WorldWideScience

Sample records for quasispecies-like behavior observed

  1. Quasispecies-like behavior observed in catalytic RNA populations evolving in a test tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman Niles

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the RNA World, molecular populations were probably very small and highly susceptible to the force of strong random drift. In conjunction with Muller's Ratchet, this would have imposed difficulties for the preservation of the genetic information and the survival of the populations. Mechanisms that allowed these nascent populations to overcome this problem must have been advantageous. Results Using continuous in vitro evolution experimentation with an increased mutation rate imposed by MnCl2, it was found that clonal 100-molecule populations of ribozymes clearly exhibit certain characteristics of a quasispecies. This is the first time this has been seen with a catalytic RNA. Extensive genotypic sampling from two replicate lineages was gathered and phylogenetic networks were constructed to elucidate the structure of the evolving RNA populations. A common distribution was found in which a mutant sequence was present at high frequency, surrounded by a cloud of mutant with lower frequencies. This is a typical distribution of quasispecies. Most of the mutants in these clouds were connected by short Hamming distance values, indicating their close relatedness. Conclusions The quasispecies nature of mutant RNA clouds facilitates the recovery of genotypes under pressure of being removed from the population by random drift. The empirical populations therefore evolved a genotypic resiliency despite a high mutation rate by adopting the characteristics of quasispecies, implying that primordial RNA pools could have used this strategy to avoid extinction.

  2. 10 CFR 26.33 - Behavioral observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Behavioral observation. 26.33 Section 26.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.33 Behavioral observation. Licensees... behavioral observation. Behavioral observation must be performed by individuals who are trained under § 26.29...

  3. 10 CFR 26.407 - Behavioral observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Behavioral observation. 26.407 Section 26.407 Energy... observation. While the individuals specified in § 26.4(f) are constructing safety- or security-related SSCs, licensees and other entities shall ensure that these individuals are subject to behavioral observation...

  4. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Feigel, Alexander; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spiders, to predator inspection by sticklebacks and to territorial defense by lions, demonstrating animal behavior as a new type of game theoretical equilibrium. Games animals play may be derived unequivocally from their observable behavior, the reconstruction, however, can be subjected to fundamental limitations due to our inability to observe all information exchange mechanisms (communication).

  5. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Feigel, Alexander; Englander, Avraham; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spi...

  6. The Singular Behavior of Jet Substructure Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Jet substructure observables play a central role at the Large Hadron Collider for identifying the boosted hadronic decay products of electroweak scale resonances. The complete description of these observables requires understanding both the limit in which hard substructure is resolved, as well as the limit of a jet with a single hard core. In this paper we study in detail the perturbative structure of two prominent jet substructure observables, $N$-subjettiness and the energy correlation functions, as measured on background QCD jets. In particular, we focus on the distinction between the limits in which two-prong structure is resolved or unresolved. Depending on the choice of subjet axes, we demonstrate that at fixed order, $N$-subjettiness can manifest myriad behaviors in the unresolved region: smooth tails, end-point singularities, or singularities in the physical region. The energy correlation functions, by contrast, only have non-singular perturbative tails extending to the end point. We discuss the effec...

  7. Observations and simulations of resistance switching behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukwon

    This dissertation describes an exploration to understand the electric field driven resistance switching behavior, which are known to be found in many oxide materials. The behavior is characterized as having two different stable states in their current-voltage characteristics. They have gained much attention as candidates for data storage. Although this interesting phenomenon has been studied for decades, the physical mechanism of the behavior is not revealed, yet. To establish our own model, experiments with Cr doped SrZrO3 are carried out and hypothetical models were developed based on the results. Then, computational calculations were done to test the proposed switching mechanism. Experiments are done using metal(top metal)/Cr-SrZrO3/SrRuO 3(bottom metal) heterojunction stacks, which are grown using Pulsed Laser Deposition system. In the structure, thickness and Cr-doping content of SrZrO3 layer were varied while Pt and Ag are used as primary top metal contacts. And top metal layer is also varied with Pt, Ag, Cu, Cr, Mg, and SrRuO3 to see the influence of top metal contact. The heterostructures were found to exhibit non-rectifying IVCs (so-called Space-Charge-Limited Current) which are observed in many other metal-oxide-metal systems. In the experiments of varying Cr-content and thickness of SrZrO 3 layer, a steep increase of resistance with respect to thickness was observed. For high Cr-doping levels, R ∝ t3 was observed, while for low Cr-doping levels an even stronger relationship was observed. The main result of top metal contact experiment was the one that metal contact's chemical identity decides the slope of IVC (resistances), where resistances were found to be correlated with top metal's heat of oxide formation. Especially for Ag top metal contact, which has the lowest absolute value of heat of oxide formation, reversal switching polarity was observed. Such results lead us to believe that the switching behavior is originated by oxygen vacancy motion with

  8. Methodology for Naturalistic Observation of Therapist Behavior in Group Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Leslie Bloch

    This paper presents a research method derived from the functional analysis of behavior currently common among operant behavior therapists. Naturalistic observation, the method used, encompasses behavioral-level description of events, systematic observation and recording by means of codes, assessment of inter-judge reliability, as well as targeting…

  9. Phase Behavior and Implications for Travel time Observables (PHASE 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Phase behavior and implications for travel - time observables (PHASE-2) Emmanuel Skarsoulis Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas...perturbation behavior of travel time observables due to sound-speed perturbations. OBJECTIVES The objective is to study the behavior of the wave-theoretic...for this work came from the results of previous studies, supported by ONR, suggesting that the perturbation behavior of different travel - time

  10. Investigating Crickets: Observing Animal Exploratory Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    For curriculum content-related reasons, inquiry activities can be difficult in classrooms unless the activities are approached in a manner that makes variations among student group findings understandable in the context of the study. Studies of individual animals and plant reactions to stimuli, such as insect exploratory behavior, allow the…

  11. Parent-Collected Behavioral Observations: An Empirical Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Cy B.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Treatments for disruptive behaviors are often guided by parent reports on questionnaires, rather than by multiple methods of assessment. Professional observations and clinic analogs exist to complement questionnaires, but parents can also collect useful behavioral observations to inform and guide treatment. Two parent observation methods of child…

  12. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  13. Observing Animal Behavior at the Zoo: A Learning Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Debra B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students in a learning laboratory course initially chose a species to study; researched that species' physical and behavioral characteristics; then learned skills necessary to select, operationalize, observe, and record animal behavior accurately. After their classroom preparation, students went to a local zoo to observe the behavior…

  14. An observational study of sexual behavior in demented male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, A M; Davies, H D; Tinklenberg, J R

    1996-11-01

    Concerns have been expressed that patients with dementia will display disinhibited, inappropriate sexual behavior. Retrospective research suggests that this is rare, but no observational research has been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct such an observational study. Subjects were 40 patients with a dementia diagnosis who were living in institutional settings; subjects ranged in age from 60 to 98. Coders observed subjects on nine separate occasions, three in the morning, three in the afternoon, and three in the evening. Subjects were observed in multiple situations; coding included appropriate, ambiguous, and inappropriate sexual behaviors. Reliability coding was obtained for 42% of the patients on 11% of coded episodes. Behaviors could be coded with high reliability (94% to 100% across categories of behavior). On average, patients displayed 43 appropriate sexual behaviors, 1.48 ambiguous behaviors, and .83 inappropriate behaviors across the nine observation periods. This was not evenly distributed across patients, however; only 18% of patients ever displayed a sexually inappropriate behavior, and these were usually brief and minor. Inappropriate sexual behavior was observed in only 1.6% of the observed one-minute time segments. Observational research documents what had been previously suggested by retrospective reports: inappropriate sexual behavior is uncommon in dementia patients and brief and minor even when it occurs. Ambiguous behaviors, such as appearing in public incompletely dressed, which could suggest exhibitionism but more likely reflects self-care deficits, were more common. Misinterpretation of these events may be the source for some of the persistent lore regarding sexually disinhibited behavior in dementia patients.

  15. Teacher and TA Ratings of Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior: Agreement and Associations with Observed Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Catherine Sanger; Williford, Amanda P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated teachers' and teacher aides' (TAs) agreement in their ratings of preschoolers' externalizing behavior and their associations with observed classroom behavior for a sample of children at risk of developing a disruptive behavior disorder. One hundred twenty-two teachers rated 360 students' externalizing behavior in the…

  16. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part I: reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S; Hill, Carri; Carter, Alice S; Danis, Barbara; Egger, Helen L; Keenan, Kate; Leventhal, Bennett L; Cicchetti, Domenic; Maskowitz, Katie; Burns, James; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2008-06-01

    To examine the reliability of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS), a new observational method for assessing preschool disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a structured clinic-based assessment designed to elicit clinically salient behaviors relevant to the diagnosis of disruptive behavior in preschoolers. Child behavior is assessed in three interactional contexts that vary by partner (parent versus examiner) and level of support provided. Twenty-one disruptive behaviors are coded within two domains: problems in Behavioral Regulation and problems in Anger Modulation. A total of 364 referred and nonreferred preschoolers participated: interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on a primary sample (n = 335) and test-retest reliability was assessed in a separate sample (n = 29). The DB-DOS demonstrated good interrater and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the DB-DOS multidomain model of disruptive behavior. The DB-DOS is a reliable observational tool for clinic-based assessment of preschool disruptive behavior. This standardized assessment method holds promise for advancing developmentally sensitive characterization of preschool psychopathology.

  17. Observations on the behavior of Schroederichthys chilensis (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Flores

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schroederichthys chilensis, the redspotted catshark or chilean catshark, is an endemic species to Peruvian and Chilean waters. Observations on its behavior in the National Reserve System of Guano Islands, Islets, and Capes – Punta San Juan and Paracas National Reserve reveal that it curls when threatened. This hypothesized survival strategy has not been previously documented in this species and we recommend further studies to elucidate this behavior.

  18. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues.

  19. Blind trust in unblinded observation in Ecology, Evolution and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Kardish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We survey 492 recent studies in the fields of ecology, evolution and behavior (EEB to evaluate potential for observer bias and the need for blind experimentation in each study. While 248 articles included experiments that could have been influenced by observer bias, only 13.3% of these articles indicated that experiments were blinded. The use of blind observation therefore was either grossly underreported in the surveyed articles, or many EEB studies were not blinded. We hope that a concerted effort of the field of EEB – including researchers, peer-reviewers, and journal editors – will help promote and institute routine, blind observation as an essential standard that should be practiced by all sciences.

  20. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  1. Tropical behavior of mesospheric ozone as observed by SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Kendig, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal behavior of low latitude mesospheric ozone, as observed by the SMM satellite solar occultation experiment, is detailed for the 1985-1989 period. Annual as well as semi-annual waves are observed in the 50-70 km altitude region. In the latitude range of +/- 30 deg the ozone phase and amplitude are functions of temperature and seasonal changes in solar flux. Temperature is the controlling factor for the equatorial region and seasonal changes in solar flux become more dominant at latitudes outside the equatorial zone (greater than +/- 15 deg). There is a hemispheric asymmetry in the ozone annual wave in the 20-30 deg region, with Northern Hemispheric ozone having a larger amplitude than Southern Hemispheric ozone.

  2. Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide (JTOG): An Instrument to Observe Teamwork Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kevin J; Giordano, Carolyn; Speakman, Elizabeth; Smith, Kellie; Horowitz, June A

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming an integral part of the education of health professions students. However, teaching students to become successful members of interprofessional teams is complex, and it is important for students to learn the combinations of skills necessary for teams to function effectively. There are many instruments available to measure many features related to IPE. However, these instruments are often too cumbersome to use in an observational situation since they tend to be lengthy and contain many abstract characteristics that are difficult to identify. The Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide (JTOG) is a short tool that was created for students early in their educational program to observe teams in action with a set of guidelines to help them focus their observation on behaviors indicative of good teamwork. The JTOG was developed over a 2-year period based on student and clinician feedback and the input of experts in IPE. While initially developed as a purely educational tool for prelicensure students, it is becoming clear that it is an easy-to-use instrument that assesses the behavior of clinicians in practice.

  3. Phoenix Mars Scout Parachute Flight Behavior and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas S.; Witkowski, Allen; Kandis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The data returned from the successful Phoenix Mars Scout mission are analyzed in order to determine characteristics and behaviors of the supersonic parachute that was used to slow the entry body during its descent to the surface. At least one significant drag reduction event was observed when the vehicle was traveling at Mach 1.6; this is consistent with previously reported terrestrial high altitude testing and is likely associated with an area oscillation of the parachute. The parachute is shown to possess some lateral instability relative to the anti-velocity vector that is also at a level that is consistent with the same historic data. Ramifications of the lateral instability and, in particular, the unsteadiness in the parachute drag are discussed as energizing elements of the entry body wrist mode. The apparent coefficient of drag for the parachute is calculated and shown to have relatively small variations on an average basis over the supersonic portion of flight.

  4. Exploring the body through reflexology: Physical behaviors observed during application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmel-Esmel, Neus; Tomás-Esmel, Eudald; Aparicio Rollan, Yolanda; Pérez Cáceres, Irene; Montes-Muñoz, Ma Jesús; Jimenez-Herrera, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies on reflexology describe the appearance of different application-associated effects, attributed to a self-regulatory mechanism related to treatment efficacy. On the other hand, sleep is a physiological process of vital importance for health. Its main value lies in restoring the natural balance between neuronal centers. Among its associated behavioral characteristics are spontaneous movements and eye movements. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects that occur during application of reflexology and that are not described in the literature. This is a descriptive observational study with a quantitative methodology. Abivariate anlysis has been conductec through chi-square test or Anova as apropiate. A total of 111 clients of a therapy center in Tarragona have participated in the study. They were assigned into four groups (musculoskeletal, stress, anxiety, mantenance). Reflexology was administered and observered the manifestations that occured during the session. The findings have identified four categories of effects, of which there was no previous reference. These effects can be related to any of the stages of sleep. This study shows that reflexology promotes its application for different effects, such as eye movements and spontaneous movements. These data reveal the need to investigate these effects and their impact on health as well as their possible relationship with sleep.

  5. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children’s Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children’s behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children’s behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they related to parent-teacher rating discrepancies of disruptive behavior in a sample of 327 preschoolers. Observed disruptive behavior was assessed with a la...

  6. An Observational Study of Social Behavior in Microcomputer Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the effects of five variables--student grouping at the computer, keyboarding status, academic discipline, student gender, and gender of partner--on student social behavior, both verbal and affective, in microcomputer classrooms in a public business high school. The effect of these variables on teacher behavior was also…

  7. Determining Responsiveness to School Counseling Interventions Using Behavioral Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruman, Diana H.; Hoelzen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    School districts are in the process of adopting the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach to identify and remediate academic and behavioral deficits. As an integral member of the school behavior team, school counselors must use data on individual interventions to contribute to the data-based decision making process in RTI. This article presents…

  8. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  9. Corticospinal Excitability during the Observation of Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchioni, Giulia; Cavallo, Andrea; Ippolito, Davide; Marton, Gianluca; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the observation of an action induces in the observers an enhancement of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded by the observer's muscles corresponding to those involved in the observed action. Although this is a well-studied phenomenon, it remains still unclear how the viewer's motor facilitation is influenced by the social…

  10. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  11. The Limiting Behavior for Observations That Change with Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyun WANG; Zhengyan LIN

    2007-01-01

    Consider a system where units have random magnitude entering according to a homogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process, while in the system, a unit's magnitude may change with time. In this paper, the authors obtain some results for the limiting behavior of the sum process of all unit magnitudes present in the system at time t.

  12. How Does Observational Learning Affect the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders? A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Betty A.; Kauffman, James M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews research on observational learning, including model characteristics and observers' responses, vicarious reinforcement as implicit punishment, vicarious effects on students with problem behavior, observers' other characteristics and vicarious effects, and aggression and vicarious processes. Regular class placement of students…

  13. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer

  14. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer p

  15. The Effects of Safety Discrimination Training and Frequent Safety Observations on Safety-Related Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of the present study was to assess the effects of discrimination training only and in combination with frequent safety observations on five participants' safety-related behavior in a simulated office setting. The study used a multiple-baseline design across safety-related behaviors. Across all participants and behavior, safety improved…

  16. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  17. Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…

  18. Response-Specific Effects of Pain Observation on Motor Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, India; Poliakoff, Ellen; Gordon, Lucy; Downing, Paul

    2007-01-01

    How does seeing a painful event happening to someone else influence the observer's own motor system? To address this question, we measured simple reaction times following videos showing noxious or innocuous implements contacting corporeal or noncorporeal objects. Key releases in a go/nogo task were speeded, and key presses slowed, after subjects…

  19. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  20. Dynamical Behavior of Meteor in AN Atmosphere: Theory vs Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, Maria

    Up to now the only quantities which directly follow from the available meteor observations are its brightness, the height above sea level, the length along the trajectory, and as a consequence its velocity as a function of time. Other important parameters like meteoroid's mass, its shape, bulk and grain density, temperature remain unknown and should be found based on physical theories and special experiments. In this study I will consider modern methods for evaluating meteoroid parameters from observational data, and some of their applications. The study in particular takes an approach in modelling the meteoroids' mass and other properties from the aerodynamical point of view, e.g. from the rate of body deceleration in the atmosphere as opposed to conventionally used luminosity [1]. An analytical model of the atmospheric entry is calculated for registered meteors using published observational data and evaluating parameters describing drag, ablation and rotation rate of meteoroid along the luminous segment of the trajectory. One of the special features of this approach is the possibility of considering a change in body shape during its motion in the atmosphere. The correct mathematical modelling of meteor events is necessary for further studies of consequences for collisions of cosmic bodies with the Earth [2]. It also helps us to estimate the key parameters of the meteoroids, including deceleration, pre-entry mass, terminal mass, ablation coefficient, effective destruction enthalpy, and heat-transfer coefficient. With this information, one can use models for the dust influx onto Earth to estimate the number of meteors detected by a camera of a given sensitivity. References 1. Gritsevich M. I. Determination of Parameters of Meteor Bodies based on Flight Obser-vational Data // Advances in Space Research, 44, p. 323-334, 2009. 2. Gritsevich M. I., Stulov V. P. and Turchak L. I. Classification of Consequences for Col-lisions of Natural Cosmic Bodies with the Earth

  1. Multiscale Behavior of Viscous Fluids Dynamics: Experimental Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Spina, Laura; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities of mafic to intermediate silicate melts (10-1000 Pa s) during slow decompression present multi-time scale processes. To observe these processes we have performed several experiments on silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours, in a Plexiglas autoclave. The slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acting as the excitation mechanism, triggered several processes with their own distinct timescales. These processes generate complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit flanked by high-speed video recordings. The analysis in time and frequency of these time series and their correlation with the associated high-speed imaging enables the characterization of distinct phases and the extraction of the individual processes during the evolution of decompression of these viscous fluids. We have observed fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution along the conduit. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the conduit system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic conduit dynamics and volcanic seismicity.

  2. Actors conform, observers react: the effects of behavioral synchrony on conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ping; Dai, Xianchi; Wyer, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in synchronous behavior can induce a more general disposition to copy others, which increases the tendency to conform to others' preferences in an unrelated choice situation. In contrast, observing others perform synchronous behavior can induce psychological reactance and decrease conformity to others' preferences. Five experiments confirmed these different effects and circumscribed the conditions in which they occurred. Actors typically focus their attention on the goal to which their synchronous behavior is directed, inducing a copying-others mindset that generalizes to later situations. In contrast, observers focus on the actors' behavior independently of the goal to which it pertains. Consequently, they become sensitive to the restrictions on freedom that synchronous behavior requires and experience reactance. However, changing the relative attention that actors and observers pay to these factors can reverse the effects of the actors' synchronous behavior on conformity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Observer Error when Measuring Safety-Related Behavior: Momentary Time Sampling versus Whole-Interval Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Skourides, Andreas; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    Interval recording procedures are used by persons who collect data through observation to estimate the cumulative occurrence and nonoccurrence of behavior/events. Although interval recording procedures can increase the efficiency of observational data collection, they can also induce error from the observer. In the present study, 50 observers were…

  4. Observer Error when Measuring Safety-Related Behavior: Momentary Time Sampling versus Whole-Interval Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Skourides, Andreas; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    Interval recording procedures are used by persons who collect data through observation to estimate the cumulative occurrence and nonoccurrence of behavior/events. Although interval recording procedures can increase the efficiency of observational data collection, they can also induce error from the observer. In the present study, 50 observers were…

  5. Coulomb blockade and Coulomb staircase behavior observed at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uky Vivitasari, Pipit; Azuma, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    A single-electron transistor (SET) consists of source, drain, Coulomb island, and gate to modulate the number of electrons and control the current. For practical applications, it is important to operate a SET at room temperature. One proposal towards the ability to operate at room temperature is to decrease Coulomb island size down to a few nanometres. We investigate a SET using Sn-porphyrin (Sn-por) protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 1.4 nm in core diameter as a Coulomb island. The fabrication method of nanogap electrodes uses the combination of a top-down technique by electron beam lithography (EBL) and a bottom-up process through electroless gold plating (ELGP) as our group have described before. The electrical measurement was conducted at room temperature (300 K). From current-voltage (I d-V d) characteristics, we obtained clear Coulomb blockade phenomena together with a Coulomb staircase due to a Sn-por protected gold NP as a Coulomb island. Experimental results of I d-V d characteristics agree with a theoretical curve based on using the orthodox model. Clear dI d/dV d peaks are observed in the Coulomb staircase at 9 K which suggest the electron transports through excited energy levels of Au NPs. These results are a big step for obtaining SETs that can operate at room temperature.

  6. The PeerBehavior Model based on Continuous Behavioral Observation P2P Network Neighbors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honor-based trust mechanism is an important means to evaluate the behavior of the P2P network node, and it is used to ensure the health of the P2P network application. Trust mechanisms need to evaluate a node to other node local trust value and local trust value because they do not consider the policy node and human evaluation error of two important factors. The calculation is difficult to accurately reflect the characteristics of the nodes of the network. Evaluation models of the behavior of a P2P network neighbor. The PeerBehavior model has used a deterministic finite state machine (DFA depicts the continuous behavior of the neighbor state changes cause a negative evaluation of any continuous behavior by focusing neighbors almost died, both able to more accurately discover policies node in the network, but also be able to tolerate a certain degree of human evaluation error simulation experiment showed that this model was significantly improve the accuracy of the local trust value, and reducing the estimation error of the global trust value, was significantly superior to the calculation method of the current value of the other local trust

  7. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  8. Observed classroom behavior of children with ADHD: relationship to gender and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikoff, Howard B; Jensen, Peter S; Arnold, L L Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Pollack, Simcha; Martin, Diane; Alvir, Jose; March, John S; Hinshaw, Stephen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Greiner, Andrew; Cantwell, Dennis P; Conners, C Keith; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L; Kraemer, Helena; Pelham, William E; Severe, Joanne B; Swanson, James M; Wells, Karen; Wigal, Tim

    2002-08-01

    Examined hypothesized gender and comorbidity differences in the observed classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behavior of 403 boys and 99 girls with ADHD, ages 7-10, was compared (a) to observed, sex-specific classroom behavior norms, (b) by sex, and (c) by comorbid subgroups. Boys and girls with ADHD deviated significantly from classroom norms on 15/16 and 13/16 categories, respectively. Compared to comparison girls, girls with ADHD had relatively high rates of verbal aggression to children. Boys with ADHD engaged in more rule-breaking and externalizing behaviors than did girls with ADHD, but the sexes did not differ on more "neutral," unobtrusive behaviors. The sex differences are consistent with notions of why girls with ADHD are identified and referred later than boys. Contrary to hypothesis, the presence of comorbid anxiety disorder (ANX) was not associated with behavioral suppression; yet, as hypothesized, children with a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) had higher rates of rule-breaking, and impulsive and aggressive behavior, than did children with ADHD alone and those with ADHD+ANX. Elevated rates of ADHD behaviors were also observed in children with comorbid DBD, indicating that these behaviors are truly present and suggesting that reports of higher ADHD ratings in this subgroup are not simply a consequence of negative halo effects and rater biases.

  9. Emulating real-life situations with a play task to observe parenting skills and child behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C; Metzler, Carol W; Sanders, Matthew R; Crowley, Ryann

    2015-04-01

    Play tasks that use standardized procedures and materials are a practical way to assess parenting skills, child behaviors, and the ways in which parents and children interact. We describe a systematic process for developing the parent-child play task (PCPT) to assess mother-child interactions for a randomized controlled trial of a video-based parenting program. Participants were 307 mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children who presented oppositional and disruptive behavior challenges. The validity of the PCPT was investigated by testing (a) the extent to which the tasks elicited the specific parent and child behaviors of interest, (b) the consistency of individuals' behavior across the play tasks, and (c) the concurrent associations of the PCPT-observed child behaviors and mother reports of child behavior. The different tasks elicited the mother and child behaviors that they were designed to elicit. Behavior consistency across tasks for individual mothers and children was fair to good, with the exception of 2 task-specific behaviors. Mother's guidance (provision of instructions to foster a skill) during the teaching task and children's interruptions while mother was busy during the questionnaire task were highly task specific. Modest associations were found between observed children's noncompliance and inappropriate behaviors and mother-reported conduct problems and oppositional behaviors. Implications for clinical and research assessments are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Behavioral profiling in CCTV cameras by combining multiple subtle suspicious observations of different surveillance operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Vogels, J.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Kruszynski, K.J.; Wijn, R.; Burghouts, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Camera surveillance and recognition of deviant behavior is important for the prevention of criminal incidents. A single observation of subtle deviant behavior of an individual may sometimes be insufficient to merit a follow-up action. Therefore, we propose a method that can combine multiple weak obs

  11. Alternating Renewal Process Models for Behavioral Observation: Simulation Methods, Software, and Validity Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.; Runyon, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation recording procedures produce reductive summary measurements of an underlying stream of behavior. Previous methodological studies of these recording procedures have employed simulation methods for generating random behavior streams, many of which amount to special cases of a statistical model known as the alternating renewal…

  12. Drinking behavior in nursery pigs: Determining the accuracy between an automatic water meter versus human observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimilating accurate behavioral events over a long period can be labor intensive and relatively expensive. If an automatic device could accurately record the duration and frequency for a given behavioral event, it would be a valuable alternative to the traditional use of human observers for behavio...

  13. Preschool Children's Observed Disruptive Behavior: Variations across Sex, Interactional Context, and Disruptive Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A. O.; Carter, Alice S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in disruptive behavior and sensitivity to social context are documented, but the intersection between them is rarely examined empirically. This report focuses on sex differences in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts and diagnostic status. Preschoolers (n = 327) were classified as nondisruptive (51%),…

  14. Associations between Peer Nominations, Teacher Ratings, Self-Reports, and Observations of Malicious and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of two aggression scales for predicting observations of malicious or disruptive behavior at school. Subgroups of a sample of 1,560 children (age 8.6 plus or minus 1.5 years) were assessed using (a) peer nominations of aggression, (b) teacher reports on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) of the Child Behavior Checklist…

  15. Direct Observation of Teacher and Student Behavior in School Settings: Trends, Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Scott, Terrance M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Wills, Howard P.

    2014-01-01

    Across the modern history of the field of special education and emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD), direct observation of student and educator behavior has been an essential component of the diagnostic process, student progress monitoring, and establishing functional and statistical relationships within research. This article provides an…

  16. PREDICTION OF CONSUMERS' INTENSION THROUGH THEIR BEHAVIOR OBSERVATION IN UBIQUITOUS SHOP SPACE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Somkiat SAE-UENG; Sineenard PINYAPONG; Akihiro OGINO; Toshikazu KATO

    2008-01-01

    This paper has studied and observed the consumer behavior by collecting all kinds of actions of consumers and applying the ubiquitous environment which are RFID and camera sensors to gathering log data...

  17. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L.; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus–response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus–response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings. PMID:27683548

  18. Behavioral and TMS markers of action observation might reflect distinct neuronal processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hétu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, fourteen healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a predominant assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  19. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  20. Field observations of mating behavior in the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (Serpentes: Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Sasa; Sierra Curtis

    2006-01-01

    We observed the mating behavior of the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (a common species of colubrid in the South Pacific of Costa Rica) in the pre-montane wet forest of Las Cruces Biological Station (San Vito de Java, Costa Rica). Three S. annulatus were observed during courtship between 10-12 AM in a patch of primary forest. The two males were observed to interact with the female, but not signs of male-male agonistic interactions were observed. Their behavior includes grabbing ...

  1. Field observations of mating behavior in the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (Serpentes: Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sasa, Mahmood; Curtis, Sierra

    2014-01-01

    We observed the mating behavior of the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (a common species of colubrid in the South Pacific of Costa Rica) in the pre-montane wet forest of Las Cruces Biological Station (San Vito de Java, Costa Rica). Three S. annulatus were observed during courtship between 10-12 AM in a patch of primary forest. The two males were observed to interact with the female, but not signs of male-maleagonistic interactions were observed. Their behavior includes grabbing a...

  2. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children's Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Larissa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children's behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS) and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204) that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children's behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P < 0.05). Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P < 0.001). OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children's behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children's behavior during procedures. PMID:28116299

  3. How Do Observational Scales Correlate the Ratings of Children’s Behavior during Pediatric Procedural Sedation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa da Silva Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is little information regarding the ability of observational scales to properly assess children’s behavior during procedural sedation. Aim. To evaluate the characteristics of the Houpt scales, the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS and the Venham Behavior Rating Scale when applied to preschool children undergoing conscious dental sedation. Design. This study included 27 children, 4–6 years old with early childhood caries that participated in a clinical trial (NCT02284204 that investigated two sedative regimes using oral midazolam/ketamine. Dental appointments were video-recorded; five calibrated observers assessed 1,209 minutes of video recording to score the children’s behavior, following the instructions of the investigated scales. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation tests (P<0.05. Results. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scale were highly correlated (rho = −0.87; P<0.001. OSUBRS scores were better correlated with Houpt overall behavior and Venham ratings, when compared to Houpt scores in the categories for movement and crying. Conclusions. The Houpt overall behavior and the Venham scores are global scales that properly measure children’s behavior during dental sedation. Continuous assessment with OSUBRS through videos has a chance to give more precise data, while the Houpt categories can easily demonstrate children’s behavior during procedures.

  4. Observe, simplify, titrate, model, and synthesize: A paradigm for analyzing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Phenomena in behavior and their underlying neural mechanisms are exquisitely complex problems. Infrequently do we reflect on our basic strategies of investigation and analysis, or formally confront the actual challenges of achieving an understanding of the phenomena that inspire research. Philip Teitelbaum is distinct in his elegant approaches to understanding behavioral phenomena and their associated neural processes. He also articulated his views on effective approaches to scientific analyses of brain and behavior, his vision of how behavior and the nervous system are patterned, and what constitutes basic understanding. His rubrics involve careful observation and description of behavior, simplification of the complexity, analysis of elements, and re-integration through different forms of synthesis. Research on the development of huddling behavior by individual and groups of rats is reviewed in a context of Teitelbaum’s rubrics of research, with the goal of appreciating his broad and positive influence on the scientific community. PMID:22481081

  5. BEACHES: an observational system for assessing children's eating and physical activity behaviors and associated events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, T L; Sallis, J F; Nader, P R; Patterson, T L; Elder, J P; Berry, C C; Rupp, J W; Atkins, C J; Buono, M J; Nelson, J A

    1991-01-01

    An integrated system for coding direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors was developed. Associated environmental events were also coded, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. To assess the instrument's reliability and validity, 42 children, aged 4 to 8 years, were observed for 8 consecutive weeks at home and at school. Results indicated that four 60-min observations at home produced relatively stable estimates for most of the 10 dimensions. Interobserver reliabilities during live and videotaped observations were high, with the exception of "consequences" categories that occurred in less than 1% of observed intervals. Evidence of validity was provided by findings that antecedents were associated with respective dietary and physical activity behaviors. The five physical activity categories were validated by heartrate monitoring in a second study. The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System is appropriate for studying influences on diet and physical activity in children in a variety of settings.

  6. Advancing the discussion about systematic classroom behavioral observation, a product review of Tenny, J. (2010). eCOVE observation software. Pacific City, OR: eCOVE Software, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Smith, Liana

    2014-05-01

    Applied child psychologists and behavioral consultants often use systematic behavioral observations to inform the psychological assessment and intervention development process for children referred for attention and hyperactivity problems. This article provides a review of the 2010 version of the eCOVE classroom observation software in terms of its utility in tracking the progress of children with attention and hyperactive behaviors and its use in evaluating teacher behaviors that may impede or promote children's attention and positive behavior. The eCOVE shows promise as an efficient tool for psychologists and behavioral consultants who want to evaluate the effects of interventions for children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, mood disorders and learning disorders; however, some research-based improvements for future models are suggested. The reviewers also share their firsthand experience in using eCOVE to evaluate teacher and student behavior exhibited on a television show about teaching urban high school students and during a movie about an eccentric new kindergarten teacher. Rich examples are provided of using strategic behavioral observations to reveal how to improve the classroom environment so as to facilitate attention, motivation and positive behavior among youth. Broader implications for enhancing the use of systematic behavioral observations in the assessment of children and adolescents with attention disorders and related behavioral problems are discussed. Key issues are examined such as the use of behavioral observations during psychological consultation to prevent the previously found gender bias in referrals for ADHD. Using behavioral observations to enhance differential diagnosis is also discussed.

  7. Observed Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Motivation Predict School Readiness in Head Start Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhenke, Amanda; Miller, Alison L.; Brown, Eleanor; Seifer, Ronald; Dickstein, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Emotions and behaviors observed during challenging tasks are hypothesized to be valuable indicators of young children's motivation, the assessment of which may be particularly important for children at risk for school failure. The current study demonstrated reliability and concurrent validity of a new observational assessment of motivation in…

  8. An Observational Analysis of Coaching Behaviors for Career Development Event Teams: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Anna L.; Bowling, Amanda M.; Sharpless, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    School Based Agricultural Education (SBAE) teachers can use coaching behaviors, along with their agricultural content knowledge to help their Career Development Event (CDE) teams succeed. This mixed methods, collective case study observed three SBAE teachers preparing multiple CDEs throughout the CDE season. The teachers observed had a previous…

  9. A behavior- and observation-based monitoring process for safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Cesar F; Frutuoso E Melo, Paulo Fernando F

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a combination of a behavior-based monitoring process--using an at-risk behavior and unsafe condition observation system--and an observation-based safety adherence monitoring process that can indicate the compliance level with well-defined and agreed safety critical aspects and operational practices and procedures will be an effective safety management tool. This tool herein described represents a particular case, developed by a Praxair Inc. subsidiary in Brazil. Other safety surveillance systems usually adopted in industrial environments can rarely be used on construction sites. They also do not share information, knowledge and skills among the safety staff and other professionals invited to observe, usually covering specific tasks or specific professionals only, not a complete working area, which causes functional observing and monitoring limitations in terms of capturing behaviors and environmental safety issues. This tool also offers a wide range of learning opportunities and continuous improvement.

  10. The Effects of Perceived Normative Pressure and Observability of Behavior on Intention to Perform Sun Protection and Nutrition Behaviors on Behalf of Young Children among Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nehama

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes research on two normative concepts thought to impact health behaviors: injunctive and descriptive norms. The study tests whether the extent to which the same health behavior is enacted in an observable or non-observable setting will lead to variation in normative influence on parent intention. In on-line experiments conducted in winter 2009, 467 participants were randomized to a behavioral scenario in which the health behavior was described as occurring in an observable or non-observable setting. For sun protection behaviors, observability primed the influence of descriptive norms on intention. For nutrition behaviors, observability primed the influence of injunctive norms on intention. Across both conditions, observability of the behavioral scenario increased the strength of the association between norms and intention.

  11. The Effects of Perceived Normative Pressure and Observability of Behavior on Intention to Perform Sun Protection and Nutrition Behaviors on Behalf of Young Children among Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nehama

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes research on two normative concepts thought to impact health behaviors: injunctive and descriptive norms. The study tests whether the extent to which the same health behavior is enacted in an observable or non-observable setting will lead to variation in normative influence on parent intention. In on-line experiments conducted in winter 2009, 467 participants were randomized to a behavioral scenario in which the health behavior was described as occurring in an observable or non-observable setting. For sun protection behaviors, observability primed the influence of descriptive norms on intention. For nutrition behaviors, observability primed the influence of injunctive norms on intention. Across both conditions, observability of the behavioral scenario increased the strength of the association between norms and intention. PMID:24610959

  12. Observation of Climacteric-Like Behavior of Citrus Leaves Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wetterich, Caio B.; Lins, Emery C.; José Belasque; Marcassa, Luis G.

    2014-01-01

    Observation of climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves depends on the detection of ethylene. However, such detection requires a gas chromatographer and complex sample preparation procedures. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated as a diagnostic technique for climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves. Our results indicate that the chlorophyll fluorescence presents a time evolution consistent with the ethylene evolution. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy may be used to...

  13. Cetacean mother-calf behavior observed from a small aircraft off Southern California. Animal Behavior and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Smultea

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During early developmental stages, cetacean calves are dependent on their mothers for survival. Protection of young whales engaged in behaviors that are biologically important is critical for population recovery, so that appropriate management actions can be taken to minimize human disturbance. However, the occurrence and frequency of whale nursing and calves back-riding their mothers (both considered important to calf survival have rarely been observed nor adequately quantified or defined. Therefore, it may not always be clear when disruption is occurring. We used extended behavioral observations, still photography, and video camera footage obtained during aircraft surveys in the Southern California Bight in 2008 – 2013 to characterize cetacean mother-calf interactions. Based on observations of four mother/calf pairs (two gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus, one fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus, and one blue whale, B. musculus and one killer whale presumed mother/yearling pair (Orcinus orca, we describe bouts of nursing and calves riding on the backs of their presumed mothers, including activity duration, frequency, and relative body positioning. We conclude with specific definitions useful to wildlife conservation agencies authorizing and establishing restrictions to certain human activities when they might constitute behavioral disruptions.

  14. Value-directed human behavior analysis from video using partially observable Markov decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Jesse; Little, James J

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a method for learning decision theoretic models of human behaviors from video data. Our system learns relationships between the movements of a person, the context in which they are acting, and a utility function. This learning makes explicit that the meaning of a behavior to an observer is contained in its relationship to actions and outcomes. An agent wishing to capitalize on these relationships must learn to distinguish the behaviors according to how they help the agent to maximize utility. The model we use is a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP. The video observations are integrated into the POMDP using a dynamic Bayesian network that creates spatial and temporal abstractions amenable to decision making at the high level. The parameters of the model are learned from training data using an a posteriori constrained optimization technique based on the expectation-maximization algorithm. The system automatically discovers classes of behaviors and determines which are important for choosing actions that optimize over the utility of possible outcomes. This type of learning obviates the need for labeled data from expert knowledge about which behaviors are significant and removes bias about what behaviors may be useful to recognize in a particular situation. We show results in three interactions: a single player imitation game, a gestural robotic control problem, and a card game played by two people.

  15. Observed and self-reported pesticide protective behaviors of Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie Lee; LePrevost, Catherine; Wong, Bob; Linnan, Laura; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Mooney, Kathi

    2016-05-01

    Agricultural pesticide exposure has potential adverse health effects for farmworkers that may be reduced by pesticide protective behaviors (PPBs). The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Worker Protection Standard (WPS) requires PPBs be taught to farmworkers prior to field work. Studies to date have not utilized observational methods to evaluate the degree to which PPBs are practiced by Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe, compare, and contrast observed and self-reported PPBs used by Latino farmworkers; both PPBs that the WPS requires be taught and other PPBs were included. Observed and self-reported data were collected from 71 Latino farmworkers during the 2014 tobacco growing season in North Carolina. Participants were consistent in reporting and using long pants and closed shoes in the field most of the time. In addition, gloves, hats/bandanas, and water-resistant outerwear were frequently observed, although they are not required to be taught by the WPS. Farmworkers reported more long-sleeve (p=.028) and glove use (p=.000) than what was observed. It was uncommon to observe washing behavior before eating or drinking, even when washing supplies were available. Washing behaviors were significantly overreported for hand (p=.000; p=.000) and face (p=.000; p=.058) washing before eating and drinking in the field. This study documents that protective clothing behaviors that the WPS requires be taught, plus a few others are commonly practiced by Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers, but washing behaviors in the field are not. Targeted strategies to improve washing behaviors in the field are needed.

  16. Object affordances tune observers' prior expectations about tool-use behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Pierre O; Chambon, Valérian; Borghi, Anna M; Tessari, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    Learning about the function and use of tools through observation requires the ability to exploit one's own knowledge derived from past experience. It also depends on the detection of low-level local cues that are rooted in the tool's perceptual properties. Best known as 'affordances', these cues generate biomechanical priors that constrain the number of possible motor acts that are likely to be performed on tools. The contribution of these biomechanical priors to the learning of tool-use behaviors is well supported. However, it is not yet clear if, and how, affordances interact with higher-order expectations that are generated from past experience--i.e. probabilistic exposure--to enable observational learning of tool use. To address this question we designed an action observation task in which participants were required to infer, under various conditions of visual uncertainty, the intentions of a demonstrator performing tool-use behaviors. Both the probability of observing the demonstrator achieving a particular tool function and the biomechanical optimality of the observed movement were varied. We demonstrate that biomechanical priors modulate the extent to which participants' predictions are influenced by probabilistically-induced prior expectations. Biomechanical and probabilistic priors have a cumulative effect when they 'converge' (in the case of a probabilistic bias assigned to optimal behaviors), or a mutually inhibitory effect when they actively 'diverge' (in the case of probabilistic bias assigned to suboptimal behaviors).

  17. Object affordances tune observers' prior expectations about tool-use behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre O Jacquet

    Full Text Available Learning about the function and use of tools through observation requires the ability to exploit one's own knowledge derived from past experience. It also depends on the detection of low-level local cues that are rooted in the tool's perceptual properties. Best known as 'affordances', these cues generate biomechanical priors that constrain the number of possible motor acts that are likely to be performed on tools. The contribution of these biomechanical priors to the learning of tool-use behaviors is well supported. However, it is not yet clear if, and how, affordances interact with higher-order expectations that are generated from past experience--i.e. probabilistic exposure--to enable observational learning of tool use. To address this question we designed an action observation task in which participants were required to infer, under various conditions of visual uncertainty, the intentions of a demonstrator performing tool-use behaviors. Both the probability of observing the demonstrator achieving a particular tool function and the biomechanical optimality of the observed movement were varied. We demonstrate that biomechanical priors modulate the extent to which participants' predictions are influenced by probabilistically-induced prior expectations. Biomechanical and probabilistic priors have a cumulative effect when they 'converge' (in the case of a probabilistic bias assigned to optimal behaviors, or a mutually inhibitory effect when they actively 'diverge' (in the case of probabilistic bias assigned to suboptimal behaviors.

  18. A Big-Data-based platform of workers' behavior: Observations from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S Y; Ding, L Y; Luo, H B; Jiang, X Y

    2016-08-01

    Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) has been used in construction to observe, analyze and modify workers' behavior. However, studies have identified that BBS has several limitations, which have hindered its effective implementation. To mitigate the negative impact of BBS, this paper uses a case study approach to develop a Big-Data-based platform to classify, collect and store data about workers' unsafe behavior that is derived from a metro construction project. In developing the platform, three processes were undertaken: (1) a behavioral risk knowledge base was established; (2) images reflecting workers' unsafe behavior were collected from intelligent video surveillance and mobile application; and (3) images with semantic information were stored via a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The platform was implemented during the construction of the metro-system and it is demonstrated that it can effectively analyze semantic information contained in images, automatically extract workers' unsafe behavior and quickly retrieve on HDFS as well. The research presented in this paper can enable construction organizations with the ability to visualize unsafe acts in real-time and further identify patterns of behavior that can jeopardize safety outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  20. 网络的行为观测%Observation of Network Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚俭; 吴桦

    2000-01-01

    The basic concepts and correlating contents concerning the observation of network behaviors are introduced in this paper,some important contents are discussed,including basic metrics, measurement contents ,measurement methods ,storage of measurement data,the dealing and display of observiation data. This paper provides background information to researches in this filed.

  1. Behavioral Observation Scales for Measuring Children's Distress: The Effects of Increased Methodological Rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of increased methodological rigor on the validity of the Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress and on findings concerning whether children habituate to painful procedures. Data were scored with and without refinements. Results indicated that children do habituate but that refinements had little effect on validity. (BH)

  2. Quality of Parent-Adolescent Conversations About Sex and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Ha, Thao; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Studies suggest that the quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex uniquely predicts adolescent sexual behavior. Previous studies have relied predominantly on self-report data. Observational methods, which are not susceptible to self-report biases, may be useful in examining the associations between the quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex and adolescent sexual behavior more objectively. With a sample of adolescents (N = 55, 58% male, 44% white, Mage = 15.8) and their parents, we used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between the observed quality of parent-adolescent communication about dating and sex and the likelihood of adolescents' sexual intercourse. The quality of parent-adolescent communication about dating and sex predicted sexual behavior. Specifically, lecturing was associated with a higher likelihood of adolescents having had sexual intercourse. The quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex is a unique correlate of adolescent sexual behavior and warrants further investigation. Thus, it serves as a potential target of preventive interventions that aim to foster adolescent sexual health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Designing virtual audiences for fear of public speaking training - an observation study on realistic nonverbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality technology offers great possibilities for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of fear of public speaking: Clients can be exposed to virtual fear-triggering stimuli (exposure) and are able to role-play in virtual environments, training social skills to overcome their fear. Usually, prototypical audience behavior (neutral, social and anti-social) serves as stimulus in virtual training sessions, although there is significant lack of theoretical basis on typical audience behavior. The study presented deals with the design of a realistic virtual presentation scenario. An audience (consisting of n=18 men and women) in an undergraduate seminar was observed during three frontal lecture sessions. Behavior frequency of four nonverbal dimensions (eye contact, facial expression, gesture, and posture) was rated by means of a quantitative content analysis. Results show audience behavior patterns which seem to be typical in frontal lecture contexts, like friendly and neutral face expressions. Additionally, combined and even synchronized behavioral patterns between participants who sit next to each other (like turning to the neighbor and start talking) were registered. The gathered data serve as empirical design basis for a virtual audience to be used in virtual training applications that stimulate the experiences of the participants in a realistic manner, thereby improving the experienced presence in the training application.

  4. Observation of Varroa destructor behavior in capped worker brood of Africanized honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Rafael A; Chaves, Guisella; Sánchez, Luis A; Calderón, Rolando

    2012-11-01

    The behavioral activity of Varroa destructor was observed using transparent cells. Mite oviposition started at 45.0 ± 25.0 h post capping, followed by the next eggs laid at regular 27.3 ± 2.0 h intervals. On the prepupa, mites were found to feed often and there was no preference for a specific segment as a feeding site. During the pupal stage the mite fed less often and almost always at the same point. Varroa showed a preference for defecation in the posterior part of the cell. A significant association was observed between the position of the feeding point in the pupa and the defecation site on the cell wall. Displacement behavior was observed in 71 % of the infested bee larvae and a major change in the free space available for varroa in the cell occurred when the prepupa molted into a pupa.

  5. Building Alliances with (In)Voluntary Clients: A Study Focused on Therapists' Observable Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Luciana; Cunha, Diana; da Silva, José Tomás; Escudero, Valentín; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2016-11-14

    This study aimed to compare therapists' observable behaviors to promote alliances with involuntary and voluntary clients during brief family therapy. The therapists' contributions to fostering alliances were rated in sessions 1 and 4 using videotapes of 29 families who were observed in brief therapy. Using the System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances, trained raters searched for specific therapist behaviors that contributed to or detracted from the four alliance dimensions: engagement in the therapeutic process, an emotional connection with the therapist, safety within the therapeutic system, and a shared sense of purpose within the family. The results showed that when working with involuntary clients, therapists presented more behaviors to foster the clients' engagement and to promote a shared sense of purpose within the family. However, in the fourth session, the therapists in both groups contributed to the alliance in similar ways. The results are discussed in terms of (a) the therapists' alliance-building behaviors, (b) the specificities of each client group, and (c) the implications for clinical practice, training, and research. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  6. Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus Behavior and Group Dynamics as Observed from an Aircraft off Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lomac-MacNair

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group behavior and interactions of endangered blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus have not been systematically studied. Such behavioral data are often overlooked when assessing anthropogenic effects. Yet behavioral data are necessary to compare “normal” behaviors with behavior affected by anthropogenic factors of concern relative to effective management and recovery of blue whales. For a baseline study, we hypothesized that the response variables sighting rate, group size, calf presence and group cohesion (i.e., spacing between individuals within a group differed according to the spatio-temporal explanatory variables behavioral state, time of day, season, water depth and distance from shore. To address our hypotheses, we flew systematic line transect surveys in southern California and collected focal group data. Two sets of data were separately analyzed using different sampling approaches: (1 point sample data associated with the first sighting of a blue whale(s, and (2 extended all-occurrence focal group behavioral sampling data (i.e., focal follows collected on a subsample of all sightings while the aircraft circled at a radial distance of approximately 0.5-1 km and an altitude of 1,500 m for extended periods of 5 – 60 minutes. Chi-square contingency table and G² analyses were used to assess statistical relationships between response and explanatory variables. We conducted 18 one-week-long aerial surveys spanning October 2008 through May 2013 (at least once during every month except December, totaling 87,555 km of observation effort. Seventy blue whale sightings (117 individuals were seen, ranging in size from 1 – 6 whales, and focal follow was performed on over half (55% of these sightings. Results supported our hypotheses that blue whale group characteristics were related to behavioral state and spatio-temporal variables. Sighting rates were significantly highest during summer followed by spring, fall, and winter. Group type differed

  7. ANALYSIS OF OBSERVED BEHAVIORS DISPLAYED BY DEPRESSED-PATIENTS DURING A CLINICAL INTERVIEW - RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL-FACTORS AND CLINICAL CONCEPTS OF ACTIVATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOUHUYS, AL; JANSEN, CJ; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1991-01-01

    In 61 drug-free depressed patients, relationships were studied between observed behaviors and measures of common clinical concepts of activation. The behaviors were observed during a clinical interview and analyzed with ethological methods. Activation was assessed by means of self-ratings (Thayer, A

  8. Observation of fine particle aggregating behavior induced by high intensity conditioning using high speed CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aggregating behavior between bubbles and particles induced by high intensity conditioning (HIC) was studied using high speed CCD technique. Bubble size measurement was conducted, and the attachment behavior between bubbles and particles in HIC cell and flotation cell were observed. The results show that in HIC cell, high intensity conditioning creates an advantage environment for the formation of small size bubble due to hydrodynamic cavitations, and these fine bubbles have high probability of bubble-particle collision,which will enhance fine particle flotation. The bubble-particle attachment experiments indicate that in high intensity conditioning cell, a lot of fine bubbles are produced in situ on the surface of fine particles, and most of fine particles are aggregated under the bridging action of fine bubbles. The observation of bubble-particle interaction in flotation cell illustrates that aggregates created by HIC can be loaded more easily by big air bubble in flotation cell than those created by normal conditioning.

  9. Observation of multicellular spinning behavior of Proteus mirabilis by atomic force microscopy and multifunctional microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxia; Deng, Yuanxin; Luo, Shuxiu; Deng, Yu; Guo, Linming; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Lei; Liu, Junkang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the multicellular spinning behavior of Proteus mirabilis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifunctional microscopy in order to understand the mechanism underlying this spinning movement and its biological significance. Multifunctional microscopy with charge-coupled device (CCD) and real-time AFM showed changes in cell structure and shape of P. mirabilis during multicellular spinning movement. Specifically, the morphological characteristics of P. mirabilis, multicellular spinning dynamics, and unique movement were observed. Our findings indicate that the multicellular spinning behavior of P. mirabilis may be used to collect nutrients, perform colonization, and squeeze out competitors. The movement characteristics of P. mirabilis are vital to the organism's biological adaptability to the surrounding environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Reliability Assessment of Participant Observational Measures of Leader Behavior in Natural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    significant increases in accuracy. Such practice exercises stem from the modeling principles of social learning theory (Bandura, 1977). Using videotaped...categories, and the trainees used the instru- ment to record the behaviors they observed. By following the principles of social learning theory (Bandura, 1976...Management, 1979, 2, 85-102. Bandura, A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977. Barrow, J.C. Worker performance and task

  11. Children's Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashler, Samantha R.

    2017-01-01

    Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4–12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children's observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria. A total of 66 nonredundant pain behavior items were identified. To determine whether items would be perceived as automatic or controlled, 277 research participants rated each on multiple scales associated with the distinction. Factor analyses yielded three major factors: the “Automatic” factor included items related to facial expression, paralinguistics, and consolability; the “Controlled” factor included items related to intentional movements, verbalizations, and social actions; and the “Ambiguous” factor included items related to voluntary facial expressions. Pain behaviors in observational pain scales for children can be characterized as automatic, controlled, and ambiguous, supporting a dual-processing, neuroregulatory model of pain expression. These dimensions would be expected to influence judgments of the nature and severity of pain being experienced and the extent to which the child is attempting to control the social environment.

  12. Children’s Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kaur Sekhon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4–12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children’s observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria. A total of 66 nonredundant pain behavior items were identified. To determine whether items would be perceived as automatic or controlled, 277 research participants rated each on multiple scales associated with the distinction. Factor analyses yielded three major factors: the “Automatic” factor included items related to facial expression, paralinguistics, and consolability; the “Controlled” factor included items related to intentional movements, verbalizations, and social actions; and the “Ambiguous” factor included items related to voluntary facial expressions. Pain behaviors in observational pain scales for children can be characterized as automatic, controlled, and ambiguous, supporting a dual-processing, neuroregulatory model of pain expression. These dimensions would be expected to influence judgments of the nature and severity of pain being experienced and the extent to which the child is attempting to control the social environment.

  13. Stability behavior of non-surfactant water-in-diesel emulsion fuel using microscopic observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazni Siti Amiliyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D is considered to be a potential alternative fuel that can reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM. W/D is normally produced with addition of surfactant to prolong its stability. However, the dependency on surfactant leads to higher production cost. A concept that can eliminate dependency on the surfactant was introduced by strong mixing concept and direct supply the non-surfactant W/D to a diesel engine. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the stability behavior of non-surfactant W/D using microscopic observation. Water and diesel fuel were mixed using a combination of high-shear mixer and an ultrasonic transducer. The amount of water injected into the system are 5% and 10% by volume, which were labelled as E5 and E10 respectively. The produced non-surfactant W/D was then placed into a petri dish for microscopic observation. The results showed that the average diameter of water droplets observed in E5 and E10 at sedimentation stage were 15.38 and 22.41 μm respectively. The stability period of E5 and E10 before it sediment were 25 and 67 seconds correspondingly. Overall, it is observed that microscopic observation is a reliable approach to determine the stability behavior of non-surfactant W/D.

  14. American black bear denning behavior: Observations and applications using remote photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, A.S.; Fox, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, C.; Vaughan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers examining American black bear (Ursus americanus) denning behavior have relied primarily on den-site visitation and radiotelemetry to gather data. Repeated den-site visits are time-intensive and may disturb denning bears, possibly causing den abandonment, whereas radiotelemetry is sufficient only to provide gross data on den emergence. We used remote cameras to examine black bear denning behavior in the Allegheny Mountains of western Virginia during March-May 2003. We deployed cameras at 10 den sites and used 137 pictures of black bears. Adult female black bears exhibited greater extra-den activity than we expected prior to final den emergence, which occurred between April 12 and May 6, 2003. Our technique provided more accurate den-emergence estimation than previously published methodologies. Additionally, we observed seldom-documented behaviors associated with den exits and estimated cub age at den emergence. Remote cameras can provide unique insights into denning ecology, and we describe their potential application to reproductive, survival, and behavioral research.

  15. Field observations of mating behavior in the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (Serpentes: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Sasa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We observed the mating behavior of the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (a common species of colubrid in the South Pacific of Costa Rica in the pre-montane wet forest of Las Cruces Biological Station (San Vito de Java, Costa Rica. Three S. annulatus were observed during courtship between 10-12 AM in a patch of primary forest. The two males were observed to interact with the female, but not signs of male-male agonistic interactions were observed. Their behavior includes grabbing and holding the female, copula, and biting during the copula. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 647-650. Epub 2006 Jun 01.El comportamiento de apareamiento es descrito para la serpiente Scaphiodontophis annulatus, una especie de colúbrido común en el Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. El comportamiento incluye capturar y sujetar a la hembra, mordiscos durante la cópula y coito. Dos machos fueron observados al interactuar con una sola hembra, pero no se detectó señales de interacciones antagónicas macho-macho.

  16. An empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound: Combining observed and unobserved behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip S. LEVIN; Peter HORNE; Kelly S. ANDREWS; Greg WILLIAMS

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the movement of animals is fundamental to population and community ecology.Historically,it has been difficult to quantify movement patterns of most fishes,but technological advances in acoustic telemetry have increased our abilities to monitor their movement.In this study,we combined small-scale active acoustic tracking with large-scale passive acoustic monitoring to develop an empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound,WA,USA.We began by testing whether a correlated random walk model described the daily movement of sixgills; however,the model failed to capture home-ranging behavior.We added this behavior and used the resultant model (a biased random walk model) to determine whether daily movement patterns are able to explain large-scale seasonal movement.The daily model did not explain the larger-scale patterns of movement observed in the passive monitoring data.In order to create the large-scale patterns,sixgills must have performed behaviors (large,fast directed movements) that were unobserved during small-scale active tracking.In addition,seasonal shifts in location were not captured by the daily model.We added these ‘unobserved' behaviors to the model and were able to capture large-scale seasonal movement of sixgill sharks over 150 days.The development of empirical models of movement allows researchers to develop hypotheses and test mechanisms responsible for a species movement behavior and spatial distribution.This knowledge will increase our ability to successfully manage species of concern [Current Zoology 58 (1):103-115,2012].

  17. The co-occurrence of self-observed norm-conforming behavior, reduction of zero observations and remaining measurement quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Norm-violating behavior is characterized by clear social norms which prescribe the non-occurrence of that behavior. From the theoretical framework of Allport it is derived that specifically norm-conformation is consistent, while violating norms is expected to be inconsistent and more circumstantial.

  18. In situ observation of the role of alumina particles on the crystallization behavior of slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrling, C.

    2000-09-01

    The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) allows crystallization behavior in liquid slags to he observed in situ at high temperatures. Slags in the lime-silica-alumina-magnesia system are easily tinder cooled and it is possible to construct time temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams for this system. The presence of solid alumina particles its these liquid slags was studied to determine if these particles act as heterogeneous nucleation sites that cause she precipitation of solid material within slags. The introduction of alumina particles reduced the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and increased the temperature at which crystallization was observed in the slags to close to the liquidus temperature for the slag. Crystal growth rates are in a good agreement with Ivantsov's solution of the problem of diffusion controlled dendritic growth. Alumina appears to be a potent nucleating agent in the slag systems that were studied. (author)

  19. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Takezawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  20. Observation of three behaviors in confined liquid water within a nanopool hosting proton-transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhal, Abderrazzak; Angulo, Gonzalo; Gil, Michal; Organero, Juan Angel; Sanz, Mikel; Tormo, Laura

    2007-05-17

    In this contribution, we report on studies of rotational and diffusional dynamics of 7-hydroxyquinoline (7HQ) within a reverse micelle (RM) containing different amounts of water. Analyzed in terms of the wobbling-in-a-cone model, the data reveal structural and dynamical properties of the nanopool. We clearly observed three regions in the behavior of confined water molecules within the RM hosting a double proton-transfer reaction between the probe and water. This observation remarkably reproduces the change of calculated water density within this life-mimicking medium. The number of water molecules per AOT head in the transition regions changes from 2 to 5, the latter being very near to the full solvation number (6) of the RM heads. Moreover, the H-bonds breaking and making within the RM to give new structures of the probe strongly affect the environment fluidization in different extents, reflected in different relaxation times of these structures; however, they are of similar sizes. We discuss the role of RM confinement and the proton-transfer dynamics on the behavior of water and their relationships to the packing of water molecules in the studied range of concentrations.

  1. Multimodal Analysis of Estimated and Observed Social Competence in Preschoolers With/Without Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pereira Dias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social skills compete with behavior problems, and the combination of these aspects may cause differences in social competence. This study was aimed at assessing the differences and similarities in the social competence of 26 preschoolers resulting from: (1 groups which they belonged to, being one with social skills and three with behavior problems (internalizing, externalizing and mixed; (2 types of assessment, considering the estimates of mothers and teachers, as well as direct observation in a structured situation; (3 structured situations as demands for five categories of social skills. Children’s performance in each situation was assessed by judges and estimated by mothers and teachers. There was a similarity in the social competence estimated by mothers, teachers and in the performance observed. Only the teachers distinguished the groups (higher social competence in the group with social skills and lower in the internalizing and mixed groups. Assertiveness demands differentiated the groups. The methodological aspects were discussed, as well as the clinical and educational potential of the structured situations to promote social skills.

  2. Observation of sandhill cranes' (Grus canadensis) flight behavior in heavy fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Suarez, Manuel J.; Diehl, Robert H.; Lutes, Jim; Woyczik, Wendy; Krapfl, Jon; Sojda, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The behaviors of birds flying in low visibility conditions remain poorly understood. We had the opportunity to monitor Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) flying in heavy fog with very low visibility during a comprehensive landscape use study of refuging cranes in the Horicon Marsh in southeastern Wisconsin. As part of the study, we recorded flight patterns of cranes with a portable marine radar at various locations and times of day, and visually counted cranes as they departed the roost in the morning. We compared flight patterns during a fog event with those recorded during clear conditions. In good visibility, cranes usually departed the night roost shortly after sunrise and flew in relatively straight paths toward foraging areas. In fog, cranes departed the roost later in the day, did not venture far from the roost, engaged in significantly more circling flight, and returned to the roost site rather than proceeding to foraging areas. We also noted that compared to mornings with good visibility, cranes flying in fog called more frequently than usual. The only time in this 2-year study that observers heard young of the year calling was during the fog event. The observed behavior of cranes circling and lingering in an area while flying in poor visibility conditions suggests that such situations may increase chances of colliding with natural or anthropogenic obstacles in the vicinity.

  3. The swimming behavior of Artemia (Anostraca): new experimental and observational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2014-12-01

    Artemia (Anostraca) is among the most primitive and ancient groups of crustaceans. Artemia spp. play a dominant role in the ecosystems of hypersaline waters, and often they are the only animals in these extreme biotopes. Most ethological studies on Artemia have been conducted on nauplii and metanauplii. We made ethological observations on Artemia under laboratory conditions and in the natural waters of Crimea, where we studied growth and ontogenetic changes of swimming behavior. Growth occurred during the first 50 days up to a size of 9.5-10.5mm, after which time the size did not increase (some females lived up to 6.5 months). A strong positive relation was found between maximal speed and individual length, which varied between 0.4 and 10.5mm; it may be approximated by the power equation: Vmax=1.205·K(0.820), where Vmax is the maximal speed of Artemia (in mms(-1)) of the length K (in mm). There is no similar relation between average speed and length of Artemia. The average speed of adults was 40-60% lower in environments with microalgae compared to media without food. The duration of the "riding position" for mating pairs of Artemia urmiana in our experiments varied from 10 to 27 days. In lakes we observed different Artemia aggregations varying in size and form. We conclude that the swimming behavior of Artemia is quite complex and diverse, and develops during ontogeny.

  4. The observed effects of teenage passengers on the risky driving behavior of teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Lerner, Neil; Singer, Jeremiah

    2005-11-01

    The association between teenage passengers and crash risks among young drivers may be due to risky driving behavior. We investigated the effect on two measures of risky driving in the presence of young male and female passengers. Vehicles exiting from parking lots at 10 high schools were observed and the occupants were identified by gender and age (teen or adult). At a nearby site, the speed and headway of passing traffic were recorded using video and LIDAR technology. Teenage drivers drove faster than the general traffic and allowed shorter headways, particularly in the presence of a male teenage passenger. Both male and female teenage drivers allowed shorter headways (relative to no passenger or a female passenger) in the presence of a male teenage passenger, while the presence of a female teenage passenger resulted in longer headways for male teenage drivers. Overall, the observed rate of high risk driving (defined as speed > or =15 mph or more above the posted speed limit and/or headway of teenage passengers was associated with risky driving behavior among teenage drivers.

  5. Temporal behavior and temperatures of Yasur volcano, Vanuatu from field remote sensing observations, May 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E. P.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Lorenz, R. D.; Radebaugh, J.; Howell, R. R.

    2016-08-01

    We documented eruption activity at three primary vents at Yasur volcano, Tanna Island, Vanuatu using portable instrumentation in the field over a period of 5 h on 21 May 2014, and acquired aerial images of the craters and vents on 22 May 2014. Although limited in duration, our observations of eruption intervals, durations, temperatures, and speeds of ejected material illustrate the characteristics of the activity at the time at each of the primary vents, providing a useful snapshot of eruption behavior and revealing continued variability at Yasur in comparison to other observation campaigns. Hand-held, high-resolution, near-infrared observations of one of the vents gave peak temperatures of 850 °C to 930 °C for ejected clasts, with a maximum temperature of 1033 °C. These temperatures are significantly higher than previous measurements because exposed lavas could be resolved at timescales less than a second. Our aerial near-infrared images allowed us to estimate the combined area of the active vents within the crater to be 150 m2, and comparison to MODIS radiance measurements in the same time frame yields temperatures, averaged over the combined vent area, of 530-730 °C. In the context of previous observations at Yasur, the activity in May 2014 exhibited lower overall intensity, as well as differences in the nature of the eruptions at the various vents, providing insight regarding the temporal variability of Yasur's activity.

  6. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  7. Observational trial of safe food handling behavior during food preparation using the example of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ≤10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ≥60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases.

  8. A Review of Direct Observation Research within the Past Decade in the Field of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Reesha M.; Wachsmuth, Sean T.

    2014-01-01

    This study reviewed prominent journals within the field of emotional and behavioral disorders to identify direct observation approaches, reported reliability statistics, and key features of direct observation. Selected journals were systematically reviewed for the past 10 years identifying and quantifying specific direct observation systems and…

  9. Observations on sex ratio and behavior of males in Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Scolytinae, Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biedermann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Strongly female-biased sex ratios are typical for the fungal feeding haplodiploid Xyleborini (Scolytinae, Coleoptera, and are a result of inbreeding and local mate competition (LMC. These ambrosia beetles are hardly ever found outside of trees, and thus male frequency and behavior have not been addressed in any empirical studies to date. In fact, for most species the males remain undescribed. Data on sex ratios and male behavior could, however, provide important insights into the Xyleborini’s mating system and the evolution of inbreeding and LMC in general. In this study, I used in vitro rearing methods to obtain the first observational data on sex ratio, male production, male and female dispersal, and mating behavior in a xyleborine ambrosia beetle. Females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg produced between 0 and 3 sons per brood, and the absence of males was relatively independent of the number of daughters to be fertilized and the maternal brood sex ratio. Both conformed to a strict LMC strategy with a relatively precise and constant number of males. If males were present they eclosed just before the first females dispersed, and stayed in the gallery until all female offspring had matured. They constantly wandered through the gallery system, presumably in search of unfertilized females, and attempted to mate with larvae, other males, and females of all ages. Copulations, however, only occurred with immature females. From galleries with males, nearly all females dispersed fertilized. Only a few left the natal gallery without being fertilized, and subsequently went on to produce large and solely male broods. If broods were male-less, dispersing females always failed to found new galleries.

  10. Observed Relationship Behaviors and Sleep in Military Veterans and Their Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Jennifer; Holliday, Stephanie Brooks; DeSantis, Amy; Germain, Anne; Buysse, Daniel J; Matthews, Karen A; Troxel, Wendy M

    2017-05-09

    Emerging research has begun to examine associations between relationship functioning and sleep. However, these studies have largely relied on self-reported evaluations of relationships and/or of sleep, which may be vulnerable to bias. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between relationship functioning and sleep in military couples. This is the first research to examine associations between observed relationship behaviors and subjective and polysomnographically measured sleep in a sample at-risk for both sleep and relationship problems. The sample included 35 military veterans and their spouses/partners. Marital functioning was coded from a videotaped conflict interaction. Analyses focused on behavioral codes of hostility and relationship-enhancing attributions. Sleep was assessed via self-report and in-home polysomnography. Greater hostility was associated with poorer sleep efficiency for oneself (b = -0.195, p = .013). In contrast, greater relationship-enhancing attributions were associated with higher percentages of stage N3 sleep (b = 0.239, p = .028). Partners' hostility was also positively associated with higher percentages of stage N3 sleep (b = 0.272, p = .010). Neither hostility nor relationship-enhancing attributions was associated with self-reported sleep quality, percentage of REM sleep, or total sleep time. Both partners' positive and negative behaviors during conflict interactions were related to sleep quality. These findings highlight the role that effective communication and conflict resolution skills may play in shaping not only the marital health of veterans and their spouses but also the physical health of both partners as well. Understanding the links between relationship functioning and sleep may be important targets of intervention in the aftermath of war.

  11. Direct observation of markovian behavior of the mechanical unfolding of individual proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Kuske, Rachel; Li, Hongbin

    2008-07-01

    Single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy is a valuable tool to analyze unfolding kinetics of proteins. Previous force-clamp spectroscopy experiments have demonstrated that the mechanical unfolding of ubiquitin deviates from the generally assumed Markovian behavior and involves the features of glassy dynamics. Here we use single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to study the unfolding kinetics of a computationally designed fast-folding mutant of the small protein GB1, which shares a similar beta-grasp fold as ubiquitin. By treating the mechanical unfolding of polyproteins as the superposition of multiple identical Poisson processes, we developed a simple stochastic analysis approach to analyze the dwell time distribution of individual unfolding events in polyprotein unfolding trajectories. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that the mechanical unfolding of NuG2 fulfills all criteria of a memoryless Markovian process. This result, in contrast with the complex mechanical unfolding behaviors observed for ubiquitin, serves as a direct experimental demonstration of the Markovian behavior for the mechanical unfolding of a protein and reveals the complexity of the unfolding dynamics among structurally similar proteins. Furthermore, we extended our method into a robust and efficient pseudo-dwell-time analysis method, which allows one to make full use of all the unfolding events obtained in force-clamp experiments without categorizing the unfolding events. This method enabled us to measure the key parameters characterizing the mechanical unfolding energy landscape of NuG2 with improved precision. We anticipate that the methods demonstrated here will find broad applications in single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy studies for a wide range of proteins.

  12. Thermodynamic behavior of D-sphingosine/cholesterol monolayers and the topography observed by AFM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO ChangChun; SUN RunGuang; ZHANG Jing; CHANG YiGuang; NIU ChunLing

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are of a dynamic microdomain structure found in recent years, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and particular proteins. The change of structure and function of lipid rafts could result in many diseases. In this work, the monolayer behavior of mixed systems of D-sphingosine with choles-terol was investigated in terms of the mean surface area per molecule (Am), excess molecular area (△Aex), surface excess Gibbs energy (△Gex), interaction parameter (ω) activity coefficients (f1 and f2) as well as elasticity (Cs-1) of formed films. The deposited Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers were inves-tigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermodynamic analysis indicates △Aex and △Gex in the binary systems with negative deviations from the ideal behavior, suggesting attractive interaction be-tween molecules. The stability, elasticity and activity coefficients show a marked dependence on the mole faction of D-sphingosine. The results of observation by AFM show that the single D-sphingosine molecular film took on small granule structure. When mixing the D-sphingosine and cholesterol at dif-ferent ratios, the mixed films transform from the chains structure to larger slice and net coexisting structure with the increasing of the cholesterol content. In the end, pure cholesterol forms more ag-gregated structure. AFM experiments effectively support the above findings and interpretation.

  13. Thermodynamic behavior of D-sphingosine/cholesterol monolayers and the topography observed by AFM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are of a dynamic microdomain structure found in recent years,enriched in sphingolipids,cholesterol and particular proteins.The change of structure and function of lipid rafts could result in many diseases.In this work,the monolayer behavior of mixed systems of D-sphingosine with choles-terol was investigated in terms of the mean surface area per molecule(Am),excess molecular area(Aex),surface excess Gibbs energy(Gex),interaction parameter(ω),activity coefficients(1 and 2) as well as elasticity(Cs1) of formed films.The deposited Langmuir-Blodgett(LB) monolayers were inves-tigated with atomic force microscopy(AFM).Thermodynamic analysis indicates Aex and Gex in the binary systems with negative deviations from the ideal behavior,suggesting attractive interaction be-tween molecules.The stability,elasticity and activity coefficients show a marked dependence on the mole faction of D-sphingosine.The results of observation by AFM show that the single D-sphingosine molecular film took on small granule structure.When mixing the D-sphingosine and cholesterol at dif-ferent ratios,the mixed films transform from the chains structure to larger slice and net coexisting structure with the increasing of the cholesterol content.In the end,pure cholesterol forms more ag-gregated structure.AFM experiments effectively support the above findings and interpretation.

  14. Risk factors for suicide behaviors in the observational schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (SOHO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify risk factors for suicide using data from a large, 3-year, multinational follow-up study of schizophrenia (SOHO study. Methods Baseline characteristics of 8,871 adult patients with schizophrenia were included in a logistic regression post-hoc analysis comparing patients who attempted and/or committed suicide during the study with those who did not. Results 384 (4.3% patients attempted or committed suicide. Completed suicides were 27 (0.3%. The significant risk factors for suicide behaviors were previous suicidality, depressive symptoms, prolactin-related adverse events, male gender and history of hospitalization for schizophrenia. Conclusions In view of the observational design of the study and the post-hoc nature of the analysis, the identified risk factors should be confirmed by ad-hoc specifically designed studies.

  15. Semi-dilute galactomannan solutions: observations on viscosity scaling behavior of guar gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Michael A.; Fischer, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Based on experimental work involving evaluation of viscosity enhancement of aqueous solutions by high molecular weight guar gum, we have observed that the shear viscosity scaling exponent b for semi-dilute solutions, ηsp ˜ (c[η])b, is sensitive to molecular weight, being approximately 4.7 for native samples and decreasing progressively as Mw is lowered. The critical overlap parameter demarcating the dilute and semi-dilute regimes also depends on the molecular weight as {{≤ft(c[η ]\\right)}*} ˜ Mw-0.82 . Consequently, viscosity-concentration plots fail to achieve overlap using only specific viscosity and overlap concentration as reducing variables, a commonly accepted empiricism for random-coil polysaccharides. To bridge the gap, we propose to account for water solubility, its temperature dependence and the resulting chain flexibility as additional factors to fully describe the solution behavior of these highly-important raw materials.

  16. Exporting analogue behavioral observation from research to clinical practice: useful or cost-defective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, E J; Foster, S L

    2001-03-01

    The special section on analogue behavioral observation (ABO) provided an in-depth review of various ABO assessment procedures. Despite their availability, however, these procedures are rarely used in clinical practice. This may result in part from the traditions on which most ABO assessments are based, from distinctions between clinical and research assessment environments, and from the need for more information about the cost-effectiveness of ABO strategies for meeting specific needs of clinicians in applied settings. Suggestions for bridging the research-clinical gap involve investigating more thoroughly when ABO does and does not provide useful information for various purposes in applied settings and increasing accessibility and cost-effectiveness of ABO procedures for practitioners.

  17. RXTE Observations of 1A 1744-361: Correlated Spectral and Timing Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, S; Swank, J H; Markwardt, C B; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Swank, Jean H.; Markwardt, Craig B.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) data of the transient low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system 1A 1744-361. We explore the X-ray intensity and spectral evolution of the source, perform timing analysis, and find that 1A 1744-361 shows `atoll' behavior during the outbursts. The color-color diagram indicates that this LMXB was observed in a low intensity spectrally hard (low-hard) state and in a high intensity `banana' state. The low-hard state shows a horizontal pattern in the color-color diagram, and the previously reported `dipper QPO' appears only during this state. We also perform energy spectral analyses, and report the first detection of broad iron emission line and iron absorption edge from 1A 1744-361.

  18. Semi-Chaotic Behaviors Observed in the Asteroseismic Fitting of GD 358

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Kim, A.; Provencal, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of 34 years worth of data on GD 358 allowed us to assemble a spectrum of 15 ℓ=1 modes, 13 of which constitute a consecutive sequence. This is the longest consecutive sequence of modes we fit formally so far for a pulsating white dwarf, with high resolution grids. There were some hints before that some periods may be highly sensitive to some parameters in certain areas of parameter space. With the long consecutive sequence of same ell modes in GD 358's pulsation spectrum, we can study the effect such behaviors can have on asteroseismic fitting. We show some examples of large changes in the calculated period spectra due to small changes in a given parameter. We also discuss some tests one can do to assess how strong the constraints on the fitness parameters are and comment on the complex relationship between the set of observed periods and the constraints.

  19. Estimating Value of Congestion and of Reliability from Observation of Route Choice Behavior of Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2014-01-01

    both congestion and reliability terms. Results illustrated that the value of time and the value of congestion were significantly higher in the peak period because of possible higher penalties for drivers being late and consequently possible higher time pressure. Moreover, results showed...... that the marginal rate of substitution between travel time reliability and total travel time did not vary across periods and traffic conditions, with the obvious caveat that the absolute values were significantly higher for the peak period. Last, results showed the immense potential of exploiting the growing...... availability of large amounts of data from cheap and enhanced technology to obtain estimates of the monetary value of different travel time components from the observation of actual behavior, with arguably potential significant impact on the realism of large-scale models....

  20. Applying signal-detection theory to the study of observer accuracy and bias in behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Bellaci, Emily; Miller, Jonathan; Karp, Hilary; Mahmood, Angela; Strobel, Maggie; Mullen, Shelley; Keyl, Alice; Toupard, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a laboratory model for examining observer accuracy within the framework of signal-detection theory (SDT). Sixty-one individuals collected data on aggression while viewing videotaped segments of simulated teacher-child interactions. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to determine if brief feedback and contingencies for scoring accurately would bias responding reliably. Experiment 2 focused on one variable (specificity of the operational definition) that we hypothesized might decrease the likelihood of bias. The effects of social consequences and information about expected behavior change were examined in Experiment 3. Results indicated that feedback and contingencies reliably biased responding and that the clarity of the definition only moderately affected this outcome.

  1. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  2. Is Structured Observation a Valid Technique to Measure Handwashing Behavior? Use of Acceleration Sensors Embedded in Soap to Assess Reactivity to Structured Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K.; Halder, Amal K.; Granger, Stewart P.; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M. Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3–10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0–18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior. PMID:21036840

  3. Sources of information and behavioral patterns in online health forums: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudau, Fabian; Friede, Tim; Grabowski, Jens; Koschack, Janka; Makedonski, Philip; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-14

    Increasing numbers of patients are raising their voice in online forums. This shift is welcome as an act of patient autonomy, reflected in the term "expert patient". At the same time, there is considerable concern that patients can be easily misguided by pseudoscientific research and debate. Little is known about the sources of information used in health-related online forums, how users apply this information, and how they behave in such forums. The intent of the study was to identify (1) the sources of information used in online health-related forums, and (2) the roles and behavior of active forum visitors in introducing and disseminating this information. This observational study used the largest German multiple sclerosis (MS) online forum as a database, analyzing the user debate about the recently proposed and controversial Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) hypothesis. After extracting all posts and then filtering relevant CCSVI posts between 01 January 2008 and 17 August 2012, we first identified hyperlinks to scientific publications and other information sources used or referenced in the posts. Employing k-means clustering, we then analyzed the users' preference for sources of information and their general posting habits. Of 139,912 posts from 11,997 threads, 8628 posts discussed or at least mentioned CCSVI. We detected hyperlinks pointing to CCSVI-related scientific publications in 31 posts. In contrast, 2829 different URLs were posted to the forum, most frequently referring to social media, such as YouTube or Facebook. We identified a total of 6 different roles of hyperlink posters including Social Media Fans, Organization Followers, and Balanced Source Users. Apart from the large and nonspecific residual category of the "average user", several specific behavior patterns were identified, such as the small but relevant groups of CCSVI-Focused Responders or CCSVI Activators. The bulk of the observed contributions were not based on scientific

  4. Characteristic interpersonal behavior in dependent and avoidant personality disorder can be observed within very short interaction sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Sporberg, Doreen; Rehbein, Diana

    2006-08-01

    We present a behavior observation study of interpersonal behavior in 96 female subjects, who had been screened for the presence of dependent, avoidant, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features. Each subject took part in three short role-plays, taken from assertiveness training. Afterwards, both the subject and her role-play partner judged, how assertive the subject had been. Although observation time was very short, dependent and avoidant subjects could be easily identified from their overly submissive behavior in the role-plays. Histrionic and narcissistic subjects did not show distinctive interpersonal behavior. Contrary to a common belief, higher scores on some personality disorder (PD) scales were positively related to cross-situational variability of behavior. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for clinical diagnostics, therapy and the methodology of personality disorder research in general.

  5. Observation of adsorption behavior of biomolecules on ferroelectric crystal surfaces with polarization domain patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomoaki; Isobe, Akiko; Ogino, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) is one of the ferroelectric crystals that exhibit spontaneous polarization domain patterns on its surface. We observed the polarization-dependent adsorption of avidin molecules, which are positively charged in a buffer solution at pH 7.0, on LiTaO3 surfaces caused by electrostatic interaction at an electrostatic double layer using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Avidin adsorption in the buffer solution was confirmed by scratching the substrate surfaces using the AFM cantilever, and the adsorption patterns were found to depend on the avidin concentration. When KCl was added to the buffer solution to weaken the electrostatic double layer interaction between avidin molecules and LiTaO3 surfaces, adsorption domain patterns disappeared. From the comparison between the adsorption and chemically etched domain patterns, it was found that avidin molecule adsorption is enhanced on negatively polarized domains, indicating that surface polarization should be taken into account in observing biomolecule behaviors on ferroelectric crystals.

  6. Behavioral, histopathological and biochemical impairments observed in mice envenomed by the scorpion: Hottentota gentili (Pallary, 1924).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; El Hiba, Omar; Chait, Abderrahman; Eddine Hafid, Jamal; Boumezzough, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Hottentota gentili is a black scorpion which has been considered as dangerous specie by many authors. However there are no data regarding minimal lethal dose and effects of the scorpion venom till now. We therefore aimed, by the present investigation, to assess on the one hand, the LD50 of H. gentili venom by sublethal injection and the effects on some vital organs, by a histological and a biochemical tools. On the other hand, the possible neurobehavioral impairments, in Swiss mice, 3 h, 6 h and 12 h following envenomation. The LD50 of H. gentili scorpion venom was found to be 0.46 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection route. Venom produced focal fragmentation of myocardial fibers, while lungs showed rupture of the alveolar structure. Intestines showed selective histopathological changes. Concomitantly, there was a significant rise in the serum enzymes levels, as well as hyperkalemia and a high level of plasma albumine and creatine. Proteinuria was also observed. The observed behavioral effects were a hypoactivity in the both experiments 30 min and 3 h after injection. The envenomation produced an increased immobility time only 30 min and 3 h post injection in the tail suspension test (TST).

  7. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  8. Does Observed Controlling Teaching Behavior Relate to Students' Motivation in Physical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Jotie; Tallir, Isabel B.; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Aelterman, Nathalie; Van den Berghe, Lynn; Speleers, Lise; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) has served as a theoretical framework for considerable research on teaching behavior and student motivation. The majority of studies have focused on need-supportive teaching behavior at the expense of need-thwarting teaching behavior (i.e., the "dark side" of teaching). The goal of the present study was to…

  9. Behavioral observation differentiates the effects of an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Linda; Casper, Tammy; Dixon, Melodie; Harmeyer, Joann; Haberman, Beth; Alberts, Jeffrey R; Simakajornboon, Narong; Visscher, Marty O

    2015-02-01

    Sleep and ongoing cycling of sleep states are required for neurosensory processing, learning, and brain plasticity. Many aspects of neonatal intensive care environments such as handling for routine and invasive procedures, bright lighting, and noise can create stress, disrupt behavior, and interfere with sleep in prematurely born infants. The study empirically investigated whether a 30-minute observation of infant sleep states and behavior could differentiate an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants with feeding difficulties relative to conventional care (standard positioning, standard crib mattress [SP]). We included an intervention to determine the ability of the method to discriminate treatments and generate a benchmark for future improvements. The intervention, a conformational positioner (CP), is contoured around the infant to provide customized containment and boundaries. To more fully verify the 30-minute observational sleep results, standard polysomnography was conducted simultaneously and sleep outcomes for the 2 modalities were compared. In a randomized crossover clinical trial, 25 infants, 31.5 ± 0.6 weeks' gestational age and 38.4 ± 0.6 weeks at the study, with gastrointestinal conditions or general feeding difficulties used each intervention during an overnight neonatal intensive care unit sleep study. Infant sleep states and behaviors were observed during two 30-minute periods--that is, on the positioner and mattress--using the naturalistic observation of newborn behavior. Two certified developmental care nurses assessed sleep state, self-regulatory, and stress behaviors during 2-minute intervals and summed over 30 minutes. Sleep characteristics from standard polysomnography were measured at the time of behavior observations. Infants on CP spent significantly less time in alert, active awake, or crying states by observation compared with SP. Surgical subjects spent more time awake, active awake, or crying and displayed a higher number

  10. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patell, Hilla

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of observation, preparation of the adult, the observer, is necessary. This preparation, says Hilla Patell, requires us to "have an appreciation of the significance of the child's spontaneous activities and a more thorough understanding of the child's needs." She discusses the growth of both the desire to…

  11. 鬣羚的行为观察%Serow Behavior Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王才益; 胡新波

    2012-01-01

    在人工饲养条件下,采用了目标动物取样法和随机取样法,对鬣羚的冲撞、攻击、领域、择偶、繁殖、母仔等行为进行了观察研究。结果表明,鬣羚初入新环境中,有高度的敏感性,由此产生强烈的应激行为。其中,猛烈地冲击笼舍和不停地向上跳跃是其严重的应激行为之一;有较强的领域行为;在繁殖期间鬣羚对配偶具有选择性;发情高峰期1—2d,怀孕4个月后,腹部明显向两侧膨大,怀孕期220~226d;仔羚在产后需2h以上才能站立;在15日龄内母羚平均每天要哺乳6~8次;2月龄时,能较好地吃食人工饲料,断奶月龄在2~3个月,断奶时宜将母羚隔至邻笼而将仔羚留在原笼舍。鬣羚笼舍围栏的高度宜在2.5~3m,应为新进的甏羚提供较暗的小内室,保持安静的环境。%We studied behaviors of captive serow ( Capricornis sumatraensis) , including bumping, aggression, reproduction, mating, territorial defense, feeding and lactation. Our methods were focal animal sampling and random sampling. Serow often maintained a high degree of vigilance leading to stress behaviors, of which bumping the cage fiercely and continuously jumping were most frequently observed. Serow showed strongly developed territorial behavior. Serow displayed mate choice behavior during the breeding period. The peak of estrus lasted 1 - 2 days. The belly of female serow showed obvious enlargement to both sides after 4 months of pregnancy and the gestation period ranged from 220 to 226 days. Neonatal serow could stand alone 2 hours after birth. The adult female serow fed 6 -8 times per day for 15 days after birth. Young serow fed on man -made food when 2 months old and were weaned at 2 - 3 months. After weaning, the young serow should remain in the birthing cage and its mother be moved into the adjacent cage. The proper height of a cage for serow is 2. 5 - 3.0 meters and the surroundings

  12. Plant origin of Okinawan propolis: honeybee behavior observation and phytochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Shigenori; Nakamura, Jun; Murase, Masayo; Miyagawa, Mariko; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Fukumoto, Shuichi

    2008-08-01

    Propolis is a natural resinous product collected by honeybees from certain plants. It has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Poplar and Baccharis are well known as the source plants of European and Brazilian propolis, respectively. However, the propolis from Okinawa, Japan, contains some prenylflavonoids not seen in other regions such as Europe and Brazil, suggesting that the plant origin of Okinawan propolis is a particular plant that grows in Okinawa. To identify the plant origin of Okinawan propolis, we observed the behavior of honeybees as they collected material from plants and caulked it inside the hive. Honeybees scraped resinous material from the surface of plant fruits of Macaranga tanarius and brought it back to their hive to use it as propolis. We collected samples of the plant and propolis, and compared their constituents by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photo-diode array detector. We also compared their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The chemical constituents and biological activity of the ethanol extracts of the plant did not differ from those of propolis. This indicates directly that the plant origin of Okinawan propolis is M. tanarius.

  13. OBSERVATIONS ON DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBERS BY POLARIZING OPTICAL MICROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-fa Xiao; Yu-feng Zhang

    2000-01-01

    By means of polarizing optical microscopy (POM), deformation behavior of four kinds of fibers, i.e. ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) fiber, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber,and wholly aromatic (p-hydroxybenzoic acid/2-hydroxy-6-naphthoic acid) copolyester [P(HBA/HNA)]/PET (ACPET blend) fiber, in axial compression, axial impacting, and bending was observed. In compression, kink bands formed at an angle of 55~60° to the fiber axis in 10-times-drawn UHMW-PE fiber, 75~80° in 40-times-drawn sample, 80° in PVA fiber, and 90°in the ACPET blend fiber. In impacting and bending, band angles of UHMW-PE, PVA and PET fibers are nearly the same as those formed in compression, indicating that slip systems do not change. For any of the four kinds of fiber, band spacing exhibits great differences in compression, in impacting, and in bending, which may be attributed to the differences in the degrees of strain or stress concentration.

  14. Subsocial Neotropical Doryphorini (Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae: new observations on behavior, host plants and systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Windsor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A summary of literature, documented observations and field studies finds evidence that mothers actively defend offspring in at least eight species and three genera of Neotropical Chrysomelinae associated with two host plant families. Reports on three Doryphora species reveal that all are oviparous and feed on vines in the Apocyanaceae. Mothers in the two subsocial species defend eggs and larvae by straddling, blocking access at the petiole and greeting potential predators with leaf-shaking and jerky advances. A less aggressive form of maternal care is found in two Platyphora and four Proseicela species associated with Solanaceae, shrubs and small trees. For these and other morphologically similar taxa associated with Solanaceae, genetic distances support morphology-based taxonomy at the species level, reveal one new species, but raise questions regarding boundaries separating genera. We urge continued study of these magnificent insects, their enemies and their defenses, both behavioral and chemical, especially in forests along the eastern versant of the Central and South American cordillera.

  15. Observation of self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior during edge biasing experiment on TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R. [Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Brussels, Belgium, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been investigated using the fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of TEXTOR tokamak before and during the edge electrode biasing experiments. In the 'non-shear' discharge phase before biasing, both the potential and density fluctuations clearly exhibit some of the characteristics associated with SOC: (1) existence of f{sup -1} power-law dependence in the frequency spectrum, (2) slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, (3) values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, (4) non-Gaussian probability density function of fluctuations and (5) radial propagation of avalanche-like events in the edge plasma area. During the biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and hence a sheared E{sub r} x B flow, the local turbulence is found to be well de-correlated by the E{sub r} x B velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions. Nevertheless, it is concomitantly found that the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well, which is contrary to theoretical expectation. Implication of these observations to our understanding of plasma transport mechanisms is discussed. (authors)

  16. The development and validation of the Dormitory Observation Report: a behavioral rating instrument for juvenile delinquents in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Louis; Veneziano, Carol

    2002-09-01

    In order to provide an objective measure of problematic behavioral patterns among juvenile delinquents in residential facilities, the Dormitory Observation Report (DOR) was developed. The DOR assesses 11 dimensions of problematic behavioral patterns (e.g., physical assaultiveness, manipulativeness), as well as three dimensions of desirable behavioral patterns expected in an institutional setting (e.g., independent functioning, personal hygiene, care of surroundings). Empirical study regarding the reliability and validity of the DOR are reported, and the results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and practical implications of this instrument.

  17. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa K. Alimoglu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods: Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2 with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6 and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4 with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL sessions (~7 hours with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48. Results: Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87 and 80.6% (κ=0.71, respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types.

  18. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoglu, Mustafa K.; Sarac, Didar B.; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A.; Altintas, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM)’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Results Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87) and 80.6% (κ=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). Conclusions This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types. PMID:25308966

  19. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  20. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  1. Computer-assisted direct observation of behavioral agitation, engagement, and affect in long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anne-Nicole; Low, Lee-Fay; Goodenough, Belinda; Fletcher, Jennifer; Brodaty, Henry

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the current research were (1) to test and evaluate the investigator-designed Behavior, Engagement, and Affect Measure (BEAM) touchpad direct observational data collection tool, and (2) to implement this tool to investigate residents' patterns of behavioral agitation, engagement, affect, behaviors associated with positive mood, general time-activity use, and social interactions within long-term care. Raters collected cross-sectional observational data and conducted semistructured interviews with participants of the Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns (SMILE) Study. Researchers tested the BEAM's reliability and validity and evaluated the instrument's discriminate validity for sampling resident behaviors. Data were collected in 36 long-term care homes. The sample included low-care hostels, high-care nursing homes, and residential facilities offering aging-in-place. Participants were 406 residents aged 52 to 105 years, with and without dementia. Researchers collected direct observational data using the BEAM and operationalized behavioral domains based largely on concepts from Kitwood's model of person-centered care. Care staff reported on resident behavior using standardized measures of agitation, depression, quality of life, and social engagement. The BEAM showed moderate-to-substantial interrater reliability and slight-to-moderate correlations with staff-report data gathered through standardized questionnaire measures. Observations showed that residents spent the greatest amount of time stationary and expressing little emotion, although actively engaged with their environment. Residents were observed to be coping adequately and experiencing a positive social and/or positive care interaction in approximately half of observations; however, close to a third of ratings identified "ill-being." Residents showed more positive behavior, appeared happier and less anxious, and exhibited higher "well-being" during structured

  2. Direct Measures in Environmental Education Evaluation: Behavioral Intentions versus Observable Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Camilo; Shavelson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The objective of many environmental education programs is to promote pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors in students. However, evaluation of these programs has focused on asking participants what they think (attitudes) and what they do (behaviors) regarding the environment problems through self-report questionnaires and interviews. These…

  3. Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

  4. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  5. TEACH: An Ethogram-Based Method to Observe and Record Teaching Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Michelle Ann

    2017-01-01

    Teaching has attracted growing research attention in studies of human and animal behavior as a crucial behavior that coevolved with human cultural capacities. However, the synthesis of data on teaching across species and across human populations has proven elusive because researchers use a variety of definitions and methods to approach the topic.…

  6. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  7. Observation:The Impact of Teachers’Behavior in Teacher-students In-teractions on Pupils’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼

    2014-01-01

    To find out in what ways the teacher’s behavior in interactions could motivate students effectively, a two-day observa-tion concerning the relationship between the teacher’s behavior in teacher-students interactions and students’motivations in the classroom was carried out in a primary school in Scotland. The author illustrated the basic content of classrooms observed and the methods of collecting and analyzing the data. Then, it focused on the discussion of the data and related literacy. Finally, it drew the conclusion that the positive feedback, explanations for the reason of doing the task and enthusiastic actions could effectively motivate students to learn.

  8. In situ observation of fracture behavior of canine cortical bone under bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zilan X. [Department of Orthopaedics, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street Suite 708 MSC 622, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Xu, Zhi-Hui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); An, Yuehuei H. [Department of Orthopaedics, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street Suite 708 MSC 622, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Southside Hospital, North Shore-LIJ Health System, 217 East Main Street, Bay Shore, NY 11706 (United States); Li, Xiaodong, E-mail: xl3p@virginia.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 122 Engineer' s Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Cortical bone provides many important body functions and maintains the rigidness and elasticity of bone. A common failure mode for bone structure is fracture under a bending force. In the current study, the fracture behavior of canine cortical bone under three-point bending was observed in situ using an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an optical microscope to examine the fracture process in detail. Nanoindentation was carried out to determine the elastic modulus and hardness of different building blocks of the canine cortical bone. The results have shown that the special structure of Haversian systems has significant effects on directing crack propagation. Although Haversian systems contain previously believed weak points, and micro-cracks initiate within Haversian systems, our findings have demonstrated that macro-cracks typically form around the boundaries of Haversian systems, i.e. the cement lines. Micro-cracks that developed inside Haversian systems have the functions of absorbing and dissipating energy and slow down on expanding when interstitial tissue cannot hold any more pressure, then plastic deformation and fracture occur. - Highlights: • Macro- and micro-cracks occur in unique patterns in the bone fracturing process under a bending force. • Early developed micro-cracks inside Haversian systems absorb and dissipate energy in order to delay fracture initiation. • The mechanical properties of Haverisan systems and its surrounding structures influence the developments of macro- and micro-crack formation. • Previously believed weak spots in the bone matrix are not necessarily the origins of fracture development.

  9. A sustainable building promotes pro-environmental behavior: an observational study on food disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David W-L; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis--whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling) in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior.

  10. A sustainable building promotes pro-environmental behavior: an observational study on food disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W-L Wu

    Full Text Available In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis--whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior.

  11. Behavioral changes in brain-injured critical care adults with different levels of consciousness during nociceptive stimulation: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Marie-José; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie

    2014-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the frequency of behaviors observed during rest, a non-nociceptive procedure, and a nociceptive procedure in brain-injured intensive care unit (ICU) patients with different levels of consciousness (LOC). Second, it examined the inter-rater reliability and discriminant and concurrent validity of the behavioral checklist used. The non-nociceptive procedure involved calling the patient and shaking his/her shoulder. The nociceptive procedure involved turning the patient. The frequency of behaviors was recorded using a behavioral checklist. Patients with absence of movement, or stereotyped flexion or extension responses to a nociceptive stimulus displayed more behaviors during turning (median 5.5, range 0-14) than patients with localized responses (median 4, range 0-10) or able to self-report their pain (median 4, range 0-10). Face flushing, clenched teeth, clenched fist, and tremor were more frequent in patients with absence of movement, or stereotyped responses to a nociceptive stimulus. The reliability of the checklist was supported by a high intra-class correlation coefficient (0.77-0.92), and the internal consistency was acceptable in all three groups (KR 20, 0.71-0.85). Discriminant validity was supported as significantly more behaviors were observed during nociceptive stimulation than at rest. Concurrent validity was confirmed as checklist scores were correlated to the patients' self-reports of pain (r s = 0.53; 95 % CI 0.21-0.75). Brain-injured patients reacted significantly more during a nociceptive stimulus and the number of observed behaviors was higher in patients with a stereotyped response.

  12. Observations on the mating behavior of the eastern lowland olingo Bassaricyon alleni (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Williams

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The behavior of wild olingos is poorly known. From May-Jul 2015, I surveyed nocturnal mammals in southeast Peru and recorded the behavior of olingos. Multiple olingos were observed in close proximity on four occasions: two occasions in which multiple olingos were feeding on the inflorescences of a Parkia pendula tree; an adult and immature olingo traveling together; and a pair of olingos copulating. The copulation lasted at least 142 minutes, and was characterized by the male biting the hind neck and back of the female, constant female vocalizations, and rapid head turning by the female toward the male. Olingos and kinkajous were similarly abundant. These observations offer insight into the behavior of the wild olingo.

  13. Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

  14. Behaviors of Teachers and Their Students in Schools with and without an Achievement Gap: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Nancy J.; Carroll, Kimberly L.; Jones, Cathy R.; Costner, Richard H.; Sheehan, Heather C.; Hunt, Gilbert H.

    2017-01-01

    This research shares findings from a year-long observational study to determine if there were significant differences in the identified behaviors of teachers and students in fourth and seventh grade classrooms in schools with an achievement gap versus those with no achievement gap. Specific research questions addressed types of instructional…

  15. Accessing Suicide-Related Information on the Internet: A Retrospective Observational Study of Search Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet’s potential impact on suicide is of major public health interest as easy online access to pro-suicide information or specific suicide methods may increase suicide risk among vulnerable Internet users. Little is known, however, about users’ actual searching and browsing behaviors of online suicide-related information. Objective To investigate what webpages people actually clicked on after searching with suicide-related queries on a search engine and to examine what queries people used to get access to pro-suicide websites. Methods A retrospective observational study was done. We used a web search dataset released by America Online (AOL). The dataset was randomly sampled from all AOL subscribers’ web queries between March and May 2006 and generated by 657,000 service subscribers. Results We found 5526 search queries (0.026%, 5526/21,000,000) that included the keyword "suicide". The 5526 search queries included 1586 different search terms and were generated by 1625 unique subscribers (0.25%, 1625/657,000). Of these queries, 61.38% (3392/5526) were followed by users clicking on a search result. Of these 3392 queries, 1344 (39.62%) webpages were clicked on by 930 unique users but only 1314 of those webpages were accessible during the study period. Each clicked-through webpage was classified into 11 categories. The categories of the most visited webpages were: entertainment (30.13%; 396/1314), scientific information (18.31%; 240/1314), and community resources (14.53%; 191/1314). Among the 1314 accessed webpages, we could identify only two pro-suicide websites. We found that the search terms used to access these sites included “commiting suicide with a gas oven”, “hairless goat”, “pictures of murder by strangulation”, and “photo of a severe burn”. A limitation of our study is that the database may be dated and confined to mainly English webpages. Conclusions Searching or browsing suicide-related or pro-suicide webpages was

  16. Clinical application of the Newborn Behavioral Observation (NBO) System to characterize the behavioral pattern of newborns at biological and social risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marina Aguiar Pires; Alves, Claudia Regina Lindgren; Cardoso, Ana Amélia; Penido, Márcia Gomes; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2017-08-30

    To compare the behavior of preterm newborns (PTNs) and full-term newborns (FTNs) using the Newborn Behavioral Observation (NBO) and to evaluate the mothers' experience when participating in this observation. This was a cross-sectional study performed at a referral hospital for high-risk births, involving mothers and neonates before hospital discharge. The mothers answered the sociodemographic questionnaire, participated in the NBO session, and evaluated the experience by answering the parents' questionnaire at the end. The characteristics of the PTN and FTN groups and the autonomic, motor, organization of states, and responsiveness (AMOR) scores were compared. Linear regression was performed to test the association of the characteristics of mothers and neonates with the scores in the AMOR domains. The NBO was performed with 170 newborns (eight twins and 77% PTNs). Approximately 15% of the mothers were adolescents and had nine years of schooling, on average. The groups differed regarding weight for gestational age, age at observation, APGAR score, feeding, and primiparity. The linear regression adjusted for these variables showed that only prematurity remained associated with differences in the scores of the motor (p=0.002) and responsiveness (p=0.02) domains. No statistical difference was observed between the groups in the score attributed to one's own knowledge prior to the session (p=0.10). After the session, these means increased in both groups. This increase was significantly higher in the PTN group (p=0.02). The NBO increased the mothers' knowledge about the behavior of their children, especially in mothers of PTNs, and identified differences in the behavior of PTNs and FTNs regarding the motor and responsiveness domains. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal mind-mindedness during infancy, general parenting sensitivity and observed child feeding behavior: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, or the tendency to view the child as a mental agent, has been shown to predict sensitive and responsive parenting behavior. As yet the role of mind-mindedness has not been explored in the context of feeding interactions. This study evaluates the relations between maternal mind-mindedness at 6 months of infant age and subsequently observed maternal sensitivity and feeding behaviors with children at age 1 year. Maternal mind-mindedness was greater in mothers who had breast-fed compared to formula-fed. Controlling for breast-feeding, mind-mindedness at 6 months was correlated with observations of more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors at 1 year of age. Mind-mindedness was also associated with greater general maternal sensitivity in play and this general parenting sensitivity mediated the effect of mind-mindedness on more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors. Interventions to promote maternal tendency to consider their child's mental states may encourage more adaptive parental feeding behaviors.

  18. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  19. Observation of the Starting and Low Speed Behavior of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the starting behavior of small horizontal axis wind turbines at high angles of attack and low Reynolds number. The unfavorable relative wind direction during the starting time leads to low starting torque and more idling time. Wind turbine models of sizes less than 5 meters were simulated at wind speed range of 2 m/s to 5 m/s. Wind turbines were modeled in Pro/E and based on the optimized designs given by MATLAB codes. Wind turbine models were simulated in ADAMS for improving the starting behavior. The models with high starting torques and less idling times were selected. The starting behavior was successfully improved and the optimized wind turbine models were able to produce more starting torque even at wind speeds less than 5 m/s.

  20. A naturalistic observation study of the links between parental depressive symptoms and preschoolers' behaviors in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has shown that parental depressive symptoms are linked to a number of negative child outcomes. However, the associations between parental depressive symptoms and actual child behaviors in everyday life remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the links between parental depressive symptoms and everyday child behaviors and emotional language use using a novel observational methodology, and to explore the potential moderating role of parent-child conflict. We tracked the behaviors and language use of 35 preschool-aged children for two 1-day periods separated by one year using a child version of the Electronically Activated Recorder, a digital voice recorder that records ambient sounds while participants go about their daily lives. Parental depressive symptoms were positively associated with multiple problem behaviors among children (i.e., crying, acting mad, watching TV) when measured both concurrently and prospectively, and with negative emotion word use prospectively. Further, the links between parental depressive symptoms and child crying were moderated by parents' perceptions of parent-child conflict. This study offers the first empirical evidence of direct links between parental depressive symptoms and child behaviors in daily life and presents a promising research tool for the study of everyday child behaviors. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Observation of ferromagnetic semiconductor behavior in manganese-oxide doped graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Soo Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We have doped manganese-oxide onto graphene by an electrochemical method. Graphene showed a clear ferromagnetic semiconductor behavior after doping of manganese-oxide. The manganese-oxide doped graphene has a coercive field (Hc of 232 Oe at 10 K, and has the Curie temperature of 270 K from the temperature-dependent resistivity using transport measurement system. The ferromagnetism of manganese-oxide doped graphene attributes to the double-exchange from the coexistence of Mn3+ and Mn4+ on the surface of graphene. In addition, the semiconducting behavior is caused by the formation of manganese-oxide on graphene.

  2. EthoLog 2.2: a tool for the transcription and timing of behavior observation sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, E B

    2000-08-01

    EthoLog is a tool that aids in the transcription and timing of behavior observation sessions--experimental or naturalistic, from video/audio tapes or registering real time. It was created with Visual Basic and runs on Windows (3.x/9x). The user types the key codes for the predefined behavioral categories, and EthoLog registers their sequence and timing and saves the resulting data in ASCII output files. A sequential analysis matrix can be generated from the sequential data. The output files may be edited, converted to plain text files for printing, or exported to a spreadsheet program, such as MS Excel, for further analyses.

  3. Citation Behaviors Observed in Japanese EFL Students' Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko

    2014-01-01

    Effective use of outside source texts is one of the key components of successful academic writing. This study aims at clarifying Japanese university EFL students' citation behaviors in producing argumentative writing. Twenty-six Japanese university EFL students wrote an argumentative essay. Their essays were analyzed quantitatively by six…

  4. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  5. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  6. Observation of nonspherical particle behaviors for continuous shape-based separation using hydrodynamic filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Sari; Yamada, Masumi; Seki, Minoru

    2011-04-20

    Selection of particles or cells of specific shapes from a complex mixture is an essential procedure for various biological and industrial applications, including synchronization of the cell cycle, classification of environmental bacteria, and elimination of aggregates from synthesized particles. Here, we investigate the separation behaviors of nonspherical and spherical particles∕cells in the hydrodynamic filtration (HDF) scheme, which was previously developed for continuous size-dependent particle∕cell separation. Nonspherical particle models were prepared by coating the hemisphere of spherical polymer particles with a thin Au layer and by bonding the Janus particles to form twins and triplets resembling dividing and aggregating cells, respectively. High-speed imaging revealed a difference in the separation behaviors of spherical and nonspherical particles at a branch point; nonspherical particles showed rotation behavior and did not enter the branch channel even when their minor axis was smaller than the virtual width of the flow region entering the branch channel, w(1). The confocal-laser high-speed particle intensity velocimetry system visualized the flow profile inside the HDF microchannel, demonstrating that the steep flow-velocity distribution at the branch point is the main factor causing the rotation behavior of nonspherical particles. As applications, we successfully separated spherical and nonspherical particles with various major∕minor lengths and also demonstrated the selection of budding∕single cells from a yeast cell mixture. We therefore conclude that the HDF scheme can be used for continuous shape-based particle∕cell separation.

  7. Fine Scale Baleen Whale Behavior Observed Via Tagging Over Daily Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    cetacean behavior at intermediate daily time scales. Recent efforts to assess the impacts of sound on marine mammals and to estimate foraging...new dermal attachment for short-term tagging studies of baleen whales. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6:289-297. Baumgartner, M.F., N.S.J

  8. Electrochemical Behavior, Microstructural Analysis, and Morphological Observations in Reinforced Mortar Subjected to Chloride Ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van breugel, K.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Van Westing, E.; Boshkov, N.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of steel reinforcement was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization resistance (PR) techniques in conditions of chloride-induced corrosion in ordinary Portland cement-mortar specimens immersed in 7% NaCl for a test period of 120 days and compared to sp

  9. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (Mage=11.0years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they planne

  10. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gypsyamber D'Souza

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC. METHODS: This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. RESULTS: Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. CONCLUSION: There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  11. Positive-engagement behaviors in observed family interactions: a social relations perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Robert A; Kashy, Deborah A; Donnellan, M Brent; Conger, Rand D

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigates the nature of positive engagement (an interpersonal style characterized by attentiveness, warmth, cooperation, and clear communication) in family interactions involving at least one adolescent. Approximately 400 families (mothers, fathers, and two siblings) were videotaped during brief conflict-resolution discussions that occurred on a yearly basis for 3 years. Coders rated the degree to which each family member was positively engaged with every other family member during the interactions. The social relations model was used to partition variation in positive-engagement behavior into family-level, individual-level, and dyad-level effects. Results demonstrated the importance of family norms and individual factors in determining the expression of positive-engagement behaviors in dyadic family relationships. Moreover, longitudinal analyses indicated that these effects are stable over a 3-year period. Finally, results highlighted the relative distinctiveness of the marital and sibling relationships, as well as the existence of reciprocity within these dyads.

  12. Positive Engagement Behaviors in Observed Family Interactions: A Social Relations Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Robert A.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the nature of positive engagement (an interpersonal style characterized by attentiveness, warmth, cooperation, and clear communication) in family interactions involving at least one adolescent. Approximately 400 families (mothers, fathers, and two siblings) were videotaped during brief conflict resolution discussions that occurred on a yearly basis for three years. Coders rated the degree to which each family member was positively engaged with every other family member during the interactions. The Social Relations Model was used to partition variation in positive engagement behavior into family-level, individual-level, and dyad-level effects. Results demonstrated the importance of family norms and individual factors in determining the expression of positive engagement behaviors in dyadic family relationships. Moreover, longitudinal analyses indicated that these effects are stable over a three year period. Finally, results highlighted the relative distinctiveness of the marital and sibling relationships, as well as the existence of reciprocity within these dyads. PMID:21875194

  13. Fine Scale Baleen Whale Behavior Observed Via Tagging Over Daily Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    find areas where copepods are exhibiting weak diel vertical migration behavior. APPROACH Most tracking studies rely on radio or acoustic ...carrying a radio transmitter are limited to very short periods when the animal is at the surface and the tag is exposed to air. Acoustic transmitters...Wildlife Computers MK10-PATF tag. An AOR AR8200 wideband radio receiver, ublox GPS, and a BlackBox KVM extender were housed inside a weather-proof box

  14. A small towed beamforming array to identify vocalizing resident killer whales ( Orcinus orca) concurrent with focal behavioral observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrick J.; Tyack, Peter L.

    Investigations of communication systems benefit from concurrent observation of vocal and visible behaviors of individual animals. A device has been developed to identify individual vocalizing resident killer whales ( Orcinus orca) during focal behavioral observations. The device consists of a 2-m, 15-element hydrophone array, which is easily towed behind a small vessel, on-board multi-channel recorders, and real-time signal processing equipment. Acoustic data from the hydrophones are digitized and processed using broadband frequency-domain beamforming to yield frequency-azimuth (FRAZ) and "directo-gram" displays of arriving sounds. Based upon statistical analysis of independent portions of typical killer whale calls, the precision of the angle-of-arrival estimate ranges from ±0° to ±2.5° with a mean precision of ±1.5°. Echolocation clicks also are resolved precisely with a typical -6 dB mainlobe width of ±2.0°. Careful positioning of the array relative to the animals minimizes the effects of depth ambiguities and allows identification of individual sources in many circumstances. Several strategies for identifying vocalizing individuals are discussed and an example of a successful identification is described. Use of the array with resident killer whales did not interfere with vessel maneuverability, animal tracking, or behavioral sampling of focal individuals. This localization technique has promise for advancing the abilities of researchers to conduct unbiased behavioral and acoustic sampling of individual free-ranging cetaceans.

  15. Adolescents' Observations of Parent Pain Behaviors: Preliminary Measure Validation and Test of Social Learning Theory in Pediatric Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amanda L; Walker, Lynn S

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate psychometric properties of a measure of adolescents’ observations of parental pain behaviors and use this measure to test hypotheses regarding pain-specific social learning. We created a proxy-report of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Behavior–Short Form (PPB) for adolescents to report on parental pain behaviors, which we labeled the PPB-Proxy. Adolescents (n = 138, mean age = 14.20) with functional abdominal pain completed the PPB-Proxy and a parent completed the PPB. Adolescents and their parents completed measures of pain and disability during the adolescent’s clinic visit for abdominal pain. Adolescents subsequently completed a 7-day pain diary period. The PPB-Proxy moderately correlated with the PPB, evidencing that adolescents observe and can report on parental pain behaviors. Both the PPB-Proxy and PPB significantly correlated with adolescents’ pain-related disability. Parental modeling of pain behaviors could represent an important target for assessment and treatment in pediatric chronic pain patients.

  16. You are so kind – and I am kind and smart: Actor – Observer Differences in the Interpretation of On-going Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abele Andrea E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : The dual perspective model of agency and communion predicts that observers tend to interpret a target’s behavior more in terms of communion than agency, whereas actors interpret their behavior more in terms of agency. The present research for the first time tests this model in real interactions. Previously unacquainted participants had a short conversation and afterwards rated their own behavior (actor perspective and their interaction partner’s behavior (observer perspective in terms of agency(self-confident, assertive and communion(trustworthy, empathic. Supporting the dual perspective model, observers rated the actor’s behavior higher on communion than on agency, and higher on communion than actors themselves did. Findings for actors were more complex: Actors rated their own behavior as more agentic than observers did. However, they also rated their behavior high on communion. We discuss implications for the dual perspective model as well as for (misunderstandings in social interactions.

  17. Spatial and temporal behavior of atomic oxygen determined by Ogo 6 airglow observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, T. M.; Guenther, B.; Thomas, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Maps are produced of the atomic oxygen density near 97 km showing a strong variation in latitude, longitude, universal time, and time of year. These densities are deduced from atomic oxygen green nightglow observations carried out from Ogo 6. Meridional wind patterns needed to support the asymmetries observed in local oxygen production and loss rates are deduced.

  18. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess: A Pilot Study Using GPS, Accelerometer, Participant Observation, and Go-Along Interview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Skau Pawlowski

    Full Text Available Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt, sixteen children participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future interventions in the school environment.

  19. High-voltage electron-microscopic observation of cyclic slip behavior around a fatigue crack tip in an iron alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshimasa [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)], E-mail: yoshim.takahashi@aist.go.jp; Tanaka, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Noguchi, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The cyclic slip behavior around a fatigue crack tip originally located inside a bulk Fe-Si alloy was successfully observed by a high-voltage electron microscope in combination with a novel specimen preparation method. The method, by taking advantages of ion milling and focused ion beam techniques, ensures that the original shape of the crack tip is preserved without introducing additional slips. The observation confirms that the slip bands emitted from the fatigue crack tip are bounded by a labyrinth-like wall structure.

  20. Dry layers in the tropical troposphere observed during CONTRAST and global behavior from GFS analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, William J.; Rivoire, Louis; Pan, Laura L.; Honomichl, Shawn B.

    2016-12-01

    The Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) experiment was an aircraft-based field campaign conducted from Guam (14°N, 145°E) during January-February 2014. Aircraft measurements included over 80 vertical profiles from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere ( 15 km). A large fraction of these profiles revealed layered structures with very low water vapor (relative humidity ozone, primarily in the lower-middle troposphere ( 3-9 km). Comparing CONTRAST water vapor measurements with co-located profiles from National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses, we find good agreement for dry layers, including profile-by-profile comparisons and statistical behavior. We then utilize GFS data to evaluate the frequency of occurrence and 3-D structure of dry layers for the CONTRAST period to provide perspective to the campaign measurements and evaluate the global climatological behavior based on a longer record. GFS data show that dry layers occur 50-80% of the time in the subtropical troposphere, maximizing on the equatorward side of the subtropical jets in the winter hemisphere. Subtropical dry layers occur most frequently over isentropic levels 320-340 K, which extend into the extratropical upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS). Similar statistical behavior of dry, ozone-rich layers is found in long-term balloon measurements from Reunion Island (21°S, 56°E). The climatologically frequent occurrence of dry, ozone-rich layers, plus their vertical and spatial structures linked to the subtropical jets, all suggest that dry layers are linked to quasi-isentropic transport from the extratropical UTLS and suggest a ubiquitous UTLS influence on the subtropical middle troposphere.

  1. Observing the Behavior of Larval Sea Lamprey in the St Clair River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use student-built underwater water quality monitoring systems to monitor the behavior of larval sea lamprey during a lampricide treatment in the St Clair River, MI. In addition, the monitoring systems were used to gather video evidence to show that lampricide does not affect the surrounding wildlife. This camera system was an addition to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commission's (GLFC) study because they previously did not have video recording capabilities. To collect the needed video data, we lined eight cameras down each side of a 25 by 20 meter lampricide plot in the middle channel of the St Clair River, which was approximately 1 to 5 meters deep. This setup allowed us to collect 8 hours worth of video after a 24 hour delay, which was then saved as a MP4 format for easy access by the GLFC scientists. After retrieving the systems from the study plot, we had found mussels growing on the monitoring systems' housings. When analyzing the cameras' data, we also saw regular wildlife activity, such as groups of fish swimming normally past the cameras. We know that the wildlife's behavior was not affected, because in the videos that were captured during the application of this lampricide treatment showed no abnormal wildlife behavior. Through this study, we learned that the Bayluscide 70% wettable powder did not affect fish, aquatic plants, or any other sea life in the treatment area. Our water quality monitoring systems were an impact in the GLFC's lampricide study, because they provided evidence that lampricide does not affect any other wildlife in the treatment area.

  2. Behavioral evidence and supporting electrophysiological observations for electroreception in the blind cave salamander, Proteus anguinus (Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, A; Schlegel, P

    1988-01-01

    Conditioning experiments revealed that Proteus perceives a back-and-forth moving (approximately 1 Hz) direct-current field and its polarity. Minimum behavioral thresholds occurred at a current density of 0.15 microA/cm2, corresponding to a voltage gradient of 0.5 mV/cm. Recordings from afferent nerve fibers showed that ampullary electroreceptors in Proteus respond as do other nonteleost receptors, i.e. with an increase in discharge rate to cathodal current and a decrease to anodal current (threshold: approximately 1 mV/cm).

  3. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  4. The nuts and bolts of behavioral observation of marital and family interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, G; Oliver, P H; Gordis, E B; O'Hearn, H G; Medina, A M; Ghosh, C M; Morland, L

    1998-12-01

    Despite considerable discussion in the literature about the advantages of observational research and the relative benefits of different coding systems and strategies, little is written about the actual implementation of this assessment strategy. This paper presents an overall framework as well as the essential components involved in collecting (selection of task, setting, unit of analysis, and coding system) and coding (transcribing, selecting and training coders, transforming data, and analyzing reliability) of observational data. To achieve success with observational methods, we emphasize several issues, including (a) the research question as the motivator for all decisions, (b) the interrelatedness of tasks, and (c) the implications of decisions early in the process for later stages of analysis and interpretation. Investigators are encouraged to communicate the details of their observational and coding procedures so that these methods are readily accessible for purposes of replication and comparison.

  5. Electron microscopy observations of surface morphologies and particle arrangement behaviors of magnetic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈辉; 徐雪青; 王伟

    2003-01-01

    The surface morphology of quasi-periodic stripe-shaped patterns of magnetite fluids was observed in applied perpendicular magnetic fields by means of scanning electron microscopy. The nanoparticles of the magnetite fluids are arranged in oriental quasilinear chains in applied perpendicular magnetic fields as observed using transmission electron microscopy. This arrangement results from particle-particle interactions and particle-carrier liquids interactions, which are eventually controlled by the magnetic fields distribution.

  6. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed.

  7. Informant Discrepancies in Adult Social Anxiety Disorder Assessments: Links With Contextual Variations in Observed Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-informant assessments of adult psychopathology often result in discrepancies among informants’ reports. Among 157 adults meeting criteria for either the generalized (n = 106) or nongeneralized (n = 51) social anxiety disorder (SAD) subtype, we examined whether discrepancies between patients’ and clinicians’ reports of patients’ symptoms related to variations in both SAD subtype and expressions of social skills deficits across multiple social interaction tasks. Latent class analyses revealed two behavioral patterns: (a) context-specific social skills deficits and (b) cross-context social skills deficits. Similarly, patients’ symptom reports could be characterized by concordance or discordance with clinicians’ reports. Patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of the patient meeting criteria for the generalized relative to nongeneralized subtype. Further, patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of consistently exhibiting social skills deficits across social interaction tasks (relative to context-specific social skills deficits). These relations were robust in accounting for patient age, clinical severity, and Axis I and II comorbidity. Further, clinical severity did not completely explain variability in patients’ behavior on laboratory tasks or discrepancies between patient and clinician reports. Findings provide the first laboratory-based support for the ability of informant discrepancies to indicate cross-contextual variability in clinical adult assessments, and the first of any developmental period to indicate this for SAD assessments. These findings have important implications for clinical assessment and developmental psychopathology research. PMID:23421526

  8. On the Anelastic Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings: Observations, Characterizations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Gopal

    Plasma sprayed ceramic materials contain an assortment of microstructural defects, including pores, cracks, and interfaces arising from the droplet based assemblage of the spray deposition technique. The defective architecture of the deposits introduces a novel "anelastic" response in the coatings comprising of their non-linear and hysteretic stress-strain relationship under mechanical loading. It has been established that this anelasticity can be attributed to the relative movement of the embedded defects under varying stresses; while the non-linear response of the coatings arises from the opening/closure of defects, hysteresis is produced by the frictional sliding among defect surfaces. Recent studies have indicated that anelastic behavior of coatings can be a unique descriptor of their mechanical behavior and related to the defect configuration. In this dissertation, a multi-variable study employing systematic processing strategies was conducted to augment the understanding on various aspects of the reported anelastic behavior. Enhancements to bi-layer curvature measurement technique allowed for reliable and repeatable quantification of the anelastic response, enabling extraction of three anelastic parameters; elastic modulus, non-linear degree and hysteresis degree. This allowed for further exploration of the process space enabling controlled introduction of anelasticity in thermal sprayed ceramic coatings. This dissertation reports on these findings by first describing the experimental advancements in bilayer curvature measurements via thermal cycling of a coated beam. This experimental development allowed assessment of sensitivity and repeatability of the obtained anelastic parameters to varying microstructures imposed by processing excursions. Subsequently, controlled modification of anelasticity was achieved through material and process parameters as well as through extrinsic modification of the defects within the microstructure. The results suggest that

  9. First Observation of Heavy Fermion Behavior in Ce-Based Icosahedral Approximant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Keiichiro; Nobe, Kohei; Deguchi, Kazuhiko; Matsunami, Masaharu; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi; Yasui, Akira; Ikenaga, Eiji; Sato, Noriaki K.

    2017-09-01

    Since the discovery of unconventional quantum criticality in the Au-Al-Yb quasicrystal and pressure-induced quantum criticality in its approximant, quasicrystals and approximants with an icosahedral cluster of atoms have attracted much attention. Here we report magnetic, thermodynamic, transport, and hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy experiments on the Ce-based approximant Ag-In-Ce. These results indicate the heavy fermion behavior of the 4f electrons and provide convincing evidence of a magnetic phase transition into a spin-glass-like short-range-ordered state at a low temperature. The Ag-In-Ce alloy is the first Ce-based heavy fermion approximant to a Tsai-type quasicrystal. Reflecting its unique crystal structure, the approximant shows an electrical resistivity distinct from that of traditional Kondo lattices.

  10. Observation of non-diffracting behavior at the single-photon level

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz-Ramirez, Hector; Morelos, Francisco J; Quinto-Su, Pedro A; Gutierrez-Vega, Julio C; U'Ren, Alfred B

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of non-diffracting heralded single photons, i.e. which are characterized by a single-photon transverse intensity distribution which remains essentially unchanged over a significant propagation distance. For this purpose we have relied on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) for the generation of signal and idler photon pairs, where our SPDC crystal is pumped by a Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam. Our experiment shows that the well-understood non-diffracting behavior of a BG beam may be directly mapped to the signal-mode, single photons heralded by the detection of a single idler photon. In our experiment, the heralded single photon is thus arranged to be non-diffracting without the need for projecting its single-photon transverse amplitude, post-generation, in any manner.

  11. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  12. Statistical behavior of Langmuir wave packets observed inside the electron foreshock of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, David; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kurth, Willam S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Santolik, Ondrej; Soucek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    We present a statistical study of Langmuir wave packets in the Saturnian foreshock using Cassini Wideband Receiver electric field waveforms. We analyzed all foreshock crossings from 2004 to 2012 using an automatic method for the identification of Langmuir wave signatures. Observed waveforms exhibit a shape similar to Langmuir solitons or monochromatic wave packets with a slowly varying envelope. This is in agreement with a variety of previous observations of Langmuir waves in the terrestrial foreshock and associated with Type III radio bursts. We determined the peak amplitude for all wave packets, and found the distributions of amplitude appeared to follow a power law with P(E) ≈ E-2. We confirm that the most intense electron plasma waves are observed near the foreshock boundary. We estimated the energy density ratio to be about one order below previously reported values at Saturn. Finally, we discuss the properties of the Langmuir wave packets at different locations in the foreshock.

  13. Clarifying observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol outcomes: The importance of response options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M; Carey, Kate B

    2015-06-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS), or harm-reduction behaviors that can potentially reduce alcohol consumption or associated problems, have been assessed in varied ways throughout the literature. Existing scales vary in focus (i.e., broad vs. narrow), and importantly, in response options (i.e., absolute frequency vs. contingent frequency). Absolute frequency conflates PBS use with number of drinking occasions, resulting in inconsistencies in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol outcomes, whereas contingent frequency is less precise, which could reduce power. The current study proposes the use of absolute frequencies to maximize precision, with an adjustment for number of drinking days to extricate PBS use from drinking occasions, resulting in a contingent score. Study 1 examined the associations between PBS subscales using the Strategy Questionnaire (Sugarman & Carey, 2007) and alcohol outcomes, finding that in raw score form the association between PBS and typical alcohol outcomes varied greatly from significantly positive to significantly negative, but adjusted score relationships were all consistent with harm reduction perspectives. In addition, curvilinear relationships with typical alcohol use were eliminated using the score adjustment, resulting in linear associations. Study 2 confirmed the findings from Study 1 with a more precise timeframe, additional alcohol assessments, and heavier college drinkers. The relationships between alcohol outcomes and PBS in raw score form were again varied, but became consistently negative using the score adjustment. Researchers examining PBS and related constructs should consider modifying current scales to include a precise frequency response scale that is adjusted to account for number of drinking occasions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Behavioral and brain pattern differences between acting and observing in an auditory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventouras Errikos M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has shown that errors seem to influence the patterns of brain activity. Additionally current notions support the idea that similar brain mechanisms are activated during acting and observing. The aim of the present study was to examine the patterns of brain activity of actors and observers elicited upon receiving feedback information of the actor's response. Methods The task used in the present research was an auditory identification task that included both acting and observing settings, ensuring concurrent ERP measurements of both participants. The performance of the participants was investigated in conditions of varying complexity. ERP data were analyzed with regards to the conditions of acting and observing in conjunction to correct and erroneous responses. Results The obtained results showed that the complexity induced by cue dissimilarity between trials was a demodulating factor leading to poorer performance. The electrophysiological results suggest that feedback information results in different intensities of the ERP patterns of observers and actors depending on whether the actor had made an error or not. The LORETA source localization method yielded significantly larger electrical activity in the supplementary motor area (Brodmann area 6, the posterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 31/23 and the parietal lobe (Precuneus/Brodmann area 7/5. Conclusion These findings suggest that feedback information has a different effect on the intensities of the ERP patterns of actors and observers depending on whether the actor committed an error. Certain neural systems, including medial frontal area, posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus may mediate these modulating effects. Further research is needed to elucidate in more detail the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological substrates of these systems.

  15. Further Insight into the Effectiveness of a Behavioral Teacher Program Targeting ADHD Symptoms Using Actigraphy, Classroom Observations and Peer Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Veenman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Positivity and Rules program (PR program, a low-level behavioral teacher program targeting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, has shown positive effects on teacher-rated ADHD symptoms and social functioning. This study aimed to assess whether program effects could be confirmed by instruments assessing classroom behavior other than teacher-ratings, given teachers’ involvement with the training.Methods: Participants were 114 primary school children (age = 6–13 displaying ADHD symptoms in the classroom, who were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 58 or control group (n = 65. ADHD symptoms were measured using classroom observations and actigraphy, and peer acceptance was measured using peer ratings. Intention-to-treat multilevel analyses were conducted to assess program effects.Results: No beneficial program effects were found for any of the measures.Conclusion: The earlier beneficial program effects on both ADHD symptoms and social functioning reported by teachers, may be explained by a change in the perception of teachers rather than changes in the child’s behavior. Other methodological explanations are also discussed, such as differences between instruments in the sensitivity to program-related changes. The current study underlines the importance of using different measures of classroom behavior to study program effects.ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02518711

  16. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  17. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  18. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating in different contexts. In this pilot study, we aim to explore the concurrent validity of a short screening instrument (the SEP, which is the Dutch MCH-FS) in one of its target populations (a group of premature children) by comparing the total score with the observed behavior of the child and caretaker during a regular home meal. 28 toddlers (aged 9-18 months) and their caretakers participated in the study. Video-observations of the meals were coded for categories of eating behavior and parent-child interaction. The results show that the total SEP-score correlates with food refusal, feeding efficiency, and self-feeding, but not with negative affect and parental instructions. This confirms that the SEP has a certain degree of concurrent validity in the sense that its total score is associated with specific 'benchmark' feeding behaviors: food refusal, feeding efficiency and autonomy. Future studies with larger samples are needed to generalize the findings from this pilot to a broader context.

  19. The Benefits of Simply Observing: Mindful Attention Modulates the Link between Motivation and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, E.K.; Pronk, T.M.; Keesman, M.; Barsalou, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one’s thoughts and experiences, and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this meta-cognitive

  20. The benefits of simply observing : Mindful attention modulates the link between motivation and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, E.K.; Pronk, T.M.; Keesman, M.; Barsalou, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one's thoughts and experiences and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this metacognitive perspective

  1. Interrelations between Communicative Behaviors at the Outset of Speech: Parents as Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromi, Esther; Zaidman-Zait, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The Hebrew Parent Questionnaire for Communication and Early Language (HPQ-CEL) was administered by 154 parents of Hebrew-speaking toddlers aged 1 ; 0 to 1 ; 3 (77 boys, 77 girls). The Questionnaire guided parents in observing and rating their toddlers in six contexts at home. The study aimed to identify inter-correlations between toddlers'…

  2. Observation of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator to Anderson Insulator Quantum Phase Transition and its Scaling Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cui-Zu; Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Jian; Jain, J. K.; Liu, Chaoxing; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Chan, Moses H. W.

    2016-09-01

    Fundamental insight into the nature of the quantum phase transition from a superconductor to an insulator in two dimensions, or from one plateau to the next or to an insulator in the quantum Hall effect, has been revealed through the study of its scaling behavior. Here, we report on the experimental observation of a quantum phase transition from a quantum-anomalous-Hall insulator to an Anderson insulator in a magnetic topological insulator by tuning the chemical potential. Our experiment demonstrates the existence of scaling behavior from which we extract the critical exponent for this quantum phase transition. We expect that our work will motivate much further investigation of many properties of quantum phase transition in this new context.

  3. Scan path entropy and Arrow plots: Capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignace T C Hooge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures 1 scan path entropy to quantify gaze guidance and 2 the arrow plot to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50. The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements. Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place.

  4. Observation of the Intrinsic Bandgap Behavior in As-Grown Epitaxial Twisted Graphene (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-06

    technology . Here, we present evidence that direct growth by carbon source molecular beam epitaxy (CMBE) with C60 molecular on pre grown template graphene...sp3 C C bonding carbon . Discussion The sp3 C C interlayer bonding has been experimentally observed in graphite and carbon nanotubes modified by... carbon nanotube fibers. ACS Nano 5, 1921 1927 (2011). 19. Hass, J. et al. Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC ð0001Þ system as

  5. Observed Punishment Spillover Effects: A Laboratory Investigation of Behavior in a Social Dilemma.

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Dickinson; E. Glenn Dutcher; Rodet, Cortney S.

    2013-01-01

    Punishment has been shown to be an effective reinforcement mechanism. Intentional or not, punishment will likely generate spillover effects that extend beyond one’s immediate decision environment, and these spillovers are not as well understood. We seek to understand these secondary spillover effects in a controlled lab setting using a standard social dilemma: the voluntary contributions mechanism. We find that spillovers occur when others observe punishment outside their own social dilemma. ...

  6. The origin of EL2 family evidenced by STM direct observations of individual photoquenching behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Akira; Mera, Yutaka; Maeda, Koji

    2003-12-01

    Abundant point defects in low-temperature grown (LT-) GaAs, presumably As antisite defects, exhibit a photo-induced transformation at low temperatures with an excitation spectrum very close to that obtained for the macroscopic photoquenching effect of EL2 centers. Some of the defects do not exhibit the photo-induced transformation, disfavoring the hypothesis of variants of EL2-like centers differing in the atomic structures. The unquenchable EL2 centers are commonly located near the interface between the LT-GaAs epi-layer and the n-GaAs substrate. Separate macroscopic photoluminescence experiments showed that the photoquenching efficiency is strongly decreased by external compressive stress, which suggests that the absence of the phototransformation behavior in some centers was due to a local stress field induced by the lattice mismatch between the epi-layer and the substrate. This is shown by STM-electric field modulation spectroscopy that the epi-layer was locally strained to a different degree depending on the position from the interface. Therefore, we conclude that the EL2 variants are the result of the spatial variation of the internal stress environment that is felt by the EL2 centers in an identical atomic structure.

  7. The origin of EL2 family evidenced by STM direct observations of individual photoquenching behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, Akira; Mera, Yutaka; Maeda, Koji

    2003-12-31

    Abundant point defects in low-temperature grown (LT-) GaAs, presumably As antisite defects, exhibit a photo-induced transformation at low temperatures with an excitation spectrum very close to that obtained for the macroscopic photoquenching effect of EL2 centers. Some of the defects do not exhibit the photo-induced transformation, disfavoring the hypothesis of variants of EL2-like centers differing in the atomic structures. The unquenchable EL2 centers are commonly located near the interface between the LT-GaAs epi-layer and the n-GaAs substrate. Separate macroscopic photoluminescence experiments showed that the photoquenching efficiency is strongly decreased by external compressive stress, which suggests that the absence of the phototransformation behavior in some centers was due to a local stress field induced by the lattice mismatch between the epi-layer and the substrate. This is shown by STM-electric field modulation spectroscopy that the epi-layer was locally strained to a different degree depending on the position from the interface. Therefore, we conclude that the EL2 variants are the result of the spatial variation of the internal stress environment that is felt by the EL2 centers in an identical atomic structure.

  8. Quantitative study on experimentally observed poroelastic behavior of Berea sandstone in two-phase fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiroki; Aichi, Masaatsu; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Yamamoto, Hajime; Ogawa, Toyokazu; Aoki, Tomoyuki

    2014-08-01

    Coupled two-phase fluid flow and poroelastic deformation of Berea sandstone is studied through laboratory experiment and numerical simulation. In the experiment, compressed air was infiltrated from the bottom of a water-saturated cylindrical Berea sandstone sample under hydrostatic external stress condition. Both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample showed sudden extension and monotonic and gradual extension afterward. Numerical simulation based on thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations was conducted in order to quantitatively analyze the experimental results. In a simulation assuming isotropy of material properties, the volumetric discharge rate of water at the outlet and one of the axial, circumferential, and volumetric strains at half the height of the sample were reproduced well by each parameter set, while the other two strains were not. When introducing transverse isotropy, all the experimental data were reproduced well. In addition, the effect of saturation dependency of Bishop's effective stress coefficient on the deformation behavior of porous media was discussed, and it was found that strains, both axial and circumferential, are sensitive to the coefficient.

  9. Observed hand cleanliness and other measures of handwashing behavior in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Amal K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed data from the baseline assessment of a large intervention project to describe typical handwashing practices in rural Bangladesh, and compare measures of hand cleanliness with household characteristics. Methods We randomly selected 100 villages from 36 districts in rural Bangladesh. Field workers identified 17 eligible households per village using systematic sampling. Field workers conducted 5-hour structured observations in 1000 households, and a cross-sectional assessment in 1692 households that included spot checks, an evaluation of hand cleanliness and a request that residents demonstrate their usual handwashing practices after defecation. Results Although 47% of caregivers reported and 51% demonstrated washing both hands with soap after defecation, in structured observation, only 33% of caregivers and 14% of all persons observed washed both hands with soap after defecation. Less than 1% used soap and water for handwashing before eating and/or feeding a child. More commonly people washed their hands only with water, 23% after defecation and 5% before eating. Spot checks during the cross sectional survey classified 930 caregivers (55% and 453 children (28% as having clean appearing hands. In multivariate analysis economic status and water available at handwashing locations were significantly associated with hand cleanliness among both caregivers and children. Conclusions A minority of rural Bangladeshi residents washed both hands with soap at key handwashing times, though rinsing hands with only water was more common. To realize the health benefits of handwashing, efforts to improve handwashing in these communities should target adding soap to current hand rinsing practices.

  10. Changes to Saccade Behaviors in Parkinson’s Disease Following Dancing and Observation of Dancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ian G. M.; Brien, Donald C.; Links, Kira; Robichaud, Sarah; Ryan, Jennifer D.; Munoz, Douglas P.; Chow, Tiffany W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The traditional view of Parkinson’s disease (PD) as a motor disorder only treated by dopaminergic medications is now shifting to include non-pharmacologic interventions. We have noticed that patients with PD obtain an immediate, short-lasting benefit to mobility by the end of a dance class, suggesting some mechanism by which dancing reduces bradykinetic symptoms. We have also found that patients with PD are unimpaired at initiating highly automatic eye movements to visual stimuli (pro-saccades) but are impaired at generating willful eye movements away from visual stimuli (anti-saccades). We hypothesized that the mechanisms by which a dance class improves movement initiation may generalize to the brain networks impacted in PD (frontal lobe and basal ganglia, BG), and thus could be assessed objectively by measuring eye movements, which rely on the same neural circuitry. Methods: Participants with PD performed pro- and anti-saccades before, and after, a dance class. “Before” and “after” saccade performance measurements were compared. These measurements were then contrasted with a control condition (observing a dance class in a video), and with older and younger adult populations, who rested for an hour between measurements. Results: We found an improvement in anti-saccade performance following the observation of dance (but not following dancing), but we found a detriment in pro-saccade performance following dancing. Conclusion: We suggest that observation of dance induced plasticity changes in frontal-BG networks that are important for executive control. Dancing, in contrast, increased voluntary movement signals that benefited mobility, but interfered with the automaticity of efficient pro-saccade execution. PMID:23483834

  11. Trouble Brewing: Using Observations of Invariant Behavior to Detect Malicious Agency in Distributed Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Thomas Richard; Wolthusen, Stephen D.

    Recent research on intrusion detection in supervisory data acquisition and control (SCADA) and DCS systems has focused on anomaly detection at protocol level based on the well-defined nature of traffic on such networks. Here, we consider attacks which compromise sensors or actuators (including physical manipulation), where intrusion may not be readily apparent as data and computational states can be controlled to give an appearance of normality, and sensor and control systems have limited accuracy. To counter these, we propose to consider indirect relations between sensor readings to detect such attacks through concurrent observations as determined by control laws and constraints.

  12. Differential genetic susceptibility to child risk at birth in predicting observed maternal behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Fortuna

    Full Text Available This study examined parenting as a function of child medical risks at birth and parental genotype (dopamine D4 receptor; DRD4. Our hypothesis was that the relation between child risks and later maternal sensitivity would depend on the presence/absence of a genetic variant in the mothers, thus revealing a gene by environment interaction (GXE. Risk at birth was defined by combining risk indices of children's gestational age at birth, birth weight, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The DRD4-III 7-repeat allele was chosen as a relevant genotype as it was recently shown to moderate the effect of environmental stress on parental sensitivity. Mothers of 104 twin pairs provided DNA samples and were observed with their children in a laboratory play session when the children were 3.5 years old. Results indicate that higher levels of risk at birth were associated with less sensitive parenting only among mothers carrying the 7-repeat allele, but not among mothers carrying shorter alleles. Moreover, mothers who are carriers of the 7-repeat allele and whose children scored low on the risk index were observed to have the highest levels of sensitivity. These findings provide evidence for the interactive effects of genes and environment (in this study, children born at higher risk on parenting, and are consistent with a genetic differential susceptibility model of parenting by demonstrating that some parents are inherently more susceptible to environmental influences, both good and bad, than are others.

  13. Observations of Oxygen Ion Behavior in the Lithium-Based Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li; Brenda E. Serrano-Rodriguez

    2009-09-01

    Parametric studies were performed on a lithium-based electrolytic reduction process at bench-scale to investigate the behavior of oxygen ions in the reduction of uranium oxide for various electrochemical cell configurations. Specifically, a series of eight electrolytic reduction runs was performed in a common salt bath of LiCl – 1 wt% Li2O. The variable parameters included fuel basket containment material (i.e., stainless steel wire mesh and sintered stainless steel) and applied electrical charge (i.e., 75 – 150% of the theoretical charge for complete reduction of uranium oxide in a basket to uranium metal). Samples of the molten salt electrolyte were taken at regular intervals throughout each run and analyzed to produce a time plot of Li2O concentrations in the bulk salt over the course of the runs. Following each run, the fuel basket was sectioned and the fuel was removed. Samples of the fuel were analyzed for the extent of uranium oxide reduction to metal and for the concentration of salt constituents, i.e., LiCl and Li2O. Extents of uranium oxide reduction ranged from 43 – 70% in stainless steel wire mesh baskets and 8 – 33 % in sintered stainless steel baskets. The concentrations of Li2O in the salt phase of the fuel product from the stainless steel wire mesh baskets ranged from 6.2 – 9.2 wt%, while those for the sintered stainless steel baskets ranged from 26 – 46 wt%. Another series of tests was performed to investigate the dissolution of Li2O in LiCl at 650 °C across various cathode containment materials (i.e., stainless steel wire mesh, sintered stainless steel and porous magnesia) and configurations (i.e., stationary and rotating cylindrical baskets). Dissolution of identical loadings of Li2O particulate reached equilibrium within one hour for stationary stainless steel wire mesh baskets, while the same took several hours for sintered stainless steel and porous magnesia baskets. Rotation of an annular cylindrical basket of stainless steel

  14. Statistical behavior of foreshock Langmuir waves observed by the Cluster wideband data plasma wave receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sigsbee

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the statistics of Langmuir wave amplitudes in the Earth's foreshock using Cluster Wideband Data (WBD Plasma Wave Receiver electric field waveforms from spacecraft 2, 3 and 4 on 26 March 2002. The largest amplitude Langmuir waves were observed by Cluster near the boundary between the foreshock and solar wind, in agreement with earlier studies. The characteristics of the waves were similar for all three spacecraft, suggesting that variations in foreshock structure must occur on scales greater than the 50-100km spacecraft separations. The electric field amplitude probability distributions constructed using waveforms from the Cluster WBD Plasma Wave Receiver generally followed the log-normal statistics predicted by stochastic growth theory for the event studied. Comparison with WBD receiver data from 17 February 2002, when spacecraft 4 was set in a special manual gain mode, suggests non-optimal auto-ranging of the instrument may have had some influence on the statistics.

  15. In-situ SEM observation on fracture behavior of austempered silicon alloyed steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiang; Vuorinen Esa; Grahn Jonny

    2009-01-01

    Crack initiation,propagation and microfracture processes of austempered high silicon cast steel have been investigated by using an in-situ tensile stage installed inside a scanning electron microscope chamber. It is revealed that micro cracks always nucleate at the yielding near imperfections and the boundary of matrix-inclusions due to the stress concentration. There are four types of crack propagations in the matrix:crack propagates along the boundary of two clusters of bainitic ferrite;crack propagates along the boundary of ferrite-austenite in bainitic ferrite laths;crack propagates into bainitic ferrite laths;crack nucleates and propagates in the high carbon brittle plate shape martensite which is transformed from some blocky retained austenite due to plastic deformation.Based on the observation and analysis of microfracture processes,a schematic diagram of the crack nucleation and propagation process of high silicon cast steel is proposed.

  16. Picosecond laser-induced breakdown at 5321 and 5347 A - Observation of frequency-dependent behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. L.; Bechtel, J. H.; Bloembergen, N.

    1977-01-01

    A study is presented of picosecond laser-induced breakdown at 3547 and 5321 A of several materials. The thresholds obtained for breakdown at 5321 A are compared to previous results obtained at 1.064 microns using the same laser system. This comparison illustrates the transition of bulk laser-induced breakdown as it becomes increasingly frequency dependent. UV picosecond pulses are obtained by mixing 5321 A and 1.064 micron pulses in a KH2PO4 crystal. Upper and lower bounds on the 3547 A breakdown threshold are defined, although some effects of walk-off distortion and self-focusing are observed. The results are discussed with reference to models for the intrinsic processes involved in the breakdown, i.e., avalanche and multiphoton ionization.

  17. Real-space observation of magnetic excitations and avalanche behavior in artificial quasicrystal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajuskovic, V.; Barrows, F.; Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    Artificial spin ice lattices have emerged as model systems for studying magnetic frustration in recent years. Most work to date has looked at periodic artificial spin ice lattices. In this paper, we observe frustration effects in quasicrystal artificial spin ice lattices that lack translational symmetry and contain vertices with different numbers of interacting elements. We find that as the lattice state changes following demagnetizing and annealing, specific vertex motifs retain low-energy configurations, which excites other motifs into higher energy configurations. Additionally, we find that unlike the magnetization reversal process for periodic artificial spin ice lattices, which occurs through 1D avalanches, quasicrystal lattices undergo reversal through a dendritic 2D avalanche mechanism.

  18. Cell fusion through a microslit between adhered cells and observation of their nuclear behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ken-Ichi; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kondo, Eitaro; Ito, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Mizuo

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a novel cell fusion method which induces cell fusion between adhered cells through a microslit for preventing nuclear mixing. For this purpose, a microfluidic device which had ∼ 100 cell pairing structures (CPSs) making cell pairs through microslits with 2.1 ± 0.3 µm width was fabricated. After trapping NIH3T3 cells with hydrodynamic forces at the CPSs, the cells were fused through the microslit by the Sendai virus envelope method. With following timelapse observation, we discovered that the spread cells were much less susceptible to nuclear migration passing through the microslit compared with round cells, and that cytoplasmic fraction containing mitochondria was transferred through the microslit without nuclear mixing. These findings will provide an effective method for cell fusion without nuclear mixing, and will lead to an efficient method for reprograming and transdifferentiation of target cells toward regenerative medicine.

  19. Laboratory and field observations of stress-wave induced changes in oil flow behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P. M. (Peter M.); Majer, Ernest Luther; Wooden, W. (William); Daley, T. M. (Thomas M.)

    2001-01-01

    We present recent results of laboratory and field experiments designed to validate and quantify the phenomenon of seismically enhanced oil production in marginal reservoirs. Controlled laboratory experiments were performed where mechanical stress oscillations at 100 Hz or less were applied to sandstone cores while flowing oil and/or brine at constant flow rates. Steady-state flow and simulated flooding experiments indicated that stress stimulation causes significant changes in the ability of one fluid to displace the other and on the preference that the rock has for trapping one fluid over the other. For Berea sandstone, which is highly water wet, stress stimulation caused oil production to be impeded during water floods and caused the bulk fluid pressure drop across the core to increase during steady-state simultaneous flow of oil and brine. A possible explanation of these observations is that stimulation caused the core to become more oil wet. Field stimulation tests on producing reservoirs at Lost Hills, California were performed using a downhole fluid pressure pulsation device. Stimulation was applied in one well for 50 days total during July - November 2000. Two groups of producing wells were monitored for changes in oil cut and oil production during the test. A control group of 26 wells displayed an oil-cut increase of 29% and an oil production increase of 26% which are clearly correlated with the stimulation treatment. A larger group of 60 wells showed 11% oil-cut and 17v0 production increases. Similar increases were observed during the October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, magnitude 7.1, in the Mojave Desert about 230 miles from Lost Hills. Downhole seismic monitoring of the stimulation wavefield is being used to help quantify the frequency range and energy threshold required for effective production enhancement.

  20. Differential physiological and behavioral cues observed in individuals smoking botanical marijuana versus synthetic cannabinoid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Peter B; Hawkins, Jeff; Mosier, Jarrod; Jimenez, Ernest; Boesen, Keith; Logan, Barry K; Walter, Frank G

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid use has increased in many states, and medicinal and/or recreational marijuana use has been legalized in some states. These changes present challenges to law enforcement drug recognition experts (DREs) who determine whether drivers are impaired by synthetic cannabinoids or marijuana, as well as to clinical toxicologists who care for patients with complications from synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana. Our goal was to compare what effects synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana had on performance and behavior, including driving impairment, by reviewing records generated by law enforcement DREs who evaluated motorists arrested for impaired driving. Data were from a retrospective, convenience sample of de-identified arrest reports from impaired drivers suspected of using synthetic cannabinoids (n = 100) or marijuana (n = 33). Inclusion criteria were arrested drivers who admitted to using either synthetic cannabinoids or marijuana, or who possessed either synthetic cannabinoids or marijuana; who also had a DRE evaluation at the scene; and whose blood screens were negative for alcohol and other drugs. Exclusion criteria were impaired drivers arrested with other intoxicants found in their drug or alcohol blood screens. Blood samples were analyzed for 20 popular synthetic cannabinoids by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC-COOH were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Statistical significance was determined by using Fisher's exact test or Student's t-test, where appropriate, to compare the frequency of characteristics of those in the synthetic cannabinoid group versus those in the marijuana group. 16 synthetic cannabinoid and 25 marijuana records met selection criteria; the drivers of these records were arrested for moving violations. Median age for the synthetic cannabinoid group (n = 16, 15 males) was 20 years (IQR 19-23 years). Median age for the marijuana group (n = 25, 21

  1. Observations of Oxygen Ion Behavior in the Lithium- Based Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, S.D.; Li, S.X.; Serrano-Rodriguez, B.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Development of a lithium-based electrolytic reduction process to convert oxide fuel to metal is being pursued by various researchers to facilitate subsequent pyro-processing of the metalized fuel product. In such pursuits, uranium oxide particles are contacted by an electrically conductive material and immersed in a pool of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 deg. C. A controlled current is passed between the fuel particles (as the cathode) and a suitable anode to reduce the uranium oxide to metal at the cathode and to oxidize oxygen ions to gas at the anode. In this process, the effective liberation and transport of oxygen ions from the oxide fuel particles within a cathode structure to the anode is paramount to the viability of this process. Parametric studies were performed on a lithium-based electrolytic reduction process at bench-scale in an inert atmosphere glovebox to investigate the behavior of oxygen ions in the reduction of uranium oxide for various electrochemical cell configurations. Specifically, a series of eight electrolytic reduction runs in a common salt bath of LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O was performed with varying applied charges (75 - 150% of theoretical) and fuel basket containment materials (stainless steel wire mesh and sintered stainless steel). Samples of the molten salt electrolyte were taken at regular intervals throughout each run and analyzed to produce a time plot of Li{sub 2}O concentrations in the bulk salt over the course of the runs. Following each run, the fuel basket was sectioned and the fuel was removed. Samples of the fuel were analyzed for the extent of uranium oxide reduction to metal and for the concentration of salt constituents, i.e., LiCl and Li{sub 2}O. Extents of uranium oxide reduction ranged from 35 - 70% in stainless steel wire mesh baskets and 8 - 33 % in sintered stainless steel baskets. The concentrations of Li{sub 2}O in the salt phase of the fuel product from the stainless steel wire mesh baskets ranged from 6.2 to 9.3%, while

  2. The Stochastic Engine Initiative: Improving Prediction of Behavior in Geologic Environments We Cannot Directly Observe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R; Nitao, J; Newmark, R; Carle, S; Ramirez, A; Harris, D; Johnson, J; Johnson, V; Ermak, D; Sugiyama, G; Hanley, W; Sengupta, S; Daily, W; Glaser, R; Dyer, K; Fogg, G; Zhang, Y; Yu, Z; Levine, R

    2002-05-09

    The stochastic engine uses modern computational capabilities to combine simulations with observations. We integrate the general knowledge represented by models with specific knowledge represented by data, using Bayesian inferencing and a highly efficient staged Metropolis-type search algorithm. From this, we obtain a probability distribution characterizing the likely configurations of the system consistent with existing data. The primary use will be optimizing knowledge about the configuration of a system for which sufficient direct observations cannot be made. Programmatic applications include underground systems ranging from environmental contamination to military bunkers, optimization of complex nonlinear systems, and timely decision-making for complex, hostile environments such as battlefields or the detection of secret facilities. We create a stochastic ''base representation'' of system configurations (states) from which the values of measurable parameters can be calculated using forward simulators. Comparison of these predictions to actual measurements drives embedded Bayesian inferencing, updating the distributions of states in the base representation using the Metropolis method. Unlike inversion methods that generate a single bestcase deterministic solution, this method produces all the likely solutions, weighted by their likelihoods. This flexible method is best applied to highly non-linear, multi-dimensional problems. Staging of the Metropolis searches permits us to run the simplest model systems, such as lithology estimators, at the lower stages. The majority of possible configurations are thus eliminated from further consideration by more complex simulators, such as flow and transport models. Because the method is fully automated, large data sets of a variety of types can be used to refine the system configurations. The most important prerequisites for optimal use of this method are well-characterized forward simulators, realistic

  3. THE EMPIRICAL METHOD OF INVESTIGATING THE CHILDHOOD SUBCULTURE: GROUP OF CHILDREN BEHAVIOR OBSERVATION IN THE GUESTHOUSE POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Yelena N. Suvorkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the empirical research methods investigating the childhood sub-culture. The method is called observation. The author marked general theoretical position, recommendations on its implementation. Based on observations of the group of children behavior in the guesthouse pool it is found out that such category, as honesty is very important in the organization of the order, taking into account that the subculture of childhood is an open, self-organizing system. In the pool, the children come up with a wide variety of games. The adjacent areas are also involved. The author identified two borders, taking place for the child: a clear (fixed border is the side of the pool and unclear border as the transitional designation of states, qualities (dangerous – safe.

  4. Experimental Observations of Multiscale Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Behavior: Implications in Volcanic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Spina, L.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities (10-1000 Pa s; corresponding to mafic to intermediate silicate melts) during slow decompression, in a Plexiglas shock tube. As an analogue fluid we used silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours. Slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acts as the excitation mechanism, initiating several processes with their own distinct timescales. The evolution of this multi-timescale phenomenon generates complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit. Correlation analysis of these time series with the associated high-speed imaging enables characterization of distinct phases of the dynamics of these viscous fluids and the extraction of the time and the frequency characteristics of the individual processes. We have identified fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution in space. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic processes and volcanic seismicity.

  5. Aberrant behavior of mouse embryo development after blastomere biopsy as observed through time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugajin, Tomohisa; Terada, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Hisataka; Velayo, Clarissa L; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2010-05-15

    To analyze whether blastomere biopsy affects early embryonal growth as observed through time-lapse cinematography. Comparative prospective study between embryos in which a blastomere was removed and embryos in which a blastomere was not removed. An experimental laboratory of the university. We calculated the time between blastocele formation and the end of hatching, the time between the start and end of hatching, the number of contractions and expansions between blastocyst formation and the end of hatching, and the maximum diameter of the expanded blastocyst. In blastomere removal embryos, compaction began at the six-cell stage instead of at the eight-cell stage. We also found that hatching was delayed in these embryos as compared with matched controls. Moreover, the frequency of contraction and expansion movements after blastocyst formation was significantly higher in the blastomere removal group as compared with the control group. Finally, the maximum diameter of the expanded blastocyst just before hatching was not significantly different between both groups. These findings suggested that blastomere removal has an adverse effect on embryonic development around the time of hatching. Thus, future developments in preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening should involve further consideration and caution in light of the influence of blastomere biopsy on embryonal growth. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves.

  7. Photochemical modeling of the Antarctic stratosphere: Observational constraints from the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment and implications for ozone behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid decrease in O3 column densities observed during Antarctic spring has been attributed to several chemical mechanisms involving nitrogen, bromine, or chlorine species, to dynamical mechanisms, or to a combination of the above. Chlorine-related theories, in particular, predict greatly elevated concentrations of ClO and OClO and suppressed abundances of NO2 below 22 km. The heterogeneous reactions and phase transitions proposed by these theories could also impact the concentrations of HCl, ClNO3 and HNO3 in this region. Observations of the above species have been carried out from the ground by the National Ozone Expedition (NOZE-I, 1986, and NOZE-II, 1987), and from aircrafts by the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) during the austral spring of 1987. Observations of aerosol concentrations, size distribution and backscattering ratio from AAOE, and of aerosol extinction coefficients from the SAM-II satellite can also be used to deduce the altitude and temporal behavior of surfaces which catalyze heterogeneous mechanisms. All these observations provide important constraints on the photochemical processes suggested for the spring Antarctic stratosphere. Results are presented for the concentrations and time development of key trace gases in the Antarctic stratosphere, utilizing the AER photochemical model. This model includes complete gas-phase photochemistry, as well as heterogeneous reactions. Heterogeneous chemistry is parameterized in terms of surface concentrations of aerosols, collision frequencies between gas molecules and aerosol surfaces, concentrations of HCl/H2O in the frozen particles, and probability of reaction per collision (gamma). Values of gamma are taken from the latest laboratory measurements. The heterogeneous chemistry and phase transitions are assumed to occur between 12 and 22 km. The behavior of trace species at higher altitudes is calculated by the AER 2-D model without heterogeneous chemistry. Calculations are performed for

  8. Dynamic Monte Carlo simulation on behavior of phase transition of a random magnetic system in finite observation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazaki, Tamotsu; Kato, Tomohiko, E-mail: katou@fit.ac.jp

    2014-03-15

    Random magnets generally exhibit gradual phase transitions more or less. The origin of the phenomena has been controversial for a long time: intrinsic phenomena of disordered magnets or non-equilibrium effect due to finite observation time. We now support the latter, but there have not been clear evidences experimentally and theoretically. We show that the behavior of phase transition of a simple random magnetic system differs in the observation time by using a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. The target of the simulation is experiments of the line width of NMR spin-echo spectra, a type of the order parameter, on Mn{sub x}Cd{sub 1−x} (HCOO){sub 2}·2(NH{sub 2})2CO. The calculated results indicate that, as the averaging time becomes shorter, the phase transition becomes more gradual. This tendency is most pronounced around the percolation concentration. The calculated results coincide well with the characteristic features of the experimental results. This coincidence supports that the smearing behavior of the order parameter is a non-equilibrium effect, though Ising model employed in the simulation is different with Heisenberg system of the target substance.

  9. Observed positive parenting behaviors and youth genotype: Evidence for gene–environment correlations and moderation by parent personality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    OPPENHEIMER, CAROLINE W.; HANKIN, BENJAMIN L.; JENNESS, JESSICA L.; YOUNG, JAMI F.; SMOLEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Gene–environment correlations (rGE) have been demonstrated in behavioral genetic studies, but rGE have proven elusive in molecular genetic research. Significant gene–environment correlations may be difficult to detect because potential moderators could reduce correlations between measured genetic variants and the environment. Molecular genetic studies investigating moderated rGE are lacking. This study examined associations between child catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and aspects of positive parenting (responsiveness and warmth), and whether these associations were moderated by parental personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) among a general community sample of third, sixth, and ninth graders (N = 263) and their parents. Results showed that parent personality traits moderated the rGE association between youths’ genotype and coded observations of positive parenting. Parents with low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extraversion exhibited greater sensitive responsiveness and warmth, respectively, to youth with the valine/valine genotype. Moreover, youth with this genotype exhibited lower levels of observed anger. There was no association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and parenting behaviors for parents high on neuroticism and low on extraversion. Findings highlight the importance of considering moderating variables that may influence child genetic effects on the rearing environment. Implications for developmental models of maladaptive and adaptive child outcomes, and interventions for psychopathology, are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework. PMID:23398761

  10. Solar irradiance at the earth's surface: long-term behavior observed at the South Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research examines a 17-year database of UV-A (320–400 nm and visible (400–600 nm solar irradiance obtained by a scanning spectroradiometer located at the South Pole. The goal is to define the variability in solar irradiance reaching the polar surface, with emphasis on the influence of cloudiness and on identifying systematic trends and possible links to the solar cycle. To eliminate changes associated with the varying solar elevation, the analysis focuses on data averaged over 30–35 day periods centered on each year's austral summer solstice. The long-term average effect of South Polar clouds is a small attenuation, with the mean measured irradiances being about 5–6% less than the clear-sky values, although at any specific time clouds may reduce or enhance the signal that reaches the sensor. The instantaneous fractional attenuation or enhancement is wavelength dependent, where the percent deviation from the clear-sky irradiance at 400–600 nm is typically 2.5 times that at 320–340 nm. When averaged over the period near each year's summer solstice, significant correlations appear between irradiances at all wavelengths and the solar cycle as measured by the 10.7 cm solar radio flux. An approximate 1.8 ± 1.0% decrease in ground-level irradiance occurs from solar maximum to solar minimum for the wavelength band 320–400 nm. The corresponding decrease for 400–600 nm is 2.4 ± 1.9%. The best-estimate declines appear too large to originate in the sun. If the correlations have a geophysical origin, they suggest a small variation in atmospheric attenuation with the solar cycle over the period of observation, with the greatest attenuation occurring at solar minimum.

  11. From Observable Behaviors to Structures of Interaction in Binary Games of Strategic Complements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Rodríguez Barraquer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Consider a setting in which agents can take one of two ordered actions and in which the incentive to take the high action increases in the number of other agents taking it. Furthermore, assume that we do not know anything else about the game being played. What can we say about the details of the interaction between actions and incentives when we observe a set or a subset of all possible equilibria? In this paper, we study this question by exploring three nested classes of games: (a binary games of strategic complements; (b games in (a that admit a network representation; and (c games in (b in which the network is complete. Our main results are the following: It has long been established in the literature that the set of pure strategy Nash equilibria of any binary game of strategic complements among a set, N, of agents can be seen as a lattice on the set of all subsets of N under the partial order defined by the set inclusion relation (C. If the game happens to be strict in the sense that agents are never indifferent among outcomes (games in (a, then the resulting lattice of equilibria satisfies a straightforward sparseness condition. (1 We show that, in fact, for each such lattice, L, there is a game in (a, such that its set of equilibria is L (we say that such a game expresses L; (2 We show that there exists a game in (b, whose set of equilibria contains a given collection, C, of subsets of N, if and only C satisfies the sparseness condition, and the smallest game in (a expressing C is trade robust; (3 We show that there exists a game on the complete graph (games in (c, whose set of equilibria coincides with some collection, C, if and only if C is a chain satisfying the sparseness condition.

  12. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coupling between creep and redox behavior in nickel - yttria stabilized zirconia observed in-situ by monochromatic neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Malgorzata Grazyna; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal; De Angelis, Salvatore; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Morgano, Manuel; Trtik, Pavel; Strobl, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Ni-YSZ (nickel - yttria stabilized zirconia) is a material widely used for electrodes and supports in solid oxide electrochemical cells. The mechanical and electrochemical performance of these layers, and thus the whole cell, depends on their microstructure. During the initial operation of a cell, NiO is reduced to Ni. When this process is conducted under external load, like also present in a stack assembly, significant deformations of NiO/Ni-YSZ composite samples are observed. The observed creep is orders of magnitude larger than the one observed after reduction during operation. This phenomenon is referred to as accelerated creep and is expected to have a significant influence on the microstructure development and stress field present in the Ni-YSZ in solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOCs), which is highly important for the durability of the SOC. In this work we present energy selective neutron imaging studies of the accelerated creep phenomenon in Ni/NiO-YSZ composite during reduction and also during oxidation. This approach allowed us to observe the phase transition and the creep behavior simultaneously in-situ under SOC operation-like conditions.

  14. The role of children's ethnicity in the relationship between teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and observed classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey N; Willoughby, Michael; Valencia, Elvia Y; Tonev, Simon T; Abikoff, Howard B; Arnold, L Eugene; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2005-06-01

    Significant ethnic differences have been consistently documented on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) teacher rating scales. Whether these ethnic differences result from a teacher rating bias or reflect actual classroom behavior patterns is unknown. Ethnic differences between Caucasian and African American (AA) elementary schoolchildren on teacher ratings and codings of observed classroom behavior were examined with latent variables. In structural equation models, correlations between teacher ratings and observed classroom behavior suggested nonbiased teacher ratings of AA schoolchildren with diagnosed ADHD. Ethnic differences were documented for both teacher ratings of ADHD and classroom behavior. Differences in classroom behavior were attenuated when the behavior of an average child in the classroom was taken into account. Multiple explanations for this pattern of results are discussed.

  15. The role of H2O in controlling the eruptive behavior observed during 2008 Chaitén eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Pablo; Castro, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Although highly explosive and with the capacity of producing impacts in a world-wide scale, the underlying mechanisms driving rhyolitic eruptions are not yet fully understood. The lower frequency of these events in comparison to intermediate composition and mafic magmatic eruptions has hampered observation-based studies of rhyolite activity in last century. But in 2008, the eruption of Chaitén volcano (Southern Chile), gave us the first view of a rhyolitic eruptive cycle, start to finish. After an initial explosive phase that lasted for 10 days, the vigour of the eruption decreased and gave way to an effusive phase that was characterized by the emplacement of a dome complex. Surprisingly, a transitional phase between them was identified, with the simultaneous occurrence of explosive and effusive activity (Pallister et al. 2013). During the eruption, vast amounts of glassy rhyolite bombs with H2O contents ranging from 0.1 to 1.58 wt. % H2O were produced (Castro et al. 2012). It is already well known that H2O is one of the main players involved in the evolution of rhyolitic systems and in the occurrence of explosive volcanic eruptions (eg. Zhang et al. 2007). In this study, we conducted 90 high-temperature, 1 atm experiments in order to constrain degassing systematics and resultant foaming/fragmentation behavior of magma residing in the last hundred meters of Chaitén's volcanic conduit. By using cylindrical cores (4 x 10 mm) drilled from obsidian bombs and lava dome samples, isothermal experiments were performed at temperatures between 740° and 1030°C among the whole range of H2O contents measured in the deposits. Due to the experimental design developed, the complete evolution of the experiments was possible to monitor through a sapphire window with high-speed and conventional video cameras. Post-experiment video analysis has revealed 3 types of behaviors of the samples: a) expansion followed by equilibrium (constant volume), b) expansion followed by shrinking

  16. Diagnosis by behavioral observationHome-Videosomnography – A Rigorous Ethnographic Approach to Sleep of Children with Neurodevelopmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sevket Ipsiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Advanced video technology is available for sleep-laboratories. However, low-cost equipment for screening in the home setting has not been identified and tested, nor has a methodology for analysis of video recordings been suggested.MethodsWe investigated different combinations of hardware /software for home-videosomnography (HVS and established a process for qualitative and quantitative analysis of HVS-recordings. A case vignette (HVS analysis for a 5.5-year-old girl with major insomnia and several co-morbidities demonstrates how methodological considerations were addressed and how HVS added value to clinical assessment.ResultsWe suggest an ‘ideal set of hardware/software’ that is reliable, affordable (~$500 and portable (= 2.8kg to conduct non-invasive HVS, which allows time-lapse analyses. The equipment consists of a net-book, a camera with infra-red optics, and a video capture device. (1 We present an HVS-analysis protocol consisting of 3 steps of analysis at varying replay speeds: (a basic overview and classification at 16x normal speed; (b 2nd viewing and detailed descriptions at 4-8x normal speed, and (c viewing, listening, and in-depth descriptions at real-time speed. (2 We also present a custom software program that facilitates video analysis and note-taking (Annotator©, and Optical Flow software that automatically quantifies movement for internal quality control of the HVS-recording.The case vignette demonstrates how the HVS-recordings revealed the dimension of insomnia caused by Restless Legs Syndrome, and illustrated the cascade of symptoms, challenging behaviors and resulting medications.ConclusionThe strategy of using HVS, although requiring validation and reliability testing, opens the floor for a new ‘observational sleep medicine’, which has been useful in describing discomfort-related behavioral movement patterns in patients with communication difficulties presenting with challenging/disruptive sleep

  17. Observations on the spawning behavior, egg masses and paralarval development of the ommastrephid squid Todarodes pacificus in a laboratory mesocosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puneeta, Pandey; Vijai, Dharmamony; Yoo, Hae-Kyun; Matsui, Hajime; Sakurai, Yasunori

    2015-12-01

    The spawning behavior of ommastrephid squids has never been observed under natural conditions. Previous laboratory observations of Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) suggest that pre-spawning females might rest on the continental shelf or slope before they ascend above the pycnocline to spawn, and that the egg masses might settle in the pycnocline. Here, two mesocosm experiments were conducted in a 300 m(3) tank that was 6 m deep to investigate this hypothesis. In the first experiment, a thermocline (2.5-3.5 m) was established in the tank by creating a thermally stratified (17-22°C) water column. In the second experiment, the temperature was uniform (22°C) at all depths. Prior to spawning, females did not rest on the tank floor. In the stratified water column, egg masses remained suspended in the thermocline, but in an unstratified water column, they settled on the tank bottom, collapsed and were infested by microbes, resulting in abnormal or nonviable embryos. Eleven females spawned a total of 18 egg masses (17-80 cm in diameter), indicating that females can spawn more than once when under stress. Paralarvae hatched at stage 30/31 and survived for up to 10 days, allowing us to observe the most advanced stage of paralarvae in captivity. Paralarvae survived after consumption of the inner yolk, suggesting they might have fed in the tank.

  18. Diurnal observations on the behavioral ecology of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) and Muraena miliaris (Kaup) on a Caribbean coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, R. W.; Abrams, M. D.; Schein, M. W.

    1983-09-01

    Activities of muraenids, primarily Gymnothorax moringa and Muraena miliaris, were observed on a Caribbean coral reef with a view to further understanding their role in the reef ecosystem. Other muraenid species included in the total of 198 sightings were Echidna catenata, Enchelycore nigricans, and an unidentified brown moray. The five species were unequally distributed among three basic habitats (sand, coral head, reef rock) available on the reef. Nine particular holes accounted for 52.5% of the total sightings, although hundreds of other seemingly appropriate sites were available. The eels (except M. miliaris) were transient with respect to given holes and particular sections of the reef. While some G. moringa were sighted in the same holes for several consecutive days, M. miliaris individuals remained in the same coral heads throughout the 6-week study period. Muraenids observed in this study showed high tolerances for and were tolerated by other fishes (including other morays) and invertebrates on the reef. They appeared to be opportunistic, roving predators and were not strictly nocturnal. Distinct behavioral interactions and displays between muraenids and reef fish were observed.

  19. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) observed during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS: Lord et al., 2000] were examined in a longitudinal data set of 455 toddlers and preschoolers (age 8-56 months) with clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; autism, n=121 and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), n=71), a nonspectrum disorder (NS; n=90), or typical development (TD; n=173). Even in the relatively brief semi-structured observations, GEE analyses of the severity and prevalence of RRBs differentiated children with ASD from those with NS and TD across all ages. RRB total scores on the ADOS were stable over time for children with ASD and NS; however, typically developing preschoolers showed lower RRB scores than typically developing toddlers. Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children with PDD-NOS, NS, and TD than younger children under 2 years and those with autism. Item analyses revealed different relationships between individual items and NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of RRBs as well as for the framework of ASD diagnostic criteria in future diagnostic systems.

  20. A non-invasive, improved RIA and overt observation in the study of singleton Apennines’ wolf (Canis lupus reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mattioli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of fecal hormones allows a close but non-invasive monitoring of animals avoidingthe stress of restraint/capture, which in turn can upset animals’ hormonal profile. Steroid hormoneprogesterone was analysed in three singleton, female grey wolves of different age, belonging to theendangered species of the Apennines’ Canis lupus. The analysis was carried out during the breedingseason by using an improved radioimmunoassay on samples collected on the field. To reduce the stressto animals and danger to people, the overt observations were carried out by operators who were alreadyfamiliar with the animals, saving the money of a camera-monitoring-system. Concurrently, a male and afemale gray wolves housed together were monitored as a control. The results indicated the importance ofdehydration of fecal samples before the extraction with petroleum ether, which was shown to be moreefficient than diethyl ether, and that pre-treatment with methanol greatly enhances extraction (p<0.01.Females of Apennines’ grey wolf showed the first sign of oestrus by a vaginal blood loss, that was easilydetected on the ground; the analysis carried out on fecal samples revealed a rapidly declining lutealphase, with P4 metabolites reaching the basal values of a non-cyclic female. In the matter of welfare,behavioural observations on Apennines’ grey wolf showed that unpaired animals, although familiar withthe operators, failed to display a sexual social behavior during the reproductive season, that is thebehavioural signs were hidden in overt observational situation.

  1. Effects of Self-esteem Improvement Program on Self-esteem and Peer Attachment in Elementary School Children with Observed Problematic Behaviors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok

    2015-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors...

  2. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Nai-Huan; Yang, Yen; Lee, Ming Shinn; Dalal, Koustuv; Smith, Graeme D

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS) and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT) for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was <0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments. PMID:27695360

  3. In-situ observation of self-regulated switching behavior in WO{sub 3-x} based resistive switching devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, D. S.; Wang, W. X.; Chen, Y. S., E-mail: yschen@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-15

    The transmittance of tungsten oxides can be adjusted by oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) concentration due to its electrochromic property. Here, we report an in-situ observation of resistive switching phenomenon in the oxygen-deficient WO{sub 3-x} planar devices. Besides directly identifying the formation/rupture of dark-colored conductive filaments in oxide layer, the stripe-like WO{sub 3-x} device demonstrated self-regulated switching behavior during the endurance testing, resulting in highly consistent switching parameters after a stabilizing process. For very high V{sub o}s mobility was demonstrated in the WO{sub 3-x} film by the pulse experiment, we suggested that the electric-field-induced homogeneous migration of V{sub o}s was the physical origin for such unique switching characteristics.

  4. Direct observation of anodic dissolution and filament growth behavior in polyethylene-oxide-based atomic switch structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Karthik; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-06-01

    We directly observed anodic dissolution and subsequent filament growth behavior in a planar atomic switch structure with Ag salt incorporated polyethylene oxide (Ag-PEO) film using in situ optical microscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. The high ionic conductivities of Ag-PEO films enable the investigation of filament formation under voltage bias, even in micrometer-scaled devices. It was found that the filament formation changes from unidirectional growth to dendritic growth, depending on its distance from the grounded electrode. Based on this understanding of filament growth dynamics in planar devices, highly stable resistive switching was achieved in an Ag/Ag-PEO/Pt stacked device with an Ag-PEO film thickness of 100 nm. The device showed repeated switching operations for more than 102 sweep cycles, with a high ON/OFF resistance ratio of 105.

  5. Designing Health Websites Based on Users' Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Chang, Shanton; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-06-06

    Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for "exploring" health information. The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information-seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information-seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity. Better Health Explorer provides strong

  6. Designing Health Websites Based on Users’ Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for “exploring” health information. Objective The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information–seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Methods Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Results Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information–seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity

  7. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  8. ADHD and Working Memory: The Impact of Central Executive Deficits and Exceeding Storage/Rehearsal Capacity on Observed Inattentive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Inattentive behavior is considered a core and pervasive feature of ADHD; however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory deficits and inattentive behavior. The current study investigated whether inattentive behavior in children with ADHD is functionally related to the…

  9. The contribution of water contact behavior to the high Schistosoma mansoni Infection rates observed in the Senegal River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelma Foekje

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is one of the major parasitic diseases in the world in terms of people infected and those at risk. Infection occurs through contact with water contaminated with larval forms of the parasite, which are released by freshwater snails and then penetrate the skin of people. Schistosomiasis infection and human water contact are thus essentially linked, and more knowledge about their relationship will help us to develop appropriate control measures. So far, only few studies have related water contact patterns to infection levels. Methods We have conducted detailed direct water contact observations in a village in Northern Senegal during the first years of a massive Schistosoma mansoni outbreak to determine the role of human water contact in the extent of the epidemic. We quantified water contact activities in terms of frequency and duration, and described how these vary with age and sex. Moreover, we assessed the relationship between water contact- and infection intensity patterns to further elucidate the contribution of exposure to the transmission of schistosomiasis. Results This resulted in over 120,000 recorded water contacts for 1651 subjects over 175 observation days. Bathing was the main activity, followed by household activities. Frequency and duration of water contact depended on age and sex rather than season. Water contacts peaked in adolescents, women spent almost twice as much time in the water as men, and water contacts were more intense in the afternoon than in the morning, with sex-specific intensity peaks. The average number of water contacts per person per day in this population was 0.42; the average time spent in the water per person per day was 4.3 minutes. Conclusions The observed patterns of water contact behavior are not unusual and have been described before in various other settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, water contact levels were not exceptionally high and thus cannot explain the

  10. In situ TEM observation of growth behavior of Kr bubbles in zirconium alloy during post-implantation annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ran, Guang, E-mail: gran@xmu.edu.cn [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province 361005 (China); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 (United States); Xu, Jiangkun; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Jian; Li, Ning [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province 361005 (China); Wang, Lumin, E-mail: lmwang@umich.edu [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province 361005 (China); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    The growth behavior of the Kr bubbles in Kr{sup +} irradiated Zr–1.1Nb–1.51Fe–0.26Cu–0.72Ni alloy was studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the distributions of Kr bubbles are not uniform in the zirconium alloy matrix after annealing at 700 K, 875 K, 1025 K, 1125 K and 1225 K, respectively. The Kr bubbles started to grow slowly when the sample was annealed at a temperature below 1025 K. The average sizes of the gas bubbles were observed to grow only about 0.4 nm in diameter at 700 K for 170 min and 0.9 nm at 875 K for 240 min, respectively. However, gas bubbles grew very quickly at 1225 K. The largest size of the gas bubbles is over 200 nm after 180 min annealing. The relationship between the bubble size and the annealing time was obtained at the designed annealing temperature. An empirical formula for calculating the bubble size was suggested by fitting equations derived from the experiment data. Finally, the growth mechanism of the bubbles in the zirconium alloy was discussed.

  11. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiung NH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nai-Huan Hsiung,1 Yen Yang,1 Ming Shinn Lee,2 Koustuv Dalal,3 Graeme D Smith4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, 2Department of Curriculum Design and Human Potentials Development, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Public Health Science, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4School of Nursing, Midwifery & Social Care, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was <0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments. Keywords: pain, scales, BPS, CPOT, Taiwan

  12. Observation of spin glass behavior in monoclinic Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bie, Xiaofei; Wei, Yingjin; Liu, Lina [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Nikolowski, Kristian; Ehrenberg, Helmut [Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chen, Hong [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Wang, Chunzhong; Chen, Gang [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Du, Fei, E-mail: dufei@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2} has been refined with monoclinic phase (space group C2/m). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spin glass has been confirmed by analyzing dc, ac, and time-dependence remanence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometrical frustration combined random competition was suggested to be the main cause for spin glass formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In order to distinguish the spin glass from the superparamagnetism, ac susceptibility under different frequencies is studied. - Abstract: The structure and magnetic properties of Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2} were studied by X-ray diffraction, dc and ac susceptibilities. Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2} belongs to the monoclinic structure with two different Mn sites. The irreversibility and spin freezing behaviors are observed in the dc magnetization curves. The peaks of ac susceptibility display the dependences on the frequency. Both the magnetic relaxation effect and the corresponding analysis confirm a spin glass (SG) transition at low temperature. By evaluating the geometrical frustration parameter, we suggest the spin glass in Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2} originate from the frustration effect combined with the competition among the Mn{sup 3+/4+}-O{sup 2-}-Mn{sup 3+/4+} exchange interaction.

  13. High-resolution Observations of the Shock Wave Behavior for Sunspot Oscillations with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; DeLuca, E.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; De Pontieu, B.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; Kleint, L.; Cheung, M.; Golub, L.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Weber, M.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P.; Kankelborg, C.; Jaeggli, S.; McIntosh, S. W.

    2014-05-01

    We present the first results of sunspot oscillations from observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. The strongly nonlinear oscillation is identified in both the slit-jaw images and the spectra of several emission lines formed in the transition region and chromosphere. We first apply a single Gaussian fit to the profiles of the Mg II 2796.35 Å, C II 1335.71 Å, and Si IV 1393.76 Å lines in the sunspot. The intensity change is ~30%. The Doppler shift oscillation reveals a sawtooth pattern with an amplitude of ~10 km s-1 in Si IV. The Si IV oscillation lags those of C II and Mg II by ~3 and ~12 s, respectively. The line width suddenly increases as the Doppler shift changes from redshift to blueshift. However, we demonstrate that this increase is caused by the superposition of two emission components. We then perform detailed analysis of the line profiles at a few selected locations on the slit. The temporal evolution of the line core is dominated by the following behavior: a rapid excursion to the blue side, accompanied by an intensity increase, followed by a linear decrease of the velocity to the red side. The maximum intensity slightly lags the maximum blueshift in Si IV, whereas the intensity enhancement slightly precedes the maximum blueshift in Mg II. We find a positive correlation between the maximum velocity and deceleration, a result that is consistent with numerical simulations of upward propagating magnetoacoustic shock waves.

  14. Analysis of the Optimal Duration of Behavioral Observations Based on an Automated Continuous Monitoring System in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor: Is One Hour Good Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Z Lendvai

    Full Text Available Studies of animal behavior often rely on human observation, which introduces a number of limitations on sampling. Recent developments in automated logging of behaviors make it possible to circumvent some of these problems. Once verified for efficacy and accuracy, these automated systems can be used to determine optimal sampling regimes for behavioral studies. Here, we used a radio-frequency identification (RFID system to quantify parental effort in a bi-parental songbird species: the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor. We found that the accuracy of the RFID monitoring system was similar to that of video-recorded behavioral observations for quantifying parental visits. Using RFID monitoring, we also quantified the optimum duration of sampling periods for male and female parental effort by looking at the relationship between nest visit rates estimated from sampling periods with different durations and the total visit numbers for the day. The optimum sampling duration (the shortest observation time that explained the most variation in total daily visits per unit time was 1h for both sexes. These results show that RFID and other automated technologies can be used to quantify behavior when human observation is constrained, and the information from these monitoring technologies can be useful for evaluating the efficacy of human observation methods.

  15. Do delivery routes of intranasally administered oxytocin account for observed effects on social cognition and behavior? A two-level model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Alvares, Gail A; Hickie, Ian B; Guastella, Adam J

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates the important role of oxytocin (OT) in the modulation of social cognition and behavior. This has led many to suggest that the intranasal administration of OT may benefit psychiatric disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Here, we review nasal anatomy and OT pathways to central and peripheral destinations, along with the impact of OT delivery to these destinations on social behavior and cognition. The primary goal of this review is to describe how these identified pathways may contribute to mechanisms of OT action on social cognition and behavior (that is, modulation of social information processing, anxiolytic effects, increases in approach-behaviors). We propose a two-level model involving three pathways to account for responses observed in both social cognition and behavior after intranasal OT administration and suggest avenues for future research to advance this research field.

  16. Canine Food Preference Assessment of Animal and Vegetable Ingredient-Based Diets Using Single-Pan Tests and Behavioral Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan C. Callon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of canine food selection is critical for both the pet food industry and dog owners, since owners want quality foods that are palatable, while fulfilling their pet’s nutritional requirements. There are two common methods for assessing canine food preference: the two-pan test and the one-pan test. Neither test fully accounts for the complexity of the canine feeding experience nor do they provide applicable representations of canine feeding behavior in the home. The objectives of this study were to (1 determine whether dogs display a preference for animal ingredient-based diets when compared with vegetable ingredient-based diets and (2 examine whether dogs experience neophobia when presented with a novel diet. Eight adult Beagles (average age = 24 months, weighing 8–12 kg were individually fed each of four novel diets in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, with 10-d treatment periods and four dietary treatments. Data were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures and significance was declared when p < 0.05. The diets were: animal and vegetable ingredient-based diets, and animal- and vegetable-based ingredients diluted with anhydrous α-d-glucose. The diluted diets were used for a larger study to determine true mineral digestibility. Dogs were fed twice per day (0800 and 1300 h. Behavioral observations were made by video on the first, and last 2 days of each 10-day treatment period of both a.m. and p.m. feedings. Time to consume feed, distraction, hesitation, level of anticipation pre-consumption, and interest post-consumption were recorded. Dogs experienced initial disruptive (neophobic effects of a novel diet. Neophobia was demonstrated by a decreased (slower rate of consumption, increased distraction during consumption of the diet, and increased hesitation on the first day of each new diet (p < 0.05. The level of interest post-consumption was highest when dogs consumed the animal

  17. An investigation into variable recharge behaviors among eight alluvial observation wells in Pajarito Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    Pajarito Canyon in Los Alamos, New Mexico trends west to east through the Pajarito Plateau from the headwaters in the Jemez Mountains, thirteen miles to the Rio Grande. In summer 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory installed eight shallow wells, numbered PCAO-5, 6, 7a, 7b1, 7b2, 7c, 8 and 9, in the middle four miles of this canyon. Among these wells, five distinct recharge behaviors have been observed. PCAO-5 demonstrates seasonal recharge in response to annual snowmelt. PCAO-6, while just 400 feet further downstream, is considerably flashier and the well is often dry for months at a time. In PCAO-7a, 7b2 and 7c, another two miles downstream, the water level declined steadily since installation, with no recharge until spring 2010. PCAO-7b1 has not contained water since drilling. Downstream a further two miles, PCAO-8 and PCAO-9 were dry for the majority of 2009 and their hydrographs are more attenuated. This investigation was undertaken to explain the recharge behaviors of the wells, with the goal of improving site selection and design of alluvial wells to provide better representation of the alluvial aquifer. Water level data collected since July 2008 were used to compare the water columns of each well. Well construction diagrams were utilized to construct stratigraphic maps in order to compare well construction and lithology. Results indicate that PCAO-5 consistently contains water due to its location above a flood retention structure (FRS) and the placement of its screened interval immediately above the tuff layer, forcing water to travel through the screened interval. PCAO-6’s flashy, intermittent hydrograph is due to its location downstream of the FRS, and because the bottom of the screened interval rests 2.5 feet above the alluvium-tuff interface, providing a conduit below the screen of the well. The similar behaviors of PCAO-7a, 7b2 and 7c result from their near-identical construction, lithology and location. The general decline of water level until

  18. The Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) and gazing behavior during social interaction: An observational study in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roekel, G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present study, the relation between a polymorphic marker within the OXTR gene (rs53576) and gazing behavior during two separate social interaction tasks was examined. Gazing behavior was considered to be an integral part of belonging regulation processes. Methods: We conducted an

  19. High-resolution observations of the shock wave behavior for sunspot oscillations with the interface region imaging spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, H.; DeLuca, E.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Golub, L.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Weber, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, B.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Kleint, L.; Cheung, M.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V., E-mail: hui.tian@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); and others

    2014-05-10

    We present the first results of sunspot oscillations from observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. The strongly nonlinear oscillation is identified in both the slit-jaw images and the spectra of several emission lines formed in the transition region and chromosphere. We first apply a single Gaussian fit to the profiles of the Mg II 2796.35 Å, C II 1335.71 Å, and Si IV 1393.76 Å lines in the sunspot. The intensity change is ∼30%. The Doppler shift oscillation reveals a sawtooth pattern with an amplitude of ∼10 km s{sup –1} in Si IV. The Si IV oscillation lags those of C II and Mg II by ∼6 and ∼25 s, respectively. The line width suddenly increases as the Doppler shift changes from redshift to blueshift. However, we demonstrate that this increase is caused by the superposition of two emission components. We then perform detailed analysis of the line profiles at a few selected locations on the slit. The temporal evolution of the line core is dominated by the following behavior: a rapid excursion to the blue side, accompanied by an intensity increase, followed by a linear decrease of the velocity to the red side. The maximum intensity slightly lags the maximum blueshift in Si IV, whereas the intensity enhancement slightly precedes the maximum blueshift in Mg II. We find a positive correlation between the maximum velocity and deceleration, a result that is consistent with numerical simulations of upward propagating magnetoacoustic shock waves.

  20. First attempt to use a remotely operated vehicle to observe soniferous fish behavior in the Gulf of Maine, Western Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. ROUNTREE, Francis JUANES

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Underwater sound and video observations were made at noon, sunset, and midnight in sand, gravel, and boulder habitat in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Maine, USA in October 2001 using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV. Seventeen species of fish and squid were observed with clear habitat and time differences. Observations of feeding behavior, disturbance behavior, and both interspecific and intraspecific interactions provided numerous opportunities for potential sound production; however, sounds were recorded only during a single dive. Although high noise levels generated by the ROV and support ship may have masked some sounds, we conclude that fish sound production in the Gulf of Maine during the fall is uncommon. The recorded fish sounds are tentatively attributed to the cusk Brosme brosme. Cusk sounds consisted variously of isolated thumps, widely spaced thump trains, drumrolls, and their combinations. Frequency peaks were observed at 188, 539, and 1195 Hz. Use of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV as a passive acoustic observation platform was problematic due to high ROV self-noise and the ROV’s inability to maintain a fixed position on the bottom without thruster power. Some fishes were clearly also disturbed by ROV noise, indicating a potential ROV sampling bias. Based on our observations, we suggest that new instruments incorporating both optic and passive acoustic technologies are needed to provide better tools for in situ behavioral studies of cusk and other fishes [Current Zoology 56 (1: 90–99 2010].

  1. The effects of methylphenidate on the classroom behavior of elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Frank J; Tervo, Raymond C; Kim, Ockjean; Hoch, John

    2007-01-01

    High- and low-dose methylphenidate administration was evaluated prospectively for 3 elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy, cognitive impairments, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using single-case, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled designs. An observational time sampling protocol was used to directly measure and quantify classroom behavior. Summary level analysis showed that (1) low-dose (0.3 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with clinically significant (>50%) reductions in stereotyped and disruptive behavior relative to baseline and placebo conditions, (2) high-dose (0.5 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with exacerbated amounts of stereotyped and disruptive behavior, and (3) no changes were directly observed for task-related behavior at either dose. Results are discussed with respect to previous research with methylphenidate administration and cerebral palsy, and the suggestion is made that further work using larger, randomly selected study samples with complementary measures of behavior and performance appears warranted.

  2. In-Situ Observation of Growth Behavior of Niobium Carbide during Dual-Phase Rapid Solidification of SUS347H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, Mitsuharu; Osuki, Takahiro; Hirata, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve solidification cracking susceptibility, the crystallization of a heterophase such as the niobium carbide in the brittle temperature range is one of the effective techniques. In such a system, not only the growth behavior of dendrites during the rapid cooling but also the crystallization behavior of heterophase is very important. Therefore, diffraction patterns of a dual-phase mode Nb-bearing stainless steel during rapid cooling were investigated by in-situ two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction for the first time in order to reveal the microstructure formation. We discuss the growth behavior of dendrites with crystallization of niobium carbides. Subsequently, the niobium carbide formed epitaxially to the dendrite of the preferred in-plane orientation, having a small distorted orientation. With undercooling of several degree Celsius, the coherent growth on the δ-ferrite was stable for niobium carbide.

  3. Playing, sitting out, and observing the game: an investigation of faculty members' perspectives on political behavior in ethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Kelsey E; Gibson, Carter; Mecca, Jensen T; Giorgini, Vincent; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are inherently ambiguous, complex, and ill-defined. Additionally, these dilemmas involve multiple stakeholders. These characteristics may induce political behavior as a resolution tactic. Thus, the goal of the present effort was to investigate perspectives on politics among researchers in an ethical decision-making context. A qualitative analysis of interviews with university faculty members revealed that faculty members' perspectives on political behavior in an ethical decision-making context fall into a number of categories, including positive, negative, and realistic views of political activity. The implications of these varying perspectives on ethical decision making are discussed.

  4. Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A.; Johnson, P. N.

    2001-10-19

    This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.

  5. Observation of unsafe behavior at work: A methodological analysis [Observación de conductas inseguras en el trabajo: una reflexión metodológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orquidea Castilla Ramos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Observation of unsafe and safe behaviors at work is used in many companies, to known unsafe acts related with personal or industrial accidents and to design improvement or prevention strategies. This technique at natural contexts requires as much rigor in the design of the behavioral inventory or checklist as in its application. Methodological problems, as well as advantages and disadvantages to use this technique at organizational contexts are analyzed. How the results from to apply observations affect organizational psychosocial interventions, are discussed too. Observations could use with other techniques from another approaches. Probably technique utility depends somehow to the organizational safety culture, culture that itself procedure promote to prevent and to control the occurrence of future accidents in the companies.

  6. Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity "and" enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene are…

  7. Children's physical activity behavior during school recess: A case study using GPS, accelerometer, participant observation, and go-along interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    who preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate chil- dren’s physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development...

  8. Observing Engineering Student Teams from the Organization Behavior Perspective Using Linguistic Analysis of Student Reflections and Focus Group Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…

  9. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majdandžić, M.; Möller, E.L.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.; van den Boom, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers’ challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudin

  10. "Emplotted Narratives" and Structured "Behavioral Observations" Supporting the Diagnosis of Willis-Ekbom Disease/Restless Legs Syndrome in Children with Neurodevelopmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsiroglu, Osman S; Beyzaei, Nadia; Berger, Mai; Wagner, Alexandra L; Dhalla, Sophia; Garden, Jennifer; Stockler, Sylvia

    2016-11-01

    Willis-Ekbom disease/restless legs syndrome (WED/RLS) seems to be a frequent cause of intractable chronic insomnia (ICI) but is under-recognized in children/adolescents with neurodevelopmental conditions (NDCs), as many patients do not have the ability to express the underlying "urge-to-move". In light of this, we aim to develop a protocol for behavioral observations supporting the diagnosis of WED/RLS. We investigated 26 pediatric patients (age 1-16 years, median 8) with NDCs, ICI and evidence of familial WED/RLS employing (1) "emplotted narratives" for description of the various "urge-to-move" presentations and (2) self-description and "behavioral observations" during a "suggested clinical immobilization test" (SCIT). Parental narratives reflected typical WED/RLS-related "urge-to-move" symptoms during day-, bed-, and nighttime in all patients. Fifteen out of 26 patients could describe the "urge-to-move" during the SCIT. Ten out of 26 patients, unable to describe their symptoms due to cognitive disabilities, showed patterns of "relieving-movements" upon observation. Sensory processing abnormalities were reported in all patients, with tactile sensitivities (26/26) (including shifted pain threshold) as the most common sensory domain. "Emplotted narratives" and structured "behavioral observations" support recognition of familial WED/RLS associated movement patterns and provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of WED/RLS in children with NDCs in a clinical office setting. © 2016 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An observation support system with an adaptive ontology-driven user interface for the modeling of complex behaviors during surgical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumuth, T; Kaschek, B; Neumuth, D; Ceschia, M; Meixensberger, J; Strauss, G; Burgert, O

    2010-11-01

    The field of surgical interventions emphasizes knowledge and experience; explicit and detailed models of surgical processes are hard to obtain by observation or measurement. However, in medical engineering and related developments, such models are highly valuable. Surgical process modeling deals with the generation of complex process descriptions by observation. This places high demands on the observers, who have to use a sizable terminology to denominate surgical actions, instruments, and patient anatomies, and to describe processes unambiguously. Here, we present a novel method, employing an ontology-based user interface that adapts to the actual situation and describe the principles of the system. A validation study showed that this method enables observers with little recording experience to reach a recording accuracy of >90%. Furthermore, this method can be used for live and video observation. We conclude that the method of ontology-supported recording for complex behaviors can be advantageously employed when surgical processes are modeled.

  12. Testosterone replacement therapy to improve secondary sexual characteristics and body composition without adverse behavioral problems in adult male patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Yasuhiro; Sakazume, Satoru; Abe, Yoshiko; Oto, Yuji; Itabashi, Hisashi; Shiraishi, Masahisa; Yoshino, Atsunori; Tanaka, Yuriko; Obata, Kazuo; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a complex genetic disorder, arises from suppressed expression of paternally inherited imprinted genes on chromosome 15q11-q13. Characteristics include short stature, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, hypogonadism, obesity, and reduced bone and muscle mass. Testosterone replacement (TR) remains controversial due to concerns regarding behavioral problems. To evaluate the effects of TR on secondary sexual characteristics, body composition, and behavior in adult males with PWS, 22 male PWS patients over the age of 16 with behavioral scores of less than grade 4 on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) underwent monthly intramuscular TR (125 mg). Pubertal change, body composition and behavior were evaluated before and after 24 months of therapy. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH did not change. Increased pubic hair was observed in 16 of 22 patients (72.7%). Percent body fat decreased from 47.55 ± 2.06% to 39.75 ± 1.60% (n = 18) (P = 0.018). Bone mineral density increased from 0.8505 ± 0.0426 g/cm(2) to 0.9035 ± 0.0465 g/cm(2) (n = 18) (P = 0.036), and lean body mass increased from 18093.4 ± 863.0 g to 20312.1 ± 1027.2 g (n = 18) (P = 0.009). The MOAS was unchanged, from 4.5 ± 2.0 at the beginning of the study to 3.0 ± 1.7 at the end of study indicating no increase in aggression. No behavioral problems were observed. Based on this pilot study, TR with 125 mg monthly is a potentially safe and useful intervention for adult males with PWS.

  13. Sightings and behavioral observations of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765 along Chennai coast, Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muralidharan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat-based surveys were used to investigate the presence of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis along the coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Notes were collected on behavior, group size, coloration patterns and group composition on sighting cetaceans during the surveys. Four groups of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins were sighted near-shore in the month of February 2011, between 10-25 m depth with an average group size of 20 individuals of which 10 individuals were photo-identifiable. Dominant group behavior was aerial display, feeding and traveling. This study gives a basic idea of presence, threats and habitat use of Humpback Dolphin areas along Chennai coast.

  14. Sightings and behavioral observations of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765 along Chennai coast, Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muralidharan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat-based surveys were used to investigate the presence of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis along the coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Notes were collected on behavior, group size, coloration patterns and group composition on sighting cetaceans during the surveys. Four groups of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins were sighted near-shore in the month of February 2011, between 10-25 m depth with an average group size of 20 individuals of which 10 individuals were photo-identifiable. Dominant group behavior was aerial display, feeding and traveling. This study gives a basic idea of presence, threats and habitat use of Humpback Dolphin areas along Chennai coast.

  15. A macroscopic violation of no-signaling in time inequalities? How to test temporal entanglement with behavioral observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Maier, Markus A; Buechner, Vanessa L; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we applied for the first time the no-signaling in time (NSIT) formalism discussed by Kofler and Brukner (2013) to investigate temporal entanglement between binary human behavioral unconscious choices at t1 with binary random outcomes at t2. NSIT consists of a set of inequalities and represents mathematical conditions for macro-realism which require only two measurements in time. The analyses of three independent experiments show a strong violation of NSIT in two out of three of them, suggesting the hypothesis of a quantum-like temporal entanglement between human choices at t1 with binary random outcomes at t2. We discuss the potentialities of using NSIT to test temporal entanglement with behavioral measures.

  16. A Macroscopic Violation of No Signaling In Time Inequalities? How to test Temporal Entanglement with Behavioral Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio E Tressoldi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we applied for the first time the no-signaling in time (NSIT formalism discussed by Kofler and Brukner to investigate temporal entanglement between binary human behavioral unconscious choices at t1 with binary random outcomes at t2. NSIT consists of a set of inequalities and represents mathematical conditions for macro-realism which require only two measurements in time. The analyses of three independent experiments show a strong violation of NSIT in two out of three of them, suggesting the hypothesis of a quantum-like temporal entanglement between human choices at t1 with binary random outcomes at t2. We discuss the potentialities of using NSIT to test temporal entanglement with behavioral measures.

  17. Questioning the interpretations of behavioral observations of cetaceans: is there really support for a special intellectual status for this mammalian order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manger, P R

    2013-10-10

    This review evaluates and contextualizes the behavioral studies undertaken on cetaceans in terms of the relationship of these behaviors to special levels of intelligence associated with these marine mammals and the evolution of their relatively and absolutely large brain size. Many believe that the large size of the cetacean brain and reported behaviors indicate the need to create a special status for these animals in terms of their intellect, positing that they are second to humans in terms of general intelligence. Cetacean brains became relatively large approximately 32millionyearsago, at the Archaeocete-Neocete faunal transition, and have since remained stable in relative size. The behaviors reported for modern cetaceans are thought to parallel those of great apes, to the exclusion of other mammals. By creating an autocatalytic model of cetacean brain evolution, the behaviors thought to be indicative of sophisticated cognitive processes can be assessed as to their potential involvement in the evolution of larger brains in cetaceans. By contextualizing these behaviors in a broader comparative framework, and not the limited cetacean - great ape comparisons mostly used, it is evident that the behaviors used to argue for high levels of intelligence in cetaceans are found commonly across mammals and other vertebrates, and are often observed in invertebrates. This contextualization indicates that cetacean intelligence is qualitatively no different to other vertebrates. In addition, the inability of cetaceans to surpass Piaget stage 4/5 on object permanence tests and to solve an "if and only if, then" abstract task indicates the possibility that their levels of general intelligence may be less than that seen in other vertebrates. Sophisticated cognitive abilities appear to play no role in the evolution of large brain size in cetaceans, indicating that alternative theories of large brain size evolution in cetaceans should be considered in more detail.

  18. Spin-glass behavior of warwickite MgFeBO{sub 4} and CoFeBO{sub 4} crystals observed by Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubutin, I.S.; Korotkov, N. Yu.; Frolov, K.V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, RAS, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazak, N.V.; Platunov, M.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB of RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Knyazev, Yu. V. [Siberian Federal University, 660074 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bezmaternykh, L.N. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB of RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, S.G. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB of RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 660074 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian State Aerospace University, 660014 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Arauzo, A. [Servicio de Medidas Físicas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Spin-glass behavior of MgFeBO{sub 4} and CoFeBO{sub 4} observed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. • Transition temperature T{sub SG} increases strongly with Co substitution. • Dynamical scaling theory near T{sub SG} is fulfilled. • Spin-glass behavior is explained as due to short range correlations. • Inclusion of Co increases exchange interaction and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. - Abstract: Single crystals of MgFeBO{sub 4} and CoFeBO{sub 4} warwickites were obtained. The effects of charge ordering and magnetic properties were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Cation distribution over M1 and M2 nonequivalent sites and the average charge at the metal positions were established. Low temperature Mössbauer spectra reveal spin-glass behavior, with spin-freezing temperatures T{sub SG} of 15.2 and 33.2 K for Mg- and Co-warwickites, respectively, higher than that observed from the d.c. and a.c. magnetic susceptibility measurements. The difference is explained in terms of dynamical scaling theory. The specific shape of the Mössbauer spectra in the vicinity of the magnetic transition at T{sub SG} shows the difference between spin-glass and superparamagnetic behavior and demonstrates an overwhelming role of the exchange anisotropy in the properties of Mg-warwickite. In Co-warwickite the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy provokes an increase in magnetic viscosity.

  19. Effects of High Status and Low Status Actor's Performance on Observers' Attributions of Causality and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Jacqueline Lee; Sheposh, John P.

    1975-01-01

    Investigates the effect of three variables: the difficulty level of the task, the nature of the feedback, and the nature of the relationship between model and observer, on peer observers' attributions of model's performance and their subsequent intention to imitate model. (Author)

  20. Utilities/industries joint study on seismic isolation systems for LWRs. Pt. 2; Observed behaviors of base-isolated general buildings under real earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Takao; Sato, Shoji; Kato, Muneaki (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the observed behavior of base-isolated buildings under real earthquake conditions. These buildings were constructed by five construction companies participating in the Joint Study on Seismic Isolation Systems for light-water reactors (LWRs). All the buildings are medium- or low-height buildings or reinforced-concrete structures with combinations of laminated rubber bearings or sliding bearings and various damping devices. (orig.).

  1. Observations of Correlated Behavior of Two Light Torsion Balances and a Paraconical Pendulum in Separate Locations during the Solar Eclipse of January 26th, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Pugach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On January 26th, 2009, simultaneous observations of the reactions of two very light torsion balances (Kiev, Ukraine and a paraconical pendulum (Suceava, Romania, 440 km away were performed during a solar eclipse that was not visible at those locations but only in the Indian Ocean. Significant correlation between the behavior of the torsion balances and the pendulum was observed. The conclusion is that a solar eclipse influences the reactions of torsion balances and pendulums, even in areas of the Earth where it is not optically visible.

  2. Dopamine Release and Uptake Impairments and Behavioral Alterations Observed in Mice that Model Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Jenny L; O'Bryhim, Bliss E; Wenzel, Sara K; Fowler, Stephen C; Vorontsova, Elena; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ortiz, Andrea N; Johnson, Michael A

    2010-10-20

    In this study we evaluated the relationship between amphetamine-induced behavioral alterations and dopamine release and uptake characteristics in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mice, which model fragile X syndrome. The behavioral analyses, obtained at millisecond temporal resolution and 2 mm spatial resolution using a force-plate actometer, revealed that Fmr1 KO mice express a lower degree of focused stereotypy compared to wild type (WT) control mice after injection with 10 mg/kg (ip) amphetamine. To identify potentially related neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we measured electrically-evoked dopamine release and uptake using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in striatal brain slices. At 10 weeks of age, dopamine release per pulse, which is dopamine release corrected for differences in uptake, was unchanged. However, at 15 (the age of behavioral testing) and 20 weeks of age, dopamine per pulse and the maximum rate of dopamine uptake was diminished in Fmr1 KO mice compared to WT mice. Dopamine uptake measurements, obtained at different amphetamine concentrations, indicated that dopamine transporters in both genotypes have equal affinities for amphetamine. Moreover, dopamine release measurements from slices treated with quinpirole, a D2-family receptor agonist, rule out enhanced D2 autoreceptor sensitivity as a mechanism of release inhibition. However, dopamine release, uncorrected for uptake and normalized against the corresponding pre-drug release peaks, increased in Fmr1 KO mice, but not in WT mice. Collectively, these data are consistent with a scenario in which a decrease in extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum result in diminished expression of focused stereotypy in Fmr1 KO mice.

  3. Non-Newtonian behavior observed via dynamic rheology for various particle types in energetic materials and simulant composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Han; Lee, Sangmook; Lee, Jae Wook

    2017-02-01

    The rheological properties of polymer composites highly filled with different filler materials were examined using a stress-controlled rheometer with a parallel-plate configuration, for particle characterization of the filler materials in plastic (polymer) bonded explosive (PBX). Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) with dioctyl adipate (DOA) was used as the matrix phase, which was shown to exhibit Newtonian-like behavior. The dispersed phase consisted of one of two energetic materials, i.e., explosive cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) or cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), or a simulant (Dechlorane) in a bimodal size distribution. Before the test, preshearing was conducted to identify the initial condition of each sample. All examined filled polymer specimens exhibited yield stress and shear-thinning behavior over the investigated frequency range. The complex viscosity dependence on the dynamic oscillation frequency was also fitted using an appropriate rheological model, suggesting the model parameters. Furthermore, the temperature dependency of the different filler particle types was determined for different filler volume fractions. These comparative studies revealed the influence of the particle characteristics on the rheological properties of the filled polymer.

  4. Spectral and Temporal Behavior of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1118+480 as Observed with BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Frontera, F; Zdziarski, A A; Belloni, T; Del Sordo, S; Masetti, N; Orlandini, M; Palazzi, E

    2003-01-01

    XTE J1118+480 is a well established black hole candidate with a mass estimate in the range from 7 to 10 solar masses. With BeppoSAX we observed the source 4 times, from April to December 2000. Results of the firs t observation were already reported (Frontera et al. 2001). Here we report spectral results of the later observations, performed in May, June and December 2000 and compare them with the results obtained from the 2000 April observation. We observe a decrease of the column density from a value consistent with the Galactic N_H obtained from radio measurement s to a value a factor 2 lower. The spectra are well fit with a thermal Comptonization plus a blackbody model. The blackbody luminosity decreases with time, while the electron temperature of the Comptonizing electron s does not show significant changes. A Compton reflection component is apparent and stable, although weak (mean value of Omega/2pi = 0.21[-0.04,+0.05]). The reflector shows a low metallicity (mean value of Z/Zsun = 0.13[-0.04,+0.06]). On...

  5. Adsorption behavior of pH-dependent phytic acid micelles at the copper surface observed by Raman and electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Du, Juan; Guo, Xiao-yu; Wen, Ying; Yang, Hai-Feng

    2015-02-01

    As heated at 90 °C, phytic acid (PA) molecules in the solution self-organized to form the PA micelles. The size of PA micelles could be tuned by varying pH of the solutions. The adsorption behavior of the different micelles at the copper surface and their corrosion inhibition mechanisms in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution were studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. Raman studies showed that the bigger micelles anchoring on the copper surface via P27sbnd O28, P43sbnd O42 and P35sbnd O36 groups, while the smaller PA micelles formed at pH 9 adsorbed at the surface through P35sbnd O36 group. The electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the copper modified with the smaller micelles presented the best inhibition efficiency in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution.

  6. Teachers' and Pupils' Behavior in Large and Small Classes: A Systematic Observation Study of Pupils Aged 10 and 11 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined class size effects on teacher-pupil interactions, pupil engagement, and pupil-pupil interaction. They extended previous research by recognizing the hierarchical nature of observation data and the possible influence of other variables. The study used a time sampling method involving 257 children (aged 10-11 years) in 16 small…

  7. Interaction between particle precipitation and creep behavior in the NI-base Alloy 617B: Microstructural observations and constitutive material model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, J., E-mail: j.haan@iwm.rwth-aachen.de; Bezold, A., E-mail: a.bezold@iwm.rwth-aachen.de; Broeckmann, C., E-mail: c.broeckmann@iwm.rwth-aachen.de

    2015-07-29

    The creep behavior of the Ni-base Alloy 617B was analyzed at 725 °C with the focus on microstructural changes during temperature and stress exposure. High resolution electron microscopy of crept specimens reveals the precipitation behavior of secondary phases such as Cr-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6}-carbides and the γ'-phase. Physical models are used to describe the Ostwald coarsening of the γ' particles and the evolution of the yield strength of the alloy. Together with the results from hot tensile tests and hardness measurements, a constitutive model for Alloy 617B has been developed. This model takes account of precipitation strengthening which is consistent with the microstructural observations, internal back stress due to dislocation hardening and material damage, all by evolutionary equations.

  8. Observações sobre o comportamento de Liolaemus occipitalis em cativeiro (Sauria, Tropiduridae Observations on the behavior of Liolaemus occipitaus in captivity (Sauria, Tropiduridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Souza Bujes

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus occipitalis (Boulenger, 1885 is an abundant lizard lbundalong lhe coastal dunes of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Fourteen individuais were manually captured in the dunes of Quintão beach (Palmares do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul and studied in captivity from 23/VII/92 to 30/VII/93. They were kept in a terrarium with sand substrate and vegetation collected in their habitat. Snout-vent length (SVL and wcighted were measured weekly. They received Tenebrio molitor (Linnaeus, 1758 worms as food; water was abundant. Combats between males for food and territory, and other behavioral displays were observed, like copulation and nesting behaviors. Growth curves for each lizard were analyzed.

  9. In-situ Observation of Fracture Behavior on Nano Structure in NITE SiC/SiC Composite by HVEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibayama, Tamaki; Hamada, Kouichi; Watanabe, Seiichi [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Matsuo, Genichiro [Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kishimoto, Hirotatsu, E-mail: shiba@ufml.caret.hokudai.ac.jp [Muroran Institute of Techniology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We have been successfully done in situ observation on the sequence of fracture event at the interface of NITE SiC/SiC composite examined by using miniaturized double notched shear specimen for TEM prepared by Focused Ion Beam method. In this study, we used nano-mechanics TEM experimental apparatus to investigate not only microstructure evolution and but also load and displacement curve at once in High Voltage Electron Microscope. Our results summarize as follows. Cracks were initiated at the interface between carbon coating layer on the SiC fiber and SiC matrices, and propagated along the interface. Load drop in the load and displacement curve during in-situ TEM was clearly observed at the crack initiation. The shear strength by using the miniaturized specimen is about ten times higher than that obtained by the standard testing.

  10. Observations on the Behavior of the Dark Crab Callinectes rathbunae Contreras Parasitized with the Rhizocephalan Loxothylacus texanus Boschma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fourty nine crabs of the species Callinectes rathbunae Contreras parasitized with the rhizocephalan Loxothylacus texanus Boschma were captured. The average shell width was 8.48 cm. Three types of externa were registered in the hosts: virgin, immature and mature externa; their number varied from one to four, being more common the crabs with one externa. The behavior of parasitized crabs was registered during six months. The most aggressive crabs were those that presented virgin externa (n = 82, while the less aggressive ones were those who presented three to four mature externa (n = 3. The crabs with virgin and immature externa conserved the capacity of burying themselves, while the organisms with mature externa lost that capacity. The animals with mature externa passed most of the time grooming and oxygenating the externa they carried. The crabs with mature externa presented bigger voracity that the crabs with immature externa. It can be concluded that the level of aggressiveness of the parasitized crabs is related with the degree of development of the externa, the degree of aggressiveness of the parasitized crabs is not related with the sex and mature externa represent a great metabolic load for their hosts.

  11. Control of Nanofilament Structure and Observations of Quantum Point Contact Behavior in Ni/NiO Nanowire Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sean; Fairfield, Jessamyn; Lee, Sunghun; Bellew, Allen; Stone, Iris; Ruppalt, Laura; Boland, John; Vora, Patrick

    Resistive switching is ideal for use in non-volatile memory where information is stored in a metallic or insulating state. Nanowire junctions formed at the intersection of two Ni/NiO core/shell nanowires have emerged as a leading candidate structure where resistive switching occurs due to the formation and destruction of conducting filaments. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the conduction mechanisms as measurements are typically only performed at room temperature. Here, we combine temperature-dependent current-voltage (IV) measurements from 15 - 300 K with magnetoresistance studies and achieve new insight into the nature of the conducting filaments. We identify a novel semiconducting state that behaves as a quantum point contact and find evidence for a possible electric-field driven phase transition. The insulating state exhibits unexpectedly complex IV characteristics that highlight the disordered nature of the ruptured filament while we find clear signs of anisotropic magnetoresistance in the metallic state. Our results expose previously unobserved behaviors in nanowire resistive switching devices and pave the way for future applications where both electrical and magnetic switching can be achieved in a single device. This work was supported by ONR Grant N-00014-15-1-2357.

  12. Are visual threats prioritized without awareness? A critical review and meta-analysis involving 3 behavioral paradigms and 2696 observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedger, Nicholas; Gray, Katie L H; Garner, Matthew; Adams, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    Given capacity limits, only a subset of stimuli give rise to a conscious percept. Neurocognitive models suggest that humans have evolved mechanisms that operate without awareness and prioritize threatening stimuli over neutral stimuli in subsequent perception. In this meta-analysis, we review evidence for this 'standard hypothesis' emanating from 3 widely used, but rather different experimental paradigms that have been used to manipulate awareness. We found a small pooled threat-bias effect in the masked visual probe paradigm, a medium effect in the binocular rivalry paradigm and highly inconsistent effects in the breaking continuous flash suppression paradigm. Substantial heterogeneity was explained by the stimulus type: the only threat stimuli that were robustly prioritized across all 3 paradigms were fearful faces. Meta regression revealed that anxiety may modulate threat-biases, but only under specific presentation conditions. We also found that insufficiently rigorous awareness measures, inadequate control of response biases and low level confounds may undermine claims of genuine unconscious threat processing. Considering the data together, we suggest that uncritical acceptance of the standard hypothesis is premature: current behavioral evidence for threat-sensitive visual processing that operates without awareness is weak. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Anticonvulsant and behavioral effects observed in mice following treatment with an ester derivative of ferulic acid: Isopentyl ferulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Keylla C; Oliveira, George Laylson S; Machado, Kátia C; Islam, Md Torequl; Junior, Antonio Luiz G; De Sousa, Damião P; Freitas, Rivelilson M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anticonvulsant effect of isopentyl ferulate, a new ester derived from ferulic acid in mice (Mus musculus) subjected to two models of induced seizures. According to the results obtained, the IF at doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg (i.p.) showed protective effect against induced seizures by pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.) and pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, i.p.). In the two animal models of seizures, the pretreatment of the IF (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) with flumazenil blocked the anticonvulsant effect, suggesting that the mechanism of action of this ester derived of ferulic acid may be related to activity in the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABAA receptor (γ-aminobutyric acid, type A). In addition to the anticonvulsant effect, behavioral changes as neurotoxicity indication were assessed by using the rota rod and open field tests. The results obtained showed that the IF (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) does not induce significant changes in locomotor activity and motor coordination when compared with the control group, unlike the results presented by diazepam. Thus, these results demonstrate a new pharmacological knowledge of IF with potential application against epileptic seizures. However, further studies are needed to elucidate other neurobiological mechanisms underlying epilepsy.

  14. Walking Behavior Observed in Phoxichilidium femoratum (Rathke, 1799 and Nymphon brevirostre Hodge 1863 Collected from Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the walking behavior of Phoxichilidium femoratum and Nymphon brevirostre was investigated using video recordings. The walking behavior of P. femoratum while walking over the colonial hydroids that they normally feed on and on relatively smooth glass surfaces was observed. In the case of N. brevirostre, only walking on smooth glass was observed. The movement of the legs while waking does not display a metachronal pattern like that observed in the true spiders. As the animals move, the walking legs on the leading side of the animal are used to pull the animal forward while those on the trailing side make little or no contribution to the motion of the animal. The promoter/remoter motions of the coxa 1-coxa 2 joint of the walking legs are involved in azimuthal changes in the body’s orientation, but not in paraxial locomotion. The extension of the tarsus and propodus segments appears to occur as a result of hydrodynamic drag when the legs are being flexed and/or pressed against a solid substrate.

  15. Perceived morbidity, healthcare-seeking behavior and their determinants in a poor-resource setting: observation from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kanungo

    Full Text Available To control the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs, in the developing world, understanding the patterns of morbidity and healthcare-seeking is critical. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the distribution, predictors and inter-relationship of perceived morbidity and related healthcare-seeking behavior in a poor-resource setting.Between October 2013 and July 2014, 43999 consenting subjects were recruited from 10107 households in Malda district of West Bengal state in India, through multistage random sampling, using probability proportional-to-size. Information on socio-demographics, behaviors, recent ailments, perceived severity and healthcare-seeking were analyzed in SAS-9.3.2.Recent illnesses were reported by 55.91% (n=24,600 participants. Among diagnosed ailments (n=23,626, 50.92% (n=12,031 were NCDs. Respiratory (17.28%, n=7605, gastrointestinal (13.48%, n=5929 and musculoskeletal (6.25%, n=2749 problems were predominant. Non-qualified practitioners treated 53.16% (n=13,074 episodes. Older children/adolescents [adjusted odds ratio for private healthcare providers (AORPri=0.76, 95% confidence interval=0.71-0.83 and for Govt. healthcare provider (AORGovt=0.80(0.68-0.95], females [AORGovt=0.80(0.73-0.88], Muslims [AORPri=0.85(0.69-0.76 and AORGovt=0.92(0.87-0.96], backward castes [AORGovt=0.93(0.91-0.96] and rural residents [AORPri=0.82(0.75-0.89 and AORGovt=0.72(0.64-0.81] had lower odds of visiting qualified practitioners. Apparently less severe NCDs [acid-peptic disorders: AORPri=0.41(0.37-0.46 & AORGovt=0.41(0.37-0.46, osteoarthritis: AORPri=0.72(0.59-0.68 & AORGovt=0.58(0.43-0.78], gastrointestinal [AORPri=0.28(0.24-0.33 & AORGovt=0.69(0.58-0.81], respiratory [AORPri=0.35(0.32-0.39 & AORGovt=0.46(0.41-0.52] and skin infections [AORPri=0.65(0.55-0.77] were also less often treated by qualified practitioners. Better education [AORPri=1.91(1.65-2.22 for ≥graduation], sanitation [AORPri=1

  16. [Behavior and well-being of people with dementia in a social care group. Observation study with dementia care mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochgraeber, Iris

    2013-07-01

    Social care groups for people with dementia areone way to relieve family caregivers and to activate individuals with dementia. This study aimed to describe one social care group and investigate the well-being of the groups members. The research question therefore was: What are people with dementia doing and how do they feel in a social care group? In this descriptive observation study we observed three group sessions in one social care group with five members in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) using Dementia Care Mapping (DCM). The results show that there was a special course of action fixed by meals, welcoming and farewell. The behaviour and well-being varied. Leisure like doing handicraft and interaction were depicted as main activities. The well-being was high, if participants had energetic activities and the course of action of the different group members was similar. Interestingly one person was excluded from almost all activities. It is important for staff to know the constellation of the group and to include all visitors.

  17. Numerical Prediction of Experimentally Observed Behavior of a Scale Model of an Offshore Wind Turbine Supported by a Tension-Leg Platform: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, I.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Stewart, G. M.; Goupee, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the critical importance the role physical experimental tests play in understanding the dynamics of floating offshore wind turbines, the DeepCwind consortium conducted a one-fiftieth-scale model test program where several floating wind platforms were subjected to a variety of wind and wave loading condition at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands wave basin. This paper describes the observed behavior of a tension-leg platform, one of three platforms tested, and the systematic effort to predict the measured response with the FAST simulation tool using a model primarily based on consensus geometric and mass properties of the test specimen.

  18. Distributional behaviors of time-averaged observables in the Langevin equation with fluctuating diffusivity: Normal diffusion but anomalous fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-06-01

    We consider the Langevin equation with dichotomously fluctuating diffusivity, where the diffusion coefficient changes dichotomously over time, in order to study fluctuations of time-averaged observables in temporally heterogeneous diffusion processes. We find that the time-averaged mean-square displacement (TMSD) can be represented by the occupation time of a state in the asymptotic limit of the measurement time and hence occupation time statistics is a powerful tool for calculating the TMSD in the model. We show that the TMSD increases linearly with time (normal diffusion) but the time-averaged diffusion coefficients are intrinsically random when the mean sojourn time for one of the states diverges, i.e., intrinsic nonequilibrium processes. Thus, we find that temporally heterogeneous environments provide anomalous fluctuations of time-averaged diffusivity, which have relevance to large fluctuations of the diffusion coefficients obtained by single-particle-tracking trajectories in experiments.

  19. Direct Observation of Sublimation Behaviors in One-Dimensional In2Se3/In2O3 Nanoheterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Liao, Kuo-Cheng; Liu, Po-Liang; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Lih-Juann

    2015-06-02

    Recently, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has provided a route to analyze structural characterization and chemical evolution with its powerful and unique applications. In this paper, we disclose the detailed phenomenon of sublimation on the atomic scale. In2Se3/In2O3 nanowires were synthesized via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism and studied in an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) TEM at high temperature in real time. During in situ observation of the sublimation process of the nanowires, the evolution and reconstruction of the exposed In2Se3 surface progressed in different manners with time. The surface structure was decomposed by mass-desorption and stepwise-migration processes, which are also energetically favored processes in the ab initio calculation. This study developed a new concept and will be essential in the development of atomic kinetics.

  20. Characterization of optical turbulence at the GREGOR solar telescope: temporal and local behavior and its influence on the solar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, D.; Sucher, E.; Stein, K.; von der Lühe, O.; Berkefeld, Th.

    2016-10-01

    Local atmospheric turbulence at the telescope level is regarded as a major reason for affecting the performance of the adaptive optics systems using wavelengths in the visible and infrared for solar observations. During the day the air masses around the telescope dome are influenced by flow distortions. Additionally heating of the infrastructure close to telescope causes thermal turbulence. Thereby optical turbulence is produced and leads to quality changes in the local seeing throughout the day. Image degradation will be yielded affecting the performance of adaptive optical systems. The spatial resolution of the solar observations will be reduced. For this study measurements of the optical turbulence, represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn2 were performed on several locations at the GREGOR telescope at the Teide observatory at Tenerife at the Canary Islands / Spain. Since September 2012 measurements of Cn2 were carried out between the towers of the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) and of GREGOR with a laser-scintillometer. The horizontal distance of the measurement path was about 75 m. Additional from May 2015 up to March 2016 the optical turbulence was determined at three additional locations close to the solar telescope GREGOR. The optical turbulence is derived from sonic anemometer measurements. Time series of the sonic temperature are analyzed and compared to the direct measurements of the laser scintillometer. Meteorological conditions are investigated, especially the influence of the wind direction. Turbulence of upper atmospheric layers is not regarded. The measured local turbulence is compared to the system performance of the GREGOR telescopes. It appears that the mountain ridge effects on turbulence are more relevant than any local causes of seeing close to the telescope. Results of these analyses and comparison of nearly one year of measurements are presented and discussed.

  1. Pain-related behavior was not observed in dairy cattle in the days after liver biopsy, regardless of whether NSAIDs were administered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lorelle A; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Benschop, Jackie; Stafford, Kevin J

    2016-02-01

    For liver biopsy in cattle, it is routine practice to only provide local anesthesia (LA) to the skin and muscle layers, with visceral tissues remaining unanesthetized. Cattle being biopsied may therefore benefit from additional analgesia. This study aimed to determine if non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs would decrease post-biopsy pain in cattle. Twenty-four dairy cows were allocated into four treatment groups: biopsy under LA only; biopsy under LA with ketoprofen; biopsy under LA with meloxicam; and a sham-biopsied control group. Behavior was observed for 4h immediately following biopsy, and for 2h each day for the first three days after biopsy. No significant differences in behavior were found between any treatment groups on any day. This suggests that any post-biopsy pain present was not of enough significance to alter the cows' normal behavior patterns. Without identifying post-biopsy pain, it is not possible to determine what effect NSAID analgesia may have had on alleviating it.

  2. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38-81% individuals, 50-100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a 'leniency error' in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station.

  3. Field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a lowland area of the temperate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2010-10-01

    Granivory is a specialized food habit in the predominantly carnivorous beetle family Carabidae. Most studies of carabid granivory have been conducted under laboratory conditions; thus, our knowledge of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the field is insufficient. I conducted field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult carabids in a lowland area of eastern Japan, from early October to late November in 2008. This is the first systematic field observation of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the temperate zone. In total, 176 carabid individuals of 11 species were observed, with 108 individuals feeding on plant seeds/flowers. Each carabid species was primarily observed feeding on a particular plant species. Frequently observed combinations were: Amara gigantea Motschulsky on Humulus scandens (Loureiro) Merrill (Moraceae) seed, Amara lucens Baliani on Artemisia indica Willdenow (Asteraceae) flower, and Amara macronota (Solsky) and Harpalus (Pseudoophonus) spp. on Digitaria ciliaris (Retzius) Koeler (Poaceae) seed. In all but one species, the sex ratio of individuals observed feeding was female-biased. In Am. gigantea and Am. macronota, a larger proportion of females than males ate seeds. In the three Amara species, copulations on plants, with the female feeding on its seeds/flowers, were often observed. These observations may indicate that, whereas females climb onto plants to feed on seeds, males climb to seek females for copulation rather than forage. Because granivorous carabids play important roles as weed-control agents in temperate agro-ecosystems, the present results would provide valuable basic information for future studies on this subject.

  4. Behavior of the Linea Alba During a Curl-up Task in Diastasis Rectus Abdominis: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional repeated measures. Background Rehabilitation of diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA) generally aims to reduce the inter-rectus distance (IRD). We tested the hypothesis that activation of the transversus abdominis (TrA) before a curl-up would reduce IRD narrowing, with less linea alba (LA) distortion/deformation, which may allow better force transfer between sides of the abdominal wall. Objectives This study investigated behavior of the LA and IRD during curl-ups performed naturally and with preactivation of the TrA. Methods Curl-ups were performed by 26 women with DRA and 17 healthy control participants using a natural strategy (automatic curl-up) and with TrA preactivation (TrA curl-up). Ultrasound images were recorded at 2 points above the umbilicus (U point and UX point). Ultrasound measures of IRD and a novel measure of LA distortion (distortion index: average deviation of the LA from the shortest path between the recti) were compared between 3 tasks (rest, automatic curl-up, TrA curl-up), between groups, and between measurement points (analysis of variance). Results Automatic curl-up by women with DRA narrowed the IRD from resting values (mean U-point between-task difference, -1.19 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.45, -0.93; PUX-point between-task difference, -0.51 cm; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.34; PUX-point between-task difference, 0.025; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.045; P = .02). Although TrA curl-up induced no narrowing or less IRD narrowing than automatic curl-up (mean U-point difference between TrA curl-up versus rest, -0.56 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.31; PUX-point between-task difference, 0.02 cm; 95% CI: -0.22, 0.19; P = .86), LA distortion was less (mean U-point between-task difference, -0.025; 95% CI: -0.037, -0.012; PUX-point between-task difference, -0.021; 95% CI: -0.038, -0.005; P = .01). Inter-rectus distance and the distortion index did not change from rest or differ between tasks for controls (P≥.55). Conclusion Narrowing of the IRD

  5. Flow and Heat Flux Behavior of Micro-bubble Jet Flows Observed in Thin, Twisted-Wire, Subcooled Boiling in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Troy R.; Ban, Heng

    2015-02-01

    Thin wire, subcooled boiling experiments were performed onboard an aircraft flying a parabolic trajectory to provide microgravity conditions for improved observation of jet flow phenomena and their behavior in the absence of buoyant forces. A new type of nucleation jet flow was observed in microgravity. This new micro-bubble jet flow is seen at medium to high heat fluxes and is characterized by a region of the wire that forms multiple jet columns which contain micro-bubbles. These columns flow together and penetrate tens of millimeters into the bulk fluid. Bubble behavior on the wire was observed to progress from a dominance of larger isolated bubbles on the wire to a dominance of micro-bubble jet flows on the wire as heat flux was increased. There was also a transient transition from a few large isolated bubbles to micro-bubble jet flow dominance for a set heat flux. A cross correlation calculation provided velocities of micro-bubbles in the flow, which were in the range of 4-14 mm/s. These velocities were used with convection correlations to show that fluid flows induced by jet flows are a significant contributor to the subcooled boiling heat transfer in microgravity, but are not the primary contributor. Additionally, a relative bubble area analysis approximates the direct contribution of these jet flows to the overall heat dissipation. These micro-bubble jet flows, which are only observed on thin wires (not flat surfaces), and the convection currents they induce, have the potential to allow for sustained fluid motion to occur in microgravity.

  6. Solar irradiance at the Earth's surface: long-term behavior observed at the South Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Frederick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines a 17-year database of UV-A (320–400 nm and visible (400–600 nm solar irradiance obtained by a scanning spectroradiometer located at the South Pole. The goal is to define the variability in solar irradiance reaching the polar surface, with emphasis on the influence of cloudiness and on identifying systematic trends and possible links to the solar cycle. To eliminate changes associated with the varying solar elevation, the analysis focuses on data averaged over 30–35 day periods centered on each year's austral summer solstice. The long-term average effect of South Polar clouds is a small attenuation, with the mean measured irradiances being about 5–6% less than the clear-sky values, although at any specific time clouds may reduce or enhance the signal that reaches the sensor. The instantaneous fractional attenuation or enhancement is wavelength dependent, where the percent deviation from the clear-sky irradiance at 400–600 nm is typically 2.5 times that at 320–340 nm. When averaged over the period near each year's summer solstice, significant correlations appear between irradiances at all wavelengths and the solar cycle as measured by the 10.7 cm solar radio flux. An approximate 1.8 ± 1.0% decrease in ground-level irradiance occurs from solar maximum to solar minimum for the wavelength band 320–400 nm. The corresponding decrease for 400–600 nm is 2.4 ± 1.9%. The best-estimate declines appear too large to originate in the sun. If the correlations have a geophysical origin, they suggest a small variation in atmospheric attenuation with the solar cycle over the period of observation, with the greatest attenuation occurring at solar minimum.

  7. The analysis of space time structure in QCD vacuum, I: localization vs global behavior in local observables and Dirac eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Ivan

    2005-03-01

    The structure of QCD vacuum can be studied from first principles using lattice-regularized theory. This line of research entered a qualitatively new phase recently, wherein the space-time structure (at least for some quantities) can be directly observed in configurations dominating the QCD path integral, i.e., without any subjective processing of typical configurations. This approach to QCD vacuum structure does not rely on any proposed picture of QCD vacuum but rather attempts to characterize this structure in a model-independent manner, so that a coherent physical picture of the vacuum can emerge when such unbiased numerical information accumulates to a sufficient degree. An important part of this program is to develop a set of suitable quantitative characteristics describing the space-time structure in a meaningful and physically relevant manner. One of the basic pertinent issues here is whether QCD vacuum dynamics can be understood in terms of localized vacuum objects, or whether such objects behave as inherently global entities. The first direct studies of vacuum structure strongly support the latter. In this paper, we develop a formal framework which allows to answer this question in a quantitative manner. We discuss in detail how to apply this approach to Dirac eigenmodes and to basic scalar and pseudoscalar composites of gauge fields (action density and topological charge density). The approach is illustrated numerically on overlap Dirac zero modes and near-zero modes. This illustrative data provides direct quantitative evidence supporting our earlier arguments for the global nature of QCD Dirac eigenmodes.

  8. Unusual Energetic Particle Behavior in the Depletion Region at > 121 AU observed with LECP on Voyager 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B.; Hill, M. E.; Roelof, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    An outstanding feature of energetic particle observations just before and after crossing into the recently identified "depletion region" at 122 AU has been the organization of the data by pitch angle, revealed by LECP's 360° rotation scheme and the MAG magnetic field direction measurements. Immediately beyond the "heliocliff", the anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) protons at ~3 Mev exhibit faster decay rates along the magnetic field than perpendicular to it. At all distances beyond the heliocliff, galactic cosmic rays (GCR) display general isotropy in all but the direction nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. There is a general and continuing decay in intensities of GCRs at 90° pitch angles, with occasional, time-ordered disruptions, indicative of continuing heliospheric control in this region. In early June, 2013, there was an onset of relativistic electron burst activity with FWHM as small as ~ 6 hours that persisted for ~ 20 days. These electrons appeared ~ 1 month after an outburst of X-class solar flares, suggesting a possible solar origin and hence magnetic connection back to the Sun. In contrast to the GCRs, the electon intensities were essentially isotropic, based on three-day averages. Ion activity in the depletion region is detected above background only in the lowest energy PHA proton channels (E ~ 400 keV). Over the past few months there has been an increase of well over an order of magnitude at these energies, but no change at > 1 Mev. Nor have the heavier species (He, C, O) increased at any energy. It would appear that ACRs are totally absent from the depletion region to this date.

  9. How great was the Great Oxidation Event? Observations from the behavior of redox-sensitive elements in Precambrian glacial tillites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschnig, R. M.; Rudnick, R. L.; McDonough, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    atmosphere. This observation suggests that oxic weathering was insignificant during the entire Paleoproterozoic glacial interval, despite the fact that the GOE occurs relatively early in the stratigraphic record of this glaciation. This suggests that the GOE may have not been as 'great' as previously thought; oxygen concentration in the atmosphere may have remained at the very minimum level required to end the preservation of the mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes but low enough to prevent widespread oxidative weathering of the continental crust.

  10. IN SITU OBSERVATION OF GROWTH BEHAVIOR AND MORPHOLOGY OF DELTA-FERRITE AS FUNCTION OF SOLIDIFICATION RATE IN AN AISI304 STAINLESS STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.F. Liang; C.Q. Wan; J.C. Wu; G.M. Zhu; Y. Yu; Y. Fang

    2006-01-01

    It was presented the in situ observation of growth behavior and morphology of delta-ferrite as a function of solidification rate in an AISI304 stainless steel. The specimens have been solidified and observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy ( CSLM). The δ-phase always appears like cells on the sample surface when critical supercooling occurs, during which the L→δtransformation starts. The solid-liquid (S-L) interface is found to be finger shaped and has no faceted shape. Γ phase appears among δ grains due to partitioning of Ni into the melt during solidification, when solidification rate is higher. The mergence of observed δ cells is possible for the steel sample cooled at 7.5℃/min. The formation of dendrites can be observed on the free surface of the steel sample cooled at 150℃/min. The size of solidified delta grains decreases from 120 to 20-80μm, and the volume fraction of solidified austenite increases with increase in solidification rate from 7.5 to 150℃/min. The relation between the tip radius of δ cell and its growth rate is deduced, and the results agree with the experimental values.

  11. Effects of Iso-Octane/Ethanol Blend Ratios on the Observance of Negative Temperature Coefficient Behavior within the Ignition Quality Tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogin, Gregory E., Jr.; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Osecky, Eric; Zigler, Bradley T.

    2016-12-15

    An ignition delay study investigating the reduction in low temperature heat release (LTHR) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region with increasing ethanol concentration in binary blends of ethanol/isooctane was conducted in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). The IQT is advantageous for studying multi-component fuels such as iso-octane/ethanol which are difficult to study at lower temperatures covering the NTC region in traditional systems (e.g., shock tubes, rapid compression machines, etc.). The high octane numbers and concomitant long ignition delay times of ethanol and iso-octane are ideal for study in the IQT allowing the system to reach a quasi-homogeneous mixture; allowing the effect of fuel chemistry on ignition delay to be investigated with minimal impact from the fuel spray due to the relatively long ignition times. NTC behavior from iso-octane/ethanol blends was observed for the first time using an IQT. Temperature sweeps of iso-octane/ethanol volumetric blends (100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50, and 0/100) were conducted from 623 to 993 K at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 MPa and global equivalence ratios ranging from 0.7 to 1.0. Ignition of the iso-octane/ethanol blends in the IQT was also modeled using a 0-D homogeneous batch reactor model. Significant observations include: (1) NTC behavior was observed for ethanol/iso-octane fuel blends up to 20% ethanol. (2) Ethanol produced shorter ignition delay times than iso-octane in the high temperature region. (3) The initial increase in ethanol from 0% to 10% had a lesser impact on ignition delay than increasing ethanol from 10% to 20%. (4) The 0-D model predicts that at 0.5 and 1.0 MPa ethanol produces the shortest ignition time in the high-temperature regime, as seen experimentally.

  12. Effects of self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Park, Heeok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-esteem improvement program on self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children with observed problematic behaviors. This study is a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-post-test design. A total of 47 fourth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The program was provided for 45 minutes once a week; a total of 12 sessions were completed with a group in the classroom for the experimental group. Child Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire was used to measure problematic behavior. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Questionnaire, and peer attachment was measured using the Inventory of Parent and Attachment. Measuring was performed right after the program was done (post 1) and 1 month after the program was finished (post 2). To compare the differences in self-esteem and peer attachment between groups, repeated measures analysis of variance was used. Most participants in the experimental group were 10 years old (62.5%, range 10-11), male (52.0%) and with middle grade point average (64.0%). The self-esteem scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (F = 26.64, p self-esteem improvement program in this study improved the self-esteem and peer attachment in elementary school children. The self-esteem program helped acknowledge the peer's name and increased their connections. The program needs to be considered as a formal and consistent program. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Cathemerality in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in the spiny forest of Tsimanampetsotsa National Park: camera trap data and preliminary behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle; Cuozzo, Frank; Yamashita, Nayuta; Jacky Youssouf, Ibrahim Antho; Bender, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Cathemerality consists of discrete periods of activity during both the day and night. Though uncommon within Primates, cathemerality is prevalent in some lemur genera, such as Eulemur, Hapalemur, and Prolemur. Several researchers have also reported nighttime activity in Lemur catta, yet these lemurs are generally considered "strictly diurnal". We used behavioral observations and camera traps to examine cathemerality of L. catta at the Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, Madagascar. Nighttime activity occurred throughout the study period (September 2010-April 2011), and correlated with warm overnight temperatures but not daytime temperatures. Animals spent 25% of their daytime active behaviors on the ground, but appeared to avoid the ground at night, with only 5% of their time on the ground. Furthermore, at night, animals spent the majority of their active time feeding (53% nighttime, 43% daytime). These findings imply that both thermoregulation and diet play a role in the adaptive significance of cathemerality. Additionally, predator avoidance may have influenced cathemerality here, in that L. catta may limit nighttime activity as a result of predation threat by forest cats (Felis sp.) or fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). Further data are needed on cathemeral lemurs generally, but particularly in L. catta if we are to fully understand the evolutionary mechanisms of cathemerality in the Lemuridae.

  14. Co-invasion of a Red Sea fish and its ectoparasitic monogenean, Polylabris cf. mamaevi into the Mediterranean: observations on oncomiracidium behavior and infection levels in both seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Diamant, Ariel; Abelson, Avigdor

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated aspects of the biology of the monogenean gill ectoparasite Polylabris cf. mamaevi (Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotyleae) infecting rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus (Forskal) (Teleostei: Siganidae). Both host and parasite are Lessepsian immigrants that have co-invaded the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal. The infection prevalence and mean intensity of the polyopisthocotylean was examined in both native and immigrant host populations and found to be three times greater in the new biogeographical region. In vitro observations on parasite eggs from both areas indicated that hatching occurred almost exclusively in the dark. The reaction of the larval oncomiracidia to water flow and secreted host chemicals indicated that neither Red Sea nor Mediterranean oncomiracidia exposed to waterborne host metabolites displayed any significant response or change in behavior; however, upon encountering flow, they ceased to swim and drifted passively downstream. Host specificity of P. cf. mamaevi may have co-evolved with temporal synchronization of the parasite with the host's diurnal activity. Hatching of P. cf. mamaevi eggs was rhythmical and the timing coincided with the known nocturnal resting behavior of the hosts, when their schools lie immobile on the sea bottom. After hatching, abrupt cessation of active swimming by the oncomiracidia upon sensing host inhalant gill-ventilating currents is likely to facilitate rapid, passive entry into the gill chamber of a suitable host. The greater abundance of P. cf. mamaevi in the invading (Mediterranean) populations is probably due to the changed, new environment, possibly impacting host resistance to the parasite and encouraging heavier infections.

  15. Observation of the Mating Behavior of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Queens Using Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID): Factors Influencing the Duration and Frequency of Nuptial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Ina Monika Margret; Meixner, Marina Doris; Berg, Stefan; Büchler, Ralph

    2014-07-01

    We used radio-frequency identification (RFID) to record the duration and frequency of nuptial flights of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera carnica) at two mainland mating apiaries. We investigated the effect of a number of factors on flight duration and frequency: mating apiary, number of drone colonies, queen's age and temperature. We found significant differences between the two locations concerning the number of flights on the first three days. We also observed an effect of the ambient temperature, with queens flying less often but longer at high temperatures compared to lower temperatures. Increasing the number of drone colonies from 33 to 80 colonies had no effect on the duration or on the frequency of nuptial flights. Since our results agree well with the results of previous studies, we suggest RFID as an appropriate tool to investigate the mating behavior of honey bee queens.

  16. Experimental Observation of Non-'S-Wave' Superconducting Behavior in Bulk Superconducting Tunneling Junctions of Yba2Cu3O7-δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Jose Guerra

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of non-s-wave superconductivity from normal tunneling experiments in bulk tunneling junctions of YBa2Cu3O7-δ is presented. The I-V and dI/dV characteristics of bulk superconducting tunneling junctions of YBa2Cu3O7-δ have been measured at 77.0K and clear deviation from s-wave superconducting behavior has been observed. The result agrees with d-wave symmetry, and interpreting the data in this way, the magnitude of the superconducting energy gap, 2Δ, is found to be (0.038 ± 0.002 eV. Comparing this energy gap with Tc (2Δ/kB Tc = 5.735, indicates that these high-Tc superconductors are strongly correlated materials, which in contrast with BCS-superconductors are believed to be weakly correlated.

  17. Observation of the Mating Behavior of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L. Queens Using Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID: Factors Influencing the Duration and Frequency of Nuptial Flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Monika Margret Heidinger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We used radio-frequency identification (RFID to record the duration and frequency of nuptial flights of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera carnica at two mainland mating apiaries. We investigated the effect of a number of factors on flight duration and frequency: mating apiary, number of drone colonies, queen’s age and temperature. We found significant differences between the two locations concerning the number of flights on the first three days. We also observed an effect of the ambient temperature, with queens flying less often but longer at high temperatures compared to lower temperatures. Increasing the number of drone colonies from 33 to 80 colonies had no effect on the duration or on the frequency of nuptial flights. Since our results agree well with the results of previous studies, we suggest RFID as an appropriate tool to investigate the mating behavior of honey bee queens.

  18. Pain Measurement in Mechanically Ventilated Patients After Cardiac Surgery: Comparison of the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkenberg, Saskia; Stilma, Willemke; Bosman, Robert J; van der Meer, Nardo J; van der Voort, Peter H J

    2017-08-01

    The Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) and Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) are behavioral pain assessment tools for sedated and unconscious critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validation of the BPS and the CPOT simultaneously in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery. A prospective, observational cohort study. A 20-bed closed-format intensive care unit with mixed medical, surgical, and cardiac surgery patients in a teaching hospital in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The study comprised 72 consecutive intubated and mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery who were not able to self-report pain. Two nurses assessed the BPS and CPOT simultaneously and independently at the following 4 moments: rest, a nonpainful procedure (oral care), rest, and a painful procedure (turning). Both scores showed a significant increase of 2 points between rest and turning. The median BPS score of nurse 1 showed a significant increase of 1 point between rest and the nonpainful procedure (oral care), whereas both median CPOT scores did not change. The interrater reliability of the BPS and CPOT showed fair-to-good agreement of 0.74 overall. During the periods of rest 1 and rest 2, values ranged from 0.24 to 0.46. Cronbach's alpha values for the BPS were 0.62 (nurse 1) and 0.59 (nurse 2) compared with 0.65 and 0.58, respectively, for the CPOT. The BPS and CPOT are reliable and valid pain assessment tools in a daily clinical setting. However, the discriminant validation of both scores seems less satisfactory in sedated or agitated patients and this topic requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shallow Chamber & Conduit Behavior of Silicic Magma: A Thermo- and Fluid- Dynamic Parameterization Model of Physical Deformation as Constrained by Geodetic Observations: Case Study; Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn de Rosas, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (SHV) is an active, mainly andesitic and well-studied stratovolcano situated at the northern end of the Lesser Antilles Arc subduction zone in the Caribbean Sea. The goal of our research is to create a high resolution 3D subsurface model of the shallow and deeper aspects of the magma storage and plumbing system at SHV. Our model will integrate inversions using continuous and campaign geodetic observations at SHV from 1995 to the present as well as local seismic records taken at various unrest intervals to construct a best-fit geometry, pressure point source and inflation rate and magnitude. We will also incorporate a heterogeneous media in the crust and use the most contemporary understanding of deep crustal- or even mantle-depth 'hot-zone' genesis and chemical evolution of silicic and intermediate magmas to inform the character of the deep edifice influx. Our heat transfer model will be constructed with a modified 'thin shell' enveloping the magma chamber to simulate the insulating or conducting influence of heat-altered chamber boundary conditions. The final forward model should elucidate observational data preceding and proceeding unrest events, the behavioral suite of magma transport in the subsurface environment and the feedback mechanisms that may contribute to eruption triggering. Preliminary hypotheses suggest wet, low-viscosity residual melts derived from 'hot zones' will ascend rapidly to shallower stall-points and that their products (eventually erupted lavas as well as stalled plutonic masses) will experience and display two discrete periods of shallow evolution; a rapid depressurization crystallization event followed by a slower conduction-controlled heat transfer and cooling crystallization. These events have particular implications for shallow magma behaviors, notably inflation, compressibility and pressure values. Visualization of the model with its inversion constraints will be affected with Com

  20. Aerosol meteorology of Maritime Continent for the 2012 7SEAS southwest monsoon intensive study - Part 2: Philippine receptor observations of fine-scale aerosol behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lagrosas, Nofel D.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Boyd, Thomas J.; Ghate, Virendra P.; Xian, Peng; Posselt, Derek J.; Simpas, James B.; Uy, Sherdon N.; Zaiger, Kimo; Blake, Donald R.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Campbell, James R.; Chew, Boon Ning; Cliff, Steven S.; Holben, Brent N.; Holz, Robert E.; Hyer, Edward J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Kuciauskas, Arunas P.; Lolli, Simone; Oo, Min; Perry, Kevin D.; Salinas, Santo V.; Sessions, Walter R.; Smirnov, Alexander; Walker, Annette L.; Wang, Qing; Yu, Liya; Zhang, Jianglong; Zhao, Yongjing

    2016-11-01

    The largest 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) operations period within the Maritime Continent (MC) occurred in the August-September 2012 biomass burning season. Data included were observations aboard the M/Y Vasco, dispatched to the Palawan Archipelago and Sulu Sea of the Philippines for September 2012. At these locations, the Vasco observed MC smoke and pollution entering the southwest monsoon (SWM) monsoonal trough. Here we describe the research cruise findings and the finer-scale aerosol meteorology of this convectively active region. This 2012 cruise complemented a 2-week cruise in 2011 and was generally consistent with previous findings in terms of how smoke emission and transport related to monsoonal flows, tropical cyclones (TC), and the covariance between smoke transport events and the atmosphere's thermodynamic structure. Biomass burning plumes were usually mixed with significant amounts of anthropogenic pollution. Also key to aerosol behavior were squall lines and cold pools propagating across the South China Sea (SCS) and scavenging aerosol particles in their path. However, the 2012 cruise showed much higher modulation in aerosol frequency than its 2011 counterpart. Whereas in 2011 large synoptic-scale aerosol events transported high concentrations of smoke into the Philippines over days, in 2012 measured aerosol events exhibited a much shorter-term variation, sometimes only 3-12 h. Strong monsoonal flow reversals were also experienced in 2012. Nucleation events in cleaner and polluted conditions, as well as in urban plumes, were observed. Perhaps most interestingly, several cases of squall lines preceding major aerosol events were observed, as opposed to 2011 observations where these lines largely scavenged aerosol particles from the marine boundary layer. Combined, these observations indicate pockets of high and low particle counts that are not uncommon in the region. These perturbations are difficult to observe by satellite and very difficult to model

  1. First INTEGRAL observations of V404 Cygni during the 2015 outburst : spectral behavior in the 20 - 650 keV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Roques, Jean-Pierre; Bazzano, Angela; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission, and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability, and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low energy component (up to ~ 200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons ($kT_0$ ~ 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400-600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law co...

  2. Functional behavior of the anomalous magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-δ samples showing the paramagnetic Meissner effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F. T.; Vieira, V. N.; Garcia, E. L.; Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E.; Gouvêa, C. P.; Schaf, J.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.; Roa, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the functional behavior of the field-cooled (FC) magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) samples with 30 wt% of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (Y211) phase, in order to investigate anomalous paramagnetic moments observed during the experiments. FC magnetic relaxation experiments were performed under controlled conditions, such as cooling rate and temperature. Magnetic fields up to 5T were applied parallel to the ab plane and along the c-axis. Our results are associated with the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), characterized by positive moments during FC experiments, and related to the magnetic flux compression into the samples. After different attempts our experimental data could be adequately fitted by an exponential decay function with different relaxation times. We discuss our results suggesting the existence of different and preferential flux dynamics governing the anomalous FC paramagnetic relaxation in different time intervals. This work is one of the first attempts to interpret this controversial effect in a simple analysis of the pinning mechanisms and flux dynamics acting during the time evolution of the magnetic moment. However, the results may be useful to develop models to explain this interesting and still misunderstood feature of the paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  3. FIRST INTEGRAL OBSERVATIONS OF V404 CYGNI DURING THE 2015 OUTBURST: SPECTRAL BEHAVIOR IN THE 20–650 KeV ENERGY RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roques, Jean-Pierre; Jourdain, Elisabeth [Université Toulouse, UPS-OMP, CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse (France); Bazzano, Angela; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma, Italy (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    In 2015 June, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low-energy component (up to ∼200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons (kT{sub 0} ∼ 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400–600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law could correspond to the contribution of the jet synchrotron emission, as proposed in Cyg X-1. A search for an annihilation feature did not provide any firm detection, with an upper limit of 2 × 10{sup −4} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (2σ) for a narrow line centered at 511 keV, on the averaged obtained spectrum.

  4. First INTEGRAL Observations of V404 Cygni during the 2015 Outburst: Spectral Behavior in the 20-650 keV Energy Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Jean-Pierre; Jourdain, Elisabeth; Bazzano, Angela; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ubertini, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    In 2015 June, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low-energy component (up to ˜200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons (kT0 ˜ 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400-600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law could correspond to the contribution of the jet synchrotron emission, as proposed in Cyg X-1. A search for an annihilation feature did not provide any firm detection, with an upper limit of 2 × 10-4 ph cm-2 s-1 (2σ) for a narrow line centered at 511 keV, on the averaged obtained spectrum. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland), Czech Republic, and Poland with the participation of Russia and USA.

  5. A pilot investigation of the Motivation Behaviors Checklist (MBC): An observational rating scale of effort towards testing for baseline sports-concussion assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Merritt, Victoria; Arnett, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    Baseline neuropsychological testing is commonly used in the management of sports-related concussion. However, underperformance due to poor effort could lead to invalid conclusions regarding postconcussion cognitive decline. We designed the Motivation Behaviors Checklist (MBC) as an observational rating scale to assess effort towards baseline neuropsychological testing. Here we present preliminary data in support of its reliability and validity. MBC items were generated based on the consensus of a panel of graduate students, undergraduates, and a clinical neuropsychologist who conduct neuropsychological evaluations for a sports concussion management program. A total of 261 college athletes were administered a standard neuropsychological test battery in addition to the MBC. A subset of evaluations (n= 101) was videotape and viewed by a second rater. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to refine the scale, and reliability and validity were evaluated. EFA revealed that the MBC items represent four latent factors-Complaints, Poor Focus, Psychomotor Agitation, and Impulsivity. Reliability analyses demonstrated that the MBC has good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = .767) and internal consistency (α = .839). The construct validity of the MBC is supported by large correlations with examiners' ratings of effort (ρ = -.623) and medium-sized relationships with cognitive performance and self-ratings of effort (|ρ| between .263 and .345). Discriminant validity was supported by nonsignificant correlations with measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (ρ = .056 and .082, respectively). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the MBC could be a useful adjunct to baseline neuropsychological evaluations for sports-concussion management.

  6. Failure to capitalize on sharing good news with romantic partners: Exploring positivity deficits of socially anxious people with self-reports, partner-reports, and behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Ferssizidis, Patty; Farmer, Antonina S; Adams, Leah M; McKnight, Patrick E

    2013-10-01

    Extending prior work on social anxiety and positivity deficits, we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety alter the ability to share and respond to the good news of romantic partners (i.e., capitalization support) and how this influences romantic relationship satisfaction and commitment. In this study of 174 heterosexual couples (average age of 21.5 with 58.3% identifying as Caucasian), greater social anxiety was associated with the provision and receipt of less supportive responses to shared positive events as measured by trait questionnaires, partner reports, and behavioral observations in the laboratory. In longitudinal analyses, individuals in romantic relationships with socially anxious partners who experienced inadequate capitalization support were more likely to terminate their relationship and report a decline in relationship quality six months later. As evidence of construct specificity, social anxiety effects were independent of depressive symptoms. Taken together, social anxiety influenced a person's ability to receive and provide support for shared positive events; these deficits had adverse romantic consequences. Researchers and clinicians may better understand social anxiety by exploring a wider range of interpersonal contexts and positive constructs. The addition of capitalization support to the social anxiety literature offers new insights into interpersonal approaches and treatments.

  7. In situ observation of austenite grain growth behavior in the simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zone of Ti-microalloyed steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-liang Wan; Kai-ming Wu; Gang Huang; Ran Wei; Lin Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The austenite grain growth behavior in a simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zone during thermal cycling was investigated via in situ observation. Austenite grains nucleated at ferrite grain boundaries and then grew in different directions through movement of grain boundaries into the ferrite phase. Subsequently, the adjacent austenite grains impinged against each other during theα→γtransformation. After theα→γtransformation, austenite grains coarsened via the coalescence of small grains and via boundary migration between grains. The growth process of austenite grains was a continuous process during heating, isothermal holding, and cooling in simulated thermal cy-cling. Abundant finely dispersed nanoscale TiN particles in a steel specimen containing 0.012wt%Ti effectively retarded the grain boundary migration, which resulted in refined austenite grains. When the Ti concentration in the steel was increased, the number of TiN particles de-creased and their size coarsened. The big particles were not effective in pinning the austenite grain boundary movement and resulted in coarse austenite grains.

  8. Interaction versus Observation: distinctive modes of social cognition in human brain and behavior? A combined fMRI and eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian eTylen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has usually been approached on the level of individual minds and brains, but social interaction is a challenging case. Is it best thought of as a self-contained individual cognitive process aiming at an ‘understanding of the other’, or should it rather be approached as an collective, inter-personal process where individual cognitive components interact on a moment-to-moment basis to form coupled dynamics? In a combined fMRI and eye tracking study we directly contrasted these models of social cognition. We found that the perception of situations affording social contingent responsiveness (e.g. someone offering or showing you an object elicited activations in regions of the right posterior temporal sulcus and yielded greater pupil dilation corresponding to a model of coupled dynamics (joint action. In contrast, the social-cognitive perception of someone ‘privately’ manipulating an object elicited activation in medial prefrontal cortex, the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal lobus, regions normally associated with Theory of Mind and with the mirror neuron system. Our findings support a distinction in social cognition between social observation and social interaction, and demonstrate that simple ostensive cues may shift participants’ experience, behavior and brain activity between these modes. The identification of a distinct, interactive mode has implications for research on social cognition, both in everyday life and in clinical conditions.

  9. A Preliminary Investigation Examining the Use of Minor Discipline Referral Data to Identify Students at Risk for Behavioral Difficulties: Observations within Systems of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Within multitiered behavioral frameworks such as schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS), it is recommended that schools use multiple sources of data to identify students at risk who may benefit from additional intervention. To date, much of the research in this area has focused on examining either systematic screening…

  10. Antiepileptic effect of fisetin in iron-induced experimental model of traumatic epilepsy in rats in the light of electrophysiological, biochemical, and behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jharana; Singh, Rameshwar; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic epilepsy is defined by episodes of recurring seizures secondary to severe brain injury. Though drugs are found effective to control seizures, their long-term use have been observed to increase reactive oxygen species in animals. Flavonoid fisetin, a natural bioactive phytonutrient reported to exert anticonvulsive effect in experimental seizure models. But, trauma-induced seizures could not be prevented by anticonvulsants was reported in some clinical studies. To study the effect of fisetin on epileptiform electrographic activity in iron-induced traumatic epilepsy and also the probable reason behind the effect in rats. Fisetin pretreatment (20 mg/kg body wt., p.o.) of rats for 12 weeks were chosen followed by injecting iron (5 µl, 100 mM) stereotaxically to generate iron-induced epilepsy. Experimental design include electrophysiological study (electroencephalograph in correlation with multiple unit activity (MUA) in the cortex and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus; spectral analysis of seizure and seizure-associated behavioral study (Morris water maze for spatial learning, open-field test for anxiety) and biochemical study (lipid peroxidation, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity) in both the cortex and the hippocampus. Fisetin pretreatment was found to prevent the development of iron-induced electrical seizure and decrease the corresponding MUA in the cortex (*P˂0.05) as well as in the hippocampus (***P˂0.001). Fisetin pretreatment decreased the lipid peroxides (*P˂0.05) and retained the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity (*P˂0.05) which was found altered in the epileptic animals and also found to attenuate the seizure-associated cognitive dysfunctions. This study demonstrated the antiepileptic action of fisetin in iron-induced model of epileptic rats by inhibiting oxidative stress.

  11. Noninvasive in vivo plasma volume and hematocrit in humans: observing long-term baseline behavior to establish homeostasis for intravascular volume and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Paul; Deng, Bin; Goodisman, Jerry; Peterson, Charles M.; Narsipur, Sriram; Chaiken, J.

    2016-04-01

    A new device incorporating a new algorithm and measurement process allows simultaneous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and red blood cell volume. The purely optical technique involves probing fingertip skin with near infrared laser light and collecting the wavelength shifted light, that is, the inelastic emission (IE) which includes the unresolved Raman and fluorescence, and the un-shifted emission, that is, the elastic emission (EE) which includes both the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light. Our excitation and detection geometry is designed so that from these two simultaneous measurements we can calculate two parameters within the single scattering regime using radiation transfer theory, the intravascular plasma volume fraction and the red blood cell volume fraction. Previously calibrated against a gold standard FDA approved device, 2 hour monitoring sessions on three separate occasions over a three week span for a specific, motionless, and mostly sleeping individual produced 3 records containing a total of 5706 paired measurements of hematocrit and plasma volume. The average over the three runs, relative to the initial plasma volume taken as 100%, of the plasma volume±1σ was 97.56+/-0.55 or 0.56%.For the same three runs, the average relative hematocrit (Hct), referenced to an assumed initial value of 28.35 was 29.37+/-0.12 or stable to +/-0.4%.We observe local deterministic circulation effects apparently associated with the pressure applied by the finger probe as well as longer timescale behavior due to normal ebb and flow of internal fluids due to posture changes and tilt table induced gravity gradients.

  12. Hygroscopic behavior of NaCl-MgCl2 mixture particles as nascent sea-spray aerosol surrogates and observation of efflorescence during humidifying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D.; Eom, H.-J.; Cho, H.-R.; Ro, C.-U.

    2015-07-01

    NaCl and MgCl2 are the two major constituents of seawater, so NaCl-MgCl2 mixture particles can be a better representative of sea-spray aerosols (SSAs) than pure NaCl. However, there have been very few hygroscopic studies of pure MgCl2 and NaCl-MgCl2 mixture aerosol particles despite the MgCl2 moiety playing a major role in the hygroscopic behavior of nascent SSAs. Laboratory-generated pure MgCl2 and NaCl-MgCl2 mixture aerosol particles with 12 mixing ratios (0.01 ≤ mole fraction of NaCl (XNaCl) ≤ 0.9) were examined systematically by optical microscopy, in-situ Raman microspectrometry (RMS), and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX) elemental X-ray mapping to observe their hygroscopic behavior, derive the experimental phase diagrams, and obtain the chemical micro-structures. Dry-deposited MgCl2·6H2O particles exhibited a deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of ∼ 33.0 % and an efflorescence RH (ERH) of 10.8-9.1 %, whereas the nebulized pure MgCl2 and MgCl2-dominant particles of XNaCl = 0.026 (eutonic) and 0.01 showed single-stage transitions at DRH of ∼ 15.9 % and ERH of 10.1-3.2 %. The characteristic OH-stretching Raman signatures indicated the crystallization of MgCl2·4H2O at low RHs, suggesting that the kinetic barrier to MgCl2·6H2O crystallization is not overcome in the timescale of the dehydration measurements. The NaCl-MgCl2 mixture particles of 0.05 ≤ XNaCl ≤ 0.9 generally showed two-stage deliquescence: first at the mutual DRH (MDRH) of ~ 15.9 %; and second with the complete dissolution of NaCl at the second DRHs depending on the mixing ratios, resulting in a phase diagram composed of three distinct phases. During dehydration, most particles of 0.05 ≤ XNaCl ≤ 0.9 exhibited two-stage efflorescence: first, by the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl; and second, at mutual ERH (MERH) of ∼ 10.4-2.9 %, by the crystallization of the MgCl2·4H2O moiety, also resulting in three distinct phases. Interestingly

  13. Hygroscopic behavior of NaCl-MgCl2 mixture particles as nascent sea-spray aerosol surrogates and observation of efflorescence during humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D.; Eom, H.-J.; Cho, H.-R.; Ro, C.-U.

    2015-10-01

    As Na+, Mg2+, and Cl- are major ionic constituents of seawater, NaCl-MgCl2 mixture particles might represent sea-spray aerosols (SSAs) better than pure NaCl. However, there have been very few hygroscopic studies of pure MgCl2 and NaCl-MgCl2 mixture aerosol particles despite the MgCl2 moiety playing a major role in the hygroscopic behavior of nascent SSAs. Laboratory-generated pure MgCl2 and NaCl-MgCl2 mixture aerosol particles with 12 mixing ratios (0.01 ≤ mole fraction of NaCl (XNaCl) ≤ 0.9) were examined systematically by optical microscopy (OM), in situ Raman micro-spectrometry (RMS), and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX) elemental X-ray mapping to observe their hygroscopic behavior, derive the experimental phase diagrams, and obtain the chemical micro-structures. Dry-deposited MgCl2 ⋅ 6H2O particles exhibited a deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of ~ 33.0 % and an efflorescence RH (ERH) of 10.8-9.1 %, whereas the nebulized pure MgCl2 and MgCl2-dominant particles of XNaCl = 0.026 (eutonic) and 0.01 showed single-stage transitions at DRH of ~ 15.9 % and ERH of 10.1-3.2 %. The characteristic OH-stretching Raman signatures indicated the crystallization of MgCl2 ⋅ 4H2O at low relative humidities (RHs), suggesting that the kinetic barrier to MgCl2 ⋅ 6H2O crystallization is not overcome in the timescale of the dehydration measurements. The NaCl-MgCl2 mixture particles of 0.05 ≤ XNaCl ≤ 0.9 generally showed two-stage deliquescence: first at the mutual DRH (MDRH) of ~ 15.9 %; and second with the complete dissolution of NaCl at the second DRHs depending on the mixing ratios, resulting in a phase diagram composed of three distinct phases. During dehydration, most particles of 0.05 ≤ XNaCl ≤ 0.9 exhibited two-stage efflorescence: first, by the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl; and second, at mutual ERH (MERH) of ~ 10.4-2.9 %, by the crystallization of the MgCl2 ⋅ 4H2O moiety, also resulting in three distinct

  14. Behavioral observations of grazing sheep in the Cerrado biome of Federal DistrictObservações comportamentais de ovinos em pastejo no bioma Cerrado do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juaci Vitória Malaquias

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of animal behavior under grazing in different biomes is an alternative to increase production because it identifies possibilities of strategic interventions in the management. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the average time of grazing, ruminating and leisure are related to the position (station/decubitus, to the location (sun or shade, as well as the influence of gender in these interactions in Santa Inês sheep in Cerrado from Federal District, Brazil. To obtain the data, the behavior of the animals was assessed by visual observations at ten-minute intervals over a period of ten hours on two consecutive days. From the data obtained were analysis of variance and comparisons between means by Tukey test with significance level of 5%. The result of this study showed that the average time of grazing, ruminating and leisure in Santa Inês sheep, are related to the position (station/decubitus and location (sun and shade. No significant differences were identified in relation to time spent in the activity of grazing, ruminating and leisure between Santa Inês sheep males and females. O conhecimento do comportamento animal sob pastejo em diferentes biomas é uma alternativa para o incremento na produção, pois identifica possibilidades de intervenções estratégicas no manejo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar se o tempo médio de pastejo, ruminação e ócio estão relacionados com a posição (estação/decúbito, com o local (sob sol ou sombra, bem como a influência do sexo nestas interações em ovinos da raça Santa Inês no bioma Cerrado do Distrito Federal. Para a obtenção dos dados, o comportamento dos animais foi avaliado por observações visuais em intervalos de dez minutos num período de dez horas, em dois dias consecutivos. A partir dos dados obtidos foram realizadas as análises de variância e comparações entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey com nível de significância de 5%. O resultado deste

  15. ISBNPA 2007: Marketing, serious games and nanny states. Observations from the sixth annual meeting of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Oslo 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brug Johannes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary paper provides a selective overview of topics addressed at the sixth annual meeting of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA. With 31 symposiums, 42 free paper sessions and 236 poster presentations ISBNPA 2007 provided a comprehensive overview of the state of the art and of new avenues for behavioral nutrition and physical activity research. Research presented at the conference helps to identify and specify important nutrition and physical activity behaviors for health promotion, as well as the correlates, predictors and determinants of these behaviors, and to build and test intervention strategies that go beyond traditional health education. ISBNPA 2007 also indicates that ISBNPA should strive to become more international by inclusion of more scientists from countries outside North America, Western Europe and Australia. ISBNPA should maintain its encouragement of research that is firmly rooted in behavioral theory and research that goes beyond applying cross-sectional research designs, and that addresses the most important public health issues associated with behavioral nutrition and physical activity.

  16. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  17. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  18. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are reconstructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  19. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are re-constructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  20. Tiny Event, Big Effect: Relationships between Drivers' Justice Perception and Drivers' Rule-Observing Behaviors%小事件、大影响:公平感知觉与规则驾驶行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靖宇; 谢晓非; 葛瑜

    2012-01-01

    从公平感知觉这个新的角度探讨驾驶员规则驾驶行为。运用情境问卷和量表测量的方法明确区分事件公平感和社会实体公平感,分别探讨它们对于驾驶员规则驾驶行为的效应。研究发现,驾驶员对单一情境的事件公平感知觉以及对整体交通环境的社会实体公平感知觉都与规则驾驶行为存在显著关系,知觉到的公平感越高,规则驾驶行为得分越高;同时,个体的事件公平感知觉通过社会实体公平感知觉的中介作用对规则驾驶行为产生影响。%The study explored drivers' rule-observing behaviors from a new perspective drivers' justice perception. The authors developed scenario questionnaire and scales to distinguish event justice perception from social entity justice perception, and explored the effects of both kinds of justice perception on drivers' rule-observing behaviors. The results show that drivers' event justice perception of a single incident and social entity justice perception of the whole transportation environment are both significantly correlated with drivers' rule-observing behaviors. The more justice people perceived, the higher scores they got in rule-observing behaviors questionnaire. The relationship between event justice perception and rule-observing behaviors is mediated by the social entity justice.

  1. Children’s Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess: A Pilot Study Using GPS, Accelerometer, Participant Observation, and Go-Along Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    who preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate chil- dren’s physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development...

  2. Observer's observables. Residual diffeomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Duch, Paweł; Świeżewski, Jedrzej

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the fate of diffeomorphisms when the radial gauge is imposed in canonical general relativity. As shown elsewhere, the radial gauge is closely related to the observer's observables. These observables are invariant under a large subgroup of diffeomorphisms which results in their usefulness for canonical general relativity. There are, however, some diffeomorphisms, called residual diffeomorphisms, which might be "observed" by the observer as they do not preserve her observables. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of these diffeomorphisms in the case of the spatial and spacetime radial gauges. Although the residual diffeomorphisms do not form a subgroup of all diffeomorphisms, we show that their induced action in the phase space does form a group. We find the generators of the induced transformations and compute the structure functions of the algebras they form. The obtained algebras are deformations of the algebra of the Euclidean group and the algebra of the Poincar\\'e group in the spat...

  3. Research and Effect Observation of ICU Visiting Behavior Management%ICU探视行为管理的研究与效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雯; 谢超; 孙红果; 付娟; 杨琴燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the Intensive Care Unit(ICU) visiting behavior management measures and its effects.Method:A total of 223 cases of critically ill patients who were given regulating ICU visiting behavior management from our hospital during July 2014 to December 2014 were seleted as the study group,212 cases of critically ill patients who were given conventional ICU visiting behavior management from our hospital during January 2014 to June 2014 were seleted as the control group,the nursing effects of two groups were compared. Result:The paranoid symptoms,anxiety symptoms,depression symptoms,interpersonal sensitivity symptom and forced symptoms SCL-90 scores of awake patients in the study group were significantly lower than those of awake patients in the control group(P<0.05).The family satisfaction rate and nursing service praise rate of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05).The nursing service complaints rate of the study group was significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Regulating ICU visiting behavior management helps significantly improving the psychological state of critically ill patients,and improving nursing satisfaction and nursing quality,it is worthy of clinical popularization and application.%目的:探讨重症监护室(ICU)探视行为管理对策及其效果。方法:选取2014年7-12月本院采用规范ICU探视行为管理的危重症患者223例作为研究组,选取2014年1-6月本院采用常规ICU探视行为管理的危重症患者212例作为对照组,比较两组护理效果。结果:研究组清醒患者偏执症状、焦虑症状、抑郁症状、人际敏感性症状与强迫症状的SCL-90评分均明显低于对照组清醒患者,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。研究组家属满意率与护理服务表扬率明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。研究组护理服务投诉率明显低于对照组,

  4. Observations on the nesting behavior of two agenielline spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae in Hong Kong, China: Macromerella honesta (Smith and an Auplopus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Barthelemy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Field observations and rearing observations of five nests of Macromerella honesta (Smith and four nests of Auplopus sp. were carried out in Hong Kong, China, in 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2012.Nests of Macromerella honesta were composed of two rows of exposed ovoid mud cells, affixed to broad leafs while nests of Auplopus sp. were constructed as variable masses of mortar affixed to a linear substrate (thorns, wire-mesh, etc. Cells of the nests of Auplopus sp. were more or less cylindrical and covered with a layer of hardened mud finished with a plant gum coating. Both species used a single dismembered spider, transported ventrally to the nesting site, for cell provisioning. Active guarding was observed at all nesting sites. Overlap of generation was also recorded with active nest cooperation (construction and prey provisioning between individuals of different generations on the same nesting site. The two species were inferred to be at least bivoltine in Hong Kong.

  5. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which…

  6. A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF INTERACTION PATTERNS OF A PSYCHIATRIST AND SEVERELY DEPRESSED-PATIENTS BASED ON OBSERVED BEHAVIOR - AN ETHOLOGICAL APPROACH OF INTERPERSONAL THEORIES OF DEPRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOUHUYS, AL; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1993-01-01

    Observed behaviour of a psychiatrist interacting with severely depressed patients during an interview was related to the course of depression during hospitalization. The behavioural structure of such interaction could be described by 6 factors for the patients and 7 factors for the psychiatrist. The

  7. A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF INTERACTION PATTERNS OF A PSYCHIATRIST AND SEVERELY DEPRESSED-PATIENTS BASED ON OBSERVED BEHAVIOR - AN ETHOLOGICAL APPROACH OF INTERPERSONAL THEORIES OF DEPRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOUHUYS, AL; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1993-01-01

    Observed behaviour of a psychiatrist interacting with severely depressed patients during an interview was related to the course of depression during hospitalization. The behavioural structure of such interaction could be described by 6 factors for the patients and 7 factors for the psychiatrist. The

  8. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which…

  9. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  10. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvalán Camila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. Results We found a direct correlation (p Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children.

  11. Nano-scale observation on the transformation behavior and mechanical stability of individual retained austenite in CMnSiAl TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyoung Seok, E-mail: pinekiss@postech.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jong Chan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Nam Suk [Technical Research Center, POSCO, Pohang 790-300 (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Jae-Bok [Max-Planck-Institute for Eisenforshung, Dusseldorf (Germany); Park, Chan Gyung, E-mail: cgpark@postech.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute for Nanomaterials Technology (NINT), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-11

    In the present study, the effects of microstructure, chemical composition on the transformation behavior and mechanical stability of individual retained austenite (RA) with the different sizes and morphology in TRIP steels were intensively investigated. In order to characterize the property of the individual RA, various analytical techniques including atom probe tomography (APT), step-wise straining EBSD and nano-indentation were applied. The blocky type RA as we categorized have many defects and lower carbon contents (~25%) compared to film type RA. And also, step-wise straining EBSD and nano-indentation results revealed that the mechanical stability of blocky type RA was lower than that of film type RA which means blocky type RA would be easily transformed into martensite. It is considered that many defects existing in blocky type RA could work as the nucleation site of martensite transformation. In contrast, high carbon contents and hard phases enclosing film type RA would increase the resistance to shear transformation resulting in the inhibition of transformation of RA to martensite.

  12. Observer Ratings of Interpersonal Behavior as Predictors of Aggression and Self-Harm in a High-Security Sample of Male Forensic Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernham, Zarah; Tapp, James; Moore, Estelle

    2016-05-01

    Incidents of aggression and self-harm in forensic mental health inpatient settings present a significant challenge to practitioners in terms of safely managing and reducing the harm they cause. Research has been conducted to explore the possible predictors of these incidents and has identified a range of environmental, situational, and individual risk factors. However, despite the often interpersonal nature of the majority of aggressive incidents, few studies have investigated forensic inpatient interpersonal styles as predictors of aggression and even fewer have explored the potential interpersonal function of self-harming behaviors. The current study investigated the predictive validity of the Chart of Interpersonal Reactions in Closed Living Environments (CIRCLE) for incidents of verbal and physical aggression, and self-harm recorded from 204 high-secure forensic inpatients. Means comparisons, correlations, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were conducted on recorded incident data at 12, 24, and 48 months following baseline assessment using the CIRCLE. Dominant and coercive interpersonal styles were significant predictors of aggression, and a coercive interpersonal style was a significant predictor of self-harm, over the recorded time periods. When categorizing the inpatients on the basis of short- and long-term admissions, these findings were only replicated for inpatients with shorter lengths of stay. The findings support previous research which has demonstrated the benefits of assessing interpersonal style for the purposes of risk planning and management of forensic inpatients. The predictive value may be time-limited in terms of stage of admission.

  13. Research on behavior safety management manner based on safety training observation program (STOP)%基于安全培训观察程序(STOP)的行为安全管理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚有利

    2013-01-01

    For the conventional safety management in coal mines,the behavior safety man-agement usually pays attention on the assessment of person's responsibility and then take actions by imposing a fine,which is dehumanization for the unsafe behavior management.In view of the actual situation of coal mines in China,the following respects were designed according to the practicability and operability on the basis of STOP method,including the foundation of safe be-havior committee,the establishment of unsafe behavior data base,the design of STOP observa-tion form,the manner training,the determination of observed people and manner,the treatment of behavioral observation data and statistical analysis,feedback measures and so on.This man-agement manner was applied to Datong Coal Mine Group,and the obtained experience was sum-marized and discussed too.%针对传统煤矿安全管理工作中,行为安全管理侧重追究人的责任、主要依赖于罚款措施、对不安全行为的管理不够人性化等问题,结合我国煤矿实际,从实用性、可操作性角度出发,在STOP方法基础上,从安全行为委员会的设立、不安全行为数据库的建立、STOP观察表的设计、方法培训、确定观察人员和方法、行为观察数据的处理与统计分析、反馈措施等方面考虑进行了相应的设计。并在同煤集团进行了实施应用,对取得的经验进行了总结探讨。

  14. Investigating the Geomorphic Behavior of the Cape Canaveral Coast Through High-Resolution Beach Monitoring, Sediment Analysis, Oceanographic Observations, and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Jaeger, J. M.; MacKenzie, R. A.; Kline, S. W.; Maibauer, B. J.; Plant, N. G.; Gravens, M. B.; Pierro, T. P.; Shaffer, J.

    2011-12-01

    The salient of Cape Canaveral interrupts a relatively straight, sandy, passive margin coastline that extends nearly 400 km from the St. Johns River mouth to the St. Lucie Inlet along the Florida Atlantic coast. OSL dating indicates that the modern cape has been prograding rapidly since the LGM and subtle topographic features, inland from the modern cape, suggest that this salient has persisted over several sea level cycles since the early Pleistocene. Dynamic shoreline change over the past decade at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is threatening critical NASA infrastructure and has prompted officials to develop a mitigation strategy through a partnership among researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, private coastal engineering firms, and the University of Florida. Since May 2009, the research team has assembled data on decadal to event-scale shoreline change (dGPS), beach and nearshore morphodynamics (dGPS and Argus), beach sedimentary character (grain size analysis), wave climate and transformation (ADCP), and inner shelf bathymetry (Echo Sounding) in an effort to assess dune vulnerability and flooding risk. In addition, SWAN numerical modeling simulations offer insight into the influence of irregular bathymetry (cape-associated shoals) on the alteration of spatial patterns of wave energy flux during a decadal shift in deep-water wave climate. Beach-fx, modeling of cross-shore profile evolution is being applied to evaluate the performance of alternative protective measures, estimate project costs, and examine ecological influences of the proposed alternative protective measures. By combining contemporaneous data of coastal geomorphic and sedimentary response to wave forcing with numerical model results that explore a range of climate scenarios, we aim to develop a useful understanding of the coastal geomorphic behavior at KSC that can be used to make a mitigation recommendation.

  15. Construction of behavioral observation scale for appraising the performance of charge nurses of class three hospital%三级医院护士长绩效考评行为观察量表的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高静; 成翼娟

    2009-01-01

    目的 运用关键事件技术对四川省三级医院的护士长岗位进行工作分析,开发护士长绩效考评行为观察量表.方法 运用关键事件技术访谈56名护理管理者收集到498件关键事件,归类获得15项考评指标、169个行为项目的 原始量表.48位考评者以五级利克特标度为基础对190名护士长进行预试考评,用项目分析筛选得到12项考评指标、54个行为项目的 正式行为观察量表.48位考评者用正式量表对192名护士长进行实测以检验其信度和效度.结果 该量表Cronbach's α系数在0.65~0.93,量表的重测信度在0.50~0.76;因子分析根据特征根>1的原则抽取了9个因子,累积贡献率68%.结论 基于关键事件技术的工作分析开发的护士长绩效考评行为观察量表具有良好的信度和效度.%Objective Based on a job analysis known as the Critical Incident Technique, this study is to develop a behavioral observation scale (BOS) for appraising the performance of charge nurses of class three hospital in Sichuan province. Methods First, 56 charge nurses and supervisors were interviewed by using the Critical Incident Technique and 498 incidents were reported.Then the 498 incidents were cate-gorized into15 criteria and 169 behavior items which formed one original BOS. 48 supervisors preexamined,on a five-point Likert scale as to the frequency, 190 charge nurses who were engaged in the behavior de-scribed by each incident. According to the item analysis above, 12 performance criteria and 54 behavioral items came out to form a formal behavioral observation scale for appraising performance of charge nurses Fi-nally,to test the reliability and validity of behavioral observation scale, 192 charge nurses were put under re-al test. Results The Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged between 0.65 and 0.93. The retest reliability ranged from 0.50 to 0.76. Factor Analysis: 9 factors with eigenvalue greater than one were selected and ac

  16. Cell behavior observation and gene expression analysis of melanoma associated with stromal fibroblasts in a three-dimensional magnetic cell culture array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Mina; Matsumura, Taku; Yamamoto, And Shuhei; Nakayama, Eiichi; Jimbow, Kowichi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid culture array has been fabricated using a magnetic force-based cell patterning method, analyzing the effect of stromal fibroblast on the invasive capacity of melanoma. Formation of spheroids was observed when array-like multicellular patterns of melanoma were developed using a pin-holder device made of magnetic soft iron and an external magnet, which enables the assembly of the magnetically labeled cells on the collagen gel-coated surface as array-like cell patterns. The interaction of fibroblast on the invasion of melanoma was investigated using three types of cell interaction models: (i) fibroblasts were magnetically labeled and patterned together in array with melanoma spheroids (direct-interaction model), (ii) fibroblasts coexisting in the upper collagen gel (indirect-interaction model) of melanoma spheroids, and (iii) fibroblast-sheets coexisting under melanoma spheroids (fibroblast-sheet model). The fibroblast-sheet model has largely increased the invasive capacity of melanoma, and the promotion of adhesion, migration, and invasion were also observed. In the fibroblast-sheet model, the expression of IL-8 and MMP-2 increased by 24-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in real time RT-PCR compared to the absence of fibroblasts. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of fibroblast interaction to invasive capacity of melanoma in the 3D in vitro bioengineered tumor microenvironment.

  17. Simultaneous Multi-Wavelength Observations of Magnetic Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs. I. The Complex Behavior of the M8.5 Dwarf TVLM513-46546

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Giampapa, M S; Rutledge, R E; Liebert, J; Martin, E; Basri, G; Fleming, T A; Johns-Krull, C M; Phan-Bao, N; Sherry, W H

    2007-01-01

    [Abridged] We present the first simultaneous radio, X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical spectroscopic observations of the M8.5 dwarf TVLM513-46546, with a duration of 9 hours. These observations are part of a program to study the origin of magnetic activity in ultracool dwarfs, and its impact on chromospheric and coronal emission. Here we detect steady quiescent radio emission superposed with multiple short-duration, highly polarized flares; there is no evidence for periodic bursts previously reported for this object, indicating their transient nature. We also detect soft X-ray emission, with L_X/L_bol~10^-4.9, the faintest to date for any object later than M5, and a possible weak X-ray flare. TVLM513-46546 continues the trend of severe violation of the radio/X-ray correlation in ultracool dwarfs, by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. From the optical spectroscopy we find that the Balmer line luminosity exceeds the X-ray luminosity by a factor of a few, suggesting that, unlike in early M dwarfs, chromospheric heating ...

  18. The Analysis of Space-Time Structure in QCD Vacuum I: Localization vs Global Behavior in Local Observables and Dirac Eigenmodes

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, I

    2004-01-01

    The structure of QCD vacuum can be studied from first principles using lattice-regularized theory. This line of research entered a qualitatively new phase recently, wherein the space-time structure (at least for some quantities) can be directly observed in configurations dominating the QCD path integral, i.e. without any subjective processing of typical configurations. This approach to QCD vacuum structure does not rely on any proposed picture of QCD vacuum but rather attempts to characterize this structure in a model-independent manner, so that a coherent physical picture of the vacuum can emerge when such unbiased numerical information accumulates to a sufficient degree. An important part of this program is to develop a set of suitable quantitative characteristics describing the space-time structure in a meaningful and physically relevant manner. One of the basic pertinent issues here is whether QCD vacuum dynamics can be understood in terms of localized vacuum objects, or whether such objects behave as inh...

  19. Milk Options Observation (MOO): A Mixed-Methods Study of Chocolate Milk Removal on Beverage Consumption and Student/Staff Behaviors in a Rural Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M; Spurlock, Margaret; Ramsey, Katrina; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    Providing flavored milk in school lunches is controversial, with conflicting evidence on its impact on nutritional intake versus added sugar consumption and excess weight gain. Nonindustry-sponsored studies using individual-level analyses are needed. Therefore, we conducted this mixed-methods study of flavored milk removal at a rural primary school between May and June 2012. We measured beverage selection/consumption pre- and post-chocolate milk removal and collected observation field notes. We used linear and logistic mixed models to assess beverage waste and identified themes in staff and student reactions. Our analysis of data from 315 unique students and 1,820 beverages choices indicated that average added sugar intake decreased by 2.8 g postremoval, while average reductions in calcium and protein consumption were negligible (12.2 mg and 0.3 g, respectively). Five thematic findings emerged, including concerns expressed by adult staff about student rebellion following removal, which did not come to fruition. Removing flavored milk from school-provided lunches may lower students' daily added sugar consumption without considerably decreasing calcium and protein intake and may promote healthy weight.

  20. Efficacy Observation on Massage, Herbal Fumigation Combined with Behavioral Intervention Treating Radiohumeral Bursitis%推拿、中药熏蒸结合行为干预治疗网球肘的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍国维

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察推拿、中药熏蒸配合行为干预治疗网球肘的疗效。方法:将80例网球肘患者随机分为治疗组(40例)和对照组(40例),治疗组采用推拿、中药熏蒸结合行为干预治疗,对照组采用针刺治疗,观察两组临床疗效。结果:治疗组优良率为85.0%,高于对照组的55.0%(P<0.05)。结论:推拿、中药熏蒸配合行为干预治疗网球肘疗效显著。%Objective:To observe the curative effects of massage, herbal fumigation combined with behavioral intervention treating radiohumeral bur-sitis. Methods: 80 cases of radiohumeral bursitis were randomly divided into treatment group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases), treatment group adopted treatment of massage, herbal fumigation combined with behavioral intervention, control group treated with acupuncture, clinical effi-cacy of the two groups was observed. Results:The excellent and good rate of treatment group was 85%, higher than that of control group by 55%(P<0.05). Conclusion:Efficacy of massage, herbal fumigation combined with behavioral intervention treating radiohumeral bursitis is significant.

  1. Anomalous electric birefringence behavior of sonicated DNA fragments as observed in reversing-pulse transients and steady-state sign reversal: a multicomponent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kiwamu

    2007-04-15

    Anomalous electric birefringence signals of a sonicated and column-fractionated medium-size calf thymus DNA sample (bp=570) in Na(+) solutions were measured at 7 degrees C. The reversing-pulse electric birefringence (RPEB) signal pattern was theoretically calculated in the low electric field region for two axially symmetric models coexisting in equilibrium in solution. The RPEB theory is based on the electric dipole moment due to ion-fluctuation along the longitudinal direction and the electric polarizability anisotropy (Deltaalpha'), together with various electric and optical parameters assigned to the models. An analytical method was developed for the steady-state birefringence of the two-component system in a wide range of electric fields. The NaDNA samples exhibit complex RPEB patterns mixed with negative- and positive-going profiles. An experimental RPEB signal of NaDNA at an absorbance (A(260)) of 8 was fitted to theoretical curve at weak electric fields. The anomalous RPEB signal was attributed to the component 2, which shows a dip in the buildup and another in the reverse processes with a positive sign and a larger relaxation time. For the component 1, a normal DNA profile with negative sign is associated with a narrow dip in the reverse and a faster relaxation time in the decay signal. The field-strength dependence of observed steady-state birefringence delta(infinity) could be fitted for NaDNA at A(260)=8 by the SUSID orientation function with saturated ionic and electronic moments. An apparent positive maximum and the sign reversal in delta(infinity) at weak electric fields is an interplay between the positive component 2 with positive optical factor Deltag and negative Deltaalpha' and the negative component 1 with negative Deltag and positive Deltaalpha'. Possible conformation of two DNA components involved in solution was estimated.

  2. 白眉姬鹟繁殖行为观察试验%Observation Experiment on the Reproductive Behavior of Ficedula zanthopygia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘卓; 李辉; 潘小艳; 袁德军

    2016-01-01

    Ficedula zanthopygia is a summer migrant broadly distributed in northeast China , North China,East China and Central China .The re-productive situations of a nest of F.zanthopygia in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve of Henan Province were observed from middle May to early June in 2015.The first egg of the nest was laid on May 16 and the clutch size was five.Eggs were incubated by female birds with the average dura-tion of each incubation of (6.1 ±3.8) min,and the time of leaving nest was (5.5 ±2.0) min.When nestlings were about 4 days old, the feeding frequency of parent birds was 22.5 times per hour and the feeding frequency of male parent was higher than that of female parent .This re-search is the first report on the reproduction of F.zanthopygia in Central China, which can provide helpful supplements for the reproduction data of F.zanthopygia.%白眉姬鹟(Ficedula zanthopygia)是一种广布于我国东北、华北、华东和华中地区的夏候鸟。2015年5月中旬至6月初,对河南董寨国家级自然保护区1巢白眉姬鹟的繁殖情况进行了观察,发现该巢白眉姬鹟5月16日产卵,窝卵数为5枚,孵卵主要由雌鸟承担,每次孵卵时间为(6.1±3.8) min,平均离巢时间为(5.5±2.0) min。在雏鸟约4日龄时,亲鸟的喂食频率为22.5次/h,但雄鸟的喂食频率高于雌鸟。该研究是对白眉姬鹟在我国华中地区繁殖资料的首次报道,可为白眉姬鹟繁殖资料提供有益补充。

  3. Behavior subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Network video cameras, invented in the last decade or so, permit today pervasive, wide-area visual surveillance. However, due to the vast amounts of visual data that such cameras produce human-operator monitoring is not possible and automatic algorithms are needed. One monitoring task of particular interest is the detection of suspicious behavior, i.e., identification of individuals or objects whose behavior differs from behavior usually observed. Many methods based on object path analysis have been developed to date (motion detection followed by tracking and inferencing) but they are sensitive to motion detection and tracking errors and are also computationally complex. We propose a new surveillance method capable of abnormal behavior detection without explicit estimation of object paths. Our method is based on a simple model of video dynamics. We propose one practical implementation of this general model via temporal aggregation of motion detection labels. Our method requires little processing power and memory, is robust to motion segmentation errors, and general enough to monitor humans, cars or any other moving objects in uncluttered as well as highly-cluttered scenes. Furthermore, on account of its simplicity, our method can provide performance guarantees. It is also robust in harsh environments (jittery cameras, rain/snow/fog).

  4. On the observation and evaluation of children’s behavior in the kindergarten learning corner%幼儿园区域活动中儿童行为的观察与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳贞; 杨新好

    2015-01-01

    区域活动是幼儿园最基本的游戏活动形式之一,区域活动中教师对儿童的指导是否有效,是以观察和评价儿童的行为为前提的。观察与评价儿童的行为是深入了解儿童的最佳途径,是教师实施有效指导的前提,是形成理解儿童教育观的基础。区域活动过程中,教师常用的观察方法主要有环视法、跟踪法和定点法,教师评价儿童行为的内容包括儿童在活动中是否具有一定的目的性和计划性、是否具有积极性和主动性、是否遵守活动规则、是否能跟同伴交往、是否能克服困难等。%Learning corner is one of the forms of game activities that take place in kindergarten. Observing and evaluating the behaviors of children is the premise of j udging whether teachers’instruction to children in learning corner is effective or not. Observing and evaluating children’s behaviors is an optimal approach to understand children in depth,is the premise for teachers to implement effective instructions,also is the foundation of forming perception on children and education. In the process of con-ducting learning corner,the mainly observing approaches adopted by teachers are sweeping around,tracking and point-fixing. The content concerning children’s behaviors evaluated by teachers are as follows:whether certain objectives and plans are showed,whether activeness and initiative are presented,whether they can follow the rules of activities,whether they can associ-ate with the peers and whether they can conquer difficulties among children’s activities.

  5. The topside behavior in the mesospheric sodium layer observed by lidar at Yanqing (40.46°N, 115.98°E) and at Haikou (20.01°N, 110.32°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjie; Clemesha, Barclay Robert; Wang, Jihong

    2016-04-01

    Due to meteoric ablation, large amounts of metal atoms deposit in the mesopause region, forming the metal layers that can be observed by ground-based lidars. It is widely acknowledged that the meteoric metal layers are normally confined to altitudes of 75-115 km. In fact, the observable upper limit of the topside layer depends largely on the performance of the instruments, the integration time and the observation conditions. With the support of the Chinese Meridional project in the eastern hemisphere, two brand new sodium fluorescence lidars with the same configuration were respectively set up at Yanqing (40.46°N, 115.98°E) and at Haikou (20.01°N, 110.32°E) in April, 2010. They displayed powerful detection capabilities which allow us to study the topside behavior of the mesospheric sodium layer. Based on the observations made at Yanqing between April 2010 and June 2012 and those at Haikou between April 2010 and December 2012, seasonal variations of sodium densities were studied. Comparison between these two sites (~2300 km apart) reveals a strong correlation in the topside sodium layer. Independently of their seasonal characteristics at lower altitudes, they both show an extension to 120 km and above, predominantly during summer. 90 nights of simultaneous observations at these two sites shows that the variation trends of sodium densities above 102 km are remarkably similar in contrast to their different seasonal characteristics below 98 km. At 105 km the correlation coefficient reaches up to 0.71, and almost all of the major peaks can be found one by one with their relative strengths reproduced to a large degree. It indicates that the topside extension effect is global in the mesospheric sodium layer, combined with the observations at other latitudes. Comparison with known meteor showers shows that most of these extensions correspond well to one or more meteor showers, although not one by one. Meteor showers with velocities less than 35 km/s appear to have more

  6. Functional behavior of the anomalous magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} samples showing the paramagnetic Meissner effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F.T., E-mail: fabio.dias@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Vieira, V.N.; Garcia, E.L. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314, Dresden (Germany); Gouvêa, C.P. [National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro), Material Metrology Division, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Schaf, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Obradors, X.; Puig, T. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Roa, J.J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Paramagnetic Meissner effect observed up to 5T in FCC and FCW measurements. • Time effects evidenced by irreversibilities between FCC and FCW measurements. • Strong time effects causing an anomalous paramagnetic relaxation. • Paramagnetic relaxation governed by different flux dynamics in different intervals. • An interpretative analysis to identify the flux dynamics in the relaxation process. - Abstract: We have studied the functional behavior of the field-cooled (FC) magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (Y123) samples with 30 wt% of Y{sub 2}Ba{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}O{sub 5} (Y211) phase, in order to investigate anomalous paramagnetic moments observed during the experiments. FC magnetic relaxation experiments were performed under controlled conditions, such as cooling rate and temperature. Magnetic fields up to 5T were applied parallel to the ab plane and along the c-axis. Our results are associated with the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), characterized by positive moments during FC experiments, and related to the magnetic flux compression into the samples. After different attempts our experimental data could be adequately fitted by an exponential decay function with different relaxation times. We discuss our results suggesting the existence of different and preferential flux dynamics governing the anomalous FC paramagnetic relaxation in different time intervals. This work is one of the first attempts to interpret this controversial effect in a simple analysis of the pinning mechanisms and flux dynamics acting during the time evolution of the magnetic moment. However, the results may be useful to develop models to explain this interesting and still misunderstood feature of the paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  7. Clinical observation of behavior and drug intervention in the treatment of infantile anorexia%行为联合药物干预治疗小儿厌食症的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫郁原

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of behavior intervention combined with drug in the treatment of in-fantile anorexia. Methods:Eighty cases of children with anorexia treated in our Hospital from January 2014 to October 2014 as study object,were divided into two groups by digital table method,with 40 cases in each group,and the control group were given tonifying spleen oral liquid treatment,while the observation group with behavior intervention combined with toni-fying spleen oral liquid treatment,and the clinical curative effect and main symptoms of two groups were compared before and after treatment. Results:The total effective rate was 97. 50% in the observation group,which had statistically signifi-cant difference compared with that in the control group 82. 50%(P ﹤ 0. 05). In addition,in the two groups after treatment anorexia[(1. 83 ± 1. 56)vs(3. 00 ± 1. 87)],abdominal distension[(0. 50 ± 0. 40)vs(0. 83 ± 0. 75)],spiritual tired-ness[(0. 60 ± 0. 41)vs(0. 92 ± 0. 44)]score difference in the sub symptoms was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:Behavior intervention combined with drug therapy in the treatment of infantile anorexia is positive,and can sig-nificantly improve the clinical symptoms.%目的:观察行为干预联合药物治疗小儿厌食症的临床疗效。方法以我院2014年1月-2014年10月诊治的80例厌食症患儿为研究对象,数字表格法将其分为两组,各40例,对照组患儿给予健脾口服液治疗,观察组患儿则采取行为干预联合健脾口服液治疗,比较两组临床疗效及治疗前后主要症状积分。结果观察组治疗总有效率97.50%,与对照组的82.50%比较差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。另外,两组治疗后纳差[(1.83±1.56) VS(3.00±1.87)]分、腹胀[(0.50±0.40)VS(0.83±0.75)]分、神倦[(0.60±0.41)VS(0.92±0.44)]分症状积分比较差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。结论行为干预联合药物治

  8. 南靖亚热带雨林美刺亮大蚊栖息%Observation on Aggregation and Resting on Spider Web Behavior of Crane Fly Limonia (Euglochina) sp. from Nanjing Subtropical Rainforest of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周运杰; 张松; 梁爱萍; 崔荔; 罗大民

    2008-01-01

    在南靖和溪亚热带雨林中分布有数种大蚊,美刺亮大蚊(Limonia (Euglochina) sp.)是雨林中唯一观察到在圆蛛科蜘蛛网上栖息的大蚊.因此我们对美刺亮大蚊和圆蛛科蜘蛛在蜘蛛网上的同现行为进行了观察研究.借助扫描电镜技术,在比较了其他大蚊、蜘蛛等节肢动物前跗节超微结构的基础上,对美刺亮大蚊栖息于蜘蛛网行为学的形态学机制进行了初步解析.文中也对美刺亮大蚊的聚集行为与雨林温湿度的关系进行了记录.%There are several species of crane flies in Nanjing subtropical rainforest, whereas, the Limonia (Euglochina) sp. is the only one we observed resting on the spider web (primary thread favor). So, observation on co-occurrence behavior of Limonia (Euglochina) sp. with the Araneidae spiders in the same orb-web was conducted. Ultrastructure of the pretarsus of several species of crane flies and one spider species of Araneidae were scanned by SEM technology, in addition, the mechanism of hanging on the orb-web thread by Limonia (Euglochina) sp. was discussed in this paper by comparing the tarsal external morphology of Limonia (Euglochina) sp. with the others. We also recorded the aggregation regulation of Limonia (Euglochina) sp. in the working field in the rainforest.

  9. Field observation on the behavior of falling rock. 1st report. Study on the rock fall along a slope; Firudo ni okeru rakuseki no rakka kyodo. 1. Ganban shamen no rakuseki ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujihira, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hosoya, S.; Ogawa, K.; Takagai, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School

    1996-10-25

    A tendency of gradual extinction of disasters caused by the breaking of loose stones and falling rocks in limestone mines and quarries is brought by the improvement of safety control against slope accidents in these years. In this study, in order to examine the accumulation of data contributing to the countermeasure against falling rock in strip mines, the movement of rocks in an open-shooting quarry were shot by video cameras and analysed to clarify the behaviors of falling rock. The following results are obtained. It is found by observing falling rocks from a slope side that the value of falling velocity is getting smaller in an order of block-shaped, tabular and stick-shaped rocks. In the case of tabular rock, there is a tendency that the velocity distribution has two peaks. Not only the falling velocity but also the rolling velocity of block-shaped rock is smaller than those of block-shaped and tabular rock. Further, values near the supremum of actually measured values can be given by a rolling velocity equation wherein the shape of falling rock is assumed as orbicular. If setting it forth as a premise, said equation is possible to be used for estimating rolling velocity. 24 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Estudos sobre o comportamento dos Planorbídeos: I - uma técnica de observação e registro comportamental por cinematografia Studies on the behavior of planorbids: I - a technique for behavioral observation and recording by use of cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio S. Pieri

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma técnica envolvendo cinematografia com lapso de tempo foi elaborada para o estudo da atividade comportamental dos planorbídeos em condições de laboratório. As observações realizam-se em uma câmara dotada de ciclo de iluminação dia-noite, e os registros são feitos com uma filmadora super-8, operada quadro a quadro, sob luz de flash estroboscópico. Essa técnica tem permitido mensurações rigorosas de diferentes aspectos do comportamento de Biomphalaria glabrata (say, 1818, e pode ser utilizada na análise do nível de resposta dos planorbídeos aos moluscicidas, em testes experimentais, e dos comportamentos de proteção frente a condições adversas em geral.A technique involving time-lapse cinematography was developed for studying the behavioral repertoire of planorbids in laboratory conditions. Observations were carried out within a chamber with controlled light and temperature; recording was done by single frame shooting at 10 second intervals, with synchronized strobed flash. This technique has allowed accurate measurements of different aspects of the activity of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, and can be useful in analysing the level of response of planorbids to molluscicides, in experimental tests, as well as their protective behavior under general adverse conditions.

  11. Observing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    , and analyse how their conceptions of environment are connected to differences of perspective and observation. Results: We show the need to distinguish between inside and outside perspectives on the environment, and identify two very different and complementary logics of observation, the logic of distinction......, and that it is based fully on the conception of observation as indication by means of distinction....

  12. Protocolo de Observação Comportamental - PROC: valores de referência para uma análise quantitativa Behavioral Observation Protocol: reference values for a quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos Hage

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: obter valores de referência para protocolo de observação comportamental (PROC sobre o desenvolvimento de habilidades comunicativas e de esquemas simbólicos em crianças com desenvolvimento típico de linguagem. MÉTODO: foram avaliadas 44 crianças entre 24 e 47 meses de ambos os gêneros, selecionadas em escolas de educação infantil, por meio de triagem do desenvolvimento global Denver II e questionário com os pais. Todas as crianças foram filmadas durante 30 minutos em interação com um adulto em atividade envolvendo brinquedos. As gravações foram analisadas por meio do PROC. A análise estatística descreveu valores de média, mediana, valores mínimos e máximos. Foi utilizado o teste T de Student para comparação das idades. RESULTADOS: nas habilidades comunicativas, as crianças do estudo mostraram evolução com a idade (média para três e dois anos, respectivamente: 58,12 e 51,44, apesar de não ter sido encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante para as faixas etárias comparadas (p=0,486. Quanto ao item compreensão verbal, as crianças de três anos obtiveram melhor desempenho que as de dois (respectivas médias: 59,41 e 50,70, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,0000020. Em relação ao item aspectos do desenvolvimento cognitivo, as crianças de três anos apresentaram melhor desempenho em comparação com as de dois (respectivas médias: 44,53 e 31,96, havendo diferença estatisticamente significante entre as pontuações obtidas (p=0,00364, mostrando que as crianças evoluem na hierarquia do simbolismo. CONCLUSÃO: a obtenção de valores de referência para o PROC veio combinar análise qualitativa e quantitativa, contribuindo, além do diagnóstico, para o acompanhamento objetivo de processos terapêuticos.PURPOSE: to obtain reference values for behavioral observation protocol on the development of communicative and symbolic schemes of children with typical language development

  13. 转基因败育毛白杨雄株试管苗气孔行为观察%Observation of the Stomatal Behavior of Test-tube Plantlet of Transgenic Male Abortive Populus tomentosa Carr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金华; 朱美秋; 杜克久

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the causes of abnormal stomatal behavior of test-tube plantlet. [ Method ] The change of stomatal density, stomatal size, the daily variation of stomatal aperture and stomatal open percentage of the leaves' lower epidermis of test-tube plantlets and 10-year-old plants of transgenic male abortive Populus tomentosa Carr were observed and compared in this paper by using nail polish method. [Result] The stomatal density of test-tube plantlets was less than that of the 10-year-old plant; test-tube plantlets' stomata was obviously larger than that of the 10-year-old plant; the stomatal aperture of test-tube plantlets showed wave crest, and the two peaks appeared at 9:00 and 15 :00,10-year-old plant had steady curve without evident fluctuation,and the stomatal aperture in test-tube plantlets was greater than that in the 10-year-old plant; stomatal open percentage reached 100% in test-tube plantlets during a day,a bimodal curve change was observed in stomatal open percentage of the 10-year-old plant. [Conclusion] Stomatal behavior were different between the test-tube plantlets and the 10-year-old plant of transgenic male abortive Populus tomentosa Carr.%[目的]探寻试管苗叶片气孔行为异常的原因.[方法]利用指甲油涂抹撕取法将转基因败育毛白杨雄株试管苗与10年生植株叶片下表皮制成切片,并对其气孔密度、气孔大小、气孔开度日变化、气孔开张率日变化进行观察比较.[结果]试管苗气孔密度小于10年生植株;试管苗气孔明显比10年生植株气孔大;试管苗气孔开度日变化呈明显波峰状,2个高峰分别出现在9:00和15:00,10年生植株曲线平稳,无明显波动,且试管苗气孔开度大于10年生植株;试管苗气孔开张率在一昼夜均为100%,10年生植株气孔开张率在一昼夜呈双曲线变化.[结论]转基因败育毛白杨雄株试管苗与10年生植株气孔行为存在差异.

  14. Observables, Disassembled

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Bryan W

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that non-self-adjoint operators can be observables. There are only four ways for this to occur: non-self-adjoint observables can either be normal operators, or be symmetric, or have a real spectrum, or have none of these three properties. I explore each of these four classes of observables, arguing that the class of normal operators provides an equivalent formulation of quantum theory, whereas the other classes considerably extend it.

  15. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  16. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  17. Behavioral coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniuk, Holly A; Witts, Benjamin N; Williams, W Larry; Ghezzi, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    The term behavioral coaching has been used inconsistently in and outside the field of behavior analysis. In the sports literature, the term has been used to describe various intervention strategies, and in the organizational behavior management literature it has been used to describe an approach to training management personnel and staff. This inconsistency is problematic in terms of the replication of behavioral coaching across studies and aligning with Baer, Wolf, and Risley's (1968) technological dimension of applied behavior analysis. The current paper will outline and critique the discrepancies in the use of the term and suggest how Martin and Hrycaiko's (1983) characteristics of behavioral coaching in sports may be used to bring us closer to establishing a consistent definition of the term. In addition, we will suggest how these characteristics can also be applicable to the use of the term behavioral coaching in other domains of behavior analysis.

  18. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  19. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  20. Behavior subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Saligrama, Venkatesh; Konrad, Janusz

    2012-09-01

    Background subtraction has been a driving engine for many computer vision and video analytics tasks. Although its many variants exist, they all share the underlying assumption that photometric scene properties are either static or exhibit temporal stationarity. While this works in many applications, the model fails when one is interested in discovering changes in scene dynamics instead of changes in scene's photometric properties; the detection of unusual pedestrian or motor traffic patterns are but two examples. We propose a new model and computational framework that assume the dynamics of a scene, not its photometry, to be stationary, i.e., a dynamic background serves as the reference for the dynamics of an observed scene. Central to our approach is the concept of an event, which we define as short-term scene dynamics captured over a time window at a specific spatial location in the camera field of view. Unlike in our earlier work, we compute events by time-aggregating vector object descriptors that can combine multiple features, such as object size, direction of movement, speed, etc. We characterize events probabilistically, but use low-memory, low-complexity surrogates in a practical implementation. Using these surrogates amounts to behavior subtraction, a new algorithm for effective and efficient temporal anomaly detection and localization. Behavior subtraction is resilient to spurious background motion, such as due to camera jitter, and is content-blind, i.e., it works equally well on humans, cars, animals, and other objects in both uncluttered and highly cluttered scenes. Clearly, treating video as a collection of events rather than colored pixels opens new possibilities for video analytics.

  1. Periodic behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Napp, Diego; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R^n. These properties - in particular the Nullstellensatz describing the Willems closure - are closely related to integral and rational points on affine algebraic varieties.

  2. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the Nullste

  3. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  4. Observing Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, Ilil

    1991-01-01

    Describes how to observe and study the fascinating world of insects in public parks, backyards, and gardens. Discusses the activities and habits of several common insects. Includes addresses for sources of beneficial insects, seeds, and plants. (nine references) (JJK)

  5. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  6. Observational $\\Delta\

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Antonio García; Monteiro, Mário J P F G; Suárez, Juan Carlos; Reese, Daniel R; Pascual-Granado, Javier; Garrido, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Delta Scuti ($\\delta$ Sct) stars are intermediate-mass pulsators, whose intrinsic oscillations have been studied for decades. However, modelling their pulsations remains a real theoretical challenge, thereby even hampering the precise determination of global stellar parameters. In this work, we used space photometry observations of eclipsing binaries with a $\\delta$ Sct component to obtain reliable physical parameters and oscillation frequencies. Using that information, we derived an observational scaling relation between the stellar mean density and a frequency pattern in the oscillation spectrum. This pattern is analogous to the solar-like large separation but in the low order regime. We also show that this relation is independent of the rotation rate. These findings open the possibility of accurately characterizing this type of pulsator and validate the frequency pattern as a new observable for $\\delta$ Sct stars.

  7. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Léna, Pierre; Lebrun, François; Mignard, François; Pelat, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This is the updated, widely revised, restructured and expanded third edition of Léna et al.'s successful work Observational Astrophysics. It presents a synthesis on tools and methods of observational astrophysics of the early 21st century. Written specifically for astrophysicists and graduate students, this textbook focuses on fundamental and sometimes practical limitations on the ultimate performance that an astronomical system may reach, rather than presenting particular systems in detail. In little more than a decade there has been extraordinary progress in imaging and detection technologies, in the fields of adaptive optics, optical interferometry, in the sub-millimetre waveband, observation of neutrinos, discovery of exoplanets, to name but a few examples. The work deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. And it also presents the ambitious concepts behind space missions aimed for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spec...

  8. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert C

    1995-01-01

    Combining a critical account of observational methods (telescopes and instrumentation) with a lucid description of the Universe, including stars, galaxies and cosmology, Smith provides a comprehensive introduction to the whole of modern astrophysics beyond the solar system. The first half describes the techniques used by astronomers to observe the Universe: optical telescopes and instruments are discussed in detail, but observations at all wavelengths are covered, from radio to gamma-rays. After a short interlude describing the appearance of the sky at all wavelengths, the role of positional astronomy is highlighted. In the second half, a clear description is given of the contents of the Universe, including accounts of stellar evolution and cosmological models. Fully illustrated throughout, with exercises given in each chapter, this textbook provides a thorough introduction to astrophysics for all physics undergraduates, and a valuable background for physics graduates turning to research in astronomy.

  9. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Ohm, Robin A; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior observ

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  11. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  12. Deltagende observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, H.

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen er en introduktion til deltagende observation som samfundsvidenskabelig metode. I artiklen introduceres til de teorihistoriske rødder, forskellige tilgange til metoden, den konkrete fremgangsmåde og de dermed forbundne overvejelser. Endvidere eksemplificeres metoden, og der opstilles en...

  13. Deltagende observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, H.

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen er en introduktion til deltagende observation som samfundsvidenskabelig metode. I artiklen introduceres til de teorihistoriske rødder, forskellige tilgange til metoden, den konkrete fremgangsmåde og de dermed forbundne overvejelser. Endvidere eksemplificeres metoden, og der opstilles en...

  14. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  15. Behavior of immunocastrated pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Kássia Silva dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of immunocastrated male pigs compared with females and castrated males during the period before and after full immunization. A total of 30 animals were divided into three treatments, with ten animals in each (females, barrows, and immunocastrated males. The experiment was divided into three periods: 70 to 80 days of age (period 1, 81 to 110 days of age (period 2, and 111 to 140 days of age (period 3. The behavior of animals during these stages was evaluated. Immunocastrated males showed a higher rate of aggressive and sexual behavior during period 2, which decreased after the second vaccine dose. Both barrows and immunocastrated males presented high locomotion in period 1, reducing the frequency of this activity in period 3. All analyzed animals had a higher level of activities such as drinking, playing, and sexual behavior in period 1 than in the other periods, decreasing during the experiment. The remaining behavioral responses did not differ between the studied categories. Immunocastrated males had higher proportions of undesirable behaviors (aggressive and sexual related to the surgically castrated males and females, and these were reduced after the second vaccine dose. Immunocastration is effective in the reduction of behaviors such as agonistic and sexual at the same levels observed in females and surgically castrated males. However, immunocastrated pigs are more subject to these undesirable behaviors before full immunization.

  16. Teleological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1992-11-01

    A psychological science of efficient causes, using internal mechanisms to explain overt behavior, is distinguished from another psychological science, based on Aristotelian final causes, using external objects and goals to explain overt behavior. Efficient-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of how a particular act is emitted; final-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of why a particular act is emitted. Physiological psychology, modern cognitive psychology, and some parts of behaviorism including Skinnerian behaviorism are efficient-cause psychologies; final-cause psychology, a development of Skinnerian behaviorism, is here called teleological behaviorism. Each of these two conceptions of causality in psychology implies a different view of the mind, hence a different meaning of mental terms.

  17. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  18. Observation of prenatal stress-induced depression-like behavior in offspring rats and its mechanism%产前应激孕鼠子代抑郁样行为观察及机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宁; 孙钦儒; 苏倩

    2016-01-01

    马组织Glu含量及降低GABA、5-HT的水平有关。%Objective To observe the depression-like behavior of the offspring rats from pregnant rats with prenatal stress ( PS) and to investigate its mechanism.Methods Twenty pregnant rats were randomly divided into the PS group and control ( CON) group, 10 in each.From the 14th d of pregnancy ( in late pregnancy) , rats in the observation group were given restraint stress, 45 min/time, 3 times/d, a total of 7 d.Rats in the control group were conventionally fed with-out any treatment.We took 20 offspring rats ( male and female in half) which were born 30 d from each group to undergo sucrose preference test ( SPT) , and calculated the percentage of 1%sugar water consumption in male and female offspring rats of the two groups.Meanwhile, the concentrations of glutamate (Glu),γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin (5-HT) in hippocampus of the rats were measured by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS) .Re-sults The percentages of 1%sugar water consumption in male and female offspring rats of the PS groups was 63.13 ± 3.47 and 59.67 ±3.33, respectively, and 79.22 ±7.07 and 78.67 ±4.72 in the control group (P<0.05).Further-more, the concentration of Glu was (24.30 ±1.00) ng/g in the female PS group which was more than that 〔(21.20 ± 0.90) ng/g〕 in the female CON group (P<0.05).Similarly, the concentration of Glu in male PS group was (31.22 ± 1.57)ng/g, which was more than that〔(24.01 ±0.28)ng/g〕 in the male CON group (P<0.05).Contrarily, the con-centration of GABA in female PS group was (7.42 ±0.36) ng/g, which was significantly lower than that〔(13.28 ±0.38) ng/g〕 in the female CON group (P<0.05).The concentration of GABA in male PS group was (8.35 ±0.39) ng/g, which was significantly lower than that〔(9.94 ±0.30) ng/g〕 in the female CON group (P<0.05).Only the female PS offspring showed lower 5-HT concentration 〔(0.27 ±0.02) ng/g〕 as compared with that of the CON group 〔(0.35 ± 0.03)ng/g〕(P<0

  19. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  20. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of ID

  1. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O’Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of ID

  2. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A C; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-08-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and children's on-task and off-task classroom behavior and peer reports of hyperactive and oppositional behavior were available. Results showed that the reduced use of negative remarks of intervention teachers predicted children's increase in on-task behavior and decrease in talking-out behavior. These improved children's classroom behaviors in turn mediated the impact of the intervention on the development of hyperactive and oppositional behavior over the studied period. These results were similar for girls and boys. The results underscore the role of teachers' classroom management strategies in improving children's classroom behavior, which, in turn is an important component in the reduction of disruptive behavior development.

  3. Observation on Effect of Life Behaviors on Electrocardiogram Change in College Students%大学生生活行为方式对心电图ST—T改变的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞倩

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨影响大学生心电图ST—T改变的生活相关行为特点。方法:对武汉大学238名在校大学生心电图ST—T异常者的生活行为方式状况进行综合调查研究。结果:218例患者心电图的ST—T改变均属功能性的,占91.6%。发生心脏功能性ST—T改变的大学生中,大部分学生(占90.4%)同时存在着2~4种不良生活行为方式;对于单个的不良生活行为方式,所占比例最高的前三位依次是心理压力过大(占51.3%)、睡眠不足(占42.1%)和网络成瘾行为(占37.8%)。结论:以上特点在当前的大学生保健预防工作中,应引起适当关注,并为今后的预防保健提供指导依据。%Objective: To explore the life behaviors which can cause the electrocardiogram change on ST-T in college students. Methods: 238 at-school students from Wuhan University whose electrocardiogram showed an ST-T abnormality were registered in the study. Their day-life habits and behaviors were comprehensively investigated and analyzed. Results: For 218 students, the changes in ST-T were just functional, of which the proportion was 91. 6%. And for those who had functional myocardial ischemia, the study showed most individuals (90.4%) had 2-4 unhealthy life behaviors at the same time. Among the single unhealthy life behaviors, the top three were suffer- ing stress (51.3%), insufficient sleep (42.1%) and the habit of net-using addiction (37.8%). Conclusion : It should pay much attention to the mentioned life behavior risk factors of cardiovascular disease in college students, thus in future may use these data to guide the work in primary prevention and health care for them.

  4. Structured Observation Component. Secondary Teacher Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael L.; Keen, Phyllis A.

    A format is presented for use of student teachers in structuring their classroom observation techniques. Fifteen classroom and school activities are listed with a comprehensive questionnaire accompanying each. These questionnaires guide the student on what behaviors to observe and suggest objective and subjective responses to these behaviors to be…

  5. Classroom Observation Techniques. IDEA Paper No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Keith A.

    Techniques for observing the classroom behavior of teachers and students are examined. These techniques provide a framework for analyzing and understanding classroom interaction, for making decisions about what should be happening, and for changing instructional behavior when it is necessary. The observation methods allow collection, analysis, and…

  6. Cognition, behavior, and the experimental analysis of behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, Charles P.

    1984-01-01

    A case history illustrates how one research program in the experimental analysis of behavior evolved somewhat differently from the modal research program represented in this journal. A chief issue that seems to be responsible for this difference is the role attributed to theory in behavioral research: Skinner's views on the nature and function of theory and on the nature of observation combine to produce a certain kind of picture of behavior. The classic conception of reinforcement contingenc...

  7. Effect of the good behavior game on disruptive library behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fishbein, Jill E.; Wasik, Barbara H.

    1981-01-01

    A modification of the good behavior game was used to reduce disruptive behaviors during a weekly library period of children in a fourth-grade class. Modifications included student input in designing rules, attempts to state rules in positive terms, observation of class behavior in the experimental (library) setting as well as in a comparison (classroom) setting, and librarian involvement in instituting the game coupled with teacher involvement in delivering reinforcers. Reinforcers consisted ...

  8. Observational asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, Christoffer

    2008-05-01

    This dissertation is submitted to the Faculty of Science at the University of Aarhus, Denmark, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the PhD degree in Astronomy. The work presented has been performed under the supervision of Dr Hans Kjeldsen and Dr Torben Artentoft. The work was mainly carried out at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus and at the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Berlin (1 April to 1 October, 2005). The dissertation contains two parts where the first is a general review of the current status of observational asteroseismology; the second contains five papers that have been produced during the PhD project. The review in the first part of this dissertation describes the main observational methods and techniques in asteroseismology and discusses recent scientific results from asteroseismology of solar-like stars and low-degree helioseismology of the Sun, including results from seismic studies of e.g. abundances, flares, dynamos, granulation and rotation. The second part of this dissertation includes four published refereed papers on: variable stars in the COROT fields; slowly pulsating B stars in the NGC 371; flare driven global oscillations in the Sun; high-frequency modes in solar-like stars, and one yet unpublished paper on mixed modes in beta Hydri. The four most signigicant results obtained in this PhD project are: the discovery of a strong correlation between the energy at high frequency in the solar acoustic spectrum and flares, which suggest that flares drive global oscillations in the Sun in the same way that the entire Earth is set ringing for several weeks after a major earthquake such as the 2004 December Sumatra-Andaman one; the discovery that the Sun is not the only solar-like star that has oscillations with frequencies higher than the atmospheric acoustic cut-off frequency; the discovery of 29 candidate slowly pulsating B stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud which could, if confirmed

  9. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  10. Behavioral epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Edward; Nestler, Eric; Abel, Ted; Kosofsky, Barry; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Maze, Ian; Meaney, Michael J.; Monteggia, Lisa M.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.; Skuse, David H.; Sweatt, J. David; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2013-01-01

    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the University of Massachusetts Boston, “Behavioral Epigenetics” was held on October 29–30, 2010 at the University of Massachusetts Boston Campus Center, Boston, Massachusetts. This meeting featured speakers and panel discussions exploring the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics, from basic biochemical and cellular mechanisms to the epigenetic modulation of normative development, developmental disorders, and psychopathology. This report provides an overview of the research presented by leading scientists and lively discussion about the future of investigation at the behavioral epigenetic level. PMID:21615751

  11. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  12. The observation about the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy in post stroke depression and nervous dysfunction%认知行为疗法对脑卒中后抑郁及神经功能康复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁翠萍; 孙素娟; 张卫红; 孙军雪; 刘夕霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To explore the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on patients with post - stroke depression and nervous dysfunction. Methods : The 178 patients of post - stroke depression were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,89patients in each group. Treatment group accepted cognitive behavioral therapy on the hase of conventional therapy and control group accepted conventional therapy. The Self - Rating Depress Scale and Neurological Function Deficit Scale were used in the two groups before and after the treatment. Results : After 5 weeks. the scores of Self - Rating Depression and Neurological Function Deficit in the therapy group were lower than in the control group( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion : Cognitive behavioral therapy can significantly improve the depression and promote nervous dysfunction in stroke.%目的:探讨认知行为疗法对脑卒中后抑郁及神经功能康复的临床疗效.方法:以178例脑卒中后抑郁患者为研究对象,依随机的形式分为治疗组和对照组,各89例,两组患者均采用常规治疗,治疗组则在此基础之上给予认知行为疗法.治疗前、后分别采用抑郁量表和神经功能缺损程度量表进行测评.结果:治疗组治疗5周后抑郁量表评分和神经功能缺损评分明显低于对照组,有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:认知行为疗法对改善脑卒中后抑郁、促进神经功能康复效果显著.

  13. 药物加行为治疗儿童注意缺陷多动障碍的临床研究%Clinical observation of Methylphenidate Combined with Behavior Treatment in Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克苗

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨中枢兴奋荆哌甲酯与行为治疗相结合对儿童注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder A DHD)的临床疗效.方法:将符合ADHD诊断标准的100例患儿随机分为两组:哌甲酯加行为治疗55例为治疗组,单纯行为治疗45例为对照组.治疗4周后观察临床三大核心症状消退情况及半年后脑电图的变化.结果:治疗组临床显效率(63.6%)及总有效率(90.9%)均高于对照组,(33.3%,60.0%),两组差异显著(P<0.01),半年后治疗组脑电图异常率(21.8%)低于对照组(73.3%),两组差异显著(P<0.01).结论:哌甲酯与行为治疗相结合对注意缺陷多动障碍的疗效优于单纯行为治疗.%Objective: To explore the effectiveness of Methylphenidate and behavior treatment on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) in children. Method: 100 ADHD in children were divided randomly into two groups: treatment group with methylpbenidate combined with behavior treatment ( n = 55 ) ;control group without methylphenidate treatment (n=45 ). The changes of three central symptoms operation 4 weeks after and electroencephalogram (EEG) half year later in two groups were recorded. Result: In treatment group , the clinical markedly effective rate(63.6% )and effective rate (90.9%)were higher than those in control group(33.3% ,60.0% ,P <0.01 ). The unusual rate of EEG in treatment group (21.8%) was lower than those in control group (73.3%, P <0.01 ). Conclusion: Methylphenidate combine with behavior treatment is superior to behavior treatment in treating ADHD in children.

  14. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    is to reject or at least minimize the requirement that environmental ethics must provide protection and assistance to the environment. Virtue theory is often favored by environmentalists precisely because it does matter what one's reasons are for acting, even if one's actions are ineffective at producing......According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...

  15. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  16. Behavioral epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Edward; Nestler, Eric; Abel, Ted; Kosofsky, Barry; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Marsit, Carmen J; Maze, Ian; Meaney, Michael J.; Monteggia, Lisa M.; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.; Skuse, David H.; Sweatt, J. David; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the University of Massachusetts Boston, “Behavioral Epigenetics” was held on October 29–30, 2010 at the University of Massachusetts Boston Campus Center, Boston, Massachusetts. This meeting featured speakers and panel discussions exploring the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics, from basic biochemical and cellular mechanisms to the epigenetic modulation of normative development, devel...

  17. Visually observing comets

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    In these days of computers and CCD cameras, visual comet observers can still contribute scientifically useful data with the help of this handy reference for use in the field. Comets are one of the principal areas for productive pro-amateur collaboration in astronomy, but finding comets requires a different approach than the observing of more predictable targets. Principally directed toward amateur astronomers who prefer visual observing or who are interested in discovering a new comet or visually monitoring the behavior of known comets, it includes all the advice needed to thrive as a comet observer. After presenting a brief overview of the nature of comets and how we came to the modern understanding of comets, this book details the various types of observations that can usefully be carried out at the eyepiece of a telescope. Subjects range from how to search for new comets to visually estimating the brightness of comets and the length and orientation of tails, in addition to what to look for in comet heads a...

  18. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    During the spring of 1972 training workshops for 88 elementary and secondary teachers of the Great Neck Public Schools held to examine four hypotheses: 1) workshops in training teachers to observe classroom behavior would significantly increase these same teachers' positive classroom interactive behaviors consisting of teacher, pupil-pupil,…

  19. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  20. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    1973-01-01

    The question examined in this study was as follows: do teachers increase their positive classroom interactive behaviors as a result of training in systematic classroom observation techniques? (Authors/JA)

  1. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior.

  2. 大草蛉幼虫对烟粉虱的捕食功能反应及捕食行为观察%The Predation Function Response and Predatory Behavior Observation of Chrysopa pallens Larva to Bemisia tabaci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 王甦; 刘佰明; 周长青; 张帆

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential regulation capacity of Chrysopa pallens to Bemisia tabaci, and analyze the function response, searching rate and relative predatory behaviors of C. pallens on B. tabaci egg,nymph and pupa in lab conditions. [ Method ] Different prey densities of egg, nymph and pupa orB. tabaci were set up as different treatments for evaluating predatory capacity of3rd instar larva C pallens. The net aggregation of prey consumed and prey consumed ratio in each density were recorded and analyzed. Furthermore, the predatory period was classified into different independent behavior events and evaluated each event in the way of occurrence frequency and ratio of each behavior event to the total duration of predation. The description of each event was also executed at the same time. [Result] The results showed that the function response of C. pallens 3rd instar larva on B. tabaci egg, nymph and pupa were fitted to Holling Ⅱ & Ⅲ formulas. In lab controlled conditions,the predatory capacities of C. pallens on B. tabaci egg, nymph and pupa increased with the increasing prey density. The instantaneous attacking rate was increased with the increasing of target development stages, and the variation of dealing duration was nymph > pupae > egg. On the contrast, the best searching density was the lowest in nymph treatment. Furthermore, the evaluation of searching rate showed that the searching rate of C. pallens on B. tabaci increased with the increasing of target development stages. When C. pallens preyed egg and nymph, the percentage of walking and searching behavior were the most and second. But in pupa treatment, the searching behaviour was the first place and the predation was the second. Similarly, the frequency of each behavior was shown significant differences in predation courses. [ Conclusion ] The present study demonstrated that the predatory capacity of C. pallens larva to B. tabaci egg, nymph and pupa

  3. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  4. Behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  6. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time......-dated utility flows and not flows of money. It also points to a menagerie of functional forms to characterize different types of non-constant discounting behavior. The implied experimental design calls for individuals to undertake several tasks to allow us to identify these models, and to several treatments...

  7. The Use of Virtual Reality Facilitates Dialectical Behavior Therapy® "Observing Sounds and Visuals" Mindfulness Skills Training Exercises for a Latino Patient with Severe Burns: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jocelyn; Hoffman, Hunter G; Bistricky, Steven L; Gonzalez, Miriam; Rosenberg, Laura; Sampaio, Mariana; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Navarro-Haro, Maria V; Alhalabi, Wadee; Rosenberg, Marta; Meyer, Walter J; Linehan, Marsha M

    2017-01-01

    Sustaining a burn injury increases an individual's risk of developing psychological problems such as generalized anxiety, negative emotions, depression, acute stress disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing use of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT®) by clinical psychologists, to date, there are no published studies using standard DBT® or DBT® skills learning for severe burn patients. The current study explored the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training to reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions of a patient with severe burn injuries. The participant was a hospitalized (in house) 21-year-old Spanish speaking Latino male patient being treated for a large (>35% TBSA) severe flame burn injury. Methods: The patient looked into a pair of Oculus Rift DK2 virtual reality goggles to perceive the computer-generated virtual reality illusion of floating down a river, with rocks, boulders, trees, mountains, and clouds, while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios during 4 VR sessions over a 1 month period. Study measures were administered before and after each VR session. Results: As predicted, the patient reported increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions. The patient also accepted the VR mindfulness treatment technique. He reported the sessions helped him become more comfortable with his emotions and he wanted to keep using mindfulness after returning home. Conclusions: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is an empirically validated treatment approach that has proved effective with non-burn patient populations for treating many of the psychological problems experienced by severe burn patients. The current case study explored for the first time, the use of immersive virtual reality enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training with a burn patient. The patient reported reductions in negative emotions and increases in positive emotions

  8. The Use of Virtual Reality Facilitates Dialectical Behavior Therapy® “Observing Sounds and Visuals” Mindfulness Skills Training Exercises for a Latino Patient with Severe Burns: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jocelyn; Hoffman, Hunter G.; Bistricky, Steven L.; Gonzalez, Miriam; Rosenberg, Laura; Sampaio, Mariana; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Navarro-Haro, Maria V.; Alhalabi, Wadee; Rosenberg, Marta; Meyer, Walter J.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustaining a burn injury increases an individual's risk of developing psychological problems such as generalized anxiety, negative emotions, depression, acute stress disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing use of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT®) by clinical psychologists, to date, there are no published studies using standard DBT® or DBT® skills learning for severe burn patients. The current study explored the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training to reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions of a patient with severe burn injuries. The participant was a hospitalized (in house) 21-year-old Spanish speaking Latino male patient being treated for a large (>35% TBSA) severe flame burn injury. Methods: The patient looked into a pair of Oculus Rift DK2 virtual reality goggles to perceive the computer-generated virtual reality illusion of floating down a river, with rocks, boulders, trees, mountains, and clouds, while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios during 4 VR sessions over a 1 month period. Study measures were administered before and after each VR session. Results: As predicted, the patient reported increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions. The patient also accepted the VR mindfulness treatment technique. He reported the sessions helped him become more comfortable with his emotions and he wanted to keep using mindfulness after returning home. Conclusions: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is an empirically validated treatment approach that has proved effective with non-burn patient populations for treating many of the psychological problems experienced by severe burn patients. The current case study explored for the first time, the use of immersive virtual reality enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training with a burn patient. The patient reported reductions in negative emotions and increases in positive emotions

  9. The Use of Virtual Reality Facilitates Dialectical Behavior Therapy® “Observing Sounds and Visuals” Mindfulness Skills Training Exercises for a Latino Patient with Severe Burns: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Gomez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining a burn injury increases an individual's risk of developing psychological problems such as generalized anxiety, negative emotions, depression, acute stress disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing use of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT® by clinical psychologists, to date, there are no published studies using standard DBT® or DBT® skills learning for severe burn patients. The current study explored the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training to reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions of a patient with severe burn injuries. The participant was a hospitalized (in house 21-year-old Spanish speaking Latino male patient being treated for a large (>35% TBSA severe flame burn injury.Methods: The patient looked into a pair of Oculus Rift DK2 virtual reality goggles to perceive the computer-generated virtual reality illusion of floating down a river, with rocks, boulders, trees, mountains, and clouds, while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios during 4 VR sessions over a 1 month period. Study measures were administered before and after each VR session.Results: As predicted, the patient reported increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions. The patient also accepted the VR mindfulness treatment technique. He reported the sessions helped him become more comfortable with his emotions and he wanted to keep using mindfulness after returning home.Conclusions: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy is an empirically validated treatment approach that has proved effective with non-burn patient populations for treating many of the psychological problems experienced by severe burn patients. The current case study explored for the first time, the use of immersive virtual reality enhanced DBT® mindfulness skills training with a burn patient. The patient reported reductions in negative emotions and increases in

  10. Deliberate Self Harm Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gul Helvaci Celik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deliberate self-harm behaviour which defined as attempting to own body resulting in tisue damage without conscious desire of peolple to die, is a major public health problem worldwide. The causes of deliberate self- harm, risk factors, the relationship between mental disorders and treatment strategies are not fully known. Deliberate self- harm can be observed together with psychiatric disorders such as borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, eating disorders and mood disorders. Also, deliberate self-harm must be distinguished from suicidal behavior. Psychologi-cal trauma has been suggested as a risk factor for deliberate self- harm behavior. Trauma and traumatic events have long been associated with deliberate self- harm behavior. The aim of this review article is to investigate the etiology and epidemiology of deliberate self-harm behaviour and relationship between psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 209-226

  11. Milestones in the History of Behavioral Genetics: Participant Observer%一个参与者眼中的行为遗传学史上的里程碑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irving I. Gottesman

    2008-01-01

    行为遗传学的历史,从横切面看,就好似一个由心理学、遗传学、生物学、进化论、人类学、人口学、生物统计、社会学以及法哲学等学科组合成的万花筒.任何一对学科的演进都呈正相关.虽然任何一对学科都不至于相互否定,但是,他们各自独特的历史和人物,又使得每一对学科并不完全相似.%The history of Behavioral Genetics and (now) genomics, viewed in cross-section, is a kaleidoscopic pattern derived from the individual histories of the psychology of individual differences, plant, animal, and human genetics, biology, evolution, anthropology, demography, biometry, sociology, jurisprudence, and some of their neighboring disciplines. There will be positive correlations between any two renditions of the historian's task, but the idiosyncratic experiences of any two with the listed contributors to the pattern guarantees that the correlations may be modest, without invalidating either one.

  12. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  13. R Aqr observing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. George Wallerstein (University of Washington) has requested AAVSO coverage of the long period/symbiotic variable R Aquarii beginning immediately in support of high resolution spectroscopic observations planned for 2016 January 19 and 21. Several other astronomers, including Drs. Lee Anne Willson (Iowa State University), Ulisse Munari (INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padua, Italy), and Fred Walter (Stony Brook University) are studying R Aqr closely and additional spectroscopic and other observations are planned for the near future. R Aqr is both a Mira (M) and a symbiotic (ZAND) - it is a close binary system consisting of a hot star and a late-type star (the Mira), both enveloped in nebulosity. As a result, the very interesting light curve shows not only the Mira pulsation but also complex eclipse behavior as the two stars interact. The period of Mira variation is 387.0 days; the eclipse period is 43.6-44 years. The cause of the eclipse is unknown; several theories h! ave been proposed, including a focused accretion stream, a disk or cloud around the secondary, and a triggered mass loss that produces an opaque cloud. Careful investigation of this upcoming event should help to resolve this question. The last eclipse of R Aqr was in 1978. The next eclipse is predicted for 2022, but may be early. The current behavior of R Aqr suggests that the eclipse, which lasts for several years, may either be beginning or its beginning may be imminent. R Aqr was at minimum in early December 2015 at magnitude V=11.4, and is currently at visual magnitude 11.0. During this phase of the approximately 44-year eclipse cycle, at maximum it may be as bright as V 6.0-6.5 but is not expected to become brighter. Beginning immediately, nightly BVRI CCD and DSLR photometry and visual observations are requested. As R Aqr brightens towards maximum and is in range, PEP observations are also requested. Ongoing spectroscopy over the next several years will be interesting to see as the system

  14. Associations Between Behavioral Inhibition and Children's Social Problem Solving Behavior During Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Olga L; Henderson, Heather A; Degnan, Kathryn A; Penela, Elizabeth C; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the associations between the early childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition and children's displays of social problem-solving (SPS) behavior during social exclusion. During toddlerhood (ages 2-3), maternal report and behavioral observations of behavioral inhibition were collected. At age 7, children's SPS behaviors were observed during a laboratory social exclusion task based on the commonly used Cyberball game. Results showed that behavioral inhibition was positively associated with displayed social withdrawal and negatively associated with assertive behavior during the observed social exclusion task at 7 years of age. These results add to our understanding of inhibited children's SPS behaviors during social exclusion and provide evidence for the associations between toddler temperament and children's social behavior during middle childhood.

  15. NICER observation of magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2016-04-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is a NASA Explorer Misson of Opportunity as an attached payload aboard the International Space Station (ISS), launch in August 2016. The NICER is planned to study the interior composition and structure within neutron stars via high precise measurement of their stellar mass and radius, also to investigate dynamic and energetic behaviors of their activities. This mission will enable pulsar rotation-resolved spectroscopy in the 0.2--12 keV energy band with large collection area (about twice of the XMM-Newton observatory for soft X-ray timing), precise time-tagging resolution (~200 nsec, 25 times better than RXTE), and high sensitivity (about 2e-14 erg/s/cm2 in the 0.5--10 keV, 5-sigma for 10 ksec exposure). As one of prime goals of the mission, we will describe the science planning of the NICER magnetar observations. The NICER is expected to provide monitoring of fainter magnetar sources which cannot be performed by Swift due to its little collective area. Deep observations of quiescent magnetars and high-B radio pulsars can be also performed with the NICER to study their spectral similarity as a key to investigate the connection between these two sub-classes. Finally, ToO programs are suitable to follow-up the magnate outburst relaxation down to much fainter flux level. We will introduce the NICER strategy of the magnetar observation.

  16. Heat transfer behavior in non-uniform electric field. 1st Report. Observation of boiling phenomena by Schlieren method; Fukin`itsu denbanai no netsudentatsu kyodo. 1. Schlieren ho ni yoru futto gensho no kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nei, H.; Kagawa, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-08-25

    This paper reports the result of observation using the Schlieren method on how temperature boundary layer changes when an electric field is applied in boiling heat transfer. The experiment used a fine nichrome wire in water as a heat generator. The electric field was built by placing a nickel rod as an electrode placed obliquely above and parallel with the heat generator, and applying electric potential to the electrode. The temperature boundary layer produced near the heat transfer face is disturbed by the electric field. The stronger the electric field, the more vigorous the disturbance. The turbulence in this boundary layer is relatively regular, and observed as stripes of temperatures. The stronger the electric field, the more the number of the stripes in the temperature boundary layer, and the higher the stripe density in the axial direction of the heat generator where the temperature difference appears. Boiling bubbles, occurring when the electric field is applied, are kicked out of the temperature boundary layer that varies due to the electric field force, and the bubbles grow thereat. The turbulence is caused by the low-temperature high-density liquid impinging the heat transfer face perpendicularly as a result of the electric field force, and changing its place vigorously with low-density liquid in the boundary layer. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  17. Software for recording observational files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo, A H; Argilaga, M T; Rivera, M A

    2000-08-01

    We offer the new software Codex, written in Visual Basic 3.0. It is a tool adequate in observational methodology. Its fundamental objective is to record motor and verbal behavior using the data types proposed by Bakeman and Quera (1995, 1996), together with the field formats proposed by Hall (1963), Weick (1968), Hutt and Hutt (1974), and Anguera (1979). It is designed to allow for data interchange between specific programs in use in observational methodology (SDIS-GSEQ, The Observer, and Theme) and other general programs (spread sheets, statistics applications, word processing programs, sound cards, etc.).

  18. Fracture Behavior under Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    discussed for the different loading rates ob- tai ned . 1. Introduction In static fracture mechanics crack tip stress intensity factors can easi- - ly...deviation to the left or to the right hand side of the original crack path was observed. Herrmann [151 speculated that this behavior results from stress...Materials’ Draft 2c, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, .. ,-- 1980. 15. Herrmann , G., "Dynamic Fracture of Beams in Bending

  19. Prosocial behavior and public service motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteve, M.; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Boyne, George

    Although research on public service motivation (PSM) is vast, there is little evidence regarding the effects of PSM on observable behavior. This article contributes to our understanding of the behavioral implications of PSM by investigating whether PSM is associated with prosocial behavior.

  20. Elementary Teachers' Tolerance of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 46 teachers rated observable mild-to-moderate school-related problem behaviors in order to identify aspects of teacher tolerance specific to the elementary classroom. Findings indicated that behaviors least tolerated are other-directed or disruptive; self- or teacher-directed behaviors elicited less negative ratings. (RH)

  1. Behaviorism and the Construction of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss behaviorism and the construction of knowledge. This review investigates whether behaviorism methodology has any advantages in learning a language in our classroom. This assessment also observes the critics of behaviorism and its weaknesses in a learning environment. This inquiry concentrates on the view point of B.F.…

  2. Prosocial behavior and public service motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteve, M.; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Boyne, George

    2016-01-01

    Although research on public service motivation (PSM) is vast, there is little evidence regarding the effects of PSM on observable behavior. This article contributes to our understanding of the behavioral implications of PSM by investigating whether PSM is associated with prosocial behavior. Moreover

  3. Motion Picture and Videotape Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Geoffrey C.; Duvall, David

    1983-01-01

    Use of motion pictures and videotape recordings to analyze animal behavior is described. Indicates that accuracy/amount of data available is greatly increased and that simultaneous behaviors of different animals can be studied or individual behavior patterns increased/decreased, providing observers with temporal perceptions similar to the animals…

  4. Behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, D T; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.

  5. 阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆精神行为症状的效果观察%Effect observation on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and olanzapine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦素萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To Investigate the clinical efficacy on senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms in the treatment with Aripiprazole and Olanzapine. Methods 84 patients with senile dementia associated with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms were selected in the hospital from March 2009 to December 2011, who were divided into two groups randomly. 42 patients who used Olanzapine treatment were as the control group. 42 patients who used Aripiprazole in the treatment were as the observation group. The course of treatment was 8 weeks. After treatment of 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, AD behavioral pathology In scale (BEHAVE-AD), treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) of patients were performed. Before the treatment and after treatment of 8 weeks, minimum mental state examination was performed. Results After treatment, AD behavioral pathology in scale total score and each factor scores in the control group and observation group decreased significantly. The incidence rate of adverse drug reactions (19.0%) in the observation group was significantly lower than that In the control group (45.2%), the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Minimum mental state examination scores in the control group and observation group evaluated. Total efficiency of AD behavioral pathology In scale score and minimum mental state examination score In the observation group was slightly higher than those In the control group, while there were no significant differences between them (P > 0.05}. Conclusion Aripiprazole and Olanzapine in the treatment of senile dementia with behavioral and psychological symptoms have equivalent clinical efficacy. But Aripiprazole has better security, which is more suitable for clinical use.%目的 探讨阿立哌唑与奥氮平治疗老年期痴呆的精神行为症状的临床疗效.方法 选取我院2009年3月~2011年12月收治的老年期痴呆伴精神行为症状患者84例,随机分为两

  6. Resistance to Change and Relapse of Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments examined relapse of extinguished observing behavior of pigeons using a two-component multiple schedule of observing-response procedures. In both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) food reinforcement alternated with extinction and observing responses produced stimuli associated with the availability of the VI…

  7. Resistance to Change and Relapse of Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments examined relapse of extinguished observing behavior of pigeons using a two-component multiple schedule of observing-response procedures. In both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) food reinforcement alternated with extinction and observing responses produced stimuli associated with the availability of the VI…

  8. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  9. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  10. Observation of strong anisotropic forbidden transitions in (001 InGaAs/GaAs single-quantum well by reflectance-difference spectroscopy and its behavior under uniaxial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The strong anisotropic forbidden transition has been observed in a series of InGaAs/GaAs single-quantum well with well width ranging between 3 nm and 7 nm at 80 K. Numerical calculations within the envelope function framework have been performed to analyze the origin of the optical anisotropic forbidden transition. It is found that the optical anisotropy of this transition can be mainly attributed to indium segregation effect. The effect of uniaxial strain on in-plane optical anisotropy (IPOA is also investigated. The IPOA of the forbidden transition changes little with strain, while that of the allowed transition shows a linear dependence on strain. PACS 78.66.Fd, 78.20.Bh, 78.20.Fm

  11. Observation of strong anisotropic forbidden transitions in (001) InGaAs/GaAs single-quantum well by reflectance-difference spectroscopy and its behavior under uniaxial strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Ling; Chen, Yong-Hai; Tang, Chen-Guang; Jiang, Chongyun; Ye, Xiao-Ling

    2011-03-10

    The strong anisotropic forbidden transition has been observed in a series of InGaAs/GaAs single-quantum well with well width ranging between 3 nm and 7 nm at 80 K. Numerical calculations within the envelope function framework have been performed to analyze the origin of the optical anisotropic forbidden transition. It is found that the optical anisotropy of this transition can be mainly attributed to indium segregation effect. The effect of uniaxial strain on in-plane optical anisotropy (IPOA) is also investigated. The IPOA of the forbidden transition changes little with strain, while that of the allowed transition shows a linear dependence on strain.PACS 78.66.Fd, 78.20.Bh, 78.20.Fm.

  12. The Research of the Observational Learning Behaviors of S&T Database Users%科技数据库用户观察学习行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯颖; 甘利人; 周晓剑

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bandura' s social learning theory, with sophomores being selected as experiment subjects, the authors construct prototypes to carry out the experimental study of observational learning. The results indicate that users in the observational learning environment would obtain information from the external environment for learning, and the characteristics of alternative reinforcement learning are obvious ; On the basis of referencing to the information of prototypes, users also adjustment their retrieval strategies through their previous retrieval outcomes simultaneously. In addition, the field dependent users are more inclined to absorb invironmental information for learning compared to the field independent users who prefer to attach importance to their own learning experiences, which has provided a reference for how to design different systems for targeted learners.%主要依据班杜拉社会学习理论,选取大二学生为主体并构造榜样信息进行观察学习的实验研究。结果表明,处于观察学习环境的用户能够从外界环境获取信息进行学习,其替代性强化学习特征明显;在参考榜样信息的基础上,用户同时也依据自身检索结果调整检索策略,以尽快学会最优的检索策略。此外,场依存用户相比较更容易吸收外界干预信息进行学习,场独立用户则更倾向于重视自身经验进行学习。此研究可为有针对性地对不同学习者设计帮助系统提供参考。

  13. 黄嘴鹮鹳混群笼养繁殖和育雏行为观察%Yellow-billed Stork Mixed Group of Captive Breeding and Rearing Behavior Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁宇

    2009-01-01

    The yellow-billed stork was kept in a captive environment from 2006 to 2008. Scan sampling and the focus animals methods were used to observe yellow-billed stork breeding, nestling growth and development. The results showed that: Through human intervention, the yellow-billed stork in the Beijing area can reproduce in a whole year. The adult birds raise chicks together. Nestling birds is an altrices, compared to the ibis, the yellow-billed stork has a lot of specificity in the growth and development which close to the storks.%从2006年到2008年间对黄嘴鹮鹳的饲养环境进行人工调节,采用焦点动物法和扫描取样法对黄嘴鹮鹳的繁殖行为、雏鸟的生长发育进行观察.结果表明,人工措施可使黄嘴鹮鹳在北京地区全年繁殖;亲鸟在育雏期共同养育雏鸟;雏鸟属晚成鸟,但与鹮类相比,在生长发育上有特异性,更接近于鹳.

  14. Children with ADHD and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder improved in behavior when treated with methylphenidate and adjuvant risperidone, though weight gain was also observed - Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangard, Leila; Akbarian, Shahrokh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Keshavarzi, Amir; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-05-01

    Children with ADHD often show symptoms of oppositional defiant disorders (ODD). We investigated the impact of adjuvant risperidone (RISP) to a standard treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) in children with ADHD and symptoms of ODD. Eighty-four children with ADHD and ODD (age: M=8.55; range: 7.28-9.95 years; 73.8% males) took part in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial lasting eight weeks. Participants were randomly assigned either to the MPH+RISP (1mg/kg/d+0.5mg/d) or to the MPH+PLCO (1mg/kg/d+placebo) condition. Symptoms of ADHD, weight, height, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Symptoms of ADHD decreased over time, but more so in the MPH+RISP than in the MPH only condition. In the MPH+RISP condition weight, waist circumference and prolactine levels increased over time. Data suggest that adjuvant RISP improved symptoms in children with ADHD and ODD, but weight gain and higher prolactine levels were also observed, which are two alarming side effects. This may become an issue, once children become adolescents, a period of life in which body shape and body self-image are closely linked to self-confidence and peer acceptance. Health care professionals should carefully balance the short-term and long-term costs and benefits of administration of RISP.

  15. Nonlinear System Identification and Behavioral Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Huq, Kazi Mohammed Saidul; Kabir, A F M Sultanul

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determining a mathematical model for an unknown system by observing its input-output data pair is generally referred to as system identification. A behavioral model reproduces the required behavior of the original analyzed system, such as there is a one-to-one correspondence between the behavior of the original system and the simulated system. This paper presents nonlinear system identification and behavioral modeling using a work assignment.

  16. Maladaptive functional relations in client verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    1983-01-01

    Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior is applied in this paper to several kinds of maladaptive behavior with which clinicians must deal. Lying, denial, and poor observing skills are discussed as defective tacting repertoires. Demanding and manipulative behaviors are mands that obtain immediate reinforcement at the expense of disrupting long-term interpersonal relations. Obsessing is runaway intraverbal behavior. Variables that enter into the maladaptive functional relations are examined.

  17. Toward a Behavioral Ecology of Rescue Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollis, Karen L; Nowbahari, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874...

  18. Rheological behavior of the crust and mantle in subduction zones in the time-scale range from earthquake (minute) to mln years inferred from thermomechanical model and geodetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Stephan; Muldashev, Iskander

    2016-04-01

    The key achievement of the geodynamic modelling community greatly contributed by the work of Evgenii Burov and his students is application of "realistic" mineral-physics based non-linear rheological models to simulate deformation processes in crust and mantle. Subduction being a type example of such process is an essentially multi-scale phenomenon with the time-scales spanning from geological to earthquake scale with the seismic cycle in-between. In this study we test the possibility to simulate the entire subduction process from rupture (1 min) to geological time (Mln yr) with the single cross-scale thermomechanical model that employs elasticity, mineral-physics constrained non-linear transient viscous rheology and rate-and-state friction plasticity. First we generate a thermo-mechanical model of subduction zone at geological time-scale including a narrow subduction channel with "wet-quartz" visco-elasto-plastic rheology and low static friction. We next introduce in the same model classic rate-and state friction law in subduction channel, leading to stick-slip instability. This model generates spontaneous earthquake sequence. In order to follow in details deformation process during the entire seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles we use adaptive time-step algorithm changing step from 40 sec during the earthquake to minute-5 year during postseismic and interseismic processes. We observe many interesting deformation patterns and demonstrate that contrary to the conventional ideas, this model predicts that postseismic deformation is controlled by visco-elastic relaxation in the mantle wedge already since hour to day after the great (M>9) earthquakes. We demonstrate that our results are consistent with the postseismic surface displacement after the Great Tohoku Earthquake for the day-to-4year time range.

  19. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  20. Logical Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...

  1. Are general and strategic measures of organizational context and leadership associated with knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based practices in public behavioral health settings? A cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Byron J; Mandell, David S; Hadley, Trevor R; Rubin, Ronnie M; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Beidas, Rinad S

    2017-05-12

    Examining the role of modifiable barriers and facilitators is a necessary step toward developing effective implementation strategies. This study examines whether both general (organizational culture, organizational climate, and transformational leadership) and strategic (implementation climate and implementation leadership) organizational-level factors predict therapist-level determinants of implementation (knowledge of and attitudes toward evidence-based practices). Within the context of a system-wide effort to increase the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and recovery-oriented care, we conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of 19 child-serving agencies in the City of Philadelphia, including 23 sites, 130 therapists, 36 supervisors, and 22 executive administrators. Organizational variables included characteristics such as EBP initiative participation, program size, and proportion of independent contractor therapists; general factors such as organizational culture and climate (Organizational Social Context Measurement System) and transformational leadership (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire); and strategic factors such as implementation climate (Implementation Climate Scale) and implementation leadership (Implementation Leadership Scale). Therapist-level variables included demographics, attitudes toward EBPs (Evidence-Based Practice Attitudes Scale), and knowledge of EBPs (Knowledge of Evidence-Based Services Questionnaire). We used linear mixed-effects regression models to estimate the associations between the predictor (organizational characteristics, general and strategic factors) and dependent (knowledge of and attitudes toward EBPs) variables. Several variables were associated with therapists' knowledge of EBPs. Clinicians in organizations with more proficient cultures or higher levels of transformational leadership (idealized influence) had greater knowledge of EBPs; conversely, clinicians in organizations with more resistant cultures

  2. 认知行为疗法对慢性精神分裂症患者强迫症状的疗效观察%Observation of effects of cognitive behavior therapy on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵衍山; 马文华; 周之平; 王娟; 施潇潇; 胡小平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate effects of cognitive behavior therapy on obsessive-compulsive symptoms of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Methods:66 patients with obsessive-compulsive symptoms and chronic schizophrenia were randomly divided into observation group (33 cases) and control group (33 cases). The observation group adopted cognitive behavior therapy combined with traditional therapy, while control group only received traditional therapy. Two groups were evaluated by Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale and clinical global impression-severity of illness ( CGI-S) at 3 and 6 months after the treatment. Results:At the end of 3 and 6 months, there were significant differences in the scores of Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale and CGI-S of observation group before and after the treatment, and between observation group and control group (P0. 05). Conclusions:The effects of cognitive behavior therapy on the obsessive compulsive symptoms of the patients with chronic schizophrenia are obvious;therefore, it is worth to be promoted.%目的::探讨认知行为疗法对慢性精神分裂症患者强迫症状的治疗效果。方法:将66例伴有强迫症状的慢性精神分裂症患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组各33例。观察组患者采取传统治疗联合认知行为疗法,对照组患者只采用传统治疗;两组患者均以Yale-Brown强迫量表、临床疗效总评量表( CGI-SI)作3、6个月的评定。结果:3、6月末观察组患者的Yale-Brown强迫量表及CGI-SI评分与治疗前和与对照组同期比较,均有显著性差异(P0.05)。结论:认知行为疗法对慢性精神分裂症患者强迫症状的疗效明显,值得推广。

  3. Procedures for Classroom Observations: 1973-1974. Technical Report #19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, Alan

    This report describes classroom observation techniques used to record the behavior of educational specialists (teachers) and students in a kindergarten and a first grade classroom of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). Classroom behavior was observed and recorded daily during the 1973-1974 school year. Each student was observed three…

  4. Patterns of Individual Shopping Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Krumme, Coco; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Much of economic theory is built on observations of aggregate, rather than individual, behavior. Here, we present novel findings on human shopping patterns at the resolution of a single purchase. Our results suggest that much of our seemingly elective activity is actually driven by simple routines. While the interleaving of shopping events creates randomness at the small scale, on the whole consumer behavior is largely predictable. We also examine income-dependent differences in how people shop, and find that wealthy individuals are more likely to bundle shopping trips. These results validate previous work on mobility from cell phone data, while describing the unpredictability of behavior at higher resolution.

  5. Observer Use of Standardized Observation Protocols in Consequential Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Courtney A.; Yi, Qi; Jones, Nathan D.; Lewis, Jennifer M.; McLeod, Monica; Liu, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from a handful of large-scale studies suggests that although observers can be trained to score reliably using observation protocols, there are concerns related to initial training and calibration activities designed to keep observers scoring accurately over time (e.g., Bell, et al, 2012; BMGF, 2012). Studies offer little insight into how…

  6. Assessing type a behavior in 8-year-olds: exploring the overlap between the constructs of type a behavior and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, L; Bohlin, G; Hagekull, B

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to examine, by using behavioral observations, the overlap found between Type A behavior, as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) questionnaire, and measures of hyperactivity in children. The sample consisted of 91 children (46 boys and 45 girls) between the ages of 8 and 9 who were part of a longitudinal study in Uppsala, Sweden. Behavioral observations of Type A behavior and various questionnaire data were used. The behaviorally observed Type A behavior correlated significantly with MYTH Type A behavior, whereas only the MYTH Type A behavior correlated with hyperactivity measured by questionnaires. The results indicated that behavioral observations make it possible to measure Type A behavior as distinct from hyperactivity, implying that the MYTH is too indiscriminate a measure of Type A behavior. This has implications for future measurement and perhaps conceptualization of Type A behavior in children, and thereby also for studying the developmental aspects of Type A behavior.

  7. The relations among child negative interactive behavior, child temperament, and maternal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, Nora; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Chantal; Verhoeven, Marjolein; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Junger, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Negative behavior toward the mother during toddlerhood might be a marker of increased risk for maladjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible antecedents of toddler boys’ negative behavior observed in interaction with the mother: child temperament, and maternal behavior towa

  8. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis.

  9. Observations of Accreting Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildsten, Lars; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Chiu, John; Finger, Mark H.; Koh, Danny T.; Nelson, Robert W.; Prince, Thomas A.; Rubin, Bradley C.; Scott, D. Matthew; Stollberg, Mark; Vaughan, Brian A.; Wilson, Colleen A.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    We summarize 5 years of continuous monitoring of accretion-powered pulsars with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Our 20-70 keV observations have determined or refined the orbital parameters of 13 binaries, discovered five new transient accreting pulsars, measured the pulsed flux history during outbursts of 12 transients (GRO J1744-28, 4U 0115+634, GRO J1750-27, GS 0834-430, 2S 1417-624, GRO J1948+32, EXO 2030+375, GRO J1008-57, A0535+26, GRO J2058+42, 4U 1145-619, and A1118-616), and also measured the accretion torque history during outbursts of six of those transients whose orbital param- eters were also known. We have also continuously measured the pulsed flux and spin frequency for eiaht persistently accreting pulsars (Her X-1, Cen X-3, Vela X-1, OAO 1657-415, GX 301-2, 4U 1626-67, 4U 1538-52, and GX 1+4). Because of their continuity and uniformity over a long baseline, BATSE observations have provided new insights into the long-term behavior of accreting magnetic neutron stars. We have found that all accreting pulsars show stochastic variations in their spin frequencies and luminosities, including those displaying secular spin-up or spin-down on long timescales, which blurs the con- ventional distinction between disk-fed and wind-fed binaries. Pulsed flux and accretion torque are strongly correlated in outbursts of transient accreting pulsars but are uncorrelated, or even anti- correlated, in persistent sources. We describe daily folded pulse profiles, frequency, and flux measurements that are available through the Compton Observatory Science Support Center at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  10. Classroom Observation of Potential Special Education Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.

    The present study is a portion of a larger study dealing with early identification of children with potential learning or behavioral difficulties. Specifically, the purpose of this phase of the project was (1) to refine classroom observation techniques and procedures and (2) to collect classroom observation data on children in regular classes who…

  11. Comment on ``Observation of Superluminal Behaviors in Wave Propagation''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, N. P.; Hagen, C. R.

    2001-07-01

    Two Comments on the Letter by D. Mugnai, A. Ranfagni, and R. Ruggeri, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4830 (2000). Points similar to those made in the following two Comments were made in papers by S. Glasgow and J. Peatross, by M. Peshkin, by L. C. Cune and M. Apostol, by W. Luis Mochán and V. L. Brudny, and by C. Altucci, C. de Lisio, B. Preziosi, and S. Solimeno.

  12. Play behavior in elementary school: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tatiana Duarte Cordazzo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las formas de interacción social y tipos de juegos realizados por los niños cuando están expuestos a diferentes tipos de juguetes en el contexto escolar. Participaron del estudio once niños de entre siete y ocho años matriculados en la red escolar de las escuelas privadas. Durante tres meses los niños se observaron (en la habitación donde se prepararon series de los juguetes dos veces a la semana en sesiones que duró treinta minutos. A través de análisis de datos se comprobó que los niños tengan una preferencia para jugar en grupos y separados por sexo. Además, el juguete educativo era la menos utilizada. Hipótesis para explicar estos datos también se presentan y analizan las consecuencias de jugar en la escuela todos los días.

  13. Chaotic behavior of seismic mechanisms: experiment and observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Bezzeghoud

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    To simulate the dynamics of earthquakes, a mechanical prototype was constructed that was inspired by the Burridge-Knopoff model and equipped with accurate instrumental devices. The data obtained by the prototype appeared to be consistent with seismic data from the San Andreas Fault, California, USA, which were analyzed using two different methodologies: seismology and modern developments of chaos theory. Perspectives for future work are also presented.

  14. Behavioral observations - Neurobehavioral impacts of copper on juvenile salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research support for various organizations in NOAA (Northwest Regional Office (NWR), HQ Office of Protected Resources, National Ocean Service (NOS) Coastal Services...

  15. In situ nonlinear elastic behavior of soil observed by DAET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Renaud, Guillaume [Eramus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Rutledge, James T. [EES-17: GEOPHYSICS; Lee, Richard C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guyer, Robert A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-05

    The key to safe design of critical facilities (strong ground motion in low velocity materials such as soils). Current approaches are predictions from measurements of the elastic non-linear properties of boreholes samples. Need for in-situ, local and complete determination of non-linear properties of soil, rock in response to high-strain motion.

  16. Observing Behavior of Fluid Flow through Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anna T.

    This work establishes a platform technique for visualizing fluid transport through Anoidisc Alumina Oxide (AAO) membranes, which can be applied to Carbon Nanotube (CNT) arrays, and allow for the testing of the effects of other parameters on flow. Arrays of CNTs have shown significant promise for delivering biomolecules into cells with high efficiency while maintaining cell viability. In these applications, biomolecules flow through CNT arrays manufactured in our lab using Template-Based Chemical Vapor Deposition. By culturing cells on the opposite side of the array, they can be used to transfect biomolecules into cells. In this research, it was discovered that the transfection rate was dependent on the type of biomolecule being delivered into the cells. It was also inferred that the number of CNTs the cells covered would affect the transfection rate. In order to characterize flow through the CNT arrays, an experiment was designed and conducted to test the effect of changing the number of active CNTs. Preliminary testing showed the occurrence of an unknown error in the CNT array manufacturing process which prevented material from flowing through the CNT arrays. As a result, the study was modified to characterize flow through AAO membranes, which serve as the template for the CNTs. To accomplish this, a flow device was developed which restricted flow to a predefined circular area. Three different diameters were tested 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm. Flow data was taken using fluorescent dye, as it diffused through the AAO into a volume of water on the opposite side, fluorescent intensity would increase. This data was plotted against time and used to model flow for the three tested diameters. The results indicated that the total time for diffusion increased as the diameters decreased. However, the relationship between the number of exposed pores and the flow time were not directly related, meaning the amount of flow through one pore changes with the total number of exposed pores. Testing was also conducted regarding the development of a flow device designed with two distinct flow inlets to the CNT array. This was done to determine the future feasibility of administering two distinct solutions into groups of cells. It was concluded that these devices could successfully be used for that purpose.

  17. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  18. Teaching, caring, and altruistic behaviors in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Takai-Kawakami, Kiyoko

    2015-11-01

    Peer-directed behaviors of toddlers were longitudinally recorded in a naturalistic preschool setting. An observer (O, the first author) recorded children's behaviors during play sessions with an IC recorder. One-year-old children (N=13) and children under the age of 12 months (N=8) were observed for 15 min, 6 times in a year. Their teaching, caring, and altruistic behaviors were analyzed in detail. Results indicated that peer-directed behaviors of one-year-olds increased dramatically. It is concluded that toddlers are sophisticated social being.

  19. [Negative destructive behavior in young retarded children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, A

    1983-02-01

    Twenty percent of a population of mentally retarded children, who underwent clinical observation because of behavior problems, demonstrated serious aggressive, destructive, negativistic and hyperactive behavior patterns. According to the parents this type of behavior developed between two and four years of age. It remains unclear whether this behavior is caused by a differential rate of maturation of certain brain structures or by unfavorable emotional and environmental variables. A psychotherapeutic approach to the treatment of these children led to positive results. It is supposed that if left untreated, a symptom shift can occur towards neurotic, depressive or aggressive behavior when the child gets older.

  20. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts permits us to confirm a gradual advance in behavior theory, in dealing with this issue, toward a totally monistic view.

  1. Observational Learning by Individuals with Autism: A Review of Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Hume, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    Observational learning is the process used to explain the acquisition of novel behaviors or performance of previously acquired behaviors under novel conditions after observing the behavior of another person and the consequences that follow the behavior. Many learners with autism do not attend to environmental stimuli at a level sufficient to learn…

  2. Behaviors of Children Referred by Classroom Teachers as Hyperactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shecket, Susan M.; Shecket, William C.

    In this study, a classroom observation technique was employed to examine the behaviors of a group of teacher-referred hyperactive children in order to determine the frequency of specific behaviors exhibited. The purpose behind the study was the further investigation of behavioral observation and intervention techniques used by other researchers as…

  3. 用四臂嗅觉仪观测家蚕对非桑科植物的选择行为%An Observation on Food Selection Behavior of Silkworm Larvae to Non-Moraceae Plants with Four-arm Olfactometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉洁; 孙乐娜; 杨承远; 夏庆友

    2012-01-01

    昆虫嗅觉、味觉等感受系统与其对宿主植物的识别、找寻、取食直接相关,也是研究昆虫与植物相互作用的重要内容.设计并制作观测家蚕行为的四臂嗅觉仪,应用于分析家蚕幼虫被宿主植物桑树的叶片与非宿主植物青蒿和樟树的叶片引诱而产生的行为反应.观测结果表明,非宿主植物青蒿的叶片对家蚕幼虫的引诱作用比宿主植物桑树叶片的引诱作用强,而樟树叶对2、3龄起蚕的引诱作用与桑叶无明显差异.家蚕幼虫对青蒿叶和樟树叶有咬食行为,对桑叶有持续进食行为.该结果证实:家蚕利用灵敏的嗅觉系统可识别植物挥发性气味物质,定位食物源,从而产生趋向行为;家蚕的味觉系统可能直接决定取食的初始行为及在短时间内是否持续、大量取食某种植物的行为.%The olfaction, gustation and other sensory systems of an insect are directly related to its detection, seeking and feeding against the host plant. They are also the important targets for studies on the interaction between insect and plant. In this study, we designed a four-arm olfactometer to observe behavior of silkworm larvae and to analyze behavioral responses of the larvae seduced by leaves of the host plant (mulberry, Morus alba) and two non-host plant species (Artemisia annua and Cinnamomum camphora). The results showed that leaves of the non-host plant A. Annua had stronger seductive effect to silkworm larvae than those of the host plant, while another non-host phant and C. Camphora shared similar seductive effect to the 2nd and 3rd instar newly exuviated larvae with mulberry. Silkworm larvae had biting behavior to A. Annua and C. Camphora leaves and continuous feeding behavior to mulberry leaves. This result verifies that the sophisticated olfactory system enables silkworm larvae to detect volatile odor substance of plants, to locate food source and thus to activate the movement. Meanwhile, gustatory

  4. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  5. From Behaviorism to Selectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ernest A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses behaviorism and the gradual shift to a theory of selectionism. Highlights include the development of behaviorism as a part of psychology, including Skinner's theories; varieties of behaviorism, including behavioral analysis; behaviorology in other disciplinary settings; effects of contingencies upon behavior; and the prospects for…

  6. BEHAVIOR OF MEALWORMS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, THE "BEHAVIOR OF MEALWORMS." BY MAKING CAREFUL OBSERVATIONS AND PERFORMING SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS, THE CHILDREN LEARN HOW TO APPROACH A PROBLEM, HOW TO INTERPRET AND EVALUATE DATA, AND, IN GENERAL, HOW TO CONDUCT A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION. THE MATERIALS HAVE…

  7. Behavior Subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Jodoin, P M; Konrad, J

    2009-01-01

    Background subtraction has been a driving engine for many computer vision and video analytics tasks. Although its many variants exist, they all share the underlying assumption that photometric scene properties are either static or exhibit temporal stationarity. While this works in some applications, the model fails when one is interested in discovering {\\it changes in scene dynamics} rather than those in a static background; detection of unusual pedestrian and motor traffic patterns is but one example. We propose a new model and computational framework that address this failure by considering stationary scene dynamics as a ``background'' with which observed scene dynamics are compared. Central to our approach is the concept of an {\\it event}, that we define as short-term scene dynamics captured over a time window at a specific spatial location in the camera field of view. We compute events by time-aggregating motion labels, obtained by background subtraction, as well as object descriptors (e.g., object size)....

  8. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  9. Sexual behaviors in children: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Nancy D

    2010-11-15

    Sexual behaviors in children are common, occurring in 42 to 73 percent of children by the time they reach 13 years of age. Developmentally appropriate behavior that is common and frequently observed in children includes trying to view another person's genitals or breasts, standing too close to other persons, and touching their own genitals. Sexual behaviors become less common, less frequent, or more covert after five years of age. Sexual behavior problems are defined as developmentally inappropriate or intrusive sexual acts that typically involve coercion or distress. Such behaviors should be evaluated within the context of other emotional and behavior disorders, socialization difficulties, and family dysfunction, including violence, abuse, and neglect. Although many children with sexual behavior problems have a history of sexual abuse, most children who have been sexually abused do not develop sexual behavior problems. Children who have been sexually abused at a younger age, who have been abused by a family member, or whose abuse involved penetration are at greater risk of developing sexual behavior problems. Although age-appropriate behaviors are managed primarily through reassurance and education of the parent about appropriate behavior redirection, sexual behavior problems often require further assessment and may necessitate a referral to child protective services for suspected abuse or neglect.

  10. Observer's Interface for JWST Observation Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Miranda; Douglas, Robert; Moriarty, Christopher; Roman, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In support of the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, various teams at STScI (the Space Telescope Science Institute) have collaborated on how to re-structure the view of a an observing program within the Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT) to accommodate for the differences between HST and JWST. For HST APT programs, the structure is visit-dominant, and there is one generic form for entering observing information that spans all instruments with their required fields and options. This can result in sometimes showing irrelevant fields to the user for a given observing goal. Also, the generation of mosaicked observations in HST requires the user to manually calculate the position of each tile within the mosaic, accounting for positional offsets and the roll of the telescope, which is a time consuming process. Now, for JWST programs in APT, the description of the observations has been segregated by instrument and mode into discrete observing templates. Each template's form allows instrument specific choices and displays of relevant information. APT will manually manage the number of visits needed to perform the observation. This is particularly useful for mosaics and dithering with JWST. For example, users will select how they would like a mosaic to be tiled at the observation level, and the visits are automatically created. In this, visits have been re-structured to be purely informational; all editing is done at the observation level. These options and concepts are illustrated to future users via the corresponding poster.

  11. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  12. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żułtak-Bączkowska, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena; Kotwas, Artur; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women's health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study Aim of the study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women's health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH), preventive behaviors (PB), positive mental attitudes (PMA), and health practices (HP). Material and methods The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI). Results The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents). There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often). There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions Older women attached greater importance to positive mental

  13. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, ... behavioral problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually ...

  14. Observational learning by individuals with autism: a review of teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B; Hume, Kara A

    2014-05-01

    Observational learning is the process used to explain the acquisition of novel behaviors or performance of previously acquired behaviors under novel conditions after observing the behavior of another person and the consequences that follow the behavior. Many learners with autism do not attend to environmental stimuli at a level sufficient to learn a range of prosocial behaviors through observation of others. Modeling, group or dyadic instruction, and explicit observation training can improve the extent to which individuals with autism learn through observation. This article reviews previous research that involved observational learning by individuals with autism and outlines future research that could benefit instructional practices.

  15. 楸螟行为观察及性信息素粗提物生物活性测定%Observation on adult behavior and study on biological activity of extracts from female sex pheromone gland of Omphisa plagialis Wileman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜; 贺婷婷; 刘保玲; 王高平

    2012-01-01

    The circadian eclosion and the circadian rhythms of female calling behavior of adult Omphisa plagialis Wileman were observed at( 25 ± 1) ℃ under 14L:10D. Behavioral responses of male moths to female sex pheromone gland extracts were studied in a Y-shaped tube. The results show that moths emerged from 10:00-23:00 and that female moths began to call on the day of eclosion and that calling peaked from 23 :30 to 01:30. The hexane extract from female adult sex pheromone glands was comprised of sex pheromone components.%本文报道了楸螟Omphisa plagialis Wileman的羽化昼夜规律和(25±1)℃、光周期L∶D=14∶10条件下的雌蛾求偶节律,用Y形管法测定了雄蛾对雌蛾性信息素粗提物的行为反应.结果表明:楸螟的羽化发生在10:00到23:00之间;雌蛾在羽化当天即开始求偶,求偶行为集中在暗周期的23:30到01:30之间.采用正己烷提取的雌蛾性信息素粗提物存在性信息素成分,对雄蛾具有一定的引诱活性.

  16. Using Videoconferencing to Conduct Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior and Develop Classroom Behavioral Support Plans for Students with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machalicek, W.A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Chan, J.M.; Lang, R.; Rispoli, M.; Davis, T.; Shogren, K.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Antonuzzi, M.; Langthorne, P.; Andrews, A.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the therapi

  17. Inappropriate sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philo, S W; Richie, M F; Kaas, M J

    1996-11-01

    Inappropriate sexual behavior, or sexually aggressive behavior, is a term which encompasses a variety of behaviors, including obscene gesturing, touching or hugging another person, exposing body parts or disrobing, and masturbating in public. Inappropriate sexual behavior often elicits feelings of anxiety, embarrassment, or unease in the caregiver and the result is often disruption in continuity of care for the patient. The cause of inappropriate sexual behavior varies among individuals and careful assessment of the etiology of the behavior is the first essential step in intervening. Nursing interventions focus upon providing opportunities for expression of appropriate sexual behavior while attempting to extinguish inappropriate sexual behavior.

  18. The Psyche as Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTURO CLAVIJO A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorism has argued that behavior is the Psyche and the subject matter of psychology. Although, some scientists had done empirical work with objective methods before 1913, the year in which John B. Watson published his manifesto, he was the first one to attempt a systematization of behavior as the Psyche, that is, as psychology’s subject matter. In this text, I outline Watson’s notion of behavior to compare it with two other forms of behaviorism: Skinner’s radical behaviorism and molar behaviorism. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate how the concept of behavior has been and is changing.

  19. Clinical Judgments of Normal Childhood Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sally Ann

    1976-01-01

    Decisions regarding normality of childhood behaviors are necessary when clinicians attempt to discriminate which children require psychiatric treatment. Elements affecting clinical judgments include the influence of direct observation of the child and the parents' report of the child's behavior. Results show that judgments depended almost entirely…

  20. Using Videotape Technology: Innovations in Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, Robert E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reviews present and potential uses of videotape technology in behavioral research. Emphasis is placed on research methodology and the value of incorporating videotape in current research practices, including behavior observation studies, in modeling research, and in perceptual attribution investigations. Concludes with an analysis of advantages…