. for decontamination of Cd at laboratory scale. Sorption studies using standard practices were carried out in batch experiments as functions of biomass dosage, contact time, metal concentrations, particle size and pH. Percentage sorption in each case was computed on the basis of Cd estimation using a planar NaI (TI) detector coupled to a 4K MCA (Canberra Accuspec Card with PC-AT 386). The adsorption data accurately in a Freundlich isotherm. Sorption studies resulted in the standardization of optimum conditions for removal of Cd (85.10%) as follows: biomass dosage (4.0 g), metal concentration (25 microg/ml), contact time (40 min) and volume of the test solution (200 ml) at pH 6.5. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry highlighted amino acid-Cd interactions responsible for sorption phenomenon. The findings open up new avenues in the removal of toxic metals by shelled Moringa oleifera seeds (SMOS) from water bodies as low cost, domestic and environmentally friendly safe technology.

  17. Antifilarial activity of gum from Moringa oleifera Lam. on human lymphatic filaria Brugia malayi

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    V Kushwaha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Currently available antifilarial drugs diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole and their combinations, are not able to control lymphatic filariasis. Therefore, a better antifilarial agent is urgently required for proper management of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antifilarial activity of gum extract of plant Moringa oleifera Lam. against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using adult worms and microfilariae (mf in two in vitro assays (motility and inhition in MTT reduction for viability and two animal models, primary (Meriones unguiculatus implanted with B. malayi adult worms in the peritoneal cavity and secondary (subcutaneous B. malayi infective larvae induced Mastomys coucha, the model closer to the natural human filarial infection screens. Results: The gum extract inhibited 100% motility (irreversible loss of motility of mf and inhibited more than 56% MTT reduction potential of the adult female worms. The extract was safe in cytotoxicity test using Vero cell line, therefore followed in vivo in primary and secondary screens. In primary screen, the extract (5×500 mg/kg caused 69% macrofilaricidal and 83% sterilization of female worms and 44% macrofilaricidal activity in secondary screen (5 × 1000 mg/kg by oral route. Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that the gum of the plant is macrofilaricidal in both in vitro and in vivo and may provide valuable leads for design and development of new antifilarial agents. This is the first ever report on the antifilarial efficacy of M. oleifera.

  18. Moringa oleifera Lam prevents acetaminophen induced liver injury through restoration of glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I; Nanthini, U

    2008-08-01

    Initiation of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicities is believed to be promoted by oxidative stress during the event of overdosage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO), an Asian plant of high medicinal value, against a single high dose of APAP. Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-administered with MO (200 and 800 mg/kg) prior to a single dose of APAP (3g/kg body weight; p.o). Silymarin was used as an established hepatoprotective drug against APAP induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of MO extract was observed following significant histopathological analysis and reduction of the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in groups pretreated with MO compared to those treated with APAP alone. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione (GSH) was found to be restored in MO-treated animals compared to the groups treated with APAP alone. These observations were comparable to the group pretreated with silymarin prior to APAP administration. Group that was treated with APAP alone exhibited high level of transaminases and ALP activities besides reduction in the GSH level. The histological hepatocellular deterioration was also evidenced. The results from the present study suggested that the leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP induced through preventing the decline of glutathione level.

  19. Aproveitamento da torta da Moringa oleifera Lam para tratamento de água produzida

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    Daiane Farias Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de coagulantes ambientalmente corretos apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável na separação água/óleo. A polpa da semente do polímero natural conhecido como Moringa oleifera Lam atua como agente clarificante de águas devido à presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água. O objetivo neste trabalho foi estudar o tratamento de água produzida, obtida na extração de petróleo, utilizando o coagulante extraído das sementes moringa em meio salino e em aquoso. Os resultados mostraram que se obteve 96% de eficiência na remoção de óleo, utilizando 0,5 mL/L do coagulante extraído em meio salino; e 76%, usando 2,5 mL do coagulante extraído em meio aquoso. Isso indica que o extrato da moringa pode ser uma excelente alternativa para o tratamento da água produzida na extração do petróleo.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and Chromatographic Analysis of Extracts from Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. Tubers

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    Ritiel Corrêa da Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against a range of microorganisms. The most active extracts were submitted to chromatographic analysis. Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (70%, fractions of it, and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against several bacteria, yeasts and molds, furnishing the corresponding inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal minimal concentration values. The most active extracts were submitted to GC-MS investigation. Results: The strongest effects against different strains of microorganisms, such as Gram-positive and negative bacteria, Candida spp. and dermatophytes were observed for the essential oil and the chloroform fraction, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs well below 200 µg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that the major essential oil constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, while the chloroform fraction is constituted of BITC, amides, sulfur, fatty acids and its esters, all compounds that may be related to the demonstrated activity. Conclusions: Overall, the results support the popular use of the plant for the treatment of skin infections, and revealed the main active compounds.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

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    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  2. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was the most effective method on antioxidant activities of extracts and extraction yield of phenolic compounds compared to other extraction techniques. Protective effect of methanol-water extract of jujube leaf obtained with ultrasound-assisted extraction (ULMW) at 500 and 700 ppm in stability of sunflower oil was compared to synthetic antioxidants by measuring total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes (CD), and trienes values (CT). Results showed ULMW at 700 ppm had higher stabilization efficiency than synthetic antioxidants.

  3. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

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    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  4. Volatiles of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi Leaves Influencing Attraction of Two Generalist Insect Herbivores.

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    Sarkar, Nupur; Karmakar, Amarnath; Barik, Anandamay

    2016-10-01

    Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. The profiles of volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 48 hr continuous feeding of adult females of either E. vigintioctopunctata or A. foveicollis, by adults of both species, and after mechanical damaging were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Thirty two compounds were detected in volatiles of all treatments. In all plants, methyl jasmonate was the major compound. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays under laboratory conditions, both insect species showed a significant preference for complete volatile blends from insect damaged plants, compared to those of undamaged plants. Neither E. vigintioctopunctata nor A. foveicollis showed any preference for volatiles released by heterospecifically damaged plants vs. conspecifically damaged plants or plants attacked by both species. Epilachna vigintioctopunctata and A. foveicollis showed attraction to three different synthetic compounds, linalool oxide, nonanal, and E-2-nonenal in proportions present in volatiles of insect damaged plants. Both species were attracted by a synthetic blend of 1.64 μg linalool oxide + 3.86 μg nonanal + 2.23 μg E-2-nonenal, dissolved in 20 μl methylene chloride. This combination might be used as trapping tools in pest management strategies.

  5. Fatty acids and physiological quality of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica Lam. seed during natural ageing

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    Juan M Pichardo-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In México, 44 thousand hectares are planted with tomatillo or husk tomato (Physalis philadelphica Lam., which occupies fourth place among the country's vegetable species. However, research on this species is scarce, especially that related to the process of seed deterioration. We studied the effects of deterioration in tomatillo seed, var. CHF1-Chapingo, stored from 2-mo up to 7 yr with no climate control, 18.2 ± 5 °C and 41 ± 10% relative humidity, on physiological and biochemical variables during germination. It was found that germination, vigor, and respiratory activity decrease significantly from the first year of storage; thus, after 7 yr, germination and vigor decreased 99%, and respiratory activity of seed after 48 h imbibition decreased 78%. Linoleic acid (unsaturated content correlated positively with germination (R = 0.78** and with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.79**. Germination correlated with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.99** and with respiratory activity after 48 h of imbibition (R = 0.79**. Both respiratory activity and fatty acid content are involved in natural deterioration of tomatillo seed.

  6. Contribuição para o estudo da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam

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    R. J. de Siqueira-Jaccoud

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor, após tecer rápidas considerações sôbre Phytomonas da planta em questão e do gênero Manihot, passa a dar: métodos por êle empregados na confecção da presente nota; sucinta descrição da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam. e suas variedades; nomes vulgares por que é a mesma conhecida no Brasil; resultado negativo, por êle encontrado, nas pesquisas de alcalóide e, finalmente, descrição anatômica da fôlha e caule. Fôlha. a - limbo: epidermes com cutícula e estoma, uma camada de células paliçadicas, tecido lacunoso, ramificações dos tubos laticiferos e bainha dos feixes bem desenvolvida. b - nervura principal: epidermes com cutícula, uma camada de tecido paliçadico, bainha dos feixes em semicírculo, xilema, floema e parênquima. Caule - Epiderme com cutícula, colênquima, parênquima cortical, tubos laticíferos, esclerócitos, floema, câmbio e fibras do lenho (inclusive gelatinosas, vasos e, finalmente, parênquima fundamental.

  7. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  8. The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwa, J A; Jondiko, I J O; Minja, R J A; Bekunda, M

    2008-01-17

    Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) has been used by traditional health practitioners in East Africa for management of diseases, however, the extent of its usefulness has not been established to date. Fieldwork for this study was carried out in the Lake Victoria Basin between March and September 2006. The purpose was to collect ethnomedical information that will serve as a basis for further studies to establish current and potential medicinal uses. The ethnomedical information was obtained through interviews using semi-structured questionnaires. Consultative meetings were also conducted with traditional health practitioners and other members of the communities in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Results of this study show that Toddalia asiatica is collected in the wild, prepared mostly as decoctions or concoctions and administered orally. It is used for the management of a number of disease conditions. The most frequently cited diseases were stomach problems (78%) followed by malaria (25%). Cough (22%), chest pain (13%), food poisoning (8%), sore throat (7%), were also mentioned among other disease conditions treated. Validation studies of therapeutic claims will be carried out at a later date.

  9. The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication

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    Fitrien Husin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus.

  10. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

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    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  11. Antifilarial activity of Mallotus philippensis Lam. on Setaria cervie (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Singhal, K C; Khan, N U

    1997-10-01

    The effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. was studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm and nerve-muscle (n.m.) preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro. Both the extracts caused inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and the n.m. preparation of S. Cervi characterized by initial stimulation followed by depression in amplitude. The tone and rate of contractions remained visibly unaffected. Aqueous extract at higher concentration showed immediate reduction in tone. The concentration required to inhibit the movements of n.m. preparation was 1/5th for aqueous and 1/11th for alcoholic extract compared to that for the whole worm, suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier. The stimulatory response of acetylcholine was blocked by aqueous extract on whole worm movements. On the microfilariae the LC50 and LC90 were 18 and 20 ng/ml for aqueous and 12 and 15 ng/ml for alcoholic extracts respectively.

  12. Gene expression rhythms in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam. across an annual cycle.

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    Mohamed Banni

    Full Text Available Seasonal environmental changes may affect the physiology of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam., an intertidal filter-feeder bivalve occurring commonly in Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas. We investigated seasonal variations in relative transcript abundance of the digestive gland and the mantle (gonads of males and females. To identify gene expression trends - in terms of relative mRNA abundance- we used a medium-density cDNA microarray (1.7 K probes in dual-color competitive hybridization analyses. Hierarchical clustering of digestive gland microarray data showed two main branches, distinguishing profiles associated with the "hot" months (May-August from the other months. Genes involved in chitin metabolism, associated with mussel nutrition and digestion showed higher mRNA levels during summer. Moreover, we found different gene transcriptomic patterns in the digestive glands of males when compared to females, during the four stages of mussel gonadal development. Microarray data from gonadal transcripts also displayed clear patterns during the different developmental phases respect to the resting period (stage I with peak relative mRNA abundance at the ripe phase (stage III for both sexes. These data showed a clear temporal pattern in transcriptomic profiles of mussels sampled over an annual cycle. Physiological response to thermal variation, food availability, and reproductive status across months may contribute to variation in relative mRNA abundance.

  13. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. extracts

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    Alimpić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, and the total phenolic and flavonoid content of ethanol and methanol extracts of Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. in the whole plant and different parts, leaves, stems and flowers. The largest amounts of extract yield were obtained from the flowers, 14.14% and 12.00 % (w/w in the ethanol of methanol extracts, respectively. The ethanol extract of leaves (16.07 μg/ml and methanol extract of the whole plant (21.28 μg/ml showed the highest activity against the DPPH radical. The ethanol extract of the leaves was the richest in phenols (222.40 mg GAE/g and flavonoids (49.81 mg QE/g, whereas the methanol extract of the whole plant contained the highest amount of phenolics (180.89 mg GAE/g and flavonoids (38.15 mg QE/g. A very strong linear correlation between antioxidant activity and the phenolic content of the extracts was established. The obtained results suggest that S. amplexicaulis could be regarded as an important source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  14. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam

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    Márcia Thaís Pochapski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP, has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed.

  15. ANTIDIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PROP ROOTS OF PANDANUS FASCICULARIS LAM.

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    Jothimani Rajeswari et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of the prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam (Family: Pandanaceae is claimed as an antidiuretic by some traditional practitioners. However, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven or refuted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiuretic potential of ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularis in rats following oral administration. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from P. facicularis by percolation and cold maturation, respectively. Furosemide was used as a diuretic agent to induce diuresis. Vasopressin (ADH was used as a standard. The results demonstrated both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. facicularis and ADH significantly impaired the total urine output. However, antidiuretic potential of ethanolic extract was similar to that of ADH. The extracts caused a significant decrease in natriuresis and kaliuresis. From this study, we can conclude that ethanol extract of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis has beneficial effects on anti diuretic activity. It has the potential to impart therapeutic effect in diuretic.

  16. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen.

  17. Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet by GC-MS Method

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    Vivekraj P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet (Malvaceae commonly known as Vadathuthi. It is used as one of the most important drugs in traditional system of medicine to treat various ailments. The plant is used for to its various properties as demulcent, diuretics, anti-diabetics, anthelmintic, laxative, wound healing properties, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The present study revealed the presence of phytochemicals like Diethyl Phthalate (19.171%,Benzaldehyde 4-propyl (5.219%,Methoxyacetic acid 3-tridecyl ester (5.196%,Sulfurous acid dodecyl 2-propyl ester (0.455%,Sulfurous acid, butyl dodecyl ester (0.442%etc., from the chloroform extracts of leaves in A. hirtum. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the phytochemical present in the extracts in the preliminary level by using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The study will provide information for the correct identification of the crude drug. This will be further considered for pharmacological activities and isolation of individual components would however, help to find new drugs.The results are reported for the first time in A. hirtum.

  18. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit.

  20. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamalamma, S; Chandra, S B C; Hegde, M; Naryanswamy, P

    2008-07-22

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated, eight were selected for screening of genotypes based on the number and quality of polymorphic fragments produced. These primer combinations produced 5976 bands, 1267 (22%) of which were polymorphic. Among the jackfruit accessions, the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.137 to 0.978; the accessions also shared a large number of monomorphic fragments (78%). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis grouped all jackfruit genotypes into three major clusters. Cluster I included the genotypes grown in a jackfruit region of Karnataka, called Tamaka, with very dry conditions; cluster II contained the genotypes collected from locations having medium to heavy rainfall in Karnataka; cluster III grouped the genotypes in distant locations with different environmental conditions. Strong coincidence of these amplified fragment length polymorphism-based groupings with geographical localities as well as morphological characters was observed. We found moderate genetic diversity in these jackfruit accessions. This information should be useful for tree breeding programs, as part of our effort to popularize jackfruit as a commercial crop.

  1. Lam-Tung relation breaking in $Z^0$ hadroproduction as a probe of parton transverse momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Motyka, Leszek; Stebel, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The Lam-Tung relation breaking coefficient $A_{\\mathrm{LT}} = A_0 - A_2$ in the Drell-Yan dilepton angular distributions in the $Z^0$ boson mass region at the LHC is analyzed in the $k_T$-factorization approach. This observable was recently measured with high precision by ATLAS collaboration. Within the $k_T$-factorization approach we perform an approximate NNLO calculation of the off-shell parton hard matrix elements in which we include the leading contributions of valence quarks and off-shell gluons: the well known $q_{\\mathrm{val}} g^* \\to qZ^0$ channel and a new $g^*g^* \\to q\\bar q Z^0$ channel. The resulting $A_{\\mathrm{LT}}$ exhibits high sensitivity to the gluon transverse momentum distribution (TMD). Several gluon TMDs are probed derived from the CCFM and BFKL evolution equations, and given by QCD-inspired phenomenological parameterizations. The ATLAS data favor a simple "Weizs\\"{a}cker-Williams" (WW) hard gluon TMD with the asymptotic behavior of one-gluon exchange at large gluon transverse momenta a...

  2. Study of the Effect of Magnetic Stimulation of Leucaena Leucocephala (Lam. of Wit Seeds

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    Eduard A. Hincapié-Ladino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of third phase of experiments of seeds magnetic stimulation of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. of Wit are presented; work aimed to improving physical methodologies technically feasible, and which can be extrapolated to recovery of wild plant species with potential use. Factorial experiments were performed using levels of magnetic flux density (B of 30; 62,5; 125; 200 y 250 mT, exposure time between 0,5 y 60 minutes, number of magnetic expositions 1 and 4 times, and time between each of these, 24 hours and 7 days. Proving that in some doses the magnetic field generates a positive influence on Leucana plant development, affecting mainly root length, leaf mass and nitrogen percentage. Results show that B has a greater influence than exposure time in seed pretreatment for this species. The better responses were given to 30 mT, and it is detected that the action of magnetic stimulation on this specie presents an accumulative behavior.

  3. Bioactive Compound Evaluation of Ethanol Extract from Geodorum densiflorum (Lam. Schltr. by GC-MS analysis

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    Keerthiga Manohar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal value of the plant species. The present investigation was carried out to analyze the bioactive components from the whole plant of Geodorum densiflorum (Lam. Schltr using GC-MS technique. The chemical compositions of the ethanolic extract of G. densiflorum were investigated using Perkin - Elmer Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and about twenty one bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified. The prevailing compounds where Hexadecanoic acid, Ethyl ester (38.884 %, Ionone (7.125 %, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone (7.4441 %, 2,3-Butanediol (4.725 % and 2-Piperidinone, N-[4-bromo-n-butyl]- (4.004 %, (E-9-Octadeconoic acid ethyl ester (3.891 %, 1H-Pyrrole-2-Carbonitrile (3.778 %, Pyridinium, 1-amino-, chloride (3.305 %, 4H- Pyran-4-one, 3,5-dihydroxy-2-methyl- (3.274 and having various biological activities. This was the first report on the identification of bioactive compounds from ethanol extract of G. densiflorum.

  4. Extraction and derivatization of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) galactomannan: Optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Neeraj; Mattu, Pooja; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2016-11-01

    Water soluble gums also known as hydrocolloids are increasingly finding applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry due to their versatile functional properties. They possess considerable use in food and pharmaceutical industries as emulsifying, thickening and gelling agents. In the present investigation a heteropolysaccharide galactomannan was extracted from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) seeds by an aqueous method, characterized for its compositional analysis (mannose: galactose ratio), physicochemical and functional properties (solubility), and mechanical properties. The extracted gum was derivatized to form its carboxymethyl derivative and the method of its derivatization was optimized by varying the reaction parameters. The native and derivatized gum was characterized by FTIR, XRD, DSC, NMR, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The yield of Leucaena leucocephala galactomannan (LLG) was found to be 20% (w/w). The optimized parameters for carboxymethylation reaction (degree of substitution 0.805) were found to be 6.0g NaOH, 10.0g MCA, at 60°C for 4h. The physicochemical and functional characteristics of native and derivatized gum suggest its potential role in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., "subabul" stem lignin: Isolation, structural characterization and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearla, Srinivasa Rao; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth after cellulose. It is being used in many industrial applications due to its abundance. In the present study, lignin was isolated from the stems of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., a high biomass yielding plant using acidic dioxane under N2 atmosphere. Structural characterization of isolated dioxane lignin (DL) was performed by analytical techniques: UV, FT-IR, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. Their monolignol content was determined by nitrobenzene oxidation followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The data was compared with commercial alkali lignin (AL). The results showed that DL is of hardwood guaiacyl-syringyl (GS) type, whereas AL is softwood type with more guaiacyl units and trace amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of DL showed two stage thermal degradation profile similar to AL. The DTGmax for DL and AL were found in the second major loss event of second stage of TGA at 424°C and 404°C, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study exhibited the glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 132°C and 122°C for DL and AL, respectively. The results from thermal stability studies suggest that dioxane lignin isolated from the "miracle tree" (subabul) can be exploited in various thermoplastic industrial applications.

  6. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  7. Postharvest Quality and Physiological Behavior of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) Leaf Stalks Under Three Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yan; XU Yong-quan; DUAN Dao-fu; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    Sweet potato (lpomoea batatas Lam.) leaf stalks were cut into 20 cm length, and stored at 20, 6, and 2℃. The respiration rate, ethylene production, ascorbic acid, free amino acid, total chlorophyll content, freshness, and shelf life were determined during storage to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the quality and physiological responses in sweet potato leaf stalks. Wound responses were observed as high respiration rate and ethylene production immediately after cutting. Sweet potato leaf stalks were found to be sensitive to chilling injury manifested as browning and water-soaking on the surface at 2℃. In contrast, sweet potato leaf stalks were susceptible to senescence, exhibited by etiolating and yellowing, at 20℃. Loss in weight and chlorophyll was minimized under low temperatures. High temperatures also caused the accumulation of amino acids with a significant loss of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll. Sweet potato leaf stalks had a storage life of 16 days at 6℃, 8 days at 2℃, and 6 days at 20℃, respectively.

  8. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afzal Sheikh; Zahangir Alam Saud; Khaled Hossain; Fouzia Yeasmin; Smita Agarwal; Mashiur Rahman; Khairul Islam; Ekhtear Hossain; Shakhawoat Hossain; Md Rezaul Karim; Farjana Nikkon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice.Methods:non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M.oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice.Results:Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol.Conclusions:The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-effects of arsenic-induced toxicity.

  9. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

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    Abubakar Amali Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  10. Cytoprotective effect against mercury chloride and bioinsecticidal activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam.

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    Celestina E. Sobral-Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often utilized in genetic research, and in the last decades, it has become one of best organisms for studies of human diseases and toxicological research. Mercury chloride (HgCl2, the main representative of mercury compounds, is the target of numerous investigations, not only because of its intrinsic toxicity but also because it accounts for the toxicity of elemental mercury since the latter is converted to Hg+2 by oxidation. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Myrtaceae, known in Brazil as “jambolão”, is of great interest because of its medicinal applications, especially its leaves and fruits. The aim of this work was to characterize, by CG–MS, the chemical constituents of the essential oil of Eugenia jambolana and to evaluate its bioinsecticidal action in the Drosophila melanogaster model, as well as to determine the cytoprotective and chelating effect of the extract of E. jambolana. The results obtained here point to the potential of essential oils as a source in biological prospecting for bioinsecticides. Because of their biodegradability, essential oils can be important tools in the biological control of pests. The results demonstrated that the extract has an allelopathic effect on lettuce seeds and that its interaction with mercury chloride allows a greater growth of the radicle and plumule of Lactuta sativa seedlings, showing that this plant can provide an alternative solution to the problem of contamination by heavy metals, besides having cytoprotective potential and moderate chelating activity.

  11. Five-year efficacy and safety of tenofovir-based salvage therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B who previously failed LAM/ADV therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy; Thompson, Alexander; Patterson, Scott; George, Jacob; Strasser, Simone; Lee, Alice; Sievert, William; Nicoll, Amanda; Desmond, Paul; Roberts, Stuart; Marion, Kaye; Bowden, Scott; Locarnini, Stephen; Angus, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant HBV continues to be an important clinical problem. The TDF-109 study demonstrated that TDF±LAM is an effective salvage therapy through 96 weeks for LAM-resistant patients who previously failed ADV add-on or switch therapy. We evaluated the 5-year efficacy and safety outcomes in patients receiving long-term TDF±LAM in the TDF-109 study. A total of 59 patients completed the first phase of the TDF-109 study and 54/59 were rolled over into a long-term prospective open-label study of TDF±LAM 300 mg daily. Results are reported at the end of year 5 of treatment. At year 5, 75% (45/59) had achieved viral suppression by intent-to-treat analysis. Per-protocol assessment revealed 83% (45/54) were HBV DNA undetectable. Nine patients remained HBV DNA detectable, however 8/9 had very low HBV DNA levels (<264IU/mL) and did not meet virological criteria for virological breakthrough (VBT). One patient experienced VBT, but this was in the setting of documented non-compliance. The response was independent of baseline LAM therapy or mutations conferring ADV resistance. Four patients discontinued TDF, one patient was lost to follow-up and one died from hepatocellular carcinoma. Long-term TDF treatment appears to be safe and effective in patients with prior failure of LAM and a suboptimal response to ADV therapy. These findings confirm that TDF has a high genetic barrier to resistance is active against multidrug-resistant HBV, and should be the preferred oral anti-HBV agent in CHB patients who fail treatment with LAM and ADV. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Early morning urine collection to improve urinary lateral flow LAM assay sensitivity in hospitalised patients with HIV-TB co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina, Phindile; Randall, Philippa J; Muchinga, Tapuwa E; Pooran, Anil; Meldau, Richard; Peter, Jonny G; Dheda, Keertan

    2017-05-12

    Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included. Thus paired sample were collected from the same patient, LF-LAM was graded using the pre-January 2014, with grade 1 and 2 manufacturer-designated cut-points (the latter designated grade 1 after January 2014). Single sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and/or TB culture positivity served as the reference standard (definite TB). Those treated for TB but not meeting this standard were designated probable TB. 123 HIV-infected patients commenced anti-TB treatment and provided matched random and EMU samples. 33% (41/123) and 67% (82/123) had definite and probable TB, respectively. Amongst those with definite TB LF-LAM sensitivity (95%CI), using the grade 2 cut-point, increased from 12% (5-24; 5/43) to 39% (26-54; 16/41) with random versus EMU, respectively (p = 0.005). Similarly, amongst probable TB, LF-LAM sensitivity increased from 10% (5-17; 8/83) to 24% (16-34; 20/82) (p = 0.001). LF-LAM specificity was not determined. This proof of concept study indicates that EMU could improve the sensitivity of LF-LAM in hospitalised TB-HIV co-infected patients. These data have implications for clinical practice.

  13. [Age structure and dynamics of Quercus wutaishanica population in Lingkong Mountain of Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Shangguan, Tie-Liang; Duan, Yi-Hao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Wei-Hua; Guo, Dong-Gang

    2014-11-01

    Using the plant survivorship theory, the age structure, and the relationship between tree height and diameter (DBH) of Quercus wutaishanica population in Lingkong Mountain were analyzed, and the static life table was compiled and the survival curve plotted. The shuttle shape in age structure of Q. wutaishanica population suggested its temporal stability. The linear regression significantly fitted the positive correlation between tree height and DBH. The maximal life expectancy was observed among the trees beyond the age of the highest mortality and coincided with the lowest point of mortality density, suggesting the strong vitality of the seedlings and young trees that survived in the natural selection and intraspecific competition. The population stability of the Q. wutaishanica population was characterized by the Deevey-II of the survival curve. The dynamic pattern was characterized by the recession in the early phase, growth in the intermediate phase, and stability in the latter phase.

  14. Rapid Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles from Quercus incana and Their Antimicrobial Potential against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In current study, bioreduction of tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4·3H2O was carried out using leaves extract of Quercus incana for nanoparticle synthesis. The nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrum (UV, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis. The gold nanoparticles (GNPs were generally clumpy agglomerates of polydispersed particles, with an average size in the range 5.5–10 nm. The Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS qualitative analysis and FT-IR data supported the presence of bioactive compounds, which are responsible for the metal reduction and nanoparticles stabilization. The biocompatibility of synthesized GNPs was evaluated via antibacterial activity by using human bacterial pathogens. The results showed that synthesized GNPs showed enhanced antibacterial activity against all bacterial pathogens.

  15. Rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography of oak (Quercus robur L.) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovk, Irena; Simonovska, Breda; Andrensek, Samo; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia

    2003-04-04

    The versatile novel instrument for rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography was exploited for the investigation of oak bark (Quercus robur L.). The same instrument enabled extraction of the bark, analytical proof of (+)-catechin directly in the crude extract and also its fractionation. Additionally, epimeric flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were separated by analytical ultra-micro rotation planar chromatography on cellulose plates with pure water as developing solvent. A comparison of the extraction of oak bark with 80% aqueous methanol by rotation planar extraction and medium pressure solid-liquid extraction was carried out and both techniques were shown to be suitable for the efficient extraction of oak bark. The raw extracts and fractions on thin-layer chromatography showed many compounds that possessed antioxidant activity after spraying with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Rotation planar fractionation of 840 mg of crude oak bark extract on silica gel gave 6.7 mg of pure (+)-catechin in one run.

  16. Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten., an important host plant for folivorous lepidoptera larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulfan, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a structured analysis of lepidoptera larvae taxocenoses living in leaf bearing crowns of Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten. in nine study plots in the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Central Europe. The differences between lepidoptera taxocenoses in individual oak stands were analyzed. A total of 96 species and 2,140 individuals were found. Species abundance peaked in May, while number of species and species diversity reached the highest values from April to May and from April to June, respectively. Abundance showed two notable peaks in flush feeders and in late summer feeders. Lepidoptera taxocenosis in the study plot Horný háj (isolated forest, high density of ants differed significantly from all other taxocenoses according to Sörensen’s index of species similarity, species diversity, analysis of similarity on the basis of permutation and pairwise tests (ANOSIM, seasonal variability of species composition, and NMDS ordination.

  17. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide.

  18. QUERCUS ROBUR, Q. CERRIS AND Q. PETRAEA AS HOT SPOTS OF BIODIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina FODOR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different bipartite networks (pathogenic, ectomycorrhizal and galling insects established by Quercus robur L., Q. cerris L. and Q. petraea (Matt. Liebl. were merged in order to investigate the topological properties of the complex network, shading light on how biodiversity was organized through complex interactions. The complex network contains 290 species – 137 are pathogens (parasitic interaction, 72 are mycorrhizal fungi (mutualists and 81 species of galling insects (herbivores. Most relevant network descriptors, connectivity, nestedness and modularity were analyzed. The main network and subnetworks displayed different behaviors in terms of topological properties, three of four networks showing significant modularity (galling insects network was marginally significant in what regards modularity. High connectivity and different degrees of nestedness characterized all networks. Clustering and Non Metric Multidimensional scaling refined the information provided by network analysis showing that networks occupy distant positions in ordination space and there are differences in terms of resemblance patterns.

  19. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF QUERCUS SUBER L. IN LAZIO (CENTRAL ITALY: A CAUSALISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SCHIRONE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive statistical approach to the causalistic distribution of Quercus suber in Lazio (Central Italy, based on presence/absence data and mean values of an array of environmental variables standardized on a geographical 6,9 x 5,5 Km grid, shows that only temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope are significant. At this scale, soil conditions and aspect are apparently no limiting factors to the colonization ability of the species. A simulated potential range, based on this parameterization, identifies a larger area than the one occupied by the species today. It suggests that competition and human disturbance might account for the large gaps and discontinuities in the real range. Since inland disjunct outposts still lie either outside or at the boundary of this simulated range, their establishment is likely to have originated under macroclimatic conditions different from the present day ones.

  20. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF QUERCUS SUBER L. IN LAZIO (CENTRAL ITALY: A CAUSALISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. SPADA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive statistical approach to the causalistic distribution of Quercus suber in Lazio (Central Italy, based on presence/absence data and mean values of an array of environmental variables standardized on a geographical 6,9 x 5,5 Km grid, shows that only temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope are significant. At this scale, soil conditions and aspect are apparently no limiting factors to the colonization ability of the species. A simulated potential range, based on this parameterization, identifies a larger area than the one occupied by the species today. It suggests that competition and human disturbance might account for the large gaps and discontinuities in the real range. Since inland disjunct outposts still lie either outside or at the boundary of this simulated range, their establishment is likely to have originated under macroclimatic conditions different from the present day ones.

  1. Epigenetic marks in the mature pollen of Quercus suber L. (Fagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Viegas, Wanda; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2009-03-01

    We have analysed the distribution of epigenetic marks for histone modifications at lysine residues H3 and H4, and DNA methylation, in the nuclei of mature pollen cells of the Angiosperm tree Quercus suber; a monoecious wind pollinated species with a protandrous system, and a long post-pollination period. The ultrasonic treatment developed for the isolation of pollen nuclei proved to be a fast and reliable method, preventing the interference of cell wall autofluorescence in the in situ immunolabelling assays. In contrast with previous studies on herbaceous species with short progamic phases, our results are consistent with a high level of silent (5-mC and H3K9me2) epigenetic marks on chromatin of the generative nucleus, and the prevalence of active marks (H3K9me3 and H4Kac) in the vegetative nucleus. The findings are discussed in terms of the pollination/fertilization timing strategy adopted by this plant species.

  2. Genetic transformation of selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Alonso, P; Cortizo, M; Celestino, C; Hernández, I; Toribio, M; Ordás, R J

    2004-10-01

    A transformation system for selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA105, LBA4404 or AGL1 harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint [carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (uidA) genes]. The highest transformation efficiency (4%) was obtained when freshly isolated explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Evidence of stable transgene integration was obtained by PCR for the nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos were germinated and successfully transferred to soil.

  3. Symptoms of the naturalisation of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. in Polish forests

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    Danielewicz Władysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L., the natural range of which embraces southern Europe and Asia Minor, belongs to trees rarely introduced into Polish forests. Tree stands where it appears, established before the Second World War, can be found in some 20 localities, mostly in the western part of the country. Because this species is capable of a natural renewal in a woodland environment, a research was made to find in what conditions and how far it undergoes spontaneous naturalisation. Three study sites were chosen in the forests of central Wielkopolska. An inventory was made of mature stands of the Turkey oak and its generative renewal. Plant communities in which the young generation of Q. cerris usually appears were characterised. It was found that self-sown seedlings of this species grew at a distance of up to 2,500 m from parent trees. The highest number and the greatest density of specimens of the secondary generation of the Turkey oak were found at ‘Racot’, which is a 100-hectare, mid-field woodland island where mesotrophic habitats predominate and where about 50% of the area is occupied by communities with manmade pine tree stands. At all sites, Q. cerris penetrates primarily this type of deformed phytocoenoses, developing mostly on former farmland. It has become a permanent component of the underbrush and undergrowth in them, and in some places, it also makes up the tree layer. It was observed that in the study area, it penetrated the woodland environment much more effectively than Quercus rubra, considered an invasive species. The expansion of the Turkey oak in several of the examined localities can be regarded as a basic manifestation of its naturalisation in places where there are phytocoenoses with pine stands in broad-leaf forest habitats in the neighbourhood of parent trees.

  4. Nomenclatura popular de Quercus (Fagaceae: en los valles meridionales de Cantabria (España

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    Pardo de Santayana, Manuel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the Ethnotaxonomy and Ethnonomenclature of southern Cantabria Quercus (Q- faginea subsp. faginea, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur is presented. An extensive vocabulary associated with these popular species has been compiled. The analysis of this lexicón shows the richness and complexity of folk plant taxonomy and nomenclature. In total 28 vernacular ñames, which are different forms of 12 principal lexemes, have been compiled. Maps with the geographical distribution of the ñames let us delimit lingüistical áreas. An analysis of this rich lexicón is also presented. The meaning of the ñames, often polisemic, theiretymologies and geographical distribution is studied.Se presenta un estudio sobre la etnotaxonomía y etnonomenclatura de los Quercus (Q. faginea subsp. faginea, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robar que viven en el S de Cantabria. Se ha desarrollado un abundante léxico en tomo a estas especies tan cotidianas, que sirve de ejemplo para estudiar la complejidad y riqueza de la nomenclatura popular. Se han recopilado 28 nombres vernáculos, variantes de 12 lexemas principales. Se han realizado mapas de distribución de los nombres recopilados que permiten delimitar zonas lingüísticas. Además se presenta un análisis de este rico léxico en el que se hace hincapié en su significado, muchas veces polisémico, etimología y distribución geográfica.

  5. Considerations for Sustainable Biomass Production in Quercus-Dominated Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor; Yan, Shuai; Hochbichler, Eduard

    2013-04-01

    Our current energy system is mainly based on carbon (C) intensive metabolisms, resulting in great effects on the earth's biosphere. The majority of the energy sources are fossil (crude oil, coal, natural gas) and release CO2 in the combustion (oxidation) process which takes place during utilization of the energy. C released to the atmosphere was once sequestered by biomass over a time span of millions of years and is now being released back into the atmosphere within a period of just decades. In the context of green and CO2 neutral Energy, there is an on-going debate regarding the potentials of obtaining biomass from forests on multiple scales, from stand to international levels. Especially in the context of energy, it is highlighted that biomass is an entirely CO2 neutral feedstock since the carbon stored in wood originates from the atmospheric CO2 pool and it was taken up during plant growth. It needs systems approaches in order to justify this statement and ensure sustainability covering the whole life-cycle from biomass production to (bio)energy consumption. There are a number of Quercus woodland management systems focussing solely on woody biomass production for energetic utilization or a combination with traditional forestry and high quality timber production for trades and industry. They have often developed regionally as a consequence of specific demands and local production capacities, which are mainly driven by environmental factors such as climate and soil properties. We assessed the nutritional status of a common Quercus-dominated forest ecosystem in northern Austria, where we compared biomass- with belowground C and nutrient pools in order to identify potential site limits if the management shifts towards systems with a higher level of nutrient extraction. Heterogeneity of soils, and soil processes are considered, as well as other, growth-limiting factors (e.g. precipitation) and species-specific metabolisms and element translocation.

  6. High Genetic Differentiation among European White Oak Species (Quercus spp. at a Dehydrin Gene

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    Iacob CRĂCIUNESC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dehydryn genes are involved in plant response to environmental stress and may be useful to examine functional diversity in relation to adaptive variation. Recently, a dehydrin gene (DHN3 was isolated in Quercus petraea and showed little differentiation between populations of the same species in an altitudinal transect. In the present study, inter- and intraspecific differentiation patterns in closely related and interfertile oaks were investigated for the first time at the DHN3 locus. A four-oak-species stand (Quercus frainetto Ten., Q. petraea (Matt. Liebl., Q. pubescens Willd., Q. robur L. and two populations for each of five white oak species (Q. frainetto Ten., Q. petraea (Matt. Liebl., Q. pubescens Willd., Q. robur L. and Q. pedunculiflora K. Koch were analyzed. Three alleles shared by all five oak species were observed. However, only two alleles were present in each population, but with different frequencies according to the species. At population level, all interspecific pairs of populations showed significant differentiation, except for pure Q. robur and Q. pedunculiflora populations. In contrast, no significant differentiation (p > 0.05 was found among conspecific populations. The DHN3 locus proved to be very useful to differentiate Q. frainetto and Q. pubescens from Q. pedunculiflora (FST = 0.914 and 0.660, respectively and Q. robur (FST = 0.858 and 0.633, respectively. As expected, the lowest level of differentiation was detected between the most closely related species, Q. robur and Q. pedunculiflora (FST = 0.020. Our results suggest that DHN3 can be an important genetic marker for differentiating among European white oak species.

  7. Phyllosphere Fungi Diversity of a Native Species Desmodium spicatum and an Invasive Species Tithonia rotundifolia%普洱市入侵植物肿柄菊和本土植物总状山蚂蝗叶表真菌多样性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 何淑嫱

    2014-01-01

    Through DNA extraction, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing , the conservative 18S rRNA se-quences of phyllosphere fungi from leaves of Tithonia rotundifolia and Desmodium spicatum were analyzed .The re-sults showed that both plant species shared some common fungi species from the subclass of Chaetothyriomycetes and Heterobasidiomycete , although fungi diversity found on the leaves of Desmodium spicatum was far less when this plant was near the invader plant Tithonia rotundifolia than away from it.Also, both plant species hosted some spe-cies-specific fungi species .In particular, invader Tithonia rotundifolia hosted Graphiola phoenicis, a notorious fungi species for its damage on plant growth and development , which might facilitate the invasion success of Tithonia ro-tundifolia by inhibiting native plants .Our results thus showed that phyllosphere fungi were diverse in both richness and function for invader plant Tithonia rotundifolia and native plant Desmodium spicatum, and future study should further explore the interactions between phyllosphere microbes and host plants as well as involving mechanisms .%通过对普洱本土植物总状山蚂蝗和入侵植物肿柄菊叶表真菌混合基因组DNA的提取、18SrRNA片段的扩增、克隆筛选及测序分析等方法,构建了2种植物叶表真菌的系统发育树。结果表明,肿柄菊和不同采集地的总状山蚂蝗叶表均生活着一些属于刺盾炱亚纲和异担子菌亚纲的真菌种类。但相对于独立生长的总状山蚂蝗,与肿柄菊共享小生境的总状山蚂蝗叶表共有真菌种类大多表现出下降的趋势。且肿柄菊和总状山蚂蝗叶表各自生活着一些在种类和功能上均存在差异性的真菌种类,其中生活于肿柄菊叶表的海枣粉座菌可能通过对本土植物的抑制作用来协助肿柄菊的入侵,因此未来研究应深入探索叶表微生物与植物入侵的关系以及相关作用的机制。

  8. Investigation on the influence of foreign metal ions in crystal growth and characterization of L-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2013-11-01

    A Nonlinear Optical, good quality, single crystals of doped and undoped L-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The lattice parameters were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The identification of Cadmium ion in the doped crystals was done using the EDAX spectrum. The presence of functional group of the dopant with LAM molecule was studied using FTIR spectra. The results of UV-Vis study is used to compare the transparencies of the doped and undoped LAM crystals. The optical band gap energy of the grown crystal was also calculated. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurement with KDP reference is used to find the incorporation of metal to L-Alaninium Maleate crystals and the parent material. Also the thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by TGA/DTA spectrum. The mechanical stability of the grown crystals was confirmed through Vickers micro hardness study. By parallel plate capacitor technique, the dielectric response was studied over a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures. The various studies showed the incorporation of the impurity Cd2+ into LAM crystals and the investigations indicated that the impurity played an important role in the changes of the spectral and structural properties of LAM crystals.

  9. Antibacterial effects of Quercus Brantii fruits and Stachys lavandulifolia methanol extracts on imipenemase-type metallo-beta lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Shahi; A. Hashemi; Kh. Abdolmaleki; Z. Shahi; Sh. Amraei; H. Goudarzi; F. Fallah; S. Khoshnood

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Stachys lavandulifolia and Quercus brantii on the IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods...

  10. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    OpenAIRE

    Jain,Pankaj G.; Savita D. Patil; HASWANI, Nitin G.; Manoj V. Girase; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

  11. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae: development of granules from spray dried powder

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    Gustavo F. Petrovick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae, is a herbal specie widely used in folk medicine in the south of Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. The technological characteristics of an Achyrocline satureioides spray dried extract powder, produced in semi-industrial scale, as well as the feasibility of the granules are reported in the present work. The spray dried powder was characterized as a fine powder consisting of small spherical particles with rough and porous surface. The Hausner's factor, Carr's index, and densification index of the spray dried powder were, respectively, 1,23, 18,9%, and 27,2 mL, characterizing it as a poor flow and low density powder. The preparation of granules from this spray dried powder, through dry disaggregation method, yielded irregularly shaped granules, with a rough surface, but with better flow and compactability characteristics. These granules presented a Hausner's factor, a Carr's index, and a densification index of, respectively, 1,09, 8,16%, and 12,33 mL. The LC assay of the main polyphenols, quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin revealed that the granulation process did not changed the quantitative and qualitative profile of these constituents originally present in the spray dried powder. The comparative evaluation of the physical stability of both the spray dried powder and the granules, under relative humidity conditions of 65% and 99%, showed an expressive reduction in the humidity sorption on the granules as compared to the spray dried powders.Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae, é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular no sul do Brasil, Uruguai, Argentina e Paraguai. As características tecnológicas do extrato seco por aspersão de Achyrocline satureioides, produzido em escala semi-industrial, assim como a viabilidade da produção de granulados são relatadas no presente trabalho. O extrato seco por aspersão foi caracterizado como um pó fino, composto por

  12. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-10-01

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders.

  13. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2008-08-01

    To determine the therapeutic potential of herbal medicine Moringa oleifera Lam. family: Moringaceae in the control of allergic diseases, the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of the plant (MOEE) against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs was examined. During the experimental period, the test drugs (MOEE or dexamethasone) were administered by oral route prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% OVA. Bronchoconstriction tests were performed and respiratory parameters (i.e., tidal volume and respiratory rate) were measured. At the end of experiment, blood was collected from each animal to perform total and differential counts and serum was used for assay of IL-4, IL-6, and TNFalpha. Lung lavage fluid (BAL) was collected for estimation of cellular content and cytokine levels. Lung tissue histamine assays were performed using the homogenate of one lobe from each animal; a separate lobe and the trachea were subjected to histopathology to measure the degree of any airway inflammation. The results suggest that in OVA-sensitized control animals that did not receive either drug, tidal volume (V(t)) was decreased, respiration rate (f) was increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and BAL fluid were increased significantly. MOEE-treatment of sensitized hosts resulted in improvement in all parameters except BAL TNFalpha and IL-4. Moreover, MOEE-treatment also showed protection against acetylcholine-induced broncho-constriction and airway inflammation which was confirmed by histological observations. The results of these studies confirm the traditional claim for the usefulness of this herb in the treatment of allergic disorders like asthma.

  14. Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Estelamar Maria Borges; Carvalho, Maria Regina Barbieri; Neves, Valdir Augusto; Silva, Maraíza Apareci; Arantes-Pereira, Lucas

    2014-03-15

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a leguminous plant, originally from Asia, which is cultivated in Brazil because of its low production cost. Although some people have used this plant as food, there is little information about its chemical and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise the leaves of M. oleifera in terms of their chemical composition, protein fractions obtained by solubility in different systems and also to assess their nutritional quality and presence of bioactive substances. The whole leaf flour contained 28.7% crude protein, 7.1% fat, 10.9% ashes, 44.4% carbohydrate and 3.0mg 100g(-1) calcium and 103.1mg 100g(-1) iron. The protein profile revealed levels of 3.1% albumin, 0.3% globulins, 2.2% prolamin, 3.5% glutelin and 70.1% insoluble proteins. The hydrolysis of the protein from leaf flour employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) resulted in 39.5% and 29.5%, respectively. The total protein showed low in vitro digestibility (31.8%). The antinutritional substances tested were tannins (20.7 mg g(-1)), trypsin inhibitor (1.45TIU mg g(-1)), nitrate (17 mg g(-1)) and oxalic acid (10.5 mg g(-1)), besides the absence of cyanogenic compounds. β-Carotene and lutein stood out as major carotenoids, with concentrations of 161.0 and 47.0 μg g(-1) leaf, respectively. Although M. oleifera leaves contain considerable amount of crude protein, this is mostly insoluble and has low in vitro digestibility, even after heat treatment and chemical attack. In vivo studies are needed to better assess the use of this leaf as a protein source in human feed.

  15. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

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    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.

  16. Quality improvement of sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) roots as feed by ensilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y H; Huang, T C; Huang, C

    1988-07-01

    1. Sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) strips (SPS) mixed with maize powder (CP) in proportions 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, and 7:3 were ensiled for 1, 2 or 3 months. 2. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased during ensilage in samples of all treatments while the SPS-CP mixture (7:3, w/w) ensiled for 3 months contained the lowest TIA. 3. SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) dried or ensiled for 2 months, or ensiled for 2 months and dried, were each mixed with twice the amount of control diet (1:2, w/w) to make three diets. These three diets together with the control diet were used for a feeding experiment with rats to evaluate the nutritive value. 4. General composition analysis (including metabolizable energy), fatty acid composition and amino acid analysis (including percentage of essential amino acids) of the samples did not change during ensilage to an extent which could explain the improved performance of rats fed on ensiled diets. 5. Rats fed on diets containing dried SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) showed significantly lower (P less than 0.05) body-weight gain than rats fed on the control diet or ensiled SPS diets, at the end of the 8th week. They also showed enlargement of the pancreas. The adverse effect of SPS was associated with TIA which seemed to be prevented to some extent by ensilage. 6. The possibility that the starch of SPS may also contribute to the adverse effect cannot be excluded at present.

  17. Moringa Oleifera Lam Mitigates Oxidative Damage and Brain Infarct Volume in Focal Cerebral Ischemia

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    Woranan Kirisattayakul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, the therapeutic outcome of cerebral ischemia is still not in the satisfaction level. Therefore, the preventive strategy is considered. Based on the protective effect against oxidative damage of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves extract, we hypothesized that this plant extract might protect against cerebral ischemia, one of the challenge problems nowadays. In order to test this hypothesis, we aimed to determine the protective effect of M.oleifera leaves extract in animal model of focal cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 300-350 g, were orally given the extract once daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 2 weeks, then, they were permanently occluded the right Middle Cerebral Artery (MCAO. The animals were assessed the cerebral infarction volume and oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSHPx enzymes at 24 h after occlusion. Results: Rats subjected to M.oleifera extract at all doses used in this study significantly decreased brain infarct volume both at cortical and subcortical structures in accompany with the elevation of SOD activity in both hippocampus and striatum while only the rats exposed to the extract at doses of 100 and 400 mg kg-1 BW showed the increased GSHPx activity in hippocampus. No the changes were observed. Therefore, our results demonstrates the potential benefit of M.oleifera leaves to decrease oxidative stress damage and brain infarct volume. Conclusion: This study is the first study to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemia of M.oleifera leaves. It suggests that M.oleifera may be served as natural resource for developing neuroprotectant against focal cerebral ischemia. However, the precise underlying mechanism and possible active ingredient are still required further study.

  18. Effect of soil medium amendment on chemical composition and digestibility of Lolium multiflorum Lam.

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    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of used soil medium amendment on the background of mineral fertilizers and on the chemical composition, and digestibility of dry matter of Lolium multiflorum Lam. (‘Gaza’ variety. Experiment with the cultivation of this species was carried out in the rings of polyurethane, in four replications. For each of the pots, eight ryegrass seeds were sown. After seeds germination when seedlings reached the two-three leaf stage, negative selection was made by removing the four weakest plants and then experimental factors were introduced in the form of the following combinations: NPK – mineral fertilization in annual doses of 0.6 g N, 0.25 g P2O5 and 0.9 g of K2O per ring, B-NPK – without fertilization, UG – soil medium amendment in the form of 0.25% solution and a dose of 3.7 cm3 per ring, B-UG – without soil medium amendment. Nitrogen fertilization (34% ammonium nitrate and potassium (60% potassium salt were used in three doses, and phosphorus (46% TSP in a single dose in spring. The soil medium amendment solution was used for watering plants in a phase of shooting. The full period of this experiment was in 2009-2010. During this time, the analysis of chemical composition of dry matter yield was performed for all cuts at the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty. The using of soil fertilizer in cultivation of ryegrass led to increase the crude ash content, expand the sugar-protein ratio and slight improvement of dry matter digestibility of the tested plant material.

  19. Anti-nutritional factors in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera (Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwilo, I O; Ezeonu, F C; Ezekwesili-Ofili, J O; Igwilo, S N; Nsofor, C I; Abdulsalami, M S; Obi, E

    2014-01-01

    The evergreen plant, Moringa oleifera (Lam) has been known to have both medicinal and nutritional properties, thus its wide use in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia. The roots, in particular, have been reported to possess antibiotic, anti-tumour and anti-oxidative activities. This study therefore seeks to determine the levels of the anti-nutritional factors and other proximate analyses in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera which might be responsible for such activities. The concentrations of oxalates and phytates in the roots were determined using the methods of Munro and Bassir and Griffith and Thomas, respectively. The methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to estimate the amount of tannins, saponins and cyanogenic glycosides while the Technicon sequential Multi-sample amino acid analyzer (TSM) was used determine the amino acid concentration in the roots. Tannins (45 mg 100 g(-1)) and oxalates (17.08 mg 100 g(-1)) were present in the roots at higher levels while saponins (4.20mg 100 g(-1)), cyanogenic glycosides (2.72 mg 100 g(-1)) and phytates (0.07 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred at much lower levels. The roots contained (Mean +/- Standard Error of mean) %crude lipid (6.33 +/- 1.64), %crude proteins (5.02 +/- 1.52), %carbohydrates (76.75), %ash (4.97 +/- 0.53) and %moisture (6.93 +/- 0.58). The roots lacked the water-soluble vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine but contained ascorbic acid (48.13 mg 100 g(-1)) and niacin (5.83 mg 100 g(-1)). This study has shown that Moringa oleifera roots are rich in anti-nutritional factors and that is why they are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia and Americas for its medicinal importance.

  20. Callogenesis in leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. by 2,4-D and BA action

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    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. is a bush species of the Crassulaceae that is distinguished by its important medicinal properties. Its leaves are used as cataplasm to treat headaches and wounds. There is evidence for a hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect. Techniques of plant tissue culture have been applied to plant species that produce substances likely to be explored in pharmacology, cell suspension being the main technique. At the industrial level, this method utilizes bioreactors in order to produce secondary metabolites on a large scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D and benzylaminopurine (BA on callus induction in leaf explants of K. pinnata. Leaf fragments were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 3.0% sucrose, 0.8% agar and factorial combinations of 2,4-D (0.00, 4.52, 9.06, 18.12 µM and BA (0.00, 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 µM. The cultures were kept in the darkness at 24±2ºC for 50 days. The percentage of callus induction and the area of explants covered by callus cells were evaluated. In the absence of growth regulators, callus induction did not occur, with necrosis of all explants. The highest percentage of callus induction was 100%, obtained with the combination of 9.06 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, but the calluses covered only 25% of the leaf area. The most efficient combination was 4.52 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, resulting in 91% callus induction with 50 to 100% of the explants being covered by callus cells.

  1. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

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    Olufunmilayo E Adejumo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD. About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05 antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05 reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles.

  2. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jothimani Rajeswari; Karthikeyan Kesavan; Balasundaram Jayakar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis (P. fascicularis) Lam (pandanaceae). And provide experimental evidence for its traditional use such as rheumatoid arthritis and spasmodic. Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity was observed by carrageenan-induced edema of the hind paw of rats. Analgesic activities of prop roots ofP. fascicularis were determined using acetic acid induced writhing model and tail clip method in mice and rat, respectively. The ethanol fraction was then subjected to chromatographic analysis and a compound has been isolated and characterized byIR,1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy.Results: Edema suppressant effect of ethanol extract was found to be37.03% inhibition whereas aqueous extract was found to be 63.22% inhibition after 3 h which was nearly equivalent to that of 10mg/kg of indomethacin (67.81%). Percentage inhibition of writhing compared to control were63.15%, 54.38%, 14.90%for aspirin, aqueous extract and ethanolic extract, respectively. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts show significant activity against appropriate controls after60 min of treatment on tail clip method. The structure of the isolated compound is may be characterized as Hepta deca-5-ene-1-ol by analysis it’sIR,1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy data.Conclusions: The extracts of prop roots ofP. fascicularis produce significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this herb in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  3. Moringa oleifera Lam. A herbal medicine for hyperlipidemia: A preclinical report

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    Rajanandh MG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Herbal medicine is a use of plant’s seeds, roots, barks, leaves, berries or flowers for medicinal purposes. In this present study, leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam were evaluated for its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory and antiinflammatory activity in experimental animals. Methods: The experimental animals were divided into five groups of male Wistar rats each. The hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera (HEMO was prepared and administered orally to hyperlipidemic rats for a period of 28 days. Results: The results showed that oral administration of HEMO at two different dose level (100 and 200mg/kg/b.wt showed significant (P<0.001 reduction in elevated levels of body weight, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and similarly significant (P<0.001 increase in high density lipoprotein level. Atherogenic index was significantly reduced in the Moringa oleifera treated groups at tested dose levels. The antioxidant parameters of SOD, Catalase, MDA was significant (P<0.001 in vivo. The intravenous administration of HEMO delayed the plasma recalcification time in rabbits and also inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which was comparable to commercial heparin. The significant (P<0.001 inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-毩 and IL-1毩 by HEMO were taken as it s antiinflammatory activity. Conclusions: All these results revealed the therapeutic potential of HEMO against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis leading to various types of cardiovascular complications. Thus, Moringa oleifera can be prescribed as food appendage for coronary artery disease patients along with their regular medicines.

  4. Transcriptional response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam. following exposure to heat stress and copper.

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    Alessandro Negri

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.. Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C. In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and "microtubule-based movement" proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change.

  5. Comparison of two sampling methods when studying periphyton colonization in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Anping; LAM Kwan-sing Paul; HU Zhangli

    2011-01-01

    We used standard periphyton samplers to examine the colonization pattern of periphytic algae on artificial substrates (glass slides) in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, in dry (winter) and wet (summer) seasons. In each season, six replicated slides were retrieved randomly and replaced by new slides at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks. We thus obtained two batches of slides, both with a series of different exposure times (1 to 6 weeks): one batch was set up at the same time (start of the sampling) and the other was harvested at the same time (end of the sampling). Changes in taxonomic composition, species diversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), standing crop (in terms of cell density and cell biovolume), and abundance of the abundant algal species were monitored and compared between the two batches of slides. The succession patterns of the periphytic algae were similar between the two batches in each season, while more remarkable differences were observed between the two seasons, suggesting that either batch would be suitable for a colonization study of periphytic algae. The cell density was dominated by diatoms in both seasons, while the cell biovolume was dominated by diatoms in winter and by green algae in summer. The cell density and biovolume attributed to blue green algae was relatively small. Most of the diatom species exhibited similar colonization patterns throughout the experiment, while green algae showed different succession patterns in different seasons or sampling methods, indicating that diatoms are better bio-indicators than green algae for a periphyton colonization study. In general, the diversity indices and the standing crops reached their maximums at around week 4, and they were higher in summer than in winter.

  6. Identification of QTLs for Starch Content in Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-xia; ZHAO Ning; LI Hui; JIE Qin; ZHAI Hong; HE Shao-zhen; LI Qiang; LIU Qing-chang

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) breeding is challenging due to its genetic complexity. In the present study, interval mapping (IM) and multiple quantitative trait locus (QTL) model (MQM) analysis were used to identify QTLs for starch content with a mapping population consisting of 202 F1 individuals of a cross between Xushu 18, a cultivar susceptible to stem nematodes, with high yield and moderate starch, and Xu 781, which is resistant to stem nematodes, has low yield and high starch content. Six QTLs for starch content were mapped on six linkage groups of the Xu 781 map, explaining 9.1-38.8% of the variation. Especially, one of them,DMFN_4, accounted for 38.8% of starch content variation, which is the QTL that explains the highest phenotypic variation detected to date in sweetpotato. All of the six QTLs had a positive effect on the variation of the starch content, which indicated the inheritance derived from the parent Xu 781. Two QTLs for starch content were detected on two linkage groups of the Xushu 18 map, explaining 14.3 and 16.1% of the variation, respectively. They had a negative effect on the variation, indicating the inheritance derived from Xu 781. Seven of eight QTLs were co-localized with a single marker. This is the ifrst report on the development of QTLs co-localized with a single marker in sweetpotato. These QTLs and their co-localized markers may be used in marker-assisted breeding for the starch content of sweetpotato.

  7. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources.

  8. Removal of acorns of the alien oak Quercus rubra on the ground by scatter-hoarding animals in Belgian forests

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    Merceron, NR.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Quercus rubra L. is considered an invasive species in several European countries. However, little is known about its dispersal in the introduced range. Objectives. We investigated the significance of animal dispersal of Q. rubra acorns on the ground by vertebrates in its introduced range, and identified the animal species involved. Method. During two consecutive autumns, the removal of acorns from Q. rubra and from a native oak was assessed weekly in forest sites in Belgium. We used automated detection camera traps to identify the animals that removed acorns. Results. Quercus rubra acorns were removed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L., red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L., rats (Rattus sp., and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.. The two former are scatter-hoarding rodents and can be considered potential dispersers. Conclusions. Dispersal of Q. rubra acorns in Western Europe by scatter-hoarding animals may help the species increasingly colonize forest ecosystems.

  9. Catalytic Chan–Lam coupling using a ‘tube-in-tube’ reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Carl J; Burton, Paul M; Smith, Alexander M R; Walter, Gary C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A flow system to perform Chan–Lam coupling reactions of various amines and arylboronic acids has been realised employing molecular oxygen as an oxidant for the re-oxidation of the copper catalyst enabling a catalytic process. A tube-in-tube gas reactor has been used to simplify the delivery of the oxygen accelerating the optimisation phase and allowing easy access to elevated pressures. A small exemplification library of heteroaromatic products has been prepared and the process has been shown to be robust over extended reaction times. PMID:27559412

  10. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

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    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  11. Relationship between Neumann solutions for two-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problems with convective and temperature boundary conditions

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    Tarzia Domingo Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain for the two-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem for a semi-infinite material an equivalence between the temperature and convective boundary conditions at the fixed face in the case that an inequality for the convective transfer coefficient is satisfied. Moreover, an inequality for the coefficient which characterizes the solid-liquid interface of the classical Neumann solution is also obtained. This inequality must be satisfied for data of any phase-change material, and as a consequence the result given in Tarzia, Quart. Appl. Math., 39 (1981, 491-497 is also recovered when a heat flux condition was imposed at the fixed face.

  12. Analisis Kandungan Kalsium, Kalium, dan Magnesium pada Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Segar dan Direbus Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam that we know as Moringa is the best-known species of the thirteen species of the genus Moringacae. Minerals contained in Moringa are calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, and zinc. Moringa leaves as a source of vitamins and minerals can be consumed in a way cooked, or eaten raw or dried into powder. One of the cooking method is boiling in the water. Vitamins and minerals are easily soluble in water is a nutrient that is quick...

  13. Early markers are present in both embryogenesis pathways from microspores and immature zygotic embryos in cork oak, Quercus suber L

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Quercus suber, cork oak, a Mediterranean forest tree of economic and social interest, rapid production of isogenic lines and clonal propagation of elite genotypes have been achieved by developing in vitro embryogenesis from microspores and zygotic embryos respectively. Despite its high potential in tree breeding strategies, due to their recalcitrancy, the efficiency of embryogenesis in vitro systems in many woody species is still very low since factors responsible for embryogen...

  14. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis decne

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Y

    1984-01-01

    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the Yahudia Forest; the inventory of vertebrates; the inventory of vegetation, analysing composition and mapping; described and researched Quercus ithaburensis from various aspects, wit...

  15. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis Decne

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Y.

    1984-01-01

    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the Yahudia Forest; the inventory of vertebrates; the inventory of vegetation, analysing composition and mapping; described and researched Quercus ithaburensis from various aspects, with emphasis on phenolo...

  16. First Report of the Winter Moth Operophtera brumata on Quercus canariensis and Q. afares in North West of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaussra Mannai; Olfa Ezzine; Said Nouira; Mohamed Lahbib Ben Jamâa

    2015-01-01

    Operophtera brumata is a newly detected moth in Tunisia. It is considered the most important leaffeeding pest infesting fruit trees and deciduous forests in northern Europe. A recent outbreak of the winter moths was observed between 2009 and 2014 in oak forest in the North West of Tunisia with a peak density in 2010-2011. O. brumata was observed on totally defoliated Quercus canariensis and Q. afares. In this paper, we present a first report of this pest.

  17. Propagación in vitro de encinos mexicanos (Quercus spp.

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    Jose Silvestre Delgadillo-Díaz de León

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de ofrecer una alternativa a los sistemas convencionales de propagación, se desarrolló un protocolo para la multiplicación in vitro de cuatro especies mexicanas deQuercus, las cuales son explotadas para la producción de madera y carbón y están actualmente amenazadas. Se describe la inducción de brotes múltiples a partir de embriones cigóticos deQuercus castanea,Q. eduardii,Q. resinosayQ. rugosacultivados en medio de Murashige y Skoo-genriquecido con 6-bencilaminopurina (BA o cinetina. Los resultados mostraron que ambas citocininas afectaron la regeneración de brotes, donde la BA mostró la mayor efi ciencia. La mayor frecuencia de proliferación de brotes se observó enQ. castaneayQ. eduardii(91.7%, dando promedios de 6.3 y 6.5 brotes por explante al utilizar 3.0 y 4.0 mg l-1de BA, respectivamente. ParaQ. resinosa, la mejor respuesta fue obtenida con BA a 3.0 mg l-1produciendo 3.8 brotes por explante. Finalmente,Q. rugosaprodujo 3.6 brotes por explante con 1.0 mg l-1de BA. Los brotes fueron separados de las plántulas y transferidos a un medio basal a la mitad de su concentración enriquecido con 10.0 mg l-1de ac. indolbutírico por dos a cinco días, y luego transferidos a medio a la mitad de su concentración para su enraizamiento. Bajo estas condiciones, el 100, 100, 66.7 y 83.3% de los brotes deQ. castanea,Q. eduardii,Q. resinosayQ. rugosageneraron raíces, respectivamente. Las plántulas fueron aclimatadas a suelo en condiciones de invernadero de manera exitosa con frecuencias de sobrevivencia de 80% paraQ. castanea, 83.3% paraQ. eduardii, 73.3% paraQ. resinosa, y 70.0% paraQ. rugosa. Este método de propagación in vitro puede contribuir a la producción de plantas con fines de reforestación apoyando así la conservación y uso racional de estas especies.

  18. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

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    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  19. Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site.

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Nor Amilah, W A W; Masrah, M; Hasmah, A; Noor Izani, N J

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial activities of plants have long been evaluated for their promising use as antimicrobial agent and in minimizing the unwanted resistance effects of microorganisms. The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall crude extracts against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vitro. The screening test was determined by disc diffusion technique using sterile filter paper discs impregnated with 1 mg/ disc (50 mg/ml) aqueous and ethanol extracts of Q. infectoria galls tested on five selected MDR bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the twofold serial micro dilution technique at concentration ranging from 5.00 mg/ml to 0.01 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by sub culturing the microtitre wells showing no turbidity on the agar plate to obtain the MBC value. Both extracts showed substantial inhibitory effects against methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A slightly reduced inhibitory zone diameter was observed with MDR Acinetobacter sp. while no inhibitory effect was displayed among the extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) K. pneumoniae and ESBL E. coli isolates. A significant difference in the zone sizes between both extracts was only observed in MRSA (p antibacterial activities and may be considered as a potentially good source of antimicrobial agent especially against MDR Gram positive bacteria.

  1. Scaling-up method for stand water consumption of Quercus variabilis water conservation forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huatian; XING Lifeng; MA Lüyi; SUN Pengsen

    2006-01-01

    Single tree's sapwood scattering style and diurnal water consumption rhythm for different diameter classes were studied in a 48-year-old Quercus variabilis stand,water protection forest in Beijing.Results showed that the tree's sapwood area was closely related to diameter at breast height (DBH).Single tree's daily water consumption ascended as DBH and sapwood area increased.Daily water consumption of different diameter classes in September ascended steeply in the early morning and reached the peak around 11:00,and then descended slowly to the valley at 18:00.The course of daily accumulated water consumption was in accordance with a typical Richards model (R=0.985,8).Parameters of diameter-time equation for scal ing-up can be achieved by parameter-recovering method in the gradient of all diameter classes and at any time of a day,characteristic parameters of the course of daily stand water consumption were calculated from a modulated Richards equation derivative:Wdltl = (-7.147 + 1.174dl )[1- (-3,025.937 +di2.175)1/e(-0.01 1tj) ]1-di0.242

  2. Morphological variation of Quercus Iiaotungensis leaves in Lingkong Mountain,Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; HAN Hairong; KANG Fengfeng; MA Qinyan

    2007-01-01

    In order to study variation of morphological traits and the influencing factors of natural populations of Quercus liaotungensis Koidz.in Lingkong Mountain Nature Reserve of Shanxi region,five populations were included,and 24 morphological traits of leaf and apical bud were investigated.The analysis of variance showed that variation of all the morphological traits within population were significant,whereas significant difference existed in five property indices among populations (α = 0.05),which resulted from genetic and environmental factors.The results revealed that direction and degree of slope,average diameter at breast height in populations,and population density were the main influencing factors.Intrapopulation variation mainly contributed to morphological variation,and the phenotypic differentiation coefficient was 13.31%,which indicated low level of differentiation.But several characteristics exhibited high differentiation level,such as width of the tooth of leaf base (25.99%) and the middle apical bud (25.23%).The morphological indices,including the tooth of leaf base,leaf tip,petiole,and leaf area were precarious and changed a lot within population,which arose from the variation of individual's development.However,only two morphological indices,the middle apical bud and the tooth of leaf base,are unstable,which indicates the extensive influence of environmental factors.

  3. FENOLOGÍA DEL ROBLE (Quercus humboldtii Bonpland EN POPAYÁN (CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    CRISTIAN ANDRÉS PÉREZ L.

    Full Text Available Se realizó un registro fenológico del roble Quercus humboldtii Bonpland entre marzo del 2010 y marzo de 2011 - en el municipio de Popayán (Cauca, Colombia. La producción de flores femeninas y frutos jóvenes se presentó entre finales de marzo y principios de abril, correlacionándose positivamente estas dos fenofases durante todo el año con la temperatura (r=0,64 y r=0,44, respectivamente y en los inicios de estas dos fenofases se correlacionó con la precipitación (r=0,69 y r=0,92 respectivamente. Los frutos maduros aparecieron en mayo, aunque su cantidad se redujo hacia el final del año 2010 por el aborto de frutos en los meses anteriores. La actividad vegetativa se caracterizó por la presencia permanente de hojas nuevas, maduras, amarillas, sobremaduras y caída de follaje. Sin embargo, en agosto, debido al aumento significativo de la temperatura y a la disminución en la precipitación, se observó en los árboles caída de follaje, disminución de hojas maduras y producción de hojas nuevas.

  4. The effect of Quercus brantii gall extract on burn wound healing in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Baradaran Mahdavi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Najafi, Somaye; Zandifar, Alireza; Manouchehri, Navid; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Quercus brantii galls extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of the galls of Q. brantii was used to treat the induced burn wounds on the back of 32 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. The groups were treated by placebo, 1%, 2% and 4% concentration gall extract gels for 14 days and the efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound area, as well as histological and molecular characteristics. Results: The mean wound surface in the 14th day, in all groups treated by Q. brantii gall extracts were larger than control group and the differences were statistically significant (P=0.043). The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Analysis of nitric oxide and platelet derived growth factor concentration in wound fluids in the 5th day of study showed that there was not any significant difference between groups (P=0.468 and 0.312 respectively). Fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) concentration in the wound fluids, was significantly higher in group treated with 1% gall extract gel in comparison to the control group (P=0.026). Conclusion: Our results could not prove the significant positive effect of Q. brantii galls extract on the burning wound healing. More studies with more groups treated with different doses of the Q. brantii extract are recommended. PMID:27872712

  5. [Predicting the impact of global warming on the geographical distribution pattern of Quercus variabilis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xing-wang; Fang, Yan-ming

    2014-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Quercus variabilis in China with its climate characteristics was analyzed based on DIVA-GIS which was also used to estimate the response of future potential distribution to global warming by Bioclim and Domain models. Analysis results showed the geographical distribution of Q. variabilis could be divided into 7 subregions: Henduan Mountains, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China, East China, Liaodong-Shandong Peninsula, Taiwan Island, and Qinling-Daba Mountains. These subregions are across 7 temperature zones, 2 moisture regions and 17 climatic subregions, including 8 climate types. The modern abundance center of Q. variabilis is Qinling, Daba and Funiu mountains. The condition of mean annual temperature 7.5-19.8 degrees C annual precipitation 471-1511 mm, is suitable for Q. variabilis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values), of Domain and Boiclim models were 0.910, 0.779; the former predicted that the potential regions of high suitability for Q. variabilis are Qinling, Daba, Funiu, Tongbai, and Dabie mountains, eastern and western Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, hills of southern Jiangsu and Anhui, part of the mountains in North China. Global warming might lead to the shrinking in suitable region and retreating from the south for Q. variabilis.

  6. COENOTICAL CHAINS OF ACER PLATANOIDES AND QUERCUS ROBUR IN THE FORESTS OF NOVGOROD-SEVERSKOYE POLESYE

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    Skliar V. G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarized information on association of small undergrowth of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. and English oak (Quercus robur L. under the canopy of the forest with plants that form the grass-shrub layer within Novgorod-Severskoye Polesye. We founded that the association at certain extent depends on the type of population behavior of undergrowth and grasses. Small undergrowth of A. platanoides being the tolerant species according to the type of population behavior demonstrates negative association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. The pattern of association of A. platanoides with tolerant species depends on their vegetative mobility: the maple has positive association with species with no vegetative mobility and positive and negative association with species characterized by high extent of vegetative mobility. The undergrowth of Q. robur which is the competitive species due to population behavior shows positive association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. We estimated the coenotic parameters that are required for successful resumption of maple and oak in the region of research. We also shown that coenotic optimum for A. platanoides corresponds to the environment with weak intensity of competition in the living soil cover with thin grass layer and density of coverage does not exceed 50%. Q. robur has coenotic optimum among habitats in the herbaceous layer with domination of green moss and (or Convallaria majalis L., Fragaria vesca L. with no grains and density of coverage in living ground cover not more than 60%.

  7. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardans, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF - Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: j.sardans@creaf.uab.cat; Penuelas, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF, Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 g ha{sup -1}) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. - Drought increased biomass concentrations of As and Cd and favors exportation of some trace elements to continental waters in a Mediterranean forest.

  8. PAHs in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and PAH dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric PAH contamination on soil PAH content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and PAH dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The PAHs showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The PAHs in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, PAH dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a PAH increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene.

  9. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Archa

    2009-01-01

    A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens -- Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated) and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated). The cup-plate method was used in anti-bacterial activity of the extracts at concentration of 200 mg/ml against dental pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of most effective extracts against the most susceptible bacteria were determined using a two-fold serial micro dilution method. Methanolic extract showed maximum anti-bacterial activity against all the bacteria. The most susceptible bacteria were S. sanguis followed by S. aureus, S. mutans, S. salivarius and L. acidophilus. The MIC values showed that methanolic extract was more effective than water extract. The plant has the potential to generate herbal metabolites. The crude extracts demonstrating anti-dental caries activity could result in the discovery of new chemical classes of antibiotics. These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases.

  10. A comparative analysis of stomata and leaf trichome characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

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    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine genotype variability of leaf trichome and stoma characteristics. Leaves were sampled from seventeen pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L genotypes originating from clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, the Vojvodina Province. The pedunculate oak has hypostomatal leaves. Statistically significant differences were found for the dimensions and density of stomata. Genotype variability of stomatal dimensions was less pronounced in comparison with their density (CV = 8.88%. Stomata number ranged from 530 to 791 per mm2 of leaf area; genotypes 18 and 25 could be distinguished from the others for the highest stomata number per leaf unit area, genotype 35 for the lowest number. In all genotypes, only solitary eglandular trichomes were observed on the adaxial leaf surface while both solitary eglandular and uniseriate glandular hairs were present on the abaxial surface. Single glandular trichomes were observed in all genotypes, while some of them were characterized by the presence of two (genotypes 4, 5, 6, 16, 22, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 38, 40, and 85 or three (genotypes 16, 25, 35 hairs joined by their basal cells.

  11. A phytosociological analysis of the Quercus coccifera L. stands in south Albania (NE Mediterranean

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    Jasprica Nenad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a phytosociological investigation of the Quercus coccifera L. stands occurring along the Adriatic and Ionian coasts in south Albania are given. The surveyed stands are localized in the Thermo-Mediterranean and Meso-Mediterranean belts. On the basis of literature and unpublished data, Q. coccifera stands extend from the shoreline up to 680 m of altitude, within the Quercetea ilicis vegetation zone. According to numerical analysis, Q. coccifera stands in south Albania can be divided into two broad groups forming macchia of 3–4 m height and low shrublands [0.5–1.5(-2 m] defined primarily by degree of human pressure and altitudes. In addition, relevés from Q. coccifera stands in Albania were differentiated from Croatian and Montenegrin the Fraxino orni-Quercetum cocciferae associations. Conversely, Q. coccifera stands in south Albania share several biological and ecological similarities with those of the eastern Adriatic coast: hemicryptophytes prevailed and the chorological spectrum highlights a clear dominance of the steno-Mediterraneans. With respect to indicator values, an important differentiation from the eastern Adriatic associations was shown only in higher light intensity of the stands in Albania.

  12. Soil development in OSL dated sandy dune substrates under Quercus robur Forest (Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, J. M.; Nierop, Ir. K.; Verstraten, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal dune landscapes are very dynamic. The present distribution of vegetation and soil is the result of over 2000 years of natural processes and human management. The initial soil development was controlled by an increase of the organic matter content, which consisted mainly of decomposed roots of grasses (rhizomull), and a decrease of the soil pH to 3-4 by decalcification. This stage was followed by the development of a deciduous forest, which was dominated by Quercus robur. Since 1600 AD, a large part of the deciduous forest that dominated the east side of the coastal dune landscape transferred in expensive residential areas and urbanizations. Nevertheless some parts of the oak forest belt remained. The present forest soils are acid and the controlling soil processes are leaching of sesquioxides and storage of organic matter in mormoder humus forms. The sustainability of ecosystems is closely related to the quality of the humus form, controlling nutrient cycling and water supply. Therefore, improve of knowledge of humus form development and properties is important. We applied soil micromorphology and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to investigate more details of humus form development at two locations (Duivendrift and Hoek van Klaas) in the coastal dune area of the Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (near Haarlem, the Netherlands). However, to understand forest soil development, including the organic matter composition in the humus form, the age of the substrate and the forest is required. Therefore, we used tradition techniques as pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating but also the recently introduced optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. OSL dating works excellent for aeolian sandy deposits with a high percentage of quartz grains. The OSL age is defined as the time after the last bleaching by solar radiation of mineral grains. Or in other words, the start of a stable period without sand drifting. In the Ah horizons we

  13. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

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    Marcela Soto-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE and organic extract (OE. The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1±12.0 GAE/g. Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC; OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg and the extracts (50 mg/kg were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets.

  14. [Effects of coat and sowing depth on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Fui; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Kao-Wen; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Under shade environment in glasshouse, the effects of seed coat and sowing depth (0, 2, 5, 10 or 15 cm) on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica were studied. Seed coat had obvious inhibiting effects on the germination of Q. wutaishanica seeds. The germination percentage of uncoated seeds increased significantly, averagely by 19.4% at different sowing depths. The germination index and vigor index were increased significantly and the germination was speeded in the peeling treatment. The germination percentages of uncoated and coated seeds were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm with 78.9% and 62.2%, respectively. The germination index and vigor index were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm, while the coefficient of rate of germination were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm. Leaf area per seedling and dry mass of seedlings increased significantly in the peeling treatment compared with those in the unpeeling treatment, but specific root length decreased significantly. The shoot height in the peeling and unpeeling treatments were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm with 13.8 and 14.2 cm, respectively. With the increasing of sowing depth, the basal stem diameter of seedlings increased, but tap-root length, number of lateral root and maximum of lateral root all decreased. Sowing depth had little influence on dry mass of seedlings.

  15. Nutrient composition and starch characteristics of Quercus glandulifera Bl. seeds from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songnan; Zhou, Yibin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Shengnan

    2015-10-15

    The chemical composition and starch characteristics of acorn (Quercus glandulifera Bl.) were studied. The moisture content of acorn seeds was 7.55%. The crude fat, crude protein, dietary fiber, total ash, and nitrogen-free extract contents of acorn seed were 4.20%, 10.16%, 2.95%, 0.03%, and 82.66%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic were the most predominant fatty acids. UFA:SFA and SFA:MUFA:PUFA ratios were 2.6:1 and 1.25:1.34:1, respectively. The essential amino acid content from acorn seeds was low based on FAO reference values. Acorn seeds were a good source of Fe, Zn, and Mn. The contents of vitamins A and E were 1.40 mg RE/100g and 10.78 mg/100 g, respectively. Starch extracted from acorn seeds had round, triangle, and elliptical morphology with granule size of 3.3-126.2 μm. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin contents was 25.39:72.94. Acorn starch had a typical A-type crystal pattern with 23.53% relative crystallinity. The gelatinization temperature was 66.53 °C and the transition enthalpy was 4.33 J/g.

  16. Conservation Strategies for the Threatened Quercus Semecarpifolia Sm. A Himalayan Timberline Oak

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    Hemlata BISHT

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. is a temperate, timberline, multipurpose oak species. It plays an important role in the Himalayan ecosystem. Human pressure, predation, short-lived acorns, failure of good seed crop every year, poor regeneration, desiccation, frost sensitivity and climate change may lead to complete extinction of the species in a near future. Immediate attention to conservation and restoration measures of the Himalayan ecosystem, in which this species grows, is required. Thus, an experiment was designed to analyze the role of planting stock and micro-sites for the regeneration of Q. semecarpifolia in-situ. For that purpose, 16 microsites with presence/absence of litter, canopy and sunlight were identified, where seeds/propagules were planted. The presence of litter, canopy and sunlight influenced the seedling production, mainly impairing the processes, leading to the expansion in diameter of the radicle, causing shoot/root emergence. Radicle emergence took place in all the seeds immediately after shedding but only 20% of seedlings recovered; however, when the stored seeds were sown as soon as the emerging radicle attained 10-15cm in length and 2-3cm in diameter, 80% of seedlings were recovered. Surprisingly, after being detached from the seed the swollen radicle acted as a propagule and produced 80% seedlings irrespective of the microsites; however, radicles detached prior to diameter expansion failed to produce seedlings which is a crucial insight for promoting seedling production.

  17. Oak (Quercus Floribunda: A Prominent Indigenous Multipurpose Tree for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Potential

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    K. K. Pandey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic growth model (CO2FIX has been used for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of Oak (Quercus floribunda, an indigenous multipurpose tree used for timber, fuel wood, fiber and specially fodder in addition to its ability of soil binder. The present study has been carried out in the campus of V.C.S.G. College of Horticulture, U.U.H.F., Bharsar, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand. It is capable of thriving on snow and heavy rainfall condition. CO2FIX was parameterized for a simulation of 100 years respectively. The results indicate that the long term tree biomass accumulated was 120.11 t/ha in above ground and 79.89 t/ha in below ground (Soil Carbon component respectively at the end of simulation period assuming a tree density of 825t/ha (approximately. The net annual carbon sequestration for Oak over the entire simulation period was 1.9 Mg C ha-1 yr -1 (t/ha/yr. Useful for scientific planning and effective implementation of Forestry and Agroforestry developmental programmes at district level as well as at State level for the development of country. For future research work following are few suggestions for better planning and development of State. This type of study can be taken including other parameters/resources such as different trees, different area, and different state and different country as well.

  18. Pedunculate oak forests (Quercus robur L. survey in the Ticino Regional Park (Italy by remote sensing

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    Rossini M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedunculate oak forests (Quercus robur L. in the Ticino Regional Park (Italy show sensible damage conditions due to different environmental stresses: insect attacks, summer drought and air pollution. Knowing whether oaks are healthy or stressed can provide useful information in order to conserve the forest ecosystems and avoid the lost of valuable natural resources. Environmental stresses can affect tree biochemical and structural variables, such as the concentration, composition and efficiency in light harvesting of foliar pigments, and the Leaf Area Index (LAI. Interest in the use of these variables for forest condition assessment has recently increased because they can be indirectly estimated from remote observations at leaf and canopy level. In particular, in this research we found that total chlorophyll (Chl concentration, a biochemical variable related to crown discoloration rate, was the most suitable variable for the detection of pedunculate oak decline in the Ticino Park. A regression analysis between Chl concentration and optical indices computed from hyperspectral MIVIS data was performed in order to estimate Chl concentration from remote observations. The good correlation between field measurements of Chl concentration and MIVIS optical indices allowed the development of a model to map Chl concentration across the Ticino Park forested area. Promising results demonstrated that remotely sensed data can provide an accurate estimation of Chl concentration and indicated the potential of this technique for forest condition monitoring.

  19. Behavior of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. wood to different thermal treatments

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    Todaro L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus pubescens Willd. is a common oak species in the Mediterranean area, where it is currently exploited mainly for purposes such as firewood. To improve the technological properties of its wood, various steaming and/or heat treatments were applied to 160 wood samples from a southern Italian stand, cut from either sapwood or heartwood, while 20 samples served as controls. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 120 °C, whereas heat treatments were performed in an oven at 150 or 200 °C for 3 or 6 h. The equilibrium moisture content, swelling, mass loss, wood density, compression strength, color variation, and lignin content of the samples were measured and compared among treatments. The swelling and water adsorption of wood samples decreased due to the hydrothermal treatments. The mass loss was strictly related to the temperature and duration of the heat treatments, whereas it was not influenced by the steaming treatment. The average axial compression strength value was positively influenced by the combination of steaming and heat treatments. A significant and general darkening of color was also observed for the harshest treatments, while an increase of lignin content was detected mainly in the sapwood. Thus, pubescent oak wood subjected to steaming and heat treatments may acquire useful characteristics suitable for its industrial use.

  20. The bulk elastic modulus and the reversible properties of cell walls in developing Quercus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takami; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Terashima, Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    We examined the relationship between the bulk elastic modulus (epsilon) of an individual leaf obtained by the pressure-volume (P-V) technique and the mechanical properties of cell walls in the leaf. The plants used were Quercus glauca and Q. serrata, an evergreen and a deciduous broad-leaved tree species, respectively. We compared epsilon and Young's modulus of leaf specimens determined by the stretch technique at various stages of their leaf development. The results showed that epsilon increased from approximately 5 to 20 MPa during leaf development, although other potential determinants of epsilon such as the apoplastic water content in the leaf and the diameter of a palisade tissue cells remained almost constant. epsilon in these two species was similar at every developmental stages, although the apparent mechanical strength of the leaf lamina and thickness of mesophyll cell walls were greater in Q. glauca. There were significant linear relationships between Young's modulus and epsilon (P < 0.01; R (2) = 0.78 and 0.84 in Q. glauca and Q. serrata, respectively) with small y-intercepts. From these results, we conclude that epsilon is closely related to the reversible properties of the cell walls. From the estimation of epsilon based on a physical model, we suggest that the effective thickness of cell walls responsible for epsilon is smaller than the observed wall thickness.

  1. Detection of hybrids in nature: application to oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex).

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    Burgarella, C; Lorenzo, Z; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Lumaret, R; Guichoux, E; Petit, R J; Soto, A; Gil, L

    2009-05-01

    Powerful and accurate detection of first-generation (F1) hybrids and backcrosses in nature is needed to achieve a better understanding of the function and dynamics of introgression. To document the frequency of ongoing interspecific gene exchange between two Mediterranean evergreen oaks, the cork oak (Quercus suber) and the holm oak (Q. ilex), we analyzed 1487 individuals originating from across the range of the two species using eight microsatellite loci and two Bayesian clustering approaches (implemented in the programs STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS). Simulated data were used to assess the differences between the two clustering methods and to back up the choice of the threshold value for the posterior probability to discriminate admixed from pure individuals. We found that the use of STRUCTURE resulted in the highest power to detect hybrids, whereas NEWHYBRIDS provided the highest accuracy. Irrespective of the approach, the two species were clearly distinguished as independent genetic entities without any prior information. In contrast with previous reports, we found no evidence for unidirectional introgression. The overall hybridization rate was very low (<2% of introgressed individuals). Only two individuals were identified as F1 hybrids and five as early backcrosses. This work shows that the combined application of the two complementary Bayesian approaches and their systematic validation with simulations, fit for the case at hand, helps gain resolution in the identification of admixed individuals.

  2. Quercus Suber L. Cork Extracts Induce Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukaemia HL-60 Cells.

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    Bejarano, Ignacio; Godoy-Cancho, Belén; Franco, Lourdes; Martínez-Cañas, Manuel A; Tormo, María A

    2015-08-01

    Quercus suber L. cork contains a diversity of phenolic compounds, mostly low molecular weight phenols. A rising number of reports support with convergent findings that polyphenols evoke pro-apoptotic events in cancerous cells. However, the literature related to the anti-cancer bioactivity of Q. suber L. cork extractives (QSE) is still limited. Herein, we aim to describe the antitumor potential displayed by cork extractives obtained by different extraction methods in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. In order to quantify the effects of QSE on cancer cells viability, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle were evaluated. The results indicated that the QSE present a time-dependent and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. Such a noxious effect leads these leukaemia cells to their death through apoptotic processes by altering the mitochondrial outer membrane potential, activating caspase-3 and externalizing phosphatidylserine. However, cells cycle progression was not affected by the treatments. This study contributes to open a new way to use this natural resource by exploiting its anti-cancer properties. Moreover, it opens new possibilities of application of cork by-products, being more efficient in the sector of cork-based agriculture. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Assessment of ploidy stability of the somatic embryogenesis process in Quercus suber L. using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, J; Pinto, G; Lopes, T; Dolezel, J; Santos, C

    2005-08-01

    Flow cytometry analyses were used to verify the ploidy stability of Quercus suber L. somatic embryogenesis process. Leaf explants of two adult cork oak trees (QsG0 and QsG5) of the North of Portugal were inoculated on MS medium with 2,4-D and zeatin. After 3 months, calluses with embryogenic structures were isolated and transferred to fresh MS medium without growth regulators and somatic embryo evolution was followed. Morphologically normal somatic embryos (with two cotyledons) and abnormal somatic embryos (with one or three cotyledons) were used in this assay. Flow cytometry combined with propidium iodide staining was employed to estimate DNA ploidy levels and nuclear DNA content of somatic embryos and leaves from mother plants. No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected among embryos, and between the embryos and the mother plants. Also, after conversion of these embryos, no significant morphological differences were observed among the somatic embryo-derived plants. These results and further studies using converted plantlet leaves and embryogenic callus tissue indicate that embryo cultures and converted plantlets were stable with regard to ploidy level. As no major somaclonal variation was detected our primary goal of "true-to-type" propagation of cork oak using somatic embryogenesis was assured at this level. The estimation of the 2C nuclear DNA content for this species is similar to the previously obtained value.

  4. Recurrent fires and environment shape the vegetation in Quercus suber L. woodlands and maquis.

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    Schaffhauser, Alice; Curt, Thomas; Véla, Errol; Tatoni, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    The effects of fire recurrence on vegetation patterns in Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus communities in Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems of south-eastern France were examined on stands belonging to 5 fire classes, corresponding to different numbers of fires (from 0 to 4) and time intervals between fires since 1959. A common pool of species was identified among the plots, which was typical of both open and closed maquis. Fire recurrence reduced the abundance of trees and herbs, whereas it increased the abundance of small shrubs. Richness differed significantly between the most contrasting classes of fire recurrence, with maximal values found in control plots and minimal values in plots that had burned recurrently and recently. Equitability indices did not vary significantly, in contrast to Shannon's diversity index which mostly correlated with richness. Forest ecosystems that have burnt once or twice in the last 50 years were resilient; that is to say they recovered a biomass and composition similar to that of the pre-fire state. However, after more than 3-4 fires, shrubland communities displayed lower species richness and diversity indices than unburned plots. The time since the last fire and the number of fires were the most explanatory fire variables, governing the structure of post-fire plant communities. However, environmental factors, such as slope or exposure, also made a significant contribution. Higher rates of fire recurrence can affect the persistence or expansion of shrublands in the future, as observed in other Mediterranean areas.

  5. Proteins associated with cork formation in Quercus suber L. stem tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Cândido P P; Martins, Isabel; Francisco, Rita; Sergeant, Kjell; Pinheiro, Carla; Campos, Alexandre; Renaut, Jenny; Fevereiro, Pedro

    2011-08-12

    Cork (phellem) formation in Quercus suber stem was studied by proteomic analysis of young shoots of increasing age (Y0, Y1 and Y4) and recently-formed phellem (Y8Ph) and xylem (Y8X) from an 8-year-old branch. In this study 99 proteins were identified, 45 excised from Y8X and 54 from Y8Ph. These ones, specifically associated with phellem, are of "carbohydrate metabolism" (28%), "defence" (22%), "protein folding, stability and degradation" (19%), "regulation/signalling" (11%), "secondary metabolism" (9%), "energy metabolism" (6%), and "membrane transport" (2%). The identification in phellem of galactosidases, xylosidases, apiose/xylose synthase, laccases and diphenol oxidases suggests intense cell wall reorganization, possibly with participation of hemicellulose/pectin biosynthesis and phenol oxidation. The identification of proteasome subunits, heat shock proteins, cyclophylin, subtilisin-like proteases, 14-3-3 proteins, Rab2 protein and enzymes interacting with nucleosides/nucleic acids gives additional evidence for cellular reorganization, involving cellular secretion, protein turnover regulation and active control processes. The high involvement in phellem of defence proteins (thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, SGT1 protein, cystatin, and chitinases) suggests a strong need for cell protection from the intense stressful events occurring in active phellem, namely, desiccation, pests/disease protection, detoxification and cell death. Identically, highly enhanced defence functions were previously reported for potato periderm formation.

  6. Studies on the ectomycorrhizal community in a declining Quercus suber L. stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Enrico; Franceschini, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    This survey was carried out in a Quercus suber L. stand with many trees affected by the disease "oak decline". Its aim was to obtain information about both the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a declining Q. suber stand as a whole, and the ectomycorrhizal fungal community of individual tree (EFT) detected in healthy and diseased plants. To this end, we first categorized the trees into four different decline classes (one for healthy plants and three for diseased plants) and then, by using morphological and molecular tools, we identified the ectomycorrhizas isolated from samples collected near the trees with different declining classes. The ectomycorrhizal community as a whole was seen to be composed of numerous ectomycorrhizal fungal species, only some of which appeared to be dominant (Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and some species of Tomentella genus), while most occurred sporadically. Results show that all root tips observed are mycorrhized and that decline class does not influence the number of ectomycorrhizal root tips found in the EFTs, thus oak decline does not impact the investment in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. However, some statistical differences can be observed in the values of evenness and taxonomic distinctness in the EFT associated with trees with different states of health. Finally, both the analysis of similarity test and the ordination technique highlight a compositional difference between the EFT associated with trees in different health conditions, but also suggest that other factors may play a role in causing these differences.

  7. Demonstration of pectic polysaccharides in cork cell wall from Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, S M; Coimbra, M A; Delgadillo, I

    2000-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis were used to observe the cell wall changes that occur in cork with "mancha amarela", when compared to a standard cork. To mimic the microbial attack exhibited in cork with mancha amarela, the standard cork was treated enzymatically with commercial pectinase and hemicellulase preparations. The tissues treated with pectinase were comparable with those attacked with mancha amarela. Both were composed by deformed and wrinkly cells and exhibited cell wall separation at the middle lamella level, which suggests solubilization/removal of the pectic polysaccharides. The cork cell wall material, prepared as alcohol-insoluble residue, was fractionated by hot water (Pect(H)()2(O)) and hot dilute acid (Pect(acid)). The relatively large amount of hexuronic acid and the occurrence of Ara in the SPect(H)()2(O) and SPect(acid) allow to confirm, as far as we know, for the first time the presence of pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls of cork from Quercus suber L. They accounted for ca. 1.5% of the cork and may consist of polymers with long side chains of arabinosyl residues. These polymers have to be taken into account in any realistic model of the cork cell wall. Cork with mancha amarela contained a smaller amount of pectic polysaccharides (ca. 0.5%), which confirms that the cellular separation observed by SEM is related to the degradation/removal of the middle lamella pectic polysaccharides.

  8. Composition of suberin extracted upon gradual alkaline methanolysis of Quercus suber L. cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M H; Gil, A M; Silvestre, A J; Neto, C P

    2000-02-01

    The monomeric composition of suberin extracts obtained by gradual alkaline methanolysis of Quercus suber cork was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that 1-alkanols and alkanoic and alpha,omega-alkanedioic acids are preferentially removed upon mild alkaline conditions, whereas mid-chain-modified omega-hydroxyalkanoic acids are preferentially removed under stronger alkaline conditions. Saturated omega-hydroxyalkanoic acids are found to be abundant in all suberin extracts. These results are consistent with two distinct suberin fractions with different locations in cork cell walls and/or esterification degrees. It is proposed that these fractions correlate with the two main suberin peaks in the solid state (13)C NMR spectra of cork and suberin extracts. Quantitative GC-MS analysis showed that suberin monomers comprise approximately 30% (w/w) of the suberin extracts, the remaining comprising nonvolatile structures with high M(n) values, as measured by vapor pressure osmometry. The presence of a large fraction of high molecular weight aliphatic structures in suberin extracts is supported by the corresponding NMR spectra.

  9. Corky, a gypsy-like retrotransposon is differentially transcribed in Quercus suber tissues

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    Rocheta Margarida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs make up a large part of eukaryotic genomes. Due to their repetitive nature and to the fact that they harbour regulatory signals, TEs can be responsible for chromosomal rearrangements, movement of gene sequences and evolution of gene regulation and function. Retrotransposon ubiquity raises the question about their function in genomes and most are transcriptionally inactive due to rearrangements that compromise their activity. However, the activity of TEs is currently considered to have been one of the major processes in genome evolution. Findings We report on the characterization of a transcriptionally active gypsy-like retrotransposon (named Corky from Quercus suber, in a comparative and quantitative study of expression levels in different tissues and distinct developmental stages through RT-qPCR. We observed Corky’s differential transcription levels in all the tissues analysed. Conclusions These results document that Corky’s transcription levels are not constant. Nevertheless, they depend upon the developmental stage, the tissue analysed and the potential occurring events during an individuals’ life span. This modulation brought upon by different developmental and environmental influences suggests an involvement of Corky in stress response and during development.

  10. Antioxidant and biological properties of bioactive phenolic compounds from Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Fernandes, Iva; Cruz, Luís; Mateus, Nuno; Cabral, Miguel; de Freitas, Victor

    2009-12-09

    Phenolic compounds, namely, hydrolyzable tannins and low molecular weight phenolic compounds, were isolated and purified from Portuguese cork from Quercus suber L. Some of these compounds were studied to evaluate their antioxidant activity, including free-radical scavenging capacity (DPPH method) and reducing capacity (FRAP method). All compounds tested showed significant antioxidant activity, namely, antiradical and reducing properties. The antiradical capacity seemed to increase with the presence of galloyl groups. Regarding the reducing capacity, this structure-activity relationship was not so clear. These compounds were also studied to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect on the estrogen responsive human breast cancer cell line (ER+) MCF-7 and two other colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29). Generally, all the compounds tested exhibited, after a continuous exposure during a 48 h period, a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect. Relative inhibitory activity was primarily related to the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (galloyl and HHDP moieties) found in the active structures, with more groups generally conferring increased effects, except for HHDP-di-galloyl-glucose. Mongolicain B showed a greater potential to inhibit the growth of the three cell lines tested, identical to the effect observed with castalagin. Since these compounds are structurally related with each other, this activity might be based within the C-glycosidic ellagitannin moiety.

  11. Cryopreservation of Quercus suber somatic embryos by encapsulation-dehydration and evaluation of genetic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Pedro; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Pinto, Glória; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Santos, Conceição

    2008-12-01

    We describe an encapsulation and dehydration procedure for the cryopreservation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) somatic embryos that resulted in at least 90% survival. Genetic stability of the regenerated material was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). Cryopreservation of embryogenic clusters involved encapsulation of each cluster in an alginate bead, followed by a 3-day culture in 0.7 M sucrose and subsequent desiccation to 25 or 35% water content (WC), followed by freezing in liquid nitrogen. Thawed, cryopreserved somatic embryos had high viability and exhibited long-term survival. No morphological differences were observed between somatic embryos desiccated to 25 and 35% WC. Analysis of DNA ploidy stability of control (i.e., encapsulated and dehydrated but not frozen) and cryopreserved material by flow cytometry showed no significant differences. Similarly, DNA-marker analyses (AFLPs and SSR) revealed no significant differences between control and cryopreserved samples at the DNA-sequence level. Nonetheless, because polymorphisms were found between control material and samples cryopreserved and desiccated to 25% WC, the 35% WC method is recommended for cryopreservation of this tissue type. Cryopreservation of Q. suber somatic embryos by this encapsulation-dehydration procedure has potential for use in long-term conservation programs.

  12. Histology of Organogenic and Embryogenic Responses in Cotyledons of Somatic Embryos of Quercus Suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigderrajols; Celestino; Suils; Toribio; Molinas

    2000-05-01

    In cork oak (Quercus suber L.), recurrent embryogenesis is produced in vitro through autoembryony without exogenous plant growth regulators (PGRs); secondary embryos appear on the embryo axis but seldom on cotyledons. Focusing mainly on the histological origin of neoformations, we investigated the influence of the embryo axis and exogenous PGRs on the embryogenic potential of somatic embryo cotyledons. Isolated cotyledons of somatic embryos became necrotic when cultured on PGR-free medium but gave secondary embryos when cultured on media containing benzyladenine and naphthaleneacetic acid. Cotyledons of cork oak somatic embryos are competent to give embryogenic responses. Isolated cotyledons without a petiole showed a lower percentage of embryogenic response than did those with a petiole. In petioles, somatic embryos arose from inner parenchyma tissues following a multicellular budding pattern. Joined to the embryo axis, cotyledons did not show morphogenic responses when cultured on PGR-free medium but revealed budlike and phylloid formations when cultured on medium with PGRs. The different morphogenic behavior displayed by somatic cotyledons indicates an influence of the embryo axis and indicates a relationship between organogenic and embryogenic regeneration pathways.

  13. Cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures from mature Quercus suber trees using vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Silvia; Toribio, Mariano; Celestino, Cristina; Vieitez, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in somatic embryogenesis from selected mature trees of Quercus suber, has led to a demand for maintenance of a large number of selected embryogenic lines. To facilitate the management of this material a protocol for the long-term storage of this germplasm should be defined. This study reports on the use of a simple vitrification procedure for the successful cryopreservation of three cork oak embryogenic lines. High embryo recovery levels (88-93 percent) were obtained by first preculturing 2-4 mg clumps of two or three globular embryos on semisolid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose for three days, followed by incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution at 0 degree C for 60 min before direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. The mean number of embryos produced per explant was significantly greater for cryostored embryos than for untreated stock cultures, but the productivity of the latter was recovered in subsequent subcultures of the material produced by cryostored embryos. The germination and plant regeneration rates achieved by cultures derived from cryostored embryos, around 60 percent, were similar to those of non-cryopreserved stock cultures.

  14. Enzymatic isolation and structural characterisation of polymeric suberin of cork from Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, S M; Goodfellow, B J; Delgadillo, I; Neto, C P; Gil, A M

    2001-01-10

    An enzymatic method has been used to isolate, for the first time, polymeric suberin from the bark of Quercus suber L. or cork. This was achieved by solvent extraction (dichloromethane, ethanol and water), followed by a step-by-step enzymatic treatment with cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase, and a final extraction with dioxane/water. The progress of suberin isolation was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a photoacoustic cell (FTIR-PAS). The material obtained (polymeric suberin (PS)) was characterised by solid-state and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, FTIR-PAS and vapour pressure osmometry, and compared with the suberin fraction obtained by alkaline depolymerisation (depolymerised suberin (DS)). The results showed that PS is an aliphatic polyester of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, with an average molecular weight (M(w)) of 2050 g mol(-1). Although this fraction represents only 10% of the whole suberin of cork, its polymeric nature gives valuable information about the native form of the polymer. DS was found to have an average M(w) of 750 g mol(-1) and to comprise a significant amount of acidic and alcoholic short aliphatic chains.

  15. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level. PMID:28045988

  16. Genetic Differentiation between Quercus frainetto Ten. and Q. pubescens Willd. in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian CURTU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic differences among Quercus frainetto and Q. pubescens, two species of section Dascia Kotschy (subgenus Lepidobalanus, white oaks that reach in Romania the margins of their natural distribution range. A set of genomic SSRs (simple sequence repeats and EST (expressed sequence tags-SSRs was used to estimate the genetic differentiation among four natural populations of the two species. Q. pubescens had higher values of genetic diversity than Q. frainetto, although the differences were not significant. Two out of seven marker-loci, QrZAG112 and QpZAG110, displayed very high FST values. Averaged across loci, the genetic differentiation was high and significant (FST = 0.067. Genetic distances were much higher among species than among populations within species. A Bayesian analysis indicated that two is the most appropriate number of genetic clusters. Using a blind procedure (i.e. based on multilocus genotypes only the vast majority of sampled individuals (90% could be assigned to the cluster corresponding to their phenotypes. When information about sampling localities was introduced in the assignment test, all individual trees were correctly classified. The higher degree of admixture in Q. frainetto as compared to Q. pubescens may be explained by different rates of introgressive hybridization.

  17. Imprints of natural selection along environmental gradients in phenology-related genes of Quercus petraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Florian J; Derory, Jérémy; Boury, Christophe; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Kremer, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    We explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in candidate genes for bud burst from Quercus petraea populations sampled along gradients of latitude and altitude in Western Europe. SNP diversity was monitored for 106 candidate genes, in 758 individuals from 32 natural populations. We investigated whether SNP variation reflected the clinal pattern of bud burst observed in common garden experiments. We used different methods to detect imprints of natural selection (FST outlier, clinal variation at allelic frequencies, association tests) and compared the results obtained for the two gradients. FST outlier SNPs were found in 15 genes, 5 of which were common to both gradients. The type of selection differed between the two gradients (directional or balancing) for 3 of these 5. Clinal variations were observed for six SNPs, and one cline was conserved across both gradients. Association tests between the phenotypic or breeding values of trees and SNP genotypes identified 14 significant associations, involving 12 genes. The results of outlier detection on the basis of population differentiation or clinal variation were not very consistent with the results of association tests. The discrepancies between these approaches may reflect the different hierarchical levels of selection considered (inter- and intrapopulation selection). Finally, we obtained evidence for convergent selection (similar for gradients) and clinal variation for a few genes, suggesting that comparisons between parallel gradients could be used to screen for major candidate genes responding to natural selection in trees.

  18. Biogeographic patterns of nutrient resorption from Quercus variabilis Blume leaves across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Kang, H; Chen, H Y H; Björn, B; Samuel, B F; Liu, C

    2016-05-01

    The variation in nutrient resorption has been studied at different taxonomic levels and geographic ranges. However, the variable traits of nutrient resorption at the individual species level across its distribution are poorly understood. We examined the variability and environmental controls of leaf nutrient resorption of Quercus variabilis, a widely distributed species of important ecological and economic value in China. The mean resorption efficiency was highest for phosphorus (P), followed by potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg) and carbon (C). Resorption efficiencies and proficiencies were strongly affected by climate and respective nutrients concentrations in soils and green leaves, but had little association with leaf mass per area. Climate factors, especially growing season length, were dominant drivers of nutrient resorption efficiencies, except for C, which was strongly related to green leaf C status. In contrast, green leaf nutritional status was the primary controlling factor of leaf nutrient proficiencies, except for C. Resorption efficiencies of N, P, K and S increased significantly with latitude, and were negatively related to growing season length and mean annual temperature. In turn, N, P, K and S in senesced leaves decreased with latitude, likely due to their efficient resorption response to variation in climate, but increased for Mg and did not change for C. Our results indicate that the nutrient resorption efficiency and proficiency of Q. variabilis differed strongly among nutrients, as well as growing environments. Our findings provide important insights into understanding the nutrient conservation strategy at the individual species level and its possible influence on nutrient cycling.

  19. Site quality assessment of degraded Quercus frainetto stands in central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitikidou K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential yield of a site is measured by site index, which is defined as the dominant height of a stand at a base age. A site index model for site quality assessment of Quercus frainetto (Hungarian oak stands in central Greece was developed using a base age of 50 years. Data were collected from 39 temporary sample plots of 10 x 10 m. Linear regression models widely used in site index studies were fitted to height-age data. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj, root mean square error (RMSE, bias, coefficient of determination for the prediction (R2pr and residual plots were used for the choice of the best-fitting model. The best model was H = -0.231+0.251A-0.001A2, where H is the predicted height at age A. The guide curve method was adopted in constructing the sites curves, with the chosen model as the guide curve. Based on this curve, the study area was divided into three site quality classes (I to III, with class I representing the best and class III the poorest. Also, the presence of a Simpson’s paradox in these analyses is discussed. The results showed that a 50-year-old stand in the study area attained an average dominant height of about 11, 8 and 6 m on site quality classes I, II and III, respectively. The Hungarian oak stands of the present study can be considered very low productivity stands.

  20. Photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron flow in the alpine evergreen species Quercus guyavifolia in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap, stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm, CO2 assimilation rate (An, and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap, the diurnal values of gs, gm, An and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures.

  1. Photosynthesis and Photosynthetic Electron Flow in the Alpine Evergreen Species Quercus guyavifolia in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap), stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm), CO2 assimilation rate (An), and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII) at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap), the diurnal values of gs, gm, An, and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures. PMID:27812359

  2. Post-fire recolonization of dominant epiphytic lichen species on Quercus hypoleucoides (Fagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagni, J G; Gries, C

    2000-12-01

    Following a forest fire (27 500 ha) in 1994, post-fire recolonization of Quercus hypoeleucoides by epiphytic lichens was documented as changes in lichen cover, number of small thalli, specific factors that affected reestablishment of lichens, and modes of dispersal. Three sites in the Chiricahua Mountains (Arizona, USA) were chosen according to the severity of fire damage-unburned, moderately burned, and severely burned. From 1994 through 1997, the amount of dead lichen cover significantly increased at the moderately burned site. For the same time period, the amount of live lichen cover significantly increased at the severely burned site. Numbers of new thalli increased significantly at the severely burned site each year but only in the last year (1996-1997) for the moderately burned site. Bark texture and proximity to trees with lichens were among the most important physical factors for recolonization. The most important means of dispersal for Flavopunctelia praesignis was fragmentation. For Punctelia hypoleucites, the primary means of dispersal was spores. Increases in live lichen cover and numbers of new thalli occur faster in severely burned areas probably due to the loss of lichens on tree trunks, which provides space and a lack of competition.

  3. Epigenetic and hormonal profile during maturation of Quercus Suber L. somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Marta; Viejo, Marcos; LaCuesta, Maite; Toorop, Peter; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful alternative to conventional mass propagation of Quercus suber L. However, poor quality and incomplete maturation of somatic embryos restrict any application. Given that epigenetic and hormonal control govern many developmental stages, including maturation of zygotic embryos, global DNA methylation and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during development and maturation of cork oak somatic embryos. Our results indicated that development of somatic embryos concurred with a decrease in 5-mdC. In contrast, endogenous ABA content showed a transient increase with a peak in immature E2 embryos denoting the onset of the maturation phase. A cold stratification phase was necessary for embryos to acquire germination ability, which coincided with a significant decrease in 5-mdC and ABA content. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that there was a specific spatial-temporal regulation during embryogenesis, particularly after the cold treatment. The acquisition of germination capacity concurred with a general low 5-mdC signal in the root meristem, while retention of the 5-mdC signal was mainly located in the shoot meristem and provascular tissues. Conversely, ABA immunolocalization was mainly located in the root and shoot apical meristems. Furthermore, a strong decrease in the ABA signal was observed in the root cap after the stratification treatment suggesting a role for the root cap during development of somatic embryos. These results suggest that, in addition to ABA, epigenetic control appears to play an important role for the correct maturation and subsequent germination of cork oak somatic embryos.

  4. Diurnal changes in photoprotective mechanisms in leaves of cork oak (Quercus suber) during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, T.; García-Plazaola, J. I.; Abadía, A.; Cerasoli, S.; Pereira, J. S.; Chaves, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Daily variations in photoprotective mechanisms were studied in sun and shade leaves of 40-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees during early summer in Portugal. Although trees were not severely water stressed because predawn leaf water potentials remained high, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased at midday. The midday depression in gas exchange was not reversed by short-term exposure to "optimal" conditions of temperature, light and vapor pressure deficit. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, maximum photochemical yield of photosystem II and the quantum yield of noncyclic electron transport showed midday depressions, but recovered by the evening. Both short-term changes in the components of the xanthophyll cycle (reversible de-epoxidation of violaxanthin during the day) as well as long-term changes (higher xanthophyll content in sun compared with shade leaves) were detected and may play a role in the dissipation of excess energy at midday. Because the activities of enzymes of the antioxidant system, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, were high enough to cope with the increase in oxygen reactive species likely to arise under the stressful conditions of midday, we conclude that these enzymes may provide an additional mechanism for energy dissipation.

  5. The distribution of Quercus suber chloroplast haplotypes matches the palaeogeographical history of the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, D; Fineschi, S; Bellarosa, R; Buonamici, A; Sebastiani, F; Schirone, B; Simeone, M C; Vendramin, G G

    2007-12-01

    Combining molecular analyses with geological and palaeontological data may reveal timing and modes for the divergence of lineages within species. The Mediterranean Basin is particularly appropriate for this kind of multidisciplinary studies, because of its complex geological history and biological diversity. Here, we investigated chloroplast DNA of Quercus suber populations in order to detect possible relationships between their geographical distribution and the palaeogeographical history of the western Mediterranean domain. We analysed 110 cork oak populations, covering the whole distribution range of the species, by 14 chloroplast microsatellite markers, among which eight displayed variation among populations. We identified five haplotypes whose distribution is clearly geographically structured. Results demonstrated that cork oak populations have undergone a genetic drift geographically consistent with the Oligocene and Miocene break-up events of the European-Iberian continental margin and suggested that they have persisted in a number of separate microplates, currently found in Tunisia, Sardinia, Corsica, and Provence, without detectable chloroplast DNA modifications for a time span of over 15 million years. A similar distribution pattern of mitochondrial DNA of Pinus pinaster supports the hypothesis of such long-term persistence, in spite of Quaternary climate oscillations and of isolation due to insularity, and suggests that part of the modern geographical structure of Mediterranean populations may be traced back to the Tertiary history of taxa.

  6. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Vera; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level.

  7. Characterization of the responses of cork oak (Quercus suber) to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorcena, Y; Molias, N; Larbi, A; Abadía, J; Abadía, A

    2001-12-01

    We studied responses of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to iron (Fe) deficiency by comparing seedlings grown hydroponically in nutrient solution with and without Fe. Seedlings grown without Fe developed some responses typical of the Strategy I group of Fe-efficient plants, including two- and fourfold increases in plasma membrane ferric chelate reductase activity of root tips after 2 and 4 weeks of culture in the absence of Fe, respectively. Moreover, seedlings grown hydroponically for 2 weeks without Fe caused marked decreases in the pH of the nutrient solution, indicating that root plasma membrane ATPase activity was induced by Fe deficiency. Iron deficiency also caused marked decreases in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, and chlorophyll concentrations were decreased more than carotenoid concentrations. Iron deficiency resulted in an 8% decrease in the dark-adapted efficiency of photosystem II and a 43% decrease in efficiency of photosystem II at steady-state photosynthesis. No major root morphological changes were observed in seedlings grown without Fe, although seedlings grown in Fe-deficient nutrient solution had light-colored roots in contrast to the dark brown color of control roots.

  8. Diurnal and seasonal emissions of volatile organic compounds from cork oak ( Quercus suber) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, C. A.; Silva, P. A.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Nunes, T. V.

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds from Quercus suber (cork oak) were investigated at two rural sites in Portugal using a branch enclosure method with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Q. suber leaves released important amounts of monoterpenes, mainly in the form of limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene and sabinene. However, significant temporal and intraspecific variations in the relative abundance of the dominant compounds were found during this survey. Emissions from Q. suber were strongly dependent on light and temperature, showing a similar behaviour to that of plant species known to be isoprene producers. But, this work also revealed that, although at lower rates, emissions of monoterpenes continued in the dark for several hours. Emission rates were quite well predicted by algorithms based on the Guenther and Tingey equations; correlations of measurements with modelled data were, on average, r2=0.80. A pronounced seasonal variation was recorded for the emissions of monoterpenes. During the 1-yr study period, standard emission rates ranged between a minimum of 0.2 μg g dw-1 h -1, in winter, and a maximum of 20-30 μg g dw-1 h -1, in summer.

  9. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rojas Consuelo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a 'tresbolillo' a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.

  10. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Increases lifespan and ameliorates experimentally induced neurodegeneration in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Bezerra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, dyslipidemia (DL and inflammation (IF are associated with reduced lifespan (LS and increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases (NDG. Dysregulation in insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 (IIS signaling, forkhead box O transcription factor (FOXO and Silent Information Regulators or Sirtuins (SIRT may be responsible. We investigated the effect of spray dried Jambolan (Eugenia jambolana Lam. fruit in Caenorhabditis elegans model for lifespan, amyloid b1-42 (Ab1-42 aggregation induced paralysis and MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium induced neurodegeneration. Effect on modulating critical genes involved signaling pathways important in IIS, LS and NDG were also studied in C. elegans. Results show suggest statistically significant increase in lifespan (9-22.7% coupled with a delay in Ab1-42 induced paralysis (11.5% and MPP+ induced paralysis (38-43%. Gene expression studies indicated a significant upregulation in expression of  C. elegans homologs of foxo, sirt1, dopamine D1 receptor and suggested a non-FOXO mediated mechanism of action.Industrial relevance. Jambolan is a bioactive-rich tropical fruit with high colorant potential. Despite this fact, its perishability has hampered its market and industrial use beyond the countries where it is cultivated. Considering that drying is a popular technique able to extend fruits shelf life and concentrate their natural bioactive compounds, this research investigates the health relevance of spray dried jambolan. Here we addressed the potential of dried Jambolan fruit to extend lifespan and inhibit the progression of experimentally induced neurodegeneration using the C. elegans model. We demonstrated that this convenient fruit product was able to increase the lifespan of C. elegans. The jambolan extracts also influenced some critical genes of signaling pathways relevant to metabolic diseases, aging and neurodegeneration. Based on our results, some insight about

  11. Genomic organization and dynamics of repetitive DNA sequences in representatives of three Fagaceae genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sofia; Ribeiro, Teresa; Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2012-05-01

    Oaks, chestnuts, and beeches are economically important species of the Fagaceae. To understand the relationship between these members of this family, a deep knowledge of their genome composition and organization is needed. In this work, we have isolated and characterized several AFLP fragments obtained from Quercus rotundifolia Lam. through homology searches in available databases. Genomic polymorphisms involving some of these sequences were evaluated in two species of Quercus, one of Castanea, and one of Fagus with specific primers. Comparative FISH analysis with generated sequences was performed in interphase nuclei of the four species, and the co-immunolocalization of 5-methylcytosine was also studied. Some of the sequences isolated proved to be genus-specific, while others were present in all the genera. Retroelements, either gypsy-like of the Tat/Athila clade or copia-like, are well represented, and most are dispersed in euchromatic regions of these species with no DNA methylation associated, pointing to an interspersed arrangement of these retroelements with potential gene-rich regions. A particular gypsy-sequence is dispersed in oaks and chestnut nuclei, but its confinement to chromocenters in beech evidences genome restructuring events during evolution of Fagaceae. Several sequences generated in this study proved to be good tools to comparatively study Fagaceae genome organization.

  12. Water-use strategies in two co-occurring Mediterranean evergreen oaks: surviving the summer drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, T S; Henriques, M O; Kurz-Besson, C; Nunes, J; Valente, F; Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Siegwolf, R; Chaves, M M; Gazarini, L C; David, J S

    2007-06-01

    In the Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands of southern Portugal, the main tree species are Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia Lam. (holm oak) and Quercus suber L. (cork oak). We studied a savannah-type woodland where these species coexist, with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms of tree adaptation to seasonal drought. In both species, seasonal variations in transpiration and predawn leaf water potential showed a maximum in spring followed by a decline through the rainless summer and a recovery with autumn rainfall. Although the observed decrease in predawn leaf water potential in summer indicates soil water depletion, trees maintained transpiration rates above 0.7 mm day(-1) during the summer drought. By that time, more than 70% of the transpired water was being taken from groundwater sources. The daily fluctuations in soil water content suggest that some root uptake of groundwater was mediated through the upper soil layers by hydraulic lift. During the dry season, Q. ilex maintained higher predawn leaf water potentials, canopy conductances and transpiration rates than Q. suber. The higher water status of Q. ilex was likely associated with their deeper root systems compared with Q. suber. Whole-tree hydraulic conductance and minimum midday leaf water potential were lower in Q. ilex, indicating that Q. ilex was more tolerant to drought than Q. suber. Overall, Q. ilex seemed to have more effective drought avoidance and drought tolerance mechanisms than Q. suber.

  13. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) fruit extract and its effect on pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Dhanya Kumar, Gowri; Tyliszczak, Bozena; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Novel approaches for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are of great importance due to its vast spectrum of applications in diverse fields, including medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Te presented study reports the successful AuNPs' synthesis using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. extract, and provides detailed characterization and evaluation of its antibacterial potential. The aim was to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method of gold nanoparticles using aqueous fruit extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a reducing and capping agent, which has proven activity against human pathogens, such as microbial species E.coli and Streptobacillus sps. Characterizations were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). SEM images showed the formation of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 20-25 nm. Spectra collected while infra-red analysis contained broad peaks in ranges from 4000-400 cm -1 . It can be concluded that the fruit of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul E. coli, and Streptobacillus. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  14. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Heider, B.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Miller, R.E.; Scotland, R.W.; Wood, J.R.I.; Rossel, G.; Eserman, L.A.; Jarret, R.L.; Yencho, G.C.; Bernau, V.; Juarez, H.; Sotelo, S.; Haan, de S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which t

  15. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results i

  16. Spatial and temporal seed dispersal of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. ssp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) in west central Utah, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Jensen; Stephen B. Monsen; Pat Fosse

    2008-01-01

    This case study documents temporal and spatial squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. spp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) seed dispersal from study sites in central Utah. Felt seed traps were placed along transects extending from sites occupied by squarrose knapweed into adjacent plant communities. Seed dispersal from knapweed...

  17. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results i

  18. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  19. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Heider, B.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Miller, R.E.; Scotland, R.W.; Wood, J.R.I.; Rossel, G.; Eserman, L.A.; Jarret, R.L.; Yencho, G.C.; Bernau, V.; Juarez, H.; Sotelo, S.; Haan, de S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which t

  20. The macrofungal diversity and community of Atlantic oak (Quercus petraea and Q. robur forests in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrington, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The oak species Quercus petraea and Q. Robur are dominant canopy tree species of native deciduous forests in Ireland and coastal regions of Western Europe. These forests are typically plant species-rich, and can also have a rich fungal flora. This survey examined macrofungi found in five native oak sites across Ireland over three years. Overall, 94 macrofungal species belonging to 39 genera were discovered with Mycena, Lactarius, Russula and Cortinarius the most species-rich genera. The species accumulation curve did not show signs of levelling off, indicating that more sampling would reveal more new species. Species richness estimation using the Chao2 estimator indicated that up to 135 species may be present across all of our plots, with individual plots receiving estimates from 19 to 61 species per plot. Sampled-based rarefaction analysis showed no significant differences in macrofungal species richness between our plots. The five most common species were Laccaria amethystina, L. laccata, Stereum hirsutum, Armillaria mellea and Cortinarius flexipes. Comparisons of the results with results from oak forests in similar regions found that the communities in Great Britain were most similar to those found in Ireland. There were some key oak forest distinguishing fungal species from the family Boletaceae lacking from Irish oak forests. It is hypothesised that the historic deforestation of Ireland, caused a reduction of suitable habitats for Irish oak associated macrofungi, leading to the unspecific mycota found in the oak forests of this study. The threats to Atlantic oak forests in Ireland are briefly discussed.Las especies de Quercus petraea y Q. Robur se encuentran en bosques de Irlanda y regiones de influencia atlántica de Europa Occidental. Estos bosques, típicamente ricos en especies de plantas, presentan una abundante micobiota. Este estudio examina la diversidad de macromicetes en cinco bosques naturales de roble en Irlanda durante un

  1. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  2. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  3. Water metabolism of leaves of Quercus robur in antierosion stands in the south of its range

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    V. P. Bessonova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the main parameters of water exchange in leaves of Quercus robur L. which grow on the south-facing slope of the Viyskoviy ravine in a variety of water supply conditions. We established that the greatest intensity of transpiration of leaves of Q. robur occurred in the forest vegetation conditions of SG2, the smallest in SG1–0. In all study periods the largest amplitude of daily fluctuations in intensity of transpiration occurred in leaves of plants along the talweg, at other test sites the limits were much lower. The highest rates of transpiration were in September, which is connected with the high temperatures and lower relative air humidity compared with the days of measurement in July and May. We established that at the beginning of the growing season there was no difference in the total amount of water in the leaves of the trees that grow on the middle and upper parts of the slope, but that it was greater in plants along the talweg. In the following months the difference between the water content in the leaves of trees along the talweg and upper third of the slope increased. The leaves of trees that grow in the poorest conditions of water supply were characterized by the highest water-holding capacity, which is coordinated with their containing the highest content of hydrophilic colloids. The values for water deficit in May and in July fell within the maximum fluctuations for the species studied, but in early September they exceeded the maximum value in the leaves of trees on the upper third of the slope.

  4. Light response of hydraulic conductance in bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Mihaela C; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Tyree, Melvin T

    2008-07-01

    A four- to seven-fold enhancement of leaf hydraulic conductance by light has been reported in three temperate tree species. The enhancement occurs in the liquid-flow pathway between the petiole and the site of water evaporation. The enhancement occurs within 1 h, and dissipates in darkness over a period of 1 to 10 h depending on species. Here we report light-induced enhancement of leaf hydraulic conductance in a fourth species, bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.), the dependence of the effect on light flux and color, its absence in leaves of seedlings, and the impact on the response of leaf vein severance and several metabolic inhibitors. The light response of leaf hydraulic conductance approached saturation at a photosynthetic photon flux of 150 mumol m(-2) s(-1). Hydraulic enhancement was greater in response to blue and green light than to visible radiation of longer wavelengths, although at the same irradiance, the response to white light was greater than to light of any single color. Atrazine (a photosystem II inhibitor), fusicoccin (which stimulates plasma membrane-bound H(+)-ATPase) and HgCl(2) (an aquaporin blocker) reduced the light response of leaf lamina hydraulic conductance. When 2-mercaptoethanol was added following mercury treatment, the light response was totally suppressed. Our results are consistent with the notion that the effect of light on leaf lamina hydraulic conductance is controlled by factors acting outside the leaf veins, possibly through light-induced changes in membrane permeability of either mesophyll or bundle sheath cells, or both.

  5. Continuous Spectrum LEDs Promote Seedling Quality Traits and Performance of Quercus ithaburensis var. macrolepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnakou, Sonia; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi M

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of the growth, development, and quality of plants by the control of light quality has attracted extensive attention worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of continuous LED spectrum for indoor plant pre-cultivation and to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of a common broadleaved tree species in Mediterranean environment, Quercus ithaburensis var. macrolepis at seedling developmental stage. Thus, the seedlings were pre-cultivated for 28 days, under five different LED light qualities: (1) Fluorescent (FL) as control light (2) L20AP67 (high in green and moderate in far-red), (3) AP673L (high in green and red), (4) G2 (highest in red and far-red), AP67 (high in blue, red, and far-red), and (5) NS1 (highest in blue and green and lowest in far-red) LEDs. Further examination was held at the nursery for 1 year, on several seedling quality traits. Indeed, AP67 and AP673L triggered higher leaf formation, while L20AP67 positively affected seedling shoot development. NS1 and AP67 LED pre-cultivated seedlings showed significantly higher root fibrosity than those of FL light. Furthermore, NS1 and AP673L LEDs induced fourfold increase on seedling root dry weight than FL light. Hence, evaluating the seedling nursery performance attributes, most of those photomorphogenetic responses previously obtained were still detectable. Even more so, LED pre-cultivated seedlings showed higher survival and faster growth indicating better adaptation even under natural light conditions, a fact further reinforced by the significantly higher Dickson's quality index acquired. In conclusion, the goal of each nursery management program is the production of high quality seedlings with those desirable traits, which in turn satisfy the specific needs for a particular reforestation site. Thus, the enhanced oak seedling quality traits formed under continuous LEDs spectrum especially of NS1 and AP673L pre-cultivation may potentially fulfill this goal.

  6. Addressing post-transplant summer water stress in Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex seedlings

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    Pardos M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In central Spain, post-transplant water stress produces high seedling mortality after the first summer following outplanting. Our study was designed to determine whether survival and performance of outplanted stone pine (Pinus pinea and holm oak (Quercus ilex seedlings in a burned area could be improved by summer irrigation and mulching and to identify whether there is a species-specific adaptive capacity to respond to treatment and environment. Seedlings were outplanted in March 2011 in 200 planting holes in an area of 1.1 ha. Mulch was added in June; irrigation started in July and was repeated every week until mid-September. The severity of the 2011 summer drought constrained growth rates and photosynthetic characteristics, mainly in the non-irrigated seedlings, whose survival at the end of the year after planting was approximately 2.5%. Stone pine and holm oak seedlings responded more to irrigation than to mulching in terms of shoot growth, biomass and survival. Furthermore, stone pine seedlings were found to be more responsive to the partial alleviation of summer drought than holm oak seedlings. Irrigation alone produced similar results to those obtained when both irrigation and mulching were employed. In conclusion, first year summer irrigation should be considered as a planned adaptation measure in the management of outplanted Mediterranean ecosystems, because once a gravimetrically measured soil moisture level as low as 2% is achieved seedling survival and physiological performance can be guaranteed. However, the repercussions for the potential persistence of both species in the area will not only be related to the recurrence and intensity of summer droughts but also to drought duration.

  7. ECUACIONES ALOMÉTRICAS PARA ESTIMAR BIOMASA Y CARBONO EN Quercus magnoliaefolia

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    Jesús D. Gómez-Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ejido El Zapote de la Reserva de la Biosfera "Sierra de Huautla", estado de Morelos, México, se seleccionaron doce árboles de Quercus magnoliaefolia Née y se determinó su biomasa en la parte aérea. El modelo alométrico quedó expresado como: B = 0.0345 * DAP2.9334 en donde B es la biomasa (kg y DAP es el diámetro a la altura del pecho (cm, con un coeficiente de determinación (R2= 0.98; P<0.001. Adicionalmente, se estimó la biomasa mediante una regresión lineal múltiple que consideró el área basal (AB, la densidad específica de la madera (DEM y la altura de los árboles (H. Una alta proporción de la varianza de la biomasa fue explicada solamente por el área basal. La DEM y H no incrementaron significativamente la precisión de los modelos. El porcentaje promedio de carbono en los árboles de Q. magnoliaefolia fue de 47.14 con valores de 46.29 % para el fuste, 46.83 % para las ramas y 48.31 % para el follaje. La proporción promedio de los componentes de la especie estudiada fue de 2.5 % para el fuste, 27.8 % para las ramas y 9.6 % para el follaje.

  8. Indirect effects of precipitation variation on the decomposition process of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) leaf litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuefeng; HAN Shijie; ZHANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    The effect of precipitation variation on the chemistry of Mongolian oak(Quercus mongolica)leaf litters was examined by analyzing litters of Mongolia oak saplings under four precipitation gradients.The decomposing process of these leaf litters in the Mongolian oak dominated forest was assessed using litter bag method.Compared with the litters of the Mongolian oak saplings from the natural precipitation site(A),litters produced by Mongolian oak from the driest precipitation gradient(A450)had significantly higher concentrations of nitrogen(N),phosphorus(P)and potassium(K)while lower acid-insoluble fraction(A/F)concentration.The decomposition study showed that A450 exhibited significantly higher decomposition rate,mineralization rates of N,P and K as well as much shorter N and P net immobilization periods.On the contrary,litters produced by seedlings from wettest gradient(Ass0)showed a totally opposite pattern.Litters from saplings that received comparable precipitation(A650)to those at the natural site(A)had significantly higher N concentration and faster decomposition rate as well as release rates of N,P and K.The mass loss patterns for the four litter types fitted the exponential model and the decay constant(k)can be well predicted by initial AIF/N.During the decomposition period,N concentration was best related to the percentage of mass remaining of the litters with relatively higher AIF concentrations and lower N concentrations,but the percentage of mass remaining of litters with lower AIF concentrations and higher N concentrations correlates strongly with AIF concentration.Our study proved that changes in precipitation significantly altered the litter quality,and therefore indirectly changed the decay process of leaf litters.

  9. Lignin Composition and Structure Differs between Xylem, Phloem and Phellem in Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Rencoret, Jorge; Chemetova, Catarina; Gominho, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; del Río, José C.; Pereira, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The composition and structure of lignin in different tissues—phellem (cork), phloem and xylem (wood)—of Quercus suber was studied. Whole cell walls and their respective isolated milled lignins were analyzed by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC). Different tissues presented varied p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl (H:G:S) lignin compositions. Whereas lignin from cork has a G-rich lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 2:85:13), lignin from phloem presents more S-units (H:G:S molar ratio of 1:58:41) and lignin from xylem is slightly enriched in S-lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 1:45:55). These differences were reflected in the relative abundances of the different interunit linkages. Alkyl-aryl ethers (β–O–4′) were predominant, increasing from 68% in cork, to 71% in phloem and 77% in xylem, as consequence of the enrichment in S-lignin units. Cork lignin was enriched in condensed structures such as phenylcoumarans (β-5′, 20%), dibenzodioxocins (5–5′, 5%), as corresponds to a lignin enriched in G-units. In comparison, lignin from phloem and xylem presented lower levels of condensed linkages. The lignin from cork was highly acetylated at the γ-OH of the side-chain (48% lignin acetylation), predominantly over G-units; while the lignins from phloem and xylem were barely acetylated and this occurred mainly over S-units. These results are a first time overview of the lignin structure in xylem, phloem (generated by cambium), and in cork (generated by phellogen), in agreement with literature that reports that lignin biosynthesis is flexible and cell specific. PMID:27833631

  10. Carbon storage in degraded cork oak (Quercus suber forests on flat lowlands in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oubrahim H

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to quantify the carbon stored in a degraded cork oak (Quercus suber L. ecosystem in the north west of Morocco, in view of potential management implications. To this end, carbon stocks were evaluated in the first 100 cm of the soil, the cork oak trees, and the understorey species (both above- and belowground. Results show that the total carbon stocks in the cork oak ecosystem ranges from 65 to 237 Mg ha-1 with a mean value of 121 Mg ha-1. The first 100 cm of the soil (including the forest floor represents the largest carbon pool (~51% of the total organic carbon of the ecosystem. Tree biomass (above- and belowground tissues of cork oak represents the second largest pool (47%, whereas the contribution of the understorey is less than 2%. Within the first 100 cm of the soil, over 87% of all the soil organic carbon is situated in the first 40 cm of the soil depth. The amount of carbon stored here ranges from 30 to 110 Mg ha-1and these organic carbon stocks vary considerably with the stand basal area of the cork oak (R2 = 0.82. In practice, the carbon stocks of the different pools considered are strongly correlated with the stand density of the cork oak stands. In the semi-arid forest ecosystems of our study, management prescriptions aiming at increasing the standing biomass of the cork oak should thus considerably contribute, both directly through tree biomass and indirectly through increased soil organic matter, to efficient carbon sequestration.

  11. Physiological function of insoluble dietary fiber prepared from exploded oak wood (Quercus mongolica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Joon; Shin, Yong-Seung; Han, Dae-Yong; Han, Sang-Woo; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the production of insoluble dietary fiber using exploded and chemically treated oak wood (Quercus mongolica) and the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber in laboratory animals. To produce high quality insoluble dietary fiber, the steam explosion treatment was performed at 25 kgf/cm2 pressure for 6 minutes. In the chemical analysis of insoluble dietary fiber, exploded oak wood was pretreated by 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The insoluble dietary fiber contained 7.6% residual lignin and 61.7% of alpha-cellulose. In order to compare the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber with those of commercial insoluble dietary fiber, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal diet and five high cholesterol diets, containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol diet groups were classified as the fiber-free diet (FF group), 5% commercial alpha-cellulose diet group (5C group), 10% commercial alpha-cellulose group (10C group), 5% insoluble dietary fiber group (5M group) and 10% insoluble dietary fiber group (10M group). Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio in high cholesterol groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group, but there were no significant differences among the high cholesterol diet groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the weights of liver, kidney and small intestine in insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. Cecum weights in all insoluble dietary fiber groups were significantly higher than those of the FF group. There were no significant differences in the activities of the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) among the insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. In conclusion, the prepared insoluble dietary fiber and the commercially available insoluble fiber showed the same physiological effects. Moreover, the preparation method for the insoluble dietary

  12. Effects of cadmium on cork oak (Quercus suber L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorcena, Yolanda; Larbi, Ajmi; Andaluz, Sofia; Carpena, Ramón O; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an autochthonous tree species that is being used for reforestation in heavy-metal-contaminated areas in Spain. A hydroponics experiment was carried out to characterize the effects of Cd on several morphological and physiological parameters in this species, including shoot length, nutrient concentrations and allocation in different organs, leaf pigment concentrations, photosynthetic efficiency, root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and organic acid concentrations in xylem sap. Four different Cd treatments were applied, adding Cd chelated with EDTA or as chloride salt at two different concentrations (10 and 50 µM Cd). After 1 month of Cd treatment, plant growth was significantly inhibited in all treatments. Results indicate that Cd accumulates in all organs 7- to 500-fold when compared with control plants. The highest Cd concentration was found in the 50 µM CdCl(2) treatment, which led to concentrations of ~30, 123 and 1153 µg Cd g(-1) dry weight in leaves, stems and roots, respectively. In the strongest Cd treatments the concentrations of P and Ca decreased in some plant parts, whereas the Mn leaf concentrations decreased with three of the four Cd treatments applied. The concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids on an area basis decreased, whereas the (zeaxanthin plus antheraxanthin)/(total violaxanthin cycle carotenoids) ratio and the non-photochemical quenching increased significantly in all Cd treatments. Cadmium treatments caused significant increases in the activity of the enzyme FCR in roots and in the concentrations of organic acids in xylem sap. Some of the physiological changes found support the fact that Cd induces a deficiency of Fe in cork oak, although the plant Fe concentrations were not reduced significantly. At higher concentrations the effects of Cd were more pronounced, and were more marked when Cd was in the free ion form than when present in the form of Cd-EDTA.

  13. Soil Respiration in Relation to Photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica Trees at Elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO2 is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO2-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO2 (EC = 500 µmol mol−1) and ambient CO2 (AC = 370 µmol mol−1) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO2 assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO2 fixation of plants in a CO2-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration. PMID:21151897

  14. [Effects of light intensity on Quercus liaotungensis seed germination and seedling growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-fu; Wang, Jian-li; Zhou, Li-biao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (55.4%, 18.9%, 5.5%, 2.2%, 0.5% , and 0.3% natural sunlight) on the seed germination and seedling growth of Quercus liaotungensis. The seed germination rate and germination index were the highest (72.5% and 0.22, respectively) at 55.4% natural sunlight, declined with decreasing light intensity, and were the lowest (42.5% and 0.11, respectively) at 0.3% natural sunlight. Strong light had definite delaying effect on the germination. The index of germination vigor increased with decreasing light intensity, being the maximum at 0.5% natural sunlight. The delay of seed germination under strong light could be the selective tradeoff on varied seed fates. Strong light benefited the basal stem diameter and root system growth and dry mass accumulation of Q. liaotunensis seedling, but resulted in the minimum seedlings height (6.06 cm). Greater morphological plasticity was observed for the seedlings under different shading, which lent support to the higher adaptability of the seedlings to light environment. For example, the specific leaf area, specific shoot length, specific root length, and chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents were the maximum at 0.5% natural sunlight, being 142.57 cm2 x g(-1), 156.86 cm x g(-1), 271.87 cm x g(-1), 0.07 g x cm(-2), and 0.24 g x cm(-2), respectively, and the minimum at 55.4% natural sunlight, being 44.89 cm2 x g(-1), 52.84 cm x g(-1), 101.98 cm x g(-1), 0.04 g x cm(-2), and 0.15 g x cm(-2), respectively. The variation of the root/shoot ratio of Q. liaotungensis seedlings under different shading could be the effects of the combination of light intensity and water availability.

  15. How drought severity constrains GPP and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

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    S. Rambal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments has a crucial role in the carbon sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought prone forests. We analyzed the fate of GPP in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Gross and net carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy-covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy-covariance fluxes with annual productions we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic and heterotrophic respirations, NPP and carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio between NPP and GPP. Average values of yearly NEP, GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m−2. The corresponding ANPP components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m−2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits and stems. Gross and net carbon exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected, the stem growth, to the least affected, the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease more slightly in response to drought than GPP and NPP, probably due to drought-acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem and highlight the value of maintaining continuous

  16. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih; Sanro Tachibana; Rizna Triana Dewi; Kazutaka Itoh

    2015-01-01

    To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume (Q. gilva). Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as catechin (1), epicatechin (2), and tiliroside (3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of (22.55 ± 2.23) µmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of (28.08 ± 2.39) µmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of (40.86 ± 3.45) µmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of (160.24 ± 8.15) µmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of (28.36 ± 0.11) µmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with (168.60 ± 5.15) and (920.60 ± 10.10) µmol/L, respectively. Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva confirmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  17. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia; Wheni; Indrianingsih; Sanro; Tachibana; Rizna; Triana; Dewi; Kazutaka; Itoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume(Q. gilva).Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identii ed as catechin(1), epicatechin(2), and tiliroside(3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of(22.55 ± 2.23) μmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of(28.08 ± 2.39) μmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of(40.86 ± 3.45) μmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of(160.24 ± 8.15) μmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of(28.36 ± 0.11) μmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with(168.60 ± 5.15) and(920.60 ± 10.10) μmol/L, respectively.Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva coni rmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  18. Is thinning adequate for adapting old Quercus ilex coppices to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Perez-Ramos, Ignacio-Manuel; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Misson, Laurent; Joffre, Richard; Rambal, Serge; Martin, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Future climatic scenarios call for an increasing involvement of management for forest preservation, but little is known on how forestry practices will benefit stands in facing variation of climatic components. We investigated how thinning affected tree responses to six years of continued throughfall reduction in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex stand formerly managed as a coppice. Thinned plots (≈33% basal area removal) and unthinned plots were subsequently subject to either throughfall exclusion (≈28% throughfall reduction) or normal rainfall. Stem-diameter growth, stem survival and seed production were monitored over the following six years; the presence, abundance and growth of new sprouts were measured in the last year. In the absence of thinning, throughfall exclusion accelerated the mortality of small stems, reduced the production of viable acorns and stimulated the emergence of new sprouts. Throughfall exclusion did not have any effect on stem growth. Rather, trees responded to the imposed reduction on throughfall by decreasing the leaf area and thus by minimizing the risk of xylem cavitation. Thinning reduced the mortality of stems, enhanced the diameter growth of residual stems and caused a profuse emission of resprouts. Thinning also increased total seed production but the crop had a large proportion of aborted seeds. Overall, the results point out to a better disposition of thinned Q. ilex coppice stands to cope with future (probably longer and more intense) droughts, at least in the short term. The reduction in standing dead biomass reduces the probability of occurrence of wildfires while the increase in growth and probably carbon reserves may help trees to overcome dry summers where CO2 assimilation is strongly limited. The mere felling of dominated and diseased stems, however, will probably not result in any longer-term advantage derived from seed regeneration without any further silvicultural treatment that promote seedling recruitment.

  19. How drought severity constrains GPP and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-06-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments has a crucial role in the carbon sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought prone forests. We analyzed the fate of GPP in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Gross and net carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy-covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy-covariance fluxes with annual productions we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic and heterotrophic respirations, NPP and carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly NEP, GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding ANPP components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems. Gross and net carbon exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected, the stem growth, to the least affected, the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease more slightly in response to drought than GPP and NPP, probably due to drought-acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem and highlight the value of maintaining continuous experimental

  20. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida eRocheta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalised cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterised and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step towards the characterisation of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution towards the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species.

  1. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Sobral, Rómulo; Magalhães, Joana; Amorim, Maria I; Ribeiro, Teresa; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M R

    2014-01-01

    Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalized cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious, or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterized and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution toward the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species.

  2. Lignin Composition and Structure Differs between Xylem, Phloem and Phellem in Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Rencoret, Jorge; Chemetova, Catarina; Gominho, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Río, José C; Pereira, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The composition and structure of lignin in different tissues-phellem (cork), phloem and xylem (wood)-of Quercus suber was studied. Whole cell walls and their respective isolated milled lignins were analyzed by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC). Different tissues presented varied p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl (H:G:S) lignin compositions. Whereas lignin from cork has a G-rich lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 2:85:13), lignin from phloem presents more S-units (H:G:S molar ratio of 1:58:41) and lignin from xylem is slightly enriched in S-lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 1:45:55). These differences were reflected in the relative abundances of the different interunit linkages. Alkyl-aryl ethers (β-O-4') were predominant, increasing from 68% in cork, to 71% in phloem and 77% in xylem, as consequence of the enrichment in S-lignin units. Cork lignin was enriched in condensed structures such as phenylcoumarans (β-5', 20%), dibenzodioxocins (5-5', 5%), as corresponds to a lignin enriched in G-units. In comparison, lignin from phloem and xylem presented lower levels of condensed linkages. The lignin from cork was highly acetylated at the γ-OH of the side-chain (48% lignin acetylation), predominantly over G-units; while the lignins from phloem and xylem were barely acetylated and this occurred mainly over S-units. These results are a first time overview of the lignin structure in xylem, phloem (generated by cambium), and in cork (generated by phellogen), in agreement with literature that reports that lignin biosynthesis is flexible and cell specific.

  3. Molecular characterization of Quercus suber MYB1, a transcription factor up-regulated in cork tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tânia; Menéndez, Esther; Capote, Tiago; Ribeiro, Teresa; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2013-01-15

    The molecular processes associated with cork development in Quercus suber L. are poorly understood. A previous molecular approach identified a list of genes potentially important for cork formation and differentiation, providing a new basis for further molecular studies. This report is the first molecular characterization of one of these candidate genes, QsMYB1, coding for an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. The R2R3-MYB gene sub-family has been described as being involved in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways, both involved in cork biosynthesis. The results showed that the expression of QsMYB1 is putatively mediated by an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism that originates two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2), differing only in the 5'-untranslated region, due to retention of the first intron in one of the variants. Moreover, within the retained intron, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) was identified. The upstream regulatory region of QsMYB1 was extended by a genome walking approach, which allowed the identification of the putative gene promoter region. The relative expression pattern of QsMYB1 transcripts determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that both transcripts were up-regulated in cork tissues; the detected expression was several times higher in newly formed cork harvested from trees producing virgin, second or reproduction cork when compared with wood. Moreover, the expression analysis of QsMYB1 in several Q. suber organs showed very low expression in young branches and roots, whereas in leaves, immature acorns or male flowers, no expression was detected. These preliminary results suggest that QsMYB1 may be related to secondary growth and, in particular, with the cork biosynthesis process with a possible alternative splicing mechanism associated with its regulatory function.

  4. Regulation of transpirational water loss in Quercus suber trees in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, D O; Schmidt, M W T; Kurz-Besson, C; Lobo Do Vale, R; Pereira, J S; Tenhunen, J D

    2007-08-01

    Sap flux density in branches, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf water potentials were measured in 16-year-old Quercus suber L. trees growing in a plantation in southern Portugal to understand how evergreen Mediterranean trees regulate water loss during summer drought. Leaf specific hydraulic conductance and leaf gas exchange were monitored during the progressive summer drought to establish how changes along the hydraulic pathway influence shoot responses. As soil water became limiting, leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration declined significantly. Predawn leaf water potential reflected soil water potential measured at 1-m depth in the rhizospheres of most trees. The lowest predawn leaf water potential recorded during this period was -1.8 MPa. Mean maximum stomatal conductance declined from 300 to 50 mmol m(-2) s(-1), reducing transpiration from 6 to 2 mmol m(-2) s(-1). Changes in leaf gas exchange were attributed to reduced soil water availability, increased resistances along the hydraulic pathway and, hence, reduced leaf water supply. There was a strong coupling between changes in soil water content and stomatal conductance as well as between stomatal conductance and leaf specific hydraulic conductance. Despite significant seasonal differences among trees in predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration and leaf specific hydraulic conductance, there were no differences in midday leaf water potentials. The strong regulation of changes in leaf water potential in Q. suber both diurnally and seasonally is achieved through stomatal closure, which is sensitive to changes in both liquid and vapor phase conductance. This sensitivity allows for optimization of carbon and water resource use without compromising the root-shoot hydraulic link.

  5. Lignin composition and structure differs between xylem, phloem and phellem in Quercus suber L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourenço

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition and structure of lignin in different tissues - phellem (cork, phloem and xylem (wood - of Quercus suber was studied. Whole cell walls and their respective isolated milled lignins were analyzed by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC. Different tissues presented varied p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl (H:G:S lignin compositions. Whereas lignin from cork has a G-rich lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 2:85:13, lignin from phloem presents more S-units (H:G:S molar ratio of 1:58:41 and lignin from xylem is slightly enriched in S-lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 1:45:55. These differences were reflected in the relative abundances of the different interunit linkages. Alkyl-aryl ethers (β–O–4´ were predominant, increasing from 68% in cork, to 71% in phloem and 77% in xylem, as consequence of the enrichment in S-lignin units. Cork lignin was enriched in condensed structures such as phenylcoumarans (β-5´, 20%, dibenzodioxocins (5-5´, 5%, as corresponds to a lignin enriched in G-units. In comparison, lignin from phloem and xylem presented lower levels of condensed linkages. The lignin from cork was highly acetylated at the γ-OH of the side-chain (48% lignin acetylation, predominantly over G-units; while the lignins from phloem and xylem were barely acetylated and this occurred mainly over S-units. These results are a first time overview of the lignin structure in xylem, phloem (generated by cambium, and in cork (generated by phellogen, in agreement with literature that lignin biosynthesis is flexible and cell specific.

  6. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  7. BVOC emissions from English oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) along a latitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    English oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are amongst the most common tree species growing in Europe, influencing the annual biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) budget in this region. Studies have shown great variability in the emissions from these tree species, originating from both genetic variability and differences in climatic conditions between study sites. In this study, we examine the emission patterns for English oak and European beech in genetically identical individuals and the potential variation within and between sites. Leaf scale BVOC emissions, net assimilation rates and stomatal conductance were measured at the International Phenological Garden sites of Ljubljana (Slovenia), Grafrath (Germany) and Taastrup (Denmark). Sampling was conducted during three campaigns between May and July 2014. Our results show that English oak mainly emitted isoprene whilst European beech released monoterpenes. The relative contribution of the most emitted compounds from the two species remained stable across latitudes. The contribution of isoprene for English oak from Grafrath and Taastrup ranged between 92 and 97 % of the total BVOC emissions, whilst sabinene and limonene for European beech ranged from 30.5 to 40.5 and 9 to 15 % respectively for all three sites. The relative contribution of isoprene for English oak at Ljubljana was lower (78 %) in comparison to the other sites, most likely caused by frost damage in early spring. The variability in total leaf-level emission rates from the same site was small, whereas there were greater differences between sites. These differences were probably caused by short-term weather events and plant stress. A difference in age did not seem to affect the emission patterns for the selected trees. This study highlights the significance of within-genotypic variation of BVOC emission capacities for English oak and European beech, the influence of climatic variables such as temperature and light on emission

  8. Associations between growth, wood anatomy, carbon isotope discrimination and mortality in a Quercus robur forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanic, Tom; Cater, Matjaz; McDowell, Nate G

    2011-03-01

    Observations of forest mortality are increasing globally, but relatively little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms driving these events. Tree rings carry physiological signatures that may be used as a tool for retrospective analyses. We capitalized on a local soil water drainage event in 1982 that resulted in increased mortality within a stand of oak trees (Quercus robur), to examine the underlying physiological patterns associated with survival and death in response to soil water limitations. Pre-dawn water potentials showed more negative values for trees in the process of dying compared with those that survived. We used tree rings formed over the 123 years prior to mortality to estimate productivity from basal area increment (BAI, mm(2)), multiple xylem hydraulic parameters via anatomical measurements and crown-level gas exchange via carbon isotope discrimination (Δ, ‰). Oaks that died had significantly higher BAI values than trees that survived until the drainage event, after which the BAI of trees that died declined dramatically. Hydraulic diameter and conductivity of vessels in trees that died were higher than in surviving trees until the last 5 years prior to mortality, at which time both groups had similar values. Trees that died had consistently lower Δ values than trees that survived. Therefore, tree mortality in this stand was associated with physiological differences prior to the onset of soil water reduction. We propose that trees that died may have been hydraulically underbuilt for dry conditions, which predisposes them to severe hydraulic constraints and subsequent mortality. Measurements of above-ground/below-ground dry mass partitioning will be critical to future tests of this hypothesis. Based on these results, it is probable that pedunculate oak trees will experience greater future mortality if climate changes cause more severe droughts than the trees have experienced previously.

  9. Quercus suber range dynamics by ecological niche modelling: from the Last Interglacial to present time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessella, Federico; Simeone, Marco Cosimo; Schirone, Bartolomeo

    2015-07-01

    Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) is widely used to depict species potential occurrence according to environmental variables under different climatic scenarios. We tested the ENM approach to infer past range dynamics of cork oak, a keystone species of the Mediterranean Biome, from 130 ka to the present time. Hindcasting implications would deal with a better species risk assessment and conservation management for the future. We modelled present and past occurrence of cork oak using seven ENM algorithms, starting from 63,733 spatially unique presence points at 30 arc-second resolution. Fourteen environmental variables were used and four time slices were considered (Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, mid-Holocene and present time). A threshold-independent evaluation of the goodness-of-fit of the models was evaluated by means of ROC curve and fossil or historical evidences were used to validate the results. Four weighted average maps depicted the dynamics of area suitability for cork oak in the last 130 ka. The derived species autoecology allowed its long-term occurrence in the Mediterranean without striking range reduction or shifting. Fossil and historical post-processing validation support the modelled past spatial extension and a neglected species presence at Levantine until the recent time. Despite the severe climatic oscillation since the Last Glacial Maximum, cork oak potential distribution area experienced limited range changes, confirming its strong link with the Mediterranean Basin. The ecological amplitude of Quercus suber could be therefore adopted as a reference to trace the Mediterranean bioclimate area. A better knowledge of the past events of Mediterranean vegetation, a wider range of study species and environmental determinants are essential to inform us about its current state, its sensitivity to human impact and the potential responses to future changes.

  10. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P; Miguel, Célia

    2012-01-01

    The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks.

  11. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Marum

    Full Text Available The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber, have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy. The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks.

  12. [Effects of simulated acid rain on Quercus glauca seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Jiang, Fu-wei; Yin, Xiu-min; Lu, Mei-juan

    2009-09-01

    Taking the seedlings of Quercus glauca, a dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species in subtropical area, as test materials, this paper studied their photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content under effects of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 4.0, and 5.6 (CK). After 2-year acid rain stress, the net photosynthetic rate of Q. glauca increased significantly with decreasing pH of acid rain. The acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0 increased the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and the effect was more significant under pH 2.5. The intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0. The maximum photosynthetic rate, light compensation point, light saturation point, and dark respiration rate were significantly higher under pH 2.5 and 4.0 than under pH 5.6, while the apparent quantum yield was not sensitive to acid rain stress. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II and the potential activity of PS II under pH 2.5 and 4.0 were significantly higher than those under pH 5.6. The relative chlorophyll content was in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0, and there was a significant difference between pH 2.5 and 4.0. All the results suggested that the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of Q. glauca increased under the effects of acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0, and the acid rain with pH 2.5 had more obvious effects.

  13. Ecophysiological characteristics and cadmium accumulation in Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocozza C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals provoke environmental pollution with potentially toxic effects on human and plants systems. Recently, investigations are conducted on plants that may play a relevant role on pollutants absorption or stabilization, focusing on fast growing tree species in agronomic conditions; little is known on the effects of contaminants on tree species colonizing abandoned fields to be used in restoration ecology. The effects of Cd on photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation were investigated in Quercus pubescens Willd. seedlings grown in pots containing a mixture of sand, clay, turf and Cd-treatments (0, 25 and 75 mg kg-1 dry soil. The studied photosynthetic parameters (Asat= net phytosynthesis; Rday= day respiration; Γcomp= CO2 compensation point; Vcmax= maximum carboxylation rate; Jmax = electron transport rate; TPU = triose phosphate use; Ci/Ca = ratio of intercellular (Ci to ambient (Ca [CO2] (Ci/Ca; Jmax/Vcmax = ratio; (gsmax = maximum stomatal conductance; (lg = stomatal conductance estimated relative to the photosynthetic rate; (Fv/Fm = maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry; (ΔF/F’m = effective photochemical efficiency varied progressively with increasing Cd concentration in the soil, highlighting a negative impact on photosynthetic potential and PSII functioning. Approximately 10% of added Cd was found to be extractable from the substrate, at the maximum concentration applied, with about 12 and 0.75 as bioaccumulation and translocation factors, respectively. Analogously, Cd accumulated up to 34, 30 and 46 mg kg−1 in leaves, stem and roots, respectively. While it is not possible to extrapolate from the present study with seedlings to effects on mature pine trees, there are clear implications for regeneration in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may lead to ecosystem deterioration.

  14. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%-248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  15. Influence of pericarp, cotyledon and inhibitory substances on sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (STO, mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS, removing the pericarp (RP, and cutting off 1/2 (HC and 2/3 (TC cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis seeds (CCS were also investigated for CCS cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol. The results showed that the majority of roots and shoots from acorns with RP and HC treatment emerged two weeks earlier, more simultaneously, and their total emergencies were more than 46% and 28% higher, respectively. TC accelerated root and shoot emergence time and root length, but root and shoot germination rate and shoot height had no significant difference from the control. Positive consequences were not observed on all indices of RS treatment. The germination rates of CCS watered by 1.0 g · ml(-1 methanol extracts from the embryo and cotyledon were significantly lower than those from the pericarp, and all concentrations resulted in decreased growth of root and shoot. Methanol extracts from pericarp significantly reduced root length of CCS, but presented little response in germination percentage and shoot length. The inhibitory effect was gradually increased with the increasing concentration of the methanol extract. We conclude that both the mechanical restriction of the pericarp and the presence of germination inhibitors in the embryo, cotyledon and pericarp are the causes for delayed and asynchronous germination of STO acorns.

  16. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj G. Jain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.

  17. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Barreto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, resultou no isolamento dos derivados benzilnitrilas niazirina, niazirinina e 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila, enquanto que das cascas dos frutos somente o octacosano foi obtido. Os óleos essenciais das folhas, flores e frutos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Os constituintes principais identificados foram: fitol (21,6% e timol (9,6% nas folhas, octadecano (27,4% e ácido hexadecanóico (18,4% nas flores e docosano (32,7% e tetracosano (24,0% nos frutos. As estruturas dos compostos isolados foram identificadas a partir de técnicas espectroscópicas (RMN, IV e EM. A 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila está sendo citada pela primeira vez para o gênero Moringa e os óleos essenciais das flores e frutos estão sendo citados pela primeira vez para a espécie M. oleifera.Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, yield the benzylnitriles: niazirine, niazirinine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, while of fruit shells only octacosane was isolated. The essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents identified were: phytol (21.6% and thymol (9.6% in the leaves oil, octadecane (27.4% and hexadecanoic acid (18.4% in the flowers oil, docosane (32.7% and tetracosane (24.0% in the fruits oil. The structures of all compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses (NMR, IR and MS. 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile is reported for the first time to the Moringa genus and the essential oils of flowers and fruits are reported for the first time to the species M. oleifera.

  18. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is an independent predictor of mortality risk in patients receiving treatment for HIV-associated tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Peters, Jurgens A; Flach, Clare; Lawn, Stephen D

    2016-03-23

    Simple immune capture assays that detect mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine are promising new tools for the diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis (HIV-TB). In addition, however, recent prospective cohort studies of patients with HIV-TB have demonstrated associations between LAM in the urine and increased mortality risk during TB treatment, indicating an additional utility of urinary LAM as a prognostic marker. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the evidence concerning the strength of this relationship in adults with HIV-TB in sub-Saharan Africa, thereby quantifying the assay's prognostic value. We searched MEDLINE and Embase databases using comprehensive search terms for 'HIV', 'TB', 'LAM' and 'sub-Saharan Africa'. Identified studies were reviewed and selected according to predefined criteria. We identified 10 studies eligible for inclusion in this systematic review, reporting on a total of 1172 HIV-TB cases. Of these, 512 patients (44 %) tested positive for urinary LAM. After a variable duration of follow-up of between 2 and 6 months, overall case fatality rates among HIV-TB cases varied between 7 % and 53 %. Pooled summary estimates generated by random-effects meta-analysis showed a two-fold increased risk of mortality for urinary LAM-positive HIV-TB cases compared to urinary LAM-negative HIV-TB cases (relative risk 2.3, 95 % confidence interval 1.6-3.1). Some heterogeneity was explained by study setting and patient population in sub-group analyses. Five studies also reported multivariable analyses of risk factors for mortality, and pooled summary estimates demonstrated over two-fold increased mortality risk (odds ratio 2.5, 95 % confidence interval 1.4-4.5) among urinary LAM-positive HIV-TB cases, even after adjustment for other risk factors for mortality, including CD4 cell count. We have demonstrated that detectable LAM in urine is associated with increased risk of mortality during TB treatment, and that this

  19. Limitations due to water stress on leaf net photosynthesis of Quercus coccifera in the Portuguese evergreen scrub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenhunen, J.D.; Lange, O.L.; Harley, P.C.; Beyschlag, W.; Meyer, A.

    1985-01-01

    Gas exchange characteristics in leaves of the sclerophyll shrub Quercus coccifera were studied in the natural habitat in Portugal during spring and during the summer dry period. Compared to other sclerophyll species growing at the same site, photosynthesis in leaves of Quercus coccifera was less affected by water stress. Moderate water stress after six weeks of drought led to large decreases in stomatal conductance but no change in mesophyll photosynthetic capacity as compared to late spring. Leaf internal CO/sub 2/ pressure remained near 220 ..mu..bar during diurnal courses in the spring. On midsummer days, leaf internal CO/sub 2/ decreased from a late morning value of 200 ..mu..bar to a late afternoon value of approximately 150 ..mu..bar. In contrast to Quercus suber, restriction of CO/sub 2/ supply due to stomatal closure reduced net CO/sub 2/ uptake at midday and in the afternoon during midsummer. A decrease in leaf carboxylation efficiency and an increase in CO/sub 2/ compensation point at midday also played an important role in determining the diurnal course of net photosynthesis. During the late stages of drought in September, severe water stress led to reduction in mesophyll photosynthetic capacity and further reduction in leaf conductance. The observed decrease in mesophyll photosynthetic capacity was correlated with decrease in the daily minimum leaf water potential to greater negative values than -30 bar. At this time, CO/sub 2/ saturated photosynthetic rates decreased as much as 50% over the course of a day when measured at constant saturating light, 32/sup 0/C leaf temperature, and a water vapor mole fraction difference between leaf and air of 30 mbar bar/sup -1/. 24 references, 9 figures.

  20. Rasgos funcionales en el género Quercus: estrategias adquisitivas frente a conservativas en el uso de recursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. de la Riva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del género Quercus constituyen uno de los grupos más abundantes e importantes de plantas leñosas de la Península Ibérica, estando su distribución determinada por la disponibilidad de agua, el tipo de suelo y la historia del manejo. El conocimiento de la variación de sus características morfo-funcionales puede ayudarnos a comprender el grado de diversificación de las especies del mismo género y los mecanismos que controlan sus patrones de distribución. Los objetivos principales de este estudio son: (i analizar las relaciones existentes entre los diferentes rasgos funcionales dentro del género Quercus y testar cómo se ajustan a las estrategias de captación de recursos; y (ii comprobar si existe coordinación entre los rasgos medidos a nivel de hoja, tallo y raíz. El muestreo se llevó a cabo en Sierra Morena (Córdoba y la Sierra del Aljibe (Cádiz, cuantificándose rasgos funcionales claves a nivel de hoja, tallo, raíz, tamaño de planta y fisiología en cinco especies de Quercus (Q. canariensis, Q. coccifera, Q. faginea, Q. ilex y Q. suber. Los resultados muestran que las diferentes especies de Quercus presentan claros patrones en sus estrategias funcionales que están relacionados con su distribución, encontrando un gradiente desde especies más conservativas en el uso de recursos en condiciones de menor disponibilidad de agua a especies más adquisitivas en zonas más húmedas. A su vez, se aprecia una coordinación entre los patrones de rasgos funcionales encontrados a nivel de hoja, tallo y de raíz que apoya la existencia de un “espectro de economía” a nivel de la planta entera.