Extended quasiparticle approximation for relativistic electrons in plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.G.Morozov
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Starting with Dyson equations for the path-ordered Green's function, it is shown that the correlation functions for relativistic electrons (positrons in a weakly coupled non-equilibrium plasmas can be decomposed into sharply peaked quasiparticle parts and off-shell parts in a rather general form. To leading order in the electromagnetic coupling constant, this decomposition yields the extended quasiparticle approximation for the correlation functions, which can be used for the first principle calculation of the radiation scattering rates in QED plasmas.
Two correlated quasiparticles states in the principal series approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dukelsky, J.; Dussel, G.G.; Sofia, H.M.
1983-01-01
The principal series approximation is extended to the description of two correlated quasiparticles states, enabling a treatment of these states that takes into account the coupling among the two particle Green's function and the particle-hole one. This description is related to a random phase approximation treatment of collective states in open shell nuclei that includes simultaneously the particle-particle and particle-hole versions of the nuclear residual Hamiltonian. Using separable interactions it is found that the inclusion of the particle-particle part of the Hamiltonians greatly changes the properties of the 2 + states in the Sn isotopes
Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pena Arteaga, D.
2007-06-25
Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)
Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation with a separable pairing force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Yuan; Ma Zhongyu; Ring Peter
2009-01-01
In our previous work, we introduced a separable pairing force for relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculations. This force was adjusted to reproduce the pairing properties of the Gogny force in nuclear matter. By using the well known techniques of Talmi and Moshinsky it can be expanded in a series of separable terms and converges quickly after a few terms. It was found that the pairing properties can be depicted on almost the same footing as the original pairing interaction, not only in nuclear matter, but also in finite nuclei. In this study, we construct a relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA) with this separable pairing interaction and calculate the excitation energies of the first excited 2 + states and reduced B(E2; 0 + →2 + ) transition rates for a chain of Sn isotopes in RQRPA. Compared with the results of the full Gogny force, we find that this simple separable pairing interaction can describe the pairing properties of the excited vibrational states as well as the original pairing interaction. (authors)
Separable pairing force for relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Yuan; Ma Zhongyu; Ring, Peter
2009-01-01
We have introduced a separable pairing force, which was adjusted to reproduce the pairing properties of the Gogny force in nuclear matter. This separable pairing force is able to describe in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) calculations the pairing properties in the ground state of finite nuclei on almost the same footing as the original Gogny interaction. In this work we investigate excited states using the Relativistic Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (RQRPA) with the same separable pairing force. For consistency the Goldstone modes and the convergence with various cutoff parameters in this version of RQRPA are studied. The first excited 2 + states for the chain of Sn isotopes with Z=50 and the chain of isotones with N=82 isotones are calculated in RQRPA together with the 3 - states of Sn isotopes. By comparing our results with experimental data and with the results of the original Gogny force we find that this simple separable pairing interaction is very successful in depicting the pairing properties of vibrational excitations.
Relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation: Dipole response of open-shell nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litvinova, E.; Ring, P.; Tselyaev, V.
2008-01-01
The self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (RQRPA) is extended by the quasiparticle-phonon coupling (QPC) model using the quasiparticle time blocking approximation (QTBA). The method is formulated in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) in the two-quasiparticle space with an energy-dependent two-quasiparticle residual interaction. This equation is solved either in the basis of Dirac states forming the self-consistent solution of the ground state or in the momentum representation. Pairing correlations are treated within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model with a monopole-monopole interaction. The same NL3 set of the coupling constants generates the Dirac-Hartree-BCS single-quasiparticle spectrum, the static part of the residual two-quasiparticle interaction and the quasiparticle-phonon coupling amplitudes. A quantitative description of electric dipole excitations in the chain of tin isotopes (Z=50) with the mass numbers A=100,106,114,116,120, and 130 and in the chain of isotones with (N=50) 88 Sr, 90 Zr, 92 Mo is performed within this framework. The RQRPA extended by the coupling to collective vibrations generates spectra with a multitude of 2q x phonon (two quasiparticles plus phonon) states providing a noticeable fragmentation of the giant dipole resonance as well as of the soft dipole mode (pygmy resonance) in the nuclei under investigation. The results obtained for the photo absorption cross sections and for the integrated contributions of the low-lying strength to the calculated dipole spectra agree very well with the available experimental data
Csordás, András; Graham, Robert; Szépfalusy, Péter
1997-01-01
The Bogoliubov equations of the quasi-particle excitations in a weakly interacting trapped Bose-condensate are solved in the WKB approximation in an isotropic harmonic trap, determining the discrete quasi-particle energies and wave functions by torus (Bohr-Sommerfeld) quantization of the integrable classical quasi-particle dynamics. The results are used to calculate the position and strengths of the peaks in the dynamic structure function which can be observed by off-resonance inelastic light...
Calculating beta decay in the deformed self-consistent quasiparticle random phase approximation
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Engel, Jonathan, E-mail: engelj@physics.unc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Mustonen, M. T., E-mail: mika.mustonen@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06052 (United States)
2016-06-21
We discuss a recent global calculation of beta-decay rates in the self-consistent Skyrme quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), with axially symmetric nuclear deformation treated explicitly. The calculation makes makes use of the finite-amplitude method, first proposed by Nakatsukasa and collaborators, to reduce computation time. The results are comparable in quality to those of several other global QRPA calculations. The QRPA may have reached the limit of its accuracy.
Neutrino-nucleus reaction rates based on the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Marketin, T.; Ring, P.
2008-01-01
Neutrino-nucleus cross sections are described in a novel theoretical framework where the weak interaction of leptons with hadrons is expressed in the standard current-current form, the nuclear ground state is described in the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model, and the relevant transitions to excited states are calculated in the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation. The model is employed in studies of neutrino-nucleus reactions in several test cases
Relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculation of total muon capture rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marketin, T.; Paar, N.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.
2009-01-01
The relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-RQRPA) is applied in the calculation of total muon capture rates on a large set of nuclei from 12 C to 244 Pu, for which experimental values are available. The microscopic theoretical framework is based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model for the nuclear ground state, and transitions to excited states are calculated using the pn-RQRPA. The calculation is fully consistent, i.e., the same interactions are used both in the RHB equations that determine the quasiparticle basis, and in the matrix equations of the pn-RQRPA. The calculated capture rates are sensitive to the in-medium quenching of the axial-vector coupling constant. By reducing this constant from its free-nucleon value g A =1.262 by 10% for all multipole transitions, the calculation reproduces the experimental muon capture rates to better than 10% accuracy.
β-decay rates of r-process nuclei in the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niksic, T.; Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D.; Paar, N.; Ring, P.
2004-01-01
The fully consistent relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (PN-RQRPA) is employed in the calculation of β-decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei in the N∼50 and N∼82 regions. A new density-dependent effective interaction, with an enhanced value of the nucleon effective mass, is used in relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov calculation of nuclear ground states and in the particle-hole channel of the PN-RQRPA. The finite range Gogny D1S interaction is employed in the T=1 pairing channel, and the model also includes a proton-neutron particle-particle interaction. The theoretical half-lives reproduce the experimental data for the Fe, Zn, Cd, and Te isotopic chains, but overestimate the lifetimes of Ni isotopes and predict a stable 132 Sn. (orig.)
β-decay rates of r-process nuclei in the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niksic, T.; Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D.; Paar, N.; Ring, P.
2005-01-01
The fully consistent relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (PN-RQRPA) is employed in the calculation of β-decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei in the N≅50 and N≅82 regions. A new density-dependent effective interaction, with an enhanced value of the nucleon effective mass, is used in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculation of nuclear ground states and in the particle-hole channel of the PN-RQRPA. The finite range Gogny D1S interaction is employed in the T=1 pairing channel, and the model also includes a proton-neutron particle-particle interaction. The theoretical half-lives reproduce the experimental data for the Fe, Zn, Cd, and Te isotopic chains but overestimate the lifetimes of Ni isotopes and predict a stable 132 Sn
{beta}-decay rates of r-process nuclei in the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation
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Niksic, T.; Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Science, Physics Dept.; Paar, N. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Ring, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department
2004-12-08
The fully consistent relativistic proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (PN-RQRPA) is employed in the calculation of {beta}-decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei in the N{approx}50 and N{approx}82 regions. A new density-dependent effective interaction, with an enhanced value of the nucleon effective mass, is used in relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov calculation of nuclear ground states and in the particle-hole channel of the PN-RQRPA. The finite range Gogny D1S interaction is employed in the T=1 pairing channel, and the model also includes a proton-neutron particle-particle interaction. The theoretical half-lives reproduce the experimental data for the Fe, Zn, Cd, and Te isotopic chains, but overestimate the lifetimes of Ni isotopes and predict a stable {sup 132}Sn. (orig.)
Zhang, Du; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao
2017-07-20
The GW self-energy, especially G 0 W 0 based on the particle-hole random phase approximation (phRPA), is widely used to study quasiparticle (QP) energies. Motivated by the desirable features of the particle-particle (pp) RPA compared to the conventional phRPA, we explore the pp counterpart of GW, that is, the T-matrix self-energy, formulated with the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the ppRPA matrix. We demonstrate the accuracy of the T-matrix method for molecular QP energies, highlighting the importance of the pp channel for calculating QP spectra.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, A.; Ring, P.
2006-01-01
The excitation energies and electric multipole decay rates of the lowest lying 2 + and 3 - vibrational states in Pb, Sn, and Ni nuclei are calculated following relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation formalism based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov mean field. Two sets of Lagrangian parameters, NL1 and NL3, are used to investigate the effect of the nuclear force. Overall there is good agreement with the available experimental data for a wide range of mass numbers considered here, and the NL3 set seems to be a better choice. However, strictly speaking, these studies point toward the need of a new set of force parameters that could produce more realistic single-particle levels, at least in vicinity of the Fermi surface, of a wide range of nuclear masses
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Lechaftois, Francois
2016-01-01
This thesis presents three aspects centered around the QRPA (Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation). The first consists in the use of an axial code to confront computed data with experimental results and to feed a microscopic reaction code. This step is a chance to analyse low-energy spectroscopy (few tens of MeV) of some nuclei, and more precisely (but not exclusively) the tin isotopic chain (Z=50). The second one relies on the improvement of the formalism to calculate multipolar electromagnetic transition operators, and a method to consolidate the computation of these operators, allowing to ease the programming by unifying the code for different multipolarities. Finally, in order to overcome the axial symmetry constraint, a new triaxial code has been developed. Its assets and development are presented, followed by the first batch of results. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Marketin, T.; Ring, P.
2008-01-01
Inclusive neutrino-nucleus cross sections are calculated using a consistent relativistic mean-field theoretical framework. The weak lepton-hadron interaction is expressed in the standard current-current form, the nuclear ground state is described with the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model, and the relevant transitions to excited nuclear states are calculated in the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation. Illustrative test calculations are performed for charged-current neutrino reactions on 12 C, 16 O, 56 Fe, and 208 Pb, and results compared with previous studies and available data. Through the use of the experimental neutrino fluxes, the averaged cross sections are evaluated for nuclei of interest for neutrino detectors. We analyze the total neutrino-nucleus cross sections and the evolution of the contribution of the different multipole excitations as a function of neutrino energy. The cross sections for reactions of supernova neutrinos on 16 O and 208 Pb target nuclei are analyzed as functions of the temperature and chemical potential
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Gertjerenken, Bettina; Holthaus, Martin
2014-01-01
We argue that a time-periodically driven bosonic Josephson junction supports stable, quasiparticle-like collective response modes which are N-particle analogs of the nonspreading Trojan wave packets known from microwave-driven Rydberg atoms. Similar to their single-particle counterparts, these collective modes, dubbed ‘flotons’, are well described by a Floquet–Mathieu approximation, and possess a well-defined discrete set of excitations. In contrast to other, ‘chaotic’ modes of response, the nonheating Trojan modes conform to a mean-field description, and thus may be of particular interest for the more general question under which conditions the reduction of quantum N-particle dynamics to a strongly simplified mean-field evolution is feasible. Our reasoning is supported by phase-space portraits which reveal the degree of correspondence beween the N-particle dynamics und the mean-field picture in an intuitive manner. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Losano, L.; Dias, H.; Krmpotic, F.; Wildenthal, B.H.
1988-01-01
A detailed study of the results of correcting BCS approximation for the effects of particle-number projection and blocking has been carried out. A low-seniority shell-model approximation was used as the frame of reference for investigating the mixing of one- and three-quasiparticle states in odd-mass Ni isotopes and in odd-mass N = 82 isotones. We discuss the results obtained for the energy spectra and electromagnetic decay properties. Effects of seniority-five configurations on the low-lying states have also been studied through the comparison of the low-seniority shell-model results with those which arose from the corresponding full shell-model calculations
Quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1977-01-01
The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon model of complex nuclei are given. The choice of the model hamiltonian as an average field and residual forces is discussed. The phonon description and quasiparticle-phonon interaction are presented. The system of basic equations and their approximate solutions are obtained. The approximation is chosen so as to obtain the most correct description of few-quasiparticle components rather than of the whole wave function. The method of strenght functions is presented, which plays a decisive role in practical realization of the quasiparticle-phonon model for the description of some properties of complex nuclei. The range of applicability of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is determined as few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies averaged in a certain energy interval
Ferreira, V. dos S.; Krmpotić, F.; Barbero, C. A.; Samana, A. R.
2017-10-01
The one-quasiparticle random-phase approximation (one-QRPA) method is used to describe simultaneously both double-β -decay modes, giving special attention to the partial restoration of spin-isospin SU(4 ) symmetry. To implement this restoration and to fix the model parameters, we resort to the energetics of Gamow-Teller resonances and to the minima of the single-β+-decay strengths. This makes the theory predictive regarding the β β2 ν decay, producing the 2 ν moments in 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, Te,130128, and 150Nd, that are of the same order of magnitude as the experimental ones; however, the agreement with β β2 ν data is only modest. To include contributions coming from induced nuclear weak currents, we extend the β β0 ν -decay formalism employed previously in C. Barbero et al., Nucl. Phys. A 628, 170 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9474(97)00614-3, which is based on the Fourier-Bessel expansion. The numerical results for the β β0 ν moments in the above mentioned nuclei are similar to those obtained in other theoretical studies although smaller on average by ˜40 % . We attribute this difference basically to the one-QRPA method, employed here for the first time, instead of the currently used two-QRPA method. The difference is partially due also to the way of carrying out the restoration of the spin-isospin symmetry. It is hard to say which is the best way to make this restoration, since the β β0 ν moments are not experimentally measurable. The recipe proposed here is based on physically robust arguments. The numerical uncertainties in the β β moments, related to (i) their strong dependence on the residual interaction in the particle-particle channel when evaluated within the QRPA, and (ii) lack of proper knowledge of single-particle energies, have been quantified. It is concluded that the partial restoration of the SU(4 ) symmetry, generated by the residual interaction, is crucial in the description of the β β decays, regardless of the nuclear
Qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schoen, Gerd [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-07-01
We study dephasing of a superconducting qubit due to quasiparticle tunneling through a Josephson junction. While qubit decay due to tunneling processes is well understood within a golden rule approximation, pure dephasing due to BCS quasiparticles gives rise to a divergent golden rule rate. We calculate qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling beyond lowest order approximation in coupling between qubit and quasiparticles. Summing up a certain class of diagrams we show that qubit dephasing due to purely longitudinal coupling to quasiparticles leads to dephasing ∝ exp(-x(t)) where x(t) ∝ t{sup 3/2} for short time scales and x(t) ∝ tlog(t) for long time scales.
Quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.
1975-07-01
A microscopic calculation of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter is detailed. In order to take especial care of the contributions from the low momentum states, a model space is introduced. Excluded from the model space, the high momentum states are absorbed into the model interaction. Brueckner theory suggests the choice of a truncated G-matrix as a good approximation for this model interaction. A simple perturbative approach is attempted within the model space. The calculated quasiparticle interaction is consistent with experimental results. (11 tables, 14 figures)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Einzel, D.; Woelfle, P.
1978-01-01
The kinetic equation for Bogoliubov quasiparticles for both the A and B phases of superfluid 3 He is derived from the general matrix kinetic equation. A condensed expression for the exact spin-symmetric collision integral is given. The quasiparticle relaxation rate is calculated for the BW state using the s--p approximation for the quasiparticle scattering amplitude. By using the results for the quasiparticle relaxation rate, the mean free path of Bogoliubov quasiparticles is calculated for all temperatures
Quasiparticle trapping and the quasiparticle multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booth, N.E.
1987-01-01
Superconductors and in particular superconducting tunnel junctions can be used to detect phonons, electromagnetic radiation, x rays, and nuclear particles by the mechanism of Cooper-pair breaking to produce excess quasiparticles and phonons. We show that the sensitivity can be increased by a factor of 100 or more by trapping the quasiparticles in another superconductor of lower gap in the region of the tunnel junction. Moreover, if the ratio of the gap energies is >3 a multiplication process can occur due to the interaction of the relaxation phonons. This leads to the concept of the quasiparticle multiplier, a device which could have wider applications than the Gray effect transistor or the quiteron
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Manghi, F., E-mail: franca.manghi@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR – Institute of NanoSciences – S3 (Italy); Boni, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy)
2015-04-15
Highlights: • We review many body techniques for quasiparticle calculations. • We focus on transition metals and transition metal oxides. • We discuss spin dependent energy renormalization and quasiparticle quenching. • We present a detailed comparison between two methods (DMFT and 3BS).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manghi, F.; Boni, V.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We review many body techniques for quasiparticle calculations. • We focus on transition metals and transition metal oxides. • We discuss spin dependent energy renormalization and quasiparticle quenching. • We present a detailed comparison between two methods (DMFT and 3BS).
Calculations of quasi-particle spectra of semiconductors under pressure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel; Cardona, M.
2011-01-01
Different approximations in calculations of electronic quasiparticle states in semiconductors are compared and evaluated with respect to their validity in predictions of optical properties. The quasi-particle self-consistent GW (QSGW) approach yields values of the band gaps which are close...
Quasiparticles in condensed matter systems
Wölfle, Peter
2018-03-01
Quasiparticles are a powerful concept of condensed matter quantum theory. In this review, the appearence and the properties of quasiparticles are presented in a unifying perspective. The principles behind the existence of quasiparticle excitations in both quantum disordered and ordered phases of fermionic and bosonic systems are discussed. The lifetime of quasiparticles is considered in particular near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, when the nature of quasiparticles on both sides of a transition into an ordered state changes. A new concept of critical quasiparticles near a quantum critical point is introduced, and applied to quantum phase transitions in heavy fermion metals. Fractional quasiparticles in systems of restricted dimensionality are reviewed. Dirac quasiparticles emerging in so-called Dirac materials are discussed. The more recent discoveries of topologically protected chiral quasiparticles in topological matter and Majorana quasiparticles in topological superconductors are briefly reviewed.
Exact-exchange-based quasiparticle calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aulbur, Wilfried G.; Staedele, Martin; Goerling, Andreas
2000-01-01
One-particle wave functions and energies from Kohn-Sham calculations with the exact local Kohn-Sham exchange and the local density approximation (LDA) correlation potential [EXX(c)] are used as input for quasiparticle calculations in the GW approximation (GWA) for eight semiconductors. Quasiparticle corrections to EXX(c) band gaps are small when EXX(c) band gaps are close to experiment. In the case of diamond, quasiparticle calculations are essential to remedy a 0.7 eV underestimate of the experimental band gap within EXX(c). The accuracy of EXX(c)-based GWA calculations for the determination of band gaps is as good as the accuracy of LDA-based GWA calculations. For the lowest valence band width a qualitatively different behavior is observed for medium- and wide-gap materials. The valence band width of medium- (wide-) gap materials is reduced (increased) in EXX(c) compared to the LDA. Quasiparticle corrections lead to a further reduction (increase). As a consequence, EXX(c)-based quasiparticle calculations give valence band widths that are generally 1-2 eV smaller (larger) than experiment for medium- (wide-) gap materials. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Superconductors with excess quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elesin, V.F.; Kopaev, Y.V.
1981-01-01
This review presents a systematic kinetic theory of nonequilibrium phenomena in superconductors with excess quasiparticles created by electromagnetic or tunnel injection. The energy distributions of excess quasiparticles and of nonequilibrium phonons, dependence of the order parameter on the power and frequency (or intensity) of the electromagnetic field, magnetic properties of nonequilibrium superconductors, I-V curves of superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions, and other properties are described in detail. The stability of superconducting states far from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated and it is shown that characteristic instabilities leading to the formation of nonuniform states of a new type or phase transitions of the first kind are inherent to superconductors with excess quasiparticles. The results are compared with experimental data
Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.
2003-01-01
A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)
Renormalized plasma turbulence theory: A quasiparticle picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DuBois, D.F.
1981-01-01
A general renormalized statistical theory of Vlasov turbulence is given which proceeds directly from the Vlasov equation and does not assume prior knowledge of sophisticated field-theoretic techniques. Quasiparticles are the linear excitations of the turbulent system away from its instantaneous mean (ensemble-averaged) state or background; the properties of this background state ''dress'' or renormalize the quasiparticle responses. It is shown that all two-point responses (including the dielectric) and all two-point correlation functions can be completely described by the mean distribution function and three fundamental quantities. Two of these are the quasiparticle responses: the propagator and the potential source: which measure, respectively, the separate responses of the mean distribution function and the mean electrostatic potential to functional changes in an external phase-space source added to Vlasov's equation. The third quantity is the two-point correlation function of the incoherent part of the phase-space density which acts as a self-consistent source of quasiparticle and potential fluctuations. This theory explicitly takes into account the self-consistent nature of the electrostatic-field fluctuations which introduces new effects not found in the usual ''test-particle'' theories. Explicit equations for the fundamental quantities are derived in the direct interaction approximation. Special attention is paid to the two-point correlations and the relation to theories of phase-space granulation
Dyson Orbitals, Quasi-Particle effects and Compton scattering
Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.
2004-01-01
Dyson orbitals play an important role in understanding quasi-particle effects in the correlated ground state of a many-particle system and are relevant for describing the Compton scattering cross section beyond the frameworks of the impulse approximation (IA) and the independent particle model (IPM). Here we discuss corrections to the Kohn-Sham energies due to quasi-particle effects in terms of Dyson orbitals and obtain a relatively simple local form of the exchange-correlation energy. Illust...
Chromomagnetism and quasiparticles at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polonyi, J.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1987-01-01
The necessity for chromomagnetically charged quasiparticles in QCD is discussed. It is shown numerically that such quasiparticles are present in pure continuum QCD. Some effects of the gas of quasiparticles are conjectured. (orig.)
Geometrical Description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles
Park, Yeje; Yang, Bo; Haldane, F. D. M.
2012-02-01
We examine a description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles and quasiholes suggested by a recent geometrical approach (F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 116801 (2011)) to FQH systems, where the local excess electric charge density in the incompressible state is given by a topologically-quantized ``guiding-center spin'' times the Gaussian curvature of a ``guiding-center metric tensor'' that characterizes the local shape of the correlation hole around electrons in the fluid. We use a phenomenological energy function with two ingredients: the shear distortion energy of area-preserving distortions of the fluid, and a local (short-range) approximation to the Coulomb energy of the fluctuation of charge density associated with the Gaussian curvature. Quasiparticles and quasiholes of the 1/3 Laughlin state are modeled as ``punctures'' in the incompressible fluid which then relax by geometric distortion which generates Gaussian curvature, giving rise to the charge-density profile around the topological excitation.
Resonant quasiparticles in plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, J.T.; Bingham, R.; Shukla, P.K.
2003-01-01
A general view is proposed on wave propagation in fluids and plasmas where the resonant interaction of monochromatic waves with quasiparticles is considered. A kinetic equation for quasiparticles is used to describe the broadband turbulence interacting with monochromatic waves. Resonant interactions occur when the phase velocity of the long wavelength monochromatic wave is nearly equal to the group velocity of short wavelength wave packets, or quasiparticles, associated with the turbulent spectrum. It is shown that quasiparticle Landau damping can take place, as well as quasiparticle beam instabilities, thus establishing a direct link between short and large wavelength perturbations of the medium. This link is distinct from the usual picture of direct and inverse energy cascades, and it can be used as a different paradigm for the fluid and plasma turbulence theories
Quasiparticle properties of a coupled quantum-wire electron-phonon system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hwang, E. H.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Sarma, S. Das
1996-01-01
We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron-electron interac......We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron......-electron interactions, The leading-order dynamical screening approximation (GW approximation) is used to obtain the electron self-energy, the quasiparticle spectral function, and the quasiparticle damping rate in our calculation by treating electrons and phonons on an equal footing. Our theory includes effects (within...... theoretical results for quasiparticle properties....
Polarization particle drift and quasi-particle invariants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.
1995-01-01
The second-order approximation in quasi-particle description of magnetized plasmas is studied. Reduced particle and guiding-centre velocities are derived taking account of the second-order renormalization and polarization drift modified owing to finite-Larmor-radius effects. The second-order adiabatic invariant of quasi-particle motion is found. Global adiabatic invariants for the magnetized plasma are revealed, and their possible role in energy exchange between particles and fields, nonlinear mode cascades and global plasma stability is shown. 49 refs
Effect of electronic correlations on the quasiparticle dispersion of USb2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xiaodong; Riseborough, Peter S; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Oppeneer, P M; Elgazzar, S
2010-01-01
Angle resolved photoemission experiments have been performed on USb 2 , and very narrow quasiparticle peaks have been observed in a band which LSDA predicts to osculate the Fermi-energy. The observed band is found to be depressed by 17 meV below the Fermi-energy, furthermore, the inferred quasiparticle dispersion relation for this band exhibits a kink at an energy of about 23 meV below the Fermi-energy. The kink is not found in LSDA calculations and, therefore, is attributable to a change in the quasiparticle mass renormalization by a factor of approximately 2. The existence of a kink in the quasiparticle dispersion relation of a band which does not cross the Fermi-energy is unprecedented. The origin of the observed depression of the band, its quasi-particle mass enhancement, and the characteristic energy are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model.
Vlasov equation for photons and quasi-particles in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, J.T.
2014-01-01
We show that, in quite general conditions, a Vlasov equation can be derived for photons in a medium. The same is true for other quasi-particles, such as plasmons, phonons or driftons, associated with other wave modes in a plasma. The range of validity of this equation is discussed. We also discuss the Landau resonance, and its relation with photon acceleration. Exact and approximate expressions for photon and quasi-particle Landau damping are stated. Photon and quasi-particle acceleration and trapping is also discussed. Specific applications to laser-plasma interaction, and to magnetic fusion turbulence, are considered as illustrations of the general approach. (author)
Brownian quasi-particles and quantum quasi-particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fronteau, J.
1987-01-01
The concept of quasi-particles is used in Statistical Mechanics as well as in Quantum Mechanics, to associate differentiable trajectories to the equations of evolution, trajectories on which a maximum of informations is concentrated concerning the phenomena studied. Two cases are treated numerically, that of the Fokker-Planck equation with an x - x 3 field, and that of the Schroedinger equation with null potential, in a situation of interference [fr
Quasi-particle description of strongly interacting matter: Towards a foundation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluhm, M.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulze, R.; Seipt, D.
2007-01-01
We confront our quasi-particle model for the equation of state of strongly interacting matter with recent first-principle QCD calculations. In particular, we test its applicability at finite baryon densities by comparing with Taylor expansion coefficients of the pressure for two quark flavours. We outline a chain of approximations starting from the Φ-functional approach to QCD which motivates the quasi-particle picture. (orig.)
Deformed nuclear state as a quasiparticle-pair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobaczewski, J.; Skalski, J.
1988-01-01
The deformed nuclear states, obtained in terms of the Hartree-Fock plus BCS method with the Skyrme SIII interaction, are approximated by condensates of the low-angular-momentum quasiparticle and particle pairs. The optimal pairs are determined by the variation after truncation method. The influence of the truncation on the deformation energy and the importance of the core-polarization effects are investigated
Brownian quasi-particles in statistical physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tellez-Arenas, A.; Fronteau, J.; Combis, P.
1979-01-01
The idea of a Brownian quasi-particle and the associated differentiable flow (with nonselfadjoint forces) are used here in the context of a stochastic description of the approach towards statistical equilibrium. We show that this quasi-particle flow acquires, at equilibrium, the principal properties of a conservative Hamiltonian flow. Thus the model of Brownian quasi-particles permits us to establish a link between the stochastic description and the Gibbs description of statistical equilibrium
Quasiparticles in non-uniformly magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.
1994-01-01
A quasiparticle concept is generalized for the case of non-uniformly magnetized plasma. Exact and reduced continuity equations for the microscopic density in the quasiparticle phase space are derived, and the nature of quasiparticles is analyzed. The theory is developed for the general case of relativistic particles in electromagnetic fields, besides non-uniform but stationary magnetic fields. Effects of non-stationary magnetic fields are briefly investigated also. 26 refs
Heavy-fermion quasiparticles in UPt3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taillefer, L.; Lonzarich, G.G.
1988-01-01
The quasiparticle band structure of the heavy-fermion superconductor UPt 3 has been investigated by means of angle-resolved measurements of the de Haas--van Alphen effect. Most of the results are consistent with a model of five quasiparticle bands at the Fermi level corresponding to Fermi surfaces similar to those calculated by band theory. However, as inferred from the extremely high cyclotron masses, the quasiparticle bands are much flatter than the calculated ones. The nature of the observed quasiparticles and their relationship to thermodynamic properties are briefly considered
Stretched horizons, quasiparticles, and quasinormal modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iizuka, Norihiro; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.
2003-01-01
We propose that stretched horizons can be described in terms of a gas of noninteracting quasiparticles. The quasiparticles are unstable, with a lifetime set by the imaginary part of the lowest quasinormal mode frequency. If the horizon arises from an AdS-CFT style duality the quasiparticles are also the effective low-energy degrees of freedom of the finite-temperature CFT. We analyze a large class of models including Schwarzschild black holes, nonextremal Dp-branes, the rotating BTZ black hole and de Sitter space, and we comment on degenerate horizons. The quasiparticle description makes manifest the relationship between entropy and area
Quasi-particles at finite chemical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardim, F. G.; Steffens, F. M.
2010-01-01
We present in this work the thermodynamic consistent quasi-particle model at finite chemical potential, to describe the Quark Gluon Plasma composed of two light quarks and gluons. The quasi-particle general solution will be discussed, and comparison with perturbative QCD and lattice data will be shown.
Physical dynamics of quasi-particles in nonlinear wave equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christov, Ivan [Department of Mathematics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3368 (United States)], E-mail: christov@alum.mit.edu; Christov, C.I. [Department of Mathematics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504-1010 (United States)], E-mail: christov@louisiana.edu
2008-02-04
By treating the centers of solitons as point particles and studying their discrete dynamics, we demonstrate a new approach to the quantization of the soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, one of the first model nonlinear field equations. In particular, we show that a linear superposition of the non-interacting shapes of two solitons offers a qualitative (and to a good approximation quantitative) description of the true two-soliton solution, provided that the trajectories of the centers of the superimposed solitons are considered unknown. Via variational calculus, we establish that the dynamics of the quasi-particles obey a pseudo-Newtonian law, which includes cross-mass terms. The successful identification of the governing equations of the (discrete) quasi-particles from the (continuous) field equation shows that the proposed approach provides a basis for the passage from the continuous to a discrete description of the field.
Physical dynamics of quasi-particles in nonlinear wave equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christov, Ivan; Christov, C.I.
2008-01-01
By treating the centers of solitons as point particles and studying their discrete dynamics, we demonstrate a new approach to the quantization of the soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, one of the first model nonlinear field equations. In particular, we show that a linear superposition of the non-interacting shapes of two solitons offers a qualitative (and to a good approximation quantitative) description of the true two-soliton solution, provided that the trajectories of the centers of the superimposed solitons are considered unknown. Via variational calculus, we establish that the dynamics of the quasi-particles obey a pseudo-Newtonian law, which includes cross-mass terms. The successful identification of the governing equations of the (discrete) quasi-particles from the (continuous) field equation shows that the proposed approach provides a basis for the passage from the continuous to a discrete description of the field
Quasi-particles at finite temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.; Requardt, M.
1983-01-01
We study the consequences of the KMS-condition on the properties of quasi-particles, assuming their existence. We establish: (i) If the correlation functions decay sufficiently, we can create them by quasi-free field operators. (ii) There are many age-operators T conjugate to H. For special forms of the dispersion law epsilon(k) of the quasi-particles there is a T commuting with the; (iii) There are many age-operators T conjugate to H. For special forms of the dispersion law epsilon(k) of the quasi-particles there is a T commuting with the number of quasi-particles and its time-monotonicity describes how the quasi-particles travel to infinity. (orig.)
Quasiparticle Breakdown in a Quantum Spin Liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, Matthew B.; Zalinznyak, I.; Hong, T.; Broholm, C.L.; Reich, D.H.
2006-01-01
Much of modern condensed matter physics is understood in terms of elementary excitations, or quasiparticles -- fundamental quanta of energy and momentum. Various strongly interacting atomic systems are successfully treated as a collection of quasiparticles with weak or no interactions. However, there are interesting limitations to this description: in some systems the very existence of quasiparticles cannot be taken for granted. Like unstable elementary particles, quasiparticles cannot survive beyond a threshold where certain decay channels become allowed by conservation laws; their spectrum terminates at this threshold. Such quasiparticle breakdown was first predicted for an exotic state of matter -- super-fluid 4 He at temperatures close to absolute zero, a quantum Bose liquid where zero-point atomic motion precludes crystallization. Here we show, using neutron scattering, that quasiparticle breakdown can also occur in a quantum magnet and, by implication, in other systems with Bose quasiparticles. We have measured spin excitations in a two-dimensional quantum magnet, piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC), in which spin-1/2 copper ions form a non-magnetic quantum spin liquid, and find remarkable similarities with excitations in superfluid 4 He. We observe a threshold momentum beyond which the quasiparticle peak merges with the two-quasiparticle continuum. It then acquires a finite energy width and becomes indistinguishable from a leading-edge singularity, so that excited states are no longer quasiparticles but occupy a wide band of energy. Our findings have important ramifications for understanding excitations with gapped spectra in many condensed matter systems, ranging from band insulators to high-transition-temperature superconductors.
Microscopic description of magnetized plasma: quasiparticle concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.
1993-01-01
A quasiparticle concept is developed systematically, from first principles, within the context of microscopic description of magnetized plasma. It is argued that the zeroth velocity-gyroangle harmonic of the microscopic particle distribution function under the gyrokinetic change of variables can be taken as a microscopic quasi-particle density in a reduced phase space. The nature of quasiparticles is discussed and equations of their motion are derived within both exact and reduced microscopic descriptions. The reduced one employs explicitly the separation of interesting time scales. (orig.)
Phonon-Mediated Quasiparticle Poisoning of Superconducting Microwave Resonators
Patel, U.; Pechenezhskiy, Ivan V.; Plourde, B. L. T.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.
2016-01-01
Nonequilibrium quasiparticles represent a significant source of decoherence in superconducting quantum circuits. Here we investigate the mechanism of quasiparticle poisoning in devices subjected to local quasiparticle injection. We find that quasiparticle poisoning is dominated by the propagation of pair-breaking phonons across the chip. We characterize the energy dependence of the timescale for quasiparticle poisoning. Finally, we observe that incorporation of extensive normal metal quasipar...
Justifying quasiparticle self-consistent schemes via gradient optimization in Baym-Kadanoff theory.
Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab
2017-09-27
The question of which non-interacting Green's function 'best' describes an interacting many-body electronic system is both of fundamental interest as well as of practical importance in describing electronic properties of materials in a realistic manner. Here, we study this question within the framework of Baym-Kadanoff theory, an approach where one locates the stationary point of a total energy functional of the one-particle Green's function in order to find the total ground-state energy as well as all one-particle properties such as the density matrix, chemical potential, or the quasiparticle energy spectrum and quasiparticle wave functions. For the case of the Klein functional, our basic finding is that minimizing the length of the gradient of the total energy functional over non-interacting Green's functions yields a set of self-consistent equations for quasiparticles that is identical to those of the quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) (van Schilfgaarde et al 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 226402-4) approach, thereby providing an a priori justification for such an approach to electronic structure calculations. In fact, this result is general, applies to any self-energy operator, and is not restricted to any particular approximation, e.g., the GW approximation for the self-energy. The approach also shows that, when working in the basis of quasiparticle states, solving the diagonal part of the self-consistent Dyson equation is of primary importance while the off-diagonals are of secondary importance, a common observation in the electronic structure literature of self-energy calculations. Finally, numerical tests and analytical arguments show that when the Dyson equation produces multiple quasiparticle solutions corresponding to a single non-interacting state, minimizing the length of the gradient translates into choosing the solution with largest quasiparticle weight.
Temperature dependent quasiparticle renormalization in nickel metal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Fink, Joerg; Duerr, Hermann A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). BESSY II
2009-07-01
One of the fundamental consequences of electron correlation effects is that the bare particles in solids become 'dressed', i.e. they acquire an increased effective mass and a lifetime. We studied the spin dependent quasiparticle band structure of Ni(111) with high resolution angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. At low temperatures (50 K) a renormalization of quasiparticle energy and lifetime indicative of electron-phonon coupling is observed in agreement with literature. With increasing temperature we observe a decreasing quasiparticle lifetime at the Fermi level for all probed minority spin bands as expected from electron phonon coupling. Surprisingly the majority spin states behave differently. We actually observe a slightly increased lifetime at room temperature. The corresponding increase in Fermi velocity points to a temperature dependent reduction of the majority spin quasiparticle renormalization.
Quasi-particle properties in a quasi-two-dimensional electron liquid
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
effects are incorporated into the local-field factors that describe the charge and spin correla- ... dient of which is the quasi-particle concept and its interactions. .... factors. Note that we have approximated the local-field factors by their static, frequency-independent limits. Quite generally, once the QP self-energy is known, the ...
Taking into account of the Pauli principle in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.
1979-01-01
The effect of an exact account taken of the Pauli principle and correlations in ground states in calculations in the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model of a nucleus has been studied. It is elucidated when it is possible to use the random phase approximation (RPA) and when the Pauli principle should be exactly taken into account. It has been shown that in the quasiparticle-phonon model of a nucleus one may perform calculations with a precise account of the Pauli principle. In most of the problems calculations can be carried out with RPA-phonons
Thermal quasiparticle correlations and continuum coupling in nuclei far from stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dang, Nguyen Dinh; Arima, Akito
2003-01-01
The contributions of quasiparticle correlations and continuum coupling upon the superfluid properties of neutron-rich Ni isotopes are studied within the modified BCS approximation at finite temperature. The effect of quasiparticle correlations is included using a secondary Bogoliubov transformation explicitly involving the quasiparticle occupation numbers at temperature T. The effect of continuum coupling is taken in to account via the finite widths of the single-particle resonant states. It is shown that the combination of these effects washes out the sharp superfluid-normal phase transition given by the standard finite-temperature BCS calculations. It is also found that the two-neutron separation energy for 84 Ni drops to zero at T congruent with 0.8 MeV
GW correlation effects on plutonium quasiparticle energies: Changes in crystal-field splitting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chantis, A.N.; Albers, R.C.; Svane, Axel
2009-01-01
We present results for the electronic structure of plutonium by using a recently developed quasiparticle self-consistent GW method (QSGW). We consider a paramagnetic solution without spin-orbit interaction as a function of volume for the face-centred cubic (fcc) unit cell. We span unit-cell volumes...... ranging from 10% greater than the equilibrium volume of the δ phase to 90% of the equivalent for the α phase of Pu. The selfconsistent GW quasiparticle energies are compared to those obtained within the Local Density Approximation (LDA). The goal of the calculations is to understand systematic trends...... in the effects of electronic correlations on the quasiparticle energy bands of Pu as a function of the localisation of the f orbitals. We show that correlation effects narrow the f bands in two significantly different ways. Besides the expected narrowing of individual f bands (flatter dispersion), we find...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.
1989-01-01
Basic equations are derived for the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model for the finite-rank separable isoscalar and isovector multipole and spin-multipole and isovector tensor particle-hole and particle-particle interactions between quasiparticles. For even-even spherical nuclei it is shown that in the calculation of single-phonon states in the random phase approximation a significant complication arises due to the finite rank n max >1 of separable interactions. Taking into account separable interactions with n max >1 does not lead to significant difficulties in the calculation of fragmentation of quasiparticle and collective states. It is asserted that the model can be used as a basis for calculations of many characteristics of complex nuclei
The description of neutron and giant resonances within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1978-01-01
The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon model of complex nuclei are given. The choice of the model Hamiltonian as an average field and residual forces is discussed. The phonon description and quasiparticle-phonon interaction are presented. The system of basic equations and their approximate solutions are obtained. The approximation is chosen so as to obtain the most correct description of few-quasiparticle components rather than of the whole wave function. The method of strength functions is presented, which plays a decisive role in practical realization of the quasiparticle-phonon model for the description of some properties of complex nuclei. The range of applicability of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is determined as few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies averaged in a certain energy interval. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied within this model. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reactions of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s - ,p - , and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bsub(n). A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. A correct description of the radiative strength functions in spherical nuclei is obtained. The influence of the tail of the giant dipole resonance on the E1-strength functions is studied. The energies and EΛ-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in spherical and deformed nuclei are calculated. A correct description of their widths is obtained. (author)
Quasiparticle branch mixing rates in superconducting aluminum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chi, C.C.; Clarke, J.
1979-01-01
The kinetic equation is used to compute the elastic and inelastic quasiparticle branch mixing rates for a superconducting film into which quasiparticles are injected via a tunnel barrier from a second superconducting film. Representative graphs are presented of the steady-state quasiparticle distribution, the quasiparticle charge imbalance Q* versus injection current, the charge relaxation rate tau -1 /sub Q/* vs Δ/k/sub B/T/sub c/ for several values of elastic scattering rate, and the quasiparticle branch relaxation rate tau -1 /sub Q/ as a function of energy. The quasiparticle potential developed in the injection film is related to tau -1 /sub Q/, and thence to tau -1 0 , a characteristic electron-phonon scattering time. Detailed measurements of tau/sub Q/ are reported for films of superconducting Al, some of which were doped with oxygen to give a range of transition temperatures from 1.2 to 2.1 K. From the dependence of tau -1 /sub Q/* on Δ/k/sub B/T/sub c/, values are deduced for the gap anisotropy of the films. In the cleanest samples, tau 0 or approx. = 2Δ) mean-free-path measurements, but a factor of about 4 smaller than that obtained from recombination time measurements and theoretical calculations. The value of tau -1 /sub o/ in the Al films increases with the transition temperature T/sub c/ as T 5 /sub c/ or T 6 /sub c/, instead of T 3 /sub c/ as predicted by simple theory. It is suggested that the rapid increase of tau -1 0 with T/sub c/ may arise from either a strong dependence of α 2 F (ω) on T/sub c/ or from a small concentration of magnetic impurities
Superconducting quasiparticle lifetimes due to spin-fluctuation scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinlan, S.M.; Scalapino, D.J.; Bulut, N.
1994-01-01
Superconducting quasiparticle lifetimes associated with spin-fluctuation scattering are calculated. A Berk-Schrieffer interaction with an irreducible susceptibility given by a BCS form is used to model the quasiparticle damping due to spin fluctuations. Results are presented for both s-wave and d-wave gaps. Also, quasiparticle lifetimes due to impurity scattering are calculated for a d-wave superconductor
Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.
1975-01-01
It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)
Using Quasiparticle Poisoning To Detect Photons
Echternach, Pierre; Day, Peter
2006-01-01
According to a proposal, a phenomenon associated with excitation of quasiparticles in certain superconducting quantum devices would be exploited as a means of detecting photons with exquisite sensitivity. The phenomenon could also be exploited to perform medium-resolution spectroscopy. The proposal was inspired by the observation that Coulomb blockade devices upon which some quantum logic gates are based are extremely sensitive to quasiparticles excited above the superconducting gaps in their leads. The presence of quasiparticles in the leads can be easily detected via the charge states. If quasiparticles could be generated in the leads by absorption of photons, then the devices could be used as very sensitive detectors of electromagnetic radiation over the spectral range from x-rays to submillimeter waves. The devices in question are single-Cooper-pair boxes (SCBs), which are mesoscopic superconducting devices developed for quantum computing. An SCB consists of a small superconducting island connected to a reservoir via a small tunnel junction and connected to a voltage source through a gate capacitor. An SCB is an artificial two-level quantum system, the Hamiltonian of which can be controlled by the gate voltage. One measures the expected value of the charge of the eigenvectors of this quantum system by use of a radio-frequency single-electron transistor. A plot of this expected value of charge as a function of gate voltage resembles a staircase that, in the ideal case, consists of steps of height 2 e (where e is the charge of one electron). Experiments have shown that depending on the parameters of the device, quasiparticles in the form of "broken" Cooper pairs present in the reservoir can tunnel to the island, giving rise to steps of 1 e. This effect is sometimes called "poisoning." Simulations have shown that an extremely small average number of quasiparticles can generate a 1-e periodic signal. In a device according to the proposal, this poisoning would be
Quasiparticle self-consistent GW method: a short summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotani, Takao; Schilfgaarde, Mark van; Faleev, Sergey V; Chantis, Athanasios
2007-01-01
We have developed a quasiparticle self-consistent GW method (QSGW), which is a new self-consistent method to calculate the electronic structure within the GW approximation. The method is formulated based on the idea of a self-consistent perturbation; the non-interacting Green function G 0 , which is the starting point for GWA to obtain G, is determined self-consistently so as to minimize the perturbative correction generated by GWA. After self-consistency is attained, we have G 0 , W (the screened Coulomb interaction) and G self-consistently. This G 0 can be interpreted as the optimum non-interacting propagator for the quasiparticles. We will summarize some theoretical discussions to justify QSGW. Then we will survey results which have been obtained up to now: e.g., band gaps for normal semiconductors are predicted to a precision of 0.1-0.3 eV; the self-consistency including the off-diagonal part is required for NiO and MnO; and so on. There are still some remaining disagreements with experiments; however, they are very systematic, and can be explained from the neglect of excitonic effects
Quasiparticle energies and lifetimes in a metallic chain model of a tunnel junction.
Szepieniec, Mark; Yeriskin, Irene; Greer, J C
2013-04-14
As electronics devices scale to sub-10 nm lengths, the distinction between "device" and "electrodes" becomes blurred. Here, we study a simple model of a molecular tunnel junction, consisting of an atomic gold chain partitioned into left and right electrodes, and a central "molecule." Using a complex absorbing potential, we are able to reproduce the single-particle energy levels of the device region including a description of the effects of the semi-infinite electrodes. We then use the method of configuration interaction to explore the effect of correlations on the system's quasiparticle peaks. We find that when excitations on the leads are excluded, the device's highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital quasiparticle states when including correlation are bracketed by their respective values in the Hartree-Fock (Koopmans) and ΔSCF approximations. In contrast, when excitations on the leads are included, the bracketing property no longer holds, and both the positions and the lifetimes of the quasiparticle levels change considerably, indicating that the combined effect of coupling and correlation is to alter the quasiparticle spectrum significantly relative to an isolated molecule.
Krishtopenko, S S; Gavrilenko, V I; Goiran, M
2012-04-04
Using the 'screened' Hartree-Fock approximation based on the eight-band k·p Hamiltonian, we have extended our previous work (Krishtopenko et al 2011 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 385601) on exchange enhancement of the g-factor in narrow-gap quantum well heterostructures by calculating the exchange renormalization of quasiparticle energies, the density of states at the Fermi level and the quasiparticle g-factor for different Landau levels overlapping. We demonstrate that exchange interaction yields more pronounced Zeeman splitting of the density of states at the Fermi level and leads to the appearance of peak-shaped features in the dependence of the Landau level energies on the magnetic field at integer filling factors. We also find that the quasiparticle g-factor does not reach the maximum value at odd filling factors in the presence of large overlapping of spin-split Landau levels. We advance an argument that the behavior of the quasiparticle g-factor in weak magnetic fields is defined by a random potential of impurities in narrow-gap heterostructures. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd
Ab initio quasiparticle bandstructure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers
Menezes, Marcos; Capaz, Rodrigo; Louie, Steven
2013-03-01
We obtain the quasiparticle band structure of ABA and ABC-stacked graphene trilayers through ab initio density functional theory (DFT) and many-body quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. To interpret our results, we fit the DFT and GW π bands to a low energy tight-binding model, which is found to reproduce very well the observed features near the K point. The values of the extracted hopping parameters are reported and compared with available theoretical and experimental data. For both stackings, the quasiparticle corrections lead to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity, an effect also observed in previous calculations on monolayer graphene. They also increase the separation between the higher energy bands, which is proportional to the nearest neighbor interlayer hopping parameter γ1. Both features are brought to closer agreement with experiment through the quasiparticle corrections. Finally, other effects, such as trigonal warping, electron-hole assymetry and energy gaps are discussed in terms of the associated parameters. This work was supported by the Brazilian funding agencies: CAPES, CNPq, FAPERJ and INCT-Nanomateriais de Carbono. It was also supported by NSF grant No. DMR10-1006184 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Quasiparticle many-body dynamics of the Anderson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzemskij, A.L.
1996-01-01
The paper addresses the many-body quasiparticle dynamics of the Anderson impurity model at finite temperatures in the framework of the equation-of-motion method. We find a new exact identity relating the one-particle and many-particle Green's Functions. Using this identity we present a consistent and general scheme for a construction of generalised mean fields (elastic scattering corrections) and self-energy (inelastic scattering) in terms of the Dyson equation. A new approach for the complex expansion for the single-particle propagator in terms of the Coulomb repulsion U and hybridization V is proposed. Using the exact identity, the essentially new many-body dynamical solution of SIAM has been derived. This approach offers a new way for the systematic construction of the approximative interpolating dynamical solutions of the strongly correlated electron systems. 47 refs
Quasiparticle Interference Studies of Quantum Materials.
Avraham, Nurit; Reiner, Jonathan; Kumar-Nayak, Abhay; Morali, Noam; Batabyal, Rajib; Yan, Binghai; Beidenkopf, Haim
2018-06-03
Exotic electronic states are realized in novel quantum materials. This field is revolutionized by the topological classification of materials. Such compounds necessarily host unique states on their boundaries. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of these surface states have provided a wealth of spectroscopic characterization, with the successful cooperation of ab initio calculations. The method of quasiparticle interference imaging proves to be particularly useful for probing the dispersion relation of the surface bands. Herein, how a variety of additional fundamental electronic properties can be probed via this method is reviewed. It is demonstrated how quasiparticle interference measurements entail mesoscopic size quantization and the electronic phase coherence in semiconducting nanowires; helical spin protection and energy-momentum fluctuations in a topological insulator; and the structure of the Bloch wave function and the relative insusceptibility of topological electronic states to surface potential in a topological Weyl semimetal. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Projected quasiparticle theory for molecular electronic structure
Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Samanta, Kousik; Ellis, Jason K.
2011-09-01
We derive and implement symmetry-projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) equations and apply them to the molecular electronic structure problem. All symmetries (particle number, spin, spatial, and complex conjugation) are deliberately broken and restored in a self-consistent variation-after-projection approach. We show that the resulting method yields a comprehensive black-box treatment of static correlations with effective one-electron (mean-field) computational cost. The ensuing wave function is of multireference character and permeates the entire Hilbert space of the problem. The energy expression is different from regular HFB theory but remains a functional of an independent quasiparticle density matrix. All reduced density matrices are expressible as an integration of transition density matrices over a gauge grid. We present several proof-of-principle examples demonstrating the compelling power of projected quasiparticle theory for quantum chemistry.
Quasiparticle Interference on Cubic Perovskite Oxide Surfaces.
Okada, Yoshinori; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chang, Guoqing; Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Ryota; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Shiraki, Susumu; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hitosugi, Taro
2017-08-25
We report the observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO_{3}(001) thin films through spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed quasiparticle interference patterns and the formation of a d_{xy}-derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. We show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO_{2} plane play a critical role in controlling the coherent surface state via modulating orbital state.
Number conserving approach in quasiparticle representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oudih, M.R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.
2003-01-01
An exact number conserving approach is formulated in the quasiparticle representation to show the effect of the particle-number projection on the ground and the first 0+ excited states. It is applied to the two-level pairing model, which allows an exact solution and a comparison to other approaches. The present method has proved to be an advantageous alternative as compared to the BCS and to the usual methods used to restore the particle number symmetry. (author)
Long-range spin deformations around quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godfrey, M.; Gunn, M.
1989-01-01
The quasi-particle formed by a hole in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet has an associated long-range spin distortion whose amplitude increases with the velocity of the hole. The authors show that the existence and properties of this distortion follow from simple classical arguments based on the long-wavelength equations of motion for the spin system. A similar long-range distortion is found in the quantum-mechanical problem of an electron exchange coupled to a Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Improved model of quasi-particle turbulence (with applications to Alfven and drift wave turbulence)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, J. T.; Hizanidis, K.
2011-01-01
We consider the classical problem of wave stability and dispersion in a turbulent plasma background. We adopt a kinetic description for the quasi-particle turbulence. We describe an improved theoretical approach, which goes beyond the geometric optics approximation and retains the recoil effects associated with the emission and absorption of low frequency waves by nearly resonant quasi-particles. We illustrate the present approach by considering two particular examples. One is the excitation of zonal flows by drift wave turbulence or driftons. The other is the coupling between ion acoustic waves and Alfven wave turbulence, eventually leading to saturation of Alfven wave growth. Both examples are relevant to anomalous transport in magnetic fusion devices. Connection with previous results is established. We show that these results are recovered in the geometric optics approximation.
Normal-metal quasiparticle traps for superconducting qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseinkhani, Amin [Peter Grunberg Institute (PGI-2), Forschungszentrum Julich, D-52425 Julich (Germany); JARA-Institute for Quantum Information, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)
2016-07-01
Superconducting qubits are promising candidates to implement quantum computation, and have been a subject of intensive research in the past decade. Excitations of a superconductor, known as quasiparticles, can reduce the qubit performance by causing relaxation; the relaxation rate is proportional to the density of quasiparticles tunneling through Josephson junction. Here, we consider engineering quasiparticle traps by covering parts of a superconducting device with normal-metal islands. We utilize a phenomenological quasiparticle diffusion model to study both the decay rate of excess quasiparticles and the steady-state profile of the quasiparticle density in the device. We apply the model to various realistic configurations to explore the role of geometry and location of the traps.
Non-equilibrium quasiparticle processes in superconductor tunneling structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perold, W.J.
1990-01-01
A broad overview is presented of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The tunneling of quasiparticles in superconducter-insulator structures is described. Related non-equilibrium processes, such as superconductor bandgap suppresion, quasiparticle diffusion and recombination, and excess quasiparticle collection are discussed. The processes are illustrated with numerical computer simulation data. The importance of the inter-relationship between these processes in practical multiple tunneling junction superconducting device structures is also emphasized. 14 refs., 8 figs
Experimental estimates of quasiparticle interactions for rotational nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frauendorf, S.; Riedinger, L.L.
1984-01-01
Previously presented data on rotationally aligned quasiparticle bands in sup(160,161,162,163)Yb are analyzed to give experimental values of the quasiparticle interactions Vsub(μν) as a function of rotational frequency. The measured level energies are converted to the rotating frame of reference and expressed as routhians. The routhian of a multi-quasiparticle band is compared to the sum of the routhians of the component quasiparticles at a given frequency, the difference being the quasiparticle interaction. The experimental spectra of bands in these nuclei are consistent with the assumption of a binary interaction between the rotating quasiparticles, where most of the Vsub(μν) are in the range -0.3 to -0.1 MeV. Analysis of the shift in the observed crossing frequencies for bands of different quasiparticle number yields similar values. The extracted Vsub(μν) are found to have a frequency dependence, which is associated with the loss of alignment of a multi-quasiparticle state. An equidistant-level model is used to estimate the contributions to the quasiparticle interactions by polarization of the collective degrees of freedom. This model yields typical Vsub(μν) values of -0.15 MeV, which is only half of some values extracted from experiment. This suggests that the extracted Vsub(μν) contain a significant amount of nuclear-structure information. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robin, Caroline; Litvinova, Elena [Western Michigan University, Department of Physics, Kalamazoo, MI (United States)
2016-07-15
A new theoretical approach to spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei is presented. The developed method is based on the relativistic meson-exchange nuclear Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics and extends the response theory for superfluid nuclear systems beyond relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in the proton-neutron channel (pn-RQRPA). The coupling between quasiparticle degrees of freedom and collective vibrations (phonons) introduces a time-dependent effective interaction, in addition to the exchange of pion and ρ-meson taken into account without retardation. The time-dependent contributions are treated in the resonant time-blocking approximation, in analogy to the previously developed relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the neutral (non-isospin-flip) channel. The new method is called proton-neutron RQTBA (pn-RQTBA) and is applied to the Gamow-Teller resonance in a chain of neutron-rich nickel isotopes {sup 68-78}Ni. A strong fragmentation of the resonance along with quenching of the strength, as compared to pn-RQRPA, is obtained. Based on the calculated strength distribution, beta-decay half-lives of the considered isotopes are computed and compared to pn-RQRPA half-lives and to experimental data. It is shown that a considerable improvement of the half-life description is obtained in pn-RQTBA because of the spreading effects, which bring the lifetimes to a very good quantitative agreement with data. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.
1980-01-01
The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model are given. This model describes the few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. The method of strength functions which plays a key role in describing complex nuclei is also presented. A further development of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is outlined. The fragmentation of one-quasiparticle and one-phonon states over nuclear levels is studied. The results on the fragmentation of deep hole states in spherical nuclei are presented, which describe well the experimental data. The neutron strength functions and their spin dependence are calculated. A good agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and widths of the giant resonances are calculated in spherical and deformed nuclei. The information on the many-quasiparticle components of excited state wave functions is shown to be very scarce. The necessity of studying the few-quasiparticle configurations is pointed out
Analysis of two- and four-quasiparticle states in lead isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomar, C.; Insolia, A.
1990-01-01
In the framework of a quasiparticle multistep shell model method we study four-quasiparticle states in lead isotopes. For this we first calculate single-quasiparticle quantities within the BCS formalism and two-quasiparticle states within a QRPA. Finally the four-quasiparticle basis set of states is formed as the tensorial product of two-quasiparticle states previously evaluated. The resulting spectra agree reasonable well with available experimental data. A number of as yet undetected states are predicted. (orig.)
A quantitative study of quasiparticle traps using the single-Cooper-pair-transistor
Court, N. A.; Ferguson, A. J.; Lutchyn, Roman; Clark, R. G.
2007-01-01
We use radio-frequency reflectometry to measure quasiparticle tunneling rates in the single-Cooper-pair-transistor. Devices with and without quasiparticle traps in proximity to the island are studied. A $10^2$ to $10^3$-fold reduction in the quasiparticle tunneling rate onto the island is observed in the case of quasiparticle traps. In the quasiparticle trap samples we also measure a commensurate decrease in quasiparticle tunneling rate off the island.
Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems.
Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui
2017-03-15
At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe 2 ), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.
Effective distributions of quasiparticles for thermal photons
Monnai, Akihiko
2015-07-01
It has been found in recent heavy-ion experiments that the second and the third flow harmonics of direct photons are larger than most theoretical predictions. In this study, I construct effective parton phase-space distributions with in-medium interaction using quasiparticle models so that they are consistent with a lattice QCD equation of state. Then I investigate their effects on thermal photons using a hydrodynamic model. Numerical results indicate that elliptic flow and transverse momentum spectra are modified by the corrections to Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions.
Quasiparticles in QCD thermodynamics and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, R.A.; Renk, T.
2002-01-01
We propose a novel quasiparticle interpretation of the equation of state of deconfined QCD at finite temperature. Using appropriate thermal masses, we introduce a phenomenological parametrization of the onset of confinement in the vicinity of the phase transition. Lattice results of the energy density, the pressure and the interaction measure of pure SU(3) gauge theory are well reproduced. A relation between the thermal energy density of the Yang-Mills vacuum and the chromomagnetic condensate left angle B 2 right angle T is found. We also present the two flavour QCD equation of state for realistic quark masses and apply the model to dilepton production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium Quasiparticle Distribution Induced by Kondo Defects
Kroha, J.; Zawadowski, A.
2002-04-01
It is shown that in resistive nanowires out of equilibrium containing either single- or two-channel Kondo impurities the distribution function f(E,U) obeys scaling behavior in terms of the quasiparticle energy E and the bias voltage U. The numerically calculated f(E,U) curves explain quantitatively recent experiments on Cu and Au nanowires. The systematics of the impurity concentration cimp extracted from the comparison between theory and results on various Cu and Au samples strongly suggests that in these systems the scaling arises from magnetic Kondo impurities.
Effect of spontaneous decay of superconductor quasiparticles in the tunneling density of states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coffey, D.
1993-01-01
Superconductivity has been successfully described with either the Landau-Ginzburg theory of second order phase transitions or with strong-coupling versions of the original BCS theory for almost fifty years. Recent tunneling and photoemission data on the cuprate oxide superconductors may now provide evidence of corrections to the mean field approximation. It has been shown by Zasadzinski et al. that there is a dip at eV ≅ 3Δ 0 in the SIS tunneling conductance, which is the derivative of the current across a superconductor-insulator-superconductor junction with respect to the applied voltage, for a set of cuprate superconductors whose T c 's range from 5.5K to 100K. Recently L. Coffey and I proposed an explanation of this feature in terms of the spontaneous decay of mean field quasiparticles. We showed that corrections to the mean field approximation for a superconductor lead to different frequency thresholds for spontaneous quasiparticle decay with different superconductor order parameter symmetries. These effects lead to features in the superconductor density of states and in the SIS tunneling conductance and provide experimental evidence of d-wave symmetry for the superconductor order parameter in the cuprates. I discuss model and also evidence of quasiparticle decay in ARPES data on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8
Quasiparticle-phonon coupling in inelastic proton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weissbach, B.
1980-01-01
Multistep-processes in inelastic proton scattering from 89 Y are analyzed by using CCBA and DWBA on a quasiparticle phonon nuclear structure model. Indirect excitations caused by quasiparticle phonon coupling effects are found to be very important for the transition strengths and the shape of angular distributions. Core excitations are dominant for the higher order steps of the reaction. (author)
Intrinsic and experimental quasiparticle recombination times in superconducting films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisenmenger, W.; Lassmann, K.; Trumpp, H.J.; Krauss, R.
1977-01-01
Experimental quasiparticle recombination lifetime data for superconducting Al, Sn, and Pb films are compared with calculations based on a ray acoustic model taking account of the film thickness dependence of the reabsorption of recombination phonons. Information on the true or intrinsic quasiparticle recombination lifetime obtained from these and other data is discussed. (orig.) [de
Asymptotic kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas: quasi-particle concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.; Zagorodny, A.H.
2004-01-01
The asymptotic kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas is elaborated within the context of general statistical approach and asymptotic methods, developed by M. Krylov and M. Bohol'ubov, for linear and non-linear dynamic systems with a rapidly rotating phase. The quasi-particles are introduced already on the microscopic level. Asymptotic expansions enable to close the description for slow processes, and to relate consistently particles and guiding centres to quasi-particles. The kinetic equation for quasi-particles is derived. It makes a basis for the reduced description of slow collective phenomena in the medium. The kinetic equation for quasi-particles takes into account self-consistent interaction fields, quasi-particle collisions and collective-fluctuation-induced relaxation of quasi-particle distribution function. The relationships between the distribution functions for particles, guiding centres and quasi-particles are derived taking into account fluctuations, which can be especially important in turbulent states. In this way macroscopic (statistical) particle properties can be obtained from those of quasi-particles in the general case of non-equilibrium. (authors)
Quasiparticle Aggregation in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Laughlin, R. B.
1984-10-10
Quasiparticles in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect behave qualitatively like electrons confined to the lowest landau level, and can do everything electrons can do, including condense into second generation Fractional Quantum Hall ground states. I review in this paper the reasoning leading to variational wavefunctions for ground state and quasiparticles in the 1/3 effect. I then show how two-quasiparticle eigenstates are uniquely determined from symmetry, and how this leads in a natural way to variational wavefunctions for composite states which have the correct densities (2/5, 2/7, ...). I show in the process that the boson, anyon and fermion representations for the quasiparticles used by Haldane, Halperin, and me are all equivalent. I demonstrate a simple way to derive Halperin`s multiple-valued quasiparticle wavefunction from the correct single-valued electron wavefunction. (auth)
Coherent suppression of quasiparticle dissipation in a superconducting artificial atom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pop, Ioan [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)
2016-07-01
We demonstrate immunity to quasiparticle dissipation in a Josephson junction. At the foundation of this protection rests a prediction by Brian Josephson from fifty years ago: the particle-hole interference of superconducting quasiparticles when tunneling across a Josephson junction. The junction under study is the central element of a fluxonium artificial atom, which we place in an extremely low loss environment and measure using radio-frequency dispersive techniques. Furthermore, by using a quantum limited amplifier (a Josephson Parametric Converter) we can observe quantum jumps between the 0 and 1 states of the qubit in thermal equilibrium with the environment. The distribution of the times in-between the quantum jumps reveals quantitative information about the population and dynamics of quasiparticles. The data is entirely consistent with the hypothesis that our system is sensitive to single quasiparticle excitations, which opens new perspectives for quasiparticle monitoring in low temperature devices.
Quasiparticle lifetime in a mixture of Bose and Fermi superfluids.
Zheng, Wei; Zhai, Hui
2014-12-31
In this Letter, we study the effect of quasiparticle interactions in a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture. We consider the lifetime of a quasiparticle of the Bose superfluid due to its interaction with quasiparticles in the Fermi superfluid. We find that this damping rate, i.e., the inverse of the lifetime, has quite a different threshold behavior at the BCS and the BEC side of the Fermi superfluid. The damping rate is a constant near the threshold momentum in the BCS side, while it increases rapidly in the BEC side. This is because, in the BCS side, the decay process is restricted by the constraint that the fermion quasiparticle is located near the Fermi surface, while such a restriction does not exist in the BEC side where the damping process is dominated by bosonic quasiparticles of the Fermi superfluid. Our results are related to the collective mode experiment in the recently realized Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture.
Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.
Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas
2016-02-16
Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure.
Arguello, C J; Rosenthal, E P; Andrade, E F; Jin, W; Yeh, P C; Zaki, N; Jia, S; Cava, R J; Fernandes, R M; Millis, A J; Valla, T; Osgood, R M; Pasupathy, A N
2015-01-23
We show that a small number of intentionally introduced defects can be used as a spectroscopic tool to amplify quasiparticle interference in 2H-NbSe2 that we measure by scanning tunneling spectroscopic imaging. We show, from the momentum and energy dependence of the quasiparticle interference, that Fermi surface nesting is inconsequential to charge density wave formation in 2H-NbSe2. We demonstrate that, by combining quasiparticle interference data with additional knowledge of the quasiparticle band structure from angle resolved photoemission measurements, one can extract the wave vector and energy dependence of the important electronic scattering processes thereby obtaining direct information both about the fermiology and the interactions. In 2H-NbSe2, we use this combination to confirm that the important near-Fermi-surface electronic physics is dominated by the coupling of the quasiparticles to soft mode phonons at a wave vector different from the charge density wave ordering wave vector.
Quasiparticles, phonons and beyond. Enlargement the basis of quasiparticle-phonon model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoyanov, Ch.
2000-01-01
The version of Quasiparticle-Phonon Model (QPM) which accounts up to three-phonons is discussed. The new basis is used to study the low-lying isovector mode and the low-energy E1 transitions forbidden in the ideal boson picture. The coupling to the continuum is incorporated in the formalism of QPM. The phenomenon of trapping of states is studied in the case of high-lying states with large angular momentum. (author)
Magnetic oscillations and quasiparticle band structure in the mixed state of type-II superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norman, M.R.; MacDonald, A.H.; Akera, H.
1995-01-01
We consider magnetic oscillations due to Landau quantization in the mixed state of type-II superconductors. Our work is based on a previously developed formalism which allows the mean-field gap equations of the Abrikosov state to be conveniently solved in a Landau-level representation. We find that the quasiparticle band structure changes qualitatively when the pairing self-energy becomes comparable to the Landau-level separation. For small pairing self-energies, Landau-level mixing due to the superconducting order is weak and magnetic oscillations survive in the superconducting state although they are damped. We find that the width of the quasiparticle Landau levels in this regime varies approximately as Δ 0 n μ -1/4 where Δ 0 is proportional to the magnitude of the order parameter and n μ is the Landau-level index at the Fermi energy. For larger pairing self-energies, the lowest energy quasiparticle bands occur in pairs which are nearly equally spaced from each other and evolve with weakening magnetic field toward the bound states of an isolated vortex core. These bands have a weak magnetic field dependence and magnetic oscillations vanish rapidly in this regime. We discuss recent observations of the de Haas--van Alphen effect in the mixed state of several type-II superconductors in light of our results
Toward thermodynamic consistency of quasiparticle picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Shanenko, A.A.
2003-01-01
The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasiparticle-based description of quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamic consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamic consistency. Particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential that can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics
Quasiparticle dynamics in superconducting tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozorezov, A.G.; Brammertz, G.; Hijmering, R.A.; Wigmore, J.K.; Peacock, A.; Martin, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Golubov, A.A.; Rogalla, H.
2006-01-01
Superconducting Tunnel Junctions (STJs) used as single photon detectors possess extreme sensitivity and excellent resolving power. However, like many other cryogenic detectors they operate under extremely non-equilibrium conditions. In order to understand the physics of the non-equilibrium, non-stationary state, to interpret experimental data adequately, and to optimize the STJs unique performance, it is necessary to use a fully kinetic approach. We have developed the detailed theory of interactions between quasiparticles (qps) and the two types of phonons, sub-gap and pair-breaking, in STJ photon detectors. We discuss the results of extensive sets of experiments to study the non-equilibrium state in Al-based STJs. For the first time we are capable of explaining all available data systematically using a single set of parameters determined from STJ diagnostics and independent experiments
Multi-quasiparticle excitations in 145Tb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yong; Zhou Xiaohong; Zhang Yuhu; Liu Minliang; Guo Yingxiang; Lei Xiangguo; Kusakari, H.; Sugawara, M.
2004-01-01
High-spin states in 145 Tb have been populated using the 118 Sn( 32 S, 1p4n) reaction at a beam energy of 165 MeV. The level scheme of 145 Tb has been established for the first time. The level scheme shows characteristics of spherical or slightly oblate nucleus. Based on the systematic trends of the level structure in the neighboring N=80 isotones, the level structure in 145 Tb below 2 MeV excitation is well explained by coupling an h 11/2 valence proton to the even-even 144 Gd core. Above 2 MeV excitation, most of the yrast levels are interpreted with multi-quasiparticle shell-model configurations. (authors)
Quasiparticle Dynamics and Exponential Protection in Majorana Islands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albrecht, Sven Marian
-shell. Measuring quasiparticle transport, we observe a gate voltage dependent even-odd Coulomb blockade pattern, associated with quasiparticle occupation of bound states, for which we demonstrate state parity lifetimes exceeding 10 milliseconds. Using Coulomb-blockade spectroscopy and varying the magnetic field...... Majorana modes. A preliminary analysis shows that Coulomb peaks also feature an alternating magnetic field dependent skew, the subject of future work. We additionally observe novel transport signatures of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island strongly coupled to normal metal leads. Numerical...
Microscopic mechanism of identical multi-quasiparticle bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei Yian; Zhao Enguang; Zeng Jinyan
1997-01-01
Identical one-quasiparticle and two-quasiparticle bands in neighboring odd-and even-mass nuclei are recognized; The intrinsic structure of identical bands is demonstrated by using the particle-number-conserving (PNC) treatment. The occurrence of almost identical moments of inertia is the result of competition among the shell effect (including shape variation), pairing (anti-alignment) effect and blocking (anti-pairing) effect. The observed moments of inertia of identical multi-quasiparticle bands are reproduced quite well by the PNC calculation
Quasiparticles in leptogenesis. A hard-thermal-loop study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiessig, Clemens Paul
2011-06-29
We analyse the effects of thermal quasiparticles in leptogenesis using hard-thermal-loop-resummed propagators in the imaginary time formalism of thermal field theory. We perform our analysis in a leptogenesis toy model with three right-handed heavy neutrinos N{sub 1}, N{sub 2} and N{sub 3}. We consider decays and inverse decays and work in the hierarchical limit where the mass of N{sub 2} is assumed to be much larger than the mass of N{sub 1}, that is M{sub 2} >> M{sub 1}. We neglect flavour effects and assume that the temperatures are much smaller than M{sub 2} and M{sub 3}. We pay special attention to the influence of fermionic quasiparticles. We allow for the leptons to be either decoupled from each other, except for the interactions with neutrinos, or to be in chemical equilibrium by some strong interaction, for example via gauge bosons. In two additional cases, we approximate the full hard-thermal-loop lepton propagators with zero-temperature propagators, where we replace the zero-temperature mass by the thermal mass of the leptons m{sub l}(T) in one case and the asymptotic mass of the positive-helicity mode {radical}(2)m{sub l}(T) in the other case. We calculate all relevant decay rates and CP-asymmetries and solve the corresponding Boltzmann equations we derived. We compare the final lepton asymmetry of the four thermal cases and the vacuum case for three different initial neutrino abundances; zero, thermal and dominant abundance. The final asymmetries of the thermal cases differ considerably from the vacuum case and from each other in the weak washout regime for zero abundance and in the intermediate regime for dominant abundance. In the strong washout regime, where no influences from thermal corrections are commonly expected, the final lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by a factor of two by hiding part of the lepton asymmetry in the quasi-sterile minus-mode in the case of strongly interacting lepton modes. (orig.)
Measurement and control of quasiparticle dynamics in a superconducting qubit.
Wang, C; Gao, Y Y; Pop, I M; Vool, U; Axline, C; Brecht, T; Heeres, R W; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H; Catelani, G; Glazman, L I; Schoelkopf, R J
2014-12-18
Superconducting circuits have attracted growing interest in recent years as a promising candidate for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Extensive efforts have always been taken to completely shield these circuits from external magnetic fields to protect the integrity of the superconductivity. Here we show vortices can improve the performance of superconducting qubits by reducing the lifetimes of detrimental single-electron-like excitations known as quasiparticles. Using a contactless injection technique with unprecedented dynamic range, we quantitatively distinguish between recombination and trapping mechanisms in controlling the dynamics of residual quasiparticle, and show quantized changes in quasiparticle trapping rate because of individual vortices. These results highlight the prominent role of quasiparticle trapping in future development of superconducting qubits, and provide a powerful characterization tool along the way.
Quantum Computing With Quasiparticles of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Averin, Dmitri
2001-01-01
The focus of this project was the theoretical study of quantum computation based on controlled transfer of individual quasiparticles in systems of quantum antidots in the regime of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE...
Rate of tunneling nonequilibrium quasiparticles in superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, Mohammad H
2015-01-01
In superconducting qubits the lifetime of quantum states cannot be prolonged arbitrarily by decreasing temperature. At low temperature quasiparticles tunneling between the electromagnetic environment and superconducting islands takes the condensate state out of equilibrium due to charge imbalance. We obtain the tunneling rate from a phenomenological model of non-equilibrium, where nonequilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling stimulates a temperature-dependent chemical potential shift in the superconductor. As a result we obtain a non-monotonic behavior for relaxation rate as a function of temperature. Depending on the fabrication parameters for some qubits, the lowest tunneling rate of nonequilibrium quasiparticles can take place only near the onset temperature below which nonequilibrium quasiparticles dominate over equilibrium one. Our theory also indicates that such tunnelings can influence the probability of transitions in qubits through a coupling to the zero-point energy of phase fluctuations. (paper)
Proximity effect in normal-superconductor hybrids for quasiparticle traps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseinkhani, Amin [Peter Grunberg Institute (PGI-2), Forschungszentrum Julich, D-52425 Julich (Germany); JARA-Institute for Quantum Information, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)
2016-07-01
Coherent transport of charges in the form of Cooper pairs is the main feature of Josephson junctions which plays a central role in superconducting qubits. However, the presence of quasiparticles in superconducting devices may lead to incoherent charge transfer and limit the coherence time of superconducting qubits. A way around this so-called ''quasiparticle poisoning'' might be using a normal-metal island to trap quasiparticles; this has motivated us to revisit the proximity effect in normal-superconductor hybrids. Using the semiclassical Usadel equations, we study the density of states (DoS) both within and away from the trap. We find that in the superconducting layer the DoS quickly approaches the BCS form; this indicates that normal-metal traps should be effective at localizing quasiparticles.
Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gedik, N.; Orenstein, J.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N.
2003-01-01
We report a transport study of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a high-transition-temperature cuprate superconductor using the transient grating technique. Low-intensity laser excitation (at a photon energy of 1.5 electron volts) was used to introduce a spatially periodic density of quasi-particles into a high-quality untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.5. Probing the evolution of the initial density through space and time yielded the quasi-particle diffusion coefficient and the inelastic and elastic scattering rates. The technique reported here is potentially applicable to precision measurements of quasi-particle dynamics not only in cuprate superconductors but in other electronic systems as well
Dynamical local field, compressibility, and frequency sum rules for quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morawetz, Klaus
2002-01-01
The finite temperature dynamical response function including the dynamical local field is derived within a quasiparticle picture for interacting one-, two-, and three-dimensional Fermi systems. The correlations are assumed to be given by a density-dependent effective mass, quasiparticle energy shift, and relaxation time. The latter one describes disorder or collisional effects. This parametrization of correlations includes local-density functionals as a special case and is therefore applicable for density-functional theories. With a single static local field, the third-order frequency sum rule can be fulfilled simultaneously with the compressibility sum rule by relating the effective mass and quasiparticle energy shift to the structure function or pair-correlation function. Consequently, solely local-density functionals without taking into account effective masses cannot fulfill both sum rules simultaneously with a static local field. The comparison to the Monte Carlo data seems to support such a quasiparticle picture
Marginal Fermi liquid and kink structure of quasiparticles in cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kakehashi, Y.; Fulde, P.
2007-01-01
On the basis of the self-consistent projection operator method for nonlocal excitations, we show that a kink structure appears in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of the two-dimensional Hubbard model at low doping concentrations. It is caused by a mixing between the quasiparticle state and the excitations with short-range antiferromagnetic order. The results explain the kink in high-T c cuprates
Quasiparticle current in superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tartakovskij, A.V.; Fistul', M.V.
1988-01-01
It is shown that the quasiparticle current in a superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junction may significantly increase as a result of resonant passage of the quasiparticle along particular trajectories from periodically situated localized centers. A prediction of the theory is that with increasing junction resistance there should be a change from an excessive current to a insufficient current on the current-voltage characteristics (at high voltages). The effect of transparency of the boundaries on resonance tunneling in such junctions is also investigated
Shooting quasiparticles from Andreev bound states in a superconducting constriction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riwar, R.-P.; Houzet, M.; Meyer, J. S. [University of Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS (France); Nazarov, Y. V., E-mail: Y.V.Nazarov@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Kavli Institute of NanoScience (Netherlands)
2014-12-15
A few-channel superconducting constriction provides a set of discrete Andreev bound states that may be populated with quasiparticles. Motivated by recent experimental research, we study the processes in an a.c. driven constriction whereby a quasiparticle is promoted to the delocalized states outside the superconducting gap and flies away. We distinguish two processes of this kind. In the process of ionization, a quasiparticle present in the Andreev bound state is transferred to the delocalized states leaving the constriction. The refill process involves two quasiparticles: one flies away while another one appears in the Andreev bound state. We notice an interesting asymmetry of these processes. The electron-like quasiparticles are predominantly emitted to one side of the constriction while the hole-like ones are emitted to the other side. This produces a charge imbalance of accumulated quasiparticles, that is opposite on opposite sides of the junction. The imbalance may be detected with a tunnel contact to a normal metal lead.
Strong pairing approximation in comparison with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lunyov A.V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Results of the Strong Pairing Approximation (SPA as a method with the exact particle number conservation are compared with those of the quasiparticle method (QM. It is shown that SPA comes to the same equations as QM for the gap parameter, chemical potential and one- and two-quasiparticle states. Calculations are performed for 14864Gd84 as an example, and compared with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samedov, V. V.; Tulinov, B. M.
2011-01-01
Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector consists of two layers of superconducting material separated by thin insulating barrier. An incident particle produces in superconductor excess nonequilibrium quasiparticles. Each quasiparticle in superconductor should be considered as quantum superposition of electron-like and hole-like excitations. This duality nature of quasiparticle leads to the effect of multi-tunneling. Quasiparticle starts to tunnel back and forth through the insulating barrier. After tunneling from biased electrode quasiparticle loses its energy via phonon emission. Eventually, the energy that equals to the difference in quasiparticle energy between two electrodes is deposited in the signal electrode. Because of the process of multi-tunneling, one quasiparticle can deposit energy more than once. In this work, the theory of branching cascade processes was applied to the process of energy deposition caused by the quasiparticle multi-tunneling. The formulae for the mean value and variance of the energy transferred by one quasiparticle into heat were derived. (authors)
Majorana quasiparticles in semiconducting carbon nanotubes
Marganska, Magdalena; Milz, Lars; Izumida, Wataru; Strunk, Christoph; Grifoni, Milena
2018-02-01
Engineering effective p -wave superconductors hosting Majorana quasiparticles (MQPs) is nowadays of particular interest, also in view of the possible utilization of MQPs in fault-tolerant topological quantum computation. In quasi-one-dimensional systems, the parameter space for topological superconductivity is significantly reduced by the coupling between transverse modes. Together with the requirement of achieving the topological phase under experimentally feasible conditions, this strongly restricts in practice the choice of systems which can host MQPs. Here, we demonstrate that semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in proximity with ultrathin s -wave superconductors, e.g., exfoliated NbSe2, satisfy these needs. By precise numerical tight-binding calculations in the real space, we show the emergence of localized zero-energy states at the CNT ends above a critical value of the applied magnetic field, of which we show the spatial evolution. Knowing the microscopic wave functions, we unequivocally demonstrate the Majorana nature of the localized states. An effective four-band model in the k -space, with parameters determined from the numerical spectrum, is used to calculate the topological phase diagram and its phase boundaries in analytic form. Finally, the impact of symmetry breaking contributions, like disorder and an axial component of the magnetic field, is investigated.
Statistically interacting quasiparticles in Ising chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Ping; Vanasse, Jared; Piecuch, Christopher; Karbach, Michael; Mueller, Gerhard
2008-01-01
The exclusion statistics of two complementary sets of quasiparticles, generated from opposite ends of the spectrum, are identified for Ising chains with spin s = 1/2, 1. In the s = 1/2 case the two sets are antiferromagnetic domain walls (solitons) and ferromagnetic domains (strings). In the s = 1 case they are soliton pairs and nested strings, respectively. The Ising model is equivalent to a system of two species of solitons for s = 1/2 and to a system of six species of soliton pairs for s = 1. Solitons exist on single bonds but soliton pairs may be spread across many bonds. The thermodynamics of a system of domains spanning up to M lattice sites is amenable to exact analysis and shown to become equivalent, in the limit M → ∞, to the thermodynamics of the s = 1/2 Ising chain. A relation is presented between the solitons in the Ising limit and the spinons in the XX limit of the s = 1/2 XXZ chain
Quasiparticle Level Alignment for Photocatalytic Interfaces.
Migani, Annapaoala; Mowbray, Duncan J; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje; Rubio, Angel
2014-05-13
Electronic level alignment at the interface between an adsorbed molecular layer and a semiconducting substrate determines the activity and efficiency of many photocatalytic materials. Standard density functional theory (DFT)-based methods have proven unable to provide a quantitative description of this level alignment. This requires a proper treatment of the anisotropic screening, necessitating the use of quasiparticle (QP) techniques. However, the computational complexity of QP algorithms has meant a quantitative description of interfacial levels has remained elusive. We provide a systematic study of a prototypical interface, bare and methanol-covered rutile TiO2(110) surfaces, to determine the type of many-body theory required to obtain an accurate description of the level alignment. This is accomplished via a direct comparison with metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and two-photon photoemission (2PP) spectroscopy. We consider GGA DFT, hybrid DFT, and G0W0, scQPGW1, scQPGW0, and scQPGW QP calculations. Our results demonstrate that G0W0, or our recently introduced scQPGW1 approach, are required to obtain the correct alignment of both the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied interfacial molecular levels (HOMO/LUMO). These calculations set a new standard in the interpretation of electronic structure probe experiments of complex organic molecule/semiconductor interfaces.
Quasiparticle--phonon model of the nucleus. V. Odd spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vdovin, A.I.; Voronov, V.V.; Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanov, C.
1985-01-01
The formalism of the quasiparticle--phonon model of the nucleus for odd spherical nuclei is presented. The exact commutation relations of the quasiparticle and phonon operators together with the anharmonic corrections for the phonon excitations are taken into account in the derivation of equations for the energies and structure coefficients of the wave functions of excited states, which include quasiparticle--phonon and quasiparticle--two-phonon components. The influence of various physical effects and of the dimension of the phonon basis on the fragmentation of the single-quasiparticle and quasiparticle-phonon states is investigated
Recombination and propagation of quasiparticles in cuprate superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gedik, Nuh
2004-01-01
Rapid developments in time-resolved optical spectroscopy have led to renewed interest in the nonequilibrium state of superconductors and other highly correlated electron materials. In these experiments, the nonequilibrium state is prepared by the absorption of short (less than 100 fs) laser pulses, typically in the near-infrared, that perturb the density and energy distribution of quasiparticles. The evolution of the nonequilibrium state is probed by time resolving the changes in the optical response functions of the medium that take place after photoexcitation. Ultimately, the goal of such experiments is to understand not only the nonequilibrium state, but to shed light on the still poorly understood equilibrium properties of these materials. We report nonequilibrium experiments that have revealed aspects of the cup rates that have been inaccessible by other techniques. Namely, the diffusion and recombination coefficients of quasiparticles have been measured in both YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.5 and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x using time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Dependence of these measurements on doping, temperature and laser intensity is also obtained. To study the recombination of quasiparticles, we measure the change in reflectivity ΔR which is directly proportional to the nonequilibrium quasiparticle density created by the laser. From the intensity dependence, we estimate β, the inelastic scattering coefficient and γ th thermal equilibrium quasiparticle decay rate. We also present the dependence of recombination measurements on doping in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x . Going from underdoped to overdoped regime, the sign of ΔR changes from positive to negative right at the optimal doping. This is accompanied by a change in dynamics. The decay of ΔR stops being intensity dependent exactly at the optimal doping. We provide possible interpretations of these two observations. To study the propagation of quasiparticles, we interfered two laser pulses to introduce a spatially
Quasiparticle semiconductor band structures including spin-orbit interactions.
Malone, Brad D; Cohen, Marvin L
2013-03-13
We present first-principles calculations of the quasiparticle band structure of the group IV materials Si and Ge and the group III-V compound semiconductors AlP, AlAs, AlSb, InP, InAs, InSb, GaP, GaAs and GaSb. Calculations are performed using the plane wave pseudopotential method and the 'one-shot' GW method, i.e. G(0)W(0). Quasiparticle band structures, augmented with the effects of spin-orbit, are obtained via a Wannier interpolation of the obtained quasiparticle energies and calculated spin-orbit matrix. Our calculations explicitly treat the shallow semicore states of In and Ga, which are known to be important in the description of the electronic properties, as valence states in the quasiparticle calculation. Our calculated quasiparticle energies, combining both the ab initio evaluation of the electron self-energy and the vector part of the pseudopotential representing the spin-orbit effects, are in generally very good agreement with experimental values. These calculations illustrate the predictive power of the methodology as applied to group IV and III-V semiconductors.
Nernst effect beyond the relaxation-time approximation
Pikulin, D. I.; Hou, Chang-Yu; Beenakker, C. W. J.
2011-01-01
Motivated by recent interest in the Nernst effect in cuprate superconductors, we calculate this magneto-thermo-electric effect for an arbitrary (anisotropic) quasiparticle dispersion relation and elastic scattering rate. The exact solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation is compared with the commonly used relaxation-time approximation. We find qualitative deficiencies of this approximation, to the extent that it can get the sign wrong of the Nernst coefficient. Ziman's improvement of the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamasaki, K.; Yoshida, K.; Irie, F.; Enpuku, K.
1982-01-01
The microwave response of the dc quasiparticle tunneling current in Josephson tunnel junctions, where the Josephson current is suppressed by an external magnetic field, has been studied quantitatively in order to clarify its characteristics as a probe for the measurement of the junction capacitance. Extensive experiments for both small and long junctions are carried out for distinguishing between microwave behaviors of lumped and distributed constant junctions. It is shown that the observed voltage dependence of the dc quasiparticle tunneling current modified by an applied rf field is in good agreement with a theoretical result which takes into account the influence of the microwave circuit connected to the junction. The comparison between theory and experiment gives the magnitude of the internal rf field in the junction. Together with the applied rf field, this internal rf field leads to the junction rf impedance which is dominated by the junction capacitance in our experimental condition. In the case of lumped junctions, this experimental rf impedance is in reasonable agreement with the theoretical one with the junction capacitance estimated from the Fiske step of the distributed junction fabricated on the same substrate; the obtained ratio of the experimental impedance to the theoretical one is approximately 0.6--1.7. In the case of distributed junctions, however, experimental values of their characteristic impedances are approximately 0.2--0.3 of theoretical values calculated by assuming the one-dimensional junction model and taking account of the standing-wave effect in the junction
Cold deconfined matter EOS through an HTL quasi-particle model
Romatschke, Paul
2002-01-01
Using quasi-particle models, lattice data can be mapped to finite chemical potential. By comparing a simple and an HTL quasi-particle model, we derive the general trend that a full inclusion of the plasmon effect will give.
De Visser, P.J.; Goldie, D.J.; Diener, P.; Withington, S.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.
2014-01-01
In a superconductor, absorption of photons with an energy below the superconducting gap leads to redistribution of quasiparticles over energy and thus induces a strong nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distribution. We have measured the electrodynamic response, quality factor, and resonant
Transport quasiparticles and transverse interactions in quark-gluon plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baym, Gordon
1996-01-01
Calculations of the properties of interacting quark-gluon plasmas are beset by infrared divergences associated with the fact that magnetic interactions, i.e., those occurring through exchange of transverse gluons, are, in the absence of a 'magnetic mass''in QCD, not screened. In this lecture we discuss the effects of magnetic interactions on the transport coefficients and the quasiparticle structure of quark-gluon plasmas. We describe how inclusion of dynamical screening effects - corresponding to Landau damping of the virtual quanta exchanged - leads to finite transport scattering rates. In the weak coupling limit, dynamical screening effects dominate over a magnetic mass. We illustrate the breakdown of the quasi particle structure of degenerate plasmas caused by long-ranged magnetic interactions, describe the structure of fermion quasiparticles in hot relativistic plasmas, and touch briefly on the problem of the lifetime of quasiparticle in the presence of long-ranged magnetic interactions. (author)
Metastability in spin polarised Fermi gases and quasiparticle decays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadeghzadeh, Kayvan; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos
2011-01-01
We investigate the metastability associated with the first order transition from normal to superfluid phases in the phase diagram of two-component polarised Fermi gases.We begin by detailing the dominant decay processes of single quasiparticles.Having determined the momentum thresholds of each...... the interaction strength at which a polarised phase of molecules becomes the groundstate, to the one at which the single quasiparticle groundstate changes character from polaronic to molecular. Our argument in terms of a Fermi sea of polarons naturally suggests their use as an experimental probe. We propose...... experiments to observe the threshold of the predicted region of metastability, the interaction strength at which the quasiparticle groundstate changes character, and the decay rate of polarons....
Quasiparticle and optical properties of strained stanene and stanane.
Lu, Pengfei; Wu, Liyuan; Yang, Chuanghua; Liang, Dan; Quhe, Ruge; Guan, Pengfei; Wang, Shumin
2017-06-20
Quasiparticle band structures and optical properties of two dimensional stanene and stanane (fully hydrogenated stanene) are studied by the GW and GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) approaches, with inclusion of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The SOC effect is significant for the electronic and optical properties in both stanene and stanane, compared with their group IV-enes and IV-anes counterparts. Stanene is a semiconductor with a quasiparticle band gap of 0.10 eV. Stanane has a sizable band gap of 1.63 eV and strongly binding exciton with binding energy of 0.10 eV. Under strain, the quasiparticle band gap and optical spectrum of both stanene and stanane are tunable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillet, V.; Giraud, B.; Rho, M.
1976-01-01
The energy levels and transition properties of the even-even N=28, 50 isotones and Z=28, 50, 82 isotopes are calculated in the framework of the Tamm-Dancoff and Random Phase Approximation, with an effective central interaction in an extended space consisting of two quasi-particle configurations for the open shell and particle-hole configurations for the closed core. Using the results of the Inverse Gap Equation Method, practically all the necessary input data (single quasi-particle energies, force strength) are extracted from the odd-mass nuclei. The ratios of the force components are kept at fixed values for all studied nuclei and no effective charge is used. An overall excellent agreement is obtained for the energies of the vibrational states. On the other hand, while the transition properties of the 3 - states are always well reproduced, those of the 2 + and 4 + states are often too small by about one order of magnitude [fr
Viscosities in the Gluon-Plasma within a Quasiparticle Model
Bluhm, M; Redlich, K
2009-01-01
A phenomenological quasiparticle model, featuring dynamically generated self-energies of excitation modes, successfully describes lattice QCD results relevant for the QCD equation of state and related quantities both at zero and non-zero net baryon density. Here, this model is extended to study bulk and shear viscosities of the gluon-plasma within an effective kinetic theory approach. In this way, the compatibility of the employed quasiparticle ansatz with the apparent low viscosities of the strongly coupled deconfined gluonic medium is shown.
The role of quasiparticles in rotating transitional nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frauendorf, Stefan
1984-01-01
The yrast sequency of nuclei rotating about the symmetry axis is classified in analogy to class I and II superconductors, where the quasiparticles play the role of the quantized flux in metals. The experimental spectra show a class I behaviour. The ω-dependence of the quasiparticle excitation energy in collectively rotating nuclei is used as evidence for magnitude of the pair correlations and the occurrence of triaxial shapes. A transition from triaxial to oblate shape explains the experimental spectra and E2-transition probabilities in the N=88-90 nuclei. (author)
Josephson junction analog and quasiparticle-pair current
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1973-01-01
A close analogy exists between a Josephson junction and a phase-locked loop. A new type of electrical analog based on this principle is presented. It is shown that the inclusion in this analog of a low-pass filter gives rise to a current of the same form as the Josephson quasiparticle-pair current....... A simple picture of the quasiparticle-pair current, which gives the right dependences, is obtained by assuming a junction cutoff frequency to be at the energy gap. ©1973 American Institute of Physics...
Quasiparticles in the superconducting state of high-Tc metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Ya.; Shaginyan, V.R.
2003-01-01
The behavior of quasiparticles in the superconducting state of high-T c metals within the framework of the theory of superconducting state based on the fermion condensation quantum phase transition is considered. It is shown that the behavior coincides with the behavior of Bogoliubov quasiparticles, whereas the maximum value of the superconducting gap and other exotic properties are determined by the presence of the fermion condensate. If at low temperatures the normal state is recovered by the application of a magnetic field suppressing the superconductivity, the induced state can be viewed as Landau-Fermi liquid. These observations are in good agreement with recent experimental facts [ru
The quasiparticle band structure of zincblende and rocksalt ZnO.
Dixit, H; Saniz, R; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B
2010-03-31
We present the quasiparticle band structure of ZnO in its zincblende (ZB) and rocksalt (RS) phases at the Γ point, calculated within the GW approximation. The effect of the p-d hybridization on the quasiparticle corrections to the band gap is discussed. We compare three systems, ZB-ZnO which shows strong p-d hybridization and has a direct band gap, RS-ZnO which is also hybridized but includes inversion symmetry and therefore has an indirect band gap, and ZB-ZnS which shows a weaker hybridization due to a change of the chemical species from oxygen to sulfur. The quasiparticle corrections are calculated with different numbers of valence electrons in the Zn pseudopotential. We find that the Zn(20+) pseudopotential is essential for the adequate treatment of the exchange interaction in the self-energy. The calculated GW band gaps are 2.47 eV and 4.27 eV respectively, for the ZB and RS phases. The ZB-ZnO band gap is underestimated compared to the experimental value of 3.27 by ∼ 0.8 eV. The RS-ZnO band gap compares well with the experimental value of 4.5 eV. The underestimation for ZB-ZnO is correlated with the strong p-d hybridization. The GW band gap for ZnS is 3.57 eV, compared to the experimental value of 3.8 eV.
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...
Schmidt, Wolfgang M
1980-01-01
"In 1970, at the U. of Colorado, the author delivered a course of lectures on his famous generalization, then just established, relating to Roth's theorem on rational approxi- mations to algebraic numbers. The present volume is an ex- panded and up-dated version of the original mimeographed notes on the course. As an introduction to the author's own remarkable achievements relating to the Thue-Siegel-Roth theory, the text can hardly be bettered and the tract can already be regarded as a classic in its field."(Bull.LMS) "Schmidt's work on approximations by algebraic numbers belongs to the deepest and most satisfactory parts of number theory. These notes give the best accessible way to learn the subject. ... this book is highly recommended." (Mededelingen van het Wiskundig Genootschap)
CdS_xTe_1_-_x ternary semiconductors band gaps calculation using ground state and GW approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kheloufi, Nawal; Bouzid, Abderrazak
2016-01-01
We present band gap calculations of zinc-blende ternary CdS_xTe_1_-_x semiconductors within the standard DFT and quasiparticle calculations employing pseudopotential method. The DFT, the local density approximation (LDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) based calculations have given very poor results compared to experimental data. The quasiparticle calculations have been investigated via the one-shot GW approximation. The present paper discuses and confirms the effect of inclusion of the semicore states in the cadmium (Cd) pseudopotential. The obtained GW quasiparticle band gap using Cd"+"2"0 pseudopotential has been improved compared to the obtained results from the available pseudopotential without the treatment of semicore states. Our DFT and quasiparticle band gap results are discussed and compared to the available theoretical calculations and experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Band gaps improvement concerning the binary and ternary alloys using the GW approximation and Cd"2"0"+ pseudopotential with others levels of approximations (the LDA and GGA approximation employing the Cd"1"2"+ and the LDA within Cd"2"0"+ pseudopotential). - Highlights: • The direct Γ- Γ and indirect Γ- X and Γ- L bands gaps show a nonlinear behavior when S content is enhanced. • The quasiparticle band gap result for the investigated semiconductors is improved using the GW approximation. • All CdS_xTe_1_-_x compounds in all compositions range from 0 to 1 are direct band gap semiconductors.
Are Quasiparticles and Phonons Identical in Bose-Einstein Condensates?
Tsutsui, Kazumasa; Kato, Yusuke; Kita, Takafumi
2016-12-01
We study an interacting spinless Bose-Einstein condensate to clarify theoretically whether the spectra of its quasiparticles (one-particle excitations) and collective modes (two-particle excitations) are identical, as concluded by Gavoret and Nozières [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 28, 349 (1964)]. We derive analytic expressions for their first and second moments so as to extend the Bijl-Feynman formula for the peak of the collective-mode spectrum to its width (inverse lifetime) and also to the one-particle channel. The obtained formulas indicate that the width of the collective-mode spectrum manifestly vanishes in the long-wavelength limit, whereas that of the quasiparticle spectrum apparently remains finite. We also evaluate the peaks and widths of the two spectra numerically for a model interaction potential in terms of the Jastrow wave function optimized by a variational method. It is thereby found that the width of the quasiparticle spectrum increases towards a constant as the wavenumber decreases. This marked difference in the spectral widths implies that the two spectra are distinct. In particular, the lifetime of the quasiparticles remains finite even in the long-wavelength limit.
Quasiparticle losses at the surface of superconducting tunnel junction detectors
Panteleit, F.; Schroeder, T.; Martin, J.; Huebener, R.P.; Kiewiet, F.B.; Berg, van den M.L.; Korte, P.A.J.
1999-01-01
Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are promising as high energy resolution x-ray detectors. However, the theoretical limit of the energy resolution of STJs has not yet been reached for several reasons. In many cases quasiparticle losses limit the energy resolution. We have investigated STJs
Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale.
Langer, F; Hohenleutner, M; Schmid, C P; Poellmann, C; Nagler, P; Korn, T; Schüller, C; Sherwin, M S; Huttner, U; Steiner, J T; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R
2016-05-12
Ever since Ernest Rutherford scattered α-particles from gold foils, collision experiments have revealed insights into atoms, nuclei and elementary particles. In solids, many-body correlations lead to characteristic resonances--called quasiparticles--such as excitons, dropletons, polarons and Cooper pairs. The structure and dynamics of quasiparticles are important because they define macroscopic phenomena such as Mott insulating states, spontaneous spin- and charge-order, and high-temperature superconductivity. However, the extremely short lifetimes of these entities make practical implementations of a suitable collider challenging. Here we exploit lightwave-driven charge transport, the foundation of attosecond science, to explore ultrafast quasiparticle collisions directly in the time domain: a femtosecond optical pulse creates excitonic electron-hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide while a strong terahertz field accelerates and collides the electrons with the holes. The underlying dynamics of the wave packets, including collision, pair annihilation, quantum interference and dephasing, are detected as light emission in high-order spectral sidebands of the optical excitation. A full quantum theory explains our observations microscopically. This approach enables collision experiments with various complex quasiparticles and suggests a promising new way of generating sub-femtosecond pulses.
Transport signatures of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albrecht, S. M.; Hansen, E. B.; Higginbotham, A. P.
2017-01-01
We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state...
Doping-dependent quasiparticle band structure in cuprate superconductors
Eder, R; Ohta, Y.; Sawatzky, G.A
1997-01-01
We present an exact diagonalization study of the single-particle spectral function in the so-called t-t'-t ''-J model in two dimensions. As a key result, we find that hole doping leads to a major reconstruction of the quasiparticle band structure near (pi,0): whereas for the undoped system the
The coupling one quasi-particle to a Bohr core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewenkopf, C.H.
1988-01-01
Odd nuclei are studied coupling one quasi-particle to a Bohr's core, solved by Kumar Baranger's method. Calculations are performed for energies and transition rates for the following isotopes: 133 Xe, 183 W, 99 Tc and 101 Rh. Limitations of the model are discussed. (author) [pt
Interplay of quasiparticle-vibration coupling and pairing correlations on β-decay half-lives
Niu, Y. F.; Niu, Z. M.; Colò, G.; Vigezzi, E.
2018-05-01
The nuclear β-decay half-lives of Ni and Sn isotopes, around the closed shell nuclei 78Ni and 132Sn, are investigated by computing the distribution of the Gamow-Teller strength using the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) with quasiparticle-vibration coupling (QPVC), based on ground-state properties obtained by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations. We employ the effective interaction SkM* and a zero-range effective pairing force. The half-lives are strongly reduced by including the QPVC. We study in detail the effects of isovector (IV) and isoscalar (IS) pairing. Increasing the IV strength tends to increase the lifetime for nuclei in the proximity of, but lighter than, the closed-shell ones in QRPA calculations, while the effect is significantly reduced by taking into account the QPVC. On the contrary, the IS pairing mainly plays a role for nuclei after the shell closure. Increasing its strength decreases the half-lives, and the effect at QRPA and QRPA+QPVC level is comparable. The effect of IS pairing is particularly pronounced in the case of the Sn isotopes, where it turns out to be instrumental to obtain good agreement with experimental data.
On the calculation of lattice sums arising in Bose-Einstein statistics of quasiparticle excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Millev, Y.; Faehnle, M.
1994-05-01
A new method for the calculations of the average occupation number of bosonic quasi-particle excitations valid for any type of lattice is proposed. The method is based on the recognition of the connection with lattice Green's functions and generalized Watson integrals, on one hand, and on a very simple differentiation technique which renders unnecessary and artificial to this problem more sophisticated Laplace transform summation procedures. The mean-field approximation to Green's function theories of ferromagnetism arises naturally as the zeroth term in the obtained summation formulae. The results have been specified completely for the three cubic lattices. They are new for the simple cubic and face-centred cases, whereas certain redundancy is removed form the known body-centred cubic results. Applications of the method to more complex sums as, for instance, the thermodynamic sum for the total energy of the quasiparticles, are straightforward. There has also been found a new three-position recursion relation for the calculation of frequently occurring triple geometric integrals in the face-centred cubic case. It originates form a corresponding relation for a relevant Heun function. (author). 29 refs, 1 tab
Appalakondaiah, S; Vaitheeswaran, G; Lebègue, S
2015-06-18
We have performed ab initio calculations for a series of energetic solids to explore their structural and electronic properties. To evaluate the ground state volume of these molecular solids, different dispersion correction methods were accounted in DFT, namely the Tkatchenko-Scheffler method (with and without self-consistent screening), Grimme's methods (D2, D3(BJ)), and the vdW-DF method. Our results reveal that dispersion correction methods are essential in understanding these complex structures with van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding. The calculated ground state volumes and bulk moduli show that the performance of each method is not unique, and therefore a careful examination is mandatory for interpreting theoretical predictions. This work also emphasizes the importance of quasiparticle calculations in predicting the band gap, which is obtained here with the GW approximation. We find that the obtained band gaps are ranging from 4 to 7 eV for the different compounds, indicating their insulating nature. In addition, we show the essential role of quasiparticle band structure calculations to correlate the gap with the energetic properties.
Calculation of Quasi-Particle Energies of Aromatic Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111).
Li, Yan; Lu, Deyu; Galli, Giulia
2009-04-14
We present many-body perturbation theory calculations of the electronic properties of phenylene diisocyanide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold surface. Using structural models obtained within density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated how the SAM molecular energies are modified by self-energy corrections and how they are affected by the presence of the surface. We have employed a combination of GW (G = Green's function; W = screened Coulomb interaction) calculations of the SAM quasi-particle energies and a semiclassical image potential model to account for surface polarization effects. We find that it is essential to include both quasi-particle corrections and surface screening in order to provide a reasonable estimate of the energy level alignment at a SAM-metal interface. In particular, our results show that within the GW approximation the energy distance between phenylene diisocyanide SAM energy levels and the gold surface Fermi level is much larger than that found within DFT, e.g., more than double in the case of low packing densities of the SAM.
Non-Poissonian quantum jumps of a fluxonium qubit due to quasiparticle excitations.
Vool, U; Pop, I M; Sliwa, K; Abdo, B; Wang, C; Brecht, T; Gao, Y Y; Shankar, S; Hatridge, M; Catelani, G; Mirrahimi, M; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Glazman, L I; Devoret, M H
2014-12-12
As the energy relaxation time of superconducting qubits steadily improves, nonequilibrium quasiparticle excitations above the superconducting gap emerge as an increasingly relevant limit for qubit coherence. We measure fluctuations in the number of quasiparticle excitations by continuously monitoring the spontaneous quantum jumps between the states of a fluxonium qubit, in conditions where relaxation is dominated by quasiparticle loss. Resolution on the scale of a single quasiparticle is obtained by performing quantum nondemolition projective measurements within a time interval much shorter than T₁, using a quantum-limited amplifier (Josephson parametric converter). The quantum jump statistics switches between the expected Poisson distribution and a non-Poissonian one, indicating large relative fluctuations in the quasiparticle population, on time scales varying from seconds to hours. This dynamics can be modified controllably by injecting quasiparticles or by seeding quasiparticle-trapping vortices by cooling down in a magnetic field.
Hong, Tao; Qiu, Y; Matsumoto, M; Tennant, D A; Coester, K; Schmidt, K P; Awwadi, F F; Turnbull, M M; Agrawal, H; Chernyshev, A L
2017-05-05
The notion of a quasiparticle, such as a phonon, a roton or a magnon, is used in modern condensed matter physics to describe an elementary collective excitation. The intrinsic zero-temperature magnon damping in quantum spin systems can be driven by the interaction of the one-magnon states and multi-magnon continuum. However, detailed experimental studies on this quantum many-body effect induced by an applied magnetic field are rare. Here we present a high-resolution neutron scattering study in high fields on an S=1/2 antiferromagnet C 9 H 18 N 2 CuBr 4 . Compared with the non-interacting linear spin-wave theory, our results demonstrate a variety of phenomena including field-induced renormalization of one-magnon dispersion, spontaneous magnon decay observed via intrinsic linewidth broadening, unusual non-Lorentzian two-peak structure in the excitation spectra and a dramatic shift of spectral weight from one-magnon state to the two-magnon continuum.
Brandow, B. H.
1986-01-01
the Kondo regime, of a significant quasiparticle contribution to the f spectral weight in the vicinity of ɛf. The present ``one-parameter'' and ``two-parameter'' versions can be viewed as lattice generalizations of the first two approximations of the (1/Nf)-expansion school, although our treatment of lattice aspects departs from strict 1/Nf methodology. The two versions have Wilson ratios ≡1 and ≠1, respectively, consistent with (1/Nf)-expansion studies of the single-impurity model, and a number of other features likewise show good correspondence with (1/Nf)-expansion results. Implications are presented for the finite-temperature behaviors of several properties, especially the specific heat and electrical resistivity. Comparison with experiment then leads to some inferences about the band structures of heavy-fermion materials. A new mechanism is presented for breakup of the coherent Fermi-liquid behavior, as temperature is increased. There are two main approximations: (a) Neglect of the ``site exclusion'' problem, i.e., within cluster-expansion terms we ignore the requirement that interacting sites must all be distinct. (b) Assumption of a low density of excited quasiparticles (those excited from the ``far'' side of the hybridization gap) limits the present treatment to very low temperatures, T<
Converged G W quasiparticle energies for transition metal oxide perovskites
Ergönenc, Zeynep; Kim, Bongjae; Liu, Peitao; Kresse, Georg; Franchini, Cesare
2018-02-01
The ab initio calculation of quasiparticle (QP) energies is a technically and computationally challenging problem. In condensed matter physics, the most widely used approach to determine QP energies is the G W approximation. Although the G W method has been widely applied to many typical semiconductors and insulators, its application to more complex compounds such as transition metal oxide perovskites has been comparatively rare, and its proper use is not well established from a technical point of view. In this work, we have applied the single-shot G0W0 method to a representative set of transition metal oxide perovskites including 3 d (SrTiO3, LaScO3, SrMnO3, LaTiO3, LaVO3, LaCrO3, LaMnO3, and LaFeO3), 4 d (SrZrO3, SrTcO3, and Ca2RuO4 ), and 5 d (SrHfO3, KTaO3, and NaOsO3) compounds with different electronic configurations, magnetic orderings, structural characteristics, and band gaps ranging from 0.1 to 6.1 eV. We discuss the proper procedure to obtain well-converged QP energies and accurate band gaps within single-shot G0W0 by comparing the conventional approach based on an incremental variation of a specific set of parameters (number of bands, energy cutoff for the plane-wave expansion and number of k points) and the basis-set extrapolation scheme [J. Klimeš et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 075125 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.075125]. Although the conventional scheme is not supported by a formal proof of convergence, for most cases it delivers QP energies in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by the basis-set correction procedure and it is by construction more useful for calculating band structures. In addition, we have inspected the difference between the adoption of norm-conserving and ultrasoft potentials in G W calculations and found that the norm violation for the d shell can lead to less accurate results in particular for charge-transfer systems and late transition metals. A minimal statistical analysis indicates that the correlation of the G W data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vretenar, D.; Paar, V.; Bonsignori, G.; Savoia, M.
1990-01-01
An extension of the interacting boson approximation model is proposed by allowing for two- and four-quasiparticle excitations out of the boson space. The formation of band patterns based on two- and four-quasiparticle states is investigated in the SU(3) limit of the model. For hole-type (particle-type) fermions coupled to the SU(3) prolate (oblate) core, it is shown that the algebraic K-representation basis, which is the analog of the strong-coupling basis of the geometrical model, provides an appropriate description of the low-lying two-quasiparticle bands. In the case of particle-type (hole-type) fermions coupled to the SU(3) prolate (oblate) core, a new algebraic decoupling basis is derived that is equivalent in the geometrical limit to Stephens' rotation-aligned basis. Comparing the wave functions that are obtained by diagonalization of the model Hamiltonian to the decoupling basis, several low-lying two-quasiparticle bands are identified. The effects of an interaction that conserves only the total nucleon number, mixing states with different number of fermions, are investigated in both the strong-coupling and decoupling limits. All calculations are performed for an SU(3) boson core and the h11/2 fermion orbital
Speeding up GW Calculations to Meet the Challenge of Large Scale Quasiparticle Predictions.
Gao, Weiwei; Xia, Weiyi; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Peihong
2016-11-11
Although the GW approximation is recognized as one of the most accurate theories for predicting materials excited states properties, scaling up conventional GW calculations for large systems remains a major challenge. We present a powerful and simple-to-implement method that can drastically accelerate fully converged GW calculations for large systems, enabling fast and accurate quasiparticle calculations for complex materials systems. We demonstrate the performance of this new method by presenting the results for ZnO and MgO supercells. A speed-up factor of nearly two orders of magnitude is achieved for a system containing 256 atoms (1024 valence electrons) with a negligibly small numerical error of ±0.03 eV. Finally, we discuss the application of our method to the GW calculations for 2D materials.
Neuhauser, Daniel; Gao, Yi; Arntsen, Christopher; Karshenas, Cyrus; Rabani, Eran; Baer, Roi
2014-08-15
We develop a formalism to calculate the quasiparticle energy within the GW many-body perturbation correction to the density functional theory. The occupied and virtual orbitals of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian are replaced by stochastic orbitals used to evaluate the Green function G, the polarization potential W, and, thereby, the GW self-energy. The stochastic GW (sGW) formalism relies on novel theoretical concepts such as stochastic time-dependent Hartree propagation, stochastic matrix compression, and spatial or temporal stochastic decoupling techniques. Beyond the theoretical interest, the formalism enables linear scaling GW calculations breaking the theoretical scaling limit for GW as well as circumventing the need for energy cutoff approximations. We illustrate the method for silicon nanocrystals of varying sizes with N_{e}>3000 electrons.
Quasiparticle and excitonic gaps of one-dimensional carbon chains.
Mostaani, E; Monserrat, B; Drummond, N D; Lambert, C J
2016-06-01
We report diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations of the quasiparticle and excitonic gaps of hydrogen-terminated oligoynes and extended polyyne. The electronic gaps are found to be very sensitive to the atomic structure in these systems. We have therefore optimised the geometry of polyyne by directly minimising the DMC energy with respect to the lattice constant and the Peierls-induced carbon-carbon bond-length alternation. We find the bond-length alternation of polyyne to be 0.136(2) Å and the excitonic and quasiparticle gaps to be 3.30(7) and 3.4(1) eV, respectively. The DMC zone-centre longitudinal optical phonon frequency of polyyne is 2084(5) cm(-1), which is consistent with Raman spectroscopic measurements for large oligoynes.
Quasiparticle spin resonance and coherence in superconducting aluminium.
Quay, C H L; Weideneder, M; Chiffaudel, Y; Strunk, C; Aprili, M
2015-10-26
Conventional superconductors were long thought to be spin inert; however, there is now increasing interest in both (the manipulation of) the internal spin structure of the ground-state condensate, as well as recently observed long-lived, spin-polarized excitations (quasiparticles). We demonstrate spin resonance in the quasiparticle population of a mesoscopic superconductor (aluminium) using novel on-chip microwave detection techniques. The spin decoherence time obtained (∼100 ps), and its dependence on the sample thickness are consistent with Elliott-Yafet spin-orbit scattering as the main decoherence mechanism. The striking divergence between the spin coherence time and the previously measured spin imbalance relaxation time (∼10 ns) suggests that the latter is limited instead by inelastic processes. This work stakes out new ground for the nascent field of spin-based electronics with superconductors or superconducting spintronics.
Quasiparticle Approach to Molecules Interacting with Quantum Solvents.
Lemeshko, Mikhail
2017-03-03
Understanding the behavior of molecules interacting with superfluid helium represents a formidable challenge and, in general, requires approaches relying on large-scale numerical simulations. Here, we demonstrate that experimental data collected over the last 20 years provide evidence that molecules immersed in superfluid helium form recently predicted angulon quasiparticles [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 203001 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.114.203001]. Most important, casting the many-body problem in terms of angulons amounts to a drastic simplification and yields effective molecular moments of inertia as straightforward analytic solutions of a simple microscopic Hamiltonian. The outcome of the angulon theory is in good agreement with experiment for a broad range of molecular impurities, from heavy to medium-mass to light species. These results pave the way to understanding molecular rotation in liquid and crystalline phases in terms of the angulon quasiparticle.
Suppressing relaxation in superconducting qubits by quasiparticle pumping.
Gustavsson, Simon; Yan, Fei; Catelani, Gianluigi; Bylander, Jonas; Kamal, Archana; Birenbaum, Jeffrey; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Samach, Gabriel; Sears, Adam P; Weber, Steven J; Yoder, Jonilyn L; Clarke, John; Kerman, Andrew J; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Orlando, Terry P; Oliver, William D
2016-12-23
Dynamical error suppression techniques are commonly used to improve coherence in quantum systems. They reduce dephasing errors by applying control pulses designed to reverse erroneous coherent evolution driven by environmental noise. However, such methods cannot correct for irreversible processes such as energy relaxation. We investigate a complementary, stochastic approach to reducing errors: Instead of deterministically reversing the unwanted qubit evolution, we use control pulses to shape the noise environment dynamically. In the context of superconducting qubits, we implement a pumping sequence to reduce the number of unpaired electrons (quasiparticles) in close proximity to the device. A 70% reduction in the quasiparticle density results in a threefold enhancement in qubit relaxation times and a comparable reduction in coherence variability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Quasi-Particle Self-Consistent GW for Molecules.
Kaplan, F; Harding, M E; Seiler, C; Weigend, F; Evers, F; van Setten, M J
2016-06-14
We present the formalism and implementation of quasi-particle self-consistent GW (qsGW) and eigenvalue only quasi-particle self-consistent GW (evGW) adapted to standard quantum chemistry packages. Our implementation is benchmarked against high-level quantum chemistry computations (coupled-cluster theory) and experimental results using a representative set of molecules. Furthermore, we compare the qsGW approach for five molecules relevant for organic photovoltaics to self-consistent GW results (scGW) and analyze the effects of the self-consistency on the ground state density by comparing calculated dipole moments to their experimental values. We show that qsGW makes a significant improvement over conventional G0W0 and that partially self-consistent flavors (in particular evGW) can be excellent alternatives.
Quasiparticle features and level statistics of odd-odd nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Nanpu; Zheng Renrong; Zhu Shunquan
2001-01-01
The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y are calculated by using the axially symmetric rotor plus quasiparticles model. The two standard statistical tests of Random-Matrix Theory such as the distribution function p(s) of the nearest-neighbor level spacings (NNS) and the spectral rigidity Δ 3 are used to explore the statistical properties of the energy levels. By analyzing the properties of p(s) and Δ 3 under various conditions, the authors find that the quasiparticle features mainly affect the statistical properties of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y through the recoil term and the Coriolis force in this theoretical mode, and that the chaotic degree of the energy levels decreases with the decreasing of the Fermi energy and the energy-gap parameters. The effect of the recoil term is small while the Coriolis force plays a major role in the spectral structure of 84 Y
On the Bengtsson-Frauendorf cranked-quasiparticle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, K.F.; Nagarajan, M.A.; Rowley, N.
1989-01-01
The cranked-quasiparticle model of Bengtsson and Frauendorf (non-self-consistent HFB) is compared with some exact calculations of particles moving in a cranked, deformed mean field but interacting via rotationally invariant two-body forces. In order to make the exact calculations manageable, a single shell is used but despite this small basis the quasiparticle model is shown to have a high degree of success. The usual choice of pair gap is discussed and shown to be good. The general structures of band crossings in the exact calculations are well reproduced and some crossing frequencies are given quantitatively though the odd-particle systems require blocking. Interaction strengths are not well reproduced though some qualitative features, e.g. oscillations, are obtained. These interactions are generally underestimated, an effect which causes the HFB yrast band to behave less collectively than it should. (orig.)
The geometry of the thermal quasi-particle transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henning, P.A.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt; Graf, M.; Matthaeus, F.
1991-12-01
We introduce a new concept for thermal quantum theories, which expresses a time dependent quasi-particle picture as the coupling to an external (classical) gauge field. The non-abelian nature of this field even for quasi-free systems can lead to renormalization factors that depend on the system's history. In this framework, the geometry of adiabatic time evolutions is investigated in detail, and implications for non-equilibrium systems are discussed. (orig.)
Quasi-particle states of electron systems out of equilibrium
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav
2007-01-01
Roč. 75, č. 19 (2007), 195125/1-195125/9 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0585 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * quasi-particles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007
Dynamics of correlation-frozen antinodal quasiparticles in superconducting cuprates
Cilento, Federico; Manzoni, Giulia; Sterzi, Andrea; Peli, Simone; Ronchi, Andrea; Crepaldi, Alberto; Boschini, Fabio; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard; Springate, Emma; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Greven, Martin; Berciu, Mona; Kemper, Alexander F.; Damascelli, Andrea; Capone, Massimo; Giannetti, Claudio; Parmigiani, Fulvio
2018-01-01
Many puzzling properties of high–critical temperature (Tc) superconducting (HTSC) copper oxides have deep roots in the nature of the antinodal quasiparticles, the elementary excitations with wave vector parallel to the Cu–O bonds. These electronic states are most affected by the onset of antiferromagnetic correlations and charge instabilities, and they host the maximum of the anisotropic superconducting gap and pseudogap. We use time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet photoemission with proper photon energy (18 eV) and time resolution (50 fs) to disclose the ultrafast dynamics of the antinodal states in a prototypical HTSC cuprate. After photoinducing a nonthermal charge redistribution within the Cu and O orbitals, we reveal a dramatic momentum-space differentiation of the transient electron dynamics. Whereas the nodal quasiparticle distribution is heated up as in a conventional metal, new quasiparticle states transiently emerge at the antinodes, similarly to what is expected for a photoexcited Mott insulator, where the frozen charges can be released by an impulsive excitation. This transient antinodal metallicity is mapped into the dynamics of the O-2p bands, thus directly demonstrating the intertwining between the low- and high-energy scales that is typical of correlated materials. Our results suggest that the correlation-driven freezing of the electrons moving along the Cu–O bonds, analogous to the Mott localization mechanism, constitutes the starting point for any model of high-Tc superconductivity and other exotic phases of HTSC cuprates. PMID:29507885
Temperature dependent quasiparticle renormalization in nickel and iron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Thirupathaiah, Setti; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Fink, Joerg; Duerr, Hermann [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)
2010-07-01
One of the fundamental consequences of electron correlation effects is that the bare particles in solids become 'dressed' with an excitation cloud resulting in quasiparticles. Such a quasiparticle will carry the same spin and charge as the original particle, but will have a renormalized mass and a finite lifetime. The properties of many-body interactions are described with a complex function called self energy which is directly accessible to modern high-resolution angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Ferromagnetic metals like nickel or iron offers the exciting possibility to study the spin dependence of quasiparticle coupling to bosonic modes. Utilizing the exchange split band structure as an intrinsic 'spin detector' it is possible to distinguish between electron-phonon and electron-magnon coupling phenomena. In this contribution we will report a systematic investigation of the k- and temperature dependence of the electron-boson coupling in nickel and iron metals as well as discuss origin of earlier observed anomalous lifetime broadening of majority spin states of nickel at Fermi level.
Influence of the Pauli principle on the one-quasiparticle states in odd spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Zuy Khuong
1980-01-01
The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in odd spherical nuclei is studied within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. It is shown that the Pauli principle influences considerably the position and structure of a few low-lying states. The fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states at intermediate and high excitation energies is slightly affected by the Pauli principle, and the calculations can be performed by taking the Pauli principle into account roughly. (author)
Quasiparticle scattering by quantum phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khlebnikov, S.
2004-01-01
Quantum phase slips (QPS) in narrow superfluid channels generate momentum by unwinding the supercurrent. In a uniform Bose gas, this momentum needs to be absorbed by quasiparticles (phonons). We show that this requirement results in an additional exponential suppression of the QPS rate (compared to the rate of QPS induced by a sharply localized perturbation). In BCS-paired fluids, momentum can be transferred to fermionic quasiparticles, and we find an interesting interplay between quasiparticle scattering on QPS and on disorder
Effect of quasi-particle injection on retrapping current of Josephson junction
Utsunomiya, K.; Yagi, Ryuta
2006-01-01
We report that the energy dissipation of Josephson junction can be controlled by quasi-particle injection. We fabricated two Josephson junctions on the narrow aluminum wire and controlled the energy dissipation of one junction by quasi-particle injection from the other. We observed the retrapping current increased as the quasi-particles were injected. We also studied the heating effect of our measurement.
Strong quasi-particle tunneling study in the paired quantum Hall states
Nomura, Kentaro; Yoshioka, Daijiro
2001-01-01
The quasi-particle tunneling phenomena in the paired fractional quantum Hall states are studied. A single point-contact system is first considered. Because of relevancy of the quasi-particle tunneling term, the strong tunneling regime should be investigated. Using the instanton method it is shown that the strong quasi-particle tunneling regime is described as the weak electron tunneling regime effectively. Expanding to the network model the paired quantum Hall liquid to insulator transition i...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaworski, F.B.
1978-01-01
The effective quasiparticle recombination time in Pb superconductors was experimentally measured by optically perturbing Pb-oxide-Pb tunnel junctions. Analysis by carefully studying the optically modulated energy gap as a function of temperature determined the effective recombination time to be 2.06 x 10 - 10 T - 1/2e/sup δ//sup kT/ +- 30%. Careful studies on optically perturbed Sn-oxide-Sn tunnel junctions provide information on the quasiparticle nonequilibrium energy distribution function. Initial data compared closer with a modified heating model describing the photo-excited quasi particles rather than with an effective chemical potential model. However, an analysis of the IV characteristic of voltage-biased Sn junctions numerically unfolded the exact energy distribution from an integral equation. The results compare favorably to the theory of Chang and Scalapino, who calculate from the coupled Boltzmann kinetic equations the phonon and quasiparticle energy distributions. Lastly, a brief study describes Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy as applied to the problem of the identification of altered DNA bases. The technique demonstrates an exciting potential application of physics to a contemporary problem in molecular biology
Dependence of the quasiparticle recombination rate on the superconducting gap and TC
Carr, G. L.; Xi, Xiaoxiang; Hwang, J.; Tashiro, H.; Reitze, D. H.; Tanner, D. B.
2010-03-01
The relaxation of excess quasiparticles in a BCS superconductor is known to depend on quantities such as the quasiparticle & phonon density of states, and their coupling (Kaplan et al, Phys. Rev. B 14 4854, 1976). Disorder or an applied field can disrupt superconductivity, as evidenced by a reduced TC. We consider some simple modifications to the quasiparticle density of states consistent with a suppressed energy gap and TC, leading to changes in the intrinsic and effective (measured) rates for excess quasiparticles to recombine into pairs. We review some results for disordered MoGe and discuss the magnetic-field dependence of the recombination process.
Tensor quasiparticle interaction and spin-isospin sound in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haensel, P.
1979-01-01
The effect of the tensor components of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter on the spin-isospin sound type excitations is studied. Numerical results are obtained using a simplified model of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter. The quasiparticle distribution matrix corresponding to the spin-isospin sound is found to be qualitatively different from that obtained for purely central quasiparticle interaction. The macroscopic effects, however, are restricted to a small change in the phase velocity of the spin-isospin sound. (Auth.)
Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states
Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen, Xiao-Gang
2009-05-01
It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.
Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang
2009-01-01
It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salkola, M.I.; Schrieffer, J.R.
1998-01-01
Nonequilibrium properties of short-coherence-length s-wave superconductors are analyzed in the presence of extrinsic and intrinsic inhomogeneities. In general, the lowest-energy configurations of quasiparticle excitations are topological textures into which quasiparticles segregate and that are described as antiphase domain walls between superconducting regions whose order parameter phases differ by π. Antiphase domain walls can be probed by various experimental techniques, for example, by optical absorption and NMR. At zero temperature, quasiparticles seldom appear as self-trapped bag states. However, for low concentrations of quasiparticles, they may be stabilized in superconductors by extrinsic defects. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Role of quasiparticle x phonon components in gamma-decay of hogh-lying states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Solov'ev, V.G.; Vdovin, A.I.; Stoyanov, Ch.
1986-01-01
In the framework of quasiparticle-phonon model of a nucleus the probabilities of gamma-transitions (E1, M1, E2) from a high-lying resonance-similar structure to the excitation of neutron hole state (lg 9/2 ) -1 of 111 Sn nucleus to the main and low-excited one-quasiparticle states have been calculated. Wave function of a highly excited state comprised the components ''quasiparticle x phonon'' and ''quasiparticle x two phonons''. For E1-transitions 9/2 + → 11/2 1 - the main contribution to the transition is made by one-quasiparticle components of wave functions of the initial and final states. E2-transition 9/2 + → 7/2 g,s + takes place at the expense of impurities in ''quasiparticle x phonon'' states. For M1-transition from the states 9/2 + to the main one a strong destructive interference of contributions of one-quasiparticle and ''quasiparticle x phonon'' components is observed. Thus it is shown that components ''quasiparticle x phonon'' may play the major role in correct description of gamma-transitions from high-lying one-particle or low-lying hole states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dordevic, S.V.
2012-01-01
Inverse Fourier Transform of optical conductivity is used for studies of quasiparticle relaxation in Heavy Fermions in time domain. We demonstrate the usefulness of the procedure on model spectra and then use it to study quasiparticle relaxation in two Heavy Fermions YbFe 4 Sb 12 and CeRu 4 Sb 12 . Optical conductivity in time domain reveals details of quasiparticle relaxation close to the Fermi level, not readily accessible from the spectra in the frequency domain. In particular, we find that the relaxation of heavy quasiparticles does not start instantaneously, but typically after a few hundred femto-seconds.
QCD equation of state of hot deconfined matter at finite baryon density. A quasiparticle perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluhm, Marcus
2008-01-01
The quasiparticle model, based on quark and gluon degrees of freedom, has been developed for the description of the thermodynamics of a hot plasma of strongly interacting matter which is of enormous relevance in astrophysics, cosmology and for relativistic heavy-ion collisions as well. In the present work, this phenomenological model is extended into the realm of imaginary chemical potential and towards including, in general, different and independent quark flavour chemical potentials. In this way, nonzero net baryon-density effects in the equation of state are selfconsistently attainable. Furthermore, a chain of approximations based on formal mathematical manipulations is presented which outlines the connection of the quasiparticle model with the underlying gauge field theory of strong interactions, QCD, putting the model on firmer ground. The applicability of the model to extrapolate the equation of state known from lattice QCD at zero baryon density to nonzero baryon densities is shown. In addition, the ability of the model to extrapolate results to the chiral limit and to asymptotically large temperatures is illustrated by confrontation with available first-principle lattice QCD results. Basing on these successful comparisons supporting the idea that the hot deconfined phase can be described in a consistent picture by dressed quark and gluon degrees of freedom, a reliable QCD equation of state is constructed and baryon-density effects are examined, also along isentropic evolutionary paths. Scaling properties of the equation of state with fundamental QCD parameters such as the number of active quark flavour degrees of freedom, the entering quark mass parameters or the numerical value of the deconfinement transition temperature are discussed, and the robustness of the equation of state in the regions of small and large energy densities is shown. Uncertainties arising in the transition region are taken into account by constructing a family of equations of state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kheloufi, Nawal; Bouzid, Abderrazak, E-mail: a_bouzid34@hotmail.com
2016-06-25
We present band gap calculations of zinc-blende ternary CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} semiconductors within the standard DFT and quasiparticle calculations employing pseudopotential method. The DFT, the local density approximation (LDA) and the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) based calculations have given very poor results compared to experimental data. The quasiparticle calculations have been investigated via the one-shot GW approximation. The present paper discuses and confirms the effect of inclusion of the semicore states in the cadmium (Cd) pseudopotential. The obtained GW quasiparticle band gap using Cd{sup +20} pseudopotential has been improved compared to the obtained results from the available pseudopotential without the treatment of semicore states. Our DFT and quasiparticle band gap results are discussed and compared to the available theoretical calculations and experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Band gaps improvement concerning the binary and ternary alloys using the GW approximation and Cd{sup 20+} pseudopotential with others levels of approximations (the LDA and GGA approximation employing the Cd{sup 12+} and the LDA within Cd{sup 20+} pseudopotential). - Highlights: • The direct Γ- Γ and indirect Γ- X and Γ- L bands gaps show a nonlinear behavior when S content is enhanced. • The quasiparticle band gap result for the investigated semiconductors is improved using the GW approximation. • All CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} compounds in all compositions range from 0 to 1 are direct band gap semiconductors.
Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei I.
2017-02-01
The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis provides one picture of thermalization in a quantum system by looking at individual eigenstates. However, it is also important to consider how local observables reach equilibrium values dynamically. Quench protocol is one of the settings to study such questions. A recent numerical study [Bañuls, Cirac, and Hastings, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 050405 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.050405] of a nonintegrable quantum Ising model with longitudinal field under such a quench setting found different behaviors for different initial quantum states. One particular case called the "weak-thermalization" regime showed apparently persistent oscillations of some observables. Here we provide an explanation of such oscillations. We note that the corresponding initial state has low energy density relative to the ground state of the model. We then use perturbation theory near the ground state and identify the oscillation frequency as essentially a quasiparticle gap. With this quasiparticle picture, we can then address the long-time behavior of the oscillations. Upon making additional approximations which intuitively should only make thermalization weaker, we argue that the oscillations nevertheless decay in the long-time limit. As part of our arguments, we also consider a quench from a BEC to a hard-core boson model in one dimension. We find that the expectation value of a single-boson creation operator oscillates but decays exponentially in time, while a pair-boson creation operator has oscillations with a t-3 /2 decay in time. We also study dependence of the decay time on the density of bosons in the low-density regime and use this to estimate decay time for oscillations in the original spin model.
Quasiparticle self-consistent GW method for the spectral properties of complex materials.
Bruneval, Fabien; Gatti, Matteo
2014-01-01
The GW approximation to the formally exact many-body perturbation theory has been applied successfully to materials for several decades. Since the practical calculations are extremely cumbersome, the GW self-energy is most commonly evaluated using a first-order perturbative approach: This is the so-called G 0 W 0 scheme. However, the G 0 W 0 approximation depends heavily on the mean-field theory that is employed as a basis for the perturbation theory. Recently, a procedure to reach a kind of self-consistency within the GW framework has been proposed. The quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QSGW) approximation retains some positive aspects of a self-consistent approach, but circumvents the intricacies of the complete GW theory, which is inconveniently based on a non-Hermitian and dynamical self-energy. This new scheme allows one to surmount most of the flaws of the usual G 0 W 0 at a moderate calculation cost and at a reasonable implementation burden. In particular, the issues of small band gap semiconductors, of large band gap insulators, and of some transition metal oxides are then cured. The QSGW method broadens the range of materials for which the spectral properties can be predicted with confidence.
Electron Heating and Quasiparticle Tunnelling in Superconducting Charge Qubits
Shaw, M. D.; Bueno, J.; Delsing, P.; Echternach, P. M.
2008-01-01
We have directly measured non-equilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling in the time domain as a function of temperature and RF carrier power for a pair of charge qubits based on the single Cooper-pair box, where the readout is performed with a multiplexed quantum capacitance technique. We have extracted an effective electron temperature for each applied RF power, using the data taken at the lowest power as a reference curve. This data has been fit to a standard T? electron heating model, with a reasonable correspondence with established material parameters.
Hund's Induced Fermi-Liquid Instabilities and Enhanced Quasiparticle Interactions.
De' Medici, Luca
2017-04-21
Hund's coupling is shown to generally favor, in a doped half-filled Mott insulator, an increase in the compressibility culminating in a Fermi-liquid instability towards phase separation. The largest effect is found near the frontier between an ordinary and an orbitally decoupled ("Hund's") metal. The increased compressibility implies an enhancement of quasiparticle scattering, thus favoring other possible symmetry breakings. This physics is shown to happen in simulations of the 122 Fe-based superconductors, possibly implying the relevance of this mechanism in the enhancement of the critical temperature for superconductivity.
A general numerical analysis of the superconducting quasiparticle mixer
Hicks, R. G.; Feldman, M. J.; Kerr, A. R.
1985-01-01
For very low noise millimeter-wave receivers, the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) quasiparticle mixer is now competitive with conventional Schottky mixers. Tucker (1979, 1980) has developed a quantum theory of mixing which has provided a basis for the rapid improvement in SIS mixer performance. The present paper is concerned with a general method of numerical analysis for SIS mixers which allows arbitrary terminating impedances for all the harmonic frequencies. This analysis provides an approach for an examination of the range of validity of the three-frequency results of the quantum mixer theory. The new method has been implemented with the aid of a Fortran computer program.
Quasi-particles and quantum condensate in the Quantum Chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmann, J.
1987-01-01
The non-perturbative structure of Quantum Chromodynamics is investigated with the help of a generalisation of the formalism of Green's functions according to Gorkow and Nambu's studies in the theory of superconductivity methods. Taking into account the existence of the gluon condensation, the self-energy of the gluon-quasi-particles in the form of integral-equations is calculated with the help of modified rules for Feynman diagrams. The form of these equations implies the existence of particular solutions with an energy gap in the spectrum of the quasi-particles and a phase transition at a critical momentum. (author)
Exchange scattering of quasiparticles by positive ion in He3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehdel'shtejn, V.M.
1983-01-01
The difference in the mobility of negative and positive ions in normal 3 He at low temperatures is discussed. The mobility mechanisms for the ions of different sign are qualitatively different since the positive ion can exchange quasiparticles with the helium atoms from the ice-like shell surrounding the ion. A study of the mobility in a magnetic field may yield quantitative information on the magnitude of the exchange interaction. A calculation for the exchange scattering model is carried out and it is shown that a logarithmic contribution to the positive ion mobility μsub(+)(T) appears which is analogous to the Kondo effect
Fluctuations in macroscopically agitated plasma:quasiparticles and effective temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.; Gresillon, D.
1994-01-01
Fluctuations in the plasma, in which macroscopic fluid-like motion is agitated due to large-scale and low-frequency electro-magnetic fields, are studied. Such fields can be produced by external factors or internally, for example due to turbulence. Fluctuation spectral distributions are calculated with regard to the renormalization of the transition probability for a test-particle and of the test-particle shielding. If the correlation length for the random fluid-like motion is large as compared to the fluctuation scale lengths, then the fluctuation spectral distributions can be explained in terms of quasiparticles originating from macroscopic plasma agitation and of an effective temperature
Excitation energy of a helium 3 quasiparticle in the bulk mixture at constant pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yim, M.B.
1981-01-01
A 3 He quasiparticle excitation energy in bulk mixture at zero pressure and 6% solution is calculated to O(x) using the bulk effective interaction of Yim and Massey. The present 3 He quasiparticle excitation energy is in agreement with the experimental result of Hilton, Scherm and Stirling. (author)
Configuration changes and hindered decays in four- and six-quasiparticle isomers in 178Ta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondev, F.G.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Kibedi, T.; Bayer, S.; Lane, G.J.
1996-01-01
A six-quasiparticle isomer with K π =21 - , a half-life of 290(12) ms, and the π 3 ν 3 configuration has been identified in the odd-odd nucleus 178 Ta, at an excitation energy of 2902 keV. The rotational bands built on the known K π =15 - isomer and on the newly found 16 + four-quasiparticle and 22 + six-quasiparticle states, have also been identified, allowing characterization of the configurations. The 15 - band is predominantly of πν 3 character with a π 3 ν admixture. When the mixing is taken into account the excitation energies of the main yrast multi-quasiparticle states can be reproduced. The multi-quasiparticle states observed are related essentially through the addition of the two-quasiparticle component ν 2 [6 + ] or π 2 [6 + ]. Depending on whether the transition between the states involves the change ν 2 [6 + ] → [0] or π 2 [6 + ] → [0], the E2 hindrance factors for decays between the six- and four-quasiparticle states are relatively large or small. This dependence mimics the pattern observed in the two-quasiparticle core transitions and, because the 15 - isomer is mainly πν 3 , the magnitude sequence is inverted compared to that observed in 176 Ta. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Acceleration of quasi-particle modes in Bose-Einstein condensates
Marzlin, Karl-Peter; Zhang, Weiping
1998-01-01
We analytically examine the dynamics of quasi-particle modes occuring in a Bose-Einstein condensate which is subject to a weak acceleration. It is shown that the momentum of a quasi-particle mode is squeezed rather than accelerated.
Quasiparticle GW calculations for solids, molecules, and two-dimensional materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüser, Falco; Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2013-01-01
band gap is around 1eV too low. Similar relative deviations are found for the ionization potentials of a test set of 32 small molecules. The importance of substrate screening for a correct description of quasiparticle energies and Fermi velocities in supported two-dimensional (2D) materials...... of quasiparticle states....
Quasi-particle lifetime broadening in normal-superconductor junctions with UPt3
deWilde, Y; Klapwijk, TM; Jansen, AGM; Heil, J; Wyder, P
For the Andreev-reflection process of quasi-particles at a normal-metal-superconductor interface the influence of lifetime broadening of the quasi-particles on the current-voltage characteristics of NS point contacts is analyzed along the lines of the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model. The anomalous
Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.
2006-01-01
. The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...
Random phase approximation in relativistic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhongyu; Yang Ding; Tian Yuan; Cao Ligang
2009-01-01
Some special issues of the random phase approximation(RPA) in the relativistic approach are reviewed. A full consistency and proper treatment of coupling to the continuum are responsible for the successful application of the RPA in the description of dynamical properties of finite nuclei. The fully consistent relativistic RPA(RRPA) requires that the relativistic mean filed (RMF) wave function of the nucleus and the RRPA correlations are calculated in a same effective Lagrangian and the consistent treatment of the Dirac sea of negative energy states. The proper treatment of the single particle continuum with scattering asymptotic conditions in the RMF and RRPA is discussed. The full continuum spectrum can be described by the single particle Green's function and the relativistic continuum RPA is established. A separable form of the paring force is introduced in the relativistic quasi-particle RPA. (authors)
Random-phase approximation and broken symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, E.D.; Heiss, W.D.
1986-01-01
The validity of the random-phase approximation (RPA) in broken-symmetry bases is tested in an appropriate many-body system for which exact solutions are available. Initially the regions of stability of the self-consistent quasiparticle bases in this system are established and depicted in a 'phase' diagram. It is found that only stable bases can be used in an RPA calculation. This is particularly true for those RPA modes which are not associated with the onset of instability of the basis; it is seen that these modes do not describe any excited state when the basis is unstable, although from a formal point of view they remain acceptable. The RPA does well in a stable broken-symmetry basis provided one is not too close to a point where a phase transition occurs. This is true for both energies and matrix elements. (author)
Quasiparticles in Raman scattering of an electromagnetic wave by an atomic condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Il’ichev, L. V.
2011-01-01
Raman scattering of an intense electromagnetic wave by a free atomic Bose condensate is considered. In a system of atoms and photons, a subsystem is separated whose dynamics can be naturally described in terms of quasiparticles: quasi-atoms and quasi-photons. The dispersion laws of quasiparticles are interrupted by the instability interval. The introduction of quasiparticles within this interval is impossible, while dispersion laws that are continued formally acquire imaginary components. The dynamic scattering model is generalized by including dissipative annihilation processes of scattered photons and uncondensed atoms. A stationary solution of the corresponding quantum control equation is found, allowing the calculation of momentum distributions of real particles and quasiparticles. The outlook for the experimental detection of quasiparticles is discussed.
Li, Huashan; Lin, Zhibin; Lusk, Mark T; Wu, Zhigang
2014-10-21
The universal and fundamental criteria for charge separation at interfaces involving nanoscale materials are investigated. In addition to the single-quasiparticle excitation, all the two-quasiparticle effects including exciton binding, Coulomb stabilization, and exciton transfer are considered, which play critical roles on nanoscale interfaces for optoelectronic applications. We propose a scheme allowing adding these two-quasiparticle interactions on top of the single-quasiparticle energy level alignment for determining and illuminating charge separation at nanoscale interfaces. Employing the many-body perturbation theory based on Green's functions, we quantitatively demonstrate that neglecting or simplifying these crucial two-quasiparticle interactions using less accurate methods is likely to predict qualitatively incorrect charge separation behaviors at nanoscale interfaces where quantum confinement dominates.
Measurements of quasiparticle tunneling dynamics in a band-gap-engineered transmon qubit.
Sun, L; DiCarlo, L; Reed, M D; Catelani, G; Bishop, Lev S; Schuster, D I; Johnson, B R; Yang, Ge A; Frunzio, L; Glazman, L; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2012-06-08
We have engineered the band gap profile of transmon qubits by combining oxygen-doped Al for tunnel junction electrodes and clean Al as quasiparticle traps to investigate energy relaxation due to quasiparticle tunneling. The relaxation time T1 of the qubits is shown to be insensitive to this band gap engineering. Operating at relatively low-E(J)/E(C) makes the transmon transition frequency distinctly dependent on the charge parity, allowing us to detect the quasiparticles tunneling across the qubit junction. Quasiparticle kinetics have been studied by monitoring the frequency switching due to even-odd parity change in real time. It shows the switching time is faster than 10 μs, indicating quasiparticle-induced relaxation has to be reduced to achieve T1 much longer than 100 μs.
Pump probe spectroscopy of quasiparticle dynamics in cuprate superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segre, Gino P.
2001-01-01
Pump probe spectroscopy is used to examine the picosecond response of a BSCCO thin film, and two YBCO crystals in the near infrared. The role of pump fluence and temperature have been closely examined in an effort to clarify the mechanism by which the quasiparticles rejoin the condensate. BSCCO results suggest that the recombination behavior is consistent with the d-wave density of states in that quasiparticles appear to relax to the nodes immediately before they rejoin the condensate. The first substantial investigation of polarized pump probe response in detwinned YBCO crystals is also reported. Dramatic doping dependent anisotropies along the a and b axes are observed in time and temperature resolved studies. Among many results, we highlight the discovery of an anomalous temperature and time dependence of a- axis response in optimally doped YBCO. We also report on the first observation of the photoinduced response in a magnetic field. We find the amplitude of the response, and in some cases, the dynamics considerably changed with the application of a 6T field. Finally, we speculate on two of the many theoretical directions stimulated by our results. We find that the two-fluid model suggests a mechanism to explain how changes at very low energies are visible to a high-energy probe. Also discussed are basic recombination processes which may play a role in the observed decay
Quasiparticles and Fermi liquid behaviour in an organic metal
Kiss, T.; Chainani, A.; Yamamoto, H.M.; Miyazaki, T.; Akimoto, T.; Shimojima, T.; Ishizaka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Chen, C.-T.; Fukaya, A.; Kato, R.; Shin, S.
2012-01-01
Many organic metals display exotic properties such as superconductivity, spin-charge separation and so on and have been described as quasi-one-dimensional Luttinger liquids. However, a genuine Fermi liquid behaviour with quasiparticles and Fermi surfaces have not been reported to date for any organic metal. Here, we report the experimental Fermi surface and band structure of an organic metal (BEDT-TTF)3Br(pBIB) obtained using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, and show its consistency with first-principles band structure calculations. Our results reveal a quasiparticle renormalization at low energy scales (effective mass m*=1.9 me) and ω2 dependence of the imaginary part of the self energy, limited by a kink at ~50 meV arising from coupling to molecular vibrations. The study unambiguously proves that (BEDT-TTF)3Br(pBIB) is a quasi-2D organic Fermi liquid with a Fermi surface consistent with Shubnikov-de Haas results. PMID:23011143
Quasiparticle dynamics in reshaped helical Dirac cone of topological insulators.
Miao, Lin; Wang, Z F; Ming, Wenmei; Yao, Meng-Yu; Wang, Meixiao; Yang, Fang; Song, Y R; Zhu, Fengfeng; Fedorov, Alexei V; Sun, Z; Gao, C L; Liu, Canhua; Xue, Qi-Kun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Liu, Feng; Qian, Dong; Jia, Jin-Feng
2013-02-19
Topological insulators and graphene present two unique classes of materials, which are characterized by spin-polarized (helical) and nonpolarized Dirac cone band structures, respectively. The importance of many-body interactions that renormalize the linear bands near Dirac point in graphene has been well recognized and attracted much recent attention. However, renormalization of the helical Dirac point has not been observed in topological insulators. Here, we report the experimental observation of the renormalized quasiparticle spectrum with a skewed Dirac cone in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Te(3) substrate from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. First-principles band calculations indicate that the quasiparticle spectra are likely associated with the hybridization between the extrinsic substrate-induced Dirac states of Bi bilayer and the intrinsic surface Dirac states of Bi(2)Te(3) film at close energy proximity. Without such hybridization, only single-particle Dirac spectra are observed in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Se(3), where the extrinsic Dirac states Bi bilayer and the intrinsic Dirac states of Bi(2)Se(3) are well separated in energy. The possible origins of many-body interactions are discussed. Our findings provide a means to manipulate topological surface states.
Quasiparticle scattering image in hidden order phases and chiral superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thalmeier, Peter [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Akbari, Alireza, E-mail: alireza@apctp.org [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, and Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
The technique of Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference (QPI) has been successfully used to investigate the symmetry of unconventional superconducting gaps, also in heavy fermion compounds. It was demonstrated that QPI can distinguish between the d-wave singlet candidates in CeCoIn{sub 5}. In URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} presumably a chiral d-wave singlet superconducting (SC) state exists inside a multipolar hidden order (HO) phase. We show that hidden order leaves an imprint on the symmetry of QPI pattern that may be used to determine the essential question whether HO in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} breaks the in-plane rotational symmetry or not. We also demonstrate that the chiral d-wave SC gap leads to a crossover to a quasi-2D QPI spectrum below T{sub c} which sharpens the HO features. Furthermore we investigate the QPI image of chiral p-wave multigap superconductor Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • The chiral multigap structure of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} leads to rotation of QPI spectrum with bias voltage. • 5f band reconstruction in hidden order phase of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is obtained from two orbital model. • The chiral superconductivity in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} leads to quasi-2D quasiparticle interference (QPI).
Statistical quasi-particle theory for open quantum systems
Zhang, Hou-Dao; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing
2018-04-01
This paper presents a comprehensive account on the recently developed dissipaton-equation-of-motion (DEOM) theory. This is a statistical quasi-particle theory for quantum dissipative dynamics. It accurately describes the influence of bulk environments, with a few number of quasi-particles, the dissipatons. The novel dissipaton algebra is then followed, which readily bridges the Schrödinger equation to the DEOM theory. As a fundamental theory of quantum mechanics in open systems, DEOM characterizes both the stationary and dynamic properties of system-and-bath interferences. It treats not only the quantum dissipative systems of primary interest, but also the hybrid environment dynamics that could be experimentally measurable. Examples are the linear or nonlinear Fano interferences and the Herzberg-Teller vibronic couplings in optical spectroscopies. This review covers the DEOM construction, the underlying dissipaton algebra and theorems, the physical meanings of dynamical variables, the possible identifications of dissipatons, and some recent advancements in efficient DEOM evaluations on various problems. The relations of the present theory to other nonperturbative methods are also critically presented.
Partial level density of the n-quasiparticle excitations in the nuclei of the 40≤A≤200 region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.
2005-01-01
Level density and radiative strength functions are obtained from the analysis of two-step cascades intensities following the thermal neutron capture. The data on level density are approximated by the sum of the partial level densities corresponding to n-quasiparticle excitations. The most probable values of the collective enhancement factor of the level density are found together with the thresholds of the next Cooper nucleons pair breaking. These data allow one to calculate the level density of practically any nucleus in given spin window in the framework of model concepts, taking into account all known nuclear excitation types. The presence of an approximation results discrepancy with theoretical statements specifies the necessity of rather essentially developing the level density models. It also indicates the possibilities to obtain the essentially new information on nucleon correlation functions of the excited nucleus from the experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sapershtein, E.E.; Khodel', V.A.
1981-01-01
The problem of calculating the binding energy and self-consistent field of a nucleus in terms of the effective interaction of quasiparticles at the Fermi surface is solved. It is shown that for this one can go over from the system of N Fermi particles to a system of N interacting quasiparticles described by an effective quasiparticle Lagrangian L/sub q/. It is shown that the corresponding quasiparticle energy is equal to the ground-state energy of the system. The connection between the parameters of the effective Lagrangian and the constants of the quasiparticle interaction introduced in the theory of finite Fermi systems is established
Electron spin resonance in YbRh2Si2: local-moment, unlike-spin and quasiparticle descriptions.
Huber, D L
2012-06-06
Electron spin resonance (ESR) in the Kondo lattice compound YbRh(2)Si(2) has stimulated discussion as to whether the low-field resonance outside the Fermi liquid regime in this material is more appropriately characterized as a local-moment phenomenon or one that requires a Landau quasiparticle interpretation. In earlier work, we outlined a collective mode approach to the ESR that involves only the local 4f moments. In this paper, we extend the collective mode approach to a situation where there are two subsystems of unlike spins: the pseudospins of the ground multiplet of the Yb ions and the spins of the itinerant conduction electrons. We assume a weakly anisotropic exchange interaction between the two subsystems. With suitable approximations our expression for the g-factor also reproduces that found in recent unlike-spin quasiparticle calculations. It is pointed out that the success of the local-moment approach in describing the resonance is due to the fact that the susceptibility of the Yb subsystem dominates that of the conduction electrons with the consequence that the relative shift in the resonance frequency predicted by the unlike-spin models (and absent in the local-moment models) is ≪ 1. The connection with theoretical studies of a two-component model with like spins is also discussed.
A quasiparticle-based multi-reference coupled-cluster method.
Rolik, Zoltán; Kállay, Mihály
2014-10-07
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a quasiparticle-based multi-reference coupled-cluster (MRCC) approach. The quasiparticles are introduced via a unitary transformation which allows us to represent a complete active space reference function and other elements of an orthonormal multi-reference (MR) basis in a determinant-like form. The quasiparticle creation and annihilation operators satisfy the fermion anti-commutation relations. On the basis of these quasiparticles, a generalization of the normal-ordered operator products for the MR case can be introduced as an alternative to the approach of Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg [Recent Prog. Many-Body Theor. 4, 127 (1995); Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 432 (1997)]. Based on the new normal ordering any quasiparticle-based theory can be formulated using the well-known diagram techniques. Beyond the general quasiparticle framework we also present a possible realization of the unitary transformation. The suggested transformation has an exponential form where the parameters, holding exclusively active indices, are defined in a form similar to the wave operator of the unitary coupled-cluster approach. The definition of our quasiparticle-based MRCC approach strictly follows the form of the single-reference coupled-cluster method and retains several of its beneficial properties. Test results for small systems are presented using a pilot implementation of the new approach and compared to those obtained by other MR methods.
Dynamic and thermal behaviour of quasi-particles in superfluid 3He-B. Ch. 10
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenault, A.M.; Pickett, G.R.
1990-01-01
In superfluid 3 He-B, the quasi-particle gas is particularly accessible to experimental study of quasi-particle dynamics. The authors discuss some of their own experiments in this field. In section 2 the experimental methods are outlined briefly. Then experiments are introduced which can be made with vibrating-wire resonators. They can be used as detectors of the thermal background quasi-particles, which means that they can be used as thermometers. They can be used as quasiparticle sources, i.e. they can be used as heaters; and they can be used as detectors of directed quasi-particle beams, which leads to the possibility of the use of two wires together as source and detector in a beam spectrometer. This logical order is largely followed in this chapter. In section 3 the thermal behavior of the quasi-particle gas is discussed, including the use of the damping of a resonator as a thermometer, leading to experiments on boundary conductance and on bulk ballistic thermal transport. Section 4 covers the onset of dissipation in a strongly driven wire resonator, in particular the Landau critical velocity and pair-breaking effects, together with a discussion of supercritical dissipation. This leads, in section 5, to some early results of the ballistic quasi-particle galvanometer. This latter field is a rapidly developing one and some possible intriguing experiments for the future are discussed in section 6. (author). 30 refs.; 17 figs.; 1 tab
Self-consistent determination of quasiparticle properties in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oset, E.; Palanques-Mestre, A.
1981-01-01
The self-energy of nuclear matter is calculated by directing the attention to the energy and momentum dependent pieces which determine the quasiparticle properties. A microscopic approach is followed which starts from the boson exchange picture for the NN interaction, then the π-and p-mesons are shown to play a major role in the nucleon renormalization. The calculation is done self-consistently and the effective mass and pole strength determined as a function of the nuclear density and momentum. Particular emphasis is put on the non-static character of the interaction and its consequences. Finally a comparison is made with other calculations and with experimental results. The consequences of the nucleon renormalization in pion condensation are also examined with the result that the critical density is pushed up appreciably. (orig.)
Identical high- K three-quasiparticle rotational bands
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaur, Harjeet; Singh, Pardeep [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Physics, Amritsar (India)
2016-12-15
A comprehensive study of high-K three-quasiparticle rotational bands in odd-A nuclei indicates the similarity in γ-ray energies and dynamic moment of inertia I{sup (2)}. The extent of the identicality between the rotational bands is evaluated by using the energy factor method. For nuclei pairs exhibiting identical bands, the average relative change in the dynamic moment of inertia I{sup (2)} is also determined. The identical behaviour shown by these bands is attributed to the interplay of nuclear structure parameters: deformation and the pairing correlations. Also, experimental trend of the I(ℎ) vs. ℎω (MeV) plot for these nuclei pairs is shown to be in agreement with Tilted-Axis Cranking (TAC) model calculations. (orig.)
Transport Signatures of Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Majorana Island.
Albrecht, S M; Hansen, E B; Higginbotham, A P; Kuemmeth, F; Jespersen, T S; Nygård, J; Krogstrup, P; Danon, J; Flensberg, K; Marcus, C M
2017-03-31
We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state of the island. Comparison to a simple model yields an estimate of parity lifetime for the strongly coupled island (∼1 μs) and sets a bound for a weakly coupled island (>10 μs). Fluctuations in the gate-voltage spacing of Coulomb peaks at high field, reflecting Majorana hybridization, are enhanced by the reduced lever arm at strong coupling. When converted from gate voltage to energy units, fluctuations are consistent with previous measurements.
Source conductance scaling for high frequency superconducting quasiparticle receivers
Ke, Qing; Feldman, M. J.
1992-01-01
It has been suggested that the optimum source conductance G(sub s) for the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) quasiparticle mixer should have a l/f dependence. This would imply that the critical current density of SIS junctions used for mixing should increase as frequency squared, a stringent constraint on the design of submillimeter SIS mixers, rather than in simple proportion to frequency as previously believed. We have used Tucker's quantum theory of mixing for extensive numerical calculations to determine G(sub s) for an optimized SIS receiver. We find that G(sub s) is very roughly independent of frequency (except for the best junctions at low frequency), and discuss the implications of our results for the design of submillimeter SIS mixers.
Baryon number fluctuations in quasi-particle model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Ameng [Southeast University Chengxian College, Department of Foundation, Nanjing (China); Luo, Xiaofeng [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE), Institute of Particle Physics, Wuhan (China); Zong, Hongshi [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)
2017-04-15
Baryon number fluctuations are sensitive to the QCD phase transition and the QCD critical point. According to the Feynman rules of finite-temperature field theory, we calculated various order moments and cumulants of the baryon number distributions in the quasi-particle model of the quark-gluon plasma. Furthermore, we compared our results with the experimental data measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. It is found that the experimental data can be well described by the model for the colliding energies above 30 GeV and show large discrepancies at low energies. This puts a new constraint on the qQGP model and also provides a baseline for the QCD critical point search in heavy-ion collisions at low energies. (orig.)
Doping dependence of low-energy quasiparticle excitations in superconducting Bi2212.
Ino, Akihiro; Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shinichi
2013-12-05
: The doping-dependent evolution of the d-wave superconducting state is studied from the perspective of the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of a high-Tc cuprate, Bi2Sr2CaCu2 O8+δ (Bi2212). The anisotropic evolution of the energy gap for Bogoliubov quasiparticles is parametrized by critical temperature and superfluid density. The renormalization of nodal quasiparticles is evaluated in terms of mass enhancement spectra. These quantities shed light on the strong coupling nature of electron pairing and the impact of forward elastic or inelastic scatterings. We suggest that the quasiparticle excitations in the superconducting cuprates are profoundly affected by doping-dependent screening.
Kondo dynamics of quasiparticle tunneling in a two-reservoir Anderson model.
Hong, Jongbae
2011-07-13
We study the Kondo dynamics in a two-reservoir Anderson impurity model in which quasiparticle tunneling occurs between two reservoirs. We show that singlet hopping is an essential component of Kondo dynamics in the quasiparticle tunneling. We prove that two resonant tunneling levels exist in the two-reservoir Anderson impurity model and the quasiparticle tunnels through one of these levels when a bias is applied. The Kondo dynamics is explained by obtaining the retarded Green's function. We obtain the analytic expressions of the spectral weights of coherent peaks by analyzing the Green's function at the atomic limit.
High Tc superconducting three-terminal device under quasi-particle injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, K.; Kabasawa, U.; Tonouchi, M.; Kobayashi, T.
1988-01-01
A new type of the current injection type three terminal device was fabricated using the high Tc YBaCuO thin epitaxial films, wherein the hot quasi-particle injection effect on the superconducting current was closely examined. The zero bias drain current was efficiently suppressed by the injection of the hot quasi-particles through the gate electrode. Though it is speculative, a comparison of the experimental results and analyses based on the familiar BCS theory intimates that the main mechanism of the current modulation is the non-equilibrium superconductivity due to accumulation of the excess quasi-particles
Temperature Dependence of Quasiparticle Spectral Weight and Coherence in High Tc Superconductors
He, Yang; Zhang, Jessie; Hoffman, Jennifer; Hoffman Lab Team
2014-03-01
Superconductivity arises from the Cooper pairing of quasiparticles on the Fermi surface. Understanding the formation of Cooper pairs is an essential step towards unveiling the mechanism of high Tc superconductivity. We compare scanning tunneling microscope investigations of the temperature dependence of quasiparticle spectral weight and quasiparticle interference in several families of high Tc materials. We calculate the coherent spectral weight related to superconductivity, despite the coexistence of competing orders. The relation between pairing temperature and coherent spectral weight is discussed. We acknowledge support by the New York Community Trust-George Merck Fund.
Kondo dynamics of quasiparticle tunneling in a two-reservoir Anderson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Jongbae
2011-01-01
We study the Kondo dynamics in a two-reservoir Anderson impurity model in which quasiparticle tunneling occurs between two reservoirs. We show that singlet hopping is an essential component of Kondo dynamics in the quasiparticle tunneling. We prove that two resonant tunneling levels exist in the two-reservoir Anderson impurity model and the quasiparticle tunnels through one of these levels when a bias is applied. The Kondo dynamics is explained by obtaining the retarded Green's function. We obtain the analytic expressions of the spectral weights of coherent peaks by analyzing the Green's function at the atomic limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Bingheng; Lei Yi'an; Zhang Zhenhua
2013-01-01
Two-quasiparticle bands and low-lying excited high-K four-, six-, and eight-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd 174,176 Lu are analyzed by using the cranked shell model (CSM) with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving (PNC) method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The proton and neutron Nilsson level schemes for 174,176 Lu are taken from the adjacent odd-A Lu and Hf isotopes, which are adopted to reproduce the experimental bandhead energies of the one-quasiproton and one-quasineutron bands of these odd-A Lu and Hf nuclei, respectively. Once the quasiparticle configurations are determined, the experimental bandhead energies and the moments of inertia of these two- and multi-quasiparticle bands are well reproduced by PNC-CSM calculations. The Coriolis mixing of the low-K (K=|Ω 1 -Ω 2 |) two-quasiparticle band of the Gallagher-Moszkowski doublet with one nucleon in the Ω=1/2 orbital is analyzed. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Costa-Quintana, J.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors give a method for obtaining the renormalized electronic structure of the Hubbard systems. The first step is the determination of the self-energy beyond the Hartree-Fock approximation. This self-energy is constructed from several dielectric response functions. The second step is the determination of the quasiparticle band structure calculation which is performed from an appropriate modification of the augmented plane wave method. The third step consists in the determination of the renormalized density of states deduced from the spectral functions. The analysis of the renormalized density of states of the strongly correlated systems leads to the conclusion that there exist three types of resonances in their electronic structures, the lower energy resonances (LER), the middle energy resonances (MER) and the upper energy resonances (UER). In addition, the authors analyze the conditions for which the Luttinger theorem is satisfied. All of these questions are determined in a characteristic example which allows to test the theoretical method
Quasiparticle lifetime broadening in resonant x-ray scattering of NH4NO3
Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Müller, Matthias; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Beckhoff, Burkhard
2016-07-01
It has been previously shown that two effects cause dramatic changes in the x-ray absorption and emission spectra from the N K edge of the insulating crystal ammonium nitrate. First, vibrational disorder causes major changes in the absorption spectrum, originating not only from the thermal population of phonons, but, significantly, from zero-point motion as well. Second, the anomalously large broadening (˜4 eV) of the emission originating from nitrate σ states is due to the unusually short lifetimes of quasiparticles in an otherwise extremely narrow band. In this work, we investigate the coupling of these effects to core and valence excitons that are created as the initial x-ray excitation energy is progressively reduced toward the N edge. Using a G W /Bethe-Salpeter approach, we show the extent to which this anomalous broadening is captured by the G W approximation. The data and calculations demonstrate the importance that the complex self-energies (finite lifetimes) of the valence bands have on the interpretation of emission spectra. We produce a scheme to explain why extreme lifetimes should appear in σ states of other similar compounds.
Cunningham, Brian; Grüning, Myrta; Azarhoosh, Pooya; Pashov, Dimitar; van Schilfgaarde, Mark
2018-03-01
We present an approach to calculate the optical absorption spectra that combines the quasiparticle self-consistent GW method [Phys. Rev. B 76, 165106 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.165106] for the electronic structure with the solution of the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the macroscopic dielectric function. The solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation has been implemented within an all-electron framework, using a linear muffin-tin orbital basis set, with the contribution from the nonlocal self-energy to the transition dipole moments (in the optical limit) evaluated explicitly. This approach addresses those systems whose electronic structure is poorly described within the standard perturbative GW approaches with density-functional theory calculations as a starting point. The merits of this approach have been exemplified by calculating optical absorption spectra of a strongly correlated transition metal oxide, NiO, and a narrow gap semiconductor, Ge. In both cases, the calculated spectrum is in good agreement with the experiment. It is also shown that for systems whose electronic structure is well-described within the standard perturbative GW , such as Si, LiF, and h -BN , the performance of the present approach is in general comparable to the standard GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation. It is argued that both vertex corrections to the electronic screening and the electron-phonon interaction are responsible for the observed systematic overestimation of the fundamental band gap and spectrum onset.
Quasiparticle Lifetime Broadening in Resonant X-ray Scattering of NH4NO3.
Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Müller, Matthias; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Beckhoff, Burkhard
2016-07-15
It has been previously shown that two effects cause dramatic changes in the x-ray absorption and emission spectra from the N K edge of the insulating crystal ammonium nitrate. First, vibrational disorder causes major changes in the absorption spectrum, originating not only from the thermal population of phonons, but, significantly, from zero-point motion as well. Second, the anomalously large broadening ( ~ 4 eV) of the emission originating from nitrate σ states is due to unusually short lifetimes of quasiparticles in an otherwise extremely narrow band. In this work we investigate the coupling of these effects to core and valence excitons that are created as the initial x-ray excitation energy is progressively reduced toward the N edge. Using a GW /Bethe-Salpeter approach, we show the extent to which this anomalous broadening is captured by the GW approximation. The data and calculations demonstrate the importance that the complex self-energies (finite lifetimes) of valence bands have on the interpretation of emission spectra. We produce a scheme to explain why extreme lifetimes should appear in σ states of other similar compounds.
Ohno, Kaoru; Ono, Shota; Isobe, Tomoharu
2017-02-28
The quasiparticle (QP) energies, which are minus of the energies required by removing or produced by adding one electron from/to the system, corresponding to the photoemission or inverse photoemission (PE/IPE) spectra, are determined together with the QP wave functions, which are not orthonormal and even not linearly independent but somewhat similar to the normal spin orbitals in the theory of the configuration interaction, by self-consistently solving the QP equation coupled with the equation for the self-energy. The electron density, kinetic, and all interaction energies can be calculated using the QP wave functions. We prove in a simple way that the PE/IPE spectroscopy and therefore this QP theory can be applied to an arbitrary initial excited eigenstate. In this proof, we show that the energy-dependence of the self-energy is not an essential difficulty, and the QP picture holds exactly if there is no relaxation mechanism in the system. The validity of the present theory for some initial excited eigenstates is tested using the one-shot GW approximation for several atoms and molecules.
Signature splitting in two quasiparticle rotational bands of 180, 182 Ta
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
quasiparticle rotor model. The phase as well as magnitudeof the experimentally observed signature splitting in K π = 1 + band of 180 Ta, which could not be explained in earlier calculations, is successfully reproduced. The conflict regarding placement of ...
Tunable quasiparticle trapping in Meissner and vortex states of mesoscopic superconductors.
Taupin, M; Khaymovich, I M; Meschke, M; Mel'nikov, A S; Pekola, J P
2016-03-16
Nowadays, superconductors serve in numerous applications, from high-field magnets to ultrasensitive detectors of radiation. Mesoscopic superconducting devices, referring to those with nanoscale dimensions, are in a special position as they are easily driven out of equilibrium under typical operating conditions. The out-of-equilibrium superconductors are characterized by non-equilibrium quasiparticles. These extra excitations can compromise the performance of mesoscopic devices by introducing, for example, leakage currents or decreased coherence time in quantum devices. By applying an external magnetic field, one can conveniently suppress or redistribute the population of excess quasiparticles. In this article, we present an experimental demonstration and a theoretical analysis of such effective control of quasiparticles, resulting in electron cooling both in the Meissner and vortex states of a mesoscopic superconductor. We introduce a theoretical model of quasiparticle dynamics, which is in quantitative agreement with the experimental data.
Universal spectral signatures in pnictides and cuprates: the role of quasiparticle-pair coupling.
Sacks, William; Mauger, Alain; Noat, Yves
2017-11-08
Understanding the physical properties of a large variety of high-T c superconductors (SC), the cuprate family as well as the more recent iron-based superconductors, is still a major challenge. In particular, these materials exhibit the 'peak-dip-hump' structure in the quasiparticle density of states (DOS). The origin of this structure is explained within our pair-pair interaction (PPI) model: The non-superconducting state consists of incoherent pairs, a 'Cooper-pair glass' which, due to the PPI, undergoes a Bose-like condensation below T c to the coherent SC state. We derive the equations of motion for the quasiparticle operators showing that the DOS 'peak-dip-hump' is caused by the coupling between quasiparticles and excited pair states, or 'super-quasiparticles'. The renormalized SC gap function becomes energy-dependent and non retarded, reproducing accurately the experimental spectra of both pnictides and cuprates, despite the large difference in gap value.
GW quasiparticle bandgaps of anatase TiO2 starting from DFT + U.
Patrick, Christopher E; Giustino, Feliciano
2012-05-23
We investigate the quasiparticle band structure of anatase TiO(2), a wide gap semiconductor widely employed in photovoltaics and photocatalysis. We obtain GW quasiparticle energies starting from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations including Hubbard U corrections. Using a simple iterative procedure we determine the value of the Hubbard parameter yielding a vanishing quasiparticle correction to the fundamental bandgap of anatase TiO(2). The bandgap (3.3 eV) calculated using this optimal Hubbard parameter is smaller than the value obtained by applying many-body perturbation theory to standard DFT eigenstates and eigenvalues (3.7 eV). We extend our analysis to the rutile polymorph of TiO(2) and reach similar conclusions. Our work highlights the role of the starting non-interacting Hamiltonian in the calculation of GW quasiparticle energies in TiO(2) and suggests an optimal Hubbard parameter for future calculations.
Quasi-particle entanglement: redefinition of the vacuum and reduced density matrix approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samuelsson, P; Sukhorukov, E V; Buettiker, M
2005-01-01
A scattering approach to entanglement in mesoscopic conductors with independent fermionic quasi-particles is discussed. We focus on conductors in the tunnelling limit, where a redefinition of the quasi-particle vacuum transforms the wavefunction from a many-body product state of non-interacting particles to a state describing entangled two-particle excitations out of the new vacuum (Samuelsson, Sukhorukov and Buettiker 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 157002). The approach is illustrated with two examples: (i) a normal-superconducting system, where the transformation is made between Bogoliubov-de Gennes quasi-particles and Cooper pairs, and (ii) a normal system, where the transformation is made between electron quasi-particles and electron-hole pairs. This is compared to a scheme where an effective two-particle state is derived from the manybody scattering state by a reduced density matrix approach
Kinetic stability constraints on magnetized plasma equilibria: Quasi-particle approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.; Weiland, J.
1996-01-01
Macroscopic adiabatic invariants for the magnetized plasma are studied within the context of the quasi-particle description, as well as constraints which they impose on energy transfer and stable plasma equilibria. 6 refs
Coherence factors in a high-tc cuprate probed by quasi-particle scattering off vortices.
Hanaguri, T; Kohsaka, Y; Ono, M; Maltseva, M; Coleman, P; Yamada, I; Azuma, M; Takano, M; Ohishi, K; Takagi, H
2009-02-13
When electrons pair in a superconductor, quasi-particles develop an acute sensitivity to different types of scattering potential that is described by the appearance of coherence factors in the scattering amplitudes. Although the effects of coherence factors are well established in isotropic superconductors, they are much harder to detect in their anisotropic counterparts, such as high-superconducting-transition-temperature cuprates. We demonstrate an approach that highlights the momentum-dependent coherence factors in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2. We used Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy to reveal a magnetic-field dependence in quasi-particle scattering interference patterns that is sensitive to the sign of the anisotropic gap. This result is associated with the d-wave coherence factors and quasi-particle scattering off vortices. Our technique thus provides insights into the nature of electron pairing as well as quasi-particle scattering processes in unconventional superconductors.
Kutepov, A L
2015-08-12
Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ1 from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex Γ(E)). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. The results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question-which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT. It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on perturbation theory (PT) systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.
γ-transitions from neutron resonances and many-quasiparticle configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1991-01-01
One should answer the question posed in 1972: Are there large many-quasiparticle components in the wave functions of highly excited low-spin states and, in particular, of neutron resonances? With increasing excitation energy the structure of states becomes more complex; the contribution of few-quasiparticle components to wave function normalization decreases exponentially and for the neutron resonances of heavy nuclei it equals 10 -6 . It is obvious that the wave function of neutron resonances contain many thousands of various quasiparticle components. Two extreme cases are possible. In the first case all the components are small and distributed according to statistical laws. In the second case among many components there is one or a few large many-quasiparticle components. There are many-quasiparticle isomers with high spins whose large life-time is due to the absence of few-quasiparticle components. This indicates a small fragmentation of these states. Low-spin states are fragmented more strongly than high-spin ones. What experiments are to be performed to answer the question about the existence are to be performed to answer the question about the existence of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of neutron resonances? It seems that the most straight way for observing large many-quasiparticle components is many-nucleon transfer reactions. However, in this way one faces great difficulties. The author thinks it to be more convenient to study γ transitions from neutron resonances to the states with energies by 1-2 MeV less than the energies of neutron resonances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Spałek
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We use the concept of generalized (almost localized Fermi Liquid composed of nonstandard quasiparticles with spin-dependence effective masses and the effective field induced by electron correlations. This Fermi liquid is obtained within the so-called statistically-consistent Gutzwiller approximation (SGA proposed recently [cf. J. Jędrak et al., arXiv: 1008.0021] and describes electronic states of the correlated quantum liquid. Particular emphasis is put on real space pairing driven by the electronic correlations, the Fulde-Ferrell state of the heavy-fermion liquid, and the d-wave superconducting state of high temperature curate superconductors in the overdoped limit. The appropriate phase diagrams are discussed showing in particular the limits of stability of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS type of state.
Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rashid, H., E-mail: hawal@chalmers.se; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V. [Group for Advanced Receiver Development, Earth and Space Sciences Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, 412 96 (Sweden)
2016-04-15
In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.
Quasiparticle structure and coherent propagation in the t-Jz-Jperpendicular model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gan, J.; Hedegard, P.
1996-01-01
Numerical studies, from variational calculation to exact diagonalization, all indicate that the quasiparticle generated by introducing one hole into a two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet has the same nature as a string state in the t-J z model. Based on this observation, we attempt to visualize the quasiparticle formation and subsequent coherent propagation at low energy by studying the generalized t-J z -J perpendicular model in which we first diagonalize the t-J z model and then perform a degenerate perturbation in J perpendicular . We construct the quasiparticle state and derive an effective Hamiltonian describing the coherent propagation of the quasiparticle and its interaction with the spin wave excitations in the presence of the Nacute eel order. We expect that qualitative properties of the quasiparticle remain intact when analytically continuing J perpendicular from the anisotropic J perpendicular z to the isotropic J perpendicular =J z limit, despite the fact that the spin wave excitations change from gapful to gapless. Extrapolating to J perpendicular =J z , our quasiparticle dispersion and spectral weight compare well with the exact numerical results for small clusters. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.
Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in CVD-grown graphene.
Shang, Jingzhi; Yu, Ting; Lin, Jianyi; Gurzadyan, Gagik G
2011-04-26
Ultrafast quasiparticle dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been studied by UV pump/white-light probe spectroscopy. Transient differential transmission spectra of monolayer graphene are observed in the visible probe range (400-650 nm). Kinetics of the quasiparticle (i.e., low-energy single-particle excitation with renormalized energy due to electron-electron Coulomb, electron-optical phonon (e-op), and optical phonon-acoustic phonon (op-ap) interactions) was monitored with 50 fs resolution. Extending the probe range to near-infrared, we find the evolution of quasiparticle relaxation channels from monoexponential e-op scattering to double exponential decay due to e-op and op-ap scattering. Moreover, quasiparticle lifetimes of mono- and randomly stacked graphene films are obtained for the probe photon energies continuously from 1.9 to 2.3 eV. Dependence of quasiparticle decay rate on the probe energy is linear for 10-layer stacked graphene films. This is due to the dominant e-op intervalley scattering and the linear density of states in the probed electronic band. A dimensionless coupling constant W is derived, which characterizes the scattering strength of quasiparticles by lattice points in graphene.
Quasiparticle energy distribution and relaxation times in a tunnel-injected superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirtley, J.R.; Kent, D.S.; Langenberg, D.N.; Kaplan, S.B.; Chang, J.; Yang, C.
1980-01-01
Experiments are reported in which a nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution was created in a dirty Al film by tunnel injection and probed using a second tunnel junction. The distribution was found to have the form of a quasithermal distribution characterized by an effective temperature greater than the ambient bath temperature and dependent on injection level, plus small sharp structures which originate in structures in the injected quasiparticle distribution due to gap-edge peaks in the quasiparticle density of states. A systematic theoretical analysis of these structures correctly predicts their shapes and relative amplitudes. The amplitudes show directly the presence of branch imbalance in the nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution. Using the theoretical model, inelastic quasiparticle relaxation and elastic branch mixing times, as functions of energy and temperature, are extracted from the experimental data without need for phonon-trapping corrections. The qualitative and quantitative behavior of these times is in reasonable accord with theoretical expectations and the results of other experiments. Experiments of the type reported here are shown to provide a kind of spectroscopy of tunnel-injection and quasiparticle-relaxation processes in superconductors
Saira, Olli-Pentti; Maisi, Ville; Kemppinen, Antti; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka
2013-03-01
Superconducting thin films and tunnel junctions are the building blocks of many state-of-the-art technologies related to quantum information processing, microwave detection, and electronic amplification. These devices operate at millikelvin temperatures, and - in a naive picture - their fidelity metrics are expected to improve as the temperature is lowered. However, very often one finds in the experiment that the device performance levels off around 100-150 mK. In my presentation, I will address three common physical mechanisms that can cause such saturation: stray microwaves, nonequilibrium quasiparticles, and sub-gap quasiparticle states. The new experimental data I will present is based on a series of studies on quasiparticle transport in Coulomb-blockaded normal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction devices. We have used a capacitively coupled SET electrometer to detect individual quasiparticle tunneling events in real time. We demonstrate the following record-low values for thin film aluminum: quasiparticle density nqp < 0 . 033 / μm3 , normalized density of sub-gap quasiparticle states (Dynes parameter) γ < 1 . 6 ×10-7 . I will also discuss some sample stage and chip designs that improve microwave shielding.
Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yun; Xie, Donghua
2018-03-01
The heavy fermion physics arises from the complex interplay of nearly localized 4f/5f electrons and itinerant band-like ones, yielding heavy quasiparticles with an effective mass about 100 times (or more) of the bare electrons. Recently, experimental and theoretical investigations point out a localized and delocalized dual nature in actinide compounds, where itinerant quasiparticles account for the unconventional superconductivity in the vicinity of a magnetic instability. Here we report the strong coupling between localized 5f moments and itinerant quasiparticles in the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe2. The coupling is nearly antiferromagnetic. As embedded in the ferromagnetic matrix of localized 5f moments below {T}{{C}}≈ 52 {{K}}, this coupling leads to short-range dynamic correlations of heavy quasiparticles, characterized by fluctuations of magnetic clusters. Those cluster-like spins of itinerant quasiparticles show a broad hump of magnetization at {T}X≈ 28 {{K}}, which is typical for the spin-glass freezing. Thus, our results present the direct observation of itinerant quasiparticles coexisting with localized 5f moments by conventional magnetic measurements, providing a new route into the coexistence between ferromagnetism and superconductivity in heavy fermion systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11404297), the Science Challenge Project (Grant No. TZ2016004), and the Science and Technology Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2013B0301050 and 2014A0301013).
Theory of quasiparticle surface states in semiconductor surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hybertsen, M.S.; Louie, S.G.
1988-01-01
A first-principles theory of the quasiparticle surface-state energies on semiconductor surfaces is developed. The surface properties are calculated using a repeated-slab geometry. Many-body effects due to the electron-electron interaction are represented by the electron self-energy operator including the full surface Green's function and local fields and dynamical screening effects in the Coulomb interaction. Calculated surface-state energies for the prototypical Si(111):As and Ge(111):As surfaces are presented. The calculated energies and dispersions for the occupied surface states (resonances) are in excellent agreement with recent angle-resolved photoemission data. Predictions are made for the position of empty surface states on both surfaces which may be experimentally accessible. The resulting surface state gap at Gamma-bar for Si(111):As agrees with recent scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy measurements. Comparison of the present results to eigenvalues from the local-density-functional calculation reveals substantial corrections for the gaps between empty and occupied surface states. This correction is found to depend on the character of the surface states involved
Colossal photon bunching in quasiparticle-mediated nanodiamond cathodoluminescence
Feldman, Matthew A.; Dumitrescu, Eugene F.; Bridges, Denzel; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Davidson, Roderick B.; Evans, Philip G.; Hachtel, Jordan A.; Hu, Anming; Pooser, Raphael C.; Haglund, Richard F.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.
2018-02-01
Nanoscale control over the second-order photon correlation function g(2 )(τ ) is critical to emerging research in nonlinear nanophotonics and integrated quantum information science. Here we report on quasiparticle control of photon bunching with g(2 )(0 ) >45 in the cathodoluminescence of nanodiamond nitrogen vacancy (NV0) centers excited by a converged electron beam in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Plasmon-mediated NV0 cathodoluminescence exhibits a 16-fold increase in luminescence intensity correlated with a threefold reduction in photon bunching compared with that of uncoupled NV0 centers. This effect is ascribed to the excitation of single temporally uncorrelated NV0 centers by single surface plasmon polaritons. Spectrally resolved Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry is employed to demonstrate that the bunching is mediated by the NV0 phonon sidebands, while no observable bunching is detected at the zero-phonon line. The data are consistent with fast phonon-mediated recombination dynamics, a conclusion substantiated by agreement between Bayesian regression and Monte Carlo models of superthermal NV0 luminescence.
Machine learning Z2 quantum spin liquids with quasiparticle statistics
Zhang, Yi; Melko, Roger G.; Kim, Eun-Ah
2017-12-01
After decades of progress and effort, obtaining a phase diagram for a strongly correlated topological system still remains a challenge. Although in principle one could turn to Wilson loops and long-range entanglement, evaluating these nonlocal observables at many points in phase space can be prohibitively costly. With growing excitement over topological quantum computation comes the need for an efficient approach for obtaining topological phase diagrams. Here we turn to machine learning using quantum loop topography (QLT), a notion we have recently introduced. Specifically, we propose a construction of QLT that is sensitive to quasiparticle statistics. We then use mutual statistics between the spinons and visons to detect a Z2 quantum spin liquid in a multiparameter phase space. We successfully obtain the quantum phase boundary between the topological and trivial phases using a simple feed-forward neural network. Furthermore, we demonstrate advantages of our approach for the evaluation of phase diagrams relating to speed and storage. Such statistics-based machine learning of topological phases opens new efficient routes to studying topological phase diagrams in strongly correlated systems.
Quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS) of Kondo lattice heavy fermions
Greene, L. H.; Narasiwodeyar, S. M.; Banerjee, P.; Park, W. K.; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Baumbach, R. E.; Ronning, F.; Sarrao, J. L.; Thompson, J. D.
2013-03-01
Point-contact spectroscopy (PCS) is a powerful technique to study electronic properties via measurements of non-linear current-voltage characteristic across a ballistic junction. It has been frequently adopted to investigate novel and/or unconventional superconductors by detecting the energy-dependent Andreev scattering. PCS of non-superconducting materials has been much rarely reported. From our recent studies on heavy fermions, we have frequently observed strongly bias-dependent and asymmetric conductance behaviors. Based on a Fano resonance model in a Kondo lattice, we attribute them to energy-dependent quasiparticle scattering off hybridized renormalized electronic states, dubbing it QPS. We will present our QPS results on several heavy-fermion systems and discuss QPS as a novel technique to probe the bulk spectroscopic properties of the electronic structure. For instance, it reveals that the hybridization gap in URu2Si2 opens well above the hidden order transition. The work at UIUC is supported by the U.S. DOE under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46453 and the NSF DMR 12-06766, and the work at LANL is carried out under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Science.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khuong, C.Z.; Soloviev, V.G.; Voronov, V.V.
1981-01-01
The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in spherical nuclei is studied within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. It is shown that the Pauli principle influences considerably the position and structure of a few low-lying states, the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states at intermediate and high excitation energies is slightly affected by the Pauli principle, and the calculations can be performed by taking the Pauli principle roughly into account. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, S.G.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Wong, K.S.; Symko, O.G.; Koren, G.
1990-01-01
Femtosecond dynamics of photogenerated quasiparticles in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconducting thin films shows, at T≤T c , two main electronic processes: (i) quasiparticle avalanche production during hot-carrier thermalization, which takes about 300 fsec; (ii) recombination of quasiparticles to form Cooper pairs, which is completed within 5 psec. In contrastr, nonsuperconducting epitaxial films such as PrBa 2 Cu 2 O 7 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6 show regular picosecond electronic response
Finite rank separable approximation for Skyrme interactions: spin-isospin excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severyukhin, A.P.; Voronov, V.V.; Borzov, I.N.; Nguyen Van Giai
2012-01-01
A finite rank separable approximation for the quasiparticle random phase approximation with the Skyrme interactions is applied for the case of charge-exchange nuclear modes. The coupling between one- and two-phonon terms in the wave functions is taken into account. It has been shown that the approximation reproduces reasonably well the full charge-exchange RPA results for the spin-dipole resonances in 132 Sn. As an illustration of the method, the phonon-phonon coupling effect on the β-decay half-life of 78 Ni is considered
Number-conserving random phase approximation with analytically integrated matrix elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kyotoku, M.; Schmid, K.W.; Gruemmer, F.; Faessler, A.
1990-01-01
In the present paper a number conserving random phase approximation is derived as a special case of the recently developed random phase approximation in general symmetry projected quasiparticle mean fields. All the occurring integrals induced by the number projection are performed analytically after writing the various overlap and energy matrices in the random phase approximation equation as polynomials in the gauge angle. In the limit of a large number of particles the well-known pairing vibration matrix elements are recovered. We also present a new analytically number projected variational equation for the number conserving pairing problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginsburg, C.A.
1980-01-01
In many problems, a desired property A of a function f(x) is determined by the behaviour of f(x) approximately equal to g(x,A) as x→xsup(*). In this letter, a method for resuming the power series in x of f(x) and approximating A (modulated Pade approximant) is presented. This new approximant is an extension of a resumation method for f(x) in terms of rational functions. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ribeiro, M., E-mail: ribeiro.jr@oorbit.com.br [Office of Operational Research for Business Intelligence and Technology, Principal Office, Buffalo, Wyoming 82834 (United States)
2015-06-21
Ab initio calculations of hydrogen-passivated Si nanowires were performed using density functional theory within LDA-1/2, to account for the excited states properties. A range of diameters was calculated to draw conclusions about the ability of the method to correctly describe the main trends of bandgap, quantum confinement, and self-energy corrections versus the diameter of the nanowire. Bandgaps are predicted with excellent accuracy if compared with other theoretical results like GW, and with the experiment as well, but with a low computational cost.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro, M.
2015-01-01
Ab initio calculations of hydrogen-passivated Si nanowires were performed using density functional theory within LDA-1/2, to account for the excited states properties. A range of diameters was calculated to draw conclusions about the ability of the method to correctly describe the main trends of bandgap, quantum confinement, and self-energy corrections versus the diameter of the nanowire. Bandgaps are predicted with excellent accuracy if compared with other theoretical results like GW, and with the experiment as well, but with a low computational cost
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio
2007-01-01
Motivated by the observation that there may exist hadronic excitations even in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase, we investigate how the properties of quarks, especially within the quasi-particle picture, are affected by the coupling with bosonic excitations at finite temperature (T), employing Yukawa models with a massive scalar (pseudoscalar) and vector (axial-vector) boson of mass m. The quark spectral function and the quasi-dispersion relations are calculated at one-loop order. We find that there appears at three-peak structure in the quark spectral function with a collective nature when T is comparable with m, irrespective of the type of boson considered. Such a multi-peak structure was first found in a chiral model yielding scalar composite bosons with a decay width. We elucidate the mechanism through which the new quark collective excitations are realized in terms of the Landau damping of a quark (an antiquark) induced by scattering with the thermally excited boson, which gives rise to mixing and hence a level repulsion between a quark (antiquark) and an antiquark-hole (quark-hole) in the thermally excited antiquark (quark) distribution. Our results suggest that the quarks in the QGP phase can be described within an interesting quasi-particle picture with a multi-peak spectral function. Because the models employed here are rather generic, our findings may represent a universal phenomenon for fermions coupled to a massive bosonic excitation with a vanishing or small width. The relevance of these results to other fields of physics, such as neutrino physics, is also briefly discussed. In addition, we describe a new aspect of the plasmino excitation obtained in the hard-thermal loop approximation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bilmes, Alexander; Lisenfeld, Juergen; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V. [PI, Fakultaet fuer Physik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Heimes, Andreas; Zanker, Sebastian; Schoen, Gerd [TFP, Fakultaet fuer Physik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-07-01
Two-Level-Systems (TLS) are one of the main sources of decoherence in superconducting nano-scale devices such as SQUIDs, photon detectors, resonators and quantum bits (qubits), although the TLS' microscopic nature remains unclear. We use a superconducting phase qubit to detect TLS contained within the tunnel barrier of the qubit's Josephson junction. We coherently operate individual TLS by resonant microwave pulses and access their quantum state by utilizing their strong coupling to the qubit. Our previous measurements of TLS coherence in dependence of the temperature indicate that quasiparticles may give rise to TLS energy loss and dephasing. Here, we probe the TLS-quasiparticle interaction using a reliable method of in-situ quasiparticle injection via an on-chip dc-SQUID that is pulse-biased beyond its critical current. The quasiparticle density is calibrated by measuring associated characteristic changes to the qubit's resonance frequency and energy relaxation rate. We will present experimental data that clearly show the influence of quasiparticles on TLS coherence.
Quasiparticles of strongly correlated Fermi liquids at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaginyan, V. R.
2011-01-01
Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing, best experimentally studied and fundamental systems in physics. There is, however, lack of theoretical understanding in this field of physics. The ideas based on the concepts like Kondo lattice and involving quantum and thermal fluctuations at a quantum critical point have been used to explain the unusual physics. Alas, being suggested to describe one property, these approaches fail to explain the others. This means a real crisis in theory suggesting that there is a hidden fundamental law of nature. It turns out that the hidden fundamental law is well forgotten old one directly related to the Landau-Migdal quasiparticles, while the basic properties and the scaling behavior of the strongly correlated systems can be described within the framework of the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). The phase transition comprises the extended quasiparticle paradigm that allows us to explain the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in these systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Our observations are in good agreement with experimental facts and show that FCQPT is responsible for the observed NFL behavior and quasiparticles survive both high temperatures and high magnetic fields.
Scaling analysis of the non-Abelian quasiparticle tunneling in [Formula: see text] FQH states.
Li, Qi; Jiang, Na; Wan, Xin; Hu, Zi-Xiang
2018-06-27
Quasiparticle tunneling between two counter propagating edges through point contacts could provide information on its statistics. Previous study of the short distance tunneling displays a scaling behavior, especially in the conformal limit with zero tunneling distance. The scaling exponents for the non-Abelian quasiparticle tunneling exhibit some non-trivial behaviors. In this work, we revisit the quasiparticle tunneling amplitudes and their scaling behavior in a full range of the tunneling distance by putting the electrons on the surface of a cylinder. The edge-edge distance can be smoothly tuned by varying the aspect ratio for a finite size cylinder. We analyze the scaling behavior of the quasiparticles for the Read-Rezayi [Formula: see text] states for [Formula: see text] and 4 both in the short and long tunneling distance region. The finite size scaling analysis automatically gives us a critical length scale where the anomalous correction appears. We demonstrate this length scale is related to the size of the quasiparticle at which the backscattering between two counter propagating edges starts to be significant.
Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a sub-cycle timescale
Langer, F.; Hohenleutner, M.; Schmid, C.; Poellmann, C.; Nagler, P.; Korn, T.; Schüller, C.; Sherwin, M. S.; Huttner, U.; Steiner, J. T.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.; Huber, R.
2016-01-01
Ever since Ernest Rutherford first scattered α-particles from gold foils1, collision experiments have revealed unique insights into atoms, nuclei, and elementary particles2. In solids, many-body correlations also lead to characteristic resonances3, called quasiparticles, such as excitons, dropletons4, polarons, or Cooper pairs. Their structure and dynamics define spectacular macroscopic phenomena, ranging from Mott insulating states via spontaneous spin and charge order to high-temperature superconductivity5. Fundamental research would immensely benefit from quasiparticle colliders, but the notoriously short lifetimes of quasiparticles6 have challenged practical solutions. Here we exploit lightwave-driven charge transport7–24, the backbone of attosecond science9–13, to explore ultrafast quasiparticle collisions directly in the time domain: A femtosecond optical pulse creates excitonic electron–hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide while a strong terahertz field accelerates and collides the electrons with the holes. The underlying wave packet dynamics, including collision, pair annihilation, quantum interference and dephasing, are detected as light emission in high-order spectral sidebands17–19 of the optical excitation. A full quantum theory explains our observations microscopically. This approach opens the door to collision experiments with a broad variety of complex quasiparticles and suggests a promising new way of sub-femtosecond pulse generation. PMID:27172045
Effect of superconducting correlation on the localization of quasiparticles in low dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiang, T.
1995-01-01
Localization lengths of superconducting quasiparticles λ s are evaluated and compared with the corresponding normal-state values λ n in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional lattices. The effect of superconducting correlation on the localization of quasiparticles is generally stronger in an off-site pairing state than in an on-site pairing state. The modification of superconducting correlation to λ is strongly correlated with the density of states (DOS) of superconducting quasiparticles. λ s drops within the energy gap but is largely enhanced around energies where DOS peaks appear. For a gapless pairing state in 1D or a d-wave pairing state in 2D, λ s /λ n at the Fermi energy E F is of order 1 and determined purely by the value of gap parameter not by the random potential. For the d-wave pairing state, the localization effect is largely weakened compared with the corresponding normal state and quasiparticles with energies close to E F are more strongly localized than other low-energy quasiparticles
Electrons, pseudoparticles, and quasiparticles in the one-dimensional many-electron problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmelo, J.M.; Castro Neto, A.H.
1996-01-01
We generalize the concept of quasiparticle for one-dimensional (1D) interacting electronic systems. The ↑ and ↓ quasiparticles recombine the pseudoparticle colors c and s (charge and spin at zero-magnetic field) and are constituted by one many-pseudoparticle topological-momentum shift and one or two pseudoparticles. These excitations cannot be separated. We consider the case of the Hubbard chain. We show that the low-energy electron-quasiparticle transformation has a singular character which justifies the perturbative and nonperturbative nature of the quantum problem in the pseudoparticle and electronic basis, respectively. This follows from the absence of zero-energy electron-quasiparticle overlap in 1D. The existence of Fermi-surface quasiparticles both in 1D and three dimensional (3D) many-electron systems suggests their existence in quantum liquids in dimensions 1 1 or whether it becomes finite as soon as we leave 1D remains an unsolved question. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Varykhalov, Andrei; Fink, Joerg; Rader, Oliver; Duerr, Hermann; Eberhardt, Wolfgang [Bessy GmbH, Berlin (Germany)
2008-07-01
Spin dependent low-energy electronic excitations in 3d ferromagnets are of special interest due to the need of a microscopic understanding of the electronic structure of solids. Low-energy electrons (or holes) become dressed by a cloud of excitations resulting in quasiparticles of a finite lifetime and a different effective mass. These type of excitations have been studied by many theoretical methods, and it has been found that because of many body effects no sharp quasiparticle peaks exist for binding energies larger than 2 eV. Interestingly, it has been shown that strong correlation effects could particularly affect majority spin electrons, leading to a pronounced damping of quasiparticles at binding energies around 2 eV and above. In order to give an experimental corroboration to these findings, we have performed a systematic study of the spin-dependent quasiparticle lifetime and band structure of ferromagnetic 3d transition metal surfaces by means of spin and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. On hcp Co(0001), fcc Ni(111) and bcc Fe(110), we have found a more pronounced renormalization of the majority spin quasiparticle spectral weight going from Ni to Co which are both strong ferromagnets. For Fe, a weak ferromagnet, such a process becomes more prominent in the minority channel.
Sparse approximation with bases
2015-01-01
This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications. The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...
Accurate quasiparticle calculation of x-ray photoelectron spectra of solids.
Aoki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Kaoru
2018-05-31
It has been highly desired to provide an accurate and reliable method to calculate core electron binding energies (CEBEs) of crystals and to understand the final state screening effect on a core hole in high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), because the ΔSCF method cannot be simply used for bulk systems. We propose to use the quasiparticle calculation based on many-body perturbation theory for this problem. In this study, CEBEs of band-gapped crystals, silicon, diamond, β-SiC, BN, and AlP, are investigated by means of the GW approximation (GWA) using the full ω integration and compared with the preexisting XPS data. The screening effect on a deep core hole is also investigated in detail by evaluating the relaxation energy (RE) from the core and valence contributions separately. Calculated results show that not only the valence electrons but also the core electrons have an important contribution to the RE, and the GWA have a tendency to underestimate CEBEs due to the excess RE. This underestimation can be improved by introducing the self-screening correction to the GWA. The resulting C1s, B1s, N1s, Si2p, and Al2p CEBEs are in excellent agreement with the experiments within 1 eV absolute error range. The present self-screening corrected GW approach has the capability to achieve the highly accurate prediction of CEBEs without any empirical parameter for band-gapped crystals, and provide a more reliable theoretical approach than the conventional ΔSCF-DFT method.
Accurate quasiparticle calculation of x-ray photoelectron spectra of solids
Aoki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Kaoru
2018-05-01
It has been highly desired to provide an accurate and reliable method to calculate core electron binding energies (CEBEs) of crystals and to understand the final state screening effect on a core hole in high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), because the ΔSCF method cannot be simply used for bulk systems. We propose to use the quasiparticle calculation based on many-body perturbation theory for this problem. In this study, CEBEs of band-gapped crystals, silicon, diamond, β-SiC, BN, and AlP, are investigated by means of the GW approximation (GWA) using the full ω integration and compared with the preexisting XPS data. The screening effect on a deep core hole is also investigated in detail by evaluating the relaxation energy (RE) from the core and valence contributions separately. Calculated results show that not only the valence electrons but also the core electrons have an important contribution to the RE, and the GWA have a tendency to underestimate CEBEs due to the excess RE. This underestimation can be improved by introducing the self-screening correction to the GWA. The resulting C1s, B1s, N1s, Si2p, and Al2p CEBEs are in excellent agreement with the experiments within 1 eV absolute error range. The present self-screening corrected GW approach has the capability to achieve the highly accurate prediction of CEBEs without any empirical parameter for band-gapped crystals, and provide a more reliable theoretical approach than the conventional ΔSCF-DFT method.
Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians
Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.
2017-08-01
We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.
Shell structure effects at high excitations and many-quasiparticle configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1980-01-01
Experimental and theoretical data available on few- and many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of complex nuclei at low, intermediate and high energies are shortly analyzed. The components are treated in the nuclear quasiparticle-phonon model. Specific features of the lowest and high-spin states, giant resonances, neutron resonances and the effects of the energy-level structure in the few-and many-particle transfer reactions are discussed. It is concluded that the most reliable nuclear properties are determined by the components, their behaviour reflecting the shell structure effects. Wich increasing excitation energy the density of levels increases exponentially and the contribution of few-quasiparticle components to the normalization of the wave functions decreases exponentially
Parameswaran, S A; Kivelson, S A; Shankar, R; Sondhi, S L; Spivak, B Z
2012-12-07
We study the structure of Bogoliubov quasiparticles, bogolons, the fermionic excitations of paired superfluids that arise from fermion (BCS) pairing, including neutral superfluids, superconductors, and paired quantum Hall states. The naive construction of a stationary quasiparticle in which the deformation of the pair field is neglected leads to a contradiction: it carries a net electrical current even though it does not move. However, treating the pair field self-consistently resolves this problem: in a neutral superfluid, a dipolar current pattern is associated with the quasiparticle for which the total current vanishes. When Maxwell electrodynamics is included, as appropriate to a superconductor, this pattern is confined over a penetration depth. For paired quantum Hall states of composite fermions, the Maxwell term is replaced by a Chern-Simons term, which leads to a dipolar charge distribution and consequently to a dipolar current pattern.
Anisotropic breakdown of Fermi liquid quasiparticle excitations in overdoped La₂-xSrxCuO₄.
Chang, J; Månsson, M; Pailhès, S; Claesson, T; Lipscombe, O J; Hayden, S M; Patthey, L; Tjernberg, O; Mesot, J
2013-01-01
High-temperature superconductivity emerges from an un-conventional metallic state. This has stimulated strong efforts to understand exactly how Fermi liquids breakdown and evolve into an un-conventional metal. A fundamental question is how Fermi liquid quasiparticle excitations break down in momentum space. Here we show, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, that the Fermi liquid quasiparticle excitations of the overdoped superconducting cuprate La1.77Sr0.23CuO4 is highly anisotropic in momentum space. The quasiparticle scattering and residue behave differently along the Fermi surface and hence the Kadowaki-Wood's relation is not obeyed. This kind of Fermi liquid breakdown may apply to a wide range of strongly correlated metal systems where spin fluctuations are present.
Multi-quasiparticle high-K isomeric states in deformed nuclei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu F. R.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the past years, we have made many theoretical investigations on multi-quasiparticle high-K isomeric states. A deformation-pairing-configuration self-consistent calculation has been developed by calculating a configuration-constrained multi-quasiparticle potential energy surface (PES. The specific single-particle orbits that define the high-K configuration are identified and tracked (adiabatically blocked by calculating the average Nilsson numbers. The deformed Woods-Saxon potential was taken to give single-particle orbits. The configuration-constrained PES takes into account the shape polarization effect. Such calculations give good results on excitation energies, deformations and other structure information about multi-quasiparticle high-K isomeric states. Many different mass regions have been investigated.
Shot-noise evidence of fractional quasiparticle creation in a local fractional quantum Hall state.
Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Muraki, Koji; Fujisawa, Toshimasa
2015-02-06
We experimentally identify fractional quasiparticle creation in a tunneling process through a local fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. The local FQH state is prepared in a low-density region near a quantum point contact in an integer quantum Hall (IQH) system. Shot-noise measurements reveal a clear transition from elementary-charge tunneling at low bias to fractional-charge tunneling at high bias. The fractional shot noise is proportional to T(1)(1-T(1)) over a wide range of T(1), where T(1) is the transmission probability of the IQH edge channel. This binomial distribution indicates that fractional quasiparticles emerge from the IQH state to be transmitted through the local FQH state. The study of this tunneling process enables us to elucidate the dynamics of Laughlin quasiparticles in FQH systems.
Fragmentation of two-quasiparticle states in 92Zr and even-even Sn isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanova, O.; Voronov, V.V.
1981-01-01
The fragmentation of two-quasiparticle states in doubly even spherical nuclei is calculated within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The fragmentation is due to the interactions leading to the formation of phonons and to the quasiparticle-phonon interaction. The spectroscopic factors for the ''particle-valence particle'' states in 92 Zr are calculated. The agreement with the experimental data of the reaction 91 Zr(d, p) 92 Zr is obtained. The centroid energy Esub(jjsub(0)) and width GITAsub(jjsub(0)) are calculated for the configurations excited in the (p, d) reactions on odd-A isotopes of Cd, Sn and Te. It is shown that the valence particle-hole lgsub(9/2) configuration is localized at the excitation energies of 7-9 MeV. The corresponding experimental data are well described
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higashi, Yoichi, E-mail: higashiyoichi@ms.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Nagai, Yuki [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 178-4-4, Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Tomohiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kato, Masaru [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Yanase, Youichi [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)
2015-11-15
Highlights: • We focus on the pair-density wave state in bilayer Rashba superconductors. • The zero energy Bogoliubov wave functions are localized at the edge and vortex core. • We investigate the excitation spectra of edge and vortex bound states. - Abstract: We study the excitation spectra and the wave functions of quasiparticle bound states at a vortex and an edge in bilayer Rashba superconductors under a magnetic field. In particular, we focus on the quasiparticle states at the zero energy in the pair-density wave state in a topologically non-trivial phase. We numerically demonstrate that the quasiparticle wave functions with zero energy are localized at both the edge and the vortex core if the magnetic field exceeds the critical value.
Topological defect and quasi-particle dynamics in charge density waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Masahiko; Ebisawa, Hiromichi
2010-01-01
The dynamics of topological defects (dislocations) in charge density waves (CDW's) is largely affected by the quasi-particle dynamics in the cores of the dislocations. The dislocations mediate the conversion of the electron number between condensate and quasi-particle sub-systems. This is especially important in the sliding conduction of CDW. In this work we propose a simple model, which is obtained by extending the Ginzburg-Landau theory partially taking into account the quasi-particle dynamics in the sense of two-fluid model. We perform the numerical simulation of sliding conduction of CDW based on our model. Using this model we may clarify the detailed process of dislocation nucleation and annihilation near the contacts.
Quasi-particle properties from tunneling in the v = 5/2 fractional quantum Hall state.
Radu, Iuliana P; Miller, J B; Marcus, C M; Kastner, M A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W
2008-05-16
Quasi-particles with fractional charge and statistics, as well as modified Coulomb interactions, exist in a two-dimensional electron system in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Theoretical models of the FQH state at filling fraction v = 5/2 make the further prediction that the wave function can encode the interchange of two quasi-particles, making this state relevant for topological quantum computing. We show that bias-dependent tunneling across a narrow constriction at v = 5/2 exhibits temperature scaling and, from fits to the theoretical scaling form, extract values for the effective charge and the interaction parameter of the quasi-particles. Ranges of values obtained are consistent with those predicted by certain models of the 5/2 state.
Approximating distributions from moments
Pawula, R. F.
1987-11-01
A method based upon Pearson-type approximations from statistics is developed for approximating a symmetric probability density function from its moments. The extended Fokker-Planck equation for non-Markov processes is shown to be the underlying foundation for the approximations. The approximation is shown to be exact for the beta probability density function. The applicability of the general method is illustrated by numerous pithy examples from linear and nonlinear filtering of both Markov and non-Markov dichotomous noise. New approximations are given for the probability density function in two cases in which exact solutions are unavailable, those of (i) the filter-limiter-filter problem and (ii) second-order Butterworth filtering of the random telegraph signal. The approximate results are compared with previously published Monte Carlo simulations in these two cases.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,
Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)
Approximation techniques for engineers
Komzsik, Louis
2006-01-01
Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.
The thermo field transformation in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vdovin, A.I.; Kosov, D.S.
1993-01-01
The method of extension of quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model to describe hot nuclei is proposed. For this aim the formalism of the thermo field dynamics is used. Following the main principles of the TFD we express the Hamiltonian of the QPM in terms of thermal quasiparticles. The coefficients of the corresponding transformation are determined by minimizing the grand thermodynamical potential of a hot nucleus in the thermal vacuum state. Then the RPA part of the thermal QPM Hamiltonian is extracted and the RPA equations are derived. They are in the agreement with the RPA equations derived by the Green function method and the equation of motion method. (author.). 15 refs
Convergence of quasiparticle self-consistent GW calculations of transition metal monoxides
Das, Suvadip; Coulter, John E.; Manousakis, Efstratios
2014-01-01
Finding an accurate ab initio approach for calculating the electronic properties of transition metal oxides has been a problem for several decades. In this paper, we investigate the electronic structure of the transition metal monoxides MnO, CoO, and NiO in their undistorted rock-salt structure within a fully iterated quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QPscGW) scheme. We study the convergence of the QPscGW method, i.e., how the quasiparticle energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions converge as a f...
Description of multi-quasiparticle bands by the tilted axis cranking model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frauendorf, S.
2000-01-01
The selfconsistent cranking approach is extended to the case of rotation about an axis which is tilted with respect to the principal axes of the deformed potential (Tilted Axis Cranking). Expressions for the energies and the intra bands electro-magnetic transition probabilities are given. The mean field solutions are interpreted in terms of quantal rotational states. The construction of the quasiparticle configurations and the elimination of spurious states is discussed. The application of the theory to high spin data is demonstrated by analyzing the multi-quasiparticle bands in the nuclides with N=102,103 and Z=71,72,73
Tunneling spectroscopy of quasiparticle bound states in a spinful Josephson junction.
Chang, W; Manucharyan, V E; Jespersen, T S; Nygård, J; Marcus, C M
2013-05-24
The spectrum of a segment of InAs nanowire, confined between two superconducting leads, was measured as function of gate voltage and superconducting phase difference using a third normal-metal tunnel probe. Subgap resonances for odd electron occupancy-interpreted as bound states involving a confined electron and a quasiparticle from the superconducting leads, reminiscent of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states-evolve into Kondo-related resonances at higher magnetic fields. An additional zero-bias peak of unknown origin is observed to coexist with the quasiparticle bound states.
Quasi-particle lifetime broadening in normal-superconductor junctions with UPt3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilde, T. de; Argonne National Lab., IL; Klapwijk, T.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Jansen, A.G.M.; Heil, J.; Wyder, P.
1996-01-01
For the Andreev-reflection process of quasi-particles at a normal-metal-superconductor interface the influence of lifetime broadening of the quasi-particles on the current-voltage characteristics of NS point contacts is analyzed along the lines of the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model. The anomalous Andreev-reflection spectra obtained for the heavy-fermion compound UPt 3 cannot be explained by lifetime broadening alone. Instead, an anisotropic superconducting order parameter has to be assumed which, if also lifetime broadening is included, leads to a fairly good agreement with the data. (orig.)
Identicity in high-K three quasiparticle rotational bands: a theoretical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaur, Harjeet; Singh, Pardeep; Malik, Sham S
2015-01-01
The systematics are studied for the identical band phenomenon in high-K three quasiparticle rotational bands. The identical rotational bands based on the same bandhead spin are analyzed on the basis of similarities in γ-ray energies, dynamic moment of inertia and kinematic moment of inertia in particular, which is a function of deformation degrees of freedom, pairing strengths and Nilsson orbitals in nuclei. It is established that a combined effect of all these parameters decides the identicity of the moment of inertia in high-K three quasiparticle rotational bands as the systematics are backed by the Tilted Axis Cranking model calculations. (paper)
A massive quasi-particle model of the SU(3) gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peshier, A.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Pavlenko, O.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev; Soff, G.
1995-09-01
Recent SU(3) gauge field lattice data for the equation of state are interpreted by a quasi-particle model with effective thermal gluon masses. The model is motivated by lowest-order perturbative QCD and describes very well the data. The proposed quasi-particle approach can be applied to study color excitations in the non-perturbative regime. As an example we estimate the temperature dependence of the Debye screening mass and find that it declines sharply when approaching the confinement temperature from above, while the thermal mass continuously rises. (orig.)
Measurement of quasiparticle transport in aluminum films using tungsten transition-edge sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yen, J. J.; Shank, B.; Cabrera, B.; Moffatt, R.; Redl, P.; Young, B. A.; Tortorici, E. C.; Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Tomada, A.; Kreikebaum, J. M.
2014-01-01
We report on experimental studies of phonon sensors which utilize quasiparticle diffusion in thin aluminum films connected to tungsten transition-edge-sensors (TESs) operated at 35 mK. We show that basic TES physics and a simple physical model of the overlap region between the W and Al films in our devices enables us to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed pulse shapes from x-rays absorbed in the Al films. We further estimate quasiparticle loss in Al films using a simple diffusion equation approach. These studies allow the design of phonon sensors with improved performance.
Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole
2005-01-01
We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...
Ordered cones and approximation
Keimel, Klaus
1992-01-01
This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling
2009-07-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibragimov, Nail H.; Kovalev, Vladimir F.
2009-01-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Approximations of Fuzzy Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinai K. Singh
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A fuzzy system can uniformly approximate any real continuous function on a compact domain to any degree of accuracy. Such results can be viewed as an existence of optimal fuzzy systems. Li-Xin Wang discussed a similar problem using Gaussian membership function and Stone-Weierstrass Theorem. He established that fuzzy systems, with product inference, centroid defuzzification and Gaussian functions are capable of approximating any real continuous function on a compact set to arbitrary accuracy. In this paper we study a similar approximation problem by using exponential membership functions
Potvin, Guy
2015-10-01
We examine how the Rytov approximation describing log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of a wave propagating through weak uniform turbulence can be generalized to the case of turbulence with a large-scale nonuniform component. We show how the large-scale refractive index field creates Fermat rays using the path integral formulation for paraxial propagation. We then show how the second-order derivatives of the Fermat ray action affect the Rytov approximation, and we discuss how a numerical algorithm would model the general Rytov approximation.
Geometric approximation algorithms
Har-Peled, Sariel
2011-01-01
Exact algorithms for dealing with geometric objects are complicated, hard to implement in practice, and slow. Over the last 20 years a theory of geometric approximation algorithms has emerged. These algorithms tend to be simple, fast, and more robust than their exact counterparts. This book is the first to cover geometric approximation algorithms in detail. In addition, more traditional computational geometry techniques that are widely used in developing such algorithms, like sampling, linear programming, etc., are also surveyed. Other topics covered include approximate nearest-neighbor search, shape approximation, coresets, dimension reduction, and embeddings. The topics covered are relatively independent and are supplemented by exercises. Close to 200 color figures are included in the text to illustrate proofs and ideas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knobloch, A.F.
1980-01-01
A simplified cost approximation for INTOR parameter sets in a narrow parameter range is shown. Plausible constraints permit the evaluation of the consequences of parameter variations on overall cost. (orig.) [de
Study of multi-quasiparticle band structures in 197Tl using α beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukherjee, G.; Nandi, S.; Pai, H.
2016-01-01
Study of the multi-quasiparticle (qp) states and the band structures built on them in the neutron deficient Tl nuclei in A ∼ 190 mass region provides useful information on particle-hole interaction in the heavy nuclei. In order to investigate the multi-qp band structures we have studied the excited states in 197 Tl by gamma ray spectroscopy
Quasiparticle effects in the two-body photodisintegration of 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boettger, W.; Casel, A.; Sandhas, W.
1979-09-01
The total cross sections for the reactions 4 He(γ,n) 3 He and 4 He(γ,p) 3 H are calculated for photon energies between 50 MeV and 150 MeV in a quasiparticle formalism, leading to a simple interpretation for the γ-absorption mechanism. Results are compared with shell model calculations. (orig.)
Quasiparticle Lifetime in Ultracold Fermionic Mixtures with Density and Mass Imbalance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lan, Zhihao; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos
2013-01-01
We show that atomic Fermi mixtures with density and mass imbalance exhibit a rich diversity of scaling laws for the quasiparticle decay rate beyond the quadratic energy and temperature dependence of conventional Fermi liquids. For certain densities and mass ratios, the decay rate is linear, whereas...
Dimoulas, A.; Heida, J.P.; Wees, B.J. v.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Graaf, W. v.d.; Borghs, G.
1995-01-01
We have investigated the interplay between Josephson coupling and quasiparticle interference effects in the resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas connected to superconducting electrodes with an interrupted ring geometry. By reducing the influence of the Josephson coupling strength at high dc
Recursion method for the quasiparticle structure of a single vortex with induced magnetic order
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udby, L.; Andersen, B.M.; Hedegård, P.
2006-01-01
. Furthermore, we study the low-energy quasiparticle structure when magnetic vortices operate as pinning centers for surrounding unidirectional spin density waves (stripes). We calculate the Fourier transformed LDOS and show how the energy dependence of relevant Fourier components can be used to determine...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2017-01-01
and quasiparticle band structures in 2D materials and their heterostructures. The general theory is illustrated by applications to various types of 2D materials including transition metal dichalcogenides, graphene, phosphorene, and hexagonal boron nitride. The weak and highly non-local dielectric function...
Wei, J. Y. T.; Yeh, N. C.; Vasquez, R. P.
1998-01-01
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy was performed at 4.2K on epitaxial thin-film heterostructures comprising YBa2Cu3O7 and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3, to study the microscopic effects of spin-polarized quasiparticle injection from the half-metallic ferromagnetic manganite on the high-Tc cuprate superconductor.
Quasiparticle engineering and entanglement propagation in a quantum many-body system.
Jurcevic, P; Lanyon, B P; Hauke, P; Hempel, C; Zoller, P; Blatt, R; Roos, C F
2014-07-10
The key to explaining and controlling a range of quantum phenomena is to study how information propagates around many-body systems. Quantum dynamics can be described by particle-like carriers of information that emerge in the collective behaviour of the underlying system, the so-called quasiparticles. These elementary excitations are predicted to distribute quantum information in a fashion determined by the system's interactions. Here we report quasiparticle dynamics observed in a quantum many-body system of trapped atomic ions. First, we observe the entanglement distributed by quasiparticles as they trace out light-cone-like wavefronts. Second, using the ability to tune the interaction range in our system, we observe information propagation in an experimental regime where the effective-light-cone picture does not apply. Our results will enable experimental studies of a range of quantum phenomena, including transport, thermalization, localization and entanglement growth, and represent a first step towards a new quantum-optic regime of engineered quasiparticles with tunable nonlinear interactions.
Coherent amplitudon generation in blue bronze through ultrafast interband quasi-particle decay
Sagar, Dodderi M.; Tsvetkov, Artem A.; Fausti, Daniele; van Smaalen, Sander; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.
2007-01-01
The charge density wave system K(0.3)MoO(3) has been studied using variable pulse energy pump-probe spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and inelastic light scattering. The observed transient reflectivity response exhibits quite a complex behaviour, containing contributions due to quasi-particle excitations,
Quasi-particle interference of heavy fermions in resonant x-ray scattering.
Gyenis, András; da Silva Neto, Eduardo H; Sutarto, Ronny; Schierle, Enrico; He, Feizhou; Weschke, Eugen; Kavai, Mariam; Baumbach, Ryan E; Thompson, Joe D; Bauer, Eric D; Fisk, Zachary; Damascelli, Andrea; Yazdani, Ali; Aynajian, Pegor
2016-10-01
Resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) has recently become an increasingly important tool for the study of ordering phenomena in correlated electron systems. Yet, the interpretation of RXS experiments remains theoretically challenging because of the complexity of the RXS cross section. Central to this debate is the recent proposal that impurity-induced Friedel oscillations, akin to quasi-particle interference signals observed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), can lead to scattering peaks in RXS experiments. The possibility that quasi-particle properties can be probed in RXS measurements opens up a new avenue to study the bulk band structure of materials with the orbital and element selectivity provided by RXS. We test these ideas by combining RXS and STM measurements of the heavy fermion compound Ce M In 5 ( M = Co, Rh). Temperature- and doping-dependent RXS measurements at the Ce- M 4 edge show a broad scattering enhancement that correlates with the appearance of heavy f -electron bands in these compounds. The scattering enhancement is consistent with the measured quasi-particle interference signal in the STM measurements, indicating that the quasi-particle interference can be probed through the momentum distribution of RXS signals. Overall, our experiments demonstrate new opportunities for studies of correlated electronic systems using the RXS technique.
Quasi-particle and collective magnetism: Rotation, pairing and blocking in high-K isomers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, N.J.; Stone, J.R.; Walker, P.M.; Bingham, C.R.
2013-01-01
For the first time, a wide range of collective magnetic g-factors g R , obtained from a novel analysis of experimental data for multi-quasi-particle configurations in high-K isomers, is shown to exhibit a striking systematic variation with the relative number of proton and neutron quasi-particles, N p −N n . Using the principle of additivity, the quasi-particle contribution to magnetism in high-K isomers of Lu–Re, Z=71–75, has been estimated. Based on these estimates, band-structure branching ratio data are used to explore the behavior of the collective contribution as the number and proton/neutron nature (N p , N n ), of the quasi-particle excitations, change. Basic ideas of pairing, its quenching by quasi-particle excitation and the consequent changes to moment of inertia and collective magnetism are discussed. Existing model calculations do not reproduce the observed g R variation adequately. The paired superfluid system of nucleons in these nuclei, and their excitations, present properties of general physics interest. The new-found systematic behavior of g R in multi-quasi-particle excitations of this unique system, showing variation from close to zero for multi-neutron states to above 0.5 for multi-proton states, opens a fresh window on these effects and raises the important question of just which nucleons contribute to the ‘collective’ properties of these nuclei
Quantum statistical description of transport of the quasi-particles in optic fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasulova, M.Yu.; Hassan, T.; Mohamed Ridza bin Wahiddin; Umarov, B.
2006-12-01
On the basis of BBGKY hierarchy of quantum kinetic equations the quasi-quantum analogue of the linearized wave equation for one, two quasi-particles in optic fiber is obtained. The method which enables to obtain the quasi-quantum analogue of wave equations for any number of quasi- particles in fiber is suggested. (author)
Asymptotic description of plasma turbulence: Krylov-Bogoliubov methods and quasi-particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.; Bertrand, P.; Decyk, V.K.
2001-01-01
The asymptotic theory of charged particle motion in electromagnetic fields is developed for the general case of finite Larmor-radius effects by means of Krylov-Bogoliubov averaging method. The correspondence between the general asymptotic methods, elaborated by M. Krylov and M.Bogoliubov, the quasi-particle description and gyrokinetics is established. Such a comparison is used to shed more light on the physical sense of the reduced Poisson equation, introduced in gyrokinetics, and the particle polarization drift. It is shown that the modification of the Poisson equation in the asymptotic theory is due to the non-conservation of the magnetic moment and gyrophase trembling. it is shown that the second-order modification of the adiabatic invariant can determine the conditions of global plasma stability and introduces new nonlinear terms into the reduced Poisson equation. Such a modification is important for several plasma orderings, e.g. NHD type ordering. The feasibility of numerical simulation schemes in which the polarization drift is included into the quasi-particle equations of motion, and the Poisson equation remains unchanged is analyzed. A consistent asymptotic model is proposed in which the polarization drift is included into the quasi-particle equations of motion and the particle and quasi-particle velocities are equal. It is shown that in such models there are additional modifications of the reduced Poisson equation. The latter becomes even more complicated in contrast to earlier suggestions
vanWees, BJ
1996-01-01
We have investigated supercurrent and quasi-particle transport in the 2DEG present in InAs/Al(Ga)Sb quantum wells. The physics of these systems will be discussed with two examples: (i) supercurrent transport in Nb/InAs/Nb junctions, and (ii) phase-dependent resistance in a superconductor-2DEG
The decay from the two-quasiparticle regime in even-even deformed rare earth nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henriques, A.; Thorstensen, T.F.; Hammaren, E.
1983-06-01
A bump at 1 MeV has been identified in coincidence gamma-ray spectra from the ( 3 He, 4 He) reaction in deformed rare earth nuclei. Particle/gamma-ray angular correlation indicates a dipole character. It is suggested that this bump corresponds to transitions from two-quasiparticle states to the ground state band
Effects of the coupling of quasiparticle and collective vibrations on the properties of 120Sn
Vigezzi, Enrico
2018-03-01
Assuming quasiparticles and collective vibrations as fundamental modes of excitation and taking into account their interplay within the framework of Nuclear Field Theory, it is possible to give an accurate and comprehensive description of the low-energy spectrum of the superfluid nucleus 120Sn.
Causality of the quasi-particle pole in strong coupling theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henning, P.A.
1993-01-01
Conflicting statements on the boundary condition for the causal propagation of quasi-particles are related to a consistency criterion for perturbation theory in strong fields. It is shown, that the two descriptions coincide in the commonly accepted physical region. (orig.)
Decay spectroscopy of 160Sm: The lightest four-quasiparticle K isomer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Patel
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The decay of a new four-quasiparticle isomeric state in 160Sm has been observed using γ-ray spectroscopy at the RIBF, RIKEN. The four-quasiparticle state is assigned a 2π⊗2ν π52−[532], π52+[413], ν52−[523], ν72+[633] configuration. The half-life of this (11+ state is measured to be 1.8(4 μs. The (11+ isomer decays into a rotational band structure, based on a (6− ν52−[523]⊗ν72+[633] bandhead, consistent with the gK−gR values. This decays to a (5− two-proton quasiparticle state, which in turn decays to the ground state band. Potential energy surface and blocked-BCS calculations were performed in the deformed midshell region around 160Sm. They reveal a significant influence from β6 deformation and that 160Sm is the best candidate for the lightest four-quasiparticle K isomer to exist in this region. The relationship between reduced hindrance and isomer excitation energy for E1 transitions from multiquasiparticle states is considered with the new data from 160Sm. The E1 data are found to agree with the existing relationship for E2 transitions.
Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M
2011-01-01
Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg
Approximate kernel competitive learning.
Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang
2015-03-01
Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osorio-Guillén, J M; Espinosa-García, W F; Moyses Araujo, C
2015-09-07
First-principles quasi-particle theory has been employed to assess catalytic power of graphitic carbon nitride, g-C3N4, for solar fuel production. A comparative study between g-h-triazine and g-h-heptazine has been carried out taking also into account van der Waals dispersive forces. The band edge potentials have been calculated using a recently developed approach where quasi-particle effects are taken into account through the GW approximation. First, it was found that the description of ground state properties such as cohesive and surface formation energies requires the proper treatment of dispersive interaction. Furthermore, through the analysis of calculated band-edge potentials, it is shown that g-h-triazine has high reductive power reaching the potential to reduce CO2 to formic acid, coplanar g-h-heptazine displays the highest thermodynamics force toward H2O/O2 oxidation reaction, and corrugated g-h-heptazine exhibits a good capacity for both reactions. This rigorous theoretical study shows a route to further improve the catalytic performance of g-C3N4.
Microscopic mean field approximation and beyond with the Gogny force
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Péru S.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Fully consistent axially-symmetric-deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation calculations have been performed with the D1S Gogny force. A brief review on the main results obtained in this approach is presented. After a reminder on the method and on the first results concerning giant resonances in deformed Mg and Si isotopes, the multipole responses up to octupole in the deformed and heavy nucleus 238U are discussed. In order to analyse soft dipole modes in exotic nuclei, the dipole responses have been studied in Ne isotopes and in N=16 isotopes, for which results are presented. In these nuclei, the QRPA results on the low lying 2+ states are compared to the 5-Dimensional Collective Hamiltonian ones.
Effects of pairing correlation on low-lying quasi-particle resonance in neutron drip-line nuclei
Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Matsuo, Masayuki
2015-01-01
We discuss effects of pairing correlation on quasi-particle resonance. We analyze in detail how the width of low-lying quasi-particle resonance is governed by the pairing correlation in the neutron drip-line nuclei. We consider the 46Si + n system to discuss low-lying p wave quasi-particle resonance. Solving the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation in the coordinate space with scattering boundary condition, we calculate the phase shift, the elastic cross section, the resonance width and the reson...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.
1993-01-01
To find out at what excitation energies the order-disorder transformations occur in intermediate and heavy nuclei, it is suggested to study fragmentation of multiquasiparticle and quasiparticle-phonon configurations. One-nucleon transfer reactions on odd-odd targets, for instance on 176 Lu and 180 Ta, should be taken as a particular case of fragmentation of three-quasiparticle configurations on the long living isomer 178 m 2 Hf-fragmentation of five-quasiparticle configurations. From the analysis of γ-decay of high-spin isomers one can information on fragmentation of quasi-phonon configurations
On Covering Approximation Subspaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xun Ge
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.
On Convex Quadratic Approximation
den Hertog, D.; de Klerk, E.; Roos, J.
2000-01-01
In this paper we prove the counterintuitive result that the quadratic least squares approximation of a multivariate convex function in a finite set of points is not necessarily convex, even though it is convex for a univariate convex function. This result has many consequences both for the field of
Prestack wavefield approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2013-01-01
The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg
2005-01-01
The Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM), which has recently been shown to be well suited for modeling for word burstiness in documents, is here investigated. A number of conceptual explanations that account for these recent results, are provided. An exponential family approximation of the DCM...
Approximation by Cylinder Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup, Thomas
1997-01-01
We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...
Prestack wavefield approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2013-09-01
The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Butler, Christopher John; Yang, Po-Ya; Sankar, Raman; Lien, Yen-Neng; Lu, Chun-I; Chang, Luo-Yueh; Chen, Chia-Hao; Wei, Ching-Ming; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Lin, Minn-Tsong
2016-09-28
Observations of quasiparticle interference have been used in recent years to examine exotic carrier behavior at the surfaces of emergent materials, connecting carrier dispersion and scattering dynamics to real-space features with atomic resolution. We observe quasiparticle interference in the strongly Rashba split 2DEG-like surface band found at the tellurium termination of BiTeBr and examine two mechanisms governing quasiparticle scattering: We confirm the suppression of spin-flip scattering by comparing measured quasiparticle interference with a spin-dependent elastic scattering model applied to the calculated spectral function. We also use atomically resolved STM maps to identify point defect lattice sites and spectro-microscopy imaging to discern their varying scattering strengths, which we understand in terms of the calculated orbital characteristics of the surface band. Defects on the Bi sublattice cause the strongest scattering of the predominantly Bi 6p derived surface band, with other defects causing nearly no scattering near the conduction band minimum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grendel, M.
1981-01-01
Boundary conditions for distribution functions of quasiparticles scattered by an interface between two crystalline grains are presented. Contrary to former formulations where Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics was considered, the present boundary conditions take into account the quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein) of quasiparticles. Provided that small deviations only from thermodynamic equilibrium are present, the boundary conditions are linearized, and then their ''renormalization'' is investigated in case of elastic scattering. The final results of the renormalization, which are obtained for a simplified model of an interface, sugo.est that the portion of the Fermi (Bose)-quasiparticles reflected or transmitted specularly is decreased (increased) in comparison with the case of quasiparticles obeying Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. (author)
An improved saddlepoint approximation.
Gillespie, Colin S; Renshaw, Eric
2007-08-01
Given a set of third- or higher-order moments, not only is the saddlepoint approximation the only realistic 'family-free' technique available for constructing an associated probability distribution, but it is 'optimal' in the sense that it is based on the highly efficient numerical method of steepest descents. However, it suffers from the problem of not always yielding full support, and whilst [S. Wang, General saddlepoint approximations in the bootstrap, Prob. Stat. Lett. 27 (1992) 61.] neat scaling approach provides a solution to this hurdle, it leads to potentially inaccurate and aberrant results. We therefore propose several new ways of surmounting such difficulties, including: extending the inversion of the cumulant generating function to second-order; selecting an appropriate probability structure for higher-order cumulants (the standard moment closure procedure takes them to be zero); and, making subtle changes to the target cumulants and then optimising via the simplex algorithm.
Prestack traveltime approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2011-01-01
Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Topology, calculus and approximation
Komornik, Vilmos
2017-01-01
Presenting basic results of topology, calculus of several variables, and approximation theory which are rarely treated in a single volume, this textbook includes several beautiful, but almost forgotten, classical theorems of Descartes, Erdős, Fejér, Stieltjes, and Turán. The exposition style of Topology, Calculus and Approximation follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. In the first part, the classical results of Alexandroff, Cantor, Hausdorff, Helly, Peano, Radon, Tietze and Urysohn illustrate the theories of metric, topological and normed spaces. Following this, the general framework of normed spaces and Carathéodory's definition of the derivative are shown to simplify the statement and proof of various theorems in calculus and ordinary differential equations. The third and final part is devoted to interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration, asymptotic expansions and the numerical solution of algebraic and differential equations. Students of both pure an...
Approximate Bayesian recursive estimation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kárný, Miroslav
2014-01-01
Roč. 285, č. 1 (2014), s. 100-111 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Approximate parameter estimation * Bayesian recursive estimation * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Forgetting Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/karny-0425539.pdf
Approximating Preemptive Stochastic Scheduling
Megow Nicole; Vredeveld Tjark
2009-01-01
We present constant approximative policies for preemptive stochastic scheduling. We derive policies with a guaranteed performance ratio of 2 for scheduling jobs with release dates on identical parallel machines subject to minimizing the sum of weighted completion times. Our policies as well as their analysis apply also to the recently introduced more general model of stochastic online scheduling. The performance guarantee we give matches the best result known for the corresponding determinist...
Optimization and approximation
Pedregal, Pablo
2017-01-01
This book provides a basic, initial resource, introducing science and engineering students to the field of optimization. It covers three main areas: mathematical programming, calculus of variations and optimal control, highlighting the ideas and concepts and offering insights into the importance of optimality conditions in each area. It also systematically presents affordable approximation methods. Exercises at various levels have been included to support the learning process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, D.I.; Fisher, S.N.; Guenault, A.M.; Lowe, M.R.; Pickett, G.R.; Rahm, A.
2003-01-01
A beam of quasiparticles from a black-body radiator is directed at a localized region of quantum turbulence generated by a vibrating wire resonator driven at super-critical velocity. We are able to measure directly the fraction of the incident quasiparticle beam which is retro-reflected from the turbulence by Andreev processes. Combining these measurements with previous measurements on the spatial extent of the turbulence may allow us to infer the vortex line density
Quasiparticle interference in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5
Akbari, Alireza; Thalmeier, Peter; Eremin, Ilya
2011-10-01
We investigate the quasiparticle interference in the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 as a direct method to confirm the d-wave gap symmetry. The ambiguity between dxy and dx2-y2 symmetry remaining from earlier specific heat and thermal transport investigations has been resolved in favor of the latter by the observation of a spin resonance that can occur only in dx2-y2 symmetry. However, these methods are all indirect and depend considerably on theoretical interpretation. Here we propose that quasiparticle interference (QPI) spectroscopy by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can give a direct fingerprint of the superconducting gap in real space that may lead to a definite conclusion on its symmetry for CeCoIn5 and related 115 compounds. The QPI pattern for both magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities is calculated for the possible d-wave symmetries and characteristic differences are found that may be identified by use of the STM method.
Quasiparticle recombination and 2 Δ-phonon-trapping in superconducting tunneling junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisenmenger, W.; Lassmann, K.; Trumpp, H.J.; Krauss, R.
1976-01-01
The experimental recombination lifetime Tsub(eff) of quasiparticles in superconducting films in general exceeds tge intrinsic recombination lifetime tau sub(R) by phonon trapping. On the basis of geometric acoustic propagation and reabsorption of phonons emitted in quasiparticle recombination, tau sub(eff) is calculated as a function of film thickness d taking into account longitudinal and transverse phonon reabsorption, bulk loss process and acoustical phonon transmission into the substrate. With increasing thickness d three characteristic ranges are found: range 1 with film thickness d small compared to the phonon reabsorption mean free path Λsub(w) range 2 with d larger than Λsub(w) and dominating boundary losses, and range 3, also with d larger than Λsub(w) but with dominating bulk losses. (orig./HPOE) [de
Zn-VI quasiparticle gaps and optical spectra from many-body calculations.
Riefer, A; Weber, N; Mund, J; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M; Schindlmayr, Arno; Meier, C; Schmidt, W G
2017-06-01
The electronic band structures of hexagonal ZnO and cubic ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe compounds are determined within hybrid-density-functional theory and quasiparticle calculations. It is found that the band-edge energies calculated on the [Formula: see text] (Zn chalcogenides) or GW (ZnO) level of theory agree well with experiment, while fully self-consistent QSGW calculations are required for the correct description of the Zn 3d bands. The quasiparticle band structures are used to calculate the linear response and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) spectra of the Zn-VI compounds. Excitonic effects in the optical absorption are accounted for within the Bethe-Salpeter approach. The calculated spectra are discussed in the context of previous experimental data and present SHG measurements for ZnO.
Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor.
Wakamura, T; Akaike, H; Omori, Y; Niimi, Y; Takahashi, S; Fujimaki, A; Maekawa, S; Otani, Y
2015-07-01
In some materials the competition between superconductivity and magnetism brings about a variety of unique phenomena such as the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetism in heavy-fermion superconductors or spin-triplet supercurrent in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions. Recent observations of spin-charge separation in a lateral spin valve with a superconductor evidence that these remarkable properties are applicable to spintronics, although there are still few works exploring this possibility. Here, we report the experimental observation of the quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor, NbN. This compound exhibits the inverse spin Hall (ISH) effect even below the superconducting transition temperature. Surprisingly, the ISH signal increases by more than 2,000 times compared with that in the normal state with a decrease of the injected spin current. The effect disappears when the distance between the voltage probes becomes larger than the charge imbalance length, corroborating that the huge ISH signals measured are mediated by quasiparticles.
Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann
2016-06-03
A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.
Hess, Christian; Sykora, Steffen; Hänke, Torben; Schlegel, Ronny; Baumann, Danny; Zabolotnyy, Volodymyr B; Harnagea, Luminita; Wurmehl, Sabine; van den Brink, Jeroen; Büchner, Bernd
2013-01-04
Several angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies reveal a poorly nested Fermi surface of LiFeAs, far away from a spin density wave instability, and clear-cut superconducting gap anisotropies. On the other hand a very different, more nested Fermi surface and dissimilar gap anisotropies have been obtained from quasiparticle interference (QPI) data, which were interpreted as arising from intraband scattering within holelike bands. Here we show that this ARPES-QPI paradox is completely resolved by interband scattering between the holelike bands. The resolution follows from an excellent agreement between experimental quasiparticle scattering data and T-matrix QPI calculations (based on experimental band structure data), which allows disentangling interband and intraband scattering processes.
Bulk and shear viscosities of the gluon plasma in a quasiparticle description
Bluhm, M; Redlich, K
2011-01-01
Bulk and shear viscosities of deconfined gluonic matter are investigated within an effective kinetic theory by describing the strongly interacting medium phenomenologically in terms of quasiparticle excitations with medium-dependent self-energies. In this approach, local conservation of energy and momentum follows from a Boltzmann-Vlasov type kinetic equation and guarantees thermodynamic self-consistency. We show that the resulting transport coefficients reproduce the parametric dependencies on temperature and coupling obtained in perturbative QCD at large temperatures and small running coupling. The extrapolation into the non-perturbative regime results in a decreasing specific shear viscosity with decreasing temperature, exhibiting a minimum in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition temperature, while the specific bulk viscosity is sizeable in this region falling off rapidly with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of specific bulk and shear viscosities found within this quasiparticle d...
Patrick, Christopher E; Giustino, Feliciano
2012-09-14
Investigating quasiparticle excitations of molecules on surfaces through photoemission spectroscopy forms a major part of nanotechnology research. Resolving spectral features at these interfaces requires a comprehensive theory of electron removal and addition processes in molecules and solids which captures the complex interplay of image charges, thermal effects, and configurational disorder. Here, we develop such a theory and calculate the quasiparticle energy-level alignment and the valence photoemission spectrum for the prototype biomimetic solar cell interface between anatase TiO(2) and the N3 chromophore. By directly matching our calculated photoemission spectrum to experimental data, we clarify the atomistic origin of the chromophore peak at low binding energy. This case study sets a new standard in the interpretation of photoemission spectroscopy at complex chromophore-semiconductor interfaces.
States with a great number of quasi-particles in even lead isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auger, G.; Manfredi, V.R.
1975-01-01
The even lead isotopes have been studied by means of a spectral distribution calculation in the sub-spaces defined by their number of quasi-particles. The comparison with results obtained in the thin isotopes shows that the overlap of the various sub-spaces is strongly dependent on the residual interaction used; namely, states with a great number of quasi-particles do exist in the low energy part of the spectra. The problem of spurious states implied by this method, states responsible for an over-estimation of the sub-space coupling, is treated and various corrections are proposed for the dimensions as well as for the centroids and widths of the sub-spaces [fr
Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei
Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis provides one picture of thermalization in a quantum system by looking at individual eigenstates. However, it is also important to consider how local observables reach equilibrium values dynamically. Quench protocol is one of the settings to study such questions. A recent numerical study [Banuls, Cirac, and Hastings, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 050405 (2011)] of a nonintegrable quantum Ising model with longitudinal field under such quench setting found different behaviors under different initial quantum states. One particular case termed ``weak thermalization'' regime showed apparently persistent oscillations of some observables. Here we provide an explanation of such oscillations. We use perturbation theory near the ground state of the model, and identify the oscillation frequency as the quasiparticle mass. With this quasiparticle picture, we can then address the long-time behavior of the oscillations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Nam; Kim, Kijoon; Lee, Hu Jong; Lee, Seongjae; Yuk, Jong Seol; Park, Kyoung Wan; Lee, El Hang
1997-01-01
We measured the differential resistance dV/dI of mesoscopic normal-metal/superconductor/normal-metal (N-S-N) junctions. At low temperatures (T PbIn /e, where Δ PbIn is the gap energy of superconducting Pb-In, and at a higher bias V c . The zero-bias dip is supposed to originate from Andreev reflections of quasiparticles and the peak near 2Δ PbIn /e from the formation of a standing-wave mode of quasiparticles inside the superconducting potential barrier. We attribute the peaks at V c to a transition of the superconducting region to the normal state as the current exceeds the critical current I c of S
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russian Federation)
2009-06-15
Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaginyan, V.R.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Popov, K.G.
2009-01-01
Basing on the density functional theory of fermion condensation, we analyze the non-Fermi liquid behavior of strongly correlated Fermi-systems such as heavy-fermion metals. When deriving equations for the effective mass of quasiparticles, we consider solids with a lattice and homogeneous systems. We show that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties are formed by quasiparticles, while the dependence of the effective mass on temperature, number density, magnetic fields, etc., gives rise to the non-Fermi liquid behavior. Our theoretical study of the heat capacity, magnetization, energy scales, the longitudinal magnetoresistance and magnetic entropy are in good agreement with the remarkable recent facts collected on the heavy-fermion metal YbRh 2 Si 2 .
Three- and five-quasiparticle isomers, rotational bands and residual interactions in 175Hf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dracoulis, G.D.; Walker, P.M.
1980-03-01
Two 3-quasiparticle isomers with spins, parities and half lives of 19/2 + , 1.1 μ and 23/2 - , 1.2 ns have been identified at 1433 and 1766 keV in 175 Hf. A third isomer possibly 35/2 - with a 1.2 μs half-life is found at 3015 keV. The first two are characterised as a 7/2 + (633) neutron coupled to the known 6 + and 8 - 2-proton isomers of the core nuclei. Rotational bands based on the 3-qp isomers are highly perturbed, due to Coriolis mixing, and their structure is reproduced in a band mixing calculation. The energy depression of the 3-quasiparticle states relative to the 2-quasiproton core states is attributed mainly to the residual proton-neutron interaction, and possibly also to blocking effects through neutron admixtures
Quasiparticle Diffusion in Al Films Coupled to Tungsten Transition Edge Sensors
Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Cabrera, B.; Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Moffatt, R.; Pyle, M.; Redl, P.; Tomada, A.; Tortorici, E. C.
2014-08-01
We report recent results obtained from several W/Al test devices on Si wafers fabricated specifically to better understand energy collection in phonon sensors used for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. The devices under study consist of three different lengths of 250 m-wide by 300 nm-thick Al absorber films, coupled to 250 m x 250 m (40 nm thick) W-TESs at each end of the Al film. An Fe source was used to excite a NaCl reflector producing 2.6 keV Cl X-rays that were absorbed in our test device after passing through a collimator. The impinging X-rays broke Cooper pairs in the Al film, producing quasiparticles that we detected after they propagated into the W-TESs. We studied the diffusion of these quasiparticles in the Al, trapping effects in the Al film, and energy transmission at the Al/W interfaces.
Quasiparticle properties of DNA bases from GW calculations in a Wannier basis
Qian, Xiaofeng; Marzari, Nicola; Umari, Paolo
2009-03-01
The quasiparticle GW-Wannier (GWW) approach [1] has been recently developed to overcome the size limitations of conventional planewave GW calculations. By taking advantage of the localization properties of the maximally-localized Wannier functions and choosing a small set of polarization basis we reduce the number of Bloch wavefunctions products required for the evaluation of dynamical polarizabilities, and in turn greatly reduce memory requirements and computational efficiency. We apply GWW to study quasiparticle properties of different DNA bases and base-pairs, and solvation effects on the energy gap, demonstrating in the process the key advantages of this approach. [1] P. Umari,G. Stenuit, and S. Baroni, cond-mat/0811.1453
Inflationary Quasiparticle Creation and Thermalization Dynamics in Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
Posazhennikova, Anna; Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann
2016-06-01
A Bose gas in a double-well potential, exhibiting a true Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) amplitude and initially performing Josephson oscillations, is a prototype of an isolated, nonequilibrium many-body system. We investigate the quasiparticle (QP) creation and thermalization dynamics of this system by solving the time-dependent Keldysh-Bogoliubov equations. We find avalanchelike QP creation due to a parametric resonance between BEC and QP oscillations, followed by slow, exponential relaxation to a thermal state at an elevated temperature, controlled by the initial excitation energy of the oscillating BEC above its ground state. The crossover between the two regimes occurs because of an effective decoupling of the QP and BEC oscillations. This dynamics is analogous to elementary particle creation in models of the early universe. The thermalization in our setup occurs because the BEC acts as a grand canonical reservoir for the quasiparticle system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leppäkangas, J; De Graaf, S E; Adamyan, A; Fogelström, M; Danilov, A V; Kubatkin, S E; Johansson, G; Lindström, T
2013-01-01
We experimentally and theoretically study the frequency shift of a driven cavity coupled to a superconducting charge qubit. In addition to previous studies, here we also consider drive strengths large enough to energetically allow for quasiparticle creation. Quasiparticle tunnelling leads to the inclusion of more than two charge states in the dynamics. To explain the observed effects, we develop a master equation for the microwave dressed charge states, including quasiparticle tunnelling. A bimodal behaviour of the frequency shift as a function of gate voltage can be used for sensitive charge detection. However, at weak drives, the charge sensitivity is significantly reduced by nonequilibrium quasiparticles, which induce transitions to a non-sensitive state. Unexpectedly, at high-enough drives, the quasiparticle tunnelling enables a very fast relaxation channel to the sensitive state. In this regime, the charge sensitivity is thus robust against externally injected quasiparticles and the desired dynamics prevail over a broad range of temperatures. We find very good agreement between the theory and experiment over a wide range of drive strengths and temperatures. (paper)
Alignments of multi-quasiparticle bands and seniority-dependent reduced pairing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dracoulis, G.D.
1994-09-01
Pairing correlations in multi-quasiparticle states in deformed nuclei are expected to be reduced because of blocking. New intrinsic states and their associated rotational bands have been identified allowing comparisons to be made as a function of seniority and between nuclei. The possible effects of the reduced pairing on the collective rotation, and its manifestation in terms of alignment, are discussed. 13 refs., 2 figs
Self-consistent quasi-particle RPA for the description of superfluid Fermi systems
Rahbi, A; Chanfray, G; Schuck, P
2002-01-01
Self-Consistent Quasi-Particle RPA (SCQRPA) is for the first time applied to a more level pairing case. Various filling situation and values for the coupling constant are considered. Very encouraging results in comparison with the exact solution of the model are obtaining. The nature of the low lying mode in SCQRPA is identified. The strong reduction of the number fluctuation in SCQRPA vs BCS is pointed out. The transition from superfluidity to the normal fluid case is carefully investigated.
Rapid enhancement of nodal quasiparticle mass with heavily underdoping in Bi2212
Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Ino, Akihiro
2018-05-01
We report substantial advance of our low-energy angle-resolved photoemission study of nodal quasiparticles in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The new data cover the samples from underdoped down to heavily underdoped levels. We also present the nodal Fermi velocities that determined by using an excitation-photon energy of hν = 7.0 eV over a wide doping range. The consistency between the results with hν = 8.1 and 7.0 eV allows us to rule out the effect of photoemission matrix elements. In comparison with the data previously reported, the nodal effective mass increases by a factor of ∼ 1.5 in going from optimally doped to heavily underdoped levels. We find a rapid enhancement of the nodal quasiparticle mass at low doping levels near the superconductor-to-insulator transition. The effective coupling spectrum, λ (ω) , is extracted directly from the energy derivatives of the quasiparticle dispersion and scattering rate, as a causal function of the mass enhancement factor. A steplike increase in Reλ (ω) around ∼ 65 meV is demonstrated clearly by the Kramers-Kronig transform of Imλ (ω) . To extract the low-energy renormalization effect, we calculated a simple model for the electron-boson interaction. This model reveals that the contribution of the renormalization at | ω | ≤ 15 meV to the quasiparticle mass is larger than that around 65 meV in underdoped samples.
Emergence of the bcc Phase and Phase Transition in Be through Phonon Quasiparticle Calculations
Zhang, D. B., Sr.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.
2016-12-01
Beryllium (Be) is an important material with applications in a number of areas ranging from aerospace components to X-ray equipment. Yet a precise understanding of the phase diagram of Be remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticle properties. We find that the hcp to bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0
Account of the Pauli principle in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molina, Kh.L.
1980-01-01
The correlation effects in the ground states of even-even deformed nuclei on their one- and two-phonon states are studied in terms of the semimicroscopic nuclear theory. A secular equation for one-phonon excitations is derived, which take into account, in average, exact commutation relations between quasiparticle operators. It is demonstrated, that the account of the correlation in the ground state can significantly influence the values of the wave function two-phonon components
Abrahams, Elihu; Wölfle, Peter
2012-01-01
We use the recently developed critical quasiparticle theory to derive the scaling behavior associated with a quantum critical point in a correlated metal. This is applied to the magnetic-field induced quantum critical point observed in YbRh2Si2, for which we also derive the critical behavior of the specific heat, resistivity, thermopower, magnetization and susceptibility, the Grüneisen coefficient, and the thermal expansion coefficient. The theory accounts very well for the available experimental results. PMID:22331893
Mross, David F; Essin, Andrew; Alicea, Jason; Stern, Ady
2016-01-22
We show that boundaries of 3D weak topological insulators can become gapped by strong interactions while preserving all symmetries, leading to Abelian surface topological order. The anomalous nature of weak topological insulator surfaces manifests itself in a nontrivial action of symmetries on the quasiparticles; most strikingly, translations change the anyon types in a manner impossible in strictly 2D systems with the same symmetry. As a further consequence, screw dislocations form non-Abelian defects that trap Z_{4} parafermion zero modes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tafuri, F. [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (Italy); CNR-INFM Coherentia, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: tafuri@na.infn.it; Tagliacozzo, A.; Born, D.; Stornaiuolo, D. [CNR-INFM Coherentia, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Gambale, E.; Dalena, D. [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Lombardi, F. [Department of Microelectronics and Nanoscience, MINA, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)
2007-09-01
Magneto-fluctuations of the normal resistance R{sub N} have been reproducibly observed in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (HTS) biepitaxial grain boundary junctions at low temperatures. We attribute them to mesoscopic transport in narrow channels across the grain boundary line. The Thouless energy appears to be the relevant energy scale. Possible implications on the understanding of coherent transport of quasiparticles in HTS and of the dissipation mechanisms are discussed.
Nonequilibrium states of high tc YBCO superconductors under tunnel injection of quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, I.; Wang, Q.; Lee, K.; Yoshida, K.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium states of high Tc superconductors are investigated by means of tunnel injection of quasiparticles using Pb(or Au)/MgO/YBCO tunnel junctions. The effective critical-current reduction due to tunnel injection is observed, whose behaviour is different from simple heating. The observed results suggest that the resultant nonequilibrium states may also differ from those described by conventional nonequilibrium models
Quasi-particles and effective mean field in strongly interacting matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levai, P.; Ko, C.M.
2010-01-01
We introduce a quasi-particle model of strongly interacting quark-gluon matter and explore the possible connection to an effective field theoretical description consisting of a scalar σ field by introducing a dynamically generated mass, M(σ), and a self-consistently determined interaction term, B(σ). We display a possible connection between the two types of effective description, using the Friedberg-Lee model.
Correlation energy functional within the GW -RPA: Exact forms, approximate forms, and challenges
Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab
2010-05-01
In principle, the Luttinger-Ward Green’s-function formalism allows one to compute simultaneously the total energy and the quasiparticle band structure of a many-body electronic system from first principles. We present approximate and exact expressions for the correlation energy within the GW -random-phase approximation that are more amenable to computation and allow for developing efficient approximations to the self-energy operator and correlation energy. The exact form is a sum over differences between plasmon and interband energies. The approximate forms are based on summing over screened interband transitions. We also demonstrate that blind extremization of such functionals leads to unphysical results: imposing physical constraints on the allowed solutions (Green’s functions) is necessary. Finally, we present some relevant numerical results for atomic systems.
Cyclic approximation to stasis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stewart D. Johnson
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Neighborhoods of points in $mathbb{R}^n$ where a positive linear combination of $C^1$ vector fields sum to zero contain, generically, cyclic trajectories that switch between the vector fields. Such points are called stasis points, and the approximating switching cycle can be chosen so that the timing of the switches exactly matches the positive linear weighting. In the case of two vector fields, the stasis points form one-dimensional $C^1$ manifolds containing nearby families of two-cycles. The generic case of two flows in $mathbb{R}^3$ can be diffeomorphed to a standard form with cubic curves as trajectories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Sawi, M.
1983-07-01
A simple approach employing properties of solutions of differential equations is adopted to derive an appropriate extension of the WKBJ method. Some of the earlier techniques that are commonly in use are unified, whereby the general approximate solution to a second-order homogeneous linear differential equation is presented in a standard form that is valid for all orders. In comparison to other methods, the present one is shown to be leading in the order of iteration, and thus possibly has the ability of accelerating the convergence of the solution. The method is also extended for the solution of inhomogeneous equations. (author)
The relaxation time approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.
1991-01-01
A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs
Polynomial approximation on polytopes
Totik, Vilmos
2014-01-01
Polynomial approximation on convex polytopes in \\mathbf{R}^d is considered in uniform and L^p-norms. For an appropriate modulus of smoothness matching direct and converse estimates are proven. In the L^p-case so called strong direct and converse results are also verified. The equivalence of the moduli of smoothness with an appropriate K-functional follows as a consequence. The results solve a problem that was left open since the mid 1980s when some of the present findings were established for special, so-called simple polytopes.
Finite elements and approximation
Zienkiewicz, O C
2006-01-01
A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o
Effect of quasiparticles on interlayer transport in highly anisotropic layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artemenko, S.N.; Bulaevskii, L.N.; Maley, M.P.; Vinokur, V.M.
1999-01-01
We have performed a microscopic calculation of the dielectric response function in highly anisotropic layered superconductors and used the developed approach to obtain the frequency-dependent London penetration length and conductivity in the case of d-wave pairing for currents perpendicular to the layers. We consider a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling of electrons and take into account contributions from both superconducting electrons and quasiparticles to the dielectric response. We show that quasiparticles change the low-temperature behavior of the penetration length in the intermediate frequency range where the frequency is smaller than the superconducting order parameter but larger than the inverse quasiparticle scattering time. The obtained results are used to describe the low-temperature behavior of the Josephson plasma resonance, in particular the temperature dependence of the resonance frequency and the resonance linewidth in zero external magnetic field. We compare our results with the available experimental data for Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6 and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi-2212) and show that results of a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling for the dc c-axis resistivity in the superconducting state are inconsistent with experimental data for underdoped and optimally doped Bi-2212 crystals. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Equation of motion method to describe quasiparticle structures in transitional and deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doenau, F.
1985-01-01
The development of the experimental techniques will supply one with more and more complete level schemes and transition matrix elements. This is a great challenge for the theorists to put the right questions and to work out the models accordingly. In this respect the method of equation of motion (EQM) seems to be a sulitable approach the inherent possibilities of which are yet not fully explored. The EQM is sketched for the case of one-quasiparticle (1qp) excitation in odd-mass nuclei. The coupling of a particle to the quasrupole and pair field is treated using the IBA for the collective degrees of freedom. Physical implications are shortly discussed. The selfconsistent aspects of the theory are considered. A perturbational treatment is proposed to construct the physical subspace that is necessary to perform selfconsistent calculations of the collective core energies. The EQM is formulated for the two-quasiparticle (2qp) excitations in transitional nuclei inclusive the coupling to the collective excitations (0 qp space). EQM can be widely applied to describe the complicated interplay between collective degrees of freedom and quasiparticle configurations are concluded
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Tacon, M.; Sacuto, A. [Paris-7 Univ., Lab. Mat riaux et Ph nom nes Quantiques (UMR 7162 CNRS), 75 (France); Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, ESPCI, 75 - Paris (France); Georges, A. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Kotliar, G. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Rutgers Univ., Serin Physics Lab. (United States); Gallais, Y. [Columbia Univ. New York, Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics, NY (United States); Colson, D.; Forget, A. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2006-07-01
The superconducting state of under-doped cuprates is often described in terms of a single energy scale, associated with the maximum of the (d-wave) gap. Here, we report on electronic Raman scattering results, which show that the gap function in the under-doped regime is characterized by two energy scales, depending on doping in opposite manners. Their ratios to the maximum critical temperature are found to be universal in cuprates. Our experimental results also reveal two different quasiparticle dynamics in the under-doped superconducting state, associated with two regions of momentum space: nodal regions near the zeros of the gap and anti-nodal regions. While anti-nodal quasiparticles quickly loose coherence as doping is reduced, coherent nodal quasiparticles persist down to low doping levels. A theoretical analysis using a new sum-rule allows us to relate the low-frequency-dependence of the Raman response to the temperature-dependence of the superfluid density, both controlled by nodal excitations. (authors)
Probing the unconventional superconducting state of LiFeAs by quasiparticle interference.
Hänke, Torben; Sykora, Steffen; Schlegel, Ronny; Baumann, Danny; Harnagea, Luminita; Wurmehl, Sabine; Daghofer, Maria; Büchner, Bernd; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hess, Christian
2012-03-23
A crucial step in revealing the nature of unconventional superconductivity is to investigate the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy has proven a powerful technique to probe this symmetry by measuring the quasiparticle interference (QPI) which sensitively depends on the superconducting pairing mechanism. A particularly well-suited material to apply this technique is the stoichiometric superconductor LiFeAs as it features clean, charge neutral cleaved surfaces without surface states and a relatively high T(c)∼18 K. Our data reveal that in LiFeAs the quasiparticle scattering is governed by a van Hove singularity at the center of the Brillouin zone which is in stark contrast to other pnictide superconductors where nesting is crucial for both scattering and s(±) superconductivity. Indeed, within a minimal model and using the most elementary order parameters, calculations of the QPI suggest a dominating role of the holelike bands for the quasiparticle scattering. Our theoretical findings do not support the elementary singlet pairing symmetries s(++), s(±), and d wave. This brings to mind that the superconducting pairing mechanism in LiFeAs is based on an unusual pairing symmetry such as an elementary p wave (which provides optimal agreement between the experimental data and QPI simulations) or a more complex order parameter (e.g., s+id wave symmetry).
Decay and Fission Hindrance of Two- and Four-Quasiparticle K Isomers in ^{254}Rf.
David, H M; Chen, J; Seweryniak, D; Kondev, F G; Gates, J M; Gregorich, K E; Ahmad, I; Albers, M; Alcorta, M; Back, B B; Baartman, B; Bertone, P F; Bernstein, L A; Campbell, C M; Carpenter, M P; Chiara, C J; Clark, R M; Cromaz, M; Doherty, D T; Dracoulis, G D; Esker, N E; Fallon, P; Gothe, O R; Greene, J P; Greenlees, P T; Hartley, D J; Hauschild, K; Hoffman, C R; Hota, S S; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Konki, J; Kwarsick, J T; Lauritsen, T; Macchiavelli, A O; Mudder, P R; Nair, C; Qiu, Y; Rissanen, J; Rogers, A M; Ruotsalainen, P; Savard, G; Stolze, S; Wiens, A; Zhu, S
2015-09-25
Two isomers decaying by electromagnetic transitions with half-lives of 4.7(1.1) and 247(73) μs have been discovered in the heavy ^{254}Rf nucleus. The observation of the shorter-lived isomer was made possible by a novel application of a digital data acquisition system. The isomers were interpreted as the K^{π}=8^{-}, ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734]) two-quasineutron and the K^{π}=16^{+}, 8^{-}ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734])⊗8^{-}π^{2}(7/2^{-}[514],9/2^{+}[624]) four-quasiparticle configurations, respectively. Surprisingly, the lifetime of the two-quasiparticle isomer is more than 4 orders of magnitude shorter than what has been observed for analogous isomers in the lighter N=150 isotones. The four-quasiparticle isomer is longer lived than the ^{254}Rf ground state that decays exclusively by spontaneous fission with a half-life of 23.2(1.1) μs. The absence of sizable fission branches from either of the isomers implies unprecedented fission hindrance relative to the ground state.
Quasiparticle band structure of rocksalt-CdO determined using maximally localized Wannier functions.
Dixit, H; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B
2013-01-23
CdO in the rocksalt structure is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Thus, in order to determine its band gap one needs to calculate the complete band structure. However, in practice, the exact evaluation of the quasiparticle band structure for the large number of k-points which constitute the different symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone can be an extremely demanding task compared to the standard density functional theory (DFT) calculation. In this paper we report the full quasiparticle band structure of CdO using a plane-wave pseudopotential approach. In order to reduce the computational effort and time, we make use of maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWFs). The MLWFs offer a highly accurate method for interpolation of the DFT or GW band structure from a coarse k-point mesh in the irreducible Brillouin zone, resulting in a much reduced computational effort. The present paper discusses the technical details of the scheme along with the results obtained for the quasiparticle band gap and the electron effective mass.
Revisiting the quasi-particle model of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bannur, V.M.
2007-01-01
The quasi-particle model of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is revisited here with a new method, different from earlier studies, one without the need of a temperature dependent bag constant and other effects such as confinement, effective degrees of freedom etc. Our model has only one system dependent parameter and shows a surprisingly good fit to the lattice results for the gluon plasma, and for 2-flavor, 3-flavor and (2+1)-flavor QGP. The basic idea is first to evaluate the energy density ε from the grand partition function of quasi-particle QGP, and then derive all other thermodynamic functions from ε. Quasi-particles are assumed to have a temperature dependent mass equal to the plasma frequency. Energy density, pressure and speed of sound at zero chemical potential are evaluated and compared with the available lattice data. We further extend the model to a finite chemical potential, without any new parameters, to obtain the quark density, quark susceptibility etc., and the model fits very well with the lattice results on 2-flavor QGP. (orig.)
Quasi-particles ultrafastly releasing kink bosons to form Fermi arcs in a cuprate superconductor.
Ishida, Y; Saitoh, T; Mochiku, T; Nakane, T; Hirata, K; Shin, S
2016-01-05
In a conventional framework, superconductivity is lost at a critical temperature (Tc) because, at higher temperatures, gluing bosons can no longer bind two electrons into a Cooper pair. In high-Tc cuprates, it is still unknown how superconductivity vanishes at Tc. We provide evidence that the so-called ≲ 70-meV kink bosons that dress the quasi-particle excitations are playing a key role in the loss of superconductivity in a cuprate. We irradiated a 170-fs laser pulse on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) and monitored the responses of the superconducting gap and dressed quasi-particles by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observe an ultrafast loss of superconducting gap near the d-wave node, or light-induced Fermi arcs, which is accompanied by spectral broadenings and weight redistributions occurring within the kink binding energy. We discuss that the underlying mechanism of the spectral broadening that induce the Fermi arc is the undressing of quasi-particles from the kink bosons. The loss mechanism is beyond the conventional framework, and can accept the unconventional phenomena such as the signatures of Cooper pairs remaining at temperatures above Tc.
Localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in interacting Bose gases with correlated disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lugan, P.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.
2011-01-01
We study the Anderson localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles (elementary many-body excitations) in a weakly interacting Bose gas of chemical potential μ subjected to a disordered potential V. We introduce a general mapping (valid for weak inhomogeneous potentials in any dimension) of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations onto a single-particle Schroedinger-like equation with an effective potential. For disordered potentials, the Schroedinger-like equation accounts for the scattering and localization properties of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles. We derive analytically the localization lengths for correlated disordered potentials in the one-dimensional geometry. Our approach relies on a perturbative expansion in V/μ, which we develop up to third order, and we discuss the impact of the various perturbation orders. Our predictions are shown to be in very good agreement with direct numerical calculations. We identify different localization regimes: For low energy, the effective disordered potential exhibits a strong screening by the quasicondensate density background, and localization is suppressed. For high-energy excitations, the effective disordered potential reduces to the bare disordered potential, and the localization properties of quasiparticles are the same as for free particles. The maximum of localization is found at intermediate energy when the quasicondensate healing length is of the order of the disorder correlation length. Possible extensions of our work to higher dimensions are also discussed.
Optimizing SuperCDMS phonon energy sensitivity by studying quasiparticle transport in Al films
Yen, Jeffrey; Shank, Benjamin; Cabrera, Blas; Moffatt, Robert; Redl, Peter; Brink, Paul; Tomada, Astrid; Cherry, Matt; Young, Betty; Tortorici, Teddy; Kreikebaum, John Mark
2014-03-01
In order to further improve the phonon energy sensitivity of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detectors, we studied quasiparticle transport at ~ 40 mK in superconducting Al films similar in geometry to those used for CDMS detectors. Test structures of Al were deposited and photolithographically patterned on Si wafers using the same production-line equipment used to fabricate kg-scale CDMS detectors. Three Al film lengths and two film thicknesses were used in this study. In the test experiments described here, an 55Fe source was used to excite a NaCl reflector, producing 2.6 keV x-rays that hit our test devices after passing through a collimator. The impinging x-rays broke Cooper pairs in the Al films, producing quasiparticles that propagated into W transition edge sensors (TESs) coupled to the ends of the Al films. In this talk, we will give the motivation behind these studies, describe our experimental setup, and compare our data to results obtained using signal processing models constructed from basic physical parameters. We show that a non-linear, non-stationary optimal filter applied to the data allows us to precisely measure quasiparticle diffusion and other aspects of energy transport in our thin-film Al-W test devices. These results are being used to further optimize next-generation CDMS detectors.
Approximate Bayesian computation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikael Sunnåker
Full Text Available Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology.
Strongly correlated electron materials. I. Theory of the quasiparticle structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Costa-Quintana, J.; Puig-Puig, L.
1993-01-01
In this paper we give a method for analyzing the renormalized electronic structure of the Hubbard systems. The first step is the determination of effective interactions from the random-phase approximation (RPA) and from an extended RPA (ERPA) that introduces vertex effects within the bubble polarization. The second step is the determination of the density of states deduced from the spectral functions. Its analysis leads us to conclude that these systems can exhibit three types of resonances in their electronic structures: the lower-, middle-, and upper-energy resonances. Furthermore, we analyze the conditions for which there is only one type of resonance and the causes that lead to the disappearance of the heavy-fermion state. We finally introduce the RPA and ERPA effective interactions within the strong-coupling theory and we give the conditions for obtaining coupling and superconductivity
The random phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuck, P.
1985-01-01
RPA is the adequate theory to describe vibrations of the nucleus of very small amplitudes. These vibrations can either be forced by an external electromagnetic field or can be eigenmodes of the nucleus. In a one dimensional analogue the potential corresponding to such eigenmodes of very small amplitude should be rather stiff otherwise the motion risks to be a large amplitude one and to enter a region where the approximation is not valid. This means that nuclei which are supposedly well described by RPA must have a very stable groundstate configuration (must e.g. be very stiff against deformation). This is usually the case for doubly magic nuclei or close to magic nuclei which are in the middle of proton and neutron shells which develop a very stable groundstate deformation; we take the deformation as an example but there are many other possible degrees of freedom as, for example, compression modes, isovector degrees of freedom, spin degrees of freedom, and many more
The quasilocalized charge approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalman, G J; Golden, K I; Donko, Z; Hartmann, P
2005-01-01
The quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) has been used for some time as a formalism for the calculation of the dielectric response and for determining the collective mode dispersion in strongly coupled Coulomb and Yukawa liquids. The approach is based on a microscopic model in which the charges are quasilocalized on a short-time scale in local potential fluctuations. We review the conceptual basis and theoretical structure of the QLC approach and together with recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that corroborate and quantify the theoretical concepts. We also summarize the major applications of the QLCA to various physical systems, combined with the corresponding results of the molecular dynamics simulations and point out the general agreement and instances of disagreement between the two
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nolting, W.; Borstel, G.; Borgiel, W.
1987-01-01
A theory for the electronic quasiparticle spectrum of ferromagnetic 4f systems is presented and applied to the semiconductor EuO. The starting point is a d-f exchange model, which we solve exactly for T = 0. One of the results is a simple relationship between the spin-up quasiparticle energies and the ''free'' Bloch energies epsilon-c/sub m/(k), which we use to fix the epsilon-c/sub m/(k) in a highly realistic manner by performing a new self-consistent spin-polarized band-structure calculation based on density-functional theory. With the so-determined Bloch energies we investigate the spin-down quasiparticle spectrum, which exhibits even at T = 0 strong many-body effects as a consequence of spin-exchange processes between localized magnetic 4f moments and itinerant conduction electrons. We discuss in detail the spin-down quasiparticle spectral density for the ΓL direction, which should be observable in an inverse photoemission experiment. The shape of this function is strongly k dependent, revealing different types of quasiparticles. The prominent quasiparticle peaks in the spin-down quasiparticle spectral density are used to construct a quasiparticle band structure, which shows some striking deviations from the one-particle solution of the density-functional theory. Furthermore, results for the electronic self-energy and the quasiparticle density of states are presented
Willett, R L; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W
2009-06-02
A standing problem in low-dimensional electron systems is the nature of the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state: Its elementary excitations are a focus for both elucidating the state's properties and as candidates in methods to perform topological quantum computation. Interferometric devices may be used to manipulate and measure quantum Hall edge excitations. Here we use a small-area edge state interferometer designed to observe quasiparticle interference effects. Oscillations consistent in detail with the Aharonov-Bohm effect are observed for integer quantum Hall and FQH states (filling factors nu = 2, 5/3, and 7/3) with periods corresponding to their respective charges and magnetic field positions. With these factors as charge calibrations, periodic transmission through the device consistent with quasiparticle charge e/4 is observed at nu = 5/2 and at lowest temperatures. The principal finding of this work is that, in addition to these e/4 oscillations, periodic structures corresponding to e/2 are also observed at 5/2 nu and at lowest temperatures. Properties of the e/4 and e/2 oscillations are examined with the device sensitivity sufficient to observe temperature evolution of the 5/2 quasiparticle interference. In the model of quasiparticle interference, this presence of an effective e/2 period may empirically reflect an e/2 quasiparticle charge or may reflect multiple passes of the e/4 quasiparticle around the interferometer. These results are discussed within a picture of e/4 quasiparticle excitations potentially possessing non-Abelian statistics. These studies demonstrate the capacity to perform interferometry on 5/2 excitations and reveal properties important for understanding this state and its excitations.
Quasiparticles and Nuclear Vibrational States; Kvazichastitsy i vibratsionnye sostoyaniya yader
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sorensen, R. A. [Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
1968-12-15
The level structure associated with various nuclear vibrations is described. It is shown how these vibrations are described in terms of particle or quasi - particle excitations by means of the harmonic random phase approximation. Vibrations corresponding to different modes of excitation are compared. Motions corresponding to the enhancement of three different simple operators are considered: (a) the E2 one-body operator, (b) the operator causing the removal or addition of a like, zero-coupled pair of nucleons from the nucleus, and (c) the operator for allowed beta decay which changes one proton to a neutron or one neutron to a proton. (author) [Russian] Da etsja opisanie str u ktu ry urovnej, svjazannyh s razlichnymi jadernymi kolebanijami. Pokazano, kak takie vibracii mogut byt' opisany s pomoshh'ju chastichnyh i kvazichastichnyh vozbuzhdenij v garmonicheskom priblizhenii metoda sluchajnyhfaz. Sravnivajutsja kolebanija, sootvetstvujushhie razlichnym tipam vozbuzhdenij. R assm atrivaju tsja dvizhenija, sootvetstvujushhie uvelicheniju trehraz lichnyh prostyh operatorov: a) odnochastichnyj operator E2-perehoda, v) operator pogloshhenija ili porozhdenija sparennyh nuklonov s nulevym momentom, s) operator razreshennogo /3-raspada, zamenjajushhij proton na nejtron ili nejtron na proton. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Losano, L.
1986-01-01
Calculations of the (E,J Π ) spectra and the electromagnetic properties (fe,Q,BEZ,BM1) are made for Ni odd isotopes, and odd isotones with N=82, using the Shell Model (SM), the usual BCS approximation (one and three quasiparticles), blocking BCS (BBCS) and projected BCS (PBCS). The importance of the five quasiparticle correlations and of the correlation introduced in BCS are examined in detail. The collective degrees of freedom of the core are introduced through the quasiparticle-cluster-vibrator coupling (QPCVC), so that this formalism permits as well the inclusion of blocking as the projection in number of particles in the cluster of one and three quasiparticles. Comparative calculations are made between the version with blocking (BQPCV) and with projection (PQPCV) for spectra and electromagnetic properties of Zn old isotopes. The projected version is applied to the cesium isotopes in the description of the 5/2 + states generated by the anomalous coupling. In all examined cases, the comparison with the available experimental data is also shown. (L.C.) [pt
Approximate quantum Markov chains
Sutter, David
2018-01-01
This book is an introduction to quantum Markov chains and explains how this concept is connected to the question of how well a lost quantum mechanical system can be recovered from a correlated subsystem. To achieve this goal, we strengthen the data-processing inequality such that it reveals a statement about the reconstruction of lost information. The main difficulty in order to understand the behavior of quantum Markov chains arises from the fact that quantum mechanical operators do not commute in general. As a result we start by explaining two techniques of how to deal with non-commuting matrices: the spectral pinching method and complex interpolation theory. Once the reader is familiar with these techniques a novel inequality is presented that extends the celebrated Golden-Thompson inequality to arbitrarily many matrices. This inequality is the key ingredient in understanding approximate quantum Markov chains and it answers a question from matrix analysis that was open since 1973, i.e., if Lieb's triple ma...
Prestack traveltime approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2012-05-01
Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Gamow-Teller resonances and a separable approximation for Skyrme tensor interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Severyukhin A. P.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A finite rank separable approximation for the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA with Skyrme interactions is applied to study properties of the Gamow-Teller (GT resonances in the neutron-rich Cd isotopes. This approximation enables one to reduce considerably the dimension of matrix that must be diagonalized to perform QRPA calculations in a very large configuration space. Our results from the SGII Skyrme interaction with the tensor interactions and the density-dependent zero-range pairing interaction show that the GT distribution is noticeably modified when the tensor correlations are taken into account. In particular, for 130Cd the dominant peak is moved 3.6 MeV downward and 10% of the GT distribution is shifted to the high excitation energy region near E=50MeV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Jing; Jiang Yu; Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi
2012-01-01
In this Letter, an improved quasi-particle model is presented. Unlike the previous approach of establishing quasi-particle model, we introduce a classical background field (it is allowed to depend on the temperature) to deal with the infinity of thermal vacuum energy which exists in previous quasi-particle models. After taking into account the effect of this classical background field, the partition function of quasi-particle system can be made well-defined. Based on this and following the standard ensemble theory, we construct a thermodynamically consistent quasi-particle model without the need of any reformulation of statistical mechanics or thermodynamical consistency relation. As an application of our model, we employ it to the case of (2+1) flavor QGP at zero chemical potential and finite temperature and obtain a good fit to the recent lattice simulation results of Borsányi et al. A comparison of the result of our model with early calculations using other models is also presented. It is shown that our method is general and can be generalized to the case where the effective mass depends not only on the temperature but also on the chemical potential.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amusia, M. Ya.; Shaginyan, V. R.
2001-06-01
A model of a Fermi liquid with the fermion condensate (FC) is applied to the consideration of quasiparticle excitations in high-temperature superconductors, in their superconducting and normal states. Within our model the appearance of the fermion condensate presents a quantum phase transition that separates the regions of normal and strongly correlated electron liquids. Beyond the phase transition point the quasiparticle system is divided into two subsystems, one containing normal quasiparticles and the other{emdash}fermion condensate localized at the Fermi surface and characterized by almost dispersionless single-particle excitations. In the superconducting state the quasiparticle dispersion in systems with FC can be presented by two straight lines, characterized by effective masses M{sub FC}{sup *} and M{sub L}{sup *}, respectively, and intersecting near the binding energy, which is of the order of the superconducting gap. This same quasiparticle picture persists in the normal state, thus manifesting itself over a wide range of temperatures as new energy scales. Arguments are presented that fermion systems with FC have features of a {open_quotes}quantum protectorate{close_quotes} [R. B. Laughlin and D. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. >97, 28 (2000); P. W. Anderson, cond-mat/0007185 (unpublished); cond-mat/0007287 (unpublished)].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M. Ya.; Shaginyan, V. R.
2001-01-01
A model of a Fermi liquid with the fermion condensate (FC) is applied to the consideration of quasiparticle excitations in high-temperature superconductors, in their superconducting and normal states. Within our model the appearance of the fermion condensate presents a quantum phase transition that separates the regions of normal and strongly correlated electron liquids. Beyond the phase transition point the quasiparticle system is divided into two subsystems, one containing normal quasiparticles and the other-fermion condensate localized at the Fermi surface and characterized by almost dispersionless single-particle excitations. In the superconducting state the quasiparticle dispersion in systems with FC can be presented by two straight lines, characterized by effective masses M FC * and M L * , respectively, and intersecting near the binding energy, which is of the order of the superconducting gap. This same quasiparticle picture persists in the normal state, thus manifesting itself over a wide range of temperatures as new energy scales. Arguments are presented that fermion systems with FC have features of a 'quantum protectorate' [R. B. Laughlin and D. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. >97, 28 (2000); P. W. Anderson, cond-mat/0007185 (unpublished); cond-mat/0007287 (unpublished)
Self-similar factor approximants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.
2003-01-01
The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties
Four-quasiparticle isomers and K-forbidden transitions in 176Lu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGoram, T.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Kibedi, T.; Mullins, M.; Byrne, A.P.; Baxter, A.M.
2000-01-01
Full text: The odd-odd nucleus 176 Lu has been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigation over the last forty years. Much of this interest has stemmed from the role of 176 Lu in the s-process in nucleosynthesis. From a nuclear structure perspective, 176 Lu resides in a region of the nuclear chart where collective rotation and high-K, multi-quasiparticle states compete to form the yrast line (the locus of state with the lowest energy at a given angular momentum). The electromagnetic decay of intermediate and high-K states is often hindered due to the K-selection rule, while apparent violations of this selection rule have been ascribed to Coriolis mixing, shape changes in the gamma-degree of freedom, and so-called 'statistical' mixing. The relative importance of these mechanisms remains an open question. We present here the results of gamma-ray and conversion-electron spectroscopic measurements, performed at the Heavy Ion Facility at the Australian National University in Canberra, using the reaction 176 Yb( 7 Li, α3n) at a beam energy of 45 MeV. Two new four-quasiparticle isomers have been established, with mean lives of 400(100)ns and 58(5)μs, and spin projections and parities of 12 + and (14 + ) respectively. The shorter--lived isomer displays both normal and anomalous K-forbidden decays, which we show is the result of two-state mixing between the isomeric state and a member of a two-quasiparticle rotational band. The implied mixing matrix element of only 5 eV shows explicitly that very small mixing matrix elements may be responsible for anomalous K-hindered decays
Nodal quasi-particles of the high-Tc superconductors as carriers of heat
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Behnia
2006-09-01
Full Text Available In the quest for understanding correlated electrons, high-temperature superconductivity remains a formidable challenge and a source of insight. This paper briefly recalls the central achievement by the study of heat transport at low temperatures. At very low temperatures, nodal quasi-particles of the d-wave superconducting gap become the main carriers of heat. Their thermal conductivity is unaffected by disorder and reflects the fine structure of the superconducting gap. This finding had led to new openings in the exploration of other unconventional superconductors
Quasiparticle band structure for the Hubbard systems: Application to α-CeAl2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F.; Balle, S.; Salvador, R.
1990-01-01
A self-energy formalism for determining the quasiparticle band structure of the Hubbard systems is deduced. The self-energy is obtained from the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction whose bare value is the correlation energy U. A method for integrating the Schroedingerlike equation with the self-energy operator is given. The method is applied to the cubic Laves phase of α-CeAl 2 because it is a clear Hubbard system with a very complex electronic structure and, moreover, this system provides us with sufficient experimental data for testing our method
Quantum turbulence in superfluid 3He illuminated by a beam of quasiparticle excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, D.I.; Fisher, S.N.; Guenault, A.M.; Lowe, M.R.; Pickett, G.R.; Rahm, A.; Whitehead, R.C.V.
2004-01-01
We have measured directly the Andreev scattering of a controllable beam of quasiparticle excitations by a localized tangle of quantum vortices in superfluid 3 He-B at low temperatures. We present a microscopic description of the Andreev scattering from a vortex line allowing us to estimate the vortex separation scale in a dilute tangle of vortices, providing a better comparison of the observed decay time of the turbulence with recent numerical simulations. The experiments also suggest that below 200 μK we reach the low temperature limit for turbulent dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Y.; Chen, C.D.; Tsai, J.S.
1996-01-01
We have investigated Josephson-quasiparticle (JQP) current in superconducting single-electron transistors in which charging energy E C was larger than superconducting gap energy Δ and junction resistances were much larger than R Q ≡h/4e 2 . We found that not only the shapes of the JQP peaks but also their absolute height were reproduced quantitatively with a theory by Averin and Aleshkin using a Josephson energy of Ambegaokar-Baratoff close-quote s value. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Quasiparticle phonon model description of low-energy states in 152Pr
Alexa, P.; Ramdhane, M.; Thiamova, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Faust, H. R.; Genevey, J.; Köster, U.; Materna, T.; Orlandi, R.; Pinston, J. A.; Scherillo, A.; Hons, Z.
2018-03-01
Delayed γ -ray and conversion-electron spectroscopy is performed on A =152 fission fragments, at the Lohengrin spectrometer of the Institut Laue-Langevin, providing a new decay scheme for 152Pr. The quasiparticle phonon model, combined with the particle-rotor model, which allows octupole correlations and Coriolis mixing to be taken into account, is applied to analyze its low-energy structure. The main configurations are found to be (π 3 /2 [422 ] ⊗ν 5 /2 [642 ] ) 1+ for the isomer and (π 3 /2 [541 ] ⊗ν 3 /2 [521 ] ) 3+ for the ground state.
Quasiclassical calculation of the quasiparticle thermal conductivity in a mixed state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Hiroto; Miranovic, Predrag; Ichioka, Masanori; Machida, Kazushige
2007-01-01
We report the result of calculation of the quasiparticle thermal conductivity κ xx (∇T orthogonal B) in the vortex state of a two-dimensional superconductor. We compute κ xx for both s-wave and d-wave superconductors, taking account of the spatial dependence of normal Green's function g, which is neglected in the previous studies using the Brandt-Pesch-Tewordt (BPT) method. Our results indicate that κ xx based on the BPT method is slightly underestimated due to its incoherent spatial averaging procedure
Atomic-Scale Visualization of Quasiparticle Interference on a Type-II Weyl Semimetal Surface.
Zheng, Hao; Bian, Guang; Chang, Guoqing; Lu, Hong; Xu, Su-Yang; Wang, Guangqiang; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zhang, Songtian; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Sanchez, Daniel S; Song, Fengqi; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Yao, Nan; Bansil, Arun; Jia, Shuang; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid
2016-12-23
We combine quasiparticle interference simulation (theory) and atomic resolution scanning tunneling spectromicroscopy (experiment) to visualize the interference patterns on a type-II Weyl semimetal Mo_{x}W_{1-x}Te_{2} for the first time. Our simulation based on first-principles band topology theoretically reveals the surface electron scattering behavior. We identify the topological Fermi arc states and reveal the scattering properties of the surface states in Mo_{0.66}W_{0.34}Te_{2}. In addition, our result reveals an experimental signature of the topology via the interconnectivity of bulk and surface states, which is essential for understanding the unusual nature of this material.
Quasiparticle states driven by a scattering on the preformed electron pairs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Domanski
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We analyze evolution of the single particle excitation spectrum of the underdoped cuprate superconductors near the anti-nodal region, considering temperatures below and and above the phase transition. We inspect the phenomenological self-energy that reproduces the angle-resolved-photoemission-spectroscopy (ARPES data and we show that above the critical temperature, such procedure implies a transfer of the spectral weight from the Bogoliubov-type quasiparticles towards the in-gap damped states. We also discuss some possible microscopic arguments explaining this process.
Decay of a three-quasiparticle isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus 183Ta
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhu S.
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Excited states in neutron-rich tantalum isotopes have been studied with deep-inelastic reactions using 136Xe ions incident on a 186W target. New transitions observed below the τ=1.3 μs isomer in 183Ta have enabled the establishment of its energy and put limits on the spin and parity. On the basis of the reduced hindrances for the depopulating transitions, a 3-quasiparticle configuration of ν1/2−[510]11/2+[615] ⊗ π9/2−[514] is suggested.
The pion quasiparticle in the low-temperature phase of QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brandt Bastian B.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We extend our previous studies [PhysRevD.90.054509, PhysRevD.92.094510] of the pion quasiparticle in the low-temperature phase of two-flavor QCD with support from chiral effective theory. This includes the analysis performed on a finite temperature ensemble of size 20 × 643 at T ≈ 151MeV and a lighter zero-temperature pion mass mπ ≈ 185 MeV. Furthermore, we investigate the Gell-Mann–Oakes-Renner relation at finite temperature and the Dey-Eletsky-Ioffe mixing theorem at finite quark mass.
Decay patterns of multi-quasiparticle bands—a model independent test of chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrie, E A
2017-01-01
Nuclear chiral systems exhibit chiral symmetry bands, built on left-handed and right-handed angular momentum nucleon configurations. The experimental search for such chiral systems revealed a number of suitable candidates, however an unambiguous identification of nuclear chiral symmetry is still outstanding. In this work it is shown that the decay patterns of chiral bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations are different from those involving different single-particle configurations. It is suggested to use the observed decay patterns of chiral candidates as a new model-independent test of chiral symmetry. (paper)
Quasiparticle electronic and optical properties of the Si-Sn system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, Rasmus V S; Pedersen, Thomas G; Larsen, Arne N
2011-01-01
The Si 1-x Sn x material system is an interesting candidate for an optically active material compatible with Si. Based on density functional theory with quasiparticle corrections we calculate the electronic band structure of zinc-blende SiSn under both compressive and tensile strain. At 2.2% tensile strain the band gap becomes direct with a magnitude of 0.85 eV. We develop an accurate tight-binding parameterization of the electronic structure and calculate the optical properties of SiSn. Furthermore, the silicide SiSn 2 is investigated and found to have metallic character. (paper)
Theory of s-wave superconductor containing impurities with retarded interaction with quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
K V Grigorishin
2014-01-01
We propose a perturbation theory and diagram technique for a disordered metal when scattering of quasiparticles by nonmagnetic impurities is caused with a retarded interaction. The perturbation theory generalizes a case of elastic scattering in a disordered metal. Eliashberg equations for s-wave superconductivity are generalized for such a disordered superconductor. Anderson's theorem is found to be violated in the sense that embedding of the impurities into an s-wave superconductor increases its critical temperature. We show that the amplification of superconducting properties is a result of nonelastic effects in a scattering by the impurities. (paper)
Close near-degeneracy in a pair of four-quasiparticle bands in 194Tl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masiteng, P.L.; Lawrie, E.A.; Ramashidzha, T.M.; Bark, R.A.; Carlsson, B.G.; Lawrie, J.J.; Lindsay, R.; Komati, F.; Kau, J.; Maine, P.; Maliage, S.M.; Matamba, I.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T.; Mutshena, K.P.; Pasternak, A.A.; Ragnarsson, I.
2013-01-01
A pair of rotational bands associated with the πh 9/2 ⊗νi 13/2 −1 configuration at lower spins and with the πh 9/2 ⊗νi 13/2 −3 configuration at higher spins is found in 194 Tl. The two 4-quasiparticle bands show exceptionally close near-degeneracy in the excitation energies. Furthermore close similarity is also found in their alignments and B(M1)/B(E2) reduced transition probability ratios. Such close near-degeneracy probably indicates chiral geometry in the angular momentum space
Multi-quasiparticle excitation: Extending shape coexistence in A∼190 neutron-deficient nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Yue; Liu, H. L.; Xu, F. R.; Walker, P. M.
2010-01-01
Multi-quasiparticle high-K states in neutron-deficient mercury, lead, and polonium isotopes have been investigated systematically by means of configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations. An abundance of high-K states is predicted with both prolate and oblate shapes, which extends the shape coexistence of the mass region. Well-deformed shapes provide good conditions for the formation of isomers, as exemplified in 188 Pb. Of particular interest is the prediction of low-lying 10 - states in polonium isotopes, which indicate long-lived isomers.
Spin-dependent quasiparticle tunneling in junction superconductor-isolator-ferromagnetic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shlapak, Yu.V.; Shaternik, V.E.; Rudenko, E.M.
2001-01-01
The influence of Andreev reflection of quasiparticles in transparent tunnel junctions of superconductor-isolator-ferromagnetic on electric-current transport is studied within the framework of the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) model. It's obtained that current and signal-to-noise ratio can be increased for the memory cell by using in it the double-barrier tunnel junction ferromagnetic-isolator-superconductor-isolator-ferromagnetic instead off the usual tunnel junction ferromagnetic-isolator-ferromagnetic. The evolution of non-linear (tunnel-type) current-voltage characteristics with increasing of the junction transparency is described. (orig.)
International Conference Approximation Theory XV
Schumaker, Larry
2017-01-01
These proceedings are based on papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XV, which was held May 22–25, 2016 in San Antonio, Texas. The conference was the fifteenth in a series of meetings in Approximation Theory held at various locations in the United States, and was attended by 146 participants. The book contains longer survey papers by some of the invited speakers covering topics such as compressive sensing, isogeometric analysis, and scaling limits of polynomials and entire functions of exponential type. The book also includes papers on a variety of current topics in Approximation Theory drawn from areas such as advances in kernel approximation with applications, approximation theory and algebraic geometry, multivariate splines for applications, practical function approximation, approximation of PDEs, wavelets and framelets with applications, approximation theory in signal processing, compressive sensing, rational interpolation, spline approximation in isogeometric analysis, a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
von Barth, U.; Holm, B.
1996-01-01
With the aim of properly understanding the basis for and the utility of many-body perturbation theory as applied to extended metallic systems, we have calculated the electronic self-energy of the homogeneous electron gas within the GW approximation. The calculation has been carried out in a self-consistent way; i.e., the one-electron Green function obtained from Dyson close-quote s equation is the same as that used to calculate the self-energy. The self-consistency is restricted in the sense that the screened interaction W is kept fixed and equal to that of the random-phase approximation for the gas. We have found that the final results are marginally affected by the broadening of the quasiparticles, and that their self-consistent energies are still close to their free-electron counterparts as they are in non-self-consistent calculations. The reduction in strength of the quasiparticles and the development of satellite structure (plasmons) gives, however, a markedly smaller dynamical self-energy leading to, e.g., a smaller reduction in the quasiparticle strength as compared to non-self-consistent results. The relatively bad description of plasmon structure within the non-self-consistent GW approximation is marginally improved. A first attempt at including W in the self-consistency cycle leads to an even broader and structureless satellite spectrum in disagreement with experiment. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Rashba, E I
2009-01-01
Spin- and angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is a basic experimental tool for unveiling spin polarization of electron eigenstates in crystals. We prove, by using spin-orbit coupled graphene as a model, that photoconversion of a quasiparticle inside a crystal into a photoelectron can...... be accompanied with a dramatic change in its spin polarization, up to a total spin flip. This phenomenon is typical of quasiparticles residing away from the Brillouin-zone center and described by higher rank spinors and results in exotic patterns in the angular distribution of photoelectrons....
Hierarchical low-rank approximation for high dimensional approximation
Nouy, Anthony
2016-01-01
Tensor methods are among the most prominent tools for the numerical solution of high-dimensional problems where functions of multiple variables have to be approximated. Such high-dimensional approximation problems naturally arise in stochastic analysis and uncertainty quantification. In many practical situations, the approximation of high-dimensional functions is made computationally tractable by using rank-structured approximations. In this talk, we present algorithms for the approximation in hierarchical tensor format using statistical methods. Sparse representations in a given tensor format are obtained with adaptive or convex relaxation methods, with a selection of parameters using crossvalidation methods.
Hierarchical low-rank approximation for high dimensional approximation
Nouy, Anthony
2016-01-07
Tensor methods are among the most prominent tools for the numerical solution of high-dimensional problems where functions of multiple variables have to be approximated. Such high-dimensional approximation problems naturally arise in stochastic analysis and uncertainty quantification. In many practical situations, the approximation of high-dimensional functions is made computationally tractable by using rank-structured approximations. In this talk, we present algorithms for the approximation in hierarchical tensor format using statistical methods. Sparse representations in a given tensor format are obtained with adaptive or convex relaxation methods, with a selection of parameters using crossvalidation methods.
Sulangi, Miguel Antonio; Zaanen, Jan
2018-04-01
We explore the effects of various kinds of random disorder on the quasiparticle density of states of two-dimensional d -wave superconductors using an exact real-space method, incorporating realistic details known about the cuprates. Random on-site energy and pointlike unitary impurity models are found to give rise to a vanishing DOS at the Fermi energy for narrow distributions and low concentrations, respectively, and lead to a finite, but suppressed, DOS at unrealistically large levels of disorder. Smooth disorder arising from impurities located away from the copper-oxide planes meanwhile gives rise to a finite DOS at realistic impurity concentrations. For the case of smooth disorder whose average potential is zero, a resonance is found at zero energy for the quasiparticle DOS at large impurity concentrations. We discuss the implications of these results on the computed low-temperature specific heat, the behavior of which we find is strongly affected by the amount of disorder present in the system. We also compute the localization length as a function of disorder strength for various types of disorder and find that intermediate- and high-energy states are quasiextended for low disorder, and that states near the Fermi energy are strongly localized and have a localization length that exhibits an unusual dependence on the amount of disorder. We comment on the origin of disorder in the cuprates and provide constraints on these based on known results from scanning tunneling spectroscopy and specific heat experiments.
Delocalization of charge and current in a chiral quasiparticle wave packet
Sarkar, Subhajit
2018-03-01
A chiral quasiparticle wave packet (c-QPWP) is defined as a conventional superposition of chiral quasiparticle states corresponding to an interacting electron system in two dimensions (2D) in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). I investigate its internal structure via studying the charge and the current densities within the first-order perturbation in the electron-electron interaction. It is found that the c-QPWP contains a localized charge which is less than the magnitude of the bare charge and the remaining charge resides at the system boundary. The amount of charge delocalized turns out to be inversely proportional to the degenerate Fermi velocity v0(=√{α2+2 μ /m }) when RSOC (with strength α ) is weak, and therefore externally tunable. For strong RSOC, the magnitudes of both the delocalized charge and the current further strongly depend on the direction of propagation of the wave packet. Both the charge and the current densities consist of an anisotropic r-2 tail away from the center of the wave packet. Possible implications of such delocalizations in real systems corresponding to 2D semiconductor heterostructure are also discussed within the context of particle injection experiments.
Phases of QCD, thermal quasiparticles, and dilepton radiation from a fireball
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renk, Thorsten; Schneider, Roland; Weise, Wolfram
2002-01-01
We calculate dilepton production rates from a fireball adapted to the kinematical conditions realized in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of beam energies. The freeze-out state of the fireball is fixed by hadronic observables. We use this information combined with the initial geometry of the collision region to follow the space-time evolution of the fireball. Assuming entropy conservation, its bulk thermodynamic properties can then be uniquely obtained once the equation of state (EOS) is specified. The high-temperature quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase is modeled by a nonperturbative quasiparticle model that incorporates a phenomenological confinement description, adapted to lattice QCD results. For the hadronic phase, we interpolate the EOS into the region where a resonance gas approach seems applicable, keeping track of a possible overpopulation of the pion phase space. In this way, the fireball evolution is specified without reference to dilepton data, thus eliminating it as an adjustable parameter in the rate calculations. Dilepton emission in the QGP phase is then calculated within the quasiparticle model. In the hadronic phase, both temperature and finite baryon density effects on the photon spectral function are incorporated. Existing dilepton data from CERES at 158 and 40 A GeV Pb-Au collisions are well described, and a prediction for the PHENIX setup at RHIC for √(s)=200A GeV is given
The rate of quasiparticle recombination probes the onset of coherence in cuprate superconductors.
Hinton, J P; Thewalt, E; Alpichshev, Z; Mahmood, F; Koralek, J D; Chan, M K; Veit, M J; Dorow, C J; Barišić, N; Kemper, A F; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Liang, Ruixing; Gedik, N; Greven, M; Lanzara, A; Orenstein, J
2016-04-13
In the underdoped copper-oxides, high-temperature superconductivity condenses from a nonconventional metallic "pseudogap" phase that exhibits a variety of non-Fermi liquid properties. Recently, it has become clear that a charge density wave (CDW) phase exists within the pseudogap regime. This CDW coexists and competes with superconductivity (SC) below the transition temperature Tc, suggesting that these two orders are intimately related. Here we show that the condensation of the superfluid from this unconventional precursor is reflected in deviations from the predictions of BSC theory regarding the recombination rate of quasiparticles. We report a detailed investigation of the quasiparticle (QP) recombination lifetime, τqp, as a function of temperature and magnetic field in underdoped HgBa2CuO(4+δ) (Hg-1201) and YBa2Cu3O(6+x) (YBCO) single crystals by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. We find that τqp(T) exhibits a local maximum in a small temperature window near Tc that is prominent in underdoped samples with coexisting charge order and vanishes with application of a small magnetic field. We explain this unusual, non-BCS behavior by positing that Tc marks a transition from phase-fluctuating SC/CDW composite order above to a SC/CDW condensate below. Our results suggest that the superfluid in underdoped cuprates is a condensate of coherently-mixed particle-particle and particle-hole pairs.
Influence of quasi-particle density over polaron mobility in armchair graphene nanoribbons.
Silva, Gesiel Gomes; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira; de Sousa Junior, Rafael Timóteo; Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ribeiro Júnior, Luiz Antônio; E Silva, Geraldo Magela
2018-06-20
An important aspect concerning the performance of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) as materials for conceiving electronic devices is related to the mobility of charge carriers in these systems. When several polarons are considered in the system, a quasi-particle wave function can be affected by that of its neighbor provided the two are close enough. As the overlap may affect the transport of the carrier, the question concerning how the density of polarons affect its mobility arises. In this work, we investigate such dependence for semiconducting AGNRs in the scope of nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Our results unambiguously show an impact of the density on both the stability and average velocity of the quasi-particles. We have found a phase transition between regimes where increasing density stops inhibiting and starts promoting mobility; densities higher than 7 polarons per 45 Å present increasing mean velocity with increasing density. We have also established three different regions relating electric field and average velocity. For the lowest electric field regime, surpassing the aforementioned threshold results in overcoming the 0.3 Å fs-1 limit, thus representing a transition between subsonic and supersonic regimes. For the highest of the electric fields, density effects alone are responsible for a stunning difference of 1.5 Å fs-1 in the mean carrier velocity.
Dissociation of 1P states in hot QCD Medium Using Quasi-Particle Model
Nilima, Indrani; Agotiya, Vineet Kumar
2018-03-01
We extend the analysis of a very recent work [1] to study the dissociation phenomenon of 1P states of the charmonium and bottomonium spectra (χc and χb) in a hot QCD medium using Quasi-Particle Model. This study employed a medium modified heavy quark potential which has quite different form in the sense that it has a lomg range Coulombic tail in addition to the Yukawa term even above the deconfinement temperature. Then we study the flavor dependence of their binding energies and explore the nature of dissociation temperatures by employing the Quasi-Particle debye mass for pure gluonic and full QCD case. Interestingly, the dissociation temperatures obtained by employing EoS1 and EoS2 with the Γ criterion, is closer to the upper bound of the dissociation temperatures which are obtained by the dissolution of a given quarkonia state by the mean thermal energy of the quasi-partons in the hot QCD/QGP medium.
Stephenson, Anna; Gomes, Kenjiro K.; Ko, Wonhee; Mar, Warren; Manoharan, Hari C.
2014-03-01
Molecular graphene is a nanoscale artificial lattice composed of carbon monoxide molecules arranged one by one, realizing a dream of exploring exotic quantum materials by design. This assembly is done by atomic manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on a Cu(111) surface. To directly probe the transformation of normal surface state electrons into massless Dirac fermions, we map the momentum space dispersion through the Fourier analysis of quasiparticle scattering maps acquired at different energies with the STM. The Fourier analysis not only bridges the real-space and momentum-space data but also reveals the chiral nature of those quasiparticles, through a set of selection rules of allowed scattering involving the pseudospin and valley degrees of freedom. The graphene-like band structure can be reshaped with simple alterations to the lattice, such as the addition of a strain. We analyze the effect on the momentum space band structure of multiple types of strain on our system. Supported by DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akbari, Alireza [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); MPI for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Thalmeier, Peter [MPI for the Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)
2015-07-01
The hidden order (HO) in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} has been determined as a high rank multipole formed by itinerant 5f-electrons with distinct orbital structure imposed by the crystalline electric field. Because this can lead to a considerable number of different multipoles it is of great importance to use microscopic techniques that are sensitive to their subtle physical differences. Here we investigate whether quasiparticle interference (QPI) method can distinguish between the two most frequently proposed HO parameter models: the even rank-4 hexadecapole and the odd-rank-5 dotriacontapole model. We obtain the quasiparticle dispersion and reconstructed Fermi surface in each HO phase adapting an effective two-orbital model of 5f bands that reproduces the main Fermi surface sheets of the para phase. We show that the resulting QPI spectrum reflects directly the effect of fourfold symmetry breaking in the rank-5 model which is absent in the rank-4 model. Therefore we suggest that QPI method should give a possibility of direct discrimination between the two most investigated models of HO in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Furthermore the signature of proposed chiral d-wave superconducting (SC) order parameter in QPI of the coexisting HO+SC phase is investigated.
Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport
Brunner, G
2002-01-01
Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.
Approximation by planar elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2016-01-01
We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....
Exact constants in approximation theory
Korneichuk, N
1991-01-01
This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base
International Conference Approximation Theory XIV
Schumaker, Larry
2014-01-01
This volume developed from papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XIV, held April 7–10, 2013 in San Antonio, Texas. The proceedings contains surveys by invited speakers, covering topics such as splines on non-tensor-product meshes, Wachspress and mean value coordinates, curvelets and shearlets, barycentric interpolation, and polynomial approximation on spheres and balls. Other contributed papers address a variety of current topics in approximation theory, including eigenvalue sequences of positive integral operators, image registration, and support vector machines. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists working in approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and related approximation areas.
Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong
2016-02-01
The quasiparticle band gap is one of the most important materials properties for photovoltaic applications. Often the band gap of a photovoltaic material is determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. An in-depth understanding of how these factors affect the size of the gap will provide valuable guidance for new materials discovery. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap by introducing structural distortions and controlling the overall lattice constants. The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golubov, A.A.; Houwman, E.P.; Gijsbertsen, J.G.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.; le Grand, J.B.; de Korte, P.A.J.
1994-01-01
The low-energy quasiparticle scattering and recombination lifetimes for a proximity sandwich of two superconductors S and S' with different bulk energy gaps, are calculated as a function of the spatial coordinate and temperature. The spatial dependence of the order parameter and density of states are calculated on the basis of a microscopic model of the proximity effect, based on the Usadel equations, for dirty superconductors in thermal equilibrium. A zero boundary resistance between S and S' and a Boltzmann-like energy distribution of the excess quasiparticles are assumed. In the case of a small diffusion time constant an effective quasiparticle relaxation rate into and excitation rate out of the reduced gap region in the SS' sandwich are obtained as a function of (finite, but low) temperature and strength of the proximity effect, determined by the parameter γ m , by averaging over the energies and positions of the quasiparticles. In the same way effective tunneling times for electrons and holes tunneling out of the trap in the SS' sandwich to the other electrode of an SS'IS''S junction are determined as a function of temperature, voltage, and γ m
Truncik, C J S; Huttema, W A; Turner, P J; Ozcan, S; Murphy, N C; Carrière, P R; Thewalt, E; Morse, K J; Koenig, A J; Sarrao, J L; Broun, D M
2013-01-01
CeCoIn₅ is a heavy fermion superconductor with strong similarities to the high-Tc cuprates, including quasi-two-dimensionality, proximity to antiferromagnetism and probable d-wave pairing arising from a non-Fermi-liquid normal state. Experiments allowing detailed comparisons of their electronic properties are of particular interest, but in most cases are difficult to realize, due to their very different transition temperatures. Here we use low-temperature microwave spectroscopy to study the charge dynamics of the CeCoIn₅ superconducting state. The similarities to cuprates, in particular to ultra-clean YBa₂Cu₃O(y), are striking: the frequency and temperature dependence of the quasiparticle conductivity are instantly recognizable, a consequence of rapid suppression of quasiparticle scattering below T(c); and penetration-depth data, when properly treated, reveal a clean, linear temperature dependence of the quasiparticle contribution to superfluid density. The measurements also expose key differences, including prominent multiband effects and a temperature-dependent renormalization of the quasiparticle mass.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tkach, M.V.
2002-01-01
The integral-functional representation of mass operator of spinless quasiparticles interacting with polarizational phonons at T = 0 K is obtained for the first time. This representation is equivalent to the infinite branched integral fraction. It does not depend on the binding force and effectively takes into account the many phonon processes
Quasiparticle density of states in a half metal in the presence of odd-frequency Cooper pairs
Asano, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Takehito; Tanaka, Yukio; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch
2008-01-01
We study the local density of states in a half metal sandwiched by the two superconductors. The spin-flip scattering at the junction interface opens the Josephson channels of the odd-frequency spin-triplet s-wave Cooper pairs. The penetration of the odd-frequency pairs enhances the quasiparticle
A version of the Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model for doubly-even well-deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1992-06-01
The basic assumptions concerning the Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model are formulated and the mathematical apparatus is developed. The Hamiltonian, containing a finite-rank separable isoscalar and isovector multipole, a spin-multipole and a tensor particle-hole as well as particle-particle interactions transforms to a form containing quasiparticle, phonon and quasiparticle-phonon interactions. The general RPA equation is derived and the particular cases are discussed. The very complex interaction does not complicate the description of the fragmentation one-phonon states. It is shown that the three-phonon terms added to the one- and two-phonon terms in the wave function lead to an additional small shift of the two-phonon poles in the secular equation. The influence of the density-dependent separable interaction on the vibrational states is small. A common description of the collective, weakly collective and two-quasiparticle states in doubly-even well-deformed nuclei is obtained. (author)
Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daoutidis, Ioannis
2009-01-01
Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)
Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daoutidis, Ioannis
2009-10-01
Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)
Some results in Diophantine approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Steffen Højris
the basic concepts on which the papers build. Among other it introduces metric Diophantine approximation, Mahler’s approach on algebraic approximation, the Hausdorff measure, and properties of the formal Laurent series over Fq. The introduction ends with a discussion on Mahler’s problem when considered......This thesis consists of three papers in Diophantine approximation, a subbranch of number theory. Preceding these papers is an introduction to various aspects of Diophantine approximation and formal Laurent series over Fq and a summary of each of the three papers. The introduction introduces...
Limitations of shallow nets approximation.
Lin, Shao-Bo
2017-10-01
In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Dinhdang; Nguyen Zuythang
1988-01-01
Using the realistic single-particle energy spectrum obtained in the Woods-Saxon nucleon mean-field potential, we calculate the BCS pairing gap for 58 Ni as a function of temperature taking into account the thermal and particle-number fluctuations. The strength distributions of the electric dipole transitions and the centroids of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IV-GDR) are computed in the framework of the finite-temperature random-phase approximation (RPA) based on the Hamiltonian of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with separate dipole forces. It is shown that the change of the pairing gap at finite temperature can noticeably influence the IV-GDR localisation in realistic nuclei. By taking both thermal and quasiparticle fluctuations in the pairing gap into account the effect of the phase transition from superfluid to normal in the temperature dependence of the IV-GDR centroid is completely smeared out. (author)
Quasiparticle propagation in aluminum fins and tungsten TES dynamics in the CDMS ZIP detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pyle, M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: mpyle1@stanford.edu; Brink, P.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cabrera, B. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Castle, J.P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Colling, P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chang, C.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cooley, J. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lipus, T. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ogburn, R.W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Young, B.A. [Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053 (United States)
2006-04-15
With the aim of improving the rejection of surface beta contamination on the CDMS ZIP detector, we have studied the effectiveness of our phonon pulse-shape discrimination by matching a Monte Carlo calculation to data from a 350{mu}m long Al fin with W TESs (Transition-Edge Sensors) at both ends. From this fit, we determined the Al film diffusivity to be D{sub Al}=0.010+/-0.001m{sup 2}/s, the quasiparticle trapping length in the Al fin to be l{sub trap}=180+/-10{mu}m, and the Al to W TES transmission to be f{sub Al/W}=0.002+/-0.001.
Quasiparticle scattering in type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2
Lin, Chun-Liang; Arafune, Ryuichi; Minamitani, Emi; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki
2018-03-01
The electronic structure of type-II Weyl semimetal molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) is studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. Through measuring energy-dependent quasiparticle interference (QPI) patterns with a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope, several characteristic features are found in the QPI patterns. Two of them arise from the Weyl semimetal nature; one is the topological Fermi arc surface state and the other can be assigned to be a Weyl point. The remaining structures are derived from the scatterings relevant to the bulk electronic states. The findings lead to further understanding of the topological electronic structure of type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2.
Breakdown of quasiparticle picture in the low-density limit of the 1D Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Shaojin; Qian Tiezheng; Su Zhaobin
1995-03-01
Using the finite-size scaling of results obtained by exact diagonalization, we study the low-density limit of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. Calculating the quasiparticle weight, we demonstrate that for a given particle number N and system size L, there always exists a crossover point U c separating the Fermi-liquid (U c ) and non-Fermi-liquid (U > U c ) regimes (U is the Hubbard repulsion). We find that for a fixed N, U c is inversely proportional to L, keeping U c L/t constant (with t as the hopping integral), as L is large enough. It follows that in the low-density (in fact vanishing density) limit L → ∞, U c → 0, so the system is always in non-Fermi-liquid regime as long as U > 0. We show that our numerical results are consistent with the Bethe ansatz solution. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs
Microwave amplification based on quasiparticle SIS up and down frequency converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Kojima
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Heterodyne instruments have recently attained quantum-limited low-noise performance, particularly in radio astronomy, but it is difficult to develop large heterodyne arrays such as a modern radio camera using cryogenic sensitive detectors based on microwave kinetic inductance detectors, transition edge sensors, etc. In the realization of the heterodyne array, the reduction of power dissipation for semiconductor-based amplifiers remains a major challenge. Alternatively, superconducting parametric amplifiers still seem to have several barriers to application, especially in terms of operating temperature. Here, we show a novel concept of microwave amplification based on up and down frequency-conversion processes using quasiparticle superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS tunnel junctions. We demonstrate positive gain using a proof-of-concept test module, which operates with a power dissipation of several μW at a bath temperature of 4 K. The performance of the module suggests great potential for application in large arrays.
Ramshaw, B J; Sebastian, S E; McDonald, R D; Day, James; Tan, B S; Zhu, Z; Betts, J B; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Harrison, N
2015-04-17
In the quest for superconductors with higher transition temperatures (T(c)), one emerging motif is that electronic interactions favorable for superconductivity can be enhanced by fluctuations of a broken-symmetry phase. Recent experiments have suggested the existence of the requisite broken-symmetry phase in the high-T(c) cuprates, but the impact of such a phase on the ground-state electronic interactions has remained unclear. We used magnetic fields exceeding 90 tesla to access the underlying metallic state of the cuprate YBa2Cu3O(6+δ) over a wide range of doping, and observed magnetic quantum oscillations that reveal a strong enhancement of the quasiparticle effective mass toward optimal doping. This mass enhancement results from increasing electronic interactions approaching optimal doping, and suggests a quantum critical point at a hole doping of p(crit) ≈ 0.18. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Subgap resonant quasiparticle transport in normal-superconductor quantum dot devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gramich, J., E-mail: joerg.gramich@unibas.ch; Baumgartner, A.; Schönenberger, C. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2016-04-25
We report thermally activated transport resonances for biases below the superconducting energy gap in a carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) device with a superconducting Pb and a normal metal contact. These resonances are due to the superconductor's finite quasi-particle population at elevated temperatures and can only be observed when the QD life-time broadening is considerably smaller than the gap. This condition is fulfilled in our QD devices with optimized Pd/Pb/In multi-layer contacts, which result in reproducibly large and “clean” superconducting transport gaps with a strong conductance suppression for subgap biases. We show that these gaps close monotonically with increasing magnetic field and temperature. The accurate description of the subgap resonances by a simple resonant tunneling model illustrates the ideal characteristics of the reported Pb contacts and gives an alternative access to the tunnel coupling strengths in a QD.
Quasiparticle interference of the Fermi arcs and surface-bulk connectivity of a Weyl semimetal.
Inoue, Hiroyuki; Gyenis, András; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Jian; Oh, Seong Woo; Jiang, Shan; Ni, Ni; Bernevig, B Andrei; Yazdani, Ali
2016-03-11
Weyl semimetals host topologically protected surface states, with arced Fermi surface contours that are predicted to propagate through the bulk when their momentum matches that of the surface projections of the bulk's Weyl nodes. We used spectroscopic mapping with a scanning tunneling microscope to visualize quasiparticle scattering and interference at the surface of the Weyl semimetal TaAs. Our measurements reveal 10 different scattering wave vectors, which can be understood and precisely reproduced with a theory that takes into account the shape, spin texture, and momentum-dependent propagation of the Fermi arc surface states into the bulk. Our findings provide evidence that Weyl nodes act as sinks for electron transport on the surface of these materials. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Interpretation of scanning tunneling quasiparticle interference and impurity states in cuprates.
Kreisel, A; Choubey, Peayush; Berlijn, T; Ku, W; Andersen, B M; Hirschfeld, P J
2015-05-29
We apply a recently developed method combining first principles based Wannier functions with solutions to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to the problem of interpreting STM data in cuprate superconductors. We show that the observed images of Zn on the surface of Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8} can only be understood by accounting for the tails of the Cu Wannier functions, which include significant weight on apical O sites in neighboring unit cells. This calculation thus puts earlier crude "filter" theories on a microscopic foundation and solves a long-standing puzzle. We then study quasiparticle interference phenomena induced by out-of-plane weak potential scatterers, and show how patterns long observed in cuprates can be understood in terms of the interference of Wannier functions above the surface. Our results show excellent agreement with experiment and enable a better understanding of novel phenomena in the cuprates via STM imaging.
(3+1)D Quasiparticle Anisotropic Hydrodynamics for Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions.
Alqahtani, Mubarak; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2017-07-28
We present the first comparisons of experimental data with phenomenological results from (3+1)D quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydroQP). We compare particle spectra, average transverse momentum, and elliptic flow. The dynamical equations used for the hydrodynamic stage utilize aHydroQP, which naturally includes both shear and bulk viscous effects. The (3+1)D aHydroQP evolution obtained is self-consistently converted to hadrons using anisotropic Cooper-Frye freeze-out. Hadron production and decays are modeled using a customized version of therminator 2. In this first study, we utilized smooth Glauber-type initial conditions and a single effective freeze-out temperature T_{FO}=130 MeV with all hadronic species in full chemical equilibrium. With this rather simple setup, we find a very good description of many heavy-ion observables.
Quasiparticle-phonon model and quadrupole mixed-symmetry states of 96Ru
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stoyanov Ch.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The structure of low-lying quadrupole states of 96Ru was calculated within the Quasiparticle-Phonon Model. It is shown that symmetric and mixed-symmetry properties manifest themselves via the structure of the excited states. The first 2+ state is collective and neutron and proton transition matrix elements Mn and Mp are in-phase, while the neutron and proton transition matrix elements Mn and Mp have opposite signs for the third 2+ state. This property of the third 2+ state leads to a large M1 transition between the first and third 2+ states. It is an unambigous demonstration of the mixed-symmetry nature of the third 2+ state. The structure of the first 1+ state is calculated. The state is a member of the two-phonon multiplet generated by the coupling of the [21+]QRPA and the [22+]QRPA states.
Quasiparticle Properties of a Mobile Impurity in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Christensen, Rasmus Søgaard; Levinsen, Jesper; Bruun, Georg M
2015-10-16
We develop a systematic perturbation theory for the quasiparticle properties of a single impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Analytical results are derived for the impurity energy, effective mass, and residue to third order in the impurity-boson scattering length. The energy is shown to depend logarithmically on the scattering length to third order, whereas the residue and the effective mass are given by analytical power series. When the boson-boson scattering length equals the boson-impurity scattering length, the energy has the same structure as that of a weakly interacting Bose gas, including terms of the Lee-Huang-Yang and fourth order logarithmic form. Our results, which cannot be obtained within the canonical Fröhlich model of an impurity interacting with phonons, provide valuable benchmarks for many-body theories and for experiments.
Xu, Yong; Chu, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Chuanwei
2014-04-04
Weyl fermions, first proposed for describing massless chiral Dirac fermions in particle physics, have not been observed yet in experiments. Recently, much effort has been devoted to explore Weyl fermions around band touching points of single-particle energy dispersions in certain solid state materials (named Weyl semimetals), similar as graphene for Dirac fermions. Here we show that such Weyl semimetals also exist in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of a three-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Fulde-Ferrell superfluid. By varying Zeeman fields, the properties of Weyl fermions, such as their creation and annihilation, number and position, as well as anisotropic linear dispersions around band touching points, can be tuned. We study the manifestation of anisotropic Weyl fermions in sound speeds of Fulde-Ferrell fermionic superfluids, which are detectable in experiments.
Robust determination of the superconducting gap sign structure via quasiparticle interference
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altenfeld, Dustin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Hirschfeld, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Eremin, Ilya [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Mazin, Igor [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6393, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2016-07-01
Using an electronic theory, we present a qualitative description to identify sign changes of the superconducting order parameter via quasiparticle interference (QPI) measurement in Fe-based superconductors (FeSc). In particular, we point out that the temperature dependence of the momentum-integrated QPI data can be used to differentiate between s{sub +-} and s{sub ++} states in a system with typical iron pnictide Fermi surface. We show that the signed symmetrized and antisymmetrized QPI maps are useful to obtain a characteristic signature of a gap sign change or lack thereof, starting from two-band model up to ab initio based band structure calculation. We further suggest this method as a robust way of the determination of the superconducting gap sign structure in experiment and discuss its application to the LiFeAs compounds.
Quasiparticle scattering in type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2.
Lin, Chun-Liang; Arafune, Ryuichi; Minamitani, Emi; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki
2018-02-15
The electronic structure of type-II Weyl semimetal molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe 2 ) is studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. Through measuring energy-dependent quasiparticle interference (QPI) patterns with a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope, several characteristic features are found in the QPI patterns. Two of them arise from the Weyl semimetal nature; one is the topological Fermi arc surface state and the other can be assigned to be a Weyl point. The remaining structures are derived from the scatterings relevant to the bulk electronic states. The findings lead to further understanding of the topological electronic structure of type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe 2 .
Visualizing Type-II Weyl Points in Tungsten Ditelluride by Quasiparticle Interference.
Lin, Chun-Liang; Arafune, Ryuichi; Liu, Ro-Ya; Yoshimura, Masato; Feng, Baojie; Kawahara, Kazuaki; Ni, Zeyuan; Minamitani, Emi; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shi, Youguo; Kawai, Maki; Chiang, Tai-Chang; Matsuda, Iwao; Takagi, Noriaki
2017-11-28
Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are classified into two types, type I and II, according to the topology of the Weyl point, where the electron and hole pockets touch each other. Tungsten ditelluride (WTe 2 ) has garnered a great deal of attention as a strong candidate to be a type-II WSM. However, the Weyl points for WTe 2 are located above the Fermi level, which has prevented us from identifying the locations and the connection to the Fermi arc surface states by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Here, we present experimental proof that WTe 2 is a type-II WSM. We measured energy-dependent quasiparticle interference patterns with a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope, revealing the position of the Weyl point and its connection with the Fermi arc surface states, in agreement with prior theoretical predictions. Our results provide an answer to this crucial question and stimulate further exploration of the characteristics of WSMs.
Translational Symmetry Breaking and Gapping of Heavy-Quasiparticle Pocket in URu2Si2
Yoshida, Rikiya; Tsubota, Koji; Ishiga, Toshihiko; Sunagawa, Masanori; Sonoyama, Jyunki; Aoki, Dai; Flouquet, Jacques; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi
2013-01-01
URu2Si2 is a uranium compound that exhibits a so-called ‘hidden-order’ transition at ~17.5 K. However, the order parameter of this second-order transition as well as many of its microscopic properties remain unclarified despite considerable research. One of the key questions in this regard concerns the type of spontaneous symmetry breaking occurring at the transition; although rotational symmetry breaking has been detected, it is not clear whether another type of symmetry breaking also occurs. Another key question concerns the property of Fermi-surface gapping in the momentum space. Here we address these key questions by a momentum-dependent observation of electronic states at the transition employing ultrahigh-resolution three-dimensional angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our results provide compelling evidence of the spontaneous breaking of the lattice's translational symmetry and particle-hole asymmetric gapping of a heavy quasiparticle pocket at the transition. PMID:24084937
Anomalous Quasiparticle Reflection from the Surface of a ^{3}He-^{4}He Dilute Solution.
Ikegami, Hiroki; Kim, Kitak; Sato, Daisuke; Kono, Kimitoshi; Choi, Hyoungsoon; Monarkha, Yuriy P
2017-11-10
A free surface of a dilute ^{3}He-^{4}He liquid mixture is a unique system where two Fermi liquids with distinct dimensions coexist: a three-dimensional (3D) ^{3}He Fermi liquid in the bulk and a two-dimensional (2D) ^{3}He Fermi liquid at the surface. To investigate a novel effect generated by the interaction between the two Fermi liquids, the mobility of a Wigner crystal of electrons formed on the free surface of the mixture is studied. An anomalous enhancement of the mobility, compared with the case where the 3D and 2D systems do not interact with each other, is observed. The enhancement is explained by the nontrivial reflection of 3D quasiparticles from the surface covered with the 2D ^{3}He system.
Quasiparticle interference in heavy fermion superconductors. Role of the slab geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lambert, Fabian [Institute fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Akbari, Alireza [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, and Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Thalmeier, Peter [Max Planck Institute for the Chemical Physics of Solids, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Eremin, Ilya [Institute fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Institute of Physics, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)
2016-07-01
We analyze theoretically the quasiparticle interference in the heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn{sub 5} and UPt{sub 3} as a direct method to investigate the gap symmetry. In contrast to the prior attempts that computed QPI patterns for some effective two-dimensional models or by performing calculations for various k{sub z} cuts and then averaging the final result, we perfom the calculations for the three-dimensional models in the slab geometry and investigate possible effects of the finite sample size, topology, and surface termination. Comparing with the results of prior analysis of the bulk system we can conclude on the importance of the possible surface states for determining the QPI pattern.
Quasiparticle Scattering in Type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe2.
Lin, Chun-Liang; Arafune, Ryuichi; Minamitani, Emi; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki
2018-01-30
The electronic structure of type-II Weyl semimetal molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe_{2}) is studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. Through measuring energy-dependent quasiparticle interference (QPI) patterns with a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope, several characteristic features are found in the QPI patterns. Two of them arise from the Weyl semimetal nature; one is the topological Fermi arc surface state and the other can be assigned to be a Weyl point. The remaining structures are derived from the scatterings relevant to the bulk electronic states. The findings lead to thorough understanding of the topological electronic structure of type-II Weyl semimetal MoTe_{2}. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Jolie, Wouter; Lux, Jonathan; Pörtner, Mathias; Dombrowski, Daniela; Herbig, Charlotte; Knispel, Timo; Simon, Sabina; Michely, Thomas; Rosch, Achim; Busse, Carsten
2018-03-09
We study chemically gated bilayer graphene using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy complemented by tight-binding calculations. Gating is achieved by intercalating Cs between bilayer graphene and Ir(111), thereby shifting the conduction band minima below the chemical potential. Scattering between electronic states (both intraband and interband) is detected via quasiparticle interference. However, not all expected processes are visible in our experiment. We uncover two general effects causing this suppression: first, intercalation leads to an asymmetrical distribution of the states within the two layers, which significantly reduces the scanning tunneling spectroscopy signal of standing waves mainly present in the lower layer; second, forward scattering processes, connecting points on the constant energy contours with parallel velocities, do not produce pronounced standing waves due to destructive interference. We present a theory to describe the interference signal for a general n-band material.
Quasi-particle energies and optical excitations of hydrogenated and fluorinated germanene.
Shu, Huabing; Li, Yunhai; Wang, Shudong; Wang, Jinlan
2015-02-14
Using density functional theory, the G0W0 method and Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations, we systematically explore the structural, electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated and fluorinated germanene. The hydrogenated/fluorinated germanene tends to form chair and zigzag-line configurations and its electronic and optical properties show close geometry dependence. The chair hydrogenated/fluorinated and zigzag-line fluorinated germanene are direct band-gap semiconductors, while the zigzag-line hydrogenated germanene owns an indirect band-gap. Moreover, the quasi-particle corrections are significant and strong excitonic effects with large exciton binding energies are observed. Moreover, the zigzag-line hydrogenated/fluorinated germanene shows highly anisotropic optical responses, which may be used as a good optical linear polarizer.
Quasi-particle model for lattice QCD: quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandra, Vinod; Ravishankar, V.
2009-01-01
We propose a quasi-particle model to describe the lattice QCD equation of state for pure SU(3) gauge theory in its deconfined state, for T≥1.5T c . The method involves mapping the interaction part of the equation of state to an effective fugacity of otherwise non-interacting quasi-gluons. We find that this mapping is exact. Using the quasi-gluon distribution function, we determine the energy density and the modified dispersion relation for the single particle energy, in which the trace anomaly is manifest. As an application, we first determine the Debye mass, and then the important transport parameters, viz., the shear viscosity, η, and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η/S. We find that both η and η/S are sensitive to the interactions, and that the interactions significantly lower both η and η/S. (orig.)
Femosecond dynamics of quasi-particles in YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconductor films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, S.G.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Symko, O.G.; Koren, G.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the transient electronic response of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ epitaxially grown HT c superconductor thin films in the femtosecond time domain, using transient photoinduced reflectivity (ΔR) with 60 fsec time resolution. For temperatures T > T c only a bolometric signal was observed with ΔR > O. For T c ΔR < O with a temperature dependent rise time of order 300 fsec followed by a relaxation (of order 3 psec) into a state with Δ are explained in terms of quasi-particle (QP) electronic response giving ΔR < O. Thus the femtosecond rise time is interpreted as avalanche multiplication of QP across the gap 2Δ and the subsequent picosecond relaxation as QP recombination. The QP optical response is explained within the two fluid model
Quasiparticles and order parameter near quantum phase transition in heavy fermion metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation) and CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)]. E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)
2005-05-02
It is shown that the Landau paradigm based upon both the quasiparticle concept and the notion of the order parameter is valid and can be used to explain the anomalous behavior of the heavy fermion metals near quantum critical points. The understanding of this phenomenon has been problematic largely because of the absence of theoretical guidance. Exploiting this paradigm and the fermion condensation quantum phase transition, we investigate the anomalous behavior of the heavy electron liquid near its critical point at different temperatures and applied magnetic fields. We show that this anomalous behavior is universal and can be used to capture the essential aspects of recent experiments on heavy-fermion metals at low temperatures.
Jolie, Wouter; Lux, Jonathan; Pörtner, Mathias; Dombrowski, Daniela; Herbig, Charlotte; Knispel, Timo; Simon, Sabina; Michely, Thomas; Rosch, Achim; Busse, Carsten
2018-03-01
We study chemically gated bilayer graphene using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy complemented by tight-binding calculations. Gating is achieved by intercalating Cs between bilayer graphene and Ir(111), thereby shifting the conduction band minima below the chemical potential. Scattering between electronic states (both intraband and interband) is detected via quasiparticle interference. However, not all expected processes are visible in our experiment. We uncover two general effects causing this suppression: first, intercalation leads to an asymmetrical distribution of the states within the two layers, which significantly reduces the scanning tunneling spectroscopy signal of standing waves mainly present in the lower layer; second, forward scattering processes, connecting points on the constant energy contours with parallel velocities, do not produce pronounced standing waves due to destructive interference. We present a theory to describe the interference signal for a general n -band material.
Quasiparticle energies, excitons, and optical spectra of few-layer black phosphorus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran, Vy; Fei, Ruixiang; Yang, Li
2015-01-01
We report first-principles GW–Bethe–Salpeter-equation (BSE) studies of excited-state properties of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) (phosphorene). With improved GW computational methods, we obtained converged quasiparticle band gaps and optical absorption spectra by the single-shot (G 0 W 0 ) procedure. Moreover, we reveal fine structures of anisotropic excitons, including the series of one-dimensional like wave functions, spin singlet–triplet splitting, and electron–hole binding energy spectra by solving BSE. An effective-mass model is employed to describe these electron–hole pairs, shedding light on estimating the exciton binding energy of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors without expensive ab initio simulations. Finally, the anisotropic optical response of BP is explained by using optical selection rules based on the projected single-particle density of states at band edges. (paper)
A quasi-particle description of the M(3,p) models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacob, P.; Mathieu, P.
2006-01-01
The M(3,p) minimal models are reconsidered from the point of view of the extended algebra whose generators are the energy-momentum tensor and the primary field φ 2,1 of dimension (p-2)/4. Within this framework, we provide a quasi-particle description of these models, in which all states are expressed solely in terms of the φ 2,1 -modes. More precisely, we show that all the states can be written in terms of φ 2,1 -type highest-weight states and their φ 2,1 -descendants. We further demonstrate that the conformal dimension of these highest-weight states can be calculated from the φ 2,1 commutation relations, the highest-weight conditions and associativity. For the simplest models (p=5,7), the full spectrum is explicitly reconstructed along these lines. For p odd, the commutation relations between the φ 2,1 modes take the form of infinite sums, i.e., of generalized commutation relations akin to parafermionic models. In that case, an unexpected operator, generalizing the Witten index, is unraveled in the OPE of φ 2,1 with itself. A quasi-particle basis formulated in terms of the sole φ 2,1 modes is studied for all allowed values of p. We argue that it is governed by jagged-type partitions further subject a difference 2 condition at distance 2. We demonstrate the correctness of this basis by constructing its generating function, from which the proper fermionic expression of the combination of the Virasoro irreducible characters χ 1,s and χ 1,p-s (for 1=
Spherical Approximation on Unit Sphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eman Samir Bhaya
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a Jackson type theorem for functions in LP spaces on sphere And study on best approximation of functions in spaces defined on unit sphere. our central problem is to describe the approximation behavior of functions in spaces for by modulus of smoothness of functions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, S.G.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Wong, K.S.; Symko, O.G. (Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Koren, G. (Department of Physics, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel))
1990-11-19
Femtosecond dynamics of photogenerated quasiparticles in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconducting thin films shows, at {ital T}{le}{ital T}{sub {ital c}}, two main electronic processes: (i) quasiparticle avalanche production during hot-carrier thermalization, which takes about 300 fsec; (ii) recombination of quasiparticles to form Cooper pairs, which is completed within 5 psec. In contrastr, nonsuperconducting epitaxial films such as PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 7} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6} show regular picosecond electronic response.
Approximate circuits for increased reliability
Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.
2015-08-18
Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.
Dynamical spin susceptibility in the TD-LDA and QSGW approximations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schilfgaarde, Mark Van [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States); Kotani, Takao [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)
2012-10-15
Abstract. This project was aimed at building the transverse dynamical spin susceptibility with the TD-LDA and the recently-developed Quasparticle Self-Consisent Approximations, which determines an optimum quasiparticle picture in a self-consistent manner within the GW approximation. Our main results were published into two papers, (J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 20, 95214 (2008), and Phys. Rev. B83, 060404(R) (2011). In the first paper we present spin wave dispersions for MnO, NiO, and -MnAs based on quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation (QSGW). For MnO and NiO, QSGW results are in rather good agreement with experiments, in contrast to the LDA and LDA+U descriptions. For -MnAs, we find a collinear ferromagnetic ground state in QSGW, while this phase is unstable in the LDA. In the second, we apply TD-LDA to the CaFeAs_{2} the first attempt the first ab initio calculation of dynamical susceptibililty in a system with complex electronic structure Magnetic excitations in the striped phase of CaFe_{2}As_{2} are studied as a function of local moment amplitude. We find a new kind of excitation: sharp resonances of Stoner-like (itinerant) excitations at energies comparable to the ´eel temperature, originating largely from a narrow band of Fe d states near the Fermi level, and coexisting with more conventional (localized) spin waves. Both kinds of excitations can show multiple branches, highlighting the inadequacy of a description based on a localized spin model.
Approximate Dynamic Programming: Combining Regional and Local State Following Approximations.
Deptula, Patryk; Rosenfeld, Joel A; Kamalapurkar, Rushikesh; Dixon, Warren E
2018-06-01
An infinite-horizon optimal regulation problem for a control-affine deterministic system is solved online using a local state following (StaF) kernel and a regional model-based reinforcement learning (R-MBRL) method to approximate the value function. Unlike traditional methods such as R-MBRL that aim to approximate the value function over a large compact set, the StaF kernel approach aims to approximate the value function in a local neighborhood of the state that travels within a compact set. In this paper, the value function is approximated using a state-dependent convex combination of the StaF-based and the R-MBRL-based approximations. As the state enters a neighborhood containing the origin, the value function transitions from being approximated by the StaF approach to the R-MBRL approach. Semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) convergence of the system states to the origin is established using a Lyapunov-based analysis. Simulation results are provided for two, three, six, and ten-state dynamical systems to demonstrate the scalability and performance of the developed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, C.T.; Klein, A.
1979-01-01
The theory of anharmonic nuclear vibrational motion (nonlinear equations-of-motion method) developed in the preceding paper is applied to atsup 60,62,64atNi, which exhibit one and two phonon quadrupole collective states. A model Hamiltonian consisting of a modified pairing plus quadrupole interaction is studied first by comparing the results of the nonlinear equations-of-motion method with those of an exact diagonalization. Contrary to popular opinion, the model chosen fails to produce a vibrational spectrum, except in the case of 60 Ni, and as a consequence, the nonlinear equations-of-motion method, designed specifically to describe vibrational spectra, accords well with the exact calculations only for this case. A simple method is then described, within the framework of the nonlinear equations-of-motion method, for refining the model Hamiltonian so as to bring it into accord with experiment. In practice, it is found that a simple additional parameter in the Hamiltonian suffices to yield descriptions of the quadrupole states in Ni isotopes comparable in precision to the most up-to-date versions (modified, adjusted, etc.) of the surface delta interaction model
The efficiency of Flory approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obukhov, S.P.
1984-01-01
The Flory approximation for the self-avoiding chain problem is compared with a conventional perturbation theory expansion. While in perturbation theory each term is averaged over the unperturbed set of configurations, the Flory approximation is equivalent to the perturbation theory with the averaging over the stretched set of configurations. This imposes restrictions on the integration domain in higher order terms and they can be treated self-consistently. The accuracy δν/ν of Flory approximation for self-avoiding chain problems is estimated to be 2-5% for 1 < d < 4. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falco, C.M.
1974-01-01
Careful studies of the effect of thermal fluctuations on the I-V characteristics of two different types of weakly coupled superconductors were made. Measurements on externally shunted, oxide-barrier tunnel junctions were found to be in complete quantitative agreement with a theory due to Ambegaokar and Halperin in the limit of β/sub c/ identical with 2eI/sub c/C/sigma 0 2 h much less than 1 where the theory is valid. Similar measurements in the region of β/sub c/ approximately equal to 1 were found to be in qualitative agreement with a theory due to Kurkijarvi and Ambegaokar. Assuming the Ambegaokar and Halperin theory is applicable, measurements on Notarys-Nercereau normal metal underlay weak links indicate the presence of a phase-dependent conductivity predicted by B. D. Josephson in 1962. The magnitude of this conductivity was found to be in agreement with that predicted by theory, however, the sign of the conductivity was found to be in disagreement. A study of the operating characteristics of rf-biased thin-film superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) has also been made and a set of performance parameters developed to optimize the behavior of these devices. The behavior of these SQUIDs has been compared with a theory due to Hansma in order to look for the effect of the phase-dependent quasiparticle-pair interference current. The me []surements were found to be qualitatively different than predicted by Hansma's theory. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)
Biswas, Tutul; Kanti Ghosh, Tarun
2018-02-01
We consider the α-T 3 model which provides a smooth crossover between the honeycomb lattice with pseudospin 1/2 and the dice lattice with pseudospin 1 through the variation of a parameter α. We study the dynamics of a wave packet representing a quasiparticle in the α-T3 model with zero and finite transverse magnetic field. For zero field, it is shown that the wave packet undergoes a transient zitterbewegung (ZB). Various features of ZB depending on the initial pseudospin polarization of the wave packet have been revealed. For an intermediate value of the parameter α i.e. for 0gets exactly half of that corresponding to the α=0 case. On the other hand, when the initial wave packet was in hub site, the ZB consists of only one frequency for all values of α. Using stationary phase approximation, we find analytical expression of velocity average which can be used to extract the associated timescale over which the transient nature of ZB persists. On the contrary, the wave packet undergoes permanent ZB in presence of a transverse magnetic field. Due to the presence of a large number of Landau energy levels, the oscillations in ZB appear to be much more complicated. The oscillation pattern depends significantly on the initial pseudospin polarization of the wave packet. Furthermore, it is revealed that the number of the frequency components involved in ZB depends on the parameter α.
Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver J. D. Barrowclough
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.
Rollout sampling approximate policy iteration
Dimitrakakis, C.; Lagoudakis, M.G.
2008-01-01
Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a
Weighted approximation with varying weight
Totik, Vilmos
1994-01-01
A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.
Framework for sequential approximate optimization
Jacobs, J.H.; Etman, L.F.P.; Keulen, van F.; Rooda, J.E.
2004-01-01
An object-oriented framework for Sequential Approximate Optimization (SAO) isproposed. The framework aims to provide an open environment for thespecification and implementation of SAO strategies. The framework is based onthe Python programming language and contains a toolbox of Python
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyapkin, A.A.
1976-01-01
The problem is raised on the interpretation of quarks having fractional quantum numbers as structural quasi-particles. A new composite model is proposed on the basis of the fundamental triplet representation of fermions having integral quantum numbers
Horiba, Koji; Kitamura, Miho; Yoshimatsu, Kohei; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Kobayashi, Masaki; Fujimori, Atsushi; Kumigashira, Hiroshi
2016-02-19
In order to reveal the many-body interactions in three-dimensional perovskite manganites that show colossal magnetoresistance, we performed an in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}MnO_{3} and investigated the behavior of quasiparticles. We observed quasiparticle peaks near the Fermi momentum in both the electron and the hole bands, and clear kinks throughout the entire hole Fermi surface in the band dispersion. This isotropic behavior of quasiparticles and kinks suggests that polaronic quasiparticles produced by the coupling of electrons with Jahn-Teller phonons play an important role in the colossal magnetoresistance properties of the ferromagnetic metallic phase of three-dimensional manganites.
Shimizu, Yusei; Kittaka, Shunichiro; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Amitsuka, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Machida, Kazushige
2015-04-10
Low-energy quasiparticle excitations in the superconducting (SC) state of UBe_{13} were studied by means of specific-heat (C) measurements in a rotating field. Quite unexpectedly, the magnetic-field dependence of C(H) is linear in H with no angular dependence at low fields in the SC state, implying that the gap is fully open over the Fermi surfaces, in stark contrast to previous expectations. In addition, a characteristic cubic anisotropy of C(H) was observed above 2 T with a maximum (minimum) for H∥[001] ([111]) within the (11[over ¯]0) plane, in the normal as well as in the SC states. This oscillation possibly originates from the anisotropic response of the heavy quasiparticle bands, and might be a key to understand the unusual properties of UBe_{13}.
Quasiparticle Scattering off Defects and Possible Bound States in Charge-Ordered YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}.
Zhou, R; Hirata, M; Wu, T; Vinograd, I; Mayaffre, H; Krämer, S; Horvatić, M; Berthier, C; Reyes, A P; Kuhns, P L; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Bonn, D A; Julien, M-H
2017-01-06
We report the NMR observation of a skewed distribution of ^{17}O Knight shifts when a magnetic field quenches superconductivity and induces long-range charge-density-wave (CDW) order in YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}. This distribution is explained by an inhomogeneous pattern of the local density of states N(E_{F}) arising from quasiparticle scattering off, yet unidentified, defects in the CDW state. We argue that the effect is most likely related to the formation of quasiparticle bound states, as is known to occur, under specific circumstances, in some metals and superconductors (but not in the CDW state, in general, except for very few cases in 1D materials). These observations should provide insight into the microscopic nature of the CDW, especially regarding the reconstructed band structure and the sensitivity to disorder.
Inamdar, Shaukatali N; Ingole, Pravin P; Haram, Santosh K
2008-12-01
Band structure parameters such as the conduction band edge, the valence band edge and the quasi-particle gap of diffusing CdSe quantum dots (Q-dots) of various sizes were determined using cyclic voltammetry. These parameters are strongly dependent on the size of the Q-dots. The results obtained from voltammetric measurements are compared to spectroscopic and theoretical data. The fit obtained to the reported calculations based on the semi-empirical pseudopotential method (SEPM)-especially in the strong size-confinement region, is the best reported so far, according to our knowledge. For the smallest CdSe Q-dots, the difference between the quasi-particle gap and the optical band gap gives the electron-hole Coulombic interaction energy (J(e1,h1)). Interband states seen in the photoluminescence spectra were verified with cyclic voltammetry measurements.
Nuclear Hartree-Fock approximation testing and other related approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohenca, J.M.
1970-01-01
Hartree-Fock, and Tamm-Dancoff approximations are tested for angular momentum of even-even nuclei. Wave functions, energy levels and momenta are comparatively evaluated. Quadripole interactions are studied following the Elliott model. Results are applied to Ne 20 [pt
Zhang, D. B., Sr.
2017-12-01
Beryllium (Be) is an important material with wide applications ranging from aerospace components to X-ray equipments. Yet a precise understanding of its phase diagram remains elusive. We have investigated the phase stability of Be using a recently developed hybrid free energy computation method that accounts for anharmonic effects by invoking phonon quasiparticles. We find that the hcp to bcc transition occurs near the melting curve at 0
van der Horst, J.W.; Bobbert, P.A.; Bobbert, Peter A.; Michels, M.A.J.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, Paul J.
1999-01-01
We use the ab-initio many-body GW method to calculate the quasi-particle spectrum of polythiophene. For the isolated chain, we find a large increase of the gap compared to DFT-LDA calculations (1.2 eV). The result (4.1 eV) exceeds experimental values, due to the absence of long-range screening in
Shearlets and Optimally Sparse Approximations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob; Lim, Wang-Q
2012-01-01
Multivariate functions are typically governed by anisotropic features such as edges in images or shock fronts in solutions of transport-dominated equations. One major goal both for the purpose of compression as well as for an efficient analysis is the provision of optimally sparse approximations...... optimally sparse approximations of this model class in 2D as well as 3D. Even more, in contrast to all other directional representation systems, a theory for compactly supported shearlet frames was derived which moreover also satisfy this optimality benchmark. This chapter shall serve as an introduction...... to and a survey about sparse approximations of cartoon-like images by band-limited and also compactly supported shearlet frames as well as a reference for the state-of-the-art of this research field....
Diophantine approximation and Dirichlet series
Queffélec, Hervé
2013-01-01
This self-contained book will benefit beginners as well as researchers. It is devoted to Diophantine approximation, the analytic theory of Dirichlet series, and some connections between these two domains, which often occur through the Kronecker approximation theorem. Accordingly, the book is divided into seven chapters, the first three of which present tools from commutative harmonic analysis, including a sharp form of the uncertainty principle, ergodic theory and Diophantine approximation to be used in the sequel. A presentation of continued fraction expansions, including the mixing property of the Gauss map, is given. Chapters four and five present the general theory of Dirichlet series, with classes of examples connected to continued fractions, the famous Bohr point of view, and then the use of random Dirichlet series to produce non-trivial extremal examples, including sharp forms of the Bohnenblust-Hille theorem. Chapter six deals with Hardy-Dirichlet spaces, which are new and useful Banach spaces of anal...
Approximations to camera sensor noise
Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo
2013-02-01
Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.
Rational approximations for tomographic reconstructions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynolds, Matthew; Beylkin, Gregory; Monzón, Lucas
2013-01-01
We use optimal rational approximations of projection data collected in x-ray tomography to improve image resolution. Under the assumption that the object of interest is described by functions with jump discontinuities, for each projection we construct its rational approximation with a small (near optimal) number of terms for a given accuracy threshold. This allows us to augment the measured data, i.e., double the number of available samples in each projection or, equivalently, extend (double) the domain of their Fourier transform. We also develop a new, fast, polar coordinate Fourier domain algorithm which uses our nonlinear approximation of projection data in a natural way. Using augmented projections of the Shepp–Logan phantom, we provide a comparison between the new algorithm and the standard filtered back-projection algorithm. We demonstrate that the reconstructed image has improved resolution without additional artifacts near sharp transitions in the image. (paper)
Approximation methods in probability theory
Čekanavičius, Vydas
2016-01-01
This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.
Approximate reasoning in physical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mutihac, R.
1991-01-01
The theory of fuzzy sets provides excellent ground to deal with fuzzy observations (uncertain or imprecise signals, wavelengths, temperatures,etc.) fuzzy functions (spectra and depth profiles) and fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning. First, the basic ideas of fuzzy set theory are briefly presented. Secondly, stress is put on application of simple fuzzy set operations for matching candidate reference spectra of a spectral library to an unknown sample spectrum (e.g. IR spectroscopy). Thirdly, approximate reasoning is applied to infer an unknown property from information available in a database (e.g. crystal systems). Finally, multi-dimensional fuzzy reasoning techniques are suggested. (Author)
Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marso, Karol
Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various diﬀerent ﬁelds for example in security. Throughout the years this ﬁeld evolved and there are many approaches and many diﬀerent algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as eﬀective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....
Fu, Bo; Zhu, Wei; Shi, Qinwei; Li, Qunxiang; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenyu
2017-04-07
Exploiting the enabling power of the Lanczos method in momentum space, we determine accurately the quasiparticle and scaling properties of disordered three-dimensional Dirac semimetals surrounding the quantum critical point separating the semimetal and diffusive metal regimes. We unveil that the imaginary part of the quasiparticle self-energy obeys a common power law before, at, and after the quantum phase transition, but the power law is nonuniversal, whose exponent is dependent on the disorder strength. More intriguingly, whereas a common power law is also found for the real part of the self-energy before and after the phase transition, a distinctly different behavior is identified at the critical point, characterized by the existence of a nonanalytic logarithmic singularity. This nonanalytical correction serves as the very basis for the unusual power-law behaviors of the quasiparticles and many other physical properties surrounding the quantum critical point. Our approach also allows the ready and reliable determination of the scaling properties of the correlation length and dynamical exponents. We further show that the central findings are valid for both uncorrelated and correlated disorder distributions and should be directly comparable with future experimental observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kjoensberg, H.; Leinaas, J.M.
1999-01-01
We present Monte Carlo studies of charge expectation values and charge fluctuations for quasi-particles in the quantum Hall system. We have studied the Laughlin wave functions for quasi-hole and quasi-electron, and also Jain's definition of the quasi-electron wave function. The considered systems consist of from 50 to 200 electrons, and the filling fraction is 1/3. For all quasi-particles our calculations reproduce well the expected values of charge; ((-1)/(3)) times the electron charge for the quasi-hole, and 1/3 for the quasi-electron. Regarding fluctuations in the charge, our results for the quasi-hole and Jain quasi-electron are consistent with the expected value zero in the bulk of the system, but for the Laughlin quasi-electron we find small, but significant, deviations from zero throughout the whole electron droplet. We also present Berry phase calculations of charge and statistics parameter for the Jain quasi-electron, calculations which supplement earlier studies for the Laughlin quasi-particles. We find that the statistics parameter, calculated as a function of distance, is more well behaved for the Jain quasi-electron than it is for the Laughlin quasi-electron. However, the sign of the parameter is opposite of what is expected from qualitative arguments
Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole
2009-01-01
In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures...
Approximate Matching of Hierarchial Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augsten, Nikolaus
-grams of a tree are all its subtrees of a particular shape. Intuitively, two trees are similar if they have many pq-grams in common. The pq-gram distance is an efficient and effective approximation of the tree edit distance. We analyze the properties of the pq-gram distance and compare it with the tree edit...
Approximation of Surfaces by Cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup, Thomas
1998-01-01
We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...
Approximation properties of haplotype tagging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dreiseitl Stephan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.
All-Norm Approximation Algorithms
Azar, Yossi; Epstein, Leah; Richter, Yossi; Woeginger, Gerhard J.; Penttonen, Martti; Meineche Schmidt, Erik
2002-01-01
A major drawback in optimization problems and in particular in scheduling problems is that for every measure there may be a different optimal solution. In many cases the various measures are different ℓ p norms. We address this problem by introducing the concept of an All-norm ρ-approximation
Truthful approximations to range voting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro
We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...