WorldWideScience

Sample records for quasielastic electron-nucleus scattering

  1. Parity violation in quasielastic electron-nucleus scattering within the relativistic impulse approximation

    CERN Document Server

    González-Jiménez, R; Donnelly, T W

    2015-01-01

    We study parity violation in quasielastic (QE) electron-nucleus scattering using the relativistic impulse approximation. Different fully relativistic approaches have been considered to estimate the effects associated with the final-state interactions. We have computed the parity-violating quasielastic (PVQE) asymmetry and have analyzed its sensitivity to the different ingredients that enter in the description of the reaction mechanism: final-state interactions, nucleon off-shellness effects, current gauge ambiguities. Particular attention has been paid to the description of the weak neutral current form factors. The PVQE asymmetry is proven to be an excellent observable when the goal is to get precise information on the axial-vector sector of the weak neutral current. Specifically, from measurements of the asymmetry at backward scattering angles good knowledge of the radiative corrections entering in the isovector axial-vector sector can be gained. Finally, scaling properties shown by the interference $\\gamma...

  2. Chiral symmetry, constituent quarks and quasi-elastic electron-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E. M.; Krein, G.

    1989-11-01

    The effects of chiral symmetry breaking are examined for quasi-elastic electron scattering on nuclei. Nucleons are assumed to be composed of constituent quarks with masses that depend on density. This density dependence is determined on the basis of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is found that the effects of chiral symmetry breaking are in the right direction and the right order of magnitude to explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment. On leave from Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97100 Santa Maria, R.S., Brazil.

  3. Quasielastic K-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, A D; Oset, E

    1997-01-01

    Quasielastic K^+ - nucleus scattering data at q=290, 390 and 480 MeV/c are analyzed in a finite nucleus continuum random phase approximation framework, using a density-dependent particle-hole interaction. The reaction mechanism is consistently treated according to Glauber theory, keeping up to two-step inelastic processes. A good description of the data is achieved, also providing a useful constraint on the strength of the effective particle-hole interaction in the scalar-isoscalar channel at intermediate momentum transfers. We find no evidence for the increase in the effective number of nucleons participating in the reaction which has been reported in the literature.

  4. Measurement of electron neutrino quasielastic and quasielastic-like scattering on hydrocarbon at $\\langle E_{\

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, J; Bellantoni, L; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Budd, H; Carneiro, M F; Chvojka, J; da Motta, H; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Diaz, G A; Eberly, B; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Ghosh, A; Golan, T; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Kiveni, M; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Muhlbeier, T; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Osta, J; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rimal, D; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Salinas, C J Solano; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wospakrik, M; Zavala, G; Zhang, D; Ziemer, B P

    2015-01-01

    The first direct measurement of electron-neutrino quasielastic and quasielastic-like scattering on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region of incident neutrino energy has been carried out using the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The flux-integrated differential cross sections in electron production angle, electron energy and $Q^{2}$ are presented. The ratio of the quasielastic, flux-integrated differential cross section in $Q^{2}$ for $\

  5. Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Quasi-Elastic Scattering on a Hydrocarbon Target at E_{\

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, L; Aliaga, L; Altinok, O; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, D; Bradford, R; Brooks, W K; Budd, H; Butkevich, A; Caicedo, D A M; Castromonte, C M; Christy, M E; da Motta, H; Damiani, D S; Danko, I; Datta, M; Day, M; DeMaat, R; Devan, J; Diaz, G A; Dytman, S A; Eberly, B; Edmondson, D A; Felix, J; Fitzpatrick, T; Fiorentini, G A; Gago, A M; Gallagher, H; Gobbi, B; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Howley, I J; Hurtado, K; Jerkins, M; Kafka, T; Kanter, M O; Keppel, C; Kordosky, M; Krajeski, A H; Kulagin, S A; Le, T; Leister, A G; Maggi, G; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Mislivec, A; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Ochoa, N; O'Connor, C D; Osta, J; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Pena, C; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rodrigues, P A; Sassin, K E; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Schneider, R M; Schulte, E C; Sedita, P; Simon, C; Snider, F D; Snyder, M C; Sobczyk, J T; Salinas, C J Solano; Tagg, N; Tan, W; Tice, B G; Tzanakos, G; Velasquez, J P; Walding, J; Walton, T; Wolcott, J; Wolthuis, B A; Zavala, G; Zhang, D; Ziemer, B P

    2013-01-01

    We have isolated muon anti-neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic interactions occurring in the segmented scintillator tracking region of the MINERvA detector running in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We measure the flux-averaged differential cross-section, d{\\sigma}/dQ^2, and compare to several theoretical models of quasi-elastic scattering. Good agreement is obtained with a model where the nucleon axial mass, M_A, is set to 0.99 GeV/c^2 but the nucleon vector form factors are modified to account for the observed enhancement, relative to the free nucleon case, of the cross-section for the exchange of transversely polarized photons in electron-nucleus scattering. Our data at higher Q^2 favor this interpretation over an alternative in which the axial mass is increased.

  6. Molecular dynamics using quasielastic neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, S

    2003-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is well suited to study the molecular motions (rotations and translations) in solids or liquids. It offers a unique possibility of analysing spatial dimensions of atomic or molecular processes in their development over time. We describe here some of the systems studied using the QENS spectrometer, designed, developed and commissioned at Dhruva reactor in Trombay. We have studied a variety of systems to investigate the molecular motion, for example, simple molecular solids, molecules adsorbed in confined medium like porous systems or zeolites, monolayer-protected nano-sized metal clusters, water in Portland cement as it cures with time, etc. (author)

  7. Extraction of structure functions for lepton-nucleus scattering in the quasi-elastic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, Hungchong; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; So, W. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of a relativistic single-particle model, we calculate inclusive electron-nucleus scattering by electromagnetic current, and neutrino-nucleus scattering by neutral and charged current in the quasi-elastic region. The longitudinal, the transverse, and the transverse-interference structure functions are extracted from the theoretical cross section by using the Rosenbluth separation method at fixed momentum transfer and scattering angle and then compared with each other from the viewpoint of these current interactions. The position of peak for the electron scattering shifts to higher energy transfer than that for the neutrino scattering. The axial and pseudoscalar terms turn out to play an important role in the neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  8. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of protein dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorschach, H.E.

    1993-05-25

    Results that shed new light on the study of protein dynamics were obtained by quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The triple axis instrument H-9 supplied by the cold source was used to perform a detailed study of the quasi-elastic spectrum and the Debye-Waller factor for trypsin in powder form, in solution, and in crystals. A preliminary study of myoglobin crystals was also done. A new way to view the results of quasi-elastic scattering experiments is sketched, and the data on trypsin are presented and analyze according to this new picture.

  9. Quasi-elastic nuclear scattering at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-elastic scattering of two nuclei is considered in the high-energy optical model. Energy loss and momentum transfer spectra for projectile ions are evaluated in terms of an inelastic multiple-scattering series corresponding to multiple knockout of target nucleons. The leading-order correction to the coherent projectile approximation is evaluated. Calculations are compared with experiments.

  10. Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINERvA

    CERN Document Server

    McFarland, Kevin S

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the quasi-elastic scattering cross-section over a broad range of neutrino energies, nuclear targets and Q^2 is a primary goal of the MINERvA experiment. We present preliminary comparisons of data and simulation in a sample rich in anti-{\

  11. Mapping from quasi-elastic scattering to fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hagino, K

    2014-01-01

    The fusion barrier distribution has provided a nice representation for the channel coupling effects on heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier. Here we discuss how one can extract the same representation using the so called sum-of-differences (SOD) method with quasi-elastic scattering cross sections. In contrast to the conventional quasi-elastic barrier distribution, the SOD barrier distribution has an advantage in that it can be applied both to non-symmetric and symmetric systems. It is also the case that the correspondence to the fusion barrier distribution is much better than the quasi-elastic barrier distribution. We demonstrate its usefulness by studying $^{16}$O+$^{144}$Sm, $^{58}$Ni+$^{58}$Ni, and $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C systems.

  12. Inclusive quasielastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics]|[Universidad de Granada (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Moderna]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. for Nuclear Science]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Caballero, J.A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia]|[Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear; Donnelly, T.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. for Nuclear Science]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Moya de Guerra, E. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia

    1996-12-23

    The inclusive quasielastic response functions that appear in the scattering of polarized electrons from polarized nuclei are computed and analyzed for several closed-shell-minus-one nuclei with special attention paid to {sup 39}K. Results are presented using two models for the ejected nucleon - when described by a distorted wave in the continuum shell model or by a plane wave in PWIA with on- and off-shell nucleons. Relativistic effects in kinematics and in the electromagnetic current have been incorporated throughout. Specifically, the recently obtained expansion of the electromagnetic current in powers only of the struck nucleon`s momentum is employed for the on-shell current and the effects of the first-order terms (spin-orbit and convection) are compared with the zeroth-order (charge and magnetization) contributions. The use of polarized inclusive quasielastic electron scattering as a tool for determining near-valence nucleon momentum distributions is discussed. (orig.).

  13. Nuclear Transparency in Large Momentum Transfer Quasielastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardor, I.; Durrant, S.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, Y.; Marshak, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Minor, E. D.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Piasetzky, E.; Roser, T.; Russell, J.; Sutton, C. S.; Tanaka, M.; White, C.; Wu, J.-Y.

    1998-12-01

    We measured simultaneously pp elastic and quasielastic \\(p,2p\\) scattering in hydrogen, deuterium, and carbon for momentum transfers of 4.8 to 6.2 \\(GeV/c\\)2 at incoming momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c and center-of-mass scattering angles in the range θc.m. = 83.7°-90°. The nuclear transparency is defined as the ratio of the quasielastic cross section to the free pp cross section. At incoming momentum of 5.9 GeV/c, the transparency of carbon decreases by a factor of 2 from θc.m.~=85° to θc.m.~=89°. At the largest angle the transparency of carbon increases from 5.9 to 7.5 GeV/c by more than 50%. The transparency in deuterium does not depend on incoming momentum nor on θc.m..

  14. Quasielastic Neutron Scattering by Superionic Strontium Chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickens, M. H.; Hutchings, M. T.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    The scattering, from powder and single crystal samples, appears only above the superionic transition temperature, 1000K. The integrated intensity is found to be strongly dependent on the direction and magnitude of the scattering vector, Q, (which suggests the scattering is coherent) but does not ...

  15. Effective Spectral Function for Quasielastic Scattering on Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bodek, A; Coopersmith, B

    2014-01-01

    Spectral functions that are used in neutrino event generators (such as GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE, NUWRO, and GiBUU) to model quasielastic(QE) scattering from nuclear targets include Fermi gas, Local Thomas Fermi gas (LTF), Bodek-Ritche Fermi gas with high momentum tail, and the Benhar Fantoni two dimensional spectral function. We find that the predictions of these spectral functions for the $\\frac{d\\sigma}{d\

  16. Hard diffraction from quasi-elastic dipole scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, A

    1996-01-01

    The contribution to diffraction dissociation of virtual photons due to quasi-elastic scattering of the q-\\bar q component is calculated in the framework of the QCD dipole picture. Both longitudinal and transverse components of the cross-section are given. It is shown that, at fixed mass of the diffractively produced system, quantum mechanical interference plays an important r\\^ ole. Phenomenological consequences are discussed.

  17. Recent Measurements of Neutrino-Nucleus Quasi-Elastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wascko, M O

    2011-01-01

    We present recent measurements of neutrino charged current quasi-elastic (CC QE) scattering, nu_mu + p -> mu- + n. Measurements of CC QE on carbon near 1 GeV by MiniBooNE and SciBooNE, as well as measurements on iron at 3 GeV by MINOS, disagree with current interaction models, while measurements at higher energies on carbon by NOMAD show excellent agreement with those same models.

  18. Relativistic models for quasielastic electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meucci Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic models developed within the framework of the impulse approximation for quasielastic (QE electron scattering and successfully tested in comparison with electron-scattering data have been extended to neutrino-nucleus scattering. Different descriptions of final-state interactions (FSI in the inclusive scattering are compared. In the relativistic Green’s function (RGF model FSI are described consistently with the exclusive scattering using a complex optical potential. In the relativistic mean field (RMF model FSI are described by the same RMF potential which gives the bound states. The results of the models are compared for electron and neutrino scattering and, for neutrino scattering, with the recently measured charged-current QE (CCQE MiniBooNE cross sections.

  19. Vector and Axial Form Factors Applied to Neutrino Quasielastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Budd, H; Arrington, J

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the quasielastic cross sections for neutrino scattering on nucleons using up to date fits to the nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors GEp, GEn, GMp, GMn, and weak form factors. We show the extraction of Fa for neutrino experiments. We show how well \\minerva, a new approved experiment at FNAL, can measure Fa. We show the that Fa has a different contribution to the anti-neutrino cross section, and how the anti-neutrino data can be used to check Fa extracted from neutrino scattering.

  20. Point-defect diffusion from coherent quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillan, M.J.; Wolf, D.

    1985-09-16

    We outline a theory which suggests that the dynamics of point defects in crystals can be studied by coherent quasielastic neutron scattering. The theory assumes that the surrounding lattice distortion follows each defect instantaneously, and that the distortion fields of different defects can be linearly superposed. The energy width of the scattered intensity yields the hopping rate and jump vectors of the defects. We discuss systems for which the predicted effects for ionic defects are observable, pointing out that the detection of small polaron hopping should also be possible.

  1. Quasielastic Light Scattering and Structure of Nanodroplets Mixed with Polycaprolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sharifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of polycaprolactone (PCL with droplets of a microemulsion is studied with quasielastic light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering At constant droplet size we vary the PCL concentration and there is clear evidence for an increasing attractive interaction of the droplets from structural investigations with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. The collective diffusion coefficient (Dc of the droplets is monitored with quasielastic light scattering (QELS. We mainly focus on the variation of the dynamic behavior as a function of the PCL concentration and length scale (M.W. = 5000 and 10000 in microemulsion. With increasing PCL concentration and length scale the dynamics of the system slow down. A hard sphere model with depletion potential can fit well the SAXS experiment of microemulsion mixed with PCL. The results show with increase of PCL on microemulsion the size of droplets is constant at 83Å but the size ratio of polymer to droplets is changing.

  2. Unified Description of Electron-Nucleus Scattering within the Spectral Function Formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Noemi; Lovato, Alessandro; Benhar, Omar

    2016-05-13

    The formalism based on factorization and nuclear spectral functions has been generalized to treat transition matrix elements involving two-nucleon currents, whose contribution to the nuclear electromagnetic response in the transverse channel is known to be significant. We report the results of calculations of the inclusive electron-carbon cross section, showing that the inclusion of processes involving two-nucleon currents appreciably improves the agreement between theory and data in the dip region, between the quasielastic and Δ-production peaks. The relation to approaches based on the independent particle of the nucleus and the implications for the analysis of flux-integrated neutrino-nucleus cross sections are discussed.

  3. Quasielastic electron-deuteron scattering in the weak binding approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethier, Jacob J. [William and Mary College, JLAB; Doshi, Nidhi P. [Carnegie Mellon University; Malace, Simona P. [JLAB; Melnitchouk, Wally [JLAB

    2014-06-01

    We perform a global analysis of all available electron-deuteron quasielastic scattering data using Q^2-dependent smearing functions that describe inclusive inelastic e-d scattering within the weak binding approximation. We study the dependence of the cross sections on the deuteron wave function and the off-shell extrapolation of the elastic electron-nucleon cross section, which show particular sensitivity at x >> 1. The excellent overall agreement with data over a large range of Q^2 and x suggest a limited need for effects beyond the impulse approximation, with the exception of the very high-x or very low-Q^2 regions, where short-distance effects in the deuteron become more relevant.

  4. Quasielastic electron-deuteron scattering in the weak binding approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethier, Jacob J. [William and Mary College, JLAB; Doshi, Nidhi P. [Carnegie Mellon University; Malace, Simona P. [JLAB; Melnitchouk, Wally [JLAB

    2014-06-01

    We perform a global analysis of all available electron-deuteron quasielastic scattering data using Q^2-dependent smearing functions that describe inclusive inelastic e-d scattering within the weak binding approximation. We study the dependence of the cross sections on the deuteron wave function and the off-shell extrapolation of the elastic electron-nucleon cross section, which show particular sensitivity at x >> 1. The excellent overall agreement with data over a large range of Q^2 and x suggest a limited need for effects beyond the impulse approximation, with the exception of the very high-x or very low-Q^2 regions, where short-distance effects in the deuteron become more relevant.

  5. Neutron Angular Scatter Effects in 3DHZETRN: Quasi-Elastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Werneth, Charles M.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2017-01-01

    The current 3DHZETRN code has a detailed three dimensional (3D) treatment of neutron transport based on a forward/isotropic assumption and has been compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation codes in various geometries. In most cases, it has been found that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. However, a recent study of neutron leakage from finite geometries revealed that further improvements to the 3DHZETRN formalism are needed. In the present report, angular scattering corrections to the neutron fluence are provided in an attempt to improve fluence estimates from a uniform sphere. It is found that further developments in the nuclear production models are required to fully evaluate the impact of transport model updates. A model for the quasi-elastic neutron production spectra is therefore developed and implemented into 3DHZETRN.

  6. Quasielastic neutron scattering study of silver selenium halides

    CERN Document Server

    Major, A G; Barnes, A C; Howells, W S

    2002-01-01

    Both silver chalcogenides (Ag sub 2 S, Ag sub 2 Se, and Ag sub 2 Te) and silver halides (AgCl, AgBr, and AgI) are known to be fast-ion solids in which the silver ions can diffuse quickly in a sublattice formed by the other ions. To clarify whether mixtures of these materials (such as Ag sub 3 SeI) possess comparable properties and whether a systematic dependence on the cation-to-anion ratio can be observed, some of these mixtures were studied by quasielastic neutron scattering both in the solid and the liquid phases. To identify the diffusion mechanisms and constants, a new data-analysis method based on a two-dimensional maximum-likelihood fit is proposed. This method has the potential to give more reliable information on the diffusion mechanism than the traditional Bayesian method. (orig.)

  7. Electron to Muon Conversion in Low-Energy Electron-Nucleus Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Diener, Kai-Peer O

    2004-01-01

    We present an estimate of the electron to muon conversion cross section in fixed-target elastic electron scattering. The matrix element $$ is calculated analytically in two scenarios introducing suitable approximations. We consider on the one hand side the case of three light Dirac neutrinos with CKM-type leptonic mixing and on the other hand a typical see-saw scenario. We evaluate the coulombic contribution to the scattering cross section in the limit of vanishing energy transfer to the nucleus and, thus, obtain a realistic estimate for the total conversion cross section. Although we find that in the see-saw scenario the cross section can be enhanced by as much as twenty orders of magnitude in comparison to the Dirac case, it is still not experimentally accessible.

  8. Dynamics of lipid-saccharide nanoparticles by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bari, M.T.; Gerelli, Y. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Unita CNISM, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Sonvico, F. [Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Deriu, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Unita CNISM, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy)], E-mail: antonio.deriu@fis.unipr.it; Cavatorta, F.; Albanese, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Unita CNISM, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Colombo, P. [Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Fernandez-Alonso, F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-18

    Nano- and microparticles composed of saccharide and lipid systems are extensively investigated for applications as highly biocompatible drug carriers. A detailed understanding of particle-solvent interactions is of key importance in order to tailor their characteristics for delivering drugs with specific chemical properties. Here we report results of a quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) investigation on lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles prepared by autoassembling the two components in an aqueous solution. The measurements were performed at room temperature on lyophilized and H{sub 2}O hydrated nanoparticles (h = 0.47 w H{sub 2}O/w hydrated sample). In the latter, hydration water is mostly enclosed inside the nanoparticles; its dynamics is similar to that of bulk water but with a significant decrease in diffusivity. The scattering from the nanoparticles can be described by a simple model of confined diffusion. In the lyophilized state only hydrogens belonging to the polar heads are seen as mobile within the experimental time-window. In the hydrated sample the diffusive dynamics involves also a significant part of the hydrogens in the lipid tails.

  9. Quasielastic Scattering at MiniBooNE Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Leitner, T; Mosel, U

    2009-01-01

    We present our description of neutrino induced charged current quasielastic scattering (CCQE) in nuclei at energies relevant for the MiniBooNE experiment. In our framework, the nucleons, with initial momentum distributions according to the Local Fermi Gas model, move in a density- and momentum-dependent mean field potential. The broadening of the outgoing nucleons due to nucleon-nucleon interactions is taken into account by spectral functions. Long range (RPA) correlations renormalizing the electroweak strength in the medium are also incorporated. The background from resonance excitation events that do not lead to pions in the final state is also predicted by propagating the outgoing hadrons with the Giessen semiclassical BUU model in coupled channels (GiBUU). We achieve a good description of the shape of the CCQE Q2 distribution extracted from data by MiniBooNE, thanks to the inclusion of RPA correlations, but underestimate the integrated cross section when the standard value of MA = 1 GeV is used. Possible ...

  10. Superscaling in electron-nucleus scattering and its link to CC and NC QE neutrino-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Barbaro, M B; Caballero, J A; Donnelly, T W; Gonzalez-Jimenez, R; Ivanov, M; Udias, J M

    2013-01-01

    The superscaling approach (SuSA) to neutrino-nucleus scattering, based on the assumed universality of the scaling function for electromagnetic and weak interactions, is reviewed. The predictions of the SuSA model for bot CC and NC differential and total cross sections are presented and compared with the MiniBooNE data. The role of scaling violations, in particular the contribution of meson exchange currents in the two-particle two-hole sector, is explored.

  11. Superscaling in electron-nucleus scattering and its link to CC and NC QE neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, M. B. [Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Amaro, J. E. [Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Caballero, J. A.; González-Jiménez, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Donnelly, T. W. [CTP, LNS and Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivanov, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Udías, J. M. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    The superscaling approach (SuSA) to neutrino-nucleus scattering, based on the assumed universality of the scaling function for electromagnetic and weak interactions, is reviewed. The predictions of the SuSA model for bot CC and NC differential and total cross sections are presented and compared with the MiniBooNE data. The role of scaling violations, in particular the contribution of meson exchange currents in the two-particle two-hole sector, is explored.

  12. Electron- and neutrino-nucleus scattering from the quasielastic to the resonance region

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, T; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Mosel, U

    2008-01-01

    We present a model for electron- and neutrino-scattering off nucleons and nuclei focussing on the quasielastic and resonance region. The lepton-nucleon reaction is described within a relativistic formalism that includes, besides quasielastic scattering, the excitation of 13 N* and Delta resonances and a non-resonant single-pion background. Recent electron-scattering data is used for the state-of-the-art parametrizations of the vector form factors; the axial couplings are determined via PCAC and, in the case of the Delta resonance, the axial form factor is refitted using neutrino-scattering data. Scattering off nuclei is treated within the GiBUU framework that takes into account various nuclear effects: the local density approximation for the nuclear ground state, mean-field potentials and in-medium spectral functions. Results for inclusive scattering off Oxygen are presented and, in the case of electron-induced reactions, compared to experimental data and other models.

  13. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering study of the mobility of methane in microporous silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benes, Nieck E.; Jobic, Herve; Verweij, Henk

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of translation and rotation of methane in microporous bulk silica have been studied with quasi-elastic neutron scattering. At T=200 K the self-diffusion coefficient of translation is DS=1.1×10−8 m2 s−1 with an estimated activation energy of 4 kJ mol−1. Any variation of DS with occupanc

  14. Constraints on the large-x d/u ratio from electron-nucleus scattering at x>1

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, O; Melnitchouk, W; Piasetzky, E

    2011-01-01

    Recently the ratio of neutron to proton structure functions F_2n/F_2p was extracted from a phenomenological correlation between the strength of the nuclear EMC effect and inclusive electron-nucleus cross section ratios at x>1. Within conventional models of nuclear smearing, this "in-medium correction" (IMC) extraction constrains the size of nuclear effects in the deuteron structure functions, from which the neutron structure function F_2n is usually extracted. The IMC data determine the resulting proton d/u quark distribution ratio, extrapolated to x=1, to be 0.23 +- 0.09 with a 90% confidence level. This is well below the SU(6) symmetry limit of 1/2 and significantly above the scalar diquark dominance limit of 0.

  15. Data Driven Study of Neutron Response Using Quasielastic Neutrino Scattering in the Minerva Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Evan; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how particles behave in detectors is a critical part of analyzing data from neutrino experiments, but neutral particles are difficult to characterize. The purpose of this project was to calibrate the neutron response in Quasielastic antineutrino scattering (QE) events in the Minerva detector. We applied quasi-elastic assumptions to estimate the outgoing neutron kinematics in QE scattering, and then added modifications to improve the model's predictions for neutron response in data. We compared these kinematic predictions of neutron energy and angle to Monte Carlo simulations of QE scattering and to the behavior of reconstructed energy ``blobs'' that characterize neutral particle behavior in simulated and real Minerva data. Filtering events for neutron energy, angle, and distance from the interaction vertex, we derive calibration functions for both the simulation and real data. Future work will include potential changes to the blobbing algorithms and refinement of the calibration technique using rigorous statistical methods.

  16. Measurement of Muon Neutrino Quasi-Elastic Scattering on Carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Cao, J; Coney, L; Conrad, J M; Cox, D C; Curioni, A; Djurcic, Z; Finley, D A; Fleming, B T; Ford, R; García, F G; Garvey, G T; Green, C; Green, J A; Hart, T L; Hawker, E; Imlay, R; Johnson, R A; Kasper, P; Katori, T; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Koutsoliotas, S; Laird, E M; Link, J M; Liu, Y; Liu, Y; Louis, W C; Mahn, K B M; Marsh, W; Martin, P S; McGregor, G; Metcalf, W; Meyers, P D; Mills, F; Mills, G B; Monroe, J; Moore, C D; Nelson, R H; Nienaber, P; Ouedraogo, S; Patterson, R B; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Prebys, E; Raaf, Jennifer L; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Russell, A D; Sandberg, V; Schirato, R; Schmitz, D; Shaevitz, M H; Shoemaker, F C; Smith, D; Sorel, M; Spentzouris, P; Stancu, I; Stefanski, R J; Sung, M; Tanaka, H A; Tayloe, R; Tzanov, M; Vande Water, R; Wascko, M O; White, D H; Wilking, M J; Yang, H J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2007-01-01

    Low energy (200quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino interactions to predict signal samples. Using a high-statistics sample of muon neutrino CCQE events, MiniBooNE finds that a simple Fermi gas model, with appropriate adjustments, accurately characterizes the CCQE events observed in a carbon-based detector. The extracted parameters include an effective axial mass, M_A = 1.23 +/- 0.20 GeV, used to describe the four-momentum dependence of the axial-vector form factor of the nucleon and a Pauli-suppression parameter, kappa = 1.019 +/- 0.011.

  17. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of protein dynamics. Progress report, November 1, 1992--May 25, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorschach, H.E.

    1993-05-25

    Results that shed new light on the study of protein dynamics were obtained by quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The triple axis instrument H-9 supplied by the cold source was used to perform a detailed study of the quasi-elastic spectrum and the Debye-Waller factor for trypsin in powder form, in solution, and in crystals. A preliminary study of myoglobin crystals was also done. A new way to view the results of quasi-elastic scattering experiments is sketched, and the data on trypsin are presented and analyze according to this new picture.

  18. Scaling violation and relativistic effective mass from quasielastic electron scattering: implications for neutrino reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro, J E; Simo, I Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    The experimental data from quasielastic electron scattering from $^{12}$C are reanalyzed in terms of a new scaling variable suggested by the interacting relativistic Fermi gas with scalar and vector interactions, which is known to generate a relativistic effective mass for the interacting nucleons. By choosing a mean value of this relativistic effective mass $m_N^* =0.8 m_N$, we observe that most of the data fall inside a region around the inverse parabola-shaped universal scaling function of the relativistic Fermi gas. This suggests a method to select the subset of data that highlight the quasielastic region, about two thirds of the total 2,500 data. Regardless of the momentum and energy transfer, this method automatically excludes the data that are not dominated by the quasielastic process. The resulting band of data reflects deviations from the perfect universality, and can be used to characterize experimentally the quasielastic peak, despite the manifest scaling violation. Moreover we show that the spread...

  19. A quasi-elastic neutron scattering and neutron spin-echo study of hydrogen bonded system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, C.; Faraone, A.; Magazu, S.; Maisano, G.; Mangione, A

    2004-07-15

    This work reports neutron spin echo results on aqueous solutions of trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide of glucose, showing an extraordinary bioprotective effectiveness against dehydration and freezing. We collected data using the SPAN spectrometer (BENSC, Berlin) on trehalose aqueous solutions at different temperature values. The obtained findings are compared with quasi-elastic neutron scattering results in order to furnish new results on the dynamics of the trehalose/water system on the nano and picoseconds scale.

  20. Mobility of hydrogen in microporous silica studied with quasi-elastic neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benes, Nieck E.; Jobic, Herve; Reat, Valerie; Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.; Verweij, Henk

    2003-01-01

    The mobility of H2 in microporous amorphous silica is studied using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. At T=90 K the self-diffusion coefficient is approximately Ds=1.2×10−8 m2 s−1 for low degrees of occupancy (<20%) and decreases slightly to Ds=0.95×10−8 m2 s−1 for an occupancy of 31%. A rough esti

  1. Quasi-elastic electron-deuteron scattering and the electric form factor of the neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Kim, Y.E. (Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik); Craver, B.A. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Physics); Fabian, W. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA). Dept. of Physics); Saylor, D.P. (Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1978-09-02

    The possibility of extracting accurately the neutron electric form factor from electron-neutron coincidence measurements in quasi-elastic electron-deuteron scattering is investigated for squared three-momentum transfers q/sup 2/<=30 fm/sup -2/ using the Reid soft-core, Hamada-Johnston and Bryan-Gersten potentials. It is found that contributions of the electric form factor of the neutron to the quasi-elastic cross section can be as large as 5.4% at q/sup 2/ approximately equal to 1 fm/sup -2/ (approximately 3% at q/sup 2/ approximately equal to 10 approximately 20 fm/sup 2/). Potential model dependence and corrections due to meson exchange currents and isobar configurations are found to be small (< or approximately 1%).

  2. Surface Diffuseness Anomaly in 16O+208pb Quasi-elastic Scattering at Backward Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Hui-Ming; XU Xin-Xing; BAI Chun-Lin; YU Ning; LIN Cheng-Jian; ZHANG Huan-Qiao; LIU Zu-Hua; YANG Feng; JIA Fei; ZHANG Chun-Lei; AN Guang-Peng; WU Zhen-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The quasi-elastic scattering excitation function of the doubly magic 16O+208pb system at a backward angle is measured at sub-barrier energies with high precision. The diffuseness parameters extracted from both the single-channel and the coupled-channels calculations give almost the same value α = 0.76±0.04 fm. The results show that the coupling effect is negligible for the spherical system. The obtained value is smaller than the extracted value from the fusion excitation function, but larger than the value of α = 0.63 fm, which is from the systematic analysis of elastic scattering data.

  3. Critical quasielastic light scattering in KTa0.968Nb0.032O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward; Chase, L. L.; Boatner, L. A.

    1985-02-01

    Intense quasielastic light scattering is observed in potassium tantalate niobate at temperatures near the ferroelectric transition at Tc~40 K. The central peak (CP) has a non-Lorentzian shape and consists of a sharp component with a broad tail. Near Tc, the sharp component narrows to 1.5 GHz (half-width at half maximum) which is close to the limit of resolution achievable when using an I2 vapor filter to eliminate elastically scattered light. It is, therefore, possible that the CP has a much narrower distribution than that of the renormalized Fabry-Perot data. Spectra obtained over a range of frequency shifts including the Raman scattering from the soft TO mode have been fitted by a coupled-mode formalism in which it is assumed that the CP derives all of its intensity from the coupling to the TO phonon. This model accounts reasonably well for the relative intensities of the CP and phonon and the large renormalized frequency of the phonon near Tc. The integrated intensity of the CP has a temperature dependence which is singular at Tc, whereas that of the TO phonon is close to a step-function increase at Tc. Although ordinary two-phonon difference (phonon-density-fluctuations) scattering cannot be excluded as a possible origin of the observed quasielastic scattering, several properties of the quasielastic and Raman spectra, as well as other recent experimental results, suggest a mechanism involving fluctuations due to the disorder in the polarizabilities and force constants introduced by the Nb substitution.

  4. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of protein dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorschach, H.E.

    1991-03-20

    The techniques of X-ray and neutron scattering that have been so successfully applied to the study of the structure of biological macromolecules have in recent years been also used for the study of the thermal motion of these molecules. The diffraction of X-rays has been widely used to investigate the high-frequency motion of the heavy-atom residues of proteins. In these studies, the mean-square thermal amplitudes can be determined from the intensities of the sharp structural lines obtained from single crystals of the hydrated proteins. Similar information can be obtained on lighter atoms from the study of the neutron scattering from single crystals. The results of these measurements are coupled closely to the rapidly developing field of theoretical molecular dynamics which is now being applied to study the dynamics of large biological molecules. This report discusses research in this area.

  5. Cross section measurements for quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, Mark Edward [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Chicago, Illinois. MINOS measures neutrino interactions in two large iron-scintillator tracking/sampling calorimeters; the Near Detector on-site at FNAL and the Far Detector located in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota. The Near Detector has recorded a large number of neutrino interactions and this high statistics dataset can be used to make precision measurements of neutrino interaction cross sections. The cross section for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering has been measured by a number of previous experiments and these measurements disagree by up to 30%. A method to select a quasi-elastic enriched sample of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector is presented and a procedure to fit the kinematic distributions of this sample and extract the quasi-elastic cross section is introduced. The accuracy and robustness of the fitting procedure is studied using mock data and finally results from fits to the MINOS Near Detector data are presented.

  6. Diffusion of water in nano-porous polyamide membranes: Quasielastic neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V. K.; Mitra, S.; Singh, P.; Jurányi, F.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2010-10-01

    Dynamics of water sorbed in a reverse osmosis polyamide membrane (ROPM) as studied by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) is reported here. The trimesoylchloride-m-phenylene diamine based ROPM is synthesized by interfacial polymerization technique. QENS data indicates that translational motion of water confined in ROPM gets modified compared to bulk water whereas rotational motion remains unaltered. Translational motion of water in ROPM is found to follow random jump diffusion with lower diffusivity compared to bulk water. Translational diffusivity does not show the Arrhenius behaviour.

  7. Analysis of the Quasi-Elastic Scattering of Neutrons in Hydrogenous Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porohit, S.N. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Dept., Rensselaer Polytechnique Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1966-11-15

    A critical discussion of the quasi-elastic scattering of neutrons by incoherent (hydrogenous) liquids is presented. Using the line shape expression a comparative discussion of several phenomenological models has been carried out. Extension of the Singwi-Sjoelander zero phonon expression, for the jump-diffusion model, so as to include the one phonon expression has also been given. For a delayed diffusion model a complete treatment of S(K, {omega}) is presented. Along the lines of the macroscopic diffusion cooling, a microscopic diffusion cooling effect in fluids is speculated.

  8. Parity violation in quasielastic electron scattering from closed-shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, J.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technol., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Phys.]|[Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Caballero, J.A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Donnelly, T.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technol., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Phys.; Lallena, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Moya de Guerra, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Udias, J.M. [National Laboratory for Nuclear and High-Energy Physics, Section K (NIKHEF-K), P.O. Box 41882, NL-1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-06-03

    The electromagnetic and weak neutral current matrix elements that enter in the analysis of parity-violating quasielastic electron scattering are calculated using a continuum nuclear shell model. New approximations to the on-shell relativistic one-body currents and relativistic kinematics for use in such models are developed and discussed in detail. Results are presented for three closed-shell nuclei of interest: {sup 16}O, {sup 40}Ca and {sup 208}Pb. The current work concludes with a study of the sensitivity of the resulting parity-violating asymmetries to properties of the nucleon form factors including the possible strangeness content of the nucleon. (orig.).

  9. Two Particle-Hole Excitations in Charged Current Quasielastic Antineutrino--Nucleus Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the quasielastic and multinucleon contributions to the antineutrino nucleus scattering cross section and compare our results with the recent MiniBooNE data. We use a local Fermi gas model that includes RPA correlations and gets the multinucleon part from a systematic many body expansion of the $W$ boson selfenergy in the nuclear medium. The same model had been quite successful for the neutrino cross section and contains no new parameters. We have also analysed the relevance of 2p2h events for the antineutrino energy reconstruction.

  10. Two particle–hole excitations in charged current quasielastic antineutrino-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, J., E-mail: jmnieves@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia–CSIC, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Ruiz Simo, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Vicente Vacas, M.J. [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia–CSIC, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-04-10

    We evaluate the quasielastic and multinucleon contributions to the antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross section and compare our results with the recent MiniBooNE data. We use a local Fermi gas model that includes RPA correlations and gets the multinucleon part from a systematic many body expansion of the W boson selfenergy in the nuclear medium. The same model had been quite successful for the neutrino cross section and contains no new parameters. We have also analyzed the relevance of 2p2h events for the antineutrino energy reconstruction.

  11. Dynamics of flexible counter-ions in conducting polyaniline a quasielastic neutron-scattering study

    CERN Document Server

    Bee, M; Djurado, D; Marque, D; Combet, J; Rannou, P; Dufour, B

    2002-01-01

    Conducting polyaniline protonated with sulphonic flexible counter-ions was investigated by quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering. In addition to their role in electrical properties, the flexible counter-ions also increase the elasticity of the samples. As in the case of more rigid counter-ions, polymer chains appear as very stiff objects whose dynamics is completely outside the investigated time scale. Conversely, the counter-ion dynamics was proved to be of major importance in charge transport since a dynamical transition is observed precisely in the temperature range where the electronic properties change from a metallic to a semiconducting regime. (orig.)

  12. Barrier distribution from 28Si+154Sm quasielastic scattering: Coupling effects in the fusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrier distribution for the 28Si+154Sm system has been extracted from large angle quasielastic scattering measurement to investigate the role of various channel couplings on fusion dynamics. The coupled channel calculations, including the collective excitation of the target and projectile, are observed to reproduce the experimental BD rather well. It seems that the role of neutron transfer, relative to collective excitation, is in fact weak in the 28Si+154Sm system even though it has positive Q-value for neutron transfer channels.

  13. Study of water diffusion on single-supported bilayer lipid membranes by quasielastic neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, M.; Miskowiec, A.; Hansen, F. Y.

    2012-01-01

    High-energy-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to elucidate the diffusion of water molecules in proximity to single bilayer lipid membranes supported on a silicon substrate. By varying sample temperature, level of hydration, and deuteration, we identify three different types...... of diffusive water motion: bulk-like, confined, and bound. The motion of bulk-like and confined water molecules is fast compared to those bound to the lipid head groups (7-10 H2O molecules per lipid), which move on the same nanosecond time scale as H atoms within the lipid molecules. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2012...

  14. Tensor Analyzing Powers for Quasi-Elastic Electron Scattering from Deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Z L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Passchier, E; Alarcon, R; Anghinolfi, M; Arenhövel, H; Van Bommel, R; Botto, T; Van den Brand, J F J; Bulten, H J; Choi, S; Comfort, J; Dolfini, S M; Ent, R; Gaulard, C; Higinbotham, D W; De Jager, C W; Konstantinov, E S; Lang, J; Leidemann, W; De Lange, D J; Miller, M A; Lenko, D N; Papadakis, N H; Passchier, I; Poolman, H R; Popov, S G; Rachek, Igor A; Ripani, M; Six, E; Steijger, J J M; Taiuti, M; Unal, O; Vodinas, N P; De Vries, H

    1999-01-01

    We report on a first measurement of tensor analyzing powers in quasi-elastic electron-deuteron scattering at an average three-momentum transfer of 1.7 fm$^{-1}$. Data sensitive to the spin-dependent nucleon density in the deuteron were obtained for missing momenta up to 150 MeV/$c$ with a tensor polarized $^2$H target internal to an electron storage ring. The data are well described by a calculation that includes the effects of final-state interaction, meson-exchange and isobar currents, and leading-order relativistic contributions.

  15. Short Range Correlations in Nuclei at Large xbj through Inclusive Quasi-Elastic Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhihong [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The experiment, E08-014, in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab aims to study the short-range correlations (SRC) which are necessary to explain the nuclear strength absent in the mean field theory. The cross sections for 2H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 40Ca and 48Ca, were measured via inclusive quasi-elastic electron scattering from these nuclei in a Q2 range between 0.8 and 2.8 (GeV/c)2 for x>1. The cross section ratios of heavy nuclei to 2H were extracted to study two-nucleon SRC for 1

  16. Quasielastic small-angle neutron scattering from heavy water solutions of cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmin, André; Lechner, Ruep E; Saenger, Wolfram

    2011-01-14

    We present a model for quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) by an aqueous solution of compact and inflexible molecules. This model accounts for time-dependent spatial pair correlations between the atoms of the same as well as of distinct molecules and includes all coherent and incoherent neutron scattering contributions. The extension of the static theory of the excluded volume effect [A. K. Soper, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9, 2399 (1997)] to the time-dependent (dynamic) case allows us to obtain simplified model expressions for QENS spectra in the low Q region in the uniform fluid approximation. The resulting expressions describe the quasielastic small-angle neutron scattering (QESANS) spectra of D(2)O solutions of native and methylated cyclodextrins well, yielding in particular translational and rotational diffusion coefficients of these compounds in aqueous solution. Finally, we discuss the full potential of the QESANS analysis (that is, beyond the uniform fluid approximation), in particular, the information on solute-solvent interactions (e.g., hydration shell properties) that such an analysis can provide, in principle.

  17. Quasi-elastic Charm Production In Neutrino-nucleon Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bischofberger, M

    2005-01-01

    A study of quasi elastic charm production in charged current neutrino-nucleon scattering is presented. A sample of about 1.3 million interactions recorded with the NOMAD detector in the CERN SPS wide band neutrino beam has been searched for quasi elastically produced charmed baryons ( L+c,Sc and S*c ). The search has been performed in two exclusive decay channels of the L+c, both including a L . Also, the semi-inclusive decay channels L+c,Sc,S *c→L+X have been studied. Kinematic selection criteria have been chosen in order to obtain samples enriched with quasi elastic charm events. Signal efficiencies and background expectations have been estimated by Monte Carlo simulations. The observed number of events in each searched channel has been found to agree with the background expectation from charged and neutral current reactions and an upper limit for the cross section has been derived. For the quasi elastic charm production cross section averaged over the neutrino energy spectrum (&lan...

  18. Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation studies of the melting transition in butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed on graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, K.W.; Wu, Z.; Dai, P.

    1997-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to investigate molecular diffusive motion near the melting transition of monolayers of flexible rod-shaped molecules. The experiments were conducted on butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed on an ex......Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to investigate molecular diffusive motion near the melting transition of monolayers of flexible rod-shaped molecules. The experiments were conducted on butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed...... comparison with experiment, quasielastic spectra calculated from the MD simulations were analyzed using the same models and fitting algorithms as for the neutron spectra. This combination of techniques gives a microscopic picture of the melting process in these two monolayers which is consistent with earlier...

  19. Anharmonic behavior in the multisubunit protein apoferritin as revealed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, Mark T F; Neylon, Cameron; Kilcoyne, Susan H; Arrighi, Valeria

    2008-09-04

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) has been used to study the deviation from Debye-law harmonic behavior in lyophilized and hydrated apoferritin, a naturally occurring, multisubunit protein. Whereas analysis of the measured mean squared displacement (msd) parameter reveals a hydration-dependent inflection above 240 K, characteristic of diffusive motion, a hydration-independent inflection is observed at 100 K. The mechanism responsible for this low-temperature anharmonic response is further investigated, via analysis of the elastic incoherent neutron scattering intensity, by applying models developed to describe side-group motion in glassy polymers. Our results suggest that the deviation from harmonic behavior is due to the onset of methyl group rotations which exhibit a broad distribution of activated processes ( E a,ave = 12.2 kJ.mol (-1), sigma = 5.0 kJ x mol (-1)). Our results are likened to those reported for other proteins.

  20. Quasi-elastic laser light scattering study of polyacrylamide hydrogel immersed in water and salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivanantham; B V R Tata

    2010-12-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels immersed in water and aqueous NaCl solutions were investigated for their structure and dynamics using static and quasi-elastic laser light scattering (QELS) techniques. Ensemble-averaged electric field correlation function (, ) obtained from the non-ergodic analysis of intensity-autocorrelation function for PAAm gel immersed in water and in 5 M NaCl showed an exponential decay to a plateau with an initial decay followed by saturation at long times. The value of the plateau was found to depend on NaCl concentration and was higher than that of water. Collective diffusion coefficient, , of the polymer network of the hydrogel immersed in water and in different concentrations of NaCl was determined by analysing (, ). The measured diffusion coefficient showed linear decrease with increase in concentration of NaCl. The characteristic network parameters were obtained by analyzing (, ) with harmonically bound Brownian particle model and from static light scattering studies.

  1. Axial-vector dominance predictions in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, J. E.; Ruiz Arriola, E.

    2016-03-01

    The axial form factor plays a crucial role in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, but the error of the theoretical cross section due to uncertainties of GA remains to be established. Conversely, the extraction of GA from the neutrino nucleus cross section suffers from large systematic errors due to nuclear model dependencies, while the use of single-parameter dipole fits underestimates the errors and prevents an identification of the relevant kinematics for this determination. We propose to use a generalized axial-vector-meson dominance in conjunction with large-Nc and high-energy QCD constraints to model the nucleon axial form factor, as well as the half-width rule as an a priori uncertainty estimate. The minimal hadronic ansatz comprises the sum of two monopoles corresponding to the lightest axial-vector mesons being coupled to the axial current. The parameters of the resulting axial form factor are the masses and widths of the two axial mesons as obtained from the averaged Particle Data Group values. By applying the half-width rule in a Monte Carlo simulation, a distribution of theoretical predictions can then be generated for the neutrino-nucleus quasielastic cross section. We test the model by applying it to the (νμ,μ ) quasielastic cross section from 12 for the kinematics of the MiniBooNE experiment. The resulting predictions have no free parameters. We find that the relativistic Fermi gas model globally reproduces the experimental data, giving χ2/# bins=0.81 . A Q2-dependent error analysis of the neutrino data shows that the uncertainties in the axial form factor GA(Q2) are comparable to the ones induced by the a priori half-width rule. We identify the most sensitive region to be in the range 0.2 ≲Q2≲0.6 GeV2 .

  2. A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubushkin, V.; Popov, B.; Kim, J. J.; Camilleri, L.; Levy, J.-M.; Mezzetto, M.; Naumov, D.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kulagin, S.; Kustov, D.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Ling, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Samoylov, O.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Seaton, M.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Wu, Q.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2009-10-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ( ν μ n→ μ - p and bar{ν }_{μ}ptoμ+n ) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total ν μ ( bar{ν}_{μ} ) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are < σ_{qel}rangle_{ν_{μ}}=(0.92±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst))×10^{-38} cm2 and <σ_{qel}rangle_{bar{ν}_{μ}}=(0.81±0.05(stat)±0.09(syst))×10^{-38} cm2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M A was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M A =1.05±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of ν μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M A is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M A is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M A , these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value.

  3. Quasi-Elastic Scattering of 16C from 12C at 47.5 MeV/Nucleon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Feng-Ying; ZHENG Tao; YE Yan-Lin; JIANG Dong-Xing; HUA Hui; LI Zhi-Huan; GE Yu-Cheng; LI Xiang-Qing; LOU Jian-Ling; SHI Fan; LV Lin-Hui; CAO Zhong-Xin; NIE Peng-Xuan; LI Qi-Te; SONG Yu-Shou; LU Fei; XU Hu-Shan; HU Zheng-Guo; WANG Meng; ZHANG Xue-Ying; LI Chen; CHEN Ruo-Fu; TANG Bin; XU Zhi-Guo; YUE Ke; ZHANG Ya-Peng; ZANG Yong-Dong; ZHANG Xue-Heng; YAO Xiang-Wu; CHEN Jin-Da; TU Xiao-Lin; ZHANG Jie; WU Da-Peng; BAI Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Differential cross sections for the quasi-elastic scattering of 16C at 47.5 MeV/nucleon from 12C target are measured.Coupled-channels calculations are carried out and the optical potential parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental angular distribution.

  4. Beam-target double-spin asymmetry in quasielastic electron scattering off the deuteron with CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Kuhn, S. E.; Adhikari, K. P.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Badui, R. A.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gleason, C.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Keith, C.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khachatryan, M.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Net, L. A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stankovic, I.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Torayev, B.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    Background: The deuteron plays a pivotal role in nuclear and hadronic physics, as both the simplest bound multinucleon system and as an effective neutron target. Quasielastic electron scattering on the deuteron is a benchmark reaction to test our understanding of deuteron structure and the properties and interactions of the two nucleons bound in the deuteron. Purpose: The experimental data presented here can be used to test state-of-the-art models of the deuteron and the two-nucleon interaction in the final state after two-body breakup of the deuteron. Focusing on polarization degrees of freedom, we gain information on spin-momentum correlations in the deuteron ground state (due to the D -state admixture) and on the limits of the impulse approximation (IA) picture as it applies to measurements of spin-dependent observables like spin structure functions for bound nucleons. Information on this reaction can also be used to reduce systematic uncertainties on the determination of neutron form factors or deuteron polarization through quasielastic polarized electron scattering. Method: We measured the beam-target double-spin asymmetry (A||) for quasielastic electron scattering off the deuteron at several beam energies (1.6 -1.7 , 2.5, 4.2, and 5.6 -5.8 GeV ), using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The deuterons were polarized along (or opposite to) the beam direction. The double-spin asymmetries were measured as a function of photon virtuality Q2(0.13 -3.17 (GeV/c ) 2) , missing momentum (pm=0.0 -0.5 GeV /c ), and the angle between the (inferred) spectator neutron and the momentum transfer direction (θn q). Results: The results are compared with a recent model that includes final-state interactions (FSI) using a complete parametrization of nucleon-nucleon scattering, as well as a simplified model using the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA). We find overall good agreement with both the PWIA and FSI

  5. 电子和原子核散射研究原子核结构%NUCLEAR STRUCTURE STUDIES BY ELECTRON-NUCLEUS SCATTERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董铁矿; 王再军; 褚衍运; 任中洲

    2009-01-01

    =Z doubly magic nuclei. Results show that the amplitudes of the parity violating asymmetries are mainly determined by the distances between the min-ima of the proton and neutron form factors. The results provide useful references for the future electron scattering experiments on the next-generation electron-nucleus colliders.

  6. mQfit, a new program for analyzing quasi-elastic neutron scattering data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS data of complex systems such as biological or soft matter samples in a comprehensive and explicit way often requires great efforts. Most popular software only allows to fit spectra originating from one single instrument and does not permit to extract parameters from a model that is fitted simultaneously to data taken at different instrumental resolutions. We present here a new program, mQfit (multiple QENS dataset fitting, that enables to fit QENS data taken at different spectrometers (with typical resolutions between 0.01 and 0.1 meV and momentum transfer ranges. This allows drastically reducing the number of fitting parameters. The routine is implemented with a user friendly Graphical User's Interface (GUI, and freely available. As an example, we will present results obtained on E. coli bacterial pellets, and compare them to values published in the literature.

  7. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering study of dynamics in condensed matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2004-07-01

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique, known to study stochastic motions has been successfully used to elucidate the molecular motions and physical properties related to them, in a variety of systems. QENS is a unique technique that provides information on the time-scale of the motion as well as the geometry of the motions. In this paper, results of some of the systems studied using the facility available at Dhruva, Trombay and other mega-facilities are discussed. Emphasis is given on the results obtained from three different systems studied using QENS, namely, (1) alkyl chain motions in monolayer protected metal clusters, (2) molecular motions of propane in Na-Y zeolitic systems and (3) the study of reorientational motions of liquid crystal in O. series in different mesophases.

  8. Quasi-elastic light scattering of platinum dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Christina H; Berger, Jacob; Blass, Samuel; Crooks, Richard M; Asherie, Neer

    2011-04-05

    Platinum dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) containing an average 147 atoms were prepared within sixth-generation, hydroxyl-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G6-OH). The hydrodynamic radii (R(h)) of the dendrimer/nanoparticle composites (DNCs) were determined by quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) at high (pH ∼10) and neutral pH for various salt concentrations and identities. At high pH, the size of the DNC (R(h) ∼4 nm) is close to that of the empty dendrimer. At neutral pH, the size of the DNC approximately doubles (R(h) ∼8 nm) whereas that of the empty dendrimer remains unchanged. Changes in ionic strength also alter the size of the DNCs. The increase in size of the DNC is likely due to electrostatic interactions involving the metal nanoparticle.

  9. Eikonal analysis of Coulomb distortion in quasi-elastic electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Tjon, J A

    2008-01-01

    An eikonal expansion is used to provide systematic corrections to the eikonal approximation through order $1/k^2$, where $k$ is the wave number. Electron wave functions are obtained for the Dirac equation with a Coulomb potential. They are used to investigate distorted-wave matrix elements for quasi-elastic electron scattering from a nucleus. A form of effective-momentum approximation is obtained using trajectory-dependent eikonal phases and focusing factors. Fixing the Coulomb distortion effects at the center of the nucleus, the often-used ema approximation is recovered. Comparisons of these approximations are made with full calculations using the electron eikonal wave functions. The ema results are found to agree well with the full calculations.

  10. Dynamics of camphor sulfonic acid in polyaniline (PANI-CSA): a quasielastic neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bée, M.; Djurado, D.; Combet, J.; Telling, M.; Rannou, P.; Pron, A.; Travers, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    PolyAniline (PANI) doped by camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) exhibits an electronic conductivity of several hundreds of S/cm. All the authors agree to invoke in various extents the role of disorder in the evolution of the transport properties as a function of temperature. The IRIS spectrometer at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory was used to remove uncertainties of previous IN6-IN16 experiments at Institut Laue-Langevin. The rigidity of the PANI chains was confirmed, in both a conducting and a partially doped sample. All the observable quasielastic scattering occurs from the CSA dynamics. However, this contribution is too weak in the case of the partially doped specimen to conclude about the coupling of the counter-ion disorder with the electronic transport properties.

  11. Parameters of Fermi-motion from Quasielastic Backward Pion-Proton Scattering on Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, B M; Dukhovskoy, I A; Khanov, A I; Krestnikov, Yu S; Krutenkova, A P; Kulikov, V V; Matsuk, M A; Radkevich, I A; Turdakina, E N

    1999-01-01

    In experiment on the study of the quasielastic pion-proton scattering at large momentum transfer on nuclei the proton Fermi-momentum distributions have been analysed in plane-wave approximation for light nuclei $^6$Li, $^7$Li and $^{12}$C. It was found that, contrary to (e,e') experiments, that the oscillator model gives slightly better description of our data than the Fermi - gas model. But the values of parameters of the distributions obtained in our analysis are considerably smaller, than in (e,e') experiments. It gives evidence that the plane-wave approximation is not sufficient and more complicated theoretical models which take into account the effects of distortion of pion-nucleon amplitude in a nuclear medium are necessary for analysis of our data.

  12. Quasielastic neutron scattering studies of H motion in Laves-phase compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Skripov, A V; Cook, J C; Udovic, T J; Hempelmann, R

    2002-01-01

    The results of our quasielastic neutron scattering measurements for a number of cubic Laves-phase hydrides AB sub 2 H sub x are consistent with the coexistence of two types of H motion: the fast localized jumps within the hexagons formed by interstitial g (A sub 2 B sub 2) sites and the slower hopping from one hexagon to another. The analysis of these results has revealed the relation between the hydrogen-hopping rates, the g-g distances, and the ratio of the metallic radii R sub A and R sub B of the elements A and B forming the AB sub 2 compound. We conclude that the behavior of the two frequency scales of H motion is determined mainly by R sub A /R sub B. A new type of localized H motion is predicted for compounds with R sub A /R sub B >1.35. (orig.)

  13. Dynamic processes in biological membrane mimics revealed by quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautner, Lisa; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Barth, Nicolai K H; Seydel, Tilo; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Böckmann, Rainer A; Unruh, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Neutron scattering is a powerful tool to study relaxation processes in biological membrane mimics in space and time. Combining different inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering techniques, a large dynamic range can be covered: from atomic to mesoscopic lengths and from femto- to some hundreds of nanoseconds in time. This allows studies on e.g. the diffusion of lipids, the membrane undulation motions, the dispersion of sound waves in membranes as well as the mutual interactions of membrane constituents such as lipids, proteins, and additives. In particular, neutron scattering provides a quite direct experimental approach to the inter-atomic and inter-molecular potentials on length and time scales which are perfectly accessible by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Neutron scattering experiments may thus substantially support the further refinement of biomolecular force fields for MD simulations by supplying structural and dynamical information with high spatial and temporal resolution. In turn, MD simulations support the interpretation of neutron scattering data. The combination of both, neutron scattering experiments and MD simulations, yields an unprecedented insight into the molecular interactions governing the structure and dynamics of biological membranes. This review provides an overview of the molecular dynamics in biological membrane mimics as revealed by neutron scattering. It focuses on the latest findings such as the fundamental molecular mechanism of lateral lipid diffusion as well as the influence of additives and proteins on the short-time dynamics of lipids. Special emphasis is placed on the comparison of recent neutron scattering and MD simulation data with respect to molecular membrane dynamics on the pico- to nanosecond time scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quasielastic neutron scattering investigation of motion of water molecules in n-propyl alcohol-water mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Nakada, Masaru; Maruyama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Osamu; MISAWA, Masakatsu

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of water molecules in the n-propyl alcohol-water mixtures is investigated by using quasielastic neutron scattering measurements. The dynamic structure factor S(Q,E) obtained from incoherent scattering of hydrogen atoms of water is fitted with jump diffusion and relaxing cage models. The diffusion constant obtained from the relaxing cage model, which gives better fitting with S(Q,E), shows better agreement to the experimental value than that of jump diffusion model. The dependence...

  15. A study of quasi-elastic muon neutrino and antineutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubushkin, V.; Bunyatov, S.; Chukanov, A.; Klimov, O.; Kustov, D.; Nefedov, Yu.; Samoylov, O.; Tereshchenko, V. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Popov, B. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Kim, J.J.; Godley, A.; Ling, J.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Seaton, M.; Wu, Q. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Camilleri, L.; Autiero, D.; Di Lella, L.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Ferrere, D.; Grant, A.; Kokkonen, J.; Linssen, L.; Placci, A.; Stiegler, U.; Tsesmelis, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Wilson, F.F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Levy, J.M.; Astier, P.; Banner, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Lachaud, C.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Schahmaneche, K.; Touchard, A.M.; Vannucci, F. [LPNHE, Univ. of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Mezzetto, M.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Bobisut, F.; Collazuol, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Laveder, M.; Rebuffi, L.; Sconza, A.; Zuccon, P. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Naumov, D. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Univ. of Florence (Italy); INFN, Florence (Italy); Alekhin, S. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Baldisseri, A.; Besson, N.; Bouchez, J.; Gosset, J.; Hagner, C.; Mechain, X.; Meyer, J.P.; Stolarczyk, T.; Zaccone, H. [DAPNIA, Saclay (France); Bassompierre, G.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gouanere, M.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Nedelec, P.; Pessard, H.; Sillou, D. [LAPP, Annecy (France); Benslama, K.; Degaudenzi, H.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Sozzi, G.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Tran, M.T.; Vacavant, L.; Vieira, J.M. [Univ. of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bird, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Univ. of Lausanne (Switzerland); Blumenfeld, B.; Long, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Boyd, S.; Ellis, M.; Peak, L.S.; Ulrichs, J.; Varvell, K.E.; Yabsley, B.D. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia); Bueno, A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); ETH Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others

    2009-10-15

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions ({nu}{sub {mu}}n {yields}{mu}{sup -}p and anti {nu}{sub {mu}}p{yields}{mu}{sup +}n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD Collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total {nu}{sub {mu}}(anti {nu}{sub {mu}}) charged-current cross section. The results for the flux-averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub {nu}}{sub {mu}}=(0.92{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} and left angle {sigma}{sub qel} right angle {sub anti} {sub {nu}{sub {mu}}}{sub =}(0.81{+-}0.05(stat){+-}0.09(syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M{sub A} was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M{sub A}=1.05{+-}0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q{sup 2} shape analysis of the high purity sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured M{sub A} is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M{sub A} is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE Collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M{sub A}, these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value. (orig.)

  16. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  17. Quasielastic neutron scattering study of large amplitude motions in molecular systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bee, M. [Univ. J. Fourier - Grenoble 1, Lab. de Spectrometrie Physique, Saint-Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    This lecture aims at giving some illustrations of the use of Incoherent Quasielastic Neutron Scattering in the investigation of motions of atoms or molecules in phases with dynamical disorder. The general incoherent scattering function is first recalled. Then the Elastic Incoherent Structure Factor is introduced. It is shown how its determination permits to deduce a particular dynamical model. Long-range translational diffusion is illustrated by some experiments carried out with liquids or with different chemical species intercalated in porous media. Examples of rotational motions are provided by solid phases where an orientational disorder of the molecules exists. The jump model is the most commonly used and yields simple scattering laws which can be easily handled. Highly disordered crystals require a description in terms of the isotropic rotational diffusion model. Many of the present studies are concerned with rather complicated systems. Considerable help is obtained either by using selectively deuterated samples or by carrying out measurements with semi-oriented samples. (author) 5 figs., 14 refs.

  18. The contribution of small angle and quasi-elastic scattering to the physics of liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, José

    2017-05-01

    Many properties of liquid water at low temperature show anomalous behaviour. For example, density, isothermal compressibility, heat capacity pass by maxima or minima and transport properties show a super-Arrhenius behaviour. Extrapolations performed beyond the homogeneous nucleation temperature are at the origin of models that predict critical points, liquid-liquid transitions or dynamic cross-overs in the large domain of temperature and pressure not accessible to experiments because of ice nucleation. A careful analysis of existing data can be used to test some of these models. Small angle X-ray or neutron scattering data are incompatible with models where two liquids or heterogeneities are present. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering, taking advantage and combining both coherent and incoherent scattering show that two relaxation times are present in liquid water and that one of them, related to hydrogen bond dynamics, has an Arrhenian behaviour, suggesting that the associated dynamics of the bonds, similar to the β relaxation of polymers, determines the glass transition temperature of water.

  19. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  20. Dynamics of biopolymers on nanomaterials studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and MD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Gurpreet K.

    Neutron scattering has been proved to be a powerful tool to study the dynamics of biological systems under various conditions. This thesis intends to utilize neutron scattering techniques, combining with MD simulations, to develop fundamental understanding of several biologically interesting systems. Our systems include a drug delivery system containing Nanodiamonds with nucleic acid (RNA), and two specific model proteins, beta-Casein and Inorganic Pyrophosphatase (IPPase). RNA and nanodiamond (ND) both are suitable for drug-delivery applications in nano-biotechnology. The architecturally flexible RNA with catalytic functionality forms nanocomposites that can treat life-threatening diseases. The non-toxic ND has excellent mechanical and optical properties and functionalizable high surface area, and thus actively considered for biomedical applications. In this thesis, we utilized two tools, quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and Molecular Dynamics Simulations to probe the effect of ND on RNA dynamics. Our work provides fundamental understanding of how hydrated RNA motions are affected in the RNA-ND nanocomposites. From the experimental and Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MD), we found that hydrated RNA motion is faster on ND surface than a freestanding one. MD Simulation results showed that the failure of Stokes Einstein relation results the presence of dynamic heterogeneities in the biomacromolecules. Radial pair distribution function from MD Simulation confirmed that the hydrophilic nature of ND attracts more water than RNA results the de-confinement of RNA on ND. Therefore, RNA exhibits faster motion in the presence of ND than freestanding RNA. In the second project, we studied the dynamics of a natively disordered protein beta-Casein which lacks secondary structures. In this study, the temperature and hydration effects on the dynamics of beta-Casein are explored by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering (QENS). We investigated the mean square displacement (MSD) of

  1. Relaxation dynamics of lysozyme in solution under pressure: Combining molecular dynamics simulations and quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calandrini, V. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Synchrotron Soleil, L' Orme de Merisiers, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hamon, V. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Hinsen, K. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Synchrotron Soleil, L' Orme de Merisiers, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Calligari, P. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, B.P. 156, 38042 Grenoble (France); Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bellissent-Funel, M.-C. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kneller, G.R. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Synchrotron Soleil, L' Orme de Merisiers, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: kneller@cnrs-orleans.fr

    2008-04-18

    This paper presents a study of the influence of non-denaturing hydrostatic pressure on the relaxation dynamics of lysozyme in solution, which combines molecular dynamics simulations and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments. We compare results obtained at ambient pressure and at 3 kbar. Experiments have been performed at pD 4.6 and at a protein concentration of 60 mg/ml. For both pressures we checked the monodispersity of the protein solution by small angle neutron scattering. To interpret the simulation results and the experimental data, we adopt the fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model for the internal relaxation dynamics of the protein. On the experimental side, global protein motions are accounted for by the model of free translational diffusion, neglecting the much slower rotational diffusion. We find that the protein dynamics in the observed time window from about 1 to 100 ps is slowed down under pressure, while its fractal characteristics is preserved, and that the amplitudes of the motions are reduced by about 20%. The slowing down of the relaxation is reduced with increasing q-values, where more localized motions are seen.

  2. Quasi-elastic scattering of 6He, 7Be, and 8B nuclei by 12C nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, V I

    2016-01-01

    The observed cross sections of quasi-elastic scattering of 6He, 7Be, and 8B nuclei by 12C nuclei are described within the framework of the diffraction nuclear model and the model of nucleus-nucleus scattering in the high-energy approximation with a double folding potential, for intermediate energies of the incident particles. The calculations make use of realistic distributions of nucleon densities and take account of the Coulomb interaction and inelastic scattering with excitation of low-lying collective states of the target.

  3. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, J. [Tufts U.

    2015-12-31

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^{2}$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^{2}$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generator. We furthermore report on a photon-like background unpredicted by the generator which we interpret as neutral-coherent diffractive scattering from hydrogen.

  4. Quasielastic neutron scattering studies on glass-forming ionic liquids with imidazolium cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofu, Maiko; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Kyoko; Yamamuro, Osamu, E-mail: yamamuro@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Tyagi, Madhusudan [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Materials Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Relaxation processes for imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated by means of an incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering technique. In order to clarify the cation and anion effects on the relaxation processes, ten samples were measured. For all of the samples, we found three relaxations at around 1 ps, 10 ps, and 100 ps-10 ns, each corresponding to the alkyl reorientation, the relaxation related to the imidazolium ring, and the ionic diffusion. The activation energy (E{sub a}) for the alkyl relaxation is insensitive to both anion and alkyl chain lengths. On the other hand, for the imidazolium relaxation and the ionic diffusion processes, E{sub a} increases as the anion size decreases but is almost independent of the alkyl chain length. This indicates that the ionic diffusion and imidazolium relaxation are governed by the Coulombic interaction between the core parts of the cations (imidazolium ring) and the anions. This is consistent with the fact that the imidazolium-based ILs have nanometer scale structures consisting of ionic and neutral (alkyl chain) domains. It is also found that there is a clear correlation between the ionic diffusion and viscosity, indicating that the ionic diffusion is mainly associated with the glass transition which is one of the characteristics of imidazolium-based ILs.

  5. Ligation-Dependent Picosecond Dynamics in Human Hemoglobin As Revealed by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Satoru; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Kono, Fumiaki; Tominaga, Taiki; Shibata, Kaoru; Sato-Tomita, Ayana; Shibayama, Naoya

    2017-08-31

    Hemoglobin, the vital O2 carrier in red blood cells, has long served as a classic example of an allosteric protein. Although high-resolution X-ray structural models are currently available for both the deoxy tense (T) and fully liganded relaxed (R) states of hemoglobin, much less is known about their dynamics, especially on the picosecond to subnanosecond time scales. Here, we investigate the picosecond dynamics of the deoxy and CO forms of human hemoglobin using quasielastic neutron scattering under near physiological conditions in order to extract the dynamics changes upon ligation. From the analysis of the global motions, we found that whereas the apparent diffusion coefficients of the deoxy form can be described by assuming translational and rotational diffusion of a rigid body, those of the CO form need to involve an additional contribution of internal large-scale motions. We also found that the local dynamics in the deoxy and CO forms are very similar in amplitude but are slightly lower in frequency in the former than in the latter. Our results reveal the presence of rapid large-scale motions in hemoglobin and further demonstrate that this internal mobility is governed allosterically by the ligation state of the heme group.

  6. Quasielastic neutron scattering studies on glass-forming ionic liquids with imidazolium cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofu, Maiko; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Kyoko; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2015-12-21

    Relaxation processes for imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated by means of an incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering technique. In order to clarify the cation and anion effects on the relaxation processes, ten samples were measured. For all of the samples, we found three relaxations at around 1 ps, 10 ps, and 100 ps-10 ns, each corresponding to the alkyl reorientation, the relaxation related to the imidazolium ring, and the ionic diffusion. The activation energy (Ea) for the alkyl relaxation is insensitive to both anion and alkyl chain lengths. On the other hand, for the imidazolium relaxation and the ionic diffusion processes, Ea increases as the anion size decreases but is almost independent of the alkyl chain length. This indicates that the ionic diffusion and imidazolium relaxation are governed by the Coulombic interaction between the core parts of the cations (imidazolium ring) and the anions. This is consistent with the fact that the imidazolium-based ILs have nanometer scale structures consisting of ionic and neutral (alkyl chain) domains. It is also found that there is a clear correlation between the ionic diffusion and viscosity, indicating that the ionic diffusion is mainly associated with the glass transition which is one of the characteristics of imidazolium-based ILs.

  7. Coherent dynamics of meta-toluidine investigated by quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Antonio; Hong, Kunlun; Kneller, Larry R; Ohl, Michael; Copley, John R D

    2012-03-14

    The coherent dynamics of a typical fragile glass former, meta-toluidine, was investigated at the molecular level using quasielastic neutron scattering, with time-of-flight and neutron spin echo spectrometers. It is well known that the static structure factor of meta-toluidine shows a prepeak originating from clustering of the molecules through hydrogen bonding between the amine groups. The dynamics of meta-toluidine was measured for several values of the wavevector transfer Q, which is equivalent to an inverse length scale, in a range encompassing the prepeak and the structure factor peak. Data were collected in the temperature range corresponding to the liquid and supercooled states, down to the glass transition. At least two dynamical processes were identified. This paper focuses on the slowest relaxation process in the system, the α-relaxation, which was found to scale with the macroscopic shear viscosity at all the investigated Q values. No evidence of "de Gennes" narrowing associated with the prepeak was observed, in contrast with what happens at the Q value corresponding to the interparticle distance. Moreover, using partially deuterated samples, the dynamics of the clusters was found to be correlated to the single-particle dynamics of the meta-toluidine molecules.

  8. Coherent Dynamics of meta-Toluidine Investigated by QuasiElastic Neutron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraone, Antonio [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Kneller, Larry [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD; Ohl, Michael E [ORNL; Copley, John R. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD

    2012-01-01

    The coherent dynamics of a typical fragile glass former, meta-toluidine, was investigated at the molecular level using quasielastic neutron scattering, with time-of-flight and neutron spin echo spectrometers. It is well known that the static structure factor of meta-toluidine shows a prepeak originating from clustering of the molecules through hydrogen bonding between the amine groups. The dynamics of meta-toluidine was measured for several values of the wavevector transfer Q, which is equivalent to an inverse length scale, in a range encompassing the prepeak and the structure factor peak. Data were collected in the temperature range corresponding to the liquid and supercooled states, down to the glass transition. At least two dynamical processes were identified. This paper focuses on the slowest relaxation process in the system, the {alpha}-relaxation, which was found to scale with the macroscopic shear viscosity at all the investigated Q values. No evidence of 'de Gennes' narrowing associated with the prepeak was observed, in contrast with what happens at the Q value corresponding to the interparticle distance. Moreover, using partially deuterated samples, the dynamics of the clusters was found to be correlated to the single-particle dynamics of the meta-toluidine molecules.

  9. Multi-component modeling of quasielastic neutron scattering from phospholipid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderlingh, U., E-mail: uwanderlingh@unime.it; D’Angelo, G.; Branca, C.; Trimarchi, A.; Rifici, S.; Finocchiaro, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, University of Messina, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Conti Nibali, V. [Institute for Physical Chemistry II, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Crupi, C. [IPCF-V.le F. Stagno D’Alcontres, n. 37, Messina 98158 (Italy); Ollivier, J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Middendorf, H. D. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-07

    We investigated molecular motions in the 0.3–350 ps time range of D{sub 2}O-hydrated bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-oleoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine in the liquid phase by quasielastic neutron scattering. Model analysis of sets of spectra covering scale lengths from 4.8 to 30 Å revealed the presence of three types of motion taking place on well-separated time scales: (i) slow diffusion of the whole phospholipid molecules in a confined cylindrical region; (ii) conformational motion of the phospholipid chains; and (iii) fast uniaxial rotation of the hydrogen atoms around their carbon atoms. Based on theoretical models for the hydrogen dynamics in phospholipids, the spatial extent of these motions was analysed in detail and the results were compared with existing literature data. The complex dynamics of protons was described in terms of elemental dynamical processes involving different parts of the phospholipid chain on whose motions the hydrogen atoms ride.

  10. Hydrogen diffusion in potassium intercalated graphite studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Justin; Keith, J. Brandon; Ahn, Channing C.; Brown, Craig M.; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Fultz, Brent

    2012-12-01

    The graphite intercalation compound KC24 adsorbs hydrogen gas at low temperatures up to a maximum stoichiometry of KC24(H2)2, with a differential enthalpy of adsorption of approximately -9 kJ mol-1. The hydrogen molecules and potassium atoms form a two-dimensional condensed phase between the graphite layers. Steric barriers and strong adsorption potentials are expected to strongly hinder hydrogen diffusion within the host KC24 structure. In this study, self-diffusion in a KC24(H2)0.5 sample is measured experimentally by quasielastic neutron scattering and compared to values from molecular dynamics simulations. Self-diffusion coefficients are determined by fits of the experimental spectra to a honeycomb net diffusion model and found to agree well with the simulated values. The experimental H2 diffusion coefficients in KC24 vary from 3.6 × 10-9 m2 s-1 at 80 K to 8.5 × 10-9 m2 s-1 at 110 K. The measured diffusivities are roughly an order of magnitude lower that those observed on carbon adsorbents, but compare well with the rate of hydrogen self-diffusion in molecular sieve zeolites.

  11. Study of quasielastic scattering using charged-current nu_mu-iron interactions in the MINOS Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Aurisano, A; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Castromonte, C M; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; de Jong, J K; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Holin, A; Huang, J; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGivern, C; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Sher, S Moed; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Connor, J O; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Perch, A; Pfutzner, M; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Poonthottathil, N; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tian, X; Timmons, A; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2014-01-01

    Kinematic distributions from an inclusive sample of 1.41 x 10^6 charged-current nu_mu interactions on iron, obtained using the MINOS Near Detector exposed to a wide-band beam with peak flux at 3 GeV, are compared to a conventional treatment of neutrino scattering within a Fermi gas nucleus. Results are used to guide the selection of a subsample enriched in quasielastic nu_mu Fe interactions, containing an estimated 123,000 quasielastic events of incident energies 1 = 2.79 GeV. Four additional subsamples representing topological and kinematic sideband regions to quasielastic scattering are also selected for the purpose of evaluating backgrounds. Comparisons using subsample distributions in four-momentum transfer Q^2 show the Monte Carlo model to be inadequate at low Q^2. Its shortcomings are remedied via inclusion of a Q^2-dependent suppression function for baryon resonance production, developed from the data. A chi-square fit of the resulting Monte Carlo simulation to the shape of the Q^2 distribution for th...

  12. Recent Advances and Open Questions in Neutrino-induced Quasi-elastic Scattering and Single Photon Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos; Harris, D. A. [Fermilab; Tanaka, H. A. [British Columbia U.; Tayloe, R. [Indiana U.; Zeller, G. P. [Fermilab

    2015-06-15

    The study of neutrino–nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron–nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations.

  13. Important influence of single neutron stripping coupling on near-barrier 8Li + 90Zr quasi-elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakou, A.; Keeley, N.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Mazzocco, M.; Acosta, L.; Aslanoglou, X.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Grebosz, J.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Parascandolo, C.; Rusek, K.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Sgouros, O.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Soukeras, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Trzcińska, A.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-07-01

    Quasi-elastic scattering data were obtained for the radioactive nucleus 8Li on a 90Zr target at the near-barrier energy of 18.5MeV over the angular range to 80°. They were analyzed within the coupled channels and coupled reaction channels frameworks pointing to a strong coupling effect for single neutron stripping, in contrast to 6, 7 Li + 90 Zr elastic scattering at similar energies, a non-trivial result linked to detailed differences in the structure of these Li isotopes.

  14. Results for quasi-elastic anti-neutrino scattering on scintillator from the MINERvA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellman, Heidi; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We present a new preliminary measurement of the charge-current quasi-elastic scattering cross section for anti-neutrinos on scintillator (CH) over the energy range 1.5-10 GeV. The data were taken with the MINERvA detector in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab and cover the energy range of interest for the proposed DUNE long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment and of JLAB elastic scattering experiments. Of particular interest to the nuclear community are possible signatures for short range correlations and/or meson exchange currents in these data. We present comparisons to a range of nuclear models.

  15. Proton diffusion in SrZr{sub 0.95}Y{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} observed by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sata, Noriko; Ishigame, Mareo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Scientific Measurements; Shin, Shik; Shibata, Kaoru

    1999-11-01

    Proton diffusion was observed in Y-dopedSrZrO{sub 3} ceramics above 500 deg C by quasielastic neutron scattering. The line width of the quasielastic component varies with energy transfer Q and temperature. The temperature dependence is well elucidated by the thermal activation-type proton migration with activation energy of 0.2eV. The observed hopping distance was 1.7A, which is comparable to one of the distances between two proton sites. (author)

  16. Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvojka, Jesse John [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of neutrino oscillation is becoming increasingly understood with results from accelerator-based and reactor-based experiments, but unanswered questions remain. The proper ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates that compose the neutrino avor eigenstates is not completely known. We have yet to detect CP violation in neutrino mixing, which if present could help explain the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter in the universe. We also have not resolved whether sterile neutrinos, which do not interact in any Standard Model interaction, exist. Accelerator-based experiments appear to be the most promising candidates for resolving these questions; however, the ability of present and future experiments to provide answers is likely to be limited by systematic errors. A significant source of this systematic error comes from limitations in our knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions. Errors on cross-sections for such interactions are large, existing data is sometimes contradictory, and knowledge of nuclear effects is incomplete. One type of neutrino interaction of particular interest is charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering, which yields a final state consisting of a charged lepton and nucleon. This process, which is the dominant interaction near energies of 1 GeV, is of great utility to neutrino oscillation experiments since the incoming neutrino energy and the square of the momentum transferred to the final state nucleon, Q2, can be reconstructed using the final state lepton kinematics. To address the uncertainty in our knowledge of neutrino interactions, many experiments have begun making dedicated measurements. In particular, the MINER A experiment is studying neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few GeV region. MINERvA is a fine-grained, high precision, high statistics neutrino scattering experiment that will greatly improve our understanding of neutrino cross-sections and nuclear effects that affect the final state particles

  17. Quasielastic pion scattering near the (3,3) resonance. [255 MeV, differential cross section ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, P.

    1978-12-01

    The quasielastic pion scattering process (..pi..,..pi..p), in which an energetic pion scatters off a target nucleus, knocking-out a bound proton, was studied to determine the role of recoil nucleon charge exchange in the mechanism of the process near the (3,3) free particle pion-nucleon resonance. Calculations, which incorporate the hypothesis of final state charge exchange of the outgoing nucleon, were performed to predict expectations for observing the process. Experimental measurements were made on /sup 27/Al and /sup 208/Pb, using 255-MeV ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ beams. The outgoing protons were observed in a counter telescope in singles and coincidence modes. Singles spectra were measured at proton angles theta/sub rho/ = 45, 55, 64, and 90/sup 0/ and cross sections were calculated as a function of the energy of the detected proton, for each of the targets. Values of the ratio of ..pi../sup +/ to ..pi../sup -/ cross sections were calculated for each of the angles of observation. The results obtained indicate that the singles spectra contain events from processes other than quasielastic scattering and that the quasielastic events cannot be easily disentangled from the large background due to such events. The study has thus established the inadequacy of observing quasielastic pion scattering in a single arm measurement. Coincidence measurements were made by observing the recoil protons in coincidence with the scattered pions, which were detected in a scintillator counter telescope. The ratio of ..pi../sup +/ to ..pi../sup -/ cross sections were obtained for each target for the angular settings (theta/sub rho/, theta/sub ..pi../) = (55, 50/sup 0/) and (64, 37.5/sup 0/). The measured values of 7.0 +- 0.7 for /sup 27/Al and 4.5 +- 0.5 for /sup 208/Pb are substantially below the impulse approximation no-charge-exchange limit of 9. The observed A dependence of this cross section ratio is in agreement with the predictions of the semiclassical charge exchange

  18. Point defect dynamics in sodium aluminum hydrides - a combined quasielastic neutron scattering and density functional theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qing; Voss, Johannes; Jacobsen, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    we study hydrogen dynamics in undoped and TiCl3-doped samples of NaAlH4 and Na3AlH6 using a combination of density functional theory calculations and quasielastic neutron scattering. Hydrogen dynamics is found to be limited and mediated by hydrogen vacancies in both alanate phases, requiring......Understanding the catalytic role of titanium-based additives on the reversible hydrogenation of complex metal hydrides is an essential step towards developing hydrogen storage materials for the transport sector. Improved bulk diffusion of hydrogen is one of the proposed catalytic effects, and here...

  19. Hydrogen dynamics in Na3AlH6: A combined density functional theory and quasielastic neutron scattering study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Johannes; Shi, Qing; Jacobsen, Hjalte Sylvest

    2007-01-01

    alanate with TiCl3, and here we study hydrogen dynamics in doped and undoped Na3AlH6 using a combination of density functional theory calculations and quasielastic neutron scattering. The hydrogen dynamics is found to be vacancy mediated and dominated by localized jump events, whereas long-range bulk......Understanding the elusive catalytic role of titanium-based additives on the reversible hydrogenation of complex hydrides is an essential step toward developing hydrogen storage materials for the transport sector. Improved bulk diffusion of hydrogen is one of the proposed effects of doping sodium...

  20. Study of the Quasi-Elastic Scattering in the NOvA Detector Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Minerba [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-06-01

    NOvA is a 810 km long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment with two detectors (far 14 KTon and near detector 300 Ton) currently being installed in the NUMI o -axis neutrino beam produced at Fermilab. A 222 Ton prototype NOvA detector (NDOS) was built and operated in the neutrino beam for over a year to understand the response of the detector and its construction. The goal of this thesis is to study the muon neutrino interaction data collected in this test, specifically the identification of quasi-elastic charged-current interactions and measure the behavior of the quasi-elastic muon neutrino cross section.

  1. Water dynamics in hardened ordinary Portland cement paste or concrete: from quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordallo, Heloisa N; Aldridge, Laurence P; Desmedt, Arnaud

    2006-09-14

    Portland cement reacts with water to form an amorphous paste through a chemical reaction called hydration. In concrete the formation of pastes causes the mix to harden and gain strength to form a rock-like mass. Within this process lies the key to a remarkable peculiarity of concrete: it is plastic and soft when newly mixed, strong and durable when hardened. These qualities explain why one material, concrete, can build skyscrapers, bridges, sidewalks and superhighways, houses, and dams. The character of the concrete is determined by the quality of the paste. Creep and shrinkage of concrete specimens occur during the loss and gain of water from cement paste. To better understand the role of water in mature concrete, a series of quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments were carried out on cement pastes with water/cement ratio varying between 0.32 and 0.6. The samples were cured for about 28 days in sealed containers so that the initial water content would not change. These experiments were carried out with an actual sample of Portland cement rather than with the components of cement studied by other workers. The QENS spectra differentiated between three different water interactions: water that was chemically bound into the cement paste, the physically bound or "glassy water" that interacted with the surface of the gel pores in the paste, and unbound water molecules that are confined within the larger capillary pores of cement paste. The dynamics of the "glassy" and "unboud" water in an extended time scale, from a hundred picoseconds to a few nanoseconds, could be clearly differentiated from the data. While the observed motions on the picosecond time scale are mainly stochastic reorientations of the water molecules, the dynamics observed on the nanosecond range can be attributed to long-range diffusion. Diffusive motion was characterized by diffusion constants in the range of (0.6-2) 10(-9) m(2)/s, with significant reduction compared to the rate of diffusion

  2. Effect of coupling in the 28Si+154Sm reaction studied by quasi-elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Behera, B. R.; Jhingan, A.; Nayak, B. K.; Dubey, R.; Sharma, Priya; Thakur, Meenu; Mahajan, Ruchi; Saneesh, N.; Banerjee, Tathagata; Khushboo, Kumar, A.; Mandal, S.; Saxena, A.; Sugathan, P.; Rowley, N.

    2016-09-01

    The study of the coupling to collective states of the 28Si projectile and 154Sm target in fusion mechanism is reported. Understanding such couplings is important as they influence the barrier height and the formation probability of the compound nuclei, which in turn may be related to the synthesis of superheavy elements in heavier systems. In the present work, before performing the coupled-channel calculations, we wish to obtain an experimental signature of coupling to projectile and target excitation through barrier distribution (BD) study. To this end, the BDs of the 28Si+154Sm and 16O+154Sm systems have been compared using existing fusion data, scaled to compensate for the differences between the nominal Coulomb barriers and the respective coupling strengths. However, the large error bars on the high-energy side of the fusion BD prevent any definite identification of such signatures. We have, therefore, performed a quasi-elastic (QE) scattering experiment for the heavier 28Si+154Sm system and compared its results with existing QE data for the 16O projectile. Since QE BDs are precise at higher energies, the comparison has shown that the BD of 28Si+154Sm is similar to that of 16O+154Sm to a large extent except for a peaklike structure on the higher energy side. The similarity shows that the 154Sm deformation plays a major role in the fusion mechanism of 28Si+154Sm system. The peaklike structure is attributed to 28Si excitation. In contrast with previous studies, it is found that a coupled-channel calculation with vibrational coupling to the first 2+ state of 28Si reproduces this structure rather well. However, an almost identical result is found with the rotational coupling scheme if one considers the large positive hexadecapole deformation of the projectile. A value around that given by Möller and Nix (β4≈0.25 ) leads to a strong cancellation in the re-orientation term that couples the 2+ state back to itself, making that state look vibrational in this

  3. Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements and ab initio MD-simulations on single ion motions in molten NaF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Mukhopadhyay, S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-07

    The ionic stochastic motions in the molten alkali halide NaF are investigated by quasielastic neutron scattering and first principles molecular dynamics simulation. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the diffusion behavior of the sodium ions in the melt. An extensive first principles based simulation on a box of up to 512 particles has been performed to complement the experimental data. From that large box, a smaller 64-particle box has then been simulated over a runtime of 60 ps. A good agreement between calculated and neutron data on the level of spectral shape has been obtained. The obtained sodium diffusion coefficients agree very well. The simulation predicts a fluorine diffusion coefficient similar to the sodium one. Applying the Nernst-Einstein equation, a remarkable large cross correlation between both ions can be deduced. The velocity cross correlations demonstrate a positive correlation between the ions over a period of 0.1 ps. That strong correlation is evidence that the unlike ions do not move completely statistically independent and have a strong association over a short period of time.

  4. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) Studies of Hydrogen Dynamics for Nano-Confined NaAlH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Tabbetha; Narasegowda, Shathabish; Brown, Craig; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Jenkins, Timothy

    The hydrogen dynamics of nano-confined sodium alanate (NaAlH4) has been studied using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). Results indicate thermodynamic destabilization is responsible for reduced desorption temperatures of NaAlH4 upon confinement within the nanopores of a metal organic framework (MOF). Both the bulk (microscale) NaAlH4 and the nanoconfined NaAlH4 data were fitted to re-orientation models which yielded corresponding percent mobile hydrogen and jump lengths. The jump lengths calculated from the nano-NaAlH4 were ~2.5 Å, and in conformity with those jump lengths determined for bulk NaAlH4 of ~2.3 Å. As much as 18 % of the hydrogen atoms were estimated to be mobile in the nano-NaAlH4 sample even at relatively low temperatures of 350 K. In contrast, bulk NaAlH4 shows less than 7 % mobile H-atoms even at higher temperatures of ~450 K. The activation energy for the long range is 3.1meV. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) Studies of Hydrogen Dynamics for Nano-Confined NaAlH4.

  5. Beam-target double spin asymmetry in quasi-elastic electron scattering off the deuteron with CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-elastic electron scattering on the deuteron is a benchmark reaction to test our understanding of deuteron structure and the properties and interactions of the two nucleons bound in the deuteron. The experimental data presented here can be used to test state-of-the-art models of the deuteron and the two-nucleon interaction in the final state after two-body breakup of the deuteron. Focusing on polarization degrees of freedom, we gain information on spin-momentum correlations in the deuteron ground state (due to the D-state admixture) and on the limits of the Impulse Approximation (IA) picture as it applies to measurements of spin-dependent observables like spin structure functions for bound nucleons. We measured the beam-target double spin asymmetry for quasi-elastic electron scattering off the deuteron at several beam energies using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The deuterons were polarized along (or opposite to) the beam direction. ...

  6. Static and quasi-elastic small angle neutron scattering on biocompatible ionic ferrofluids: magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gazeau, F; Dubois, E; Perzynski, R

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of ionic magnetic fluids (MFs), based on ferrite nanoparticles, dispersed at pH approx 7 either in H sub 2 O or in D sub 2 O. Polarized and non-polarized static small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments in zero magnetic field allow us to study both the magnetic and the nuclear contributions to the neutron scattering. The magnetic interparticle attraction is probed separately from the global thermodynamic repulsion and compares well to direct magnetic susceptibility measurements. The magnetic interparticle correlation is in these fluid samples independent of the probed spatial scale. In contrast, a spatial dependence of the interparticle correlation is evidenced at large PHI by the nuclear structure factor. A model of magnetic interaction quantitatively explains the under-field anisotropy of the SANS nuclear contribution. In a quasi-elastic neutron spin-echo experiment, we probe the Brownian dynamics of translation of the nanoparticles in the range 1.3 sup<=...

  7. Measurement of quasi-elastic 12C(p,2p) scattering at high momentum transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardor, Y.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Durrant, S.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, I.; Marshak, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Minor, E. D.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Piasetzky, E.; Roser, T.; Russell, J.; Sutton, C. S.; Tanaka, M.; White, C.; Wu, J.-Y.

    1998-10-01

    We measured the high-momentum transfer [Q2=4.8 and 6.2 (GeV/c)2] quasi-elastic 12C(p,2p) reaction at θcm~=90 deg for 6 and 7.5 GeV/c incident protons. The momentum components of both outgoing protons and the missing energy and momentum of the proton in the nucleus were measured. We verified the validity of the quasi-elastic picture for ground state momenta up to about 0.5 GeV/c. Transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions of the target proton were measured. They have the same shape with a large momentum tail which is not consistent with independent particle models. We observed that the transverse distribution gets wider as the longitudinal component increases in the beam direction.

  8. Axial-vector dominance predictions in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro, J E

    2015-01-01

    We use the minimum meson-dominance ansatz compatible with low- and high energy constrains to model the nucleon axial form factor. The parameters of the resulting axial form factor are the masses and widths of the two axial mesons, incorporated as a product of monopoles. By applying the half width rule in a Monte Carlo simulation a distribution of theoretical predictions can be generated for the neutrino-nucleus quasielastic cross section. We test the model by applying it to the $(\

  9. Quasi-elastic scattering of a secondary sup 6 He beam on a sup 9 Be target at 25 MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Tao; Li Zhi Huan; Jiang Dong Xing; Hua Hui; Li Xiang Qing; Wang Quan Jin; Ge Yuch Eng; Pang Dan Yang; Di Zhenyu; Jin Ge; Xiao Guo Qing; Guo Zhong Yan; Xiao Zhi Gang; Wang Hong Wei; Zhang Bao Guo; Wu He Yu; Li Jia Xing; Sun Zhi Yu; Zhan Wen Long

    2002-01-01

    The quasi-elastic scattering of a secondary sup 6 He beam (25 MeV/n) on a sup 9 Be target has been measured for the first time with the application of a sophisticated tracking detector system. The angular distribution is reported. A phenomenological optical potential is obtained by fitting the experimental data, which encourages more accurate experimental measurements

  10. Quasi-elastic Scattering of a Secondary 6He Beam on a 9Be Target at 25MeV/Nucleon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈陶; 叶沿林; 李智焕; 江栋兴; 华辉; 李湘庆; 王全进; 葛榆成; 庞丹阳; 狄振宇; 靳根明; 肖国青; 郭忠言; 肖志刚; 王宏伟; 张保国; 吴和宇; 李家兴; 孙志宇; 詹文龙

    2002-01-01

    The quasi-elastic scattering of a secondary 6He beam (25 MeV/n) on a 9Be target has been measured for the firsttime with the application of a sophisticated tracking detector system. The angular distribution is reported. Aphenomenological optical potential is obtained by fitting the experimental data, which encourages more accurateexperimental measurements.

  11. Neutron diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering studies of films of intermediate-length alkanes adsorbed on a graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diama, Armand

    Over the past several years, we have conducted a variety of elastic neutron diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments to study the structure and the dynamics of films of two intermediate-length alkane molecules (C nH2n+2), adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. The two molecules are the normal alkane n-tetracosane [n-CH 3(CH2)22CH3] and the branched alkane squalane (C30H62 or 2, 6, 10, 15, 19, 23-hexamethyltetracosane) whose carbon backbone is the same length as teteracosane. The temperature dependence of the monolayer structure of tetracosane and squalane was investigated using elastic neutron diffraction and evidence of two phase transitions was observed. Both the low-coverage tetracosane (C 24H50) and squalane (C30H62) monolayers have crystalline-to-"smectic" and "smectic"-to-isotropic fluid phase transitions upon heating. The diffusive motion in the tetracosane and squalane monolayers has been investigated by quasielastic neutron scattering. Two different quasielastic neutron scattering spectrometers at the Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have been used. The spectrometers differ in both their dynamic range and energy resolution allowing molecular motions to be investigated on time scales in the range 10-13--10 -9 s. On these time scales, we observe evidence of translational, rotational, and intermolecular diffusive motions in the tetracosane and squalane monolayers. We conclude that the molecular diffusive motion in the two monolayers is qualitatively similar. Thus, despite the three methyl sidegroups at each end of the squalane molecule, its monolayer structure, phase transitions, and dynamics are qualitatively similar to that of a monolayer of the unbranched tetracosane molecules. With the higher resolution spectrometer at NIST, we have also investigated the molecular diffusive motion in multilayer tetracosane films. The analysis of our measurements indicates slower diffusive motion in

  12. Charged-current quasielastic scattering of muon antineutrino and neutrino in the MINERvA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ankowski, Artur M

    2015-01-01

    One of the largest sources of systematic uncertainties in ongoing neutrino-oscillation measurements is the description of nuclear effects. Its considerable reduction is expected thanks to the dedicated studies of (anti)neutrino-nucleus interactions in the MINERvA experiment. In this article, the calculations within the spectral function approach are compared to the charged-current quasielastic cross sections reported from MINERvA. The obtained results show that the effect of final-state interactions on the (anti)muon kinematics plays pivotal role in reproducing the experimental data.

  13. Effects of Citral on Aspergillus flavus Spores by Quasi-elastic Light Scattering and Multiplex Microanalysis Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man LUO; Li-Ke JIANG; Yao-Xiong HUANG; Ming XIAO; Bo LI; Guo-Lin ZOU

    2004-01-01

    Citral refined from Litsea cubeba oil has been found to have a strong influence on fungi,especially Aspergillus flavus. Multiplex microanalysis and quasi-elastic light scattering techniques were applied to study the effects of citral on Aspergillus flavus spores from the levels of membrane, organelle and intracellular macromolecule. It was found that citral injured the wall and the membrane of A. flavus spore,resulting in decrease of its elasticity. After entering the cell, citral not only influenced the genetic expression of mitochondrion reduplication and its morphology, but also changed the aggregation of protein-like macromolecules. As a result, cells, organelles and macromolecules lost their normal structures and functions,eventually leading to the loss of germination ability of A. flavus spores. Since Litsea cubeba oil as food additive and antifungal agent is safe and less poisonous, it is important to elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms of Litsea cubeba oil on the germination ability ofA. flavus spore.

  14. The functional role of protein dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers investigated by elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieper Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This short review summarizes our current knowledge about the functional relevance of protein dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers. In the case of Photosystem II membrane fragments, elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments reveal a dynamical transition at about 240 K corresponding to the activation of picosecond molecular motions. Likewise, a “freezing” of molecular dynamics is observed upon dehydration. Intriguingly, these effects correlate with the pronounced temperature- and hydration-dependence of specific electron transfer steps in Photosystem II indicating that molecular dynamics is an indispensable prerequisite for its function. Thus, electron transfer in Photosystem II appears to be a prototypical example for a dynamics-function correlation. Finally, the laser-neutron pump-probe technique is shown to permit in-situ monitoring of molecular dynamics in specific functional states of a protein in real time.

  15. Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements of fast process and methyl group dynamics in glassy poly(vinyl acetate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Chuhong [Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Midlothian, Scotland, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Arrighi, Valeria [Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Midlothian, Scotland, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: v.arrighi@hw.ac.uk; Gagliardi, Simona [Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Midlothian, Scotland, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); McEwen, Iain J. [Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Midlothian, Scotland, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Tanchawanich, Jeerachada [Department of Chemistry, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Midlothian, Scotland, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Telling, Mark T.F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Zanotti, J.-M. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), CEA Saclay, 91191Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-09-29

    The dynamics of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) in the glassy state has been investigated using a range of neutron spectrometers, sampling complementary energy and momentum transfer ranges. By combining the analysis of elastic window scan data at high resolution, medium resolution quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra and low resolution time-of-flight measurements we identify the molecular processes occurring in PVAc, below the polymer glass transition. Our QENS results are in agreement with the literature data for the methyl group rotation but we also find evidence for a fast process, with activation energy of 1.9 kJ/mol. Although the different instruments provide only limited dynamic information, we attempt to give a homogeneous description of molecular motion across the different energies and Q ranges.

  16. Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei in the quasielastic region at large momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomin, Nadia [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Experiment E02-019, performed in Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), was a measurement of inclusive electron cross sections for several nuclei (2H,3He, 4He, 9Be,12C, 63Cu, and 197Au) in the quasielastic region at high momentum transfer. In the region of low energy transfer, the cross sections were analyzed in terms of the reduced response, F(y), by examining its y-scaling behavior. The data were also examined in terms of the nuclear structure function νWA 2 and its behavior in x and the Nachtmann variable ξ. The data show approximate scaling of νWA 2 in ξ for all targets at all kinematics, unlike scaling in x, which is confined to the DIS regime. However, y-scaling observations are limited to the kinematic region dominated by the quasielastic response (y <0), where some scaling violations arising from FSIs are observed.

  17. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering study on water and polymer dynamics in thermo/pressure sensitive polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Noboru; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2009-10-01

    Dynamics of water and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) in concentrated aqueous solutions, where the majority of water molecules are attached to polymer chains, has been investigated with use of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements as functions of temperature, T, and hydrostatic pressure, P. It was observed by QENS that the self-diffusion coefficient, D(water), of water in PNIPA/H(2)O solutions increased by P at temperatures below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPA aqueous solutions. However, above the LCST, D(water) decreased by P, as is often reported in non-hydrogen bonding solutions. In isobaric heating runs, therefore, the jump in D(water) at LCST decreased with increasing pressure. On the other hand, the mean-square displacement, , of the local vibrational motion of PNIPA in PNIPA/D(2)O solutions, where the incoherent scattering signal of PNIPA was predominantly observed, was reduced due to the aggregation behavior of PNIPA by pressurizing, which was also confirmed by using DLS. The jump in at the LCST became gradual by pressurizing, which was consistent with the changes of the dynamics of water obtained in PNIPA/H(2)O solutions.

  18. Measurement of Muon Neutrino Quasi-Elastic Scattering on a Hydrocarbon Target at E_{\

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorentini, G A; Rodrigues, P A; Aliaga, L; Altinok, O; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, D; Bradford, R; Brooks, W K; Budd, H; Butkevich, A; Caicedo, D A M; Castromonte, C M; Christy, M E; Chvojka, J; da Motta, H; Damiani, D S; Danko, I; Datta, M; Day, M; DeMaat, R; Devan, J; Diaz, G A; Dytman, S A; Eberly, B; Edmondson, D A; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fitzpatrick, T; Gago, A M; Gallagher, H; Gobbi, B; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Howley, I J; Hurtado, K; Jerkins, M; Kafka, T; Kanter, M O; Keppel, C; Kordosky, M; Krajeski, A H; Kulagin, S A; Le, T; Leister, A G; Maggi, G; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Mislivec, A; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Ochoa, N; O'Connor, C D; Osta, J; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Pena, C; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Sassin, K E; Schellman, H; Schneider, R M; Schulte, E C; Sedita, P; Simon, C; Snider, F D; Snyder, M C; Sobczyk, J T; Salinas, C J Solano; Tagg, N; Tan, W; Tice, B G; Tzanakos, G; Velasquez, J P; Walding, J; Walton, T; Wolcott, J; Wolthuis, B A; Zavala, G; Zhang, D; Ziemer, B P

    2013-01-01

    We report a study of muon neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic events in the segmented scintillator inner tracker of the MINERvA experiment running in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. The events were selected by requiring a {\\mu}^- and low calorimetric recoil energy separated from the interaction vertex. We measure the flux-averaged differential cross-section, d{\\sigma}/dQ^2, and study the low energy particle content of the final state. Deviations are found between the measured d{\\sigma}/dQ^2 and the expectations of a model of independent nucleons in a relativistic Fermi gas. We also observe an excess of energy near the vertex consistent with multiple protons in the final state.

  19. Extraction of Structure Functions from Quasielastic Electron Scattering (e,e') from Medium and Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K S

    2005-01-01

    Using a relativistic mean-field single particle knock-out model for (e,e') reactions on nuclei, we investigate approximate treatments of Coulomb distortion effects and the extraction of longitudinal and transverse structure functions. We show that an effective momentum approximation (EMA) when coupled with a focusing factor provides a good description of the transverse contributions to the (e,e') cross sections for electron energies above 300 MeV on 208Pb. This approximation is not as good for the longitudinal contributions even for incident electron eneriges above 1 GeV and if one requires very precise extraction of longitudinal and transverse structure functions in the quasielastic region it is necessary to utilize distortion factors based on a nuclear model and a more accurate inclusion of Coulomb distortion effects.

  20. Crossover from localized to diffusive water dynamics in carbon nanohorns: A comprehensive quasielastic neutron-scattering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire; Kaneko, Katsumi; Ohba, Tomonori; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Soininen, Antti J; Wuttke, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    Incoherent neutron scattering by water confined in carbon nanohorns was measured with the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES and analyzed in exemplary breadth and depth. Quasielastic spectra admit δ-plus-Kohlrausch fits over a wide q and T range. From the q and T dependence of fitted amplitudes and relaxation times, however, it becomes clear that the fits do not represent a uniform physical process, but that there is a crossover from localized motion at low T to diffusive α relaxation at high T. The crossover temperature of about 210 to 230 K increases with decreasing wave number, which is incompatible with a thermodynamic strong-fragile transition. Extrapolated diffusion coefficients D(T) indicate that water motion is at room temperature about 2.5 times slower than in the bulk; in the supercooled state this factor becomes smaller. At even higher temperatures, where the α spectrum is essentially flat, a few percentages of the total scattering go into a Lorentzian with a width of about 1.6μeV, probably due to functional groups on the surface of the nanohorns.

  1. Neutral current quasielastic (anti)neutrino scattering beyond the Fermi gas model at MiniBooNE and BNL kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M V; Barbaro, M B; Giusti, C; Meucci, A; Caballero, J A; Gonzalez-Jimenez, R; de Guerra, E Moya; Udias, J M

    2015-01-01

    Neutral current quasielastic (anti)neutrino scattering cross sections on a $^{12}$C target are analyzed using a realistic spectral function $S(p,E)$ that gives a scaling function in accordance with the ($e,e'$) scattering data. The spectral function accounts for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) correlations by using natural orbitals (NOs) from the Jastrow correlation method and has a realistic energy dependence. The standard value of the axial mass $M_A= 1.032$ GeV is used in all calculations. The role of the final-state interaction (FSI) on the spectral and scaling functions, as well as on the cross sections is accounted for. A comparison of the calculations with the empirical data of the MiniBooNE and BNL experiments is performed. Our results are analyzed in comparison with those when NN correlations are not included, and also with results from other theoretical approaches, such as the relativistic Fermi gas (RFG), the relativistic mean field (RMF), the relativistic Green's function (RGF), as well as with the Super...

  2. Charged-current quasielastic neutrino scattering cross sections on 12C with realistic spectral and scaling functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Antonov, A. N.; Caballero, J. A.; Megias, G. D.; Barbaro, M. B.; de Guerra, E. Moya; Udías, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Charge-current quasielastic (anti)neutrino scattering cross sections on a 12C target are analyzed using a spectral function S (p,E) that gives a scaling function in accordance with the (e ,e') scattering data. The spectral function accounts for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) correlations, it has a realistic energy dependence, and natural orbitals (NOs) from the Jastrow correlation method are used in its construction. In all calculations the standard value of the axial mass MA=1.032 GeV/c2 is used. The results are compared with those when NN correlations are not included, as in the relativistic Fermi gas model, or when harmonic-oscillator single-particle wave functions are used instead of NOs. The role of the final-state interactions (FSIs) on the theoretical spectral and scaling functions, as well as on the cross sections, is accounted for. A comparison of the results for the cases with and without FSI, as well as to results from the phenomenological scaling function obtained from the superscaling analysis, is carried out. Our calculations based on the impulse approximation underpredict the MiniBooNE data but agree with the data from the NOMAD experiment. The possible missing ingredients in the considered theoretical models are discussed.

  3. Dynamics of iodine anions in KI and LiI aqueous solutions studied by 127I nuclear resonant quasi-elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Rie; Koshimizu, Masanori; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Seto, Makoto; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Kishimoto, Shunji

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of iodine ions in potassium iodide (KI) and lithium iodide (LiI) aqueous solutions have been studied through 127I nuclear resonant quasi-elastic scattering (NRQES). A newly developed Si (12 2 2) double crystal monochromator for 127I 57.6 keV excitation is used. Broadening due to a diffusive motion is measured in the energy spectra of the NRQES from the solutions.

  4. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, J

    2016-01-01

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^{2}$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^{2}$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generato...

  5. Electron neutrino charged-current quasielastic scattering in the MINERvA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  6. Results on Double-polarization Asymmetries in Quasielastic Scattering from Polarized 3He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulkosky, Vincent A. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The 3He nucleus has become extremely important in the investigation of the neutron’s spin structure. When polarized, 3He acts as an effective polarized neutron target and hence facilitates our understanding of the neutron’s internal structure. However, to be used in this manner, our understanding of the internal structure of 3He is of extreme importance. As the precision of experiments has improved, the extraction of polarized neutron information from 3He leads to an ever larger share of the systematic uncertainty for these experiments. In these proceedings, I present a precise measurement of beam-target asymmetries in the and reactions. The former process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in 3He and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed around the quasi-elastic peak at Q2 = 0.25 (GeV/c)2 and 0.35 (GeV/c)2 for recoil momenta up to 270 MeV/c. The experimental apparatus, analysis and results were presented together with a comparison to state-of-the art Faddeev calculations.

  7. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Rochester U.

    2015-10-28

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  8. Quasielastic neutron scattering study of tetrahydroborate anion dynamical perturbations in sodium borohydride due to partial halide anion substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdal, Nina [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2115 (United States); Udovic, Terrence J. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Rush, John J. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2115 (United States); Skripov, Alexander V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • NaBH{sub 4}–NaX (X = Cl, I) solutions were made by ball-milling/annealing pure compounds. • BH{sub 4}{sup −} reorientational motions were studied by quasielastic neutron scattering. • Mobility increased from X = Cl to NaBH{sub 4} to X = I, consistent with expanding lattices. • Near 400 K, BH{sub 4}{sup −} favored cubic tumbling for X = Cl and tetrahedral tumbling for X = I. • Activation energies were in the range of 11–12 kJ mol{sup −1} for both compounds. - Abstract: Equimolar NaBH{sub 4}–NaX (X = Cl and I) solid solutions were synthesized to study, via quasielastic neutron scattering, the effect of partial halide anion substitution on the reorientational dynamics of tetrahydroborate (BH{sub 4}{sup −}) anions in NaBH{sub 4}. The BH{sub 4}{sup −} reorientational mobility increased in the order of NaBH{sub 4}–NaCl, NaBH{sub 4}, and NaBH{sub 4}–NaI, which corresponded with expanding face-centered-cubic lattices accommodating the respective increasing sizes of the Cl{sup −}, BH{sub 4}{sup −}, and I{sup −} anions. The BH{sub 4}{sup −} anions in NaBH{sub 4}–NaCl were found (at least above 400 K) to undergo ‘cubic’ tumbling motions with the four H atoms per anion visiting all eight corners of a cube, similar to what was previously observed for NaBH{sub 4}. In contrast, the BH{sub 4}{sup −} anions in NaBH{sub 4}–NaI were found to undergo something more akin to ‘tetrahedral’ tumbling motions, where the H atoms visit all four corners of a tetrahedron. Despite a noticeable softening of the BH{sub 4}{sup −} torsional energies with increasing lattice constant amongst NaBH{sub 4} and the two solid solutions, all three compounds exhibited similar activation energies for reorientation of about 11–12 kJ mol{sup −1}.

  9. Measurement of the Antineutrino Double-Differential Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering Cross Section at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, Cheryl [Northwestern U.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.

  10. Diffusive properties of water in Artemia cysts as determined from quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra. [Artemia shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.S.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.; Wakabayashi, N.

    1984-05-01

    Results have been obtained on the quasi-elastic spectra of neutrons scattered from pure water, 20% agarose gel (hydration four grams H/sub 2/O per gram of dry solid) and cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia for hydrations between 0.10 and 1.2 grams H/sub 2/O per gram of dry solids. The spectra were interpreted using a two-component model that included contributions from the covalently bonded protons and the hydration water, and a mobile water fraction. The mobile fraction was described by a jump-diffusion correlation function for the translation motion and a simple diffusive orientational correlation function. The results for the line widths ..gamma..(Q/sup 2/) for pure water were in good agreement with previous measurements. The agarose results were consistent with NMR measurements that show a slightly reduced translational diffusion for the mobile water fraction. The Artemia results show that the translational diffusion coefficient of the mobile water fraction was greatly reduced from that of pure water. The line width was determined mainly by the rotational motion, which was also substantially reduced from the pure water value as determined from dielectric relaxation studies. The translational and rotational diffusion parameters were consistent with the NMR measurements of diffusion and relaxation. Values for the hydration fraction and the mean square thermal displacement as determined from the Q-dependence of line areas were also obtained.

  11. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of protein dynamics. Final report, November 1, 1991--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.W.

    1995-04-10

    Proteins are formed from long polymer chains of amino acids that have been cross linked into a complex three dimensional structure. The structure is not unique, since there are many conformation substates of nearly equal energy, separated by small energy barriers, that are obtained by slight shifts in positions of various segments of the molecule. Transitions among these conformations substates are of a diffusive nature, and they can lead to substantial changes in the shape of the molecule. These changes in shape are important for the biological reactions in the cell. Such diffusive motion is inaccessible to the diffraction methods or to the computer simulations, since it occurs on a long time scale. It is accessible to incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS) studies, which permit a direct determination of the properties of the diffusive motion of the protons in the molecules. The authors have used the IQNS method to study the motions of the side chains in trypsin, a protein of beta-sheet structures and myoglobin, a protein of {alpha}-helical structures, at various D{sub 2}O hydration levels.

  12. Quasielastic neutron scattering study of hydrogen motion in C15-type YMn sub 2 H sub x

    CERN Document Server

    Skripov, A V; Udovic, T J; González, M A; Hempelmann, R; Kozhanov, V N

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism and parameters of hydrogen diffusion in the cubic (C15-type) Laves phase YMn sub 2 , we have performed quasielastic neutron scattering measurements in YMn sub 2 H sub x (x = 0.4, 0.65 and 1.26) over the temperature range 30-395 K. It is found that the diffusive motion of hydrogen in this system can be described in terms of two jump processes: the fast localized H motion with the jump rate tau sub l sup - sup 1 and the slower process with the rate tau sub d sup - sup 1 associated with H jumps leading to long-range diffusion. The ratio tau sub d /tau sub l at room temperature is close to 10 sup 2. Our results suggest that the localized H motion in YMn sub 2 H sub x corresponds to back-and-forth jumps of hydrogen atoms within pairs of interstitial g (Y sub 2 Mn sub 2) sites. The parameters of the long-range diffusion of hydrogen in the samples with different H content are found to be close to each other. In the range 210-395 K, the temperature dependences of tau sub d sup - sup 1 ...

  13. Important influence of single neutron stripping coupling on near-barrier {sup 8}Li + {sup 90}Zr quasi-elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakou, A.; Aslanoglou, X.; Sgouros, O.; Soukeras, V. [The University of Ioannina, Department of Physics and HINP, Ioannina (Greece); Keeley, N. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock (Poland); Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Parascandolo, C. [INFN, Napoli (Italy); Mazzocco, M.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Acosta, L. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico (Mexico); INFN, Catania (Italy); Boiano, C. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Grebosz, J. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland); La Commara, M. [INFN, Napoli (Italy); Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); Manea, C. [INFN, Padova (Italy); Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I. [Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Huelva (Spain); Rusek, K.; Trzcinska, A. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Sanchez-Benitez, A.M. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Signorini, C. [LNL, INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Stiliaris, E. [University of Athens, Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications and Department of Physics, Athens (Greece); Watanabe, Y.X. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), Ibaraki (Japan); Yamaguchi, H. [University of Tokyo, RIKEN campus, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), Saitama (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Quasi-elastic scattering data were obtained for the radioactive nucleus {sup 8}Li on a {sup 90}Zr target at the near-barrier energy of 18.5 MeV over the angular range θ{sub lab} = 15 {sup circle} to 80 . They were analyzed within the coupled channels and coupled reaction channels frameworks pointing to a strong coupling effect for single neutron stripping, in contrast to {sup 6,} {sup 7}Li + {sup 90}Zr elastic scattering at similar energies, a non-trivial result linked to detailed differences in the structure of these Li isotopes. (orig.)

  14. Levitation effect in zeolites: Quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics study of pentane isomers in zeolite NaY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Bhaskar J; Jobic, H; Yashonath, S

    2010-04-14

    We report the quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and molecular dynamics (MD) investigations into diffusion of pentane isomers in zeolite NaY. The molecular cross section perpendicular to the long molecular axis varies for the three isomers while the mass and the isomer-zeolite interaction remains essentially unchanged. Both QENS and MD results show that the branched isomers neopentane and isopentane have higher self-diffusivities as compared with n-pentane at 300 K in NaY zeolite. This result provides direct experimental evidence for the existence of nonmonotonic, anomalous dependence of self-diffusivity on molecular diameter known as the levitation effect. The energetic barrier at the bottleneck derived from MD simulations exists for n-pentane which lies in the linear regime while no such barrier is seen for neopentane which is located clearly in the anomalous regime. Activation energy is in the order E(a)(n-pentane)>E(a)(isopentane)>E(a)(neopentane) consistent with the predictions of the levitation effect. In the liquid phase, it is seen that D(n-pentane)>D(isopentane)>D(neopentane) and E(a)(n-pentane)scattering function for small wavenumbers obtained from MD follows a single exponential decay for neopentane and isopentane. For n-pentane, a single exponential fit provides a poor fit especially at short times. Cage residence time is largest for n-pentane and lowest for neopentane. For neopentane, the width of the self-part of the dynamic structure factor shows a near monotonic decrease with wavenumber. For n-pentane a minimum is seen near k=0.5 A(-1) suggesting a slowing down of motion around the 12-ring window, the bottleneck for diffusion. Finally, the result that the branched isomer has a higher diffusivity as compared with the linear analog is at variation from what is normally seen.

  15. Translational and rotational dynamics of water contained in aged Portland cement pastes studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Zhang, Li-Li; Yi, Zhou; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-08-15

    Cement is a widely used construction material in the world. The quality and durability of aged cement pastes have a strong relationship with the water contained in it. The translational and rotational dynamics of water in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes cured for 7, 14 and 30days were studied by analyzing Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) data. The effect of a new super-plasticizer (SP) additive was also studied by comparing the samples with and without the additive. By fitting the QENS spectra with the Jump-diffusion and Rotation-diffusion Model (JRM), six important parameters including the bound water index (BWI), the self-diffusion coefficient, D(t), the average residence time, τ0, the rotational diffusion constant, D(r), the rotational residence time, τ(r), and the mean squared displacement (MSD), 〈u(2)〉, were obtained. From these parameters, we can quantitatively follow the evolution of the bound water fraction (BWI). We can clearly see the different time ranges for the translational and rotational dynamics of water contained in the OPC pastes by τ0 and τ(r). From the MSD values compared with those of molecular dynamics simulation, we can distinguish between immobile water (mainly bound water) and mobile water, which includes confined water and ultraconfined water. Furthermore, by the fitted parameters' values and their change of slopes with increasing setting time for cement pastes with and without additive SP, it becomes clear that the effect of additive SP is to make the mobile water more confined and induce a more uniform the aging process during the evolution of the OPC pastes.

  16. Anomalous dynamics of aqueous solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether confined in MCM-41 by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Jan; Elamin, Khalid; Chen, Guo; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Sakai, Victoria Garcia

    2014-12-01

    The molecular dynamics of solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether (2PGME) and H2O (or D2O) confined in 28 Å pores of MCM-41 have been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry over the concentration range 0-90 wt.% water. This system is of particular interest due to its pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependent dynamics of 2PGME in the corresponding bulk system, showing the important role of hydrogen bonding for the dynamics. In this study we have elucidated how this non-monotonic concentration dependence is affected by the confined geometry. The results show that this behaviour is maintained in the confinement, but the slowest diffusive dynamics of 2PGME is now observed at a considerably higher water concentration; at 75 wt.% water in MCM-41 compared to 30 wt.% water in the corresponding bulk system. This difference can be explained by an improper mixing of the two confined liquids. The results suggest that water up to a concentration of about 20 wt.% is used to hydrate the hydrophilic hydroxyl surface groups of the silica pores, and that it is only at higher water contents the water becomes partly mixed with 2PGME. Hence, due to this partial micro-phase separation of the two liquids larger, and thereby slower relaxing, structural entities of hydrogen bonded water and 2PGME molecules can only be formed at higher water contents than in the bulk system. However, the Q-dependence is unchanged with confinement, showing that the nature of the molecular motions is preserved. Thus, there is no indication of localization of the dynamics at length scales of less than 20 Å. The dynamics of both water and 2PGME is strongly dominated by translational diffusion at a temperature of 280 K.

  17. Anomalous dynamics of aqueous solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether confined in MCM-41 by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Jan, E-mail: jan.swenson@chalmers.se; Elamin, Khalid; Chen, Guo [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Lohstroh, Wiebke [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sakai, Victoria Garcia [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-07

    The molecular dynamics of solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether (2PGME) and H{sub 2}O (or D{sub 2}O) confined in 28 Å pores of MCM-41 have been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry over the concentration range 0–90 wt.% water. This system is of particular interest due to its pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependent dynamics of 2PGME in the corresponding bulk system, showing the important role of hydrogen bonding for the dynamics. In this study we have elucidated how this non-monotonic concentration dependence is affected by the confined geometry. The results show that this behaviour is maintained in the confinement, but the slowest diffusive dynamics of 2PGME is now observed at a considerably higher water concentration; at 75 wt.% water in MCM-41 compared to 30 wt.% water in the corresponding bulk system. This difference can be explained by an improper mixing of the two confined liquids. The results suggest that water up to a concentration of about 20 wt.% is used to hydrate the hydrophilic hydroxyl surface groups of the silica pores, and that it is only at higher water contents the water becomes partly mixed with 2PGME. Hence, due to this partial micro-phase separation of the two liquids larger, and thereby slower relaxing, structural entities of hydrogen bonded water and 2PGME molecules can only be formed at higher water contents than in the bulk system. However, the Q-dependence is unchanged with confinement, showing that the nature of the molecular motions is preserved. Thus, there is no indication of localization of the dynamics at length scales of less than 20 Å. The dynamics of both water and 2PGME is strongly dominated by translational diffusion at a temperature of 280 K.

  18. Solvent Dynamics in Solutions of PNIPAM in Water/Methanol Mixtures-A Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakos, Konstantinos; Philipp, Martine; Silvi, Luca; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Petry, Winfried; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Papadakis, Christine M

    2016-05-26

    The solvent dynamics of concentrated solutions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM, 25 wt %) in water/methanol mixtures (85:15 v/v) are measured with the aim of shedding light onto the cononsolvency effect. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) with contrast variation has been carried out at temperatures below and above the cloud point by using in the first set of experiments the mixture H2O:d-MeOD (d-MeOD denotes fully deuterated methanol) as a solvent and in the second set of experiments the mixture D2O:MeOH (MeOH denotes methanol). As a reference, bulk H2O, bulk MeOH and the mixtures H2O:d-MeOD and D2O:MeOH (both 85:15 v/v) have been investigated as well. In the PNIPAM solution in H2O:d-MeOD, two water populations are identified, namely strongly and less strongly arrested water. At the cloud point, the former is partially released from PNIPAM. The diffusion coefficient of the latter one is similar to the one in the water/methanol mixture, and its residence time decreases at the cloud point. The PNIPAM solution in D2O:MeOH reveals similar dynamics to the one in H2O:d-MeOD which may reflect that the dynamics of MeOH near the PNIPAM chain is similar to the one of H2O. The similarity may, however, partially be due to H/D exchange between D2O and MeOH. In both PNIPAM solutions, the mean-square displacement of the PNIPAM chain decreases gradually above the cloud point.

  19. Quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering investigation of fragile-to-strong crossover in deeply supercooled water confined in nanoporous silica matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Li [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chen, S-H [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Faraone, Antonio [NIST Center for Neutron Research, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Yen, C-W [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mou, C-Y [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kolesnikov, Alexander I [Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [NIST Center for Neutron Research, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Leao, Juscelino [NIST Center for Neutron Research, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2006-09-13

    We investigated, using quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering, the slow single-particle dynamics of water confined in laboratory synthesized nanoporous silica matrices, MCM-41-S, with pore diameters ranging from 10 to 18 A. Inside the pores of these matrices, the freezing process of water is strongly inhibited down to 160 K. We analysed the quasi-elastic part of the neutron scattering spectra with a relaxing-cage model and determined the temperature and pressure dependence of the Q-dependent translational relaxation time and its stretch exponent {beta} for the time dependence of the self-intermediate scattering function. The calculated Q-independent average translational relaxation time shows a fragile-to-strong (FS) dynamic crossover for pressures lower than 1600 bar. Above this pressure, it is no longer possible to discern the characteristic feature of the FS crossover. Identification of this end point with the predicted second low-temperature critical point of water is discussed. A subsequent inelastic neutron scattering investigation of the librational band of water indicates that this FS dynamic crossover is associated with a structural change of the hydrogen-bond cage surrounding a typical water molecule from a denser liquid-like configuration to a less-dense ice-like open structure.

  20. The nucleon axial mass and the MiniBooNE quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, J., E-mail: jmnieves@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-01-16

    The charged-current double differential neutrino cross section, measured by the MiniBooNE Collaboration, has been analyzed using a microscopical model that accounts for, among other nuclear effects, long range nuclear (RPA) correlations and multinucleon scattering. We find that MiniBooNE data are fully compatible with the world average of the nucleon axial mass in contrast with several previous analyses which have suggested an anomalously large value. We also discuss the reliability of the algorithm used to estimate the neutrino energy.

  1. The nucleon axial mass and the MiniBooNE Quasielastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering problem

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The charged-current double differential neutrino cross section, measured by the MiniBooNE Collaboration, has been analyzed using a microscopical model that accounts for, among other nuclear effects, long range nuclear (RPA) correlations and multinucleon scattering. We find that MiniBooNE data are fully compatible with the world average of the nucleon axial mass in contrast with several previous analyses which have suggested an anomalously large value. We also discuss the reliability of the algorithm used to estimate the neutrino energy.

  2. Motility analysis of circularly swimming bull spermatozoa by quasi-elastic light scattering and cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, T; Hallett, F R; Nickel, B

    1982-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is used to predict the electric field autocorrelation functions of light scattered from circularly swimming bull spermatozoa. Using parameters determined from cinematography and modeling the cells as coated ellipsoids of semiaxes a = 0.5 micrometers, b = 2.3 micrometers, and c = 9.0 micrometers, we were able to obtain model spectra that mimic the data exactly. A coat is found to be a necessary attribute of the particle. It is also clear that these model functions at 15 degrees may be represented by the relatively simple function used before by Hallett et al. (1978) to fit data from circularly swimming cells, thus giving some physical meaning to these functional shapes. Because of this agreement the half-widths of experimental functions can now be interpreted in terms of an oscillatory frequency for the movement of the circularly swimming cell. The cinematographic results show a trend to chaotic behavior as the temperature of the sample is increased, with concomitant decrease in overall efficiency. This is manifested by a decrease in oscillatory frequency and translational speed.

  3. Model-independent determination of the axial mass parameter in quasielastic antineutrino-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Tropiano, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the charged current quasielestic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus interaction is important for precision studies of neutrino oscillations. The theoretical description of the interaction depends on the combination of a nuclear model with the knowledge of form factors. While the former has received considerable attention, the latter, in particular the axial form factor, is implemented using the historical dipole model. Instead, we use a model-independent approach, presented in a previous study, to analyze the muon antineutrino CCQE mineral oil data published by the MiniBooNE collaboration. We combine the cross section for scattering of antineutrinos off protons in carbon and hydrogen, using the same axial form factor for both. The extracted value of the axial mass parameter $m_A = 0.84^{+0.12}_{-0.04} \\pm {0.11} \\, {\\rm GeV}$ is in very good agreement with the model-independent value extracted from MiniBooNE's neutrino data. Going beyond a one-parameter description of the axial form factor, we extract valu...

  4. Magnetic relaxations in a Tb-based single molecule magnet studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofu, Maiko [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kajiwara, Takashi [Faculty of Science, Nara Women’s University, Nara, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Gardner, Jason S. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Simeoni, Giovanna G. [Technische Universität München, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz FRM II, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Tyagi, Madhusudan; Faraone, Antonio [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Materials Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Nakajima, Kenji; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko [Neutron Science Section, J-PARC Center, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakano, Motohiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamamuro, Osamu, E-mail: yamamuro@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2013-12-12

    Highlights: • We examined a Tb based single molecule magnet by ac susceptibility and QENS. • We found two distinct magnetic relaxations in a wide time range from 0.1 ms to 1 ps. • The slower relaxation corresponds to the thermally activated tunneling process. • The faster one couples with the motion of H atoms around the magnetic ions. • The two relaxations exhibit a crossover around 100 ns. - Abstract: By using ac magnetic susceptibility and quasielatic neutron scattering (QENS) techniques, we have investigated a magnetization relaxation phenomenon of a rare-earth based single molecule magnet, TbCuC{sub 19}H{sub 20}N{sub 3}O{sub 16}. We clearly identified and characterized two magnetic relaxations. The slower relaxation observed in the ac susceptibility is at the ms timescale around T=2 K and its activation energy is 16 K. On the other hand, the faster relaxation in the QENS measurements occurs on the timescale between ns and ps with activation energy of 174 K. The slower relaxation may occur through thermally activated tunneling among magnetic substates. We discuss two possible origins for the faster relaxation; one is a thermally activated tunneling between the higher excited states, the other is the magnetic relaxation coupled with the motion of ligands around the magnetic ions. This is the first clear observation of magnetic relaxation on the single molecule magnet revealed by QENS.

  5. Aminopolymer Mobility and Support Interactions in Silica-PEI Composites for CO2 Capture Applications: A Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holewinski, Adam; Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y; Potter, Matthew E; Ellebracht, Nathan; Rother, Gernot; Sumpter, Bobby G; Jones, Christopher W

    2017-07-13

    Composite gas sorbents, formed from an active polymer phase and a porous support, are promising materials for the separation of acid gases from a variety of gas streams. Significant changes in sorption performance (capacity, rate, stability etc.) can be achieved by tuning the properties of the polymer and the nature of interactions between polymer and support. Here we utilize quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the dynamic behavior of the most commonly reported polymer in such materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), both in bulk form and when supported in a mesoporous silica framework. The polymer chain dynamics (rotational and translational diffusion) are characterized using two neutron backscattering spectrometers that have overlapping time scales, ranging from picoseconds to a few nanoseconds. Two modes of motion are detected for the PEI molecule in QENS. At low energy transfers, a "slow process" on the time scale of ∼200 ps is found and attributed to jump-mediated, center-of-mass diffusion. A second, "fast process" at ∼20 ps scale is also found and is attributed to a locally confined, jump-diffusion. Characteristic data (time scale and spectral weight) of these processes are compared to those characterized by MD, and reasonable agreement is found. For the nanopore-confined PEI, we observe a significant reduction in the time scale of polymer motion as compared to the bulk. The impacts of silica surface functionalization and of polymer fill fraction in the silica pores (controlling the portion of polymer molecules in contact with the pore walls), are both studied in detail. Hydrophobic functionalization of the silica leads to an increase of the PEI mobility above that in native silanol-terminated silica, but the dynamics are still slower than those in bulk PEI. Sorbents with faster PEI dynamics are also found to be more efficient for CO2 capture, possibly because sorption sites are more

  6. A new apparatus design for high temperature (up to 950 °C) quasi-elastic neutron scattering in a controlled gaseous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Wahish, Amal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200 (United States); Armitage, D.; Hill, B.; Mills, R.; Santodonato, L.; Herwig, K. W. [Instrument and Source Design Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37861-6475 (United States); Al-Binni, U. [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Geology, Berry College, Mount Berry, Georgia 30149 (United States); Jalarvo, N. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), Outstation at Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), and Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6473 (United States); Mandrus, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6100 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A design for a sample cell system suitable for high temperature Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) experiments is presented. The apparatus was developed at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Lab where it is currently in use. The design provides a special sample cell environment under controlled humid or dry gas flow over a wide range of temperature up to 950 °C. Using such a cell, chemical, dynamical, and physical changes can be studied in situ under various operating conditions. While the cell combined with portable automated gas environment system is especially useful for in situ studies of microscopic dynamics under operational conditions that are similar to those of solid oxide fuel cells, it can additionally be used to study a wide variety of materials, such as high temperature proton conductors. The cell can also be used in many different neutron experiments when a suitable sample holder material is selected. The sample cell system has recently been used to reveal fast dynamic processes in quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments, which standard probes (such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) could not detect. In this work, we outline the design of the sample cell system and present results demonstrating its abilities in high temperature QENS experiments.

  7. Atomic motions in poly(vinyl methyl ether): A combined study by quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations in the light of the mode coupling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, S; Arbe, A; Alvarez, F; Colmenero, J; Frick, B; Embs, J P

    2009-11-28

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments (time-of-flight, neutron spin echo, and backscattering) on protonated poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) have revealed the hydrogen dynamics above the glass-transition temperature. Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations properly validated with the neutron scattering results have allowed further characterization of the atomic motions accessing the correlation functions directly in real space. Deviations from Gaussian behavior are found in the high-momentum transfer range, which are compatible with the predictions of mode coupling theory (MCT). We have applied the MCT phenomenological version to the self-correlation functions of PVME atoms calculated from our simulation data, obtaining consistent results. The unusually large value found for the lambda-exponent parameter is close to that recently reported for polybutadiene and simple polymer models with intramolecular barriers.

  8. Meson-exchange currents and quasielastic predictions for charged-current neutrino-12C scattering in the superscaling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Megias, G D; Moreno, O; Williamson, C F; Caballero, J A; Gonzalez-Jimenez, R; De Pace, A; Barbaro, M B; Alberico, W M; Nardi, M; Amaro, J E

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate and discuss the impact of meson-exchange currents (MEC) on charged-current quasielastic (QE) neutrino cross sections. We consider the nuclear transverse response arising from 2p-2h states excited by the action of electromagnetic, purely isovector meson-exchange currents in a fully relativistic framework, based on the work by the Torino collaboration [1]. An accurate parametrization of this MEC response as a function of the momentum and energy transfers involved is presented. Results of neutrino-nucleus cross sections using this MEC parametrization together with a recent scaling approach for the 1p-1h contributions (SuSAv2) are compared with experimental data (MiniBooNE, MINERvA, NOMAD and T2K Collaborations).

  9. Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Quasi-Elastic Scattering from the Reaction $^3$He$^\\uparrow(e,e^\\prime)$

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y -W; Mihovilovič, M; Jin, G; Allada, K; Anderson, B; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Boeglin, W; Bradshaw, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Dutta, C; Fassi, L El; Flay, D; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gao, H; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Ibrahim, H; de Jager, C W; Jensen, E; Jiang, X; John, J St; Jones, M; Kang, H; Katich, J; Khanal, H P; King, P; Korsch, W; LeRose, J; Lindgren, R; Lu, H -J; Luo, W; Markowitz, P; Meziane, M; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Muangma, N; Nanda, S; Norum, B E; Pan, K; Parno, D; Piasetzky, E; Posik, M; Punjabi, V; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Qiu, X; Riordan, S; Ron, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schiavilla, R; Schoenrock, B; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Širca, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tobias, W A; Tireman, W; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Watson, J; Wojtsekhowski, B; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zheng, X; Zhao, B; Zhu, L

    2015-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry, $A_y$, in quasi-elastic scattering from the inclusive reaction $^3$He$^{\\uparrow}(e,e^\\prime)$ on a $^3$He gas target polarized normal to the lepton scattering plane. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero for one-photon exchange. A non-zero $A_y$ can arise from the interference between the one- and two-photon exchange processes which is sensitive to the details of the sub-structure of the nucleon. An experiment recently completed at Jefferson Lab yielded asymmetries with high statistical precision at $Q^{2}=$ 0.13, 0.46 and 0.97 GeV$^{2}$. These measurements demonstrate, for the first time, that the $^3$He asymmetry is clearly non-zero and negative with a statistical significance of (8-10)$\\sigma$. Using measured proton-to-$^{3}$He cross-section ratios and the effective polarization approximation, neutron asymmetries of $-$(1-3)% were obtained. The neutron asymmetry at high $Q^2$ is related to moments of the Gene...

  10. The relative diffusive transport rate of SrI2 in water changes over the nanometer length scale as measured by coherent quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinson, Kenneth A; Faraone, Antonio

    2016-05-14

    X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to provide insight into the structures of ionic solutions for over a century, but the probes have covered distances shorter than 8 Å. For the non-hydrolyzing salt SrI2 in aqueous solution, a locally ordered lattice of ions exists that scatters slow neutrons coherently down to at least 0.1 mol L(-1) concentration, where the measured average distance between scatterers is over 18 Å. To investigate the motions of these scatterers, coherent quasielastic neutron scattering (CQENS) data on D2O solutions with SrI2 at 1, 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4 mol L(-1) concentrations was obtained to provide an experimental measure of the diffusive transport rate for the motion between pairs of ions relative to each other. Because CQENS measures the motion of one ion relative to another, the frame of reference is centered on an ion, which is unique among all diffusion measurement methods. We call the measured quantity the pairwise diffusive transport rate Dp. In addition to this ion centered frame of reference, the diffusive transport rate can be measured as a function of the momentum transfer q, where q = (4π/λ)sin θ with a scattering angle of 2θ. Since q is related to the interion distance (d = 2π/q), for the experimental range 0.2 Å(-1)≤q≤ 1.0 Å(-1), Dp is, then, measured over interion distances from 40 Å to ≈6 Å. We find the measured diffusional transport rates increase with increasing distance between scatterers over the entire range covered and interpret this behavior to be caused by dynamic coupling among the ions. Within the model of Fickian diffusion, at the longer interionic distances Dp is greater than the Nernst-Hartley value for an infinitely dilute solution. For these nm-distance diffusional transport rates to conform with the lower, macroscopically measured diffusion coefficients, we propose that local, coordinated counter motion of at least pairs of ions is part of the transport process.

  11. Hindered rotational energy barriers of BH4- tetrahedra in β-Mg(BH4)2 from quasielastic neutron scattering and DFT calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Maronsson, Jon Bergmann; Riktor, M.D.;

    2012-01-01

    In this work, hindered rotations of the BH4- tetrahedra in Mg(BH4)2 were studied by quasielastic neutron scattering, using two instruments with different energy resolution, in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Two thermally activated reorientations of the BH4- units......, around the 2-fold (C2) and 3-fold (C3) axes were observed at temperatures from 120 to 440 K. The experimentally obtained activation energies (EaC2 = 39 and 76 meV and EaC3 = 214 meV) and mean residence times between reorientational jumps are comparable with the energy barriers obtained from DFT...... calculations. A linear dependency of the energy barriers for rotations around the C2 axis parallel to the Mg-Mg axis with the distance between these two axes was revealed by the DFT calculations. At the lowest temperature (120 K) only 15% of the BH4- units undergo rotational motion and from comparison with DFT...

  12. Force field based molecular dynamics simulations in highly conducting compounds of poly(aniline). A comparison with quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniechowski, M. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, UMR5588 (CNRS-UJF), Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble I, Domaine Universitaire, B.P. 87, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres, Cedex (France); Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Djurado, D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Metaux Synthetiques, CEA Grenoble, DRFMC/SI3M/SPrAM, UMR 5819 (CEA/CNRS/UJF), 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: djurado@drfmc.ceng.cea.fr; Bee, M. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, UMR5588 (CNRS-UJF), Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble I, Domaine Universitaire, B.P. 87, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres, Cedex (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horovitz, B.P. 156, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Gonzalez, M.A. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horovitz, B.P. 156, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Johnson, M.R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horovitz, B.P. 156, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Rannou, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Metaux Synthetiques, CEA Grenoble, DRFMC/SI3M/SPrAM, UMR 5819 (CEA/CNRS/UJF), 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Dufour, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Metaux Synthetiques, CEA Grenoble, DRFMC/SI3M/SPrAM, UMR 5819 (CEA/CNRS/UJF), 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Luzny, W. [Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-10-31

    Dynamics of counter-ions in poly(aniline) doped with di-(2-butoxyethoxyethyl)ester of 4-sulfophthalic acid have been simulated using force field based molecular dynamics involving a semi-empirical charge equilibration procedure and charge rescaling based on DFT calculations. Due to particular relaxational and structural characteristics of such 'plastdoped' poly(anilines), these simulations have proved to be a very effective tool for reproducing the main structural and dynamic features of the material. The experiment/simulation comparison for dynamics is very good in the 10{sup -10}-10{sup -13} s time range. In particular, mean square displacements extracted from the molecular dynamics simulations for atoms in the counter-ions are in good agreement with the analytical model used to analyse the quasi-elastic neutron scattering data. The use of a larger simulation box and longer simulation time give good agreement in the extended time domain and reveal a dynamical heterogeneity between the counter-ions that was not foreseen in the analytical model.

  13. Hydrogen motions and the -relaxation in glass-forming polymers: Molecular dynamics simulation and quasi-elastic neutron scattering results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Colmenero; A Arbe; F Alvarez; A Narros; D Richter; M Monkenbush; B Farago

    2004-07-01

    The combination of molecular dynamics simulations and neutron scattering measurements on three different glass-forming polymers (polyisoprene, poly(vinyl ethylene) and polybutadiene) has allowed to establish the existence of a crossover from Gaussian to non-Gaussian behavior for the incoherent scattering function in the -relaxation regime. The deviation from Gaussian behavior observed can be reproduced assuming the existence of a distribution of discrete jump lengths underlying the sublinear diffusion of the atomic motions during the structural relaxation.

  14. Hydrogen dynamics in Na3AlH6: A combined density functional theory and quasielastic neutron scattering study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsigmond, G.; Manoshin, S.; Lieutenant, K.

    2007-01-01

    Handling of polarization became very important in simulations of neutron scattering. One of the very comprehensive and open-source neutron simulation package, VITESS, has been intensely involved in polarized neutron simulations. Several examples will be shown here. Another similar package NISP al...

  15. Linking the diffusion of water in compacted clays at two different time scales: tracer through-diffusion and quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sánchez, Fátima; Gimmi, Thomas; Jurányi, Fanni; Van Loon, Luc; Diamond, Larryn W

    2009-05-15

    Diffusion of water and solutes through compacted clays or claystones is important when assessing the barrier function of engineered or geological barriers in waste disposal. The shape and the connectivity of the pore network as well as electrostatic interactions between the diffusant and the charged clay surfaces or cations compensating negative surface charges affect the resistance of the porous medium to diffusion. Comparing diffusion measurements performed at different spatial or time scales allows identification and extraction of the different factors. We quantified the electrostatic constraint q for five different highly compacted clays (rhob = 1.85 +/- 0.05 g/cm3) using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) data. We then compared the QENS data with macroscopic diffusion data for the same clays and could derive the true geometric tortuosities G of the samples. Knowing the geometric and electrostatic factors for the different clays is essential when trying to predict diffusion coefficients for other conditions. We furthermore compared the activation energies Ea for diffusion at the two measurement scales. Because Ea is mostly influenced by the local, pore scale surroundings of the water, we expected the results to be similar at both scales. This was indeed the case for the nonswelling clays kaolinite and illite, which had Ea values lower than that of bulk water, but not for montmorillonite, which had values lower than that in bulk water at the microscopic scale, but larger at the macroscopic scale. The differences could be connected to the strongly temperature dependent mobility of the cations in the clays, which may act as local barriers in the narrow pores at low temperatures.

  16. Dynamics of C-phycocyanin in various deuterated trehalose/water environments measured by quasielastic and elastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köper, Ingo; Combet, Sophie; Petry, Winfried; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2008-07-01

    The molecular understanding of protein stabilization by the disaccharide trehalose in extreme temperature or hydration conditions is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the role of trehalose on the dynamics of the protein C-phycocyanin (C-PC) by neutron scattering. To single out the motions of C-PC hydrogen (H) atoms in various trehalose/water environments, measurements were performed in deuterated trehalose and heavy water (D2O). We report that trehalose decreases the internal C-PC dynamics, as shown by a reduced diffusion coefficient of protein H atoms. By fitting the Elastic Incoherent Structure Factor--which gives access to the "geometry" of the internal proton motions--with the model of diffusion inside a sphere, we found that the presence of trehalose induces a significantly higher proportion of immobile C-PC hydrogens. We investigated, by elastic neutron scattering, the mean square displacements (MSDs) of deuterated trehalose/D2O-embedded C-PC as a function of temperature in the range of 40-318 K. Between 40 and approximately 225 K, harmonic MSDs of C-PC are slightly smaller in samples containing trehalose. Above a transition temperature of approximately 225 K, we observed anharmonic motions in all trehalose/water-coated C-PC samples. In the hydrated samples, MSDs are not significantly changed by addition of 15% trehalose but are slightly reduced by 30% trehalose. In opposition, no dynamical transition was detected in dry trehalose-embedded C-PC, whose hydrogen motions remain harmonic up to 318 K. These results suggest that a role of trehalose would be to stabilize proteins by inhibiting some fluctuations at the origin of protein unfolding and denaturation.

  17. Total, inelastic and (quasi-)elastic cross sections of high energy pA and gamma-A reactions with the dipole formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafson, Gosta; Ster, Andras; Corgo, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the initial partonic state in proton-nucleus and electron-nucleus collisions, we investigate the total, inelastic, and (quasi-)elastic cross sections in pA and gamma-A collisions, as these observables are insensitive to possible collective effects in the final state interactions. We used as a tool the DIPSY dipole model, which is based on BFKL dynamics including non-leading effects, saturation, and colour interference, which we have extended to describe collisions of protons and virtual photons with nuclei. We present results for collisions with O, Cu, and Pb nuclei, and reproduce preliminary data on the pPb inelastic cross section at LHC by CMS and LHCb. The large NN cross section results in pA scattering that scales approximately with the area. The results are compared with conventional Glauber model calculations, and we note that the more subtle dynamical effects are more easily studied in the ratios between the total, inelastic and (quasi-)elastic cross sections. The smaller photon ...

  18. Comparison of Anion Reorientational Dynamics in MCB9H10 and M2B10H10 (M = Li, Na) via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Quasielastic Neutron Scattering Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloninin, Alexei V.; Dimitrievska, Mirjana; Skoryunov, Roman V.; Babanova, Olga A.; Skripov, Alexander V.; Tang, Wan Si; Stavila, Vitalie; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Udovic, Terrence J.

    2016-12-13

    The disordered phases of the 1-carba-closo-decaborates LiCB9H10 and NaCB9H10 exhibit the best solid-state ionic conductivities to date among all known polycrystalline competitors, likely facilitated in part by the highly orientationally mobile CB9H10- anions. We have undertaken both NMR and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements to help characterize the monovalent anion reorientational mobilities and mechanisms associated with these two compounds and to compare their anion reorientational behaviors with those for the divalent B10H102- anions in the related Li2B10H10 and Na2B10H10 compounds. NMR data show that the transition from the low-T ordered to the high-T disordered phase for both LiCB9H10 and NaCB9H10 is accompanied by a nearly two-orders-of-magnitude increase in the reorientational jump rate of CB9H10- anions. QENS measurements of the various disordered compounds indicate anion jump correlation frequencies on the order of 1010-1011 s-1 and confirm that NaCB9H10 displays jump frequencies about 60% to 120% higher than those for LiCB9H10 and Na2B10H10 at comparable temperatures. The Q-dependent quasielastic scattering suggests similar small-angular-jump reorientational mechanisms for the different disordered anions, changing from more uniaxial in character at lower temperatures to more multidimensional at higher temperatures, although still falling short of full three-dimensional rotational diffusion below 500 K within the nanosecond neutron window.

  19. A Measurement of the Neutron Electric Form Factor in Dvec ($\\vec{e}$,e'n)p Quasielastic Scattering at Q2=0.5(GeV/c)2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongguo [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The form factors of the neutron give information on fundamental properties of the nucleons and provide a critical testing ground for models based on QCD. In late 1998, Jefferson Lab (JLAB) experiment E93-026 measured the spin-dependent part of the exclusive (e, e'n) scattering cross section from a polarized deuterated ammonia (15ND3) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2. A longitudinally polarized electron beam was scattered from the polarized target and the quasi-elastically scattered electron was detected in coincidence with the knocked-out neutron. The data have been analyzed in terms of the spin-correlation parameter, or the electron-deuteron vector asymmetry (A$V\\atop{ed}$), of (e, e'n) to determine the neutron electric form factor G$n\\atop{E}$. The result is consistent with data from existing experiments and shows a good agreement with the Galster parameterization of G$n\\atop{E}$ within experimental uncertainty.

  20. A Measurement of the Neutron Electric Form Factor in Dvec (evec,e'n)p Quasielastic Scattering at Q2=0.5(GeV/c)2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongguo Zhu

    2000-08-01

    The form factors of the neutron give information on fundamental properties of the nucleons and provide a critical testing ground for models based on QCD. In late 1998, Jefferson Lab (JLAB) experiment E93-026 measured the spin-dependent part of the exclusive (e, e'n) scattering cross section from a polarized deuterated ammonia ({sup 15}ND{sub 3}) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q{sup 2} = 0.5 (GeV/c){sub 2}. A longitudinally polarized electron beam was scattered from the polarized target and the quasi-elastically scattered electron was detected in coincidence with the knocked-out neutron. The data have been analyzed in terms of the spin-correlation parameter, or the electron-deuteron vector asymmetry (A{sub ed}{sup V}), of (e, e'n) to determine the neutron electric form factor G{sub E}{sup n}. The result is consistent with data from existing experiments and shows a good agreement with the Galster parameterization of G{sub E}{sup n} within experimental uncertainty.

  1. Study of Electron-Nucleus Scattering and Nuclear Electromagnetic Properties Based on Microscopic IBM (I) Theoretical Approach Based on BE Method%基于微观IBM对电子-核散射及核电磁性质的研究(I) BE理论方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张战军; 方向正; 桑建平; 刘庸

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear transition charge/current density operators are composed according to valence nucleon degrees of freedom. By using boson expansion technique, a microscopic theoretical method (BE method) about the transformation of the fermion density operators into boson density operators is established. Thus, calculations of the nuclear charge/current densities can be carried out in the boson state space by taking advantage of the eigenfunctions of the microscopic IBM. Associated with the formal theories of electron-nucleus scattering and nuclear electromagnetic transition, a microscopic approach, which can be used to study nuclear transition charge/current densities, various form factors, differential cross sections, reduced transition rates, electromagnetic multipole moments, g factors and so on, is built up. The preliminary results based on the microscopic sdIBM-2 has indicated that the physical quantities mentioned before can be described well in the framework of the microscopic approach. The preliminary calculations of spectrum, E2 transition boson structure functions (BSF) and transition charge density from 2+1 to 0+1 in 192Os are carried out in terms of the present approach in the frame of the microscopic sd IBM-2. It is found that a reasonable description of these physical quantities has been achieued.%从价核子自由度出发构造出核跃迁电荷/电流密度算符,采用Dyson玻色子展开技术给出了获取核玻色子形式跃迁电荷/电流密度有效算符的一种微观方法(BE方法). 利用微观相互作用玻色子模型(IBM)提供的波函数可在玻色子态空间中求出核跃迁电荷/电流密度,结合电子-核散射以及核电磁跃迁的形式理论,建立了可研究电子-核散射各种形状因子,微分散射截面以及核约化跃迁几率、电磁多极矩、核态g因子等物理量的理论方案. 在一种微观sdIBM-2框架下,结合现有理论方案,初步计算了192Os核的能谱、E2跃迁

  2. Study of Electron-Nucleus Scattering and Nuclear Electromagnetic Properties Based on Microscopic IBM (Ⅱ) Theoretical Approach Based on ME Method%基于微观IBM对电子-核散射及核电磁性质的研究(Ⅱ) ME理论方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张战军; 方向正; 桑建平; 刘庸

    2001-01-01

    从一种微观相互作用玻色子模型(IBM)玻色子集体态子空间映射出费米子集体态子空间,通过假定玻色子算符形式以及使物理算符在两集体态子空间中对应归一化基矢间矩阵元相等,给出了从费米子单体算符导出玻色子单体算符的一种微观理论方法(ME方法). 文中以获取玻色子结构函数亦即确定玻色子形式核跃迁电荷/电流密度算符为例对此作出了详细介绍. 利用微观IBM提供的波函数可在玻色子态空间中求出核跃迁电荷/电流密度,结合电子-核散射以及核电磁跃迁的形式理论,可建立研究电子-核散射各种形状因子与微分散射截面以及核约化跃迁几率、电磁多极矩、核态g因子等物理量的理论方案. 在微观sdgIBM-1下利用该方案初步计算了146Nd核2+1态到0+1态的跃迁电荷密度以及约化跃迁几率,理论结果与实验值符合较好.%In this paper a mapping of the collective state subspace in a microscopic IBM onto the fermion collective state subspace is achieved. A microscopic theoretical method (ME method),which is suitable to deduce the boson one-body operator from the fermion one-body operator,is proposed by supposing the form of the boson operator and making equal the matrix elements of physical operator between the coressponding normal basis vectors of the two different collective state subspaces. In the context, the procedure of obtaining the boson structure function,i.e. the determination of the boson transition charge/current density operator,is taken as an example to give a detailed statement of the method. Thereafter, calculations of the nuclear charge/current densities can be carried out in the boson state space by taking advantage of the eigenfuncitons of the microscopic IBM. Associated with the formal theories of electron-nucleus scattering and nuclear electromagnetic transition,a microscopic approach,which can be used to study nuclear transition charge

  3. Weak Quasi-elastic Production of Hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S K

    2006-01-01

    The quasielastic weak production of $\\Lambda$ and $\\Sigma$ hyperons from nucleons and nuclei induced by antineutrinos is studied in the energy region of some ongoing neutrino oscillation experiments in the intermediate energy region. The hyperon nucleon transition form factors determined from neutrino nucleon scattering and an analysis of high precision data on semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry have been used. The nuclear effects due to Fermi motion and final state interaction effects due to hyperon nucleon scattering have also been studied. The numerical results for differential and total cross sections have been presented.

  4. Charged Current Quasielastic Analysis from MINERνA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Anushree [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2015-08-01

    The MINERνA detector situated in Fermilab, is designed to make precision cross-section measurements for scattering processes on various nuclei. In this proceeding, the results of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) analysis using lepton kinematics and with proton kinematics have been presented. Comparison of these with theoretical models suggested that further studies are required to include the additional nuclear effects in the current simulations. The first direct measurement of electron-neutrino quasielastic-like scattering in the few-GeV region of incident neutrino energy has also been presented. All three analyses, discussed here, are carried out on hydrocarbon target.

  5. Weak Quasielastic Production of Hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Alam, M Rafi; Chauhan, S; Singh, S K

    2016-01-01

    We present the results for antineutrino induced quasielastic hyperon production from nucleon and nuclear targets \\cite{Alam:2014bya,Singh:2006xp}. The inputs are the nucleon-hyperon(N--Y) transition form factors determined from the analysis of neutrino-nucleon scattering and semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry. The calculations for the nuclear targets are done in local density approximation. The nuclear medium effects(NME) like Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and final state interaction(FSI) effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have been taken into account. The hyperons giving rise to pions through weak decays also contribute to the weak pion production in addition to the $\\Delta$ excitation mechanism which dominates in the energy region of $<$ 0.7 GeV. We also present the results of longitudinal and perpendicular components of polarization of final hyperon \\cite{Akbar:2016awk}. These measurements in the future accelerator experiments with antineutrinos may give some informat...

  6. Laser light scattering basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, this text introduces the interdisciplinary area of laser light scattering, focusing chiefly on theoretical concepts of quasielastic laser scattering.

  7. Quasi-elastic cross sections for 1GeV proton incident on {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M.; Nakamoto, T.; Shigyo, N. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    The experiment of p-n quasi-elastic scattering cross sections was carried out for 1GeV protons on {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C. The coincident measurement was made at c.m. angles of {+-} 90deg. The experiment was simulated by the use of HETC (High Energy Transport Code). It was examined to apply the p-n quasi-elastic scattering cross sections to neutron flux measurement. (author)

  8. Dynamics of water and ions in clays of type montmorillonite by microscopic simulation and quasi-elastic neutron scattering; Dynamique de l'eau et des ions dans des argiles de type montmorillonite par simulation microscopique et diffusion quasi-elastique des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikova, N

    2005-09-15

    Montmorillonite clays in low hydration states, with Na{sup +} and Cs{sup +} compensating counter ions, are investigated by a combination of microscopic simulation and quasi-elastic neutron scattering to obtain information on the local structure and dynamics of water and ions in the interlayer. At first predictions of simulation into the dynamics of water and ions at elevate temperatures are shown (0 deg C 80 deg C, pertinent for the radioactive waste disposal scenario) Marked difference is observed between the modes of diffusion of the Na{sup +} and C{sup +} counter ions. In water dynamics, a significant step towards bulk water behaviour is seen on transition from the mono- to bilayer states. Secondly, a detailed comparison between simulation and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (Neutron Spin Echo and Time-of-Flight) regarding ambient temperature water dynamics is presented. Overall, the approaches are found to be in good agreement with each other and limitations of each of the methods are clearly shown. (author)

  9. Quasielastic production of polarized hyperons in antineutrino--nucleon reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar, F; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the longitudinal and perpendicular polarizations of final hyperon($\\Lambda$,$\\Sigma$) produced in the antineutrino induced quasielastic charged current reactions on nucleon targets. The nucleon-hyperon transition form factors are determined from the experimental data on quasielastic $(\\Delta S =0)$ charged current (anti)neutrino--nucleon scattering and the semileptonic decay of neutron and hyperons assuming G--invariance, T--invariance and SU(3) symmetry. The vector transition form factors are obtained in terms of nucleon electromagnetic form factors for which various parameterizations available in literature have been used. A dipole parameterization for the axial vector form factor and the pseudoscalar transition form factor derived in terms of axial vector form factor assuming PCAC and GT relation extended to strangeness sector have been used in numerical evaluations. The flux averaged cross section and polarization observables corresponding to CERN Gargamelle experiment have been calculated...

  10. Studying neutrino oscillations using quasi-elastic events in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaratunga, Sujeewa Terasita [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2008-02-01

    MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), is a long baseline neutrino experiment designed to search for neutrino oscillations using two detectors at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, IL (Near Detector) and Soudan, MN (Far Detector). It will study vμ → vτ oscillations and make a measurement on the oscillation parameters, Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and sin223, via a vμ beam made at Fermilab. Charge current neutrino interactions in the MINOS detectors are of three types: quasi-elastic scattering (QEL), resonance scattering (RES) and deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Of these, quasi-elastic scattering leaves the cleanest signal with just one μ and one proton in the final state, thus rendering the reconstruction of the neutrino energy more accurate. This thesis will outline a method to separate QEL events from the others in the two detectors and perform a calculation of Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and sin223 using those events. The period under consideration was May 2005 to February 2006. The number of observed quasi-elastic events with energies below 10 GeV was 29, where the expected number was 60 ± 3. A fit to the energy distribution of these events gives Δm$2\\atop{23}$ = 2.91$+0.49\\atop{-0.53}$(stat)$+0.08\\atop{-0.09}$(sys) x 10-3 eV2 and sin223 = 0.990-0.180(stat)-0.030(sys).

  11. Electron spectroscopy in the fundamental process of electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung; Elektronenspektroskopie im Fundamentalprozess der Elektron-Kern-Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillenbrand, Pierre-Michel

    2013-07-15

    Within the scope of this thesis the fundamental process of electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung was studied in inverse kinematics at the Experimental Storage Ring ESR at GSI. For the system U{sup 88+} + N{sub 2} at 90 MeV/u it was shown, that by using inverse kinematics coincidence measurements between the scattered electron and the emitted photon can be performed for the case, in which the incoming electron transfers almost all of its kinetic energy onto the emitted photon. The sensitivity to the fundamental process could be achieved by measuring triple differential cross sections as a function of the emission angle of the photon and the scattered electron as well as the energy of the scattered electron. The optics of the magnetic electron spectrometer used were thoroughly revised and optimized to the experimental requirements. Analyzing different coincidences in this collision system, it was possible to determine the contributions to the electron distribution arising from radiative electron capture to the projectile continuum, nonradiative electron capture to the projectile continuum, and electron loss to the projectile continuum. The experimental results of each of these processes were compared to theoretical calculations. The electron spectra for the radiative and the nonradiative electron capture to continuum clearly reproduce the opposite asymmetry predicted by theory. Furthermore electron spectra for collisions of U{sup 28+} with different gases were measured.

  12. First Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double Differential Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Bazarko, A O; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Cao, J; Coney, L; Conrad, J M; Cox, D C; Curioni, A; Djurcic, Z; Finley, D A; Fleming, B T; Ford, R; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Grange, J; Green, C; Green, J A; Hart, T L; Hawker, E; Imlay, R; Johnson, R A; Karagiorgi, G; Kasper, P; Katori, T; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Koutsoliotas, S; Laird, E M; Linden, S K; Link, J M; Liu, Y; Liu, Y; Louis, W C; Mahn, K B M; Marsh, W; Mauger, C; McGary, V T; McGregor, G; Metcalf, W; Meyers, P D; Mills, F; Mills, G B; Monroe, J; Moore, C D; Mousseau, J; Nelson, R H; Nienaber, P; Nowak, J A; Osmanov, B; Ouedraogo, S; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Prebys, E; Raaf, J L; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Russell, A D; Sandberg, V; Schirato, R; Schmitz, D; Shaevitz, M H; Shoemaker, F C; Smith, D; Soderberg, M; Sorel, M; Spentzouris, P; Spitz, J; Stancu, I; Stefanski, R J; Sung, M; Tanaka, H A; Tayloe, R; Tzanov, M; Van de Water, R G; Wascko, M O; White, D H; Wilking, M J; Yang, H J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2010-01-01

    A high-statistics sample of charged-current muon neutrino scattering events collected with the MiniBooNE experiment is analyzed to extract the first measurement of the double differential cross section ($\\frac{d^2\\sigma}{dT_\\mu d\\cos\\theta_\\mu}$) for charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering on carbon. This result features minimal model dependence and provides the most complete information on this process to date. With the assumption of CCQE scattering, the absolute cross section as a function of neutrino energy ($\\sigma[E_\

  13. Quasi-elastic events and nuclear effects with the K2K Sci-Fi detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Christopher W. E-mail: walter@budoe.bu.edu

    2002-11-01

    The near detector complex of the K2K long-baseline neutrino experiment contains a scintillating fiber tracking detector. It is capable of detecting not only the muon but also the outgoing proton in neutrino-nucleon scattering. This allows for the enhancement of quasi-elastic interactions in the data sample. However, a proper modeling of the nuclear re-interactions of the proton is necessary to achieve reliable results.

  14. P ,T -odd electron-nucleus interaction in atomic systems as an exchange by Higgs bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukov, D. V.; Labzowsky, L. N.

    2016-06-01

    Scalar-pseudoscalar P ,T -odd interaction between the electron and the nucleus in atomic systems is constructed within the standard model as an exchange by Higgs boson. The necessary P - and T -violating contribution is obtained at the three-loop level on the basis of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This contribution, unlike the corresponding contribution to the electron electric dipole moment (EDM), does not vanish since the "Higgs charges" of quarks, contrary to their electric charges, are flavor dependent. Order-of-magnitude estimates of the effect expressed as an "equivalent" electron EDM give the values within the range deeqv˜10-40-10-45e cm , depending on the known different estimates for the electron EDM. This can be compared with the known "benchmark" two-photon P ,T -odd electron-nucleus interaction effect, which provides deeqv˜10-38e cm .

  15. Quasi-Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering and Calculation of Neutron Electromagnetic Form Factors at Q2 = 1.75 to 4.00 (GeV/c)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Ghahramany; M. Vaez zadeh Asadi; G.R. Boroun

    2003-01-01

    Electric and Magnetic form factors of neutron are calculated via electron-deuteron scattering at 1.511 ~5.507 GeV energy using SLAC group data. Our results show that the neutron electric form factor is not equal to zero;rather it has a small value, indicating that in spite of the fact that total charge is almost neutral, there is a nonuniformcharge distribution within the neutron, and that magnetic form factor follows the dipole fit.

  16. Measurement of the quasi-elastic axial vector mass in neutrino-oxygen interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gran, R; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, Yu K; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Potter, C T; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Re, D; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H; Back, B B

    2006-01-01

    The weak nucleon axial-vector form factor for quasi-elastic interactions is determined using neutrino interaction data from the K2K Scintillating Fiber detector in the neutrino beam at KEK. More than 12,000 events are analyzed, of which half are charged-current quasi-elastic interactions nu-mu n to mu- p occurring primarily in oxygen nuclei. We use a relativistic Fermi gas model for oxygen and assume the form factor is approximately a dipole with one parameter, the axial vector mass M_A, and fit to the shape of the distribution of the square of the momentum transfer from the nucleon to the nucleus. Our best fit result for M_A = 1.20 \\pm 0.12 GeV. Furthermore, this analysis includes updated vector form factors from recent electron scattering experiments and a discussion of the effects of the nucleon momentum on the shape of the fitted distributions.

  17. NuSTEC White Paper: Status and Challenges of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ruso, L.; et al.

    2017-06-12

    The precise measurement of neutrino properties is among the highest priorities in fundamental particle physics, involving many experiments worldwide. Since the experiments rely on the interactions of neutrinos with bound nucleons inside atomic nuclei, the planned advances in the scope and precision of these experiments requires a commensurate effort in the understanding and modeling of the hadronic and nuclear physics of these interactions, which is incorporated as a nuclear model in neutrino event generators. This model is essential to every phase of experimental analyses and its theoretical uncertainties play an important role in interpreting every result. In this White Paper we discuss in detail the impact of neutrino-nucleus interactions, especially the nuclear effects, on the measurement of neutrino properties using the determination of oscillation parameters as a central example. After an Executive Summary and a concise Overview of the issues, we explain how the neutrino event generators work, what can be learned from electron-nucleus interactions and how each underlying physics process - from quasi-elastic to deep inelastic scattering - is understood today. We then emphasize how our understanding must improve to meet the demands of future experiments. With every topic we find that the challenges can be met only with the active support and collaboration among specialists in strong interactions and electroweak physics that include theorists and experimentalists from both the nuclear and high energy physics communities.

  18. Quasielastic and fission total cross sections for /sup 16/O on /sup 181/Ta and /sup 208/Pb. [80 to 102 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videbaek, F.; Goldstein, R.B.; Grodzins, L.; Steadman, S.G.; Belote, T.A.; Garrett, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The total quasielastic (inelastic plus few nucleon transfer) and fission cross sections were measured for /sup 16/O + /sup 208/Pb at incident energies of 80, 83, 88, 90, 96, and 102 MeV and for /sup 16/O + /sup 181/Ta at incident energies of 83, 90 and 96 MeV. The total quasielastic cross sections account for about 50 percent of the total /sup 16/O + /sup 208/Pb reaction cross section at the lowest incident energy which is near the Coulomb barrier. At the highest incident energy the /sup 16/O + /sup 208/Pb quasielastic cross section still accounts for 25 percent of the total cross section. The measured ratio of quasielastic to total cross section for /sup 16/0 + /sup 181/Ta is less than for /sup 16/O + /sup 208/Pb; however, in the case of the /sup 181/Ta target the inelastic transitions to the low lying levels in /sup 181/Ta were not resolved from elastic scattering. Within the uncertainties of the measurements the sum of the measured quasielastic and fission cross sections for /sup 16/O on /sup 208/Pb accounts for the total reaction cross section, indicating that the probability of fission of the /sup 224/Th compound and Th daughter systems is large. In contrast for /sup 16/O + /sup 181/Ta (/sup 197/Tl compound system) the fission and quasielastic channels account for only a small fraction of the total reaction cross section.

  19. The Transverse Asymmetry A{sub T}, from Quasi-elastic {sup 3}{ovr He}({rvec e}, e{prime}) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xu; Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jian-ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G.S. Corrado; C. Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Bradley Filippone; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; J. Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Jens-ole Hansen; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; C.E. Jones; Mark Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John Lerose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; J.W. Martin; Kathy Mccormick; Robert Mckeown; Kevin Mcilhany; Zein-eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; G.W. Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; E. Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Arunava Saha; G. Salme; Michael Schnee; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; Michele Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; J. Watson; Claude Williamson; H. Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Jen-chuan Yeh; Piotr Zolnierczuk

    2000-10-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized {sup 3}He nuclei at quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic precision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev calculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

  20. The Transverse Asymmetry $A_{T'}$ from Quasi-elastic $^{3}\\vec{He}(\\vec{e},e')$ Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, W; Xiong, F; Anderson, B; Auberbach, L; Averett, T; Bertozzi, W; Black, T; Calarco, J R; Cardman, L S; Cates, G D; Chai, Z W; Chen, J P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E A; Churchwell, S; Corrado, G S; Crawford, C; Dale, D; Deur, A; Djawotho, P; Filippone, B W; Finn, J M; Gao, H; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A V; Glashausser, C; Glöckle, W; Golak, J; Gómez, J; Gorbenko, V G; Hansen, J O; Hersman, F W; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R; Howell, C R; Hughes, E; Humensky, B; Incerti, S; De Jager, C W; Jensen, J S; Jiang, X; Jones, C E; Jones, M; Kahl, R; Kamada, H; Kievsky, A; Kominis, I; Korsch, W; Krämer, K; Kumbartzki, G J; Kuss, M W; Lakuriqi, E; Liang, M; Liyanage, N K; Le Rose, J J; Malov, S Y; Margaziotis, D J; Martin, J W; McCormick, K; McKeown, R D; McIlhany, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Miller, G W; Mitchell, J; Nanda, S; Pace, E; Pavlin, T; Petratos, G G; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Pripstein, D A; Prout, D L; Ransome, R D; Roblin, Y; Rvachev, M M; Saha, A; Salmè, G; Schnee, M; Shin, T; Slifer, K J; Souder, P A; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Sutter, M F; Tipton, B; Todor, L; Viviani, M; Vlahovic, B; Watson, J; Williamson, C F; Witala, H; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Yeh, J

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized 3He nuclei at quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic precision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev calculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2 %.

  1. Spectrum of recoil nucleons in quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, C.; Nowak, J.A.; Sobczyk, J.T. [Wroclaw University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2005-02-01

    We have analyzed the consequences of introducing the local density approximation combined with an effective nuclear momentum-dependent potential into the CC quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering. We note that the distribution of recoil nucleons momenta becomes smooth for low momentum values and the sharp threshold is removed. Our results may be relevant for Sci-Fi detector analysis of K2K experiments. The total amount of observed recoil protons is reduced because some of them remain bound inside the nucleus. We compare theoretical predictions for a probability of such events with the results given by NUX+FLUKA MC simulations. (orig.)

  2. Quasielastic Scattering from Relativistic Bound Nucleons: Transverse-Longitudinal Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udias, J. M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid, (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, (Spain); Caballero, J. A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid, (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla, (Spain); Moya de Guerra, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid, (Spain); Amaro, J. E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, (Spain); Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1999-12-27

    Predictions for electron induced proton knockout from p{sub 1/2} and p{sub 3/2} shells in {sup 16}O are presented using various approximations for the relativistic nucleonic current. Results for differential cross section, transverse-longitudinal response (R{sub TL} ), and left-right asymmetry A{sub TL} are compared at |Q{sup 2}|=0.8(GeV/c){sup 2} . We show that there are important dynamical and kinematical relativistic effects which can be tested by experiment. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  3. Direct extraction of nuclear effects in quasielastic scattering on carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Callum

    2016-01-01

    The differences between neutrino and antineutrino CCQE cross sections measured on hydrocarbon targets are due to fundamental differences in the cross section, different neutrino and antineutrino fluxes from the same beamline, and the additional interactions on hydrogen for antineutrinos that are absent for neutrinos. In this analysis we correct for the former two differences to extract a constraint on the ratio of the CCQE cross section for free and bound protons from MINERvA and MiniBooNE data. This measures nuclear effects in carbon, and we compare this measurement to models.

  4. Correlations in neutrino-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Van Cuyck, Tom; Jachowicz, Natalie; González-Jiménez, Raul; Martini, Marco; Ryckebusch, Jan; Van Dessel, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of charged-current quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and of the influence of correlations on one- and two-nucleon knockout processes. The quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections, including the influence of long-range correlations, are evaluated within a continuum random phase approximation approach. The short-range correlation formalism is implemented in the impulse approximation by shifting the complexity induced by the correlations from the wave functions to the operators. The model is validated by confronting $(e,e^\\prime)$ cross-section predictions with electron scattering data in the kinematic region where the quasielastic channel is expected to dominate. Further, the $^{12}$C$(\

  5. Nuclear Transparency in 90 Degree c.m. Quasielastic A(p,2p) Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aclander, J; Asryan, G; Averiche, Y; Barton, D S; Baturin, V; Buktoyarova, N; Bunce, G M; Carroll, A S; Christensen, N; Courant, H; Durrant, S; Fang, G; Gabriel, K; Gushue, S; Heller, K J; Heppelmann, S; Kosonovsky, I; Leksanov, A; Makdisi, Y I; Malki, A; Mardor, I; Mardor, Y; Marshak, M L; Martel, D; Minina, E; Minor, E; Navon, I; Nicholson, H; Ogawa, A; Panebratsev, Yu A; Piasetzky, E; Roser, T; Russell, J J; Schetkovsky, A; Shimansky, S S; Shupe, M A; Sutton, S; Tanaka, M; Tang, A; Tsetkov, I; Watson, J; White, C; Wu, J Y; Zhalov, D

    2004-01-01

    We summarize the results of two experimental programs at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A(p,2p) quasielastic scattering process near 90 Deg .in the pp center of mass. The incident momenta varied from 5.9 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 < Q^2 < 12.7 (GeV/c)^2. First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which had more complete kinematic definition of quasielastic events. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency near 90 Deg. c.m., and the nuclear transparency for deuterons was studied. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the Carbon data. E834 also determines the nuclear transparencies for Li, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei as well as for C. We find for both E850 and E834 that the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency, unlike that for A(e,e'p) nuclear transparency, is incompatible with a constant value versus energy as...

  6. Dynamics in γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles studied by time-of-flight polarized neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, L.T.; Lefmann, K.; Klausen, S.N.;

    2004-01-01

    The inelastic neutron-scattering signal from magnetic nanoparticles contains information on magnetic dynamics like superparamagnetic relaxation and collective magnetic excitations. Often another, very broad quasi-elastic component is observed in addition. We have studied this quasi-elastic neutro...... of disordered surface spins and vibrations of individual nanoparticles. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Nuclear Transparency and Single Particle Spectral Functions from Quasielastic A(e,e'p) Reactions up to Q2=8.1 GeV2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David McKee

    2003-05-01

    High statistics elastic and quasielastic scattering measurements were performed on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, and iron at squared momentum transfers up to 8.1 GeV2. Both the nuclear transparency and the single particle spectral functions were extracted by means of comparison with a Plane- Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. Our data provide no evidence of the onset of color transparency within our kinematic range.

  8. The influence of the nuclear medium on inclusive electron and neutrino scattering off nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Buss, O; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Mosel, U

    2007-01-01

    We present a model for inclusive electron and neutrino scattering off nuclei paying special attention to the influence of in-medium effects on the quasi-elastic scattering and pion-production mechanisms. Our results for electron scattering off Oxygen are compared to experimental data at beam energies ranging from 0.7-1.5 GeV. The good description of electron scattering serves as a benchmark for neutrino scattering.

  9. Charged-current quasielastic neutrino cross sections on $^{12}$C with realistic spectral and scaling functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M V; Caballero, J A; Megias, G D; Barbaro, M B; de Guerra, E Moya; Udias, J M

    2014-01-01

    Charge-current quasielastic (CCQE) (anti)neutrino scattering cross sections on a $^{12}$C target are analyzed using a spectral function $S(p,{\\cal E})$ that gives a scaling function in accordance with the ($e,e'$) scattering data. The spectral function accounts for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) correlations, it has a realistic energy dependence and natural orbitals (NO's) from the Jastrow correlation method are used in its construction. In all calculations the standard value of the axial mass $M_A= 1.032$ GeV/c$^2$ is used. The results are compared with those when NN correlations are not included, as in the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) model, or when harmonic-oscillator (HO) single-particle wave functions are used instead of NO's. The role of the final-state interactions (FSI) on the theoretical spectral and scaling functions, as well as on the cross sections is accounted for. A comparison of the results for the cases with and without FSI, as well as to results from the phenomenological scaling function obtained f...

  10. Nuclear transparency in 90 °c.m. quasielastic A(p,2p) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averiche, Y.; Barton, D. S.; Baturin, V.; Buktoyarova, N.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A. S.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Durrant, S.; Fang, G.; Gabriel, K.; Gushue, S.; Heller, K. J.; Heppelmann, S.; Kosonovsky, I.; Leksanov, A.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malki, A.; Mardor, I.; Mardor, Y.; Marshak, M. L.; Martel, D.; Minina, E.; Minor, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Piasetzky, E.; Roser, T.; Russell, J. J.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Shupe, M. A.; Sutton, S.; Tanaka, M.; Tang, A.; Tsetkov, I.; Watson, J.; White, C.; Wu, J.-Y.; Zhalov, D.

    2004-07-01

    We summarize the results of two experimental programs at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A(p,2p) quasielastic scattering process near 90° in the pp center of mass. The incident momenta varied from 5.9 to 14.4 GeV/c , corresponding to 4.8< Q2 <12.7 (GeV/c)2 . Taking into account the motion of the target proton in the nucleus, the effective incident momenta extended from 5.0 to 15.8 GeV/c . First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which had more complete kinematic definition of quasielastic events. E850 covered a larger range of incident momenta, and thus provided more information regarding the nature of the energy dependence of the nuclear transparency. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency near 90° and the nuclear transparency deuterons were studied. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the carbon data. E834 also determines the nuclear transparencies for lithium, aluminum, copper, and lead nuclei as well as for carbon. A determination of the ( π+ , π+ p) transparencies is also reported. We find for both E850 and E834 that the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency, unlike that for A(e, e' p) nuclear transparency, is incompatible with a constant value versus energy as predicted by Glauber calculations. The A(p,2p) nuclear transparency for carbon and aluminum increases by a factor of two between 5.9 and 9.5 GeV/c incident proton momentum. At its peak the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency is ˜80% of the constant A(e, e' p) nuclear transparency. Then the nuclear transparency falls back to a value at least as small as that at 5.9 GeV/c , and is compatible with the Glauber level again. This oscillating behavior is generally interpreted as an interplay between two components of the pN scattering amplitude; one short ranged and perturbative, and the other long ranged and

  11. Nuclear transparency from quasielastic 12C(e,e'p)

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, D; Armstrong, C S; Asaturyan, R; Baker, O K; Bültmann, S; Carasco, C C; Day, D; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Garrow, K; Gasparian, A; Gueye, P; Hauger, M; Honegger, A; Jourdan, J; Keppel, C E; Kubon, G; Lindgren, R; Lung, A; Mack, D J; Mitchell, J H; Mkrtchyan, H G; Mocelj, D; Normand, K; Petitjean, T; Rondon, Oscar A; Segbefia, E; Sick, I; Stepanyan, S; Tang, L; Tiefenbacher, F; Vulcan, W F; Warren, G; Wood, S A; Yuan, L; Zeier, M; Zhu, H; Zihlmann, B

    2005-01-01

    We studied the reaction 12C(e,e'p) in quasielastic kinematics at momentum transfers between 0.6 and 1.8 (GeV/c)^2 covering the single-particle region. From this the nuclear transparency factors are extracted using two methods. The results are compared to theoretical predictions obtained using a generalization of Glauber theory described in this paper. Furthermore, the momentum distribution in the region of the 1s-state up to momenta of 300 MeV/c is obtained from the data and compared to the Correlated Basis Function theory and the Independent-Particle Shell model.

  12. Coulomb distortion effects in deep-inelastic electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co', Giampaolo; Heisenberg, Jochen

    1987-11-01

    The effects of the Coulomb distortion of the electron wave functions in the description of the electron scattering processes in the quasi-elastic region are discussed. A method to extract longitudinal and transverse response functions considering these effects is presented. While the transverse response function is remarkably affected by the Coulomb distortion, the values of the longitudinal response function are practically unchanged.

  13. Impact of non-standard interactions on neutrino-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Papoulias, D K

    2016-01-01

    Non-standard neutrino-nucleon interaction is formulated and explored within the energy range of quasi-elastic scattering. In particular, the study focuses on the neutral-current elastic (anti-) neutrino scattering off nucleons described by the exotic reactions $\

  14. DEEPLY INELASTIC SCATTERING OFF NUCLEI AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENUGOPALAN, R.

    2001-09-14

    In this talk, we discussed the physics case for an eA collider. We emphasized the novel physics that might be studied at small x. The interesting physics at intermediate x's has been discussed elsewhere [3]. Plans for an electron-ion collider include, as a major part of the program, the possibility of doing polarized electron-polarized proton/light ion scattering. A discussion of the combined case for high energy electron nucleus and polarized electron-polarized proton scattering will be published separately [66].

  15. Nuclear Transparency and Single Particle Spectral Functions from Quasielastic A(e,e'p) Reactions up to Q2=8.1 GeV2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, David Wayne [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2003-05-01

    High statistics elastic and quasielastic scattering measurements were performed on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, and iron at squared momentum transfers up to 8.1 GeV2. Both the nuclear transparency and the single particle spectral functions were extracted by means of comparison with a Plane- Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. Our data provide no evidence of the onset of color transparency within our kinematic range.

  16. A Measurement of Inclusive Quasielastic Electron Cross Sections at X > 1 and High Q{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Petitjean

    2002-07-01

    Experiment E89-008 measured inclusive electron scattering cross sections from different nuclei in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. Cross sections on the low energy loss side of the quasi-elastic peak (x{sub Bj} > 1) are extracted for carbon, aluminum, iron and gold. The data cover four-momentum transfers squared of 0:97 to 5:73 GeV 2 =c 2 . The measured cross sections are compared to cross sections calculated using a microscopic spectral function. The cross section results are also analyzed in terms of the two scaling functions F (y) and f( psi ). For both the data is found to be independent of the momentum transfer (scaling of the first kind). For f( psi ) the data is in addition independent of the mass number A (scaling of the second kind) and thus exhibits superscaling properties.

  17. Observability of stochastic resonance in neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condat, C A; Lamberti, P W

    1999-10-01

    The observability of the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a neutron scattering experiment is investigated, considering that the scatterer can hop between two sites. Under stochastic resonance conditions scattered intensity is transferred from the quasielastic region to two inelastic peaks. The magnitude of the signal-to-noise ratio is shown to be similar to that arising in the corresponding power spectrum. Effects of potential asymmetry are discussed in detail. Asymmetry leads to a reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 1-xi(2), where xi is an asymmetry parameter which is zero for symmetric problems and equal to unity in a completely asymmetric case.

  18. Inclusive inelastic electron scattering from nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Nadia

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei at large x and $Q^2$ is the result of a reaction mechanism that includes both quasi--elastic scattering from nucleons and deep inelastic scattering from the quark constituents of the nucleons. Data in this regime can be used to study a wide variety of topics, including the extraction of nuclear momentum distributions, the influence of final state interactions and the approach to $y$-scaling, the strength of nucleon-nucleon correlations, and the approach to $x$- scaling, to name a few. Selected results from the recent experiment E02-019 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will be shown and their relevance discussed.

  19. Neutron scattering treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kostorz, G

    1979-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 15: Neutron Scattering shows how neutron scattering methods can be used to obtain important information on materials. The book discusses the general principles of neutron scattering; the techniques used in neutron crystallography; and the applications of nuclear and magnetic scattering. The text also describes the measurement of phonons, their role in phase transformations, and their behavior in the presence of crystal defects; and quasi-elastic scattering, with its special merits in the study of microscopic dynamical phenomena in solids and

  20. A sub-GeV charged-current quasi-elastic $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walding, Joseph James [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    Neutrino-nucleus charged-current quasi-elastic scattering is the signal interaction used by many neutrino oscillation experiments. For muon disappearance studies the signal mode is νμn → μp. Modern oscillation experiments, such as T2K, produce neutrino beams with peak beam energies of order a few-GeV. It is therefore vitally important to have accurate measurements of the charged-current quasi-elastic crosssection for future neutrino oscillation experiments. Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections in the few-GeV region are not well understood, with the main uncertainties coming from understanding of the neutrino beam flux and the final state interactions within nuclei. SciBooNE is a sub-GeV neutrino-nucleus cross-section experiment based at Fermilab, Batavia, USA, with the goal to measure neutrino cross-sections with precision of order 5%. SciBooNE took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in total 0.99×1020 and 1.53×1020 protons on target were collected in neutrino and anti-neutrino mode, respectively. In this thesis a νμ charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) cross-section contained within the SciBar sub-detector is presented. A method to tag muons in SciBar was developed and three samples were isolated. An excess in backwards tracks in the one-track sample is observed. A Poisson maximum likelihood is used to extract the CCQE cross-section. The fit was applied using a basic fit parameter model, successfully used to obtain the cross-section in the SciBar-MRD matched CCQE analysis. This method was found to be insufficient in describing the data for the SciBarcontained CCQE analysis. By adding two migration parameters the cross-section was calculated to be 1.004 ± 0.031 (stat)+0.101 -0.150(sys) × 10-38 cm2/neutron, excluding backwards tracks with a χ2 = 203.8/76 d.o.f. and 1.083 ± 0.030(stat)+0.115 -0.177(sys) × 10-38 cm2

  1. Critical Scattering in the Singlet-Ground State System Pr3TI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Kjems, Jørgen; Buyers, W. J. L.;

    1977-01-01

    A central mode in the ferromagnetic phase transition of Pr3T1 is observed by inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering. The intensity, assuming a Lorentzian wave vector dependence, has a correlation range parameter that is much larger than in ordinary ferromagnets.......A central mode in the ferromagnetic phase transition of Pr3T1 is observed by inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering. The intensity, assuming a Lorentzian wave vector dependence, has a correlation range parameter that is much larger than in ordinary ferromagnets....

  2. Radiative Corrections to Polarized Inelastic Scattering in Coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Akushevich; Andrei Afanasev; G.I. Gakh; Mykola Merenkov

    2001-09-01

    The complete analysis of the model-independent leading radiative corrections to cross-section and polarization observables in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron-nucleus scattering with detection of a proton and scattered electron in coincidence has been performed. The basis of the calculations consists of the Drell-Yan like representation in electrodynamics for both spin-independent and spin-dependent parts of the cross-section in terms of the electron structure functions. The applications to the polarization transfer effect from longitudinally polarized electron beam to detected proton as well as to scattering by the polarized target are considered.

  3. Neutron-scattering studies of a polymer electrolyte, PPO-LiClO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, P.; Mattsson, B.; Swenson, J.

    1998-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of a prototype polymer electrolyte, PPO-LiClO4, have been investigated using neutron diffraction (ND) and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). For comparison, corresponding studies of pure PPO have also been performed. The diffraction data reveal large structural ch...

  4. Neutron scattering study on U-dichalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metoki, N; Kaneko, K; Ikeda, S; Sakai, H; Yamamoto, E; Haga, Y; Shiokawa, Y [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Homma, Y, E-mail: naoto.metoki@jaea.go.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    We will report the results of our recent inelastic neutron scattering study on {beta}-US{sub 2}. This compound shows a semi-metallic or narrow gap semi-conducting behaviour at room temperature. A clear exponential up-turn of the resistivity in the order of {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega}cm has been observed below 100 K. We found a sharp inelastic peak at the excitation energy of about 7 meV at 8 K. The Q-dependence of the peak intensity is in good agreement with the magnetic form factor of U{sup 4+} ion and no clear dispersion relation has been observed. Therefore we concluded that this is a crystalline electric field (CEF) excitation peak. The excitation energy is in good agreement with the CEF level scheme obtained from the susceptibility data. The CEF peak intensity decreases with increasing temperature and becomes much weaker than the calculated temperature factor expected from the CEF level scheme. Furthermore a quasi-elastic response appears, and coexists with a broadened CEF peak at higher temperatures. The quasi-elastic component is not due to phonon, because the temperature dependence of the intensity is inconsistent with calculation. We concluded that this quasi-elastic response is a hybridization effect of U-5f electrons with, most likely, p-electrons of sulfur. It is highly interesting that the energy scale of the CEF peak ({approx}7 meV) is very close to the conduction gap (90K), and the quasi-elastic component appears above the characteristic temperature of about 100 K. Our data strongly suggest that the crossover of 5f character plays an import role for the metal-insulating transition in {beta}-US{sub 2}.

  5. Quasielastic Scattering from Relativistic Bound Nucleons: R{sub TL} Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Caballero; E. Moya de Guerra; J. M. Udias; J. E. Amaro; T. W. Donnelly

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of relativistic calculations for electron induced knock-out from the p{sub 1/2} and p{sub 3/2} shells in {sup 16}O are presented. Results for differential cross-section, TL response function and left-right asymmetry are compared to recent (e,e'p) data at Q{sup 2} = 0.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} taken at TJNAF. We show that the trend of the fully relativistic results is closely followed by the experimental data, pointing to the importance of both kinematical and dynamical relativistic effects in the nucleonic current.

  6. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies on dynamics of water confined in nanoporous copper rubeanate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Yonamine, Ryo; Yamada, Teppei; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Nagao, Michihiro; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2011-11-24

    We have investigated the mechanism of the first order transition and proton conductivity in copper rubeanate hydrates from microscopic and dynamical points of view. Three different types of neutron spectrometer-time-of-flight, backscattering, and neutron spin echo-were used to cover a wide dynamic range (1 ps to 100 ns). We found that the water molecules adsorbed in the pore are divided into "free water" having diffusion coefficients similar to those of bulk water at room temperature and "condensed water" which is about 10 times slower than bulk water owing to the interaction with the pore wall. The hydrogen atoms in the pore wall exhibited no relaxation within the measured time scales. The free water has, in the framework of the jump-diffusion model, smaller activation energy, longer residence time, and longer jump distance than bulk water. The neutron spin echo measurement revealed that the first order transition is a kind of liquid-liquid transition at which the free water is condensed on the pore surface in the low temperature phase. On cooling the condensed water, the relaxation time starts to deviate from the VFT equation around 200 K as previously observed in the water confined in nanoporous silicates. The free water plays an important role as the proton carrier but the proton conductivity is mainly governed by the number of protons provided into the adsorbed water from the pore wall.

  7. Quasi-elastic scattering, RPA, 2p2h and neutrino--energy reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J; Sanchez, F; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We discuss some nuclear effects, RPA correlations and 2p2h (multinucleon) mechanisms, on charged-current neutrino-nucleus reactions that do not produce a pion in the final state. We study a wide range of neutrino energies, from few hundreds of MeV up to 10 GeV. We also examine the influence of 2p2h mechanisms on the neutrino energy reconstruction.

  8. Hydrogen rotational and translational diffusion in calcium borohydride from quasielastic neutron scattering and DFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Riktor, M.D.; Maronsson, Jon Bergmann;

    2010-01-01

    with different time scales in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Two thermally activated reorientational motions were observed, around the 2-fold (C2) and 3-fold (C3) axes of the BH4− units, at temperature from 95 to 280K. The experimental energy barriers (EaC2 = 0.14 eV and EaC3 = 0...

  9. Exploring lipid dynamics in photosensitive membranes by quasielastic neutron scattering techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; Peters, Judith; Pieper, Jörg

    hydrophobic part. Upon light illumination with proper wavelengths, the reversible conformational change of the headgroup (365nm: trans to cis; 455nm: cis to trans) does modify the membrane structure, and most probably as well the lipid dynamics of the membrane. We report on a study on bilayer stacks...

  10. A wave-mechanical model of incoherent neutron scattering II. Role of the momentum transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Frauenfelder, Hans; Young, Robert D.; Fenimore, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    We recently introduced a wave-mechanical model for quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) in proteins. We call the model ELM for "Energy Landscape Model". We postulate that the spectrum of the scattered neutrons consists of lines of natural width shifted from the center by fluctuations. ELM is based on two facts: Neutrons are wave packets; proteins have low-lying substates that form the free-energy landscape (FEL). Experiments suggest that the wave packets are a few hundred micrometers long....

  11. Precursor of pion condensation: The softening of the quasi-elastic peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, W. M.; Ericson, M.; Molinari, A.

    1980-05-01

    The phase transition of pion condensation is heralded in the disordered phase by an increase in the life time of the fluctuations for the staggered magnetization. This precursor phenomenon entails, in ordinary nuclei, a showing down of the nuclear quasi-elastic response when observed with spin-sensitive probes. Permanent address: Istituto di Fisica Teorica dell'Università di Torino, Turin, Italy.

  12. Is simultaneous $y$ and $\\xi$--scaling in the quasi-elastic region accidental?

    CERN Document Server

    Day, D

    2004-01-01

    We study the $y$ and $\\xi$--scaling of the nuclear response at large momentum transfer in order to understand how scaling based on very different descriptions of the elementary interaction can occur simultaneously. We find that the approximate validity of $\\xi$-scaling at low energy loss arises from the coincidental behavior of the quasielastic and deep inelastic cross sections.

  13. Correlated model for quasi-elastic responses in finite nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Có, G; Co', Giampaolo; Lallena, Antonio M.

    2001-01-01

    A model to calculate nuclear responses considering short-range correlation effects is presented. The model is applied to the study of electromagnetic responses induced by one-body operators. We calculate one- and two-nucleon emission responses and cross sections of the 16O and 40Ca nuclei in the quasi-elastic region, and we compare them with experimental data.

  14. Inclusive nucleon emission induced by quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, J. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071, Granada (Spain); Valverde, M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071, Granada (Spain); Vicente-Vacas, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, E-46017 Valencia (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    A previous model on inclusive charged-current quasi-elastic nuclear reactions [J. Nieves, J.E. Amaro and M. Valverde, Phys. Rev. C 70 (2004) 055503] is extended to include neutral- and charged-current nucleon emission reactions. The problem of outgoing nucleon propagation is treated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Study of the (e,e'p) quasi-elastic reaction in complex nuclei: theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, Joaquin Lopez [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    Experimental coincidence cross section and transverse-longitudinal asymmetry ATL have been obtained for the quasielastic (e,e'p) reaction in 16O, 12C, and {sup 208}Pb in constant q-ω kinematics in the missing momentum range -350 < pmiss < 350 MeV/c. In these experiments, performed in experimental Hall A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB), the beam energy and the momentum and angle of the scattered electrons were kept fixed, while the angle between the proton momentum and the momentum transfer q was varied in order to map out the missing momentum distribution. The experimental cross section and ATL asymmetry have been compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation (DWIA) calculations with both relativistic and non-relativistic spinor structure. The spectroscopic factors obtained for both models are in agreement with previous experimental values, while ATL measurements favor the relativistic DWIA calculation. This thesis describes the details of the experimental setup, the calibration of the spectrometers, the techniques used in the data analysis to derive the final cross sections and the ATL, the ingredients of the theoretical calculations employed and the comparison of the results with the simulations based on these theoretical models.

  16. Signature of a strong coupling with the continuum in {sup 11}Be + {sup 120}Sn scattering at the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Perez-Bernal, F.; Rodriguez, D.; Sanchez-Benitez, A.M. [Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Huelva (Spain); Alvarez, M.A.G.; Gomez-Camacho, J. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-Junta de Andalucia, Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Andres, M.V.; Espino, J.M.; Moro, A.M.; Mukha, I. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Borge, M.J.G.; Cortes, M.; Galaviz, D.; Maira, A.; Reillo, E.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Madrid, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Rusek, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-12-15

    The angular distribution for {sup 11}Be+{sup 120}Sn quasielastic scattering at E{sub lab}=32 MeV was measured at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The interpretation of the data in terms of coupled-channel calculations suggests a strong coupling with the p-states lying in the continuum. (orig.)

  17. Observation of Oxygen Frenkel Disorder in Uranium Dioxide above 2000 K by Use of Neutron-Scattering Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Hayes, W.; Macdonald, J E.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and coherent diffuse quasielastic scattering of neutrons have been used to investigate Frenkel disorder of the oxygen sublattice in single crystals of stoichiometric UO2. Measurements were made up to 2900 K using a special high-temperature furnace. The results provide the first direct...

  18. Polarization transfer for inclusive proton-nucleus inelastic scattering at 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergerson, R.; McGill, J.; Glashausser, C.; Jones, K.; Nanda, S.; Sun Zuxun; Barlett, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Marshall, J.; McClelland, J.; and others

    1988-11-01

    The polarization-transfer observables D/sub N//sub N/, D/sub S//sub S/, D/sub L//sub L/, D/sub L//sub S/, and D/sub S//sub L/ have been measured at 800 MeV for polarized proton inelastic scattering from /sup 1/H, /sup 2/H, and /sup 12/C with energy losses up to about 400 MeV. The scattering angles in the laboratory were 5/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 20/sup 0/. No large differences between the observables for the three targets were seen. The data for /sup 12/C in the quasielastic region are reasonably well explained by nonrelativistic and relativistic models of one-step quasifree scattering. Specifically nuclear effects appear small in both the quasielastic and delta regions.

  19. Quasielastic C-12(e,e ' p) reaction at high momentum transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JH; Baghaei, H; Bertozzi, W; Gilad, S; Glickman, J; Hyde-Wright, CE; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Lourie, RW; Penn, S; Ulmer, PE; Weinstein, LB; Cottman, BH; Ghedira, L; Winhold, EJ; Calarco, J.R.; Wise, J; Boberg, P; Chang, CC; Zhang, D; Aniol, K; Epstein, MB; Margaziotis, DJ; Finn, JM; Perdrisat, C; Punjabi, P.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the C-12(e,e'p) cross section as a function of missing energy in parallel kinematics for (q,omega)=(970 MeV/c, 330 MeV) and (990 MeV/c, 475 MeV). At omega=475 MeV, at the maximum of the quasielastic peak, there is a large continuum (E-m>50 MeV) cross section extending out to the deepest

  20. Survey of background scattering from materials found in small-angle neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. G.; Mildner, D. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of beam attenuation and background scattering for common materials placed in a neutron beam are presented over the temperature range of 300–700 K. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurements have also been made, to determine the fraction of the background that is either inelastic or quasi-elastic scattering as measured with a 3He detector. Other background sources considered include double Bragg diffraction from windows or samples, scattering from gases, and phonon scattering from solids. Background from the residual air in detector vacuum vessels and scattering from the 3He detector dome are presented. The thickness dependence of the multiple scattering correction for forward scattering from water is calculated. Inelastic phonon background scattering at small angles for crystalline solids is both modeled and compared with measurements. Methods of maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio by material selection, choice of sample thickness and wavelength, removal of inelastic background by TOF or Be filters, and removal of spin-flip scattering with polarized beam analysis are discussed. PMID:26306088

  1. Heavy-ion fusion and scattering with Skyrme energy density functional

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In our recent studies,an empirical barrier distribution was proposed for a unified description of the fusion cross sections of light and medium-heavy fusion systems,the capture cross sections of the reactions leading to superheavy nuclei,and the large-angle quasi-elastic scattering cross sections based on the Skyrme energy-density functional approach.In this paper,we first give a brief review of these results.Then,by examining the barrier distributions in detail,we find that the fusion cross sections depend more strongly on the shape of the left side of the barrier distribution while the quasi-elastic scattering cross sections depend more strongly on the right side.Furthermore,by combining these studies and the HIVAP calculations for the survival probability,the formation probability of the compound nucleus is deduced from the measured evaporation residue cross sections for "cold" and "hot" fusion reactions.

  2. Neutron scattering on partially deuterated polybutadiene

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, S; Monkenbusch, M; Richter, D; Arbe, A; Colmenero, J; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The molecular nature of the secondary relaxation (Johari-Goldstein relaxation) and its relationship with the alpha relaxation is in most cases still unknown. In order to access these processes on a molecular level, it is necessary to obtain spatial information of the relaxation. Through the momentum-transfer dependence of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,t), this information can be provided by quasielastic neutron scattering techniques. The large difference in scattering lengths between hydrogen and deuterium allows us to accentuate specific correlations between atoms in a polymer melt. Here, we report on recent results on a polybutadiene melt, where the double bond was hydrogeneous, while the methylene groups carried deuterons (d4h2-PB). In this way the correlations between the double bonds are emphasised. We will show that the double bond/double bond correlation function, generated in this way, shows the same temperature dependence as the viscosity at higher temperatures at the structure factor peak maximum...

  3. Measurement of the $M_A^{QE}$ parameter using multiple quasi-elastic dominated sub-samples in the minos near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Nathan Samuel [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2011-12-05

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a two detector, long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The MINOS near detector is an ironscintillator tracking/sampling calorimeter and has recorded the world’s largest data set of neutrino interactions in the 0-5 GeV region. This high statistics data set is used to make precision measurements of neutrino interaction cross-sections on iron. The Q2 dependence in charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering probes the axial and vector structure (form factor) of the nucleon/nuclear target, and nuclear effects in neutrino scattering. Presented here is a study of the MINOS Data that will introduce a method that improves the existing MINOS CCQE analysis. This analysis uses an additional CCQE dominated sub-sample from a different kinematic region to reduce correlations between fit parameters in the existing MINOS CCQE analysis. The measured value of the axial-vector mass is MQE A = 1.312+0.037 -0.038(fit)+0.123 -0.265(syst.) GeV.

  4. Superscaling and Charge-Changing Neutrino Scattering from Nuclei in the $\\boldsymbol \\Delta$-Region beyond the Relativistic Fermi Gas Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M V; Caballero, J A; Antonov, A N; de Guerra, E Moya; Gaidarov, M K

    2008-01-01

    The superscaling analysis using the scaling function obtained within the coherent density fluctuation model is extended to calculate charge-changing neutrino and antineutrino scattering on $^{12}$C at energies from 1 to 2 GeV not only in the quasielastic but also in the delta excitation region. The results are compared with those obtained using the scaling functions from the relativistic Fermi gas model and from the superscaling analysis of inclusive scattering of electrons from nuclei.

  5. Ammonia dynamics in magnesium ammine from DFT and neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tekin, Adem; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Jacobsen, Hjalte Sylvest

    2010-01-01

    Energy storage in the form of ammonia bound in metal salts, so-called metal ammines, combines high energy density with the possibility of fast and reversible NH3 ab- and desorption kinetics. The mechanisms and processes involved in the NH3 kinetics are investigated by density functional theory (DFT......) and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). The crystal structures of Mg(NH3)(n)Cl-2 with n = 6, 2, 1, which contains up to 9.19 wt % hydrogen and 0.115 kg hydrogen L-1, are first analyzed using an algorithm based on simulated annealing (SA), finding all the experimentally known structures and predicting the C2/m...

  6. Diffusion of water adsorbed in hydrotalcite: neutron scattering Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, S [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Pramanik, A [Unilever Research India, Bangalore 500 066 (India); Chakrabarty, D [Godrej Sara Lee Limited, Research and Development Centre, Mumbai 400 079 (India); Juranyi, F [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETHZ and PSI, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Gautam, S [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mukhopadhyay, R [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2007-12-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are a class of ionic lamellar solids with positively charged layers of two kinds of metallic cations and exchangeable hydrated anions. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements are performed in this type of LDH structured hydrated hydrotalcite sample to study the dynamical behaviour of the water in geometric confinement within the layers. Dynamical parameters correspond to the confined water molecules revealed that depending on the amount of excess water present, behaves differently and approaches bulk values at high concentration. Both translational and rotational dynamical parameters showed that at very low concentration of excess water, water molecules are attached to the surfaces and show the confinement effect.

  7. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Joel A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  8. The dynamics of the quasielastic 16O(e,e'p) reaction at Q^2 = 0.8 (GeV/c)^2

    CERN Document Server

    Fissum, K G; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K A; Auerbach, L; Baker, F T; Berthot, J; Bertozzi, W; Bertin, P Y; Bimbot, L; Böglin, W; Brash, E J; Breton, V; Breuer, H; Burtin, E; Calarco, J R; Cardman, S L; Cates, G D; Cavata, C; Chang, C C; Chen, J P; Cisbani, E; Dale, D S; De Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A; Diederich, B; Djawotho, P; Domingo, John J; Ducret, J E; Epstein, M B; Ewell, L A; Finn, J M; Fonvieille, H; Frois, B; Frullani, S; Gao, J; Garibaldi, F; Gasparian, A; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gómez, J; Gorbenko, V; Gorringe, T P; Hersman, F W; Holmes, R; Holtrop, M; D'Hose, N; Howell, C; Huber, G M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Iodice, M; Jaminion, S; Jones, M K; Joo, K; Jutier, C; Kahl, W; Kato, S; Kelly, J J; Kerhoas, S; Khandaker, M; Khayat, M; Kino, K; Korsch, W; Kramer, L; Kumar, K S; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Leone, A; Le Rose, J J; Levchuk, L G; Lindgren, R A; Liyanage, N K; Lolos, G J; Lourie, W R; Madey, R; Maeda, K; Malov, S; Manley, D M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Martino, J; McCarthy, J S; McCormick, K; McIntyre, J; Van der Meer, R L J; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Mougey, J; Nanda, S; Neyret, D; Offermann, E; Papandreou, Z; Perdrisat, C F; Perrino, R; Petratos, G G; Platchkov, S; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Prout, D L; Punjabi, V A; Pussieux, T; Quéméner, G; Ransome, R D; Ravel, O; Roblin, Y; Roché, R; Rowntree, D; Rutledge, G A; Rutt, M p; Saha, A; Saitô, T; Sarty, A J; Serdarevic-Offermann, A; Smith, T P; Soldi, A; Sorokin, P; Souder, P A; Suleiman, R; Templon, J A; Terasawa, T; Todor, L; Tsubota, H; Ueno, H; Ulmer, E P; Urciuoli, G M; Vernin, P; van Verst, S; Vlahovic, B; Voskanyan, H; Watson, J W; Weinstein, B L; Wijesooriya, K; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zainea, D G; Zeps, V; Zhao, J; Zhou, Z L; Vignote, J M; Udias, J R; Debruyne, J; Ryckebuschand, D

    2004-01-01

    The physics program in Hall A at Jefferson Lab commenced in the summer of 1997 with a detailed investigation of the 16O(e,e'p) reaction in quasielastic, constant (q,w) kinematics at Q^2 ~ 0.8 (GeV/c)^2, q ~ 1 GeV/c, and w ~ 445 MeV. Use of a self-calibrating, self-normalizing, thin-film waterfall target enabled a systematically rigorous measurement. Differential cross-section data for proton knockout were obtained for 0 < Emiss < 120 MeV and 0 < pmiss < 350 MeV/c. These results have been used to extract the ALT asymmetry and the RL, RT, RLT, and RL+TT effective response functions. Detailed comparisons of the data with Relativistic Distorted-Wave Impulse Approximation, Relativistic Optical-Model Eikonal Approximation, and Relativistic Multiple-Scattering Glauber Approximation calculations are made. The kinematic consistency of the 1p-shell normalization factors extracted from these data with respect to all available 16O(e,e'p) data is examined. The Q2-dependence of the normalization factors is also...

  9. Measurement of the Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section for Electron Neutrinos on a Hydrocarbon Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments, which observe the transition from muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos, promise to help answer some of the fundamental questions surrounding physics in the post-Standard-Model era. Because they wish to observe the interactions of electron neutrinos in their detectors, and because the power of current results is typically limited by their systematic uncertainties, these experiments require precise estimates of the cross-section for electron neutrino interactions. Of particular interest is the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) process, which gures signi cantly in the composition of the reactions observed at the far detector. However, no experimental measurements of this crosssection currently exist for electron neutrinos; instead, current experiments typically work from the abundance of muon neutrino CCQE cross-section data and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for electron neutrinos. Veri cation of these predictions is challenging due to the di culty of constructing an electron neutrino beam, but the advent of modern high-intensity muon neutrino beams|together with the percent-level electron neutrino impurity inherent in these beams| nally presents the opportunity to make such a measurement. We report herein the rst-ever measurement of a cross-section for an exclusive state in electron neutrino scattering, which was made using the MINER A detector in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We present the electron neutrino CCQE di erential cross-sections, which are averaged over neutrinos of energies 1-10 GeV (with mean energy of about 3 GeV), in terms of various kinematic variables: nal-state electron angle, nal-state electron energy, and the square of the fourmomentum transferred to the nucleus by the neutrino , Q2. We also provide a total cross-section vs. neutrino energy. While our measurement of this process is found to be in agreement with the predictions of the GENIE

  10. Neutrino and antineutrino CCQE scattering in the SuperScaling Approximation from MiniBooNE to NOMAD energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megias, G.D. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Amaro, J.E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Física Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Barbaro, M.B., E-mail: barbaro@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Caballero, J.A. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Donnelly, T.W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-08-09

    We compare the predictions of the SuperScaling model for charged-current quasielastic muonic neutrino and antineutrino scattering from {sup 12}C with experimental data spanning an energy range up to 100 GeV. We discuss the sensitivity of the results to different parametrizations of the nucleon vector and axial-vector form factors. Finally, we show the differences between electron and muon (anti)neutrino cross sections relevant for the νSTORM facility.

  11. Neutrino and antineutrino CCQE scattering in the SuperScaling Approximation from MiniBooNE to NOMAD energies

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro, J E; Caballero, J A; Donnelly, T W; Megias, G D

    2013-01-01

    We compare the predictions of the SuperScaling model for charged current quasielastic muonic neutrino and antineutrino scattering from $^{12}$C with experimental data spanning an energy range up to 100 GeV. We discuss the sensitivity of the results to different parametrizations of the nucleon vector and axial-vector form factors. Finally, we show the differences between electron and muon (anti-)neutrino cross sections relevant for the $\

  12. Dynamics in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrogel: Neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhudesai, S. A., E-mail: swapnil@barc.gov.in; Mitra, S.; Mukhopadhyay, R. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 40085 (India); Lawrence, Mathias B. [Department of Physics, St. Xavier’s College, Mapusa, Goa 403507 (India); Desa, J. A. E. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Results of quasielastic neutron scattering measurements carried out on Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) based hydrogels are reported here. PVA hydrogels are formed using Borax as a cross-linking agent in D{sub 2}O solvent. This synthetic polymer can be used for obtaining the hydrogels with potential use in the field of biomaterials. The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of polymer chain in the hydrogel since it is known that polymer mobility influences the kinetics of loading and release of drugs. It is found that the dynamics of hydrogen atoms in the polymer chain could be described by a model where the diffusion of hydrogen atoms is limited within a spherical volume of radius 3.3 Å. Average diffusivity estimated from the behavior of quasielastic width is found to be 1.2 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/sec.

  13. Parallel heterodyne detection of dynamic light scattering spectra from gold nanoparticles diffusing in viscous fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Atlan, Michael; Gross, Michel; Coppey-Moisan, Maite; 10.1364/OL.35.000787

    2010-01-01

    We developed a microscope intended to probe, using a parallel heterodyne receiver, the fluctuation spectrum of light quasi-elastically scattered by gold nanoparticles diffusing in viscous fluids. The cutoff frequencies of the recorded spectra scale up linearly with those expected from single scattering formalism in a wide range of dynamic viscosities (1 to 15 times water viscosity at room temperature). Our scheme enables ensemble-averaged optical fluctuations measurements over multispeckle recordings in low light, at temporal frequencies up to 10 kHz, with a 12 Hz framerate array detector.

  14. Secondary relaxation in two engineering thermoplastics by neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Arrese, S; Alegria, A; Colmenero, J; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    We present a preliminary investigation of the dynamics of glassy polycarbonate (PC) and polysulfone (PSF) by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy. Whereas the consideration of pure phenylene ring pi-flips is enough to explain the momentum-transfer (Q) dependence of the inelastic intensity measured for PSF, in the case of PC the Q dependence of both the coherent and the incoherent scattering functions reveal the existence in this polymer of some more complex motion of the phenylene ring. On the other hand, the similarity of the energy landscapes deduced from the different techniques points to a closely related molecular origin for all the relaxation/motions observed. (orig.)

  15. Studies on Proton-Halo Structure of Light Proton-Rich Nuclei by Elastic Electron-Nucleus Scattering%用电子散射研究丰质子核的质子晕结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王再军; 任中洲

    2005-01-01

    理论和实验结果都表明17F的第一激发态有质子晕存在.用相对论平均场理论和Eikonal近似研究了质子晕核17F的第一激发态的电子弹性散射过程.计算了17F的第一激发态的电荷形状因子,并与16O和19F的结果进行了对比和讨论.结果显示质子晕的存在会使中等转移动量的电荷形状因子产生明显的变化,并且使低转移动量的电荷形状因子趋于降低.这说明电子散射对质子晕的存在是非常敏感的,表明可以用电子散射对奇特核的质子晕结构进行更精细的研究.

  16. Search for neutrino oscillations in the MINOS experiment by using quasi-elastic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piteira, Rodolphe [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2005-09-29

    The enthusiasm of the scientific community for studying oscillations of neutrinos is equaled only by the mass of their detectors. The MINOS experiment determines and compares the near spectrum of muonic neutrinos from the NUMI beam to the far one, in order to measure two oscillation parameters: Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and sin2 (2θ23). The spectra are obtained by analyzing the charged current interactions which difficulty lies in identifying the interactions products (e.g. muons). An alternative method identifying the traces of muons, bent by the magnetic field of the detectors, and determining their energies is presented in this manuscript. The sensitivity of the detectors is optimal for the quasi-elastic interactions, for which a selection method is proposed, to study their oscillation. Even though it reduces the statistics, such a study introduces fewer systematic errors, constituting the ideal method on the long range.

  17. Exclusive experiment on nuclei with backward emitted particles by electron-nucleus collision in {approximately} 10 GeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Takagi, F. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    Since the evidence of strong cross section in proton-nucleus backward scattering was presented in the early of 1970 years, this phenomena have been interested from the point of view to be related to information on the short range correlation between nucleons or on high momentum components of the wave function of the nucleus. In the analysis of the first experiment on protons from the carbon target under bombardment by 1.5-5.7 GeV protons, indications are found of an effect analogous to scaling in high-energy interactions of elementary particles with protons. Moreover it is found that the function f(p{sup 2})/{sigma}{sub tot}, which describes the spectra of the protons and deuterons emitted backward from nuclei in the laboratory system, does not depend on the energy and the type of the incident particle or on the atomic number of the target nucleus. In the following experiments the spectra of the protons emitted from the nuclei C, Al, Ti, Cu, Cd and Pb were measured in the inclusive reactions with incident particles of negative pions (1.55-6.2 GeV/c) and protons (6.2-9.0 GeV/C). The cross section f is described by f = E/p{sup 2} d{sup 2}{sigma}/dpd{Omega} = C exp ({minus}Bp{sup 2}), where p is the momentum of hadron. The function f depends linearly on the atomic weight A of the target nuclei. The slope parameter B is independent of the target nucleus and of the sort and energy of the bombarding particles. The invariant cross section {rho} = f/{sigma}{sub tot} is also described by exponential A{sub 0} exp ({minus}A{sub 1p}{sup 2}), where p becomes independent of energy at initial particle energies {ge} 1.5 GeV for C nucleus and {ge} 5 GeV for the heaviest of the investigated Pb nuclei.

  18. Water-clay surface interaction: A neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, O., E-mail: sobolev38@gmail.com [LGIT, University of Grenoble and CNRS, BP 53-38041 Grenoble (France); Favre Buivin, F. [HES-SO Fribourg, Bd de Perolles 80-CP 32, CH-1705 Fribourg (Switzerland); Kemner, E.; Russina, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Beuneu, B. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue Langevin and Ikerbasque, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Charlet, L. [LGIT, University of Grenoble and CNRS, BP 53-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2010-08-23

    Graphical abstract: Interaction between water molecules and internal clay surfaces was studied by means of neutron diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering. A hydrophobic cation, TMA{sup +} was used to reduce hydration of interlayer cations. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate interaction between water molecules and internal clay surfaces by means of neutron diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering. A hydrophobic cation, TMA{sup +} (NC{sub 4}H{sub 12}), was used to saturate the interlayer space of nontronite NAu-1 in order to reduce hydration of interlayer cations that could hinder the effects related to the clay-water interactions. The water content was low in order to reduce hydrogen bonding between water molecules. It was found that water molecules form strong hydrogen bonds with surface oxygen atoms of nontronite. The diffusion activation energy value E{sub a} = 29 {+-} 3 kJ/mol was obtained for water molecules hydrating the clay surface. These results confirm the assumption that surfaces of smectite clays with tetrahedral substitutions are hydrophilic.

  19. Inclusive Electron Scattering From Nuclei at x >1 and High Q2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrington, John [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1998-06-02

    CEBAF experiment e89-008 measured inclusive electron scattering from nuclei in a Q2 range between 0.8 and 7.3 (GeV/c)2 for xBjorken approximately greater than 1. The cross sections for scattering from D C, Fe, and Au were measured. The C, Fe, and Au data have been analyzed in terms of F(y) to examine y-scaling of the quasielastic scattering, and to study the momentum distribution of the nucleons in the nucleus. The data have also been analyzed in terms of the structure function vW2 to examine scaling of the inelastic scattering in x and xi and to study the momentum distribution of the quarks. In the regions where quasielastic scattering dominates the cross section (low Q2 or large negative values of y), the data are shown to exhibit y-scaling. However, the y-scaling breaks down once the inelastic contributions become large. The data do not exhibit x-scaling, except at the lowest values of x, while the structure function does appear to scale in the Nachtmann variable, xi.

  20. Intramolecular diffusive motion in alkane monolayers studied by high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Criswell, L.; Fuhrmann, D;

    2004-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a tetracosane (n-C24H50) monolayer adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface show that there are diffusive motions associated with the creation and annihilation of gauche defects occurring on a time scale of similar to0.1-4 ns. We present evidence that these rel...

  1. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  2. Resonance Scattering Spectral Determination of HAS with a New Scattering Enhanced Reagent of K3[Fe(CN)6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG,Zhi-Liang(蒋治良); PENG,Zhong-Li(彭忠利); LIU,Shao-Pu(刘绍璞)

    2002-01-01

    A new resonance scattering spectral (RSS) method for the determination of human serum album (HSA) has been proposed with the resonance scattering enhanced reagent of K3[Fe(CN)6]. In the medium of HCl (2,0× 10-3 mol/L), HSA may combine with [Fe(CN)6]3- by intermolecular forces (mainly by electrostatic force) to form {[Fe (CN)6]3n-HSAm+ }k nanoparticle of the ion-association complexes of HSAm+-[Fe(CN)6]3n-. There is a strongest resonance scattering intensity at 351 nm, owing to the existence of the resonance scattering of the nanoparticle, [Fe(CN)6]3- molecular absorption and the non-distribution of the emission intensity of Xe lamp in the range of 200-1000 nm. In addition, two resonance scattering peaks at 470 and 700 nm were observed. Tne HSA concentration in the range of 0-12 μg/mL is lhear to the resonance scattering intensity at 351 mn. The determination limit of this method is 0.1 μg/mL HSA, about ten-fold lower than that of Coomassie brilliant blue protein assay. This method has been used for the determination of HSA in human serum ami synthetic samples with satisfactory results. The mechanism of enhanced resonance scattering light, the TEM of the particle, the concepts of quasi-elastic absorption and tm-elastic absorption were also discussed.

  3. Nuclear effects in deep inelastic scattering and transition region

    CERN Document Server

    Kumano, S

    2016-01-01

    We discuss nuclear effects on neutrino-nuclear interactions in a wide kinematical range from shallow to deep inelastic scattering (DIS) region. There is necessity from neutrino communities to have precise neutrino-nucleus cross sections within several percent order for future measurements on neutrino oscillations and leptonic CP violation. We try to create a model to calculate neutrino cross sections in the wide kinematical range, from quasi-elastic scattering and resonance productions to the DIS. In this article, nuclear modifications of structure functions are mainly discussed, and a possible extension to the $Q^2 \\to 0$ region is explained. We also comment on the transition region between baryon resonances and the DIS. There are ongoing experimental efforts on nuclear modifications of structure functions or parton distribution functions such as by pA reactions at RHIC and LHC, Drell-Yan measurements at Fermilab, Miner$\

  4. Light-by-light scattering in UPC at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Klusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We discuss diphoton semi(exclusive) production in ultraperipheral $PbPb$ collisions at energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 5.5 TeV (LHC). The nuclear calculations are based on equivalent photon approximation in the impact parameter space. The cross sections for elementary $\\gamma \\gamma \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ subprocess are calculated including two different mechanisms: box diagrams with leptons and quarks in the loops and a VDM-Regge contribution with virtual intermediate hadronic excitations of the photons. We got relatively high cross sections in $PbPb$ collisions ($306$ nb). This opens a possibility to study the $\\gamma \\gamma \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ (quasi)elastic scattering at the LHC. We find that the cross section for elastic $\\gamma\\gamma$ scattering could be measured in the lead-lead collisions for the diphoton invariant mass $W_{\\gamma\\gamma} \\approx 15-20$ GeV.

  5. Difference between Polarization and Analyzing Power for 800-MeV n-p Elastic Scattering: Test of Time-Reversal Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, T. S.; Glass, G.; Hiebert, J. C.; Northcliffe, L. C.; Tippens, W. B.; Bonner, B. E.; Simmons, J. E.; Hollas, C. L.; Newsom, C. R.; Riley, P. J.; Ransome, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the neutron polarization, P, from 800-MeV p-n quasielastic scattering at 133° c.m. This together with previous measurements of the analyzing power, A, at the same angle in free n-p scattering at 775 MeV constitutes a P-A check of time-reversal invariance. No evidence is found for time-reversal invariance violation in n-p scattering at medium energies, a clear-cut disagreement with the model predictions of Bryan and Gersten.

  6. SciNOvA: A Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in a Narrow-Band Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paley, J.; Djurcic, Z.; /Argonne; Harris, D.; Tesarek, R.; /Fermilab; Feldman, G.; /Harvard U.; Corwin, L.; Messier, M.D.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Paley, J.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Iowa State U. /Minnesota U. /South Carolina U. /Wichita State U. /William-Mary Coll.

    2010-10-15

    We propose to construct and deploy a fine-grained detector in the Fermilab NOvA 2 GeV narrow-band neutrino beam. In this beam, the detector can make unique contributions to the measurement of quasi-elastic scattering, neutral-current elastic scattering, neutral-current {pi}{sup 0} production, and enhance the NOvA measurements of electron neutrino appearance. To minimize cost and risks, the proposed detector is a copy of the SciBar detector originally built for the K2K long baseline experiment and used recently in the SciBooNE experiment.

  7. Measurement of the Wolfenstein parameters for proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering at 500 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, J.A.

    1984-07-01

    Using liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium targets respectively, forward angle (ten degrees to sixty degrees in the center of Mass) free proton-proton and quasielastic proton-proton and proton-neutron triple scattering data at 500 MeV have been obtained using the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The data are in reasonable agreement with recent predictions from phase shift analyses, indicating that the proton-nucleon scattering amplitudes are fairly well determined at 500 MeV. 32 references.

  8. Behavior of aqueous Tetrabutylammonium bromide - a combined approach of microscopic simulation and neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, to give information on the dynamic modes involving the ions present. Using a careful combination of two techniques, time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron spin echo (NSE), we de- couple the dynamic information in both the coherently and incoherently scattered signal from this system. We take advantage of the different intensity ratio of the two signals, as detected by each of the techniques, to achieve this decoupling. By using heavy water as the sol- vent, the tetrabutylammonium cation is the only hydrogen-containing species in the system and gives rise to a significant incoherent scattered intensity. The dynamic analysis of the incoherent signal (measured by TOF) leads to a translational diffusion coefficient of the cation as that is in good agreement with previous NMR, neutron scattering and tracer diffusion measurements. The dynamic analysis of the coherent signal observed at wave-vectors < 0.6 angstrom^(-1) (measu...

  9. The Measurement of Neutrino Induced Quasi-Elastic Cross Section In NOMAD

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jae Jun

    2010-01-01

    NOMAD (Neutrino Oscillation MAgnetic Detector) was a short baseline neutrino experiment conducted at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle physics) West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) with a neutrino beam provided by the super proton synchrotron (SPS) accelerator. In this dissertation, we present a measurement of muon-neutrino induced quasi-elastic cross section and its axial-mass off an isoscalar target in the NOMAD detector. The incident neutrino energy in NOMAD experiment spans from 2.5 to 300 GeV. The measurement of cross-section is conducted in two seperate kinematic-based topology, two-track and one-track topologies, where a proton is not properly reconstructed. The QEL cross-section as a function of the incoming neutrino energy is consistent for the two different topologies, and within errors , constant as a function of the neutrino energy. We determine the energy-averaged cross-section. From the shape-comparisons of kinematics of QEL-like events, the parameter of QEL axial mass is estimated. It i...

  10. A Precision Measurement of the Transverse Asymmetry AT from Quasi-elastic 3He(e,e') process, and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor GNM at low Q2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wang [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities in describing the underlying electromagnetic structure of nucleons. While proton electromagnetic form factors have been determined with good precision, neutron form factors are known poorly, largely due to the lack of free neutron targets. Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E95-001, a ''precise measurement of the transverse asymmetry AT' from the quasielastic 3He(e, e') process,'' was therefore designed to determine precisely the neutron magnetic form factor, G$n\\atop{M}$ at low momentum transfer values and was successfully completed in Spring 1999. High precision AT'data in the quasi-elastic region at Q2 values of 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c)2 were obtained using a high-pressure spin-exchange optically-pumped polarized 3He gas target with an average polarization of 30%, a longitudinally polarized e- beam, and two High Resolution Spectrometers: HRSe and HRSh. HRSe was employed to detect scattered electrons from the quasi-elastic kinematic region, and HRSh was employed as a elastic polarimetry to monitor the product of the beam and target polarizations. The extraction of form factors is usually model-dependent. Significant constraints on theoretical calculations are provided bu additional high precision quasi-elastic asymmetry data at Q2 values of 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c)2 in 3He breakup region, where effects of final state interactions (FSI) and meson exchange currents (MEC) are expected to be large [71]. G$n\\atop{M}$ is extracted from a non-relativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both FSI and MEC at Q2 values of 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c)2. The uncertainties of G$n\\atop{M}$ at these Q2 values are comparable to those of recent experiments with deuterium targets [58]. At the higher Q2 values from this experiment, G$n\\atop{M}$ is extracted

  11. Dynamics of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes in solution studied by incoherent neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbina, A; Miguel, C [Departamento Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Plaza Hospital 1, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Delgado, J L; Langa, F [Facultad de Ciencias del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 45071, Toledo (Spain); DIaz-Paniagua, C [Centro Espanol de MetrologIa, 28760 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, M [Institut Laue-Langevin, 39042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Batallan, F [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.urbina@upct.es

    2008-03-12

    We have studied, by incoherent neutron scattering experiments, the dynamics of a colloidal suspension of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The nanotubes have been functionalized with pentyl ester groups attached at the ends and suspended in deuterated toluene with a concentration of 2.6 mg SWNT/1 ml of deuterated toluene. The experimental techniques were incoherent elastic neutron scattering (IENS) and incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (IQNS). In the temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, three phases were observed by IENS measurements: a solid phase for TT{sub m}. Furthermore, in the high temperature range of the undercooled liquid phase, hysteresis loops in the heating and cooling scans were observed. The lower limit of the hysteresis loop defines the critical crossover temperature T{sub c}. IQNS measurements in the liquid phase and a cooling scan of the undercooled liquid phase were performed. Three different quasielastic peaks were identified, two in the liquid phase and another one in the undercooled liquid phase. The widths of the quasielastic peaks are discussed as a generalized diffusion function which can be factorized as a temperature dependent diffusion function and a Q dependent structure function. From the comparison of the diffusion function with the viscosity of toluene, we conclude that two components are in the long-time range Brownian motion and the other one in the short-time range Brownian motion.

  12. Parity-violating Electron Deuteron Scattering and the Proton's Neutral Weak Axial Vector Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, T M; Averett, T; Barkhuff, D; Batigne, G; Beck, D H; Beise, E J; Blake, A; Breuer, H; Carr, R; Clasie, B; Covrig, S D; Danagulyan, A S; Dodson, G; Dow, K; Dutta, D; Farkhondeh, M; Filippone, B W; Franklin, W; Furget, C; Gao, H; Gao, J; Gustafsson, K K; Hannelius, L; Hasty, R; Hawthorne-Allen, A M; Herda, M C; Jones, C E; King, P; Korsch, W; Kowalski, S; Kox, S; Krämer, K; Lee, P; Liu, J; Martin, J W; McKeown, R D; Müller, B; Pitt, M L; Plaster, B; Quéméner, G; Real, J S; Ritter, J; Roche, J; Savu, V; Schiavilla, R; Seely, J; Spayde, D T; Suleiman, R; Taylor, S; Tieulent, R; Tipton, B; Tsentalovich, E; Wells, S P; Yang, B; Yuan, J; Yun, J; Zwart, T

    2004-01-01

    We report on a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron at backward angles at Q2= 0.038 (GeV/c)2. This quantity provides a determination of the neutral weak axial vector form factor of the nucleon, which can potentially receive large electroweak corrections. The measured asymmetry A=-3.51 +/- 0.57(stat) +/- 0.58(sys)ppm is consistent with theoretical predictions. We also report on updated results of the previous experiment at Q2=0.091 (GeV/c)2, which are also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  13. Quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering to investigate the molecular dynamics of discotic molecules in the bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Christina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In- and quasielastic neutron scattering is employed to investigate both the vibrational density of states and the molecular dynamics of two homologous discotic liquid crystals (DLC with different length of the alkyl side chain based on a triphenylene derivate. For both compounds characteristic low frequency excess contributions to the vibrational density of states are found. Therefore it is concluded that these liquid crystals show a glass-like behaviour. Elastic scans further show that in these materials a rich molecular dynamics takes place.

  14. Neutral weak-current two-body contributions in inclusive scattering from {sup 12}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovato, Alessandro [ANL; Gandolfi, Stefano [LANL; Carlson, Joseph [LANL; Pieper, S. C. [ANL; Schiavilla, Rocco [JLAB, ODU

    2014-05-01

    An {\\it ab initio} calculation of the sum rules of the neutral weak response functions in $^{12}$C is reported, based on a realistic Hamiltonian, including two- and three-nucleon potentials, and on realistic currents, consisting of one- and two-body terms. We find that the sum rules of the response functions associated with the longitudinal and transverse components of the (space-like) neutral current are largest and that a significant portion ($\\simeq 30$\\%) of the calculated strength is due to two-body terms. This fact may have implications for the MiniBooNE and other neutrino quasi-elastic scattering data on nuclei.

  15. Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of the electromagnetic and neutral-weak response functions in the quasi-elastic sector

    CERN Document Server

    Lovato, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions is demanded to achieve precise measurement of neutrino oscillations, and hence the determination of their masses. In addition, next generation detectors will be able to detect supernovae neutrinos, which are likely to shed some light on the open questions on the dynamics of core collapse. In this context, it is crucial to account for two-body meson-exchange currents along within realistic models of nuclear dynamics. We summarize our progresses towards the construction of a consistent framework, based on the Green's function Monte Carlo method, that can be exploited to accurately describe neutrino interactions with atomic nuclei in the quasi-elastic sector.

  16. A-dependence of nuclear transparency in quasielastic A(e,e{prime}p) at high Q{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, T.G.; Lorenzon, W.; Arrington, J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.] [and others

    1994-05-01

    The A-dependence of the quasielastic A(e,e{prime}p) reaction has been studied with {sup 3}H, C, Fe, and Au nuclei at momentum transfers Q{sup 2} = 1, 3, 5, and 6.8(GeV/c){sup 2}. The authors extract the nuclear transparency T(A,Q{sup 2}), a measure of the average probability of escape of a proton from a nucleus A. Several calculations predict a significant increase in T with momentum transfer, a phenomenon known as color transparency. No statistically significant rise is seen for any of the nuclei studied.

  17. First Measurement of the Muon Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double-Differential Cross-Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grange, Joseph M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the first measurement of the muon antineutrino charged current quasi-elastic double-differential cross section. These data significantly extend the knowledge of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in the GeV range, a region that has recently come under scrutiny due to a number of conflicting experimental results. To maximize the precision of this measurement, three novel techniques were employed to measure the neutrino background component of the data set. Representing the first measurements of the neutrino contribution to an accelerator-based antineutrino beam in the absence of a magnetic field, the successful execution of these techniques carry implications for current and future neutrino experiments.

  18. Experimental study of quasi-elastic neutrino interactions on Ar with a liquid Ar TPC exposed to the WANF neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Curioni, A

    2006-01-01

    We present results from the first exposure of a liquid Ar time projection chamber to a neutrino beam. The data have been collected in 1997 with a 50 liter ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiment at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility. We focus on the analysis of quasi-elastic interactions; despite the limited size of the detector, nuclear effects beyond Fermi motion and Pauli blocking have been observed as perturbations to the pure quasi-elastic kinematics.

  19. Critical scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.

  20. Study of Protonic Mobility in CaHPO 4·2H 2O (Brushite) and CaHPO 4(Monetite) by Infrared Spectroscopy and Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortet, L.; Gavarri, J. R.; Nihoul, G.; Dianoux, A. J.

    1997-08-01

    We report the first quasi-elastic neutron scattering analysis of proton mobility in the solid electrolyte CaHPO4·2H2O (brushite). We have studied this hydrated phosphate, in powder state, from 190 to 520 K, using an incident wavelength of 5.12 Å. The time of flight spectra are converted inS(Q,ω) structure factor and inelastic frequency distributionP(Q,ω) in the energy range 0-200 meV (0-1600 cm)-1. A quasi-elastic contribution is clearly evidenced above room temperature; it is fitted with a jump model, involving hydrogen bonds. The quasi-elastic and inelastic scattering data are compared with FTIR results. Two kinds of motions are determined: jumps of acidic protons on hydrogen bonds and vibrations of lattice water molecules associated with the motion of their hydrogen atom on hydrogen bonds (Ea≈0.145 eV). Above 450 K the dehydration of the compound is accompanied by the appearance of a long-range diffusive motion and by the disappearance of some low-frequency inelastic bands.

  1. Neutrino-induced Reactions and Neutrino Scattering with Nuclear Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ha, Eunja; Yang, Ghil-Seok; Kim, Kyungsik; Kajino, T.

    2016-02-01

    We reviewed present status regarding experimental data and theoretical approaches for neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering. With a short introduction of relevant data, our recent calculations by distorted-wave Born approximation for quasielastic region are presented for MiniBooNE data. For much higher energy neutrino data, such as NOMAD data, elementary process approach was shown to be useful instead of using complicated nuclear models. But, in the low energy region, detailed nuclear structure model, such as QRPA and shell model, turn out to be inescapable to explain the reaction data. Finally, we discussed that one step-process in the reaction is comparable to the two-step process, which has been usually used in the neutrino-nucleosynthesis.

  2. Neutrino-induced Reactions and Neutrino Scattering with Nuclear Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheoun Myung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed present status regarding experimental data and theoretical approaches for neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering. With a short introduction of relevant data, our recent calculations by distorted-wave Born approximation for quasielastic region are presented for MiniBooNE data. For much higher energy neutrino data, such as NOMAD data, elementary process approach was shown to be useful instead of using complicated nuclear models. But, in the low energy region, detailed nuclear structure model, such as QRPA and shell model, turn out to be inescapable to explain the reaction data. Finally, we discussed that one step-process in the reaction is comparable to the two-step process, which has been usually used in the neutrino-nucleosynthesis.

  3. Application of Incoherent Inelastic Neutron Scattering in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordallo, Heloisa N.; A. Zakharov, Boris; Boidyreva, E.V.

    2012-01-01

    This study centers on the use of inelastic neutron scattering as an alternative tool for physical characterization of solid pharmaceutical drugs. On the basis of such approach, relaxation processes in the pharmaceutical compound phenacetin (p-ethoxyacetanilide, C(10)H(13)NO(2)) were evidenced...... on heating between 2 and 300 K. By evaluating the mean-square displacement obtained from the elastic fixed window approach, using the neutron backscattering technique, a crossover of the molecular fluctuations between harmonic and nonharmonic dynamical regimes around 75 K was observed. From the temperature...... dependence of the quasi-elastic line-width, summed over the total Q range explored by the time-of-flight technique, it was possible to attribute the onset of this anharmonicity to methyl group rotations. Finally, using density functional theory-based methods, we were able to calculate the lattice vibrations...

  4. Measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the quasielastic (3)He[→](e[→],e(')d) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihovilovič, M; Jin, G; Long, E; Zhang, Y-W; Allada, K; Anderson, B; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Boeglin, W; Bradshaw, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deltuva, A; Deur, A; Dutta, C; El Fassi, L; Flay, D; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gao, H; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golak, J; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Ibrahim, H; de Jager, C W; Jensen, E; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Kang, H; Katich, J; Khanal, H P; Kievsky, A; King, P; Korsch, W; LeRose, J; Lindgren, R; Lu, H-J; Luo, W; Marcucci, L E; Markowitz, P; Meziane, M; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Muangma, N; Nanda, S; Norum, B E; Pan, K; Parno, D; Piasetzky, E; Posik, M; Punjabi, V; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Qui, X; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sauer, P U; Sawatzky, B; Schiavilla, R; Schoenrock, B; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Širca, S; Skibiński, R; John, J St; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tobias, W A; Tireman, W; Urciuoli, G M; Viviani, M; Wang, D; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Watson, J; Wojtsekhowski, B; Witała, H; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zheng, X; Zhao, B; Zhu, L

    2014-12-05

    We present a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the ^{3}He[over →](e[over →],e^{'}d) reaction. This particular process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in ^{3}He and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed in and around quasielastic kinematics at Q^{2}=0.25(GeV/c)^{2} for missing momenta up to 270  MeV/c. The asymmetries are in fair agreement with the state-of-the-art calculations in terms of their functional dependencies on p_{m} and ω, but are systematically offset. Beyond the region of the quasielastic peak, the discrepancies become even more pronounced. Thus, our measurements have been able to reveal deficiencies in the most sophisticated calculations of the three-body nuclear system, and indicate that further refinement in the treatment of their two-and/or three-body dynamics is required.

  5. Neutrino-nucleus quasi-elastic and 2p2h interactions up to 10 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Gran, R; Sanchez, F; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We extend to 10 GeV results from a microscopic calculation of charged-current neutrino-nucleus reactions that do not produce a pion in the final state. For the class of events coming from neutrino interactions with two nucleons producing two holes (2p2h), limiting the calculation to three-momentum transfers less than 1.2 GeV produces a two dimensional distribution in momentum and energy transfer that is roughly constant as a function of energy. The cross section for 2p2h interactions scales with the number of nucleons for isoscalar nuclei, similar to the quasi-elastic (QE) cross section. When limited to momentum transfers below 1.2 GeV, the cross section is 26% of the QE cross section at 3 GeV, but 14% if we neglect a Delta1232 resonance absorption component. The same quantities are 33% and 17% for anti-neutrinos. For the quasi-elastic interactions, the full nuclear model with long range correlations produces an even larger, but approximately constant distortion of the shape of the four-momentum transfer at a...

  6. Glass transition dynamics of anti-inflammatory ketoprofen studied by Raman scattering and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomohiko; Igawa, Hikaru; Kim, Tae Hyun; Mori, Tatsuya; Kojima, Seiji

    2014-03-01

    A liquid-glass transition and a crystalline state of pharmaceutical racemic ketoprofen were studied by Raman scattering and the broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the frequency range from 9 to 260 cm-1. The low-frequency Raman scattering spectra clearly shows the remarkable change related to a liquid-glass transition at about Tg = 267 K. After melt-quenching at liquid nitrogen temperature, a boson peak appears at about 16.5 cm-1 near and below Tg and the intensity of quasi-elastic scattering related to structural relaxation increases markedly on heating. The crystalline racemic ketoprofen of "conformer A" shows the noncoincidence effect of mode frequencies below 200 cm-1 between Raman scattering spectra and dielectric spectra observed by THz-TDS.

  7. Elastic scattering, polarization and absorption of relativistic antiprotons on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, A B

    2016-01-01

    We perform Glauber model calculations of the antiproton-nucleus elastic and quasielastic scattering and absorption in the beam momentum range $\\sim 0.5\\div10$ GeV/c. A good agreement of our calculations with available LEAR data and with earlier Glauber model studies of the $\\bar p A$ elastic scattering allows us to make predictions at the beam momenta of $\\sim 10$ GeV/c, i.e at the regime of the PANDA experiment at FAIR. The comparison with the proton-nucleus elastic scattering cross sections shows that the diffractive minima are much deeper in the $\\bar p A$ case due to smaller absolute value of the ratio of the real-to-imaginary part of the elementary elastic amplitude. Significant polarization signal for $\\bar p A$ elastic scattering at 10 GeV/c is expected. We have also revealed a strong dependence of the $\\bar p A$ absorption cross section on the slope parameter of the transverse momentum dependence of the elementary $\\bar pN$ amplitude. The $\\bar p A$ optical potential is discussed.

  8. Elastic scattering, polarization and absorption of relativistic antiprotons on nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, A. B.; Lenske, H.

    2017-01-01

    We perform Glauber model calculations of the antiproton-nucleus elastic and quasielastic scattering and absorption in the beam momentum range ∼ 0.5 ÷ 10 GeV / c. A good agreement of our calculations with available LEAR data and with earlier Glauber model studies of the p bar A elastic scattering allows us to make predictions at the beam momenta of ∼10 GeV/c, i.e. at the regime of the PANDA experiment at FAIR. The comparison with the proton-nucleus elastic scattering cross sections shows that the diffractive minima are much deeper in the p bar A case due to smaller absolute value of the ratio of the real-to-imaginary part of the elementary elastic amplitude. Significant polarization signal for p bar A elastic scattering at 10 GeV/c is expected. We have also revealed a strong dependence of the p bar A absorption cross section on the slope parameter of the transverse momentum dependence of the elementary p bar N amplitude. The p bar A optical potential is discussed.

  9. A measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic-like cross section on a hydrocarbon target and final state interaction effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Tammy [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Presented is the analysis of the μ charged-current quasielastic-like interaction with a polystyrene (CH or hydrocarbon) target in the MINER A experiment, which was exposed to a neutrino beam that peaked at 3.5 GeV.

  10. Measurement of the νμ Charged Current π+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Steven K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CCπ+) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ+ to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH2) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < Eν < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CCπ+ events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ+ and CCQE measurements.

  11. Extraction of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor from Quasi-Elastic 3He(pol)(e(pol),e') at Q^2 = 0.1 - 0.6 (GeV/c)^2

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, B; Averett, T; Bertozzi, W; Black, T; Calarco, J; Cardman, L; Cates, G D; Chai, Z W; Chen, J P; Seonho Choi; Chudakov, E; Churchwell, S; Corrado, G S; Crawford, C; Dale, D; Deur, A; Djawotho, P; Dutta, D; Finn, J M; Gao, H; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A V; Glashausser, C; Glöckle, W; Golak, J; Gómez, J; Gorbenko, V G; Hansen, J O; Hersman, F W; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R; Howell, C R; Hughes, E; Humensky, B; Incerti, S; De Jager, C W; Jensen, J S; Jiang, X; Jones, C E; Jones, M; Kahl, R; Kamada, H; Kievsky, fA; Kominis, I; Korsch, W; Krämer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Kuss, M; Lakuriqi, E; Liang, M; Liyanage, N; Le Rose, J; Malov, S; Margaziotis, D J; Martin, J W; McCormick, K; McKeown, R D; McIlhany, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Miller, G W; Mitchell, J; Nanda, S; Pace, E; Pavlin, T; Petratos, G G; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Pripstein, D; Prout, D; Ransome, R D; Roblin, Y; Rvachev, M; Saha, A; Salmè, G; Schnee, M; Seely, J; Shin, T; Slifer, K J; Souder, P A; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Sutter, M; Tipton, B; Todor, L; Viviani, M; Vlahovic, B; Watson, J; Williamson, C F; Witala, H; Wojtsekhowski, B; Xiong, F; Xu, W; Yeh, J

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the spin-dependent transverse asymmetry, A_T', in quasi-elastic inclusive electron scattering from polarized 3He with high precision at Q^2 = 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c)^2. The neutron magnetic form factor, GMn, was extracted at Q^2 = 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c)^2 using a non-relativistic Faddeev calculation that includes both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange currents (MEC). In addition, GMn was extracted at Q^2 = 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c)^2 using a Plane Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. The accuracy of the modeling of FSI and MEC effects was tested and confirmed with a precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the breakup threshold region of the 3He(pol)(e(pol),e') reaction. The total relative uncertainty of the extracted GMn data is approximately 3%. Close agreement was found with other recent high-precision GMn data in this Q^2 range.

  12. Elastic neutron scattering study of water dynamics in ion-exchanged type-A zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, C; Crupi, V; Longo, F; Majolino, D; Venuti, V; Wanderlingh, U

    2005-12-01

    With the aim to investigate, by means of elastic neutron scattering, the effects produced by the cation substitution on the dynamics of water in zeolites, we measured, using a neutron backscattering spectrometer, the temperature dependence of mean-square atomic displacements [u2] derived from window integrated quasielastic spectra of fully and partially hydrated Na-A and Mg50-A zeolites. The results, collected in the 20-273 K temperature range, reveal that, at low temperature, the [u2] shows a harmonic trend independent of hydration and cation substitution, and, at higher temperatures, the onset of a non-Gaussian dynamics of the elastic intensity. This latter takes place at T approximately 200 K and approximately 150 K for fully and partially hydrated samples, respectively. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of reorientational jumps of H atoms described by two-site processes within an asymmetric double-minimum potential. In spite of its simplicity, the model seems to reproduce the rearrangement of the hydrogen bond network of zeolitic water. The fit results indicate a reduced proton mobility by diminishing the water content and by the induced Na+-->Mg2+ ion exchange, in agreement with previous incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering results at higher temperatures.

  13. Diffusion of propylene adsorbed in Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites: Neutron scattering and FTIR studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Gautam; A K Tripathi; V S Kamble; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-11-01

    Here we report the quasielastic neutron scattering and FTIR studies on the dynamics of propylene adsorbed in Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites. QENS data show that although the mechanism of translational motion of propylene is jump diffusion in both the cases of Na-Y and Na-ZSM5 zeolites, the diffusivity is affected by the host size and is hindered in the case of Na-ZSM5. FTIR studies showed that guest–host interaction in Na-ZSM5 is stronger than that in Na-Y zeolite corroborating the QENS results.

  14. Encapsulation of paclitaxel into a bio-nanocomposite. A study combining inelastic neutron scattering to thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Murillo L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer drug paclitaxel was encapsulated into a bio-nanocomposite formed by magnetic nanoparticles, chitosan and apatite. The aim of this drug carrier is to provide a new perspective against breast cancer. The dynamics of the pure and encapsulated drug were investigated in order to verify possible molecular changes caused by the encapsulation, as well as to follow which interactions may occur between paclitaxel and the composite. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments were performed. These very preliminary results suggest the successful encapsulation of the drug.

  15. The dynamics of ring rotation in ferrocene, nickelocene and ruthenocene by incoherent quadi-elastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A. B.; Howard, S.; Waddington, T. C.; Richardson, R. M.; Tomkinson, J.

    1981-05-01

    Incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been used to study the reorientational motions of the cyclopentadienyl rings in ferrocene, nickelocene and ruthenocene. The results for ferrocene show that the activation energy for ring rotation drops above the 164 K phase transition to 4.4 ± 0.5 kJ mol-1 (which is approximately half its low temperature value) but the rings still appear to jump between only five orientations on the observable time scale. At room temperature, the rings in nickelocene appear to behave the same as in ferrocene but in ruthenocene they reorientate much less frequently and resemble those in ferrocene below 164 K.

  16. Long range absorption in the scattering of He-6 on Pb-208 and Au-197 at 27-MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Kakuee, O. R.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Andres, M. V.; Cherubini, S.; Davinson, T.; Di Pietro, A.; Galster, W.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Laird, A M; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Martel, I.; Moro, A. M.; Rahighi, J.; Sanchez-Benitez, A M; Shotter, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Quasi-elastic scattering of 6He at E_lab=27 MeV from 197Au has been measured in the angular range of 6-72 degrees in the laboratory system employing LEDA and LAMP detection systems. These data, along with previously analysed data of 6He + 208Pb at the same energy, are analyzed using Optical Model calculations. The role of Coulomb dipole polarizability has been investigated. Large imaginary diffuseness parameters are required to fit the data. This result is an evidence for lo...

  17. Long range absorption in the scattering of 6He on 208Pb and 197Au at 27 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kakuee, O R; Andrés, M V; Cherubini, S; Davinson, T; Pietro, A D; Galster, W; Gómez-Camacho, J; Laird, A M; Lamehi-Rachti, M; Martel, I; Moro, A M; Rahighi, J; Sanchez-Benitez, A M; Shotter, A C; Smith, W B; Vervier, J; Woods, P J

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-elastic scattering of 6He at E_lab=27 MeV from 197Au has been measured in the angular range of 6-72 degrees in the laboratory system employing LEDA and LAMP detection systems. These data, along with previously analysed data of 6He + 208Pb at the same energy, are analyzed using Optical Model calculations. The role of Coulomb dipole polarizability has been investigated. Large imaginary diffuseness parameters are required to fit the data. This result is an evidence for long range absorption mechanisms in 6He induced reactions.

  18. Scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2013-08-01

    Written by the author of the widely acclaimed textbook. Theoretical Atomic Physics Includes sections on quantum reflection, tunable Feshbach resonances and Efimov states. Useful for advanced students and researchers. This book presents a concise and modern coverage of scattering theory. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible, and deeper questions related to mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. The book should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. It is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

  19. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  20. Muon spectra of Quasi-Elastic and 1-pion production events at the KEK LBL neutrino oscillation experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, J Y; Roy, D P; Schienbein, I; Yu, Ji--Young

    2003-01-01

    We present predictions for the flux averaged muon energy spectra of quasi-elastic (QE) and 1-pion production events for the K2K long-baseline experiment. Using the general kinematical considerations we show that the muon energy spectra closely follow the neutrino energy spectrum with downward shift of the energy scale by 0.15 GeV (QE) and 0.4 GeV (1-pion production). These predictions seem to agree with the observed muon energy spectra in the K2K nearby detector. We also show the spectral distortion of these muon energy spectra due to the neutrino oscillation for the SK detector. Comparison of the predicted spectral distortions with the observed muon spectra of the 1-Ring and 2-Ring muon events in the SK detector will help to determine the oscillation parameters. The results will be applicable to other LBL experiments as well.

  1. Uncontained νμ charged-current quasi-elastic events at the NOvA far detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda-Quiroz, Jose; NOvA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses an upgraded neutrino beam from Fermilab and two highly active, segmented, liquid scintillator off-axis detectors that offer a remarkable capability in event identification. In its first and second analysis results, NOvA has used only events with an interaction vertex and all secondary particles fully contained in the detectors. I will present studies of the potential sensitivity improvement of the sin2 2θ23 and Δm322 neutrino oscillation parameters from the νμ-disappearance measurement when including uncontained events in the sample. In particular, this study focuses on incorporating νμ charged current quasi-elastic interactions of the type νμ + n -> μ + p where the muon is uncontained but the proton is contained.

  2. A Lane consistent optical model potential for nucleon scattering on actinide nuclei with extended coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, José Manuel; Capote, Roberto; Soukhovitski, Efrem S.; Chiba, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    An extension for odd-A actinides of a previously derived dispersive coupledchannel optical model potential (OMP) for 238U and 232Th nuclei is presented. It is used to fit simultaneously all the available experimental databases including neutron strength functions for nucleon scattering on 232Th, 233,235,238U and 239Pu nuclei. Quasi-elastic (p,n) scattering data on 232Th and 238U to the isobaric analogue states of the target nucleus are also used to constrain the isovector part of the optical potential. For even-even (odd) actinides almost all low-lying collective levels below 1 MeV (0.5 MeV) of excitation energy are coupled. OMP parameters show a smooth energy dependence and energy independent geometry.

  3. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1990-10-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS{sub 2}, which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support.

  4. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS{sub 2}, which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support.

  5. The G0 Experiment: Apparatus for Parity-Violating Electron Scattering Measurements at Forward and Backward Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Androic, D; Arvieux, J; Asaturyan, R; Averett, T D; Bailey, S L; Batigne, G; Beck, D H; Beise, E J; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bimbot, L; Birchall, J; Biselli, A; Bosted, P; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Capuano, C L; Carlini, R D; Carr, R; Chant, N; Chao, Y -C; Clark, R; Coppens, A; Covrig, S D; Cowley, A; Dale, D; Davis, C A; Ellis, C; Falk, W R; Fenker, H; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Franklin, G; Frascaria, R; Furget, C; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Griffioen, K A; Grimm, K; Guillard, G; Guillon, B; Guler, H; Gustafsson, K; Hannelius, L; Hansknecht, J; Hasty, R D; Allen, A M Hawthorne; Horn, T; Ito, T M; Johnston, K; Jones, M; Kammel, P; Kazimi, R; King, P M; Kolarkar, A; Korkmaz, E; Korsch, W; Kox, S; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Laszewski, R; Lee, L; Lenoble, J; Liatard, E; Liu, J; Lung, A; MacLachlan, G A; Mammei, J; Marchand, D; Martin, J W; Mack, D J; McFarlane, K W; McKee, D W; McKeown, R D; Merchez, F; Mihovilovic, M; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Moffit, B; Morlet, M; Muether, M; Musson, J; Nakahara, K; Neveling, R; Niccolai, S; Nilsson, D; Ong, S; Page, S A; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Phillips, S K; Pillot, P; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Porcelli, T A; Quemener, G; Quinn, B P; Ramsay, W D; Rauf, A W; Real, J -S; Ries, T; Roos, J Roche P; Rutledge, G A; Schaub, J; Secrest, J; Seva, T; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Spayde, D T; Stepanyan, S; Stutzman, M; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tieulent, R; van de Wiele, J; van Oers, W T H; Versteegen, M; Voutier, E; Vulcan, W F; Wells, S P; Warren, G; Williamson, S E; Woo, R J; Wood, S A; Yan, C; Yun, J; Zeps, V

    2011-01-01

    In the G0 experiment, performed at Jefferson Lab, the parity-violating elastic scattering of electrons from protons and quasi-elastic scattering from deuterons is measured in order to determine the neutral weak currents of the nucleon. Asymmetries as small as 1 part per million in the scattering of a polarized electron beam are determined using a dedicated apparatus. It consists of specialized beam-monitoring and control systems, a cryogenic hydrogen (or deuterium) target, and a superconducting, toroidal magnetic spectrometer equipped with plastic scintillation and aerogel Cerenkov detectors, as well as fast readout electronics for the measurement of individual events. The overall design and performance of this experimental system is discussed.

  6. Derivation of capture and reaction cross sections from experimental quasi-elastic and elastic backscattering probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, V V; Antonenko, N V; Gomes, P R S

    2013-01-01

    The direct measurement of the reaction or capture (fusion) cross section is a difficult task since it would require the measurement of individual cross sections of many reaction channels, and most of them could be reached only by specific experiments. This would require different experimental set-ups not always available at the same laboratory and, consequently, such direct measurements would demand a large amount of beam time and would take probably some years to be reached. Because of that, the measurements of elastic scattering angular distributions that cover full angular ranges and optical model analysis have been used for the determination of reaction cross sections. This traditional method consists in deriving the parameters of the complex optical potentials which fit the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions and then of deriving the reaction cross sections predicted by these potentials. Even so, both the experimental part and the analysis of this latter method are not so simple. In the...

  7. Superradiant Forward Scattering in Multiple Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Chabe, Julien; Bienaime, Tom; Bachelard, Romain; Piovella, Nicola; Kaiser, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We report on an interference effect in multiple scattering by resonant scatterers resulting in enhanced forward scattering, violating Ohm's law for photons. The underlying mechanism of this wave effect is superradiance, which we have investigated using cold atoms as a toy model. We present numerical and experimental evidences for this superradiant forward scattering, which is robust against disorder and configuration averaging.

  8. Long range absorption in the scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 208}Pb and {sup 197}Au at 27 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuee, O.R. [Van De Graaf Laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]|[Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Alvarez, M.A.G. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Andres, M.V. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Cherubini, S. [Department de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]|[Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Davinson, T.; Di Pietro, A.; Laird, A.M.; Shotter, A.C.; Smith, W.B.; Woods, P.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh University, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Galster, W. [Department de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Gomez-Camacho, J. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: gomez@us.es; Lamehi-Rachti, M. [Van De Graaf Laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Martel, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21819 Huelva (Spain); Moro, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Apartado 1065, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Rahighi, J. [Van De Graaf Laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]|[Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh University, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Sanchez-Benitez, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21819 Huelva (Spain); Vervier, J. [Department de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Catholique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2006-02-06

    Quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 6}He at E{sub lab}=27 MeV from {sup 197}Au has been measured in the angular range of 6{sup o}-72{sup o} in the laboratory system employing LEDA and LAMP detection systems. These data, along previously analysed data of {sup 6}He+{sup 208}Pb at the same energy, are analysed using optical model calculations. The role of Coulomb dipole polarizability has been investigated. Large imaginary diffuseness parameters are required to fit the data. This result is an evidence for long range absorption mechanisms in {sup 6}He induced reactions.

  9. Calorimetric and neutron scattering studies of plastically crystalline cyclooctanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamuro, Osamu [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamasaki, Hirotaka [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Madokoro, Yasushi [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Tsukushi, Itaru [Department of Physics, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0023 (Japan); Matsuo, Takasuke [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2003-08-20

    The heat capacity of cyclooctanol was measured with an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range 5-340 K. Liquid cyclooctanol crystallized into crystal I, a plastic (orientationally disordered) phase. Crystal I was supercooled readily and underwent a glass transition at 160 K. Crystal II, obtained by annealing crystal I at about 200 K, also underwent a glass transition at 160 K, indicating that crystal II is also an orientationally disordered phase. On heating, crystal II transformed to crystal I at 261.7 K with a transition entropy of 8.06 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} and crystal I fused at 295.3 K with a fusion entropy of 7.00 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. Neutron scattering of cyclooctanol was measured in the temperature range 20-335 K, energy range 0.1-20 meV and momentum transfer range 0.23-2.7 A{sup -1}. A clear boson peak was found around 2.5 meV in both orientational glasses of crystal I and II. Quasielastic scattering appeared at temperatures as low as the glass transition temperature. This may be due to a fast {beta} process which has been observed in most glass-forming liquids. The present results indicate that glass-forming plastic crystals are similar to glass-forming liquids in their dynamical properties in terahertz region.

  10. Superscaling analyses, lepton scattering and nucleon momentum distributions in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, A N; Gaidarov, M K; Caballero, J A; Barbaro, M B; Moya de Guerra, E

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that superscaling is due to the high-momentum tail of the nucleon momentum distribution n(k) which is similar for all nuclei and is caused by the short-range and tensor nucleon-nucleon correlations. It is pointed out also that superscaling gives information about the general power-law asymptotics of n(k) and the nucleon-nucleon forces in the nuclear medium. The Coherent Density Fluctuation Model (CDFM) is used to calculate the total, longitudinal and transverse scaling functions on the basis of the hadronic tensor and the corresponding response functions in the RFG model. The results show a good agreement with the data and superscaling of the scaling function f(ψ′) for negative ψ′ including the region ψ′ < −1, where the RFGmodel fails. The CDFM scaling functions are used to calculate the cross sections of the quasielastic (QE) electron scattering on nuclei in the mass region 12 < A < 208, as well as charge-changing and neutral current neutrino (antineutrino) scattering on 12C i...

  11. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  12. Using Quasi-Elastic Events to Measure Neutrino Oscillations with MINOS Detectors in the NuMI Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Masaki [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) experiment has been designed to search for a change in the avor composition of a beam of muon neutrinos as they travel between the Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the Far Detector in the Soudan mine in Minnesota, 735 km from the target. The MINOS oscillation analysis is mainly performed with the charged current (CC) events and sensitive to constrain high- Δm2 values. However, the quasi-elastic (QEL) charged current interaction is dominant in the energy region important to access low- m2 values. For further improvement, the QEL oscillation analysis is performed in this dissertation. A data sample based on a total of 2.50 x 1020 POT is used for this analysis. In summary, 55 QEL-like events are observed at the Far detector while 87.06 ± 13.17 (syst:) events are expected with null oscillation hypothesis. These data are consistent with disappearance via oscillation with m2 = 2:10 0.37 (stat:) ± 0.24 (syst:) eV2 and the maximal mixing angle.

  13. Theory of quasi-elastic secondary emission from a quantum dot in the regime of vibrational resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Baymuratov, Anvar S; Premaratne, Malin

    2011-08-01

    We develop a low-temperature theory of quasi-elastic secondary emission from a semiconductor quantum dot, the electronic subsystem of which is resonant with the confined longitudinal-optical (LO) phonon modes. Our theory employs a generalized model for renormalization of the quantum dot's energy spectrum, which is induced by the polar electron-phonon interaction. The model takes into account the degeneration of electronic states and allows for several LO-phonon modes to be involved in the vibrational resonance. We give solutions to three fundamental problems of energy-spectrum renormalization--arising if one, two, or three LO-phonon modes resonantly couple a pair of electronic states--and discuss the most general problem of this kind that admits an analytical solution. With these results, we solve the generalized master equation for the reduced density matrix, in order to derive an expression for the differential cross section of secondary emission from a single quantum dot. The obtained expression is then analyzed to establish the basics of optical spectroscopy for measuring fundamental parameters of the quantum dot's polaron-like states.

  14. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  15. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI) The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from...

  16. Neutron scattering of modulated magnetic order at the border of ferromagnetism in NbFe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklowitz, Philipp G.; Poulten, James; Duncan, William [Dept of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham (United Kingdom); Hirschberger, Max [Dept of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton (United States); Neubauer, Andreas; Pfleiderer, Christian [Fakultaet fuer Physik, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Cermak, Petr; Schneidewind, Astrid [JCNS at MLZ, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Garching (Germany); Seemann, Klaus; Faulhaber, Enrico [MLZ, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Grosche, F. Malte [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The border of ferromagnetism in the C14 Laves phase NbFe{sub 2} is characterised by non-Fermi liquid properties consistent with ferromagnetic quantum criticality, but the ferromagnetic quantum critical point appears to be masked by modulated magnetic order (MMO). With our elastic neutron scattering studies of three single-crystalline Nb{sub 1-y}Fe{sub 2+y} samples ranging from Fe-rich composition to a nearly stoichiometric sample we have directly determined the ordering wave vector q{sub 1} of MMO. A weak T and H and considerable y dependence of q{sub 1} is observed. Our inelastic neutron data is dominated by strong quasielastic scattering in the vicinity of (002) and contains further features near q{sub 1}. The results indicate that NbFe{sub 2} could display the theoretically predicted scenario of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point, which is masked by emerging modulated magnetic order.

  17. Polarized neutron scattering studies of the kagome lattice antiferromagnet KFe{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matan, K., E-mail: kmatan@issp.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Helton, J.S. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Grohol, D. [The Dow Chemical Company, Core R and D, Midland, MI 48674 (United States); Nocera, D.G. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wakimoto, S.; Kakurai, K. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Lee, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-09-01

    We report polarized neutron scattering studies of spin-wave excitations and spin fluctuations in the S=5/2 kagome{sup '} lattice antiferromagnet KFe{sub 3}(OH){sub 6}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} (jarosite). Inelastic polarized neutron scattering measurements at 10 K on a single crystal sample reveal two spin gaps, associated with in-plane and out-of-plane excitations. The polarization analysis of quasi-elastic scattering at 67 K shows in-plane spin fluctuations with XY symmetry, consistent with the disappearance of the in-plane gap above the Neel temperature T{sub N}=65K. Our results suggest that jarosite is a promising candidate for studying the 2D XY universality class in magnetic systems.

  18. Light dark matter in neutrino beams: Production modeling and scattering signatures at MiniBooNE, T2K, and SHiP

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNiverville, Patrick; Chen, Chien-Yi; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the prospects for detection of light sub-GeV dark matter produced in experiments designed to study the properties of neutrinos, such as MiniBooNE, T2K, SHiP, DUNE etc. We present an improved production model, when dark matter couples to hadronic states via a dark photon or baryonic vector mediator, incorporating bremsstrahlung of the dark vector. In addition to elastic scattering, we also study signatures of light dark matter undergoing deep inelastic or quasielastic NC π0 -like scattering in the detector producing neutral pions, which for certain experiments may provide the best sensitivity. Supplemental Material provides extensive documentation for a publicly available simulation tool BdNMC that can be applied to determine the hidden sector dark matter production and scattering rate at a range of proton fixed target experiments.

  19. Light dark matter in neutrino beams: production modelling and scattering signatures at MiniBooNE, T2K and SHiP

    CERN Document Server

    deNiverville, Patrick; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the prospects for detection of light sub-GeV dark matter produced in experiments designed to study the properties of neutrinos, such as MiniBooNE, T2K, SHiP, DUNE etc. We present an improved production model, when dark matter couples to hadronic states via a dark photon or baryonic vector mediator, incorporating bremsstrahlung of the dark vector. In addition to elastic scattering, we also study signatures of light dark matter undergoing deep inelastic or quasi-elastic NC$\\pi^0$-like scattering in the detector producing neutral pions, which for certain experiments may provide the best sensitivity. An extensive appendix provides documentation for a publicly available simulation tool {\\tt BdNMC} that can be applied to determine the hidden sector dark matter production and scattering rate at a range of proton fixed target experiments.

  20. Spontaneous Bremsstrahlung in Scattering of an Electron by a Nucleus in the Field of Two Light Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Roshchupkin, S P; Roshchupkin, Sergey P.; Lysenko, Oleg B.

    1999-01-01

    We theoretically investigate nonresonant spontaneous bremsstrahlung in the scattering of an electron by a nucleus in the field of two linearly polarized light waves propagating in the same direction in the general relativistic case. It is demonstrated that there are two substantially different kinematic ranges: the noninterference range, where the Bunkin-Fedorov quantum parameters serve as multiphoton parameters,and the interference range, where interference effects become significant, and quantum interference parameters play the role of multiphoton parameters. We determine the cross sections of electron-nucleus spontaneous bremsstrahlung in these kinematic ranges. It is demonstrated that the partial cross section in the interference range with emission (absorption) of photons at combination frequencies may considerably exceed the corresponding cross section for any other geometry.

  1. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  2. Probing the unusual anion mobility of LiBH_4 confined in highly ordered nanoporous carbon frameworks via solid state NMR and quasielastic neutron scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangfeng; Eric H. Majzoub; Stavila, Vitalie; Bhakta, Raghunandan K.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Shane, David T.; Conradi, Mark S.; Verdal, Nina; Udovic, Terrence J.; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Particle size and particle–framework interactions have profound effects on the kinetics, reaction pathways, and even thermodynamics of complex hydrides incorporated in frameworks possessing nanoscale features. Tuning these properties may hold the key to the utilization of complex hydrides in practical applications for hydrogen storage. Using carefully synthesized, highly-ordered, nanoporous carbons (NPCs), we have previously shown quantitative differences in the kinetics and reaction pathways...

  3. Li-ion conduction in the LiBH4:LiI system from Density Functional Theory calculations and Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrdal, Jon Steinar Gardarsson; Blanchard, Didier; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2013-01-01

    defect sites, giving rise to high defect mobility. QENS results at 380 K show long-range diffusion of Li+, with jump lengths of one unit cell and jump rates in agreement with those obtained from DFT, and the application of the bias potential increases the diffusion constant by a factor of 2. At 300 K......The hexagonal high-temperature polymorph of LiBH4 is stabilized by solid solution with LiI to exhibit superionic Li+ ionic conductivity at room temperature. Herein, the mechanisms for the Li+ diffusion are investigated for the first time by density functional theory (DFT) calculations coupled......, the QENS data reveal jump events of shorter length (2 Å), which could correspond to a jump process of Li+ interstitials to an intermediate lattice site, in agreement with DFT calculations....

  4. Neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering with nuclei in low and high neutrino energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki, E-mail: cheoun@ssu.ac.kr; Ha, Eunja; Yang, Ghil-Seok [Department of Physics and OMEG institute, Soongsil Univ., Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. S. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-06-21

    We reviewed present status regarding theoretical approaches for neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering. With a short introduction of relevant data, our recent calculations by distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) for quasielastic region are presented for MiniBooNE data. We also discussed that one step-process estimated by the DWBA is comparable to the two-step process, which has been usually used in the neutrino-nucleosynthesis. For much higher energy neutrino data, such as NOMAD data, elementary process approach was shown to be useful instead of using complicated nuclear models. But, in the low energy region, detailed nuclear structure model, such as QRPA and shell model, turn out to be inescapable to explain the reaction data.

  5. Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Ankowski, Artur M

    2013-01-01

    Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections.

  6. Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankowski, Artur M.

    2015-05-01

    Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections.

  7. Neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering with nuclei in low and high neutrino energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ha, Eunja; Yang, Ghil-Seok; Kim, K. S.; Kajino, T.

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed present status regarding theoretical approaches for neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering. With a short introduction of relevant data, our recent calculations by distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) for quasielastic region are presented for MiniBooNE data. We also discussed that one step-process estimated by the DWBA is comparable to the two-step process, which has been usually used in the neutrino-nucleosynthesis. For much higher energy neutrino data, such as NOMAD data, elementary process approach was shown to be useful instead of using complicated nuclear models. But, in the low energy region, detailed nuclear structure model, such as QRPA and shell model, turn out to be inescapable to explain the reaction data.

  8. Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankowski, Artur M. [INFN and Department of Physics,“Sapienza” Università di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections.

  9. Light-by-light scattering in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Klusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We calculate cross sections for diphoton production in (semi)exclusive $PbPb$ collisions, relevant for the LHC. The calculation is based on equivalent photon approximation in the impact parameter space. The cross sections for elementary $\\gamma \\gamma \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ subprocess are calculated including two different mechanisms. We take into account box diagrams with leptons and quarks in the loops. In addition, we consider a vector-meson dominance (VDM-Regge) contribution with virtual intermediate hadronic (vector-like) excitations of the photons. We get much higher cross sections in $PbPb$ collisions than in earlier calculation from the literature. This opens a possibility to study the $\\gamma \\gamma \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ (quasi)elastic scattering at the LHC. We present many interesting differential distributions which could be measured by the ALICE, CMS or ATLAS Collaborations at the LHC. We study whether a separation or identification of different components (boxes, VDM-Regge) is possible. We find that the...

  10. Broadband light scattering spectroscopy utilizing an ultra-narrowband holographic notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yasuhiro; Katayama, Daisuke; Koreeda, Akitoshi

    2016-10-01

    The broadband spectroscopic analysis over Brillouin, quasi-elastic, and Raman regions arising from the same position of the sample has been achieved by employing an ultra-narrowband holographic notch filter (HNF) and an optical isolator. Recently, HNFs are often employed to reject strong elastic scattering in low-frequency Raman experiments. Meanwhile, the rejected spectral component agrees with the frequency range that can be observed by a triple-pass tandem Fabry-Pérot interferometer. Thus the broadband spectroscopy can be accomplished by introducing the rejected light to the interferometer. This system, in combination with the local symmetry analysis by polarization-direction-resolved Raman spectroscopy, is particularly advantageous for the investigation of spatially inhomogeneous systems.

  11. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  12. Imaging with Scattered Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Ballhausen, H.; Abele, H.; Gaehler, R.; Trapp, M.; Van Overberghe, A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a novel experimental technique for neutron imaging with scattered neutrons. These scattered neutrons are of interest for condensed matter physics, because they permit to reveal the local distribution of incoherent and coherent scattering within a sample. In contrast to standard attenuation based imaging, scattered neutron imaging distinguishes between the scattering cross section and the total attenuation cross section including absorption. First successful low-noise millimeter-re...

  13. The effects of density-dependent form factors for (e, e'p) reaction in quasi-elastic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S. [Korea Aerospace University, School of Liberal Arts and Science, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cheoun, Myung-Ki [Soongsil University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hungchong [Kookmin University, Department of General Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); So, W.Y. [Kangwon National University at Dogye, Department of Radiological Science, Samcheok (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Within the framework of a relativistic single particle model, the effects of density-dependent electromagnetic form factors on the exclusive (e, e'p) reaction are investigated in the quasi-elastic region. The density-dependent electromagnetic form factors are generated from a quark-meson coupling model and used to calculate the cross sections in two different densities, either at the normal density of ρ{sub 0} ∝ 0.15 fm{sup -3} or at the lower density, 0.5ρ{sub 0}. Then these cross sections are analyzed in the two different kinematics: One is that the momentum of the outgoing nucleon is along the momentum transfer. The other is that the angle between the momentum of the outgoing nucleon and the momentum transfer is varied at fixed magnitude of the momentum of the outgoing nucleon. Our theoretical differential reduced cross sections are compared with the NIKHEF data for the {sup 208}Pb(e, e'p) reaction, which is related to the probability that a bound nucleon from a given orbit can be knocked-out of the nucleus. The effects of the density-dependent form factors increase the differential cross sections for both knocked-out proton and neutron by an amount of a few percent. Moreover they are shown to be almost the same within only a few percent, i.e., nearly independent of the shell location of knockout nucleons. These results are quite consistent with the characteristics of double magic nuclei which have relatively sharp smearing in the density distribution. (orig.)

  14. Precision Measurement of the Spin-dependent Asymmetry in the Threshold Region of Quasielastic 3He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xiong

    2002-09-01

    The first precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of polarized {sup 3}He(polarized e, e') was carried out in Hall A at the Jefferson Laboratory, using a longitudinally polarized continuous electron beam incident on a high-pressure polarized {sup 3}He gas target. The polarized electron beam was generated by illuminating a strained GaAs cathode with high intensity circularly polarized laser light, and an average beam polarization of about 70% was achieved. The {sup 3}He target was polarized based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumpint and the average target polarization was about 30%. The scattered electrons were detected in the two Hall A high resolution spectrometers, HRSe and HRSh. The data from HRSh were used for this analysis and covered both the elastic peak and the threshold region. Two kinematic points were measured in the threshold region, one with a central Q{sup 2}-value of 0.1 (GeV/c){sup 2} at an incident beam energy E{sub 0} = 0.778 GeV and the other with a central Q{sup 2}-value of 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} at E-0 = 1.727 GeV. The average beam current was 10 mu-A, which was mainly due to the limitation of the polarized {sup 3}He target. The measured asymmetry was compared with both plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) calculations and non-relativistic full Faddeev calculations which include both final-state interactions (FSIs) and meson-exchange currents (MECs) effects. The poor description of the data by PWIA calculations at both Q{sup 2}-values suggests the existence of strong FSI and MEC effects in the threshold region of polarized {sup 3}He (polarized e, e'). Indeed, the agreement between the data and full calculations is very good at Q{sup 2} = 0.1 (GeV/c){sup 2}. On the other hand, a small discrepancy at Q{sup 2} = 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} is observed, which might be due to some Q{sup 2} -dependent effects such as relativity and three-nucleon forces (3NFs), which are not included in the framework

  15. Molecular dynamics of solutions of poly-3-octyl-thiophene and functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes studied by neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Paniagua, Carlos [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Urbina, Antonio, E-mail: a.urbina@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Plaza del Hospital 1, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); García-Sakai, Victoria [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Seydel, Tilo [Institut Laue-Langevin, 39042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Abad, José; Padilla, Javier; García-Valverde, Rafael; Espinosa, Nieves [Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Plaza del Hospital 1, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Gómez-Escalonilla, Marí a-José; Langa, Fernando [Instituto de Nanociencia, Nanotecnología y Materiales Moleculares (INAMOL), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Batallán, Francisco [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-12

    Highlights: • P3OT diffusion characteristic times in toluene solution at different temperatures have been obtained. • Gelation process for P3OT in solution has been demonstrated. • A methodology for elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering data analysis for liquids has been developed. - Abstract: Using both quasielastic and elastic window neutron spectroscopy, we study the molecular dynamics of poly-3-octyl-thiophene and of mixtures of carbon nanotube derivatives and poly-3-octyl-thiophene, both in deuterated toluene solutions. From the analysis of the experimental results of solutions for a broad range of concentrations, from very diluted to concentrated, different regimes of molecular motions are established, and a critical concentration between 2 and 3 wt% for the overlapping of macromolecules is obtained, including evidence of gelation processes for the higher concentrations driven by the entanglement of the macromolecules. Additionally, the temperature and momentum dependence of the characteristic times of the motions are obtained from the fit of the experimental data to stretched exponential models, delivering temperature dependent subnanosecond timescales for the diffusion of the macromolecule (0.02–0.5 ns)

  16. Measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the quasi-elastic $^3\\vec{\\mathrm{He}}(\\vec{\\mathrm{e}},\\mathrm{e}'\\mathrm{d})$ process

    CERN Document Server

    Mihovilovič, M; Long, E; Zhang, Y -W; Allada, K; Anderson, B; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Boeglin, W; Bradshaw, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deltuva, A; Deur, A; Dutta, C; Fassi, L El; Flay, D; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gao, H; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golak, J; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Ibrahim, H; de Jager, C W; Jensen, E; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Kang, H; Katich, J; Khanal, H P; Kievsky, A; King, P; Korsch, W; LeRose, J; Lindgren, R; Lu, H -J; Luo, W; Marcucci, L; Markowitz, P; Meziane, M; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Muangma, N; Nanda, S; Norum, B E; Pan, K; Parno, D; Piasetzky, E; Posik, M; Punjabi, V; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Qui, X; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sauer, P U; Sawatzky, B; Schiavilla, R; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Shoenrock, B; Širca, S; Skibiński, R; John, J St; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tobias, W A; Tireman, W; Urciuoli, G M; Viviani, M; Wang, D; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Watson, J; Wojtsekhowski, B; Witała, H; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zheng, X; Zhao, B; Zhu, L

    2014-01-01

    We present a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the $^3\\vec{\\mathrm{He}}(\\vec{\\mathrm{e}},\\mathrm{e}'\\mathrm{d})$ reaction. This particular process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in $^3\\mathrm{He}$ and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed in and around quasi-elastic kinematics at $Q^2 = 0.25\\,(\\mathrm{GeV}/c)^2$ for missing momenta up to $270\\,\\mathrm{MeV}/c$. The asymmetries are in fair agreement with the state-of-the-art calculations in terms of their functional dependencies on $p_\\mathrm{m}$ and $\\omega$, but are systematically offset. Beyond the region of the quasi-elastic peak, the discrepancies become even more pronounced. Thus, our measurements have been able to reveal deficiencies in the most sophisticated calculations of the three-body nuclear system, and indicate that further refinement in the treatment of their two- and/or three-body dynamics is required.

  17. Optics as Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Francia, Giuliano Toraldo

    1973-01-01

    The art of deriving information about an object from the radiation it scatters was once limited to visible light. Now due to new techniques, much of the modern physical science research utilizes radiation scattering. (DF)

  18. Neutron scattering from fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...

  19. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  20. Plane-wave impulse approximation extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor from Quasi-Elastic {sup 3}{rvec H}e({rvec e},e{prime}) at Q{sup 2} = 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Xu; B. Anderson; L. Auberbach; T. Averett; W. Bertozzi; T. Black; J. Calarco; L. Cardman; G.D. Cates; Z.W. Chai; J.P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; G.S. Corrado; C. Crawford; D. Dale; A. Deur; P. Djawotho; T.W. Donnelly; D. Dutta; J.M. Finn; H. Gao; R. Gilman; A.V. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; J. Golak; J. Gomez; V.G. Gorbenko; J.O. Hansen; F.W. Hersman; D.W. Higinbotham; R. Holmes; C.R. Howell; E. Hughes; B. Humensky; S. Incerti; C.W. de Jager; J.S. Jensen; X. Jiang; C.E. Jones; M. Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; I. Kominis; W. Korsch; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriqi; M. Liang; N. Liyanage; J. LeRose; S. Malov; D.J. Margaziotis; J.W. Martin; K. McCormick; R. D. McKeown; K. McIlhany; Z.E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G.W. Miller; J. Mitchell; S. Nanda; E. Pace; T. Pavlin; G.G. Petratos; R.I. Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; D. Prout; R.D. Ransome; Y. Roblin; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; G. Salme; M. Schnee; T. Shin; K. Slifer; P.A. Souder; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; M. Sutter; B. Tipton; L. Todor; M. Viviani; B. Vlahovic; J. Watson; C.F. Williamson; H. Witala; B. Wojtsekhowski; F. Xiong; J. Yeh; P. Zolnierczuk

    2003-02-01

    A high precision measurement of the transverse spin-dependent asymmetry A{sub T} in {sup 3}{rvec H}e({rvec e},e{prime}) quasielastic scattering was performed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab at values of the squared four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}, between 0.1 and 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. A{sub T} is sensitive to the neutron magnetic form factor, G{sub M}{sup n}. Values of G{sub M}{sup n} at Q{sup 2} = 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2}, extracted using Faddeev calculations, were reported previously. Here, we report the extraction of G{sub M}{sup n} for the remaining Q{sup 2}-values in the range from 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} using a Plane-Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. The results are in good agreement with recent precision data from experiments using a deuterium target.

  1. Polar rotor scattering as atomic-level origin of low mobility and thermal conductivity of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Liu, Yucheng; Wang, Mingchao; Matsuura, Masato; Shibata, Kaoru; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Yamada, Takeshi; Lin, Shangchao; Nakajima, Kenji; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2017-06-01

    Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits outstanding photovoltaic performances, but the understanding of the atomic motions remains inadequate even though they take a fundamental role in transport properties. Here, we present a complete atomic dynamic picture consisting of molecular jumping rotational modes and phonons, which is established by carrying out high-resolution time-of-flight quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements in a wide energy window ranging from 0.0036 to 54 meV on a large single crystal sample, respectively. The ultrafast orientational disorder of molecular dipoles, activated at ~165 K, acts as an additional scattering source for optical phonons as well as for charge carriers. It is revealed that acoustic phonons dominate the thermal transport, rather than optical phonons due to sub-picosecond lifetimes. These microscopic insights provide a solid standing point, on which perovskite solar cells can be understood more accurately and their performances are perhaps further optimized.

  2. Structural and dynamical properties of reconstituted myelin sheaths in the presence of myelin proteins MBP and P2 studied by neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Wiebke; Peters, Judith; Kursula, Petri; Gerelli, Yuri; Ollivier, Jacques; Demé, Bruno; Telling, Mark; Kemner, Ewout; Natali, Francesca

    2014-01-21

    The myelin sheath is a tightly packed, multilayered membrane structure wrapped around selected nerve axons in the central and the peripheral nervous system. Because of its electrical insulation of the axons, which allows fast, saltatory nerve impulse conduction, myelin is crucial for the proper functioning of the vertebrate nervous system. A subset of myelin-specific proteins is well-defined, but their influence on membrane dynamics, i.e. myelin stability, has not yet been explored in detail. We investigated the structure and the dynamics of reconstituted myelin membranes on a pico- to nanosecond timescale, influenced by myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin protein 2 (P2), using neutron diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. A model for the scattering function describing molecular lipid motions is suggested. Although dynamical properties are not affected significantly by MBP and P2 proteins, they act in a highly synergistic manner influencing the membrane structure.

  3. Scattering of W and Z Bosons at High-Energy Lepton Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fleper, C; Reuter, J; Sekulla, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a new study of quasi-elastic $W$ and $Z$ scattering processes in high-energy $e^+e^-$ collisions, based on and extrapolating the low-energy effective theory which extends the Standard Model with a 125 GeV Higgs boson. Besides parameterizing deviations in terms of the dimension-8 operators that arise in the effective theory, we also study simplified models of new physics in $W/Z$ scattering in terms of scalar and tensor resonance multiplets. The high-energy asymptotics of all models is regulated by a universal unitarization procedure. This enables us to provide benchmark scenarios which can be meaningfully evaluated off-shell and in exclusive event samples, and to determine the sensitivity of an $e^+e^-$ collider to the model parameters. We analyze the longitudinal vector boson scattering modes, where we optimize the cuts for the fiducial cross section for different collider scenarios. Here, we choose energy stages of 1.0, 1.4 and 3 TeV, as motivated by the extendability of the ILC project and the s...

  4. A study of methyl reorientation in solid nitromethane by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, S. F.; Rymes, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    The geometrical and dynamical properties of the reorientation of the methyl group of nitromethane in the solid state have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. Quasielastic scattering spectra have been obtained for several values of momentum transfer at five temperatures between 50° and 150 °K. The spectra are shown to be consistent with jumps of 120 ° about an axis coincident with the C-N bond. The temperature dependence of the residence time yields a barrier of 234 cal/mole. An inelastic neutron spectrum obtained at 4.2 °K suggests a tunnel splitting of the torsional ground state of 0.045±0.005 meV, which is consistent with the derived activation energy. Inelastic neutron scattering has also been used to determine the energy of the tunnel split first excited state which in CH3NO2 has a mean energy of 7.4 meV above the ground state and is split by 1.8 meV. In the deuterated compound, the first excited stated is at 5.3 meV above the ground state and its splitting is less than the instrumental resolution.

  5. Scattering of W and Z bosons at high-energy lepton colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleper, Christian; Kilian, Wolfgang; Reuter, Jürgen; Sekulla, Marco

    2017-02-01

    We present a new study of quasi-elastic W and Z scattering processes in high-energy e^+e^- collisions, based on and extrapolating the low-energy effective theory which extends the standard model with a 125 {GeV} Higgs boson. We parameterize deviations in the low-energy range in terms of the dimension-eight operators that arise in the effective theory. Smoothly extending this to higher energy, we study a set of simplified models of new physics in W / Z scattering, (1) a structureless extrapolation of the effective theory, and (2) scalar and tensor resonance multiplets. The high-energy asymptotics of all models is regulated by a universal unitarization procedure. This enables us to provide benchmark scenarios which can be meaningfully evaluated off shell and in exclusive event samples, and to determine the sensitivity of an e^+e^- collider to the model parameters. We analyze the longitudinal vector-boson scattering modes, where we optimize the cuts for the fiducial cross section for different collider scenarios. Here, we choose energy stages of 1.0, 1.4 and 3 TeV, as motivated by the extendability of the ILC project and the staging scenario of the CLIC project.

  6. Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current neutrino scattering off carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Ankowski, Artur M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. Purpose: Clarify possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon. Method: Nuclear effects in (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon nucleus are described using the spectral function approach. The effect of two- and multi-nucleon final states is accounted for by applying an effective value of the axial mass, fixed to 1.23 GeV. Neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes are treated on equal footing. Results: The differential and total cross sections for the energy ranging from a few hundreds of MeV to 100 GeV are obtained and compared to the available data from the BNL E734, MiniBooNE, and NOMAD experiments. Conclusions: Nuclear effects in NCE and CCQE scattering seem to be very similar. Within the spe...

  7. Concept of a multichannel spin-resolving electron analyzer based on Mott scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strocov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vladimir.strocov@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Petrov, Vladimir N. [St Petersburg Polytechnical University, Polytechnicheskaya Str. 29, St Petersburg RU-195251 (Russian Federation); Dil, J. Hugo [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-04-10

    The concept of a two-dimensional multichannel electron spin detector based on Mott scattering and imaging-type electron optics is presented. The efficiency increase of about four orders of magnitude opens new scientific fields including buried magnetic interfaces. The concept of a multichannel electron spin detector based on optical imaging principles and Mott scattering (iMott) is presented. A multichannel electron image produced by a standard angle-resolving (photo) electron analyzer or microscope is re-imaged by an electrostatic lens at an accelerating voltage of 40 kV onto the Au target. Quasi-elastic electrons bearing spin asymmetry of the Mott scattering are imaged by magnetic lenses onto position-sensitive electron CCDs whose differential signals yield the multichannel spin asymmetry image. Fundamental advantages of this concept include acceptance of inherently divergent electron sources from the electron analyzer or microscope focal plane as well as small aberrations achieved by virtue of high accelerating voltages, as demonstrated by extensive ray-tracing analysis. The efficiency gain compared with the single-channel Mott detector can be a factor of more than 10{sup 4} which opens new prospects of spin-resolved spectroscopies in application not only to standard bulk and surface systems (Rashba effect, topological insulators, etc.) but also to buried heterostructures. The simultaneous spin detection combined with fast CCD readout enables efficient use of the iMott detectors at X-ray free-electron laser facilities.

  8. Crystal electric field excitations in the cerium compound CeRh3B2 studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Murani, A. P.; Bewley, R.; Galéra, R.-M.; Lejay, P.

    2007-12-01

    We have performed inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments on CeRh3B2 at various temperatures to obtain direct information on the crystal electric field (CEF) in this compound, which exhibits some very peculiar magnetic properties for a Ce system: it is ferromagnetic with an unusually high Curie temperature (115 K), which contrasts with a strongly reduced and anisotropic magnetization (0.4 µB/fu within the c-plane of the hexagonal structure). Measurements with high incident energies show only one well defined magnetic excitation around 150 meV, its exact position varying with the temperature. These results, combined with our previous data of magnetization and magnetic form factor, have permitted us to determine the CEF energy level scheme taking into account the two J multiplets of the Ce3+ ion. Information on the ground state (quasielastic contribution and ground state moment) has also been obtained by experiments at low incident energies in the paramagnetic state.

  9. Scattering anomaly in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Silveirinha, Mario G

    2016-01-01

    In time-reversal invariant electronic systems the scattering matrix is anti-symmetric. This property enables an effect, designated here as "scattering anomaly", such that the electron transport does not suffer from back reflections, independent of the specific geometry of the propagation path or the presence of time-reversal invariant defects. In contrast, for a generic time-reversal invariant photonic system the scattering matrix is symmetric and there is no similar anomaly. Here, it is theoretically proven that despite these fundamental differences there is a wide class of photonic platforms - in some cases formed only by time-reversal invariant media - in which the scattering anomaly can occur. It is shown that an optical system invariant under the action of the composition of the time-reversal, parity and duality operators is characterized by an anti-symmetric scattering matrix. Specific examples of photonic platforms wherein the scattering anomaly occurs are given, and it is demonstrated with full wave n...

  10. Scheme for adding electron-nucleus cusps to Gaussian orbitals

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, A.; Towler, M. D.; Drummond, N. D.; Needs, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    A simple scheme is described for introducing the correct cusps at nuclei into orbitals obtained from Gaussian basis set electronic structure calculations. The scheme is tested with all-electron variational quantum Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) methods for the Ne atom, the H2 molecule, and 55 molecules from a standard benchmark set. It greatly reduces the variance of the local energy in all cases and slightly improves the variational energy. This scheme yields a gen...

  11. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  12. Response to ``Comment on `Elastic incoherent neutron scattering operating by varying instrumental energy resolution: Principle, simulations, and experiments of the resolution elastic neutron scattering (RENS)''' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 107101 (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magazó, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Recently [S. Magazù et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 105115 (2011), 10.1063/1.3641870] we have proposed a new method for characterizing, by neutron scattering, the dynamical properties of complex material systems, such as, the ones of interest in the biophysical field. This approach called Resolution Elastic Neutron Scattering, in short RENS, is based on the detection of the elastically scattered neutron intensity as a function of the instrumental energy resolution. By experimental, theoretical, and numerical findings, we have pointed out that an inflection point occurs in the elastic intensity when the system relaxation time approaches the instrumental energy resolution time. This approach, differently from quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), gives the chance to evaluate the system relaxation times without using pre-defined models that can be wrong and/or misleading. Here, we reply to a Comment on the above-mentioned main paper in which Wuttke proposes a different approach to evaluate the above-mentioned inflection point; on this regard, it should be noticed that the existence of the inflection point, which is the main topic of our work, is not questioned and that the approach proposed by Wuttke in the Comment, although valid for a class of dynamical processes, is not applicable when different and distinct processes occur simultaneously at different time scale.

  13. Response to 'Comment on 'Elastic incoherent neutron scattering operating by varying instrumental energy resolution: Principle, simulations, and experiments of the resolution elastic neutron scattering (RENS)'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 107101 (2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magazu, Salvatore; Migliardo, Federica; Benedetto, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, C.da Papardo n Degree-Sign 31, P.O. Box 55, Vill. S. Agata 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Recently [S. Magazu et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 105115 (2011)] we have proposed a new method for characterizing, by neutron scattering, the dynamical properties of complex material systems, such as, the ones of interest in the biophysical field. This approach called Resolution Elastic Neutron Scattering, in short RENS, is based on the detection of the elastically scattered neutron intensity as a function of the instrumental energy resolution. By experimental, theoretical, and numerical findings, we have pointed out that an inflection point occurs in the elastic intensity when the system relaxation time approaches the instrumental energy resolution time. This approach, differently from quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), gives the chance to evaluate the system relaxation times without using pre-defined models that can be wrong and/or misleading. Here, we reply to a Comment on the above-mentioned main paper in which Wuttke proposes a different approach to evaluate the above-mentioned inflection point; on this regard, it should be noticed that the existence of the inflection point, which is the main topic of our work, is not questioned and that the approach proposed by Wuttke in the Comment, although valid for a class of dynamical processes, is not applicable when different and distinct processes occur simultaneously at different time scale.

  14. An Evaluation of the Scattering Law for Light and Heavy Water in ENDF-6 Format, Based on Experimental Data and Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Damián, J. I.; Granada, J. R.; Malaspina, D. C.

    2014-04-01

    In this work we present an evaluation in ENDF-6 format of the scattering law for light and heavy water computed using the LEAPR module of NJOY99. The models used in this evaluation are based on experimental data on light water dynamics measured by Novikov, partial structure factors obtained by Soper, and molecular dynamics calculations performed with GROMACS using a reparameterized version of the flexible SPC model by Toukan and Rahman. The models use the Egelstaff-Schofield diffusion equation for translational motion, and a continuous spectrum calculated from the velocity autocorrelation function computed with GROMACS. The scattering law for H in H2O is computed using the incoherent approximation, and the scattering law D and O in D2O are computed using the Sköld approximation for coherent scattering. The calculations show significant improvement over ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII when compared with measurements of the total cross section, differential scattering experiments and quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments (QENS).

  15. Elastic scattering phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)

  16. Water dynamics as affected by interaction with biomolecules and change of thermodynamic state: a neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchini, A.; Paciaroni, A.; Petrillo, C.; Sebastiani, F.; De Francesco, A.; Sacchetti, F.

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of water as subtly perturbed by both the interaction with biomolecules and the variation of temperature and pressure has been investigated via neutron scattering spectroscopy. A measurement of inelastic neutron scattering devoted to the study of the coherent THz dynamics of water in a water-rich mixture with DNA (hydration level of 1 g DNA/15 g D2O) at room temperature is reported. The DNA hydration water coherent dynamics is characterised by the presence of collective modes, whose dispersion relations are similar to those observed in bulk water. These dispersion relations are well described by the interaction model developed in the case of bulk water, and the existence of a fast sound is experimentally demonstrated. The behaviour of the collective water dynamics was complemented by studying the single-particle dynamics of bulk water along the isotherm T = 298 K in the pressure range 0.1-350 MPa by means of incoherent scattering. This experiment is an attempt to simulate the change of the water molecular arrangement due to the interaction with DNA, by increasing the pressure as the presence of the biomolecule produces an increase in the density. An anomaly is found in the behaviour of the relaxation time derived from the quasi-elastic scattering signal, which can be related to the hypothetical second critical point in water. This anomaly and the transition from slow to fast sound take place in the same Q range, thus suggesting that the two phenomena could be related at some microscopic level.

  17. Optical scatter: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, John C.

    1991-12-01

    Optical scatter is a bothersome source of optical noise, limits resolution and reduces system throughput. However, it is also an extremely sensitive metrology tool. It is employed in a wide variety of applications in the optics industry (where direct scatter measurement is of concern) and is becoming a popular indirect measurement in other industries where its measurement in some form is an indicator of another component property - like roughness, contamination or position. This paper presents a brief review of the current state of this technology as it emerges from university and government laboratories into more general industry use. The bidirectional scatter distribution function (or BSDF) has become the common format for expressing scatter data and is now used almost universally. Measurements made at dozens of laboratories around the country cover the spectrum from the uv to the mid- IR. Data analysis of optical component scatter has progressed to the point where a variety of analysis tools are becoming available for discriminating between the various sources of scatter. Work has progressed on the analysis of rough surface scatter and the application of these techniques to some challenging problems outside the optical industry. Scatter metrology is acquiring standards and formal test procedures. The available scatter data base is rapidly expanding as the number and sophistication of measurement facilities increases. Scatter from contaminants is continuing to be a major area of work as scatterometers appear in vacuum chambers at various laboratories across the country. Another area of research driven by space applications is understanding the non-topographic sources of mid-IR scatter that are associated with Beryllium and other materials. The current flurry of work in this growing area of metrology can be expected to continue for several more years and to further expand to applications in other industries.

  18. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  19. Liquid 1-propanol studied by neutron scattering, near-infrared, and dielectric spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillrén, P.; Matic, A.; Karlsson, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Koza, M.; Maccarini, M.; Fouquet, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Götz, M.; Bauer, Th.; Gulich, R.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A. [Experimental Physics V, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Mattsson, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Gainaru, C.; Vynokur, E.; Schildmann, S.; Bauer, S.; Böhmer, R. [Fakultät für Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-03-28

    Liquid monohydroxy alcohols exhibit unusual dynamics related to their hydrogen bonding induced structures. The connection between structure and dynamics is studied for liquid 1-propanol using quasi-elastic neutron scattering, combining time-of-flight and neutron spin-echo techniques, with a focus on the dynamics at length scales corresponding to the main peak and the pre-peak of the structure factor. At the main peak, the structural relaxation times are probed. These correspond well to mechanical relaxation times calculated from literature data. At the pre-peak, corresponding to length scales related to H-bonded structures, the relaxation times are almost an order of magnitude longer. According to previous work [C. Gainaru, R. Meier, S. Schildmann, C. Lederle, W. Hiller, E. Rössler, and R. Böhmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 258303 (2010)] this time scale difference is connected to the average size of H-bonded clusters. The relation between the relaxation times from neutron scattering and those determined from dielectric spectroscopy is discussed on the basis of broad-band permittivity data of 1-propanol. Moreover, in 1-propanol the dielectric relaxation strength as well as the near-infrared absorbance reveal anomalous behavior below ambient temperature. A corresponding feature could not be found in the polyalcohols propylene glycol and glycerol.

  20. Concept of multichannel spin-resolving electron analyzer based on Mott scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Strocov, Vladimir N; Dil, J Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Concept of a multichannel electron spin detector based on optical imaging principles and Mott scattering (iMott) is presented. A multichannel electron image produced by standard angle-resolving (photo) electron analyzer or microscope is re-imaged by an electrostatic lens at an accelerating voltage of 40 keV onto the Au target. Quasi-elastic electrons bearing spin asymmetry of the Mott scattering are imaged by magnetic lenses onto position-sensitive electron CCDs whose differential signals yield the multichannel spin asymmetry image. Fundamental advantages of this concept include acceptance of inherently divergent electron sources from the electron analyzer or microscope focal plane as well as small aberrations achieved by virtue of high accelerating voltages, as demonstrated by extensive ray-tracing analysis. The efficiency gain compared to the single-channel Mott detector can be a factor of 1.5e4 and above, opening new prospects of spin-resolved spectroscopies in application not only to standard bulk and sur...

  1. Concept of a multichannel spin-resolving electron analyzer based on Mott scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strocov, Vladimir N.; Petrov, Vladimir N.; Dil, J. Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a multichannel electron spin detector based on optical imaging principles and Mott scattering (iMott) is presented. A multichannel electron image produced by a standard angle-resolving (photo) electron analyzer or microscope is re-imaged by an electrostatic lens at an accelerating voltage of 40 kV onto the Au target. Quasi-elastic electrons bearing spin asymmetry of the Mott scattering are imaged by magnetic lenses onto position-sensitive electron CCDs whose differential signals yield the multichannel spin asymmetry image. Fundamental advantages of this concept include acceptance of inherently divergent electron sources from the electron analyzer or microscope focal plane as well as small aberrations achieved by virtue of high accelerating voltages, as demonstrated by extensive ray-tracing analysis. The efficiency gain compared with the single-channel Mott detector can be a factor of more than 104 which opens new prospects of spin-resolved spectroscopies in application not only to standard bulk and surface systems (Rashba effect, topological insulators, etc.) but also to buried heterostructures. The simultaneous spin detection combined with fast CCD readout enables efficient use of the iMott detectors at X-ray free-electron laser facilities. PMID:25931087

  2. Scattering in an environment

    CERN Document Server

    Polonyi, Janos

    2011-01-01

    The cross section of elastic electron-proton scattering taking place in an electron gas is calculated within the Closed Time Path method. It is found to be the sum of two terms, one being the expression in the vacuum except that it involves dressing due to the electron gas. The other term is due to the scattering particles-electron gas entanglement. This term dominates the usual one when the exchange energy is in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Furthermore it makes the trajectories of the colliding particles more consistent and the collision more irreversible, rendering the scattering more classical in this regime.

  3. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  4. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  5. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  6. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady;

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...

  7. Elastic scattering of hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2012-01-01

    When colliding, the high energy hadrons can either produce new particles or scatter elastically without change of their quantum num- bers and other particles produced. Namely elastic scattering of hadrons is considered in this review paper. Even though the inelastic processes dominate at high energies, the elastic scattering constitutes the notice- able part of the total cross section ranging between 18 and 25% with some increase at higher energies. The scattering proceeds mostly at small angles and reveals peculiar dependences at larger angles disclos- ing the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and di?erent dynamical mechanisms. The fast decreasing Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoul- ders and dips and then by the power-like decrease. Results of various theoretical approaches are compared with exper- imental data. Phenomenological models pretending to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition requires the exponen- tial re...

  8. Environment scattering in GADRAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean J; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-09-01

    Radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the angular tallies for scattered gamma-rays as a function of distance, height, and environment. Greens Functions were then used to encapsulate the results a reusable transformation function. The calculations represent the transport of photons throughout scattering surfaces that surround sources and detectors, such as the ground and walls. Utilization of these calculations in GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) enables accurate computation of environmental scattering for a variety of environments and source configurations. This capability, which agrees well with numerous experimental benchmark measurements, is now deployed with GADRAS Version 18.2 as the basis for the computation of scattered radiation.

  9. Neutron scattering in dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudel, H. U.; Furrer, A.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer excitati......Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer...

  10. Elastic scattering of hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2013-01-01

    Colliding high-energy hadrons either produce new particles or scatter elastically with their quantum numbers conserved and no other particles produced. We consider the latter case here. Although inelastic processes dominate at high energies, elastic scattering contributes considerably (18-25%) to the total cross section. Its share first decreases and then increases at higher energies. Small-angle scattering prevails at all energies. Some characteristic features can be seen that provide information on the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and the relevant dynamical mechanisms. The steep Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoulders and dips, and then by a power-law decrease. Results from various theoretical approaches are compared with experimental data. Phenomenological models claiming to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition predicts an exponential fall for the differential cross section with an additional substructure to occur exactly between the low momentum transfer diffraction cone and a power-law, hard parton scattering regime under high momentum transfer. Data on the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear parts of amplitudes at extremely small angles provide the value of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude. The real part of the elastic scattering amplitude and the contribution of inelastic processes to the imaginary part of this amplitude (the so-called overlap function) are also discussed. Problems related to the scaling behavior of the differential cross section are considered. The power-law regime at highest momentum transfer is briefly described.

  11. An X-ray and Neutron Scattering Study of the Formation of Core-Shell Type Polyoxometalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Panchao; Wu, Bin; Mamontov, Eugene; Daemen, Luke L.; Cheng, Yongqiang; Li, Tao; Seifert, Soenke; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.

    2016-03-02

    A typical type of core-shell polyoxometalates can be obtained through the Keggin-type polyoxometalatetemplated growth of a layer of spherical shell structure of {Mo72Fe30}. Small angle X-ray scattering is used to study the structural features and stability of the core-shell structures in aqueous solutions. Timeresolved small angle X-ray scattering is applied to monitor the synthetic reactions and a three-stage formation mechanism is proposed to describe the synthesis of the core-shell polyoxometalates based on the monitoring results. New protocols have been developed by fitting the X-ray data with customed physical models, which provide more convincing, objective, and completed data interpretation. Quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering are used to probe the dynamics of water molecules in the core-shell structures and two different types of water molecules, the confined and structured water, are observed. These water molecules play an important role in bridging core and shell structures and stabilizing the cluster structures.

  12. New evaluation of thermal neutron scattering libraries for light and heavy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquez Damian Jose Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the design and safety of thermal nuclear reactors and for verification of criticality safety conditions on systems with significant amount of fissile materials and water, it is necessary to perform high-precision neutron transport calculations and estimate uncertainties of the results. These calculations are based on neutron interaction data distributed in evaluated nuclear data libraries. To improve the evaluations of thermal scattering sub-libraries, we developed a set of thermal neutron scattering cross sections (scattering kernels for hydrogen bound in light water, and deuterium and oxygen bound in heavy water, in the ENDF-6 format from room temperature up to the critical temperatures of molecular liquids. The new evaluations were generated and processable with NJOY99 and also with NJOY-2012 with minor modifications (updates, and with the new version of NJOY-2016. The new TSL libraries are based on molecular dynamics simulations with GROMACS and recent experimental data, and result in an improvement of the calculation of single neutron scattering quantities. In this work, we discuss the importance of taking into account self-diffusion in liquids to accurately describe the neutron scattering at low neutron energies (quasi-elastic peak problem. To improve modeling of heavy water, it is important to take into account temperature-dependent static structure factors and apply Sköld approximation to the coherent inelastic components of the scattering matrix. The usage of the new set of scattering matrices and cross-sections improves the calculation of thermal critical systems moderated and/or reflected with light/heavy water obtained from the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP handbook. For example, the use of the new thermal scattering library for heavy water, combined with the ROSFOND-2010 evaluation of the cross sections for deuterium, results in an improvement of the C/E ratio in 48 out of

  13. Modelling Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, T; Mosel, U

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a model to describe the interactions of neutrinos with nucleons and nuclei via charged and neutral currents, focusing on the region of the quasielastic and Delta(1232) peaks. For neutrino nucleon collisions a fully relativistic formalism is used. The extension to finite nuclei has been done in the framework of a coupled-channel BUU transport model where we have studied exclusive channels taking into account in-medium effects and final state interactions.

  14. Scatter in cargo radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Erin A; Caggiano, Joseph A; Runkle, Robert C; White, Timothy A; Bevill, Aaron M

    2011-03-01

    As a complement to passive detection systems, radiographic inspection of cargo is an increasingly important tool for homeland security because it has the potential to detect highly attenuating objects associated with special nuclear material or surrounding shielding, in addition to screening for items such as drugs or contraband. Radiographic detection of such threat objects relies on high image contrast between regions of different density and atomic number (Z). Threat detection is affected by scatter of the interrogating beam in the cargo, the radiographic system itself, and the surrounding environment, which degrades image contrast. Here, we estimate the extent to which scatter plays a role in radiographic imaging of cargo containers. Stochastic transport simulations were performed to determine the details of the radiography equipment and surrounding environment, which are important in reproducing measured data and to investigate scatter magnitudes for typical cargo. We find that scatter plays a stronger role in cargo radiography than in typical medical imaging scenarios, even for low-density cargo, with scatter-to-primary ratios ranging from 0.14 for very low density cargo, to between 0.20 and 0.40 for typical cargo, and higher yet for dense cargo.

  15. A Measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic interaction and a test of Lorentz violation with the MiniBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katori, Teppei [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is designed to search for vμ → ve appearance neutrino oscillations. Muon neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interactions (vμ + n → μ + p) make up roughly 40% of our data sample, and it is used to constrain the background and cross sections for the oscillation analysis. Using high-statistics MiniBooNE CCQE data, the muon-neutrino CCQE cross section is measured. The nuclear model is tuned precisely using the MiniBooNE data. The measured total cross section is σ = (1.058 ± 0.003 (stat) ± 0.111 (syst)) x 10-38 cm2 at the MiniBooNE muon neutrino beam energy (700-800 MeV). ve appearance candidate data is also used to search for Lorentz violation. Lorentz symmetry is one of the most fundamental symmetries in modern physics. Neutrino oscillations offer a new method to test it. We found that the MiniBooNE result is not well-described using Lorentz violation, however further investigation is required for a more conclusive result.

  16. Meaurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in quasi-elastic region from the reaction {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yawei [Rutgers

    2013-10-01

    A measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry has been performed using the quasi-elastic {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e') reaction with a vertically polarized {sup 3}He target at Q{sup 2} values of 0.13, 0.46 and 0.97 GeV{sup 2}. This asymmetry vanishes under the one photon exchange assumption. But the interference between two-photon exchange and one-photon exchange gives rise to an imaginary amplitude, so that a non-zero A{sub y} is allowed. The experiment, conducted in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory in 2009, used two independent spectrometers to simultaneously measure the target single-spin asymmetry. Using the effective polarization approximation, the neutron single-spin asymmetries were extracted from the measured {sup 3}He asymmetries. The measurement is to establish a non-vanishing A{sub y}. Non-zero asymmetries were observed at all Q{sup 2} points, and the overall precision is an order of magnitude improved over the existing proton data. The data provide new constraints on Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) models and new information on the dynamics of the two-photon exchange process.

  17. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  18. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  19. Invariant Scattering Convolution Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bruna, Joan

    2012-01-01

    A wavelet scattering network computes a translation invariant image representation, which is stable to deformations and preserves high frequency information for classification. It cascades wavelet transform convolutions with non-linear modulus and averaging operators. The first network layer outputs SIFT-type descriptors whereas the next layers provide complementary invariant information which improves classification. The mathematical analysis of wavelet scattering networks explains important properties of deep convolution networks for classification. A scattering representation of stationary processes incorporates higher order moments and can thus discriminate textures having the same Fourier power spectrum. State of the art classification results are obtained for handwritten digits and texture discrimination, using a Gaussian kernel SVM and a generative PCA classifier.

  20. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  1. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  2. $\\Lambda$ Scattering Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter $\\Lambda$ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting $\\Lambda$ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the $\\Lambda$ algorithm.

  3. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  4. Calorimetric, Viscosimetric, and Light Scattering Studies of the Aggregation of, and the Solubilization of Water by, Triton X-35 in n-Heptane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerge; Grimberg-Michaud; Guerfi; Partyka

    1999-01-15

    The behavior of a nonionic surfactant TX-35 in solution in n-heptane in the presence and absence of added water has been examined using the microcalorimetric, viscosimetric, and quasielastic light scattering experimental methods. In this paper, we were interested in the aggregation process of the poly(oxyethylene) glycol alkylphenyl ether in n-heptane and in the solubilization of water in the reverse micelle of the surfactant (micellar solubilization). The analysis of the differential molar enthalpies of dilution of TX-35 in dried n-heptane has shown the occurrence of a gradual exothermic aggregation process on a very wide range of concentration which takes place at particular concentration so-called "operational CMC". This operational CMC value has been confirmed by viscosities measurements. The differential molar enthalpies of hydration of TX-35 were also measured and found to be exothermic. The maximal hydration ratio (w0) was found to be equal to 3.2 mol H2O per mole of TX-35 before the point of phase separation. The measurements of the variation of the amount of water contained in TX-35 solutions at different concentrations in n-heptane also show the occurence of a gradual aggregation process and confirm the value of the maximal hydration ratio already determined by microcalorimetry. In the absence of added water, from the quasielastic light scattering experiments, a mean diameter of the aggregates close to 45 Å has been determine, while in the presence of water, a mean diameter of 61 Å was detected and remained unchanged with increasing the hydration ratio indicating that the size of the aggregate is more influenced by the presence of water than by the amount. In the presence of water, it is relevant to discuss aggregates of lamellar or filament shape. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  6. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  7. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering studies of exchange biased core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygenson, Mikhail

    2009-03-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements of nanoparticle systems are very few, and we report here the first investigation of exchange biased core-shell nanoparticles. We present a study of spin dynamics in core-shell Co/CoO nanoparticles, which display an exchange bias field of 0.6T. We have used INS measurements to determine how the magnetic dynamics are affected, both by the onset of antiferromagnetic (AF) order at 250K and the subsequent onset of the exchange bias effect at 200K. At the highest temperatures, the scattering consists of two quasielastic peaks. The narrower peak is ascribed to superparamagnetic reorientations of the Co core. The broader peak originates with moments in the CoO shell. Surprisingly, their dynamics speed up with decreased temperature, suggesting that the CoO shell absorbs some of the magnetic energy of the core as exchange blocking is approached. Below 200K, the scattering is dominated by an inelastic peak at ˜3meV. The integrated spin wave intensity grows when the temperature is reduced below 200K, reaches a maximum near 150K, and nearly vanishes at the low temperatures. We attribute this peak to AF spin waves in the CoO shell, and their lack of dispersion and overall energy scale are consistent with predictions for low energy spin waves in bulk CoO [3,4]. It is remarkable that bulk-like spin wave behavior is observed in the CoO shell, which is only 4 nm thick. [3pt] References [0pt] [1] M. Feygenson et al., in preparation [0pt] [2] Inderhees et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 117202 (2008) [0pt] [3] Daniel et al., Phys. Rev. 177, 932 (1969) [0pt] [4] Sakurai et al., Phys. Rev. 167, 510 (1968)

  9. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  10. Inelastic Magnon Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Robert de Mello

    2016-01-01

    We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS$_5\\times$S$^5$. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the $su(2|3)$ sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter) and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate) scattering. Both of these $S$-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase) by the $su(2|2)^2$ global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the $S$-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the $su(2)$ sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a uniq...

  11. Scattering theory. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Harald [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2016-07-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of ''Scattering Theory'' presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is kept as low as at all possible and deeper questions related to the mathematical foundations of scattering theory are passed by. It should be understandable for anyone with a basic knowledge of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers, and it is hoped that it will be useful for theorists and experimentalists alike.

  12. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  13. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  14. Broadband light-scattering spectroscopy on fractal and non-fractal relaxors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreeda, Akitoshi; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Katayama, Daisuke; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    We show the quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) spectra of two groups of relaxors: the first group includes relaxors that exhibit glasslike low-temperature thermal conductivity and heat capacity, namely, Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN), (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT), Pb(Zr1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZN), and (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 (NBT). The other group consists of relaxors exhibiting a normal (crystal) temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and heat capacity, namely, K1- x Li x TaO3 (KLT) and KTa1- x Nb x O3 (KTN). The crystals of the first group yielded self-similar (power-law) QELS spectra, indicating the existence of fractal networks/clusters of polar nanoregions, while those of the second group did not show any self-similarity in the QELS spectra. These results imply that the glasslike low-temperature thermal conductivity and heat capacity in relaxors can be attributed to the vibrational modes specific to fractal networks/clusters formed by polar nanoregions.

  15. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Toshimi Suda

    2014-11-01

    A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world’s first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density distributions of short-lived exotic nuclei by elastic electron scattering. The first collision between electrons and exotic nuclei will be observed in the year 2014.

  16. Neutron scattering studies of dynamic crossover phenomena in a coupled system of biopolymer and its hydration water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S H; Mallamace, F; Chu, X Q; Kim, C; Lagi, M [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Faraone, A [Dipartmento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Messina, Vil. S. Agata CP 55, 98166 Messina (Italy); Fratini, E; Baglioni, P, E-mail: sowhsin@mit.ed [Department of Chemistry and CSGI, University of Florence, 50019 (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    We have observed a Fragile-to-Strong Dynamic Crossover (FSC) phenomenon of the alpha-relaxation time and self-diffusion constant in hydration water of three biopolymers: lysozyme, B-DNA and RNA. The mean squared displacement (MSD) of hydrogen atoms is measured by Elastic Neutron Scattering (ENS) experiments. The alpha-relaxation time is measured by Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) experiments and the self-diffusion constant by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments. We discuss the active role of the FSC of the hydration water in initiating the dynamic crossover phenomenon (so-called glass transition) in the biopolymer. The latter transition controls the flexibility of the biopolymer and sets the low temperature limit of its biofunctionality. Finally, we show an MD simulation of a realistic hydrated powder model of lysozyme and demonstrate the agreement of the MD simulation with the experimental data on the FSC phenomenon in the plot of logarithm of the alpha-relaxation time vs. 1/T.

  17. Small-angle neutron scattering from mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a cationic, bolaform surfactant containing azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, F Pierce; Santonicola, Gabriella; Kaler, Eric W; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2005-07-05

    This paper reports on the microstructures formed in aqueous solutions containing mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a photosensitive, bolaform surfactant, bis(trimethylammoniumhexyloxy)azobenzene dibromide (BTHA). By using quasi-elastic light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined that aqueous solutions containing SDS and the trans isomer of BTHA (0.1 wt % total surfactant, 15 mol % BTHA, 85 mol % SDS) form vesicles with average hydrodynamic diameters of 1350 +/- 50 angstroms and bilayer thicknesses of 35 +/- 2 angstroms. The measured bilayer thickness is consistent with a model of the vesicle bilayer in which the trans isomer of BTHA spans the bilayer. Upon illumination with UV light, the BTHA underwent photoisomerization to produce a cis-rich photostationary state (80% cis isomer). We measured this photoisomerization to drive the reorganization of vesicles into cylindrical aggregates with cross-sectional radii of 19 +/- 3 angstroms and average hydrodynamic diameters of 240 +/- 50 angstroms. Equilibration of the cis-rich solution in the dark at 25 degrees C for 12 h or illumination of the solution with visible light leads to the recovery of the trans-rich photostationary state of the solution and the reformation of vesicles, thus demonstrating the potential utility of this system as the basis of a tunable fluid.

  18. Light-by-light scattering in ultraperipheral Pb-Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    We calculate cross sections for diphoton production in (semi)exclusive PbPb collisions, relevant for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The calculation is based on the equivalent photon approximation in the impact parameter space. The cross sections for the elementary γ γ →γ γ subprocess are calculated including two different mechanisms. We take into account box diagrams with leptons and quarks in the loops. In addition, we consider a vector-meson dominance (VDM-Regge) contribution with virtual intermediate hadronic (vector-like) excitations of the photons. We get measurable cross sections in PbPb collisions. This opens a possibility to study the γ γ →γ γ (quasi)elastic scattering at the LHC. We present many interesting differential distributions which could be measured by the ALICE, CMS, or ATLAS Collaborations at the LHC. We study whether a separation or identification of different components (boxes, VDM-Regge) is possible. We find that the cross section for elastic γ γ scattering could be measured in the heavy-ion collisions for subprocess energies smaller than Wγ γ≈15 -20 GeV.

  19. Nitrogen Scattering at Ru Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaharia, T.; Ueta, H.; Kleyn, A. W.; Gleeson, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results on the scattering of hyperthermal N2 molecules from bare and N-covered Ru(0001) surfaces are presented. These are compared with Ar scattering from the same surfaces as a reference non-reactive system. In the case of bare Ru(0001) the measured angular distributions are consistent with scatter

  20. Low energy + scattering on = nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swapan Das; Arun K Jain

    2003-11-01

    The data for the total cross-section of + scattering on various nuclei have been analysed in the Glauber multiple scattering theory. Energy-dependent +-nucleus optical potential is generated using the forward +-nucleon scattering amplitude and the nuclear density distribution. Along with this, the calculated total +-nucleus cross-sections using the effective +-nucleon cross-section inside the nucleus are also presented.

  1. Scattering with partial information

    CERN Document Server

    Carney, Daniel; Semenoff, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We study relativistic scattering when one only has access to a subset of the particles, using the language of quantum measurement theory. We give an exact, non-perturbative formula for the von Neumann entanglement entropy of an apparatus particle scattered off an arbitrary set of system particles, in either the elastic or inelastic regime, and show how to evaluate it perturbatively. We give general formulas for the late-time expectation values of apparatus observables. Some simple example applications are included: in particular, a protocol to verify preparation of coherent superpositions of spatially localized system states using position-space information in the outgoing apparatus state, at lowest order in perturbation theory in a weak apparatus-system coupling.

  2. Scattering problems in elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatta, Andre; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-09-01

    In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this Rapid Communication, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasistatic regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.

  3. Scattering problems in elastodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Diatta, Andre; Wegener, Martin; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    In electromagnetism, acoustics, and quantum mechanics, scattering problems can routinely be solved numerically by virtue of perfectly matched layers (PMLs) at simulation domain boundaries. Unfortunately, the same has not been possible for general elastodynamic wave problems in continuum mechanics. In this paper, we introduce a corresponding scattered-field formulation for the Navier equation. We derive PMLs based on complex-valued coordinate transformations leading to Cosserat elasticity-tensor distributions not obeying the minor symmetries. These layers are shown to work in two dimensions, for all polarizations, and all directions. By adaptative choice of the decay length, the deep subwavelength PMLs can be used all the way to the quasi-static regime. As demanding examples, we study the effectiveness of cylindrical elastodynamic cloaks of the Cosserat type and approximations thereof.

  4. Protostring Scattering Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    We calculate some tree level scattering amplitudes for a generalization of the protostring, which is a novel string model implied by the simplest string bit models. These bit models produce a lightcone worldsheet which supports $s$ integer moded Grassmann fields. In the generalization we supplement this Grassmann worldsheet system with $d=24-s$ transverse coordinate worldsheet fields. The protostring corresponds to $s=24$ and the bosonic string to $s=0$. The interaction vertex is a simple overlap with no operator insertions at the break/join point. Assuming that $s$ is even we calculate the multi-string scattering amplitudes by bosonizing the Grassmann fields, each pair equivalent to one compactified bosonic field, and applying Mandelstam's interacting string formalism to a system of $s/2$ compactified and $d$ uncompactified bosonic worldsheet fields. We obtain all amplitudes for open strings with no oscillator excitations and for closed strings with no oscillator excitations and zero winding number. We then ...

  5. Scattering fidelity in elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Weaver, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    The recent introduction of the concept of scattering fidelity causes us to revisit the experiment by Lobkis and Weaver [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 254302 (2003)]. There, the “distortion” of the coda of an acoustic signal is measured under temperature changes. This quantity is, in fact, the negative logarithm of scattering fidelity. We reanalyze their experimental data for two samples, and we find good agreement with random matrix predictions for the standard fidelity. Usually, one may expect such an agreement for chaotic systems, only. While the first sample may indeed be assumed chaotic, for the second sample, a perfect cuboid, such an agreement is surprising. For the first sample, the random matrix analysis yields perturbation strengths compatible with semiclassical predictions. For the cuboid, the measured perturbation strengths are by a common factor of (5)/(3) too large. Apart from that, the experimental curves for the distortion are well reproduced.

  6. Coherent Scatter Imaging Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Mahboob

    In conventional radiography, anatomical information of the patients can be obtained, distinguishing different tissue types, e.g. bone and soft tissue. However, it is difficult to obtain appreciable contrast between two different types of soft tissues. Instead, coherent x-ray scattering can be utilized to obtain images which can differentiate between normal and cancerous cells of breast. An x-ray system using a conventional source and simple slot apertures was tested. Materials with scatter signatures that mimic breast cancer were buried in layers of fat of increasing thickness and imaged. The result showed that the contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) remained high even with added fat layers and short scan times.

  7. Molecular-beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M. F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HC1 (FEMALE) NAC1 + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2(2)P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3(2)P/sub 3/2) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  8. Molecular-beam scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  9. Modern Electromagnetic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Section 4.3) of the cylindrical annulus is properly accounted for, and if the cylindrical void is sufficiently small . We refer to this approximation as...tempered distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 CHAPTER 4 MEASURING THE VOID: THEORETICAL STUDY OF SCATTERING BY A CYLINDRICAL ANNULUS ...and phase of the far-field pattern in the forward direction for a Teflon cylindrical annulus in vacuum, with an outer radius of 10 cm at 100 GHz, is

  10. Scattering in ABJ theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Marco S; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Santambrogio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    We study the correspondence between scattering amplitudes and Wilson loops in three-dimensional Chern-Simons matter theories. In particular, using N=2 superspace formalism, we compute at one loop the whole spectrum of four-point superamplitudes for generic N>=2 supersymmetric theories and find a vanishing result for N=6 ABJ(M) and N=8 BLG models. This restricts the possible range of theories for which Wilson loops/scattering amplitudes duality might work. At two loops, we present the computation of the four-point ABJ scattering amplitude for external chiral superfields. Extending the known result for the ABJM Wilson loop to the ABJ case we find perfect agreement. We also discuss the dual conformal invariance of our results and the relationship between the Feynman diagram computation and unitarity methods. While for the ABJM theory dual conformally invariant integrals exactly reproduce the amplitude, for the ABJ case this happens only up to a residual constant depending on the parity-violating parameter. Final...

  11. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  12. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, John

    1975-01-01

    Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge

  13. Precision Measurement of the Spin-dependent Asymmetry in the Threshold Region of Quasielastic 3He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Feng [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The first precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of polarized 3He(polarized e, e') was carried out in Hall A at the Jefferson Laboratory, using a longitudinally polarized continuous electron beam incident on a high-pressure polarized 3He gas target. The polarized electron beam was generated by illuminating a strained GaAs cathode with high intensity circularly polarized laser light, and an average beam polarization of about 70% was achieved. The 3He target was polarized based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumpint and the average target polarization was about 30%. The scattered electrons were detected in the two Hall A high resolution spectrometers, HRSe and HRSh. The data from HRSh were used for this analysis and covered both the elastic peak and the threshold region. Two kinematic points were measured in the threshold region, one with a central Q2-value of 0.1 (GeV/c)2 at an incident beam energy E0 = 0.778 GeV and the other with a central Q2-value of 0.2 (GeV/c)2 at E-0 = 1.727 GeV. The average beam current was 10 mu-A, which was mainly due to the limitation of the polarized 3He target. The measured asymmetry was compared with both plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) calculations and non-relativistic full Faddeev calculations which include both final-state interactions (FSIs) and meson-exchange currents (MECs) effects. The poor description of the data by PWIA calculations at both Q2-values suggests the existence of strong FSI and MEC effects in the threshold region of polarized 3He (polarized e, e'). Indeed, the agreement between the data and full calculations is very good at Q2 = 0.1 (GeV/c)2. On the other hand, a small discrepancy at Q2 = 0.2 (GeV/c)2 is observed, which might be due to some Q2 -dependent effects such as

  14. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  15. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  16. Raman scattering in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Double-Differential Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Like Cross Section on a Hydrocarbon Target at Ev ~ 3.5 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi Paolo [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2016-01-01

    The MINERvA Experiment (Main Injector Experiment v ₋ A interaction) [1] is a highly segmented detector of neutrinos, able to record events with high precision (over than thirteen million event in a four year run), using the NuMI Beam (Neutrino Main Injector) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory [2]. This thesis presents a measurement of the Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Like1 vμ interaction on polystyrene scintillator (CH) in the MINERvA experiment with neutrino energies between 1.5 and 10 GeV. We use data taken between2 March 2010 and April 2012. The interactions were selected by requiring a negative muon, a reconstructed and identified proton, no michel electrons in the final state (in order to get rid of soft pions decaying) and a low calorimetric recoil energy away from the interaction vertex. The analysis is performed on 66,214 quasi-elastic like event candidates in the detectors tracker region with an estimated purity of 74%. The final measurement reported is a double differential cross sections in terms of the muon longitudinal and transversal momentum observables.

  18. Structural and Dynamical Trends in Alkali-Metal Silanides Characterized by Neutron-Scattering Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wan Si; Dimitrievska, Mirjana; Chotard, Jean-Noel; Zhou, Wei; Janot, Raphael; Skripov, Alexander V.; Udovic, Terrence J.

    2016-09-29

    Structural, vibrational, and dynamical properties of the mono- and mixed-alkali silanides (MSiH3, where M = K, Rb, Cs, K0.5Rb0.5, K0.5Cs0.5, and Rb0.5Cs0.5) were investigated by various neutron experiments, including neutron powder diffraction (NPD), neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS), neutron-scattering fixed-window scans (FWSs), and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements. Structural characterization showed that the mixed compounds exhibit disordered (..alpha..) and ordered (..beta..) phases for temperatures above and below about 200-250 K, respectively, in agreement with their monoalkali correspondents. Vibrational and dynamical properties are strongly influenced by the cation environment; in particular, there is a red shift in the band energies of the librational and bending modes with increasing lattice size as a result of changes in the bond lengths and force constants. Additionally, slightly broader spectral features are observed in the case of the mixed compounds, indicating the presence of structural disorder caused by the random distribution of the alkali-metal cations within the lattice. FWS measurements upon heating showed that there is a large increase in reorientational mobility as the systems go through the order-disorder (..beta..-..alpha..) phase transition, and measurements upon cooling of the ..alpha..-phase revealed the known strong hysteresis for reversion back to the ..beta..-phase. Interestingly, at a given temperature, among the different alkali silanide compounds, the relative reorientational mobilities of the SiH3- anions in the ..alpha..- and ..beta..-phases tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with increasing alkali-metal mass. This dynamical result might provide some insights concerning the enthalpy-entropy compensation effect previously observed for these potentially promising hydrogen storage materials.

  19. A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    random seed and an input parameter file defining the physical characteristics of a tree (e.g., tree and trunk shape, number of branch levels, branch...elements. In most realistic scenarios, the individual scatterers of a trunk are not expected to be shadowed by other scatterers belonging to the same...trunk—in other words, a trunk cannot shadow itself. As such, in calculating the transmissivity matrices for the scatterers of a particular tree trunk

  20. Protostring scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Charles B.

    2016-11-01

    We calculate some tree-level scattering amplitudes for a generalization of the protostring, which is a novel string model implied by the simplest string bit models. These bit models produce a light-cone world sheet which supports s integer moded Grassmann fields. In the generalization we supplement this Grassmann world-sheet system with d =24 -s transverse coordinate world-sheet fields. The protostring corresponds to s =24 and the bosonic string to s =0 . The interaction vertex is a simple overlap with no operator insertions at the break/join point. Assuming that s is even we calculate the multistring scattering amplitudes by bosonizing the Grassmann fields, each pair equivalent to one compactified bosonic field, and applying Mandelstam's interacting string formalism to a system of s /2 compactified and d uncompactified bosonic world-sheet fields. We obtain all amplitudes for open strings with no oscillator excitations and for closed strings with no oscillator excitations and zero winding number. We then study in detail some simple special cases. Multistring processes with maximal helicity violation have much simpler amplitudes. We also specialize to general four-string amplitudes and discuss their high energy behavior. Most of these models are not covariant under the full Lorentz group O (d +1 ,1 ). The exceptions are the bosonic string whose Lorentz group is O (25 ,1 ) and the protostring whose Lorentz group is O (1 ,1 ). The models in between only enjoy an O (1 ,1 )×O (d ) spacetime symmetry.

  1. Scattering and coherence in EUVL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, Tomas D.; Beaudry, Neil A.

    1998-06-01

    We illustrate the importance of considering scattering from the illuminator in extreme UV lithography systems. Our results indicate that a significant amount of amplitude modulation noise is present in the aerial image if scatter is present in a Koehler illuminator. The effect depends on the spatial frequency of the pattern on the mask, the numerical aperture of the projection camera, the coherence factor, and placement of the plane in the illuminator where the scattering occurs.

  2. Light scattering by small particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hulst, H C van de

    1981-01-01

    ""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties

  3. Born approximation, scattering, and algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alex; Hu, Mengqi; Gu, Haicheng; Qiao, Zhijun

    2015-05-01

    In the past few decades, there were many imaging algorithms designed in the case of the absence of multiple scattering. Recently, we discussed an algorithm for removing high order scattering components from collected data. This paper is a continuation of our previous work. First, we investigate the current state of multiple scattering in SAR. Then, we revise our method and test it. Given an estimate of our target reflectivity, we compute the multi scattering effects in the target region for various frequencies. Furthermore, we propagate this energy through free space towards our antenna, and remove it from the collected data.

  4. Scattering from isospectral quantum graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Band, R; Sawicki, A; Smilansky, U, E-mail: rami.band@weizmann.ac.i, E-mail: assawi@cft.edu.p, E-mail: uzy.smilansky@weizmann.ac.i [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2010-10-15

    Quantum graphs can be extended to scattering systems when they are connected by leads to infinity. It is shown that for certain extensions, the scattering matrices of isospectral graphs are conjugate to each other and their poles distributions are therefore identical. The scattering matrices are studied using a recently developed isospectral theory (Band et al 2009 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 175202 and Parzanchevski and Band 2010 J. Geom. Anal. 20 439-71). At the same time, the scattering approach offers a new insight on the mentioned isospectral construction.

  5. Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Komech, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A simplified, yet rigorous treatment of scattering theory methods and their applications Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory provides thorough, easy-to-understand guidance on the application of scattering theory methods to modern problems in mathematics, quantum physics, and mathematical physics. Introducing spectral methods with applications to dispersion time-decay and scattering theory, this book presents, for the first time, the Agmon-Jensen-Kato spectral theory for the Schr?dinger equation, extending the theory to the Klein-Gordon equation. The dispersion decay plays a crucial role i

  6. Advances in total scattering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Hyunjeong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  7. Heterodyne Near-Field Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Brogioli, D; Giglio, M; Giglio, Marzio

    2002-01-01

    We describe an optical technique based on the statistical analysis of the random intensity distribution due to the interference of the near-field scattered light with the strong transmitted beam. It is shown that, from the study of the two-dimensional power spectrum of the intensity, one derives the scattered intensity as a function of the scattering wave vector. Near-field conditions are specified and discussed. The substantial advantages over traditional scattering technique are pointed out, and is indicated that the technique could be of interest for wave lengths other than visible light.

  8. PREFACE: Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering Structure and dynamics determined by neutron and x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2011-06-01

    structure of pyroxene-type MnGeO3 G J Redhammer, A Senyshyn, G Tippelt and G Roth Nanostructured diblock copolymer films with embedded magnetic nanoparticles Xin Xia, Ezzeldin Metwalli, Matthias A Ruderer, Volker Körstgens, Peter Busch, Peter Böni and Peter Müller-Buschbaum Thermal expansion of a La-based bulk metallic glass: insight from in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction J Bednarcik, S Michalik, M Sikorski, C Curfs, X D Wang, J Z Jiang and H Franz The slow short-time motions of phospholipid molecules with a focus on the influence of multiple scattering and fitting artefacts Sebastian Busch and Tobias Unruh Quasi-elastic scattering under short-range order: the linear regime and beyond Michael Leitner and Gero Vogl Structural relaxation as seen by quasielastic neutron scattering on viscous Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be droplets F Yang, T Kordel, D Holland-Moritz, T Unruh and A Meyer In situ observation of cluster formation during nanoparticle solution casting on a colloidal film S V Roth, G Herzog, V Körstgens, A Buffet, M Schwartzkopf, J Perlich, M M Abul Kashem, R Döhrmann, R Gehrke, A Rothkirch, K Stassig, W Wurth, G Benecke, C Li, P Fratzl, M Rawolle and P Müller-Buschbaum Inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering from incommensurate magnetic systems Peter Böni, Bertrand Roessli and Klaudia Hradil Development of magnetic moments in Fe1-xNix-alloys Benjamin Glaubitz, Stefan Buschhorn, Frank Brüssing, Radu Abrudan and Hartmut Zabel Modified mode-coupling theory for the collective dynamics of simple liquids B Schmid and W Schirmacher Inelastic neutron and low-frequency Raman scattering in niobium-phosphate glasses: the role of spatially fluctuating elastic and elasto-optic constants A Schulte, W Schirmacher, B Schmid and T Unruh The effect of heat treatment on the internal structure of nanostructured block copolymer films A Sepe, E T Hoppe, S Jaksch, D Magerl, Q Zhong, J Perlich, D Posselt, D-M Smilgies and C M Papadakis Hydrogen release from sodium alanate observed by time

  9. Optimization of Scatterer Concentration in High-Gain Scattering Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiu-Gao; ZHU He-Yuan; SUN Die-Chi; DU Ge-Guo; LI Fu-Ming

    2001-01-01

    We report the scatterer concentration-dependent behaviour of laser action in high-gain scattering media. Amodified model of a random laser is proposed to explain the experimental results in good agreement. We mayuse this modified model to design and optimize the random laser system. A further detailed model is needed toquantitatively analyse the far-field distribution of random laser action.

  10. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  11. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  12. Neutron Scattering Stiudies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Gunter H.R.; Egan, James J

    2007-04-18

    This project covers four principal areas of research: Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in odd-A terbium, thulium and other highly deformed nuclei near A=160 with special regard to interband transitions and to the investigation of the direct-interaction versus the compound-nucleus excitation process in these nuclei. Examination of new, fast photomultiplier tubes suitable for use in a miniaturized neutron-time-of-flight spectrometer. Measurement of certain inelastic cross sections of 238U. Determination of the multiplicity of prompt fission gamma rays in even-A fissile actinides. Energies and mean lives of fission isomers produced by fast fission of even-Z, even-A actinides. Study of the mean life of 7Be in different host matrices and its possible astro-physical significance.

  13. Elliptic scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Carlos [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University,Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Gomez, Humberto [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade de São Paulo,Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia)

    2016-06-16

    Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a ℂP{sup 2} space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n−gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ−algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.

  14. Quantum scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including with , we study the quantum mechanical scattering theory in the low-energy regime. Using modifiers of the Isozaki--Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the {\\it whole} continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian...

  15. Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotseroglou, T.

    2003-12-19

    This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.

  16. Nitrogen Scattering at Ru Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaharia, T.; Ueta, H.; Kleyn, A.W.; Gleeson, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Results on the scattering of hyperthermal N2 molecules from bare and N-covered Ru(0001) surfaces are presented. These are compared with Ar scattering from the same surfaces as a reference nonreactive system. In the case of bare Ru(0001) the measured angular distributions are consistent with scatteri

  17. Nitrogen Scattering at Ru Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaharia, T.; Ueta, H.; Kleyn, A.W.; Gleeson, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Results on the scattering of hyperthermal N-2 molecules from bare and N-covered Ru(0001) surfaces are presented. These are compared with Ar scattering from the same surfaces as a reference non-reactive system. In the case of bare Ru(0001) the measured angular distributions are consistent with scatte

  18. Dynamic measurement of forward scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rusch, W.

    1975-01-01

    A dynamic method for the measurement of forward scattering in a radio anechoic chamber is described. The quantity determined is the induced-field-ratio (IFR) of conducting cylinders. The determination of the IFR is highly sensitive to 1) multiple scattering between the cylinder and the obpring...

  19. Scattering matrices with block symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Życzkowski, Karol

    1997-01-01

    Scattering matrices with block symmetry, which corresponds to scattering process on cavities with geometrical symmetry, are analyzed. The distribution of transmission coefficient is computed for different number of channels in the case of a system with or without the time reversal invariance. An interpolating formula for the case of gradual time reversal symmetry breaking is proposed.

  20. Scattering matrix theory for stochastic scalar fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Olga; Wolf, Emil

    2007-05-01

    We consider scattering of stochastic scalar fields on deterministic as well as on random media, occupying a finite domain. The scattering is characterized by a generalized scattering matrix which transforms the angular correlation function of the incident field into the angular correlation function of the scattered field. Within the accuracy of the first Born approximation this matrix can be expressed in a simple manner in terms of the scattering potential of the scatterer. Apart from determining the angular distribution of the spectral intensity of the scattered field, the scattering matrix makes it possible also to determine the changes in the state of coherence of the field produced on scattering.

  1. Superradiant scattering of dispersive fields

    CERN Document Server

    Richartz, Maurício; Weinfurtner, Silke; Liberati, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by analogue models of classical and quantum field theory in curved spacetimes and their recent experimental realizations, we consider wave scattering processes of dispersive fields exhibiting two extra degrees of freedom. In particular, we investigate how standard superradiant scattering processes are affected by subluminal or superluminal modifications of the dispersion relation. We analyze simple 1-dimensional toy-models based on fourth-order corrections to the standard second order wave equation and show that low-frequency waves impinging on generic scattering potentials can be amplified during the process. In specific cases, by assuming a simple step potential, we determine quantitatively the deviations in the amplification spectrum that arise due to dispersion, and demonstrate that the amplification can be further enhanced due to the presence of extra degrees of freedom. We also consider dispersive scattering processes in which the medium where the scattering takes place is moving with respect ...

  2. Heavily doped M1−xUxF2+2x fluorites studied by quasielastic neutron scattering(M=Ba) and specific heat measurements (M=Pb)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Hessel; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Kjems, Jørgen

    1983-01-01

    The thermal generation of defects in pure and doped Pb1−xUxF2+2x (x=0, 0.05and0.10) has been studied by specific heat measurements between 475 k and 875 k. A simple phenomenological mean field thermodynamic model has been developed and used to interpret the data. At low temperatures the result...

  3. Multiple scattering expansion with distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1980-12-01

    A multiple scattering description of elastic scattering is formulated in terms of impulsive scatterings from single target nucleons and pairs of target nucleons. In this description, distortion effects on the projectile from the residual medium are also described by multiple scattering in terms of the same single and pair amplitudes. At the level of single scattering, this procedure yields the first order optical potential result of Kerman, McManus, and Thaler. When scattering from both single nucleons and pairs of nucleons is included, the method leads to a one-body integral equation which requires the physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. This input is similar, but not exactly equivalent to that required by the spectator expansion for the optical potential truncated at second order. A principal advantage of the present formulation is that there need be no explicit dependence upon the projection operator Q which projects off the target ground state. This feature introduces a scaling which appears to be a direct extension of the first order Kerman, McManus, and Thaler type of scaling. We follow up suggestions arising in the foregoing to show that the exact optical potential to second order in the spectator expansion can also be cast into a form having no explicit dependence upon Q, and requiring physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Multiple scattering from single nucleons, pairs of nucleons in nucleus. Distortion from residual medium. Optical potential. spectator expansion.

  4. Quantum theory of Thomson scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, B. J. B.; Gregori, G.

    2014-12-01

    The general theory of the scattering of electromagnetic radiation in atomic plasmas and metals, in the non-relativistic regime, in which account is taken of the Kramers-Heisenberg polarization terms in the Hamiltonian, is described from a quantum mechanical viewpoint. As well as deriving the general formula for the double differential Thomson scattering cross section in an isotropic finite temperature multi-component system, this work also considers closely related phenomena such as absorption, refraction, Raman scattering, resonant (Rayleigh) scattering and Bragg scattering, and derives many essential relationships between these quantities. In particular, the work introduces the concept of scattering strength and the strength-density field which replaces the normal particle density field in the standard treatment of scattering by a collection of similar particles and it is the decomposition of the strength-density correlation function into more familiar-looking components that leads to the final result. Comparisons are made with previous work, in particular that of Chihara [1].

  5. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  6. Polymer and Water Dynamics in Poly(vinyl alcohol/Poly(methacrylate Networks. A Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Incoherent Neutron Scattering Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Chiessi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemically cross-linked polymer networks of poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(methacrylate form monolitic hydrogels and microgels suitable for biomedical applications, such as in situ tissue replacement and drug delivery. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD simulation and incoherent neutron scattering methods are used to study the local polymer dynamics and the polymer induced modification of water properties in poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(methacrylate hydrogels. This information is particularly relevant when the diffusion of metabolites and drugs is a requirement for the polymer microgel functionality. MD simulations of an atomic detailed model of the junction domain at the experimental hydration degree were carried out at 283, 293 and 313 K. The polymer-water interaction, the polymer connectivity and the water dynamics were investigated as a function of temperature. Simulation results are compared with findings of elastic and quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering measurements, experimental approaches which sample the same space-time window of MD simulations. This combined analysis shows a supercooled water component and an increase of hydrophilicity and mobility with temperature of these amphiphilic polymer networks.

  7. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.

  8. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  9. Light scattering reviews 9 light scattering and radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    This book details modern methods of the radiative transfer theory. It presents recent advances in light scattering (measurements and theory) and highlights the newest developments in remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties.

  10. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2006-01-01

    Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-prese

  11. Electron scattering from 92Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, T. E.; Connelly, J. P.; Heisenberg, J. H.; Hersman, F. W.; Wise, J. E.; Papanicolas, C. N.

    1990-06-01

    Differential cross sections for electron scattering from 92Mo have been measured for excitation energies less than 5.1 MeV over a range of momentum transfer of 0.5 to 3.1 fm-1. The elastic scattering data are analyzed along with existing electron and muonic atom data to provide an improved description of the ground-state charge distribution. The inelastic scattering data have been analyzed to extract electromagnetic transition densities. These densities are interpreted in terms of the underlying nuclear structure.

  12. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues.

  13. Neutron scattering and hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Ramirez-Cuesta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen has been identified as a fuel of choice for providing clean energy for transport and other applications across the world and the development of materials to store hydrogen efficiently and safely is crucial to this endeavour. Hydrogen has the largest scattering interaction with neutrons of all the elements in the periodic table making neutron scattering ideal for studying hydrogen storage materials. Simultaneous characterisation of the structure and dynamics of these materials during hydrogen uptake is straightforward using neutron scattering techniques. These studies will help us to understand the fundamental properties of hydrogen storage in realistic conditions and hence design new hydrogen storage materials.

  14. Vector boson scattering at CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.

  15. Pulsed Laser Nonlinear Thomson Scattering for General Scattering Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft; A. Doyuran; James Rosenzweig

    2005-05-01

    In a recent paper it has been shown that single electron Thomson backscatter calculations can be performed including the effects of pulsed high intensity lasers. In this paper we present a more detailed treatment of the problem and present results for more general scattering geometries. In particular, we present new results for 90 degree Thomson scattering. Such geometries have been increasingly studied as X-ray sources of short-pulse radiation. Also, we present a clearer physical basis for these different cases.

  16. Unveiling small sphere's scattering behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzarouchis, Dimitrios C; Sihvola, Ari

    2016-01-01

    A classical way for exploring the scattering behavior of a small sphere is to approximate Mie coefficients with a Taylor series expansion. This ansatz delivered a plethora of insightful results, mostly for small spheres supporting electric localized plasmonic resonances. However, many scattering aspects are still uncharted, especially for the case of magnetic resonances. Here, an alternative system ansatz is proposed based on the Pad\\'e approximants for the Mie coefficients. The extracted results reveal new aspects, such as the existence of a self-regulating radiative damping mechanism for the first magnetic resonance. Hence, a systematic way of exploring the scattering behavior is introduced, sharpening our understanding about sphere's scattering behavior and its emergent functionalities.

  17. Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jakeman, E

    2006-01-01

    Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...

  18. Scattering theory with path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfelder, R. [Particle Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

  19. Scattering Theory with Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfelder, R

    2013-01-01

    Starting from well-known expressions for the $T$-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

  20. Light Scattering in Solid IX

    CERN Document Server

    Cardona, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This is the ninth volume of a well-established series in which expert practitioners discuss topical aspects of light scattering in solids. It reviews recent developments concerning mainly semiconductor nanostructures and inelastic x-ray scattering, including both coherent time-domain and spontaneous scattering studies. In the past few years, light scattering has become one of the most important research and characterization methods for studying carbon nanotubes and semiconducting quantum dots, and a crucial tool for exploring the coupled exciton--photon system in semiconductor cavities. Among the novel techniques discussed in this volume are pump--probe ultrafast measurements and those which use synchrotron radiation as light source. The book addresses improvements in the intensity, beam quality and time synchronization of modern synchrotron sources, which made it possible to measure the phonon dispersion in very small samples and to determine electronic energy bands as well as enabling real-time observations...

  1. Rytov approximation in electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehl, Jonas; Lubk, Axel

    2017-06-01

    In this work we introduce the Rytov approximation in the scope of high-energy electron scattering with the motivation of developing better linear models for electron scattering. Such linear models play an important role in tomography and similar reconstruction techniques. Conventional linear models, such as the phase grating approximation, have reached their limits in current and foreseeable applications, most importantly in achieving three-dimensional atomic resolution using electron holographic tomography. The Rytov approximation incorporates propagation effects which are the most pressing limitation of conventional models. While predominately used in the weak-scattering regime of light microscopy, we show that the Rytov approximation can give reasonable results in the inherently strong-scattering regime of transmission electron microscopy.

  2. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquada, John M., E-mail: jtran@bnl.gov; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-15

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron–pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues. - Highlights: • High-temperature superconductivity is closely associated with antiferromagnetism. • Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist with the superconductivity. • Neutron scattering is essential for characterising the full spectrum of spin excitations.

  3. Classical scattering from oscillating targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papachristou, P.K.; Diakonos, F.K.; Constantoudis, V.; Schmelcher, P.; Benet, L

    2002-12-30

    We study planar classical scattering from an oscillating heavy target whose dynamics defines a five-dimensional phase space. Although the system possesses no periodic orbits, and thus topological chaos is not present, the scattering functions display a variety of structures on different time scales. These structures are due to scattering events with a strong energy transfer from the projectile to the moving disk resulting in low-velocity peaks. We encounter initial conditions for which the projectile exhibits infinitely many bounces with the oscillating disk. Our numerical investigations are supported by analytical results on a specific model with a simple time-law. The observed properties possess universal character for scattering off oscillating targets.

  4. Scattering of light by crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, William

    2012-01-01

    This authoritative graduate-level text describes inelastic light scattering by crystals and its use in the investigation of solid-state excitation, with experimental techniques common to all types of excitation. 1978 edition.

  5. Integration Rules for Scattering Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bourjaily, Jacob L; Damgaard, Poul H

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any M\\"obius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  6. Integration rules for scattering equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-09-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints fo any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  7. Nanocatalytic resonance scattering spectral analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The resonance scattering spectral technique has been established using the synchronous scanning technique on spectrofluorometry.Because of its advantages of simplicity,rapidity and sensitivity,it has been widely applied to analyses of proteins,nucleic acids and inorganic ions.This paper summarizes the application of immunonanogold and aptamer modified nanogold(AptAu) catalytic resonance scattering spectral technique in combination with the work of our group,citing 53 references.

  8. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E.

    1994-02-01

    Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions.

  9. Euclidean formulation of diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Meggiolaro, E

    2005-01-01

    After a brief review (in the first part) of some relevant properties of the high-energy parton-parton scattering amplitudes, in the second part we shall discuss the infrared finiteness and some analyticity properties of the loop-loop scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, when going from Minkowskian to Euclidean theory, and we shall see how they can be related to the still unsolved problem of the s-dependence of the hadron-hadron total cross-sections.

  10. Double parton scattering in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sunar Cerci, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    Recent results on the double parton scattering measurements performed using the proton-proton collision data collected with the CMS detector are presented. The observables, which are sensitive to double parton scattering, are investigated after being corrected for detector effects and selection efficiencies. Multivariate analysis techniques are used for increasing the sensitivity. The effective cross section, $\\sigma_{eff}$ is also extracted using different processes at various center-of-mass energies.

  11. Structure and collective dynamics of hydrated anti-freeze protein type III from 180 K to 298 K by X-ray diffraction and inelastic X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koji; Baron, Alfred Q R; Uchiyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    2016-04-07

    We investigated hydrated antifreeze protein type III (AFP III) powder with a hydration level h (=mass of water/mass of protein) of 0.4 in the temperature range between 180 K and 298 K using X-ray diffraction and inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS). The X-ray diffraction data showed smooth, largely monotonic changes between 180 K and 298 K without freezing water. Meanwhile, the collective dynamics observed by IXS showed a strong change in the sound velocity at 180 K, after being largely temperature independent at higher temperatures (298-220 K). We interpret this change in terms of the dynamic transition previously discussed using other probes including THz IR absorption spectroscopy and incoherent elastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. This finding suggests that the dynamic transition of hydrated proteins is observable on the subpicosecond time scale as well as nano- and pico-second scales, both in collective dynamics from IXS and single particle dynamics from neutron scattering. Moreover, it is most likely that the dynamic transition of hydrated AFP III is not directly correlated with its hydration structure.

  12. Parity Violation in elastic electron scattering : A first measurment of the parity-violating Asymmetry at Q2 = 0.631 GeV/c2 at Backward Angle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Stephanie L. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The goal of Experiment E04-115 (the G0 backward angle measurement) at Jefferson Lab is to investigate the contributions of strange quarks to the fundamental properties of the nucleon. The experiment measures parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron scattering off hydrogen and quasielastic electron scattering off deuterium at backward angles at Q2 = 0.631 (GeV/c)2 and Q2 = 0.232 (GeV/c)2. The backward angle measurement represents the second phase of the G0 experiment. The first phase, Experiment E00-006 (the G0 forward angle experiment), measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron scattering off hydrogen at forward angles over a Q2 range of 0.1-1.0 (GeV/c)2. The experiments used a polarized electron beam and unpolarized hydrogen and deuterium liquid targets. From these measurements, along with the electromagnetic form factors, one can extract the contribution of the strange quark to the proton's charge and magnetization distributions. This thesis represents a fi

  13. Scattering in Relativistic Particle Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bievre, Stephan

    The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis we study scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. We use our results to analyse gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. We first present a general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics. This permits a model-independent and geometric definition of the notions of asymptotic completeness and of Moller and scattering operators. Subsequent analysis of these concepts divides into two parts. First, we study the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e. those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group. We classify all canonical (symplectic) scattering transformations on the relativistic phase space for two free particles in terms of a single function of the two invariants of the theory. We show how this function is determined by the center of mass time delay and scattering angle and vice versa. The second part of our analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Hence, we turn to two approaches to relativistic particle mechanics: the Hamiltonian constraint models and the manifestly covariant formalism. Using general geometric arguments, we prove "gauge invariance" of the scattering transformation in the Todorov -Komar Hamiltonian constraint model. We conclude that the scattering cross sections of the Todorov-Komar models have the same angular dependence as their non-relativistic counterpart, irrespective of a choice of gauge. This limits the physical relevance of those models. We present a physically non -trivial Hamiltonian constraint model, starting from

  14. Fundamentals of neutron scattering by condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherm, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this introductory lecture is to give the basic facts about the scattering of neutrons by condensed matter. This lecture is restricted to nuclear scattering, whereas magnetic scattering will be dealt with in an other course. Most of the formalism, however, can also be easily extended to magnetic scattering. (author) 17 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  15. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  16. High frequency and pulse scattering physical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Pierce, Allan D

    1992-01-01

    High Frequency and Pulse Scattering investigates high frequency and pulse scattering, with emphasis on the phenomenon of echoes from objects. Geometrical and catastrophe optics methods in scattering are discussed, along with the scattering of sound pulses and the ringing of target resonances. Caustics and associated diffraction catastrophes are also examined.Comprised of two chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of geometrically based approximation methods in scattering theory, focusing on waves transmitted through fluid and elastic scatterers and glory scattering; surface ray r

  17. A hybrid Scatter/Transform cloaking model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Licht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Scatter/Transform cloak is developed that combines the light bending of refraction characteristic of a Transform cloak with the scatter cancellation characteristic of a Scatter cloak. The hybrid cloak incorporates both Transform’s variable index of refraction with modified linear intrusions to maximize the Scatter cloak effect. Scatter/Transform improved the scattering cross-section of cloaking in a 2-dimensional space to 51.7% compared to only 39.6% or 45.1% respectively with either Scatter or Transform alone. Metamaterials developed with characteristics based on the new ST hybrid cloak will exhibit superior cloaking capabilities.

  18. Nonlinear scattering in plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear phenomena provide novel light manipulation capabilities and innovative applications. Recently, we discovered nonlinear saturation on single-particle scattering of gold nanospheres by continuous-wave laser excitation and innovatively applied to improve microscopic resolution down to λ/8. However, the nonlinearity was limited to the green-orange plasmonic band of gold nanosphere, and the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully understood. In this work, we demonstrated that nonlinear scattering exists for various material/geometry combinations, thus expanding the applicable wavelength range. For near-infrared, gold nanorod is used, while for blue-violet, silver nanospheres are adopted. In terms of mechanism, the nonlinearity may originate from interband/intraband absorption, hot electron, or hot lattice, which are spectrally mixed in the case of gold nanosphere. For gold nanorod and silver nanosphere, nonlinear scattering occurs at plasmonic resonances, which are spectrally far from interband/intraband absorptions, so they are excluded. We found that the nonlinear index is much larger than possible contributions from hot electrons in literature. Therefore, we conclude that hot lattice is the major mechanism. In addition, we propose that similar to z-scan, which is the standard method to characterize nonlinearity of a thin sample, laser scanning microscopy should be adopted as the standard method to characterize nonlinearity from a nanostructure. Our work not only provides the physical mechanism of the nonlinear scattering, but also paves the way toward multi-color superresolution imaging based on non-bleaching plasmonic scattering.

  19. Thomson scattering from laser plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J D; Alley, W E; De Groot, J S; Estabrook, K G; Glenzer, S H; Hammer, J H; Jadaud, J P; MacGowan, B J; Rozmus, W; Suter, L J; Williams, E A

    1999-01-12

    Thomson scattering has recently been introduced as a fundamental diagnostic of plasma conditions and basic physical processes in dense, inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Experiments at the Nova laser facility [E. M. Campbell et al., Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] have demonstrated accurate temporally and spatially resolved characterization of densities, electron temperatures, and average ionization levels by simultaneously observing Thomson scattered light from ion acoustic and electron plasma (Langmuir) fluctuations. In addition, observations of fast and slow ion acous- tic waves in two-ion species plasmas have also allowed an independent measurement of the ion temperature. These results have motivated the application of Thomson scattering in closed-geometry inertial confinement fusion hohlraums to benchmark integrated radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of fusion plasmas. For this purpose a high energy 4{omega} probe laser was implemented recently allowing ultraviolet Thomson scattering at various locations in high-density gas-filled hohlraum plasmas. In partic- ular, the observation of steep electron temperature gradients indicates that electron thermal transport is inhibited in these gas-filled hohlraums. Hydrodynamic calcula- tions which include an exact treatment of large-scale magnetic fields are in agreement with these findings. Moreover, the Thomson scattering data clearly indicate axial stagnation in these hohlraums by showing a fast rise of the ion temperature. Its timing is in good agreement with calculations indicating that the stagnating plasma will not deteriorate the implosion of the fusion capsules in ignition experiments.

  20. Helium atom scattering from surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    High resolution helium atom scattering can be applied to study a number of interesting properties of solid surfaces with great sensitivity and accuracy. This book treats in detail experimental and theoretical aspects ofthis method as well as all current applications in surface science. The individual chapters - all written by experts in the field - are devoted to the investigation of surface structure, defect shapes and concentrations, the interaction potential, collective and localized surface vibrations at low energies, phase transitions and surface diffusion. Over the past decade helium atom scattering has gained widespread recognitionwithin the surface science community. Points in its favour are comprehensiveunderstanding of the scattering theory and the availability of well-tested approximation to the rigorous theory. This book will be invaluable to surface scientists wishing to make an informed judgement on the actual and potential capabilities of this technique and its results.

  1. Single-Scattering Optical Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Markel, V A; Markel, Vadim A.; Schotland, John C.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel tomographic imaging modality. The proposed technique utilizes visible or near-infrared light as a tissue probe in the ``mesoscopic'' scattering regime when the tissue layer exhibits sufficiently strong scattering so that its direct visual inspection is not possible, yet transmitted and reflected light are not diffuse. The forward model for light propagation in tissues is based on the scattering-order expansion of the radiative transport equation Green's function. The associated inverse problem is similar to the problem of inverting the Radon transform of x-ray tomography, except that the ray integrals are evaluated not along straight lines but along broken rays. As a result, the method does not require rotating the imaging device around the sample and taking multiple projections and, therefore, can be used in backscattering. An algebraic image reconstruction algorithm is numerically implemented using computer-generated data. An analytic image reconstruction formula analogous to the filtere...

  2. SCATTERING FROM RAMIFIED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Benhamou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, of great interest to us is a quantitative study of the scattering properties from ramified polymeric systems of arbitrary topology. We consider three types of systems, namely ramified polymers in solution, ramified polymer blends, or ternary mixtures made of two ramified polymers of different chemical nature immersed in a good solvent. To achieve the goal of the study, use is made of the Random Phase Approximation. First we determine the exact expression of the form factor of an ideal ramified polymer of any topology, from which we extract the exact expression of its gyration radius. Using the classical Zimm's formulae and the exact form factor, we determine all scattering properties of these three types of ramified polymeric systems. The main conclusion is that ramification of the chains induces drastic changes of the scattering properties.

  3. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  4. Light Scattering in Exoplanet Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-10-01

    Transit spectroscopy is currently the leading technique for studying exoplanet atmospheric composition, and has led to the detection of molecular species, clouds, and/or hazes for numerous worlds outside the Solar System. The field of exoplanet transit spectroscopy will be revolutionized with the anticipated launch of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2018. Over the course of the design five year mission for JWST, the observatory is expected to provide in-depth observations of many tens of transiting exoplanets, including some worlds in the poorly understood 2-4 Earth-mass regime. As the quality of transit spectrum observations continues to improve, so should models of exoplanet transits. Thus, certain processes initially thought to be of second-order importance should be revisited and possibly added to modeling tools. For example, atmospheric refraction, which was commonly omitted from early transit spectrum models, has recently been shown to be of critical importance in some terrestrial exoplanet transits. Beyond refraction, another process that has seen little study with regards to exoplanet transits is light multiple scattering. In most cases, scattering opacity in exoplanet transits has been treated as equivalent to absorption opacity. However, this equivalence cannot always hold, such as in the case of a strongly forward scattering, weakly absorbing aerosol. In this presentation, we outline a theory of exoplanet transit spectroscopy that spans the geometric limit (used in most modern models) to a fully multiple scattering approach. We discuss a new technique for improving model efficiency that effectively separates photon paths, which tend to vary slowly in wavelength, from photon absorption, which can vary rapidly in wavelength. Using this newly developed approach, we explore situations where cloud or haze scattering may be important to JWST observations of gas giants, and comment on the conditions necessary for scattering to become a major

  5. Optical scattering measurement and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stover, John C

    2012-01-01

    Newly included are scatter models for pits and particles as well as the use of wafer scanners to locate and size isolated surface features. New sections cover the multimillion-dollar wafer scanner business, establishing that microroughness is the noise, not the signal, in these systems. Scatter measurements, now routinely used to determine whether small-surface features are pits or particles and inspiring new technology that provides information on particle material, are also discussed. These new capabilities are now supported by a series of international standards, and a new chapter reviews t

  6. Scattering behaviour of Janus particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kaya, H

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in polymer synthesis has produced so-called Janus micelles: tailor-made copolymer structures in which the blocks constitute separate moieties. We present expressions for the form factors, P(Q), and the radii of gyration, R sub g , of Janus particles with spherical and cylindrical morphology and check their validity by comparison to simulated scattering data, calculated from Monte Carlo generations of the pair-distance distribution function, p(r). The effect of block incompatibilities on the scattering is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. New Techniques in Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas Okkels

    Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher...... potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA...

  8. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Charles W; Thompson, Jonathan V; Traverso, Andrew J; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.

  9. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.

  10. Optical scattering in glass ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattarelli, M.; Montagna, M.; Verrocchio, P.

    2008-01-01

    The transparency of glass ceramics with nanocrystals is generally higher than that expected from the theory of Rayleigh scattering. We attribute this ultra-transparency to the spatial correlation of the nanoparticles. The structure factor is calculated for a simple model system, the random sequentia

  11. Quantum scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    2009-01-01

    For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including V(x):=−γ|x|−μ with 0low-energy regime. Using appropriate modifiers of the Isozaki–Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the whole continuous spectrum...

  12. Antiproton-Proton Glory Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures @*p and K|-p backwards scattering between 8 and 16 GeV/c in the Omega spectrometer using the S1 beam, with sensitivities of several events per nanobarn. The mechanism responsible for backward scattering in channels not mediated by particle exchange is not understood, and could be almost energy-independent glory scattering, especially since relatively high cross sections of 190~(@*p) and 120~(K|-p)nb have been measured earlier at 5~GeV/c. @p|-p backwards scattering is measured for monitoring purposes. The trigger requires a forward particle of momentum close to the beam momentum. Absence of light in the two forward Cerenkov counters indicates that the particle is a proton. Combinations of an incident @p|- and an outgoing K|+, or an incident K|- or @* and an outgoing @p|+, cover the following byproducts: @*p~@A~@p|+@p|- which is an (allowed) baryon exchange reaction, and the exotic exchange reactions @p|-p~@A~K|+Y K|-p~@A~@p|+Y|-, where Y|- may be the @S|- or the Y*|-(1385).

  13. Light repolarization by scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Sorrentini, Jacques; Soriano, Gabriel; Amra, Claude

    2011-01-01

    The polarization of a coherent depolarized incident light beam passing through a disordered medium is investigated. The local polarization of the scattered far field and the probability density function are calculated and show an excellent agreement with experiment. It is demonstrated that complex media may confer high degree of polarization (0.75 DOP average) to the incident unpolarized light.

  14. Effective potential for relativistic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elbistan, Mahmut; Balog, Janos

    2016-01-01

    We consider quantum inverse scattering with singular potentials and calculate the Sine-Gordon model effective potential in the laboratory and centre-of-mass frames. The effective potentials are frame dependent but closely resemble the zero-momentum potential of the equivalent Ruijsenaars-Schneider model.

  15. Geometric Scattering in Robotic Telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Schaft, Arjan van der; Maschke, Bernhard; Melchiorri, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interconnection of two robots, which are modeled as port-controlled Hamiltonian systems through a transmission line with time delay. There will be no analysis of the time delay, but its presence justifies the use of scattering variables to preserve passivity. The contribu

  16. An Analysis of Scatter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the degree of a scatter d€omposition reduces the commonl processor workload variance. Tlhe ntccesssry assmlptions are that the workload process bc ...5 ot :5 2. 11 P and n be given suck that P divides n evenly, and let A,%t be the P X it ossignmint matriz dscribing the mtodular mapping. Then for

  17. What is Double Parton Scattering?

    CERN Document Server

    Manohar, Aneesh V

    2012-01-01

    Processes such as double Drell-Yan and same-sign WW production have contributions from double parton scattering, which are not well-defined because of a delta(z_\\perp=0) singularity that is generated by QCD evolution. We study the single and double parton contributions to these processes, and show how to handle the singularity using factorization and operator renormalization.

  18. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...

  19. Nuclear matter and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, I. [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)

  20. Alpha particle collective Thomson scattering in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Rhee, D.Y.; Gilmore, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; Bretz, N.L.; Park, H.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Aamodt, R.E.; Cheung, P.Y.; Russell, D.A. [Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Bindslev, H. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1993-11-01

    A collective Thomson scattering diagnostic is being implemented on TFTR to measure alpha particle, energetic and thermal ion densities and velocity distributions. A 60 GHz, 0.1-1 kW gyrotron will be used as the transmitter source, and the scattering geometry will be perpendicular to the magnetic field in the extraordinary mode polarization. An enhanced scattered signal is anticipated from fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range with this scattering geometry. Millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics have the advantage of larger scattering angles to decrease the amount of stray light, and long, high power, modulated pulses to obtain improved signal to noise through synchronous detection techniques.

  1. Neutron scattering studies of structure, hydrothermal stability and transport in porous silica catalyst supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Rachel A.

    Mesoporous materials are interesting as catalyst supports, because molecules can move efficiently in and out of the pore network, but they must be stable in water if they are to be used for the production of biofuels. Before investigating hydrothermal stability and transport properties, the pore structure of SBA-15 was characterized using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and non-local density functional theory (NLDFT) analysis of nitrogen sorption isotherms. A new Contrast Matching SANS method, using a range of probe molecules to directly probe the micropore size, gave a pore size distribution onset of 6 ± 0.2 Å, consistent with cylindrical pores formed from polymer template strands that unravel into the silica matrix. Diffraction intensity analysis of SANS measurements, combined with pore size distributions calculated from NLDFT, showed that the secondary pores are distributed relatively uniformly throughout the silica framework. The hydrothermal stability of SBA-15 was evaluated using a post-calcination hydrothermal treatment in both liquid and vapor phase water. The results were consistent with a degradation mechanism in which silica dissolves from regions of small positive curvature, e.g. near the entrance to the secondary pores, and is re-deposited deeper into the framework. Under water treatment at 115 °C, the mesopore diameter increases and the intra-wall void fraction decreases significantly. The behavior is similar for steam treatment, but occurs more slowly, suggesting that transport is faster when condensation occurs in the pores. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements of methane in SBA-15 probed the rotational and translational motion as a function of temperature and loading. A qualitative analysis of the QENS data suggested that for the initial dose of methane at 100 K, the self diffusion constant is similar in magnitude to literature values for methane in ZSM-5 and Y-zeolite, showing that the secondary pores trap methane and limit

  2. Nucleon scattering on actinides using a dispersive optical model with extended couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhovitskiĩ, E. Sh.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Chiba, S.; Martyanov, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Tamura coupling model [Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 679 (1965), 10.1103/RevModPhys.37.679] has been extended to consider the coupling of additional low-lying rotational bands to the ground-state band. Rotational bands are built on vibrational bandheads (even-even targets) or single-particle bandheads (odd-A targets) including both axial and nonaxial deformations. These additional excitations are introduced as a perturbation to the underlying axially symmetric rigid-rotor structure of the ground-state rotational band. Coupling matrix elements of the generalized optical model are derived for extended multiband transitions in even-even and odd-A nuclei. Isospin symmetric formulation of the optical model is employed. A coupled-channels optical-model potential (OMP) containing a dispersive contribution is used to fit simultaneously all available optical experimental databases including neutron strength functions for nucleon scattering on 232Th,233,235,238U, and 239Pu nuclei. Quasielastic (p ,n ) scattering data on 232Th and 238U to the isobaric analog states of the target nucleus are also used to constrain the isovector part of the optical potential. Lane consistent OMP is derived for all actinides if corresponding multiband coupling schemes are defined. For even-even (odd-A ) actinides almost all low-lying collective levels below 1 MeV (0.5 MeV) of excitation energy are coupled. OMP parameters show a smooth energy dependence and energy-independent geometry. A phenomenological optical-model potential that couples multiple bands in odd-A actinides is published for a first time. Calculations using the derived OMP potential reproduce measured total cross-section differences between several actinide pairs within experimental uncertainty for incident neutron energies from 50 keV up to 150 MeV. The importance of extended coupling is studied. Multiband coupling is stronger in even-even targets owing to the collective nature of the coupling; the impact of extended coupling on

  3. Sizing of Microparticles from Angular Scattering Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Karamehmedovic, Mirza

    This technical note deals with light scattering measurements for sizing of micrometer-scale particles in a suspension.......This technical note deals with light scattering measurements for sizing of micrometer-scale particles in a suspension....

  4. Electromagnetic Scattering by Spheres of Topological Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Lixin; Zi, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic scattering properties of topological insulator (TI) spheres are systematically studied in this paper. Unconventional backward scattering caused by the topological magneto-electric (TME) effect of TIs are found in both Rayleigh and Mie scattering regimes. This enhanced backward scattering can be achieved by introducing an impedance-matched background which can suppress the bulk scattering. For the cross-polarized scattering coefficients, interesting antiresonances are found in the Mie scattering regime, wherein the cross-polarized electromagnetic fields induced by the TME effect are trapped inside TI spheres. In the Rayleigh limit, the quantized TME effect of TIs can be determined by measuring the electric-field components of scattered waves in the far field.

  5. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov-Maxwell system.A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma.It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light,as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction.The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period.The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade,which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures.For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation,higher-harmonic generation and wave-wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter.In addition,stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light.

  6. Measurement of double polarized asymmetries in quasi-elastic processes ${}^3\\vec{He}(\\vec{e},e' d)$ and ${}^3\\vec{He}(\\vec{e},e' p)$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihovilovic, Miha [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to a study of a spin-isospin structure of the polarized 3He. First, an introduction to the spin structure of 3He is given, followed by a brief overview of past experiments. The main focus of the thesis is the E05-102 experiment at Jefferson Lab, in which the reactions ${}^3\\vec{He}(\\vec{e},e' d)$ and ${}^3\\vec{He}(\\vec{e},e' p)$ in the quasi-elastic region were studied. The purpose of this experiment was to better understand the effects of the S'- and D-state contributions to the 3He ground-state wave-functions by a precise measurement of beam-target asymmetries Ax and Az in the range of recoil momenta from 0 to about 300 MeV/c. The experimental equipment utilized in these measurements is described, with special attention devoted to the calibration of the hadron spectrometer, BigBite. Results on the measured asymmetries are presented, together with first attempts at their comparison to the state-of-the art Faddeev calculations. The remaining open problems and challenges for future work are also discussed.

  7. Precise Extraction of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor from Quasi-elastic 3He(pol)(e(pol),e') at Q^2 = 0.1-0.6 (GeV/c)^2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jens-ole Hansen; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jiang-Ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G Corrado; Christopher Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Dipangkar Dutta; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; Jacek Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Piotr Zolnierczuk; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; Cathleen Jones; Mark Jones; R Kahl; H Kamada; A Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John LeRose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; Jeffery Martin; Kathy McCormick; Robert McKeown; Kevin McIlhany; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Greg Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; Emanuele Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; David Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Giovanni Salme; Michael Schnee; Charles Seely; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; M Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; John Watson; Claude Williamson; H Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Feng Xiong; Wang Xu; Jen-chuan Yeh

    2006-05-05

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} in the quasi-elastic {sup 3}/rvec He/(/rvec e/,e') process with high precision at Q{sup 2}-values from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} was extracted at Q{sup 2}-values of 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} using a non-relativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange currents (MEC). Theoretical uncertainties due to the FSI and MEC effects were constrained with a precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of {sup 3}/rvec He/(/rvec e/,e'). We also extracted the neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} at Q{sup 2}-values of 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} based on Plane Wave Impulse Approximation calculations.

  8. Dynamics of tetrahydrofuran as minority component in a mixture with poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate): A neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goracci, G., E-mail: sckgorag@ehu.es; Arbe, A. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM), CSIC–UPV/EHU–Materials Physics Center - MPC, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Alegría, A. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM), CSIC–UPV/EHU–Materials Physics Center - MPC, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales (UPV/EHU), Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastián (Spain); Lohstroh, W. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Su, Y. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Outstation at MLZ, Lichtenbergstraße 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Colmenero, J. [Centro de Física de Materiales - CFM, CSIC–UPV/EHU–Materials Physics Center - MPC, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales (UPV/EHU), Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain)

    2015-09-07

    We have investigated a mixture of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) (70 wt. % PDMAEMA/30 wt. % THF) by combining dielectric spectroscopy and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) on a labelled sample, focusing on the dynamics of the THF molecules. Two independent processes have been identified. The “fast” one has been qualified as due to an internal motion of the THF ring leading to hydrogen displacements of about 3 Å with rather broadly distributed activation energies. The “slow” process is characterized by an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence of the characteristic time which persists over more than 9 orders of magnitude in time. The QENS results evidence the confined nature of this process, determining a size of about 8 Å for the volume within which THF hydrogens’ motions are restricted. In a complementary way, we have also investigated the structural features of the sample. This study suggests that THF molecules are well dispersed among side-groups nano-domains in the polymer matrix, ruling out a significant presence of clusters of solvent. Such a good dispersion, together with a rich mobility of the local environment, would prevent cooperativity effects to develop for the structural relaxation of solvent molecules, frustrating thereby the emergence of Vogel-Fulcher-like behavior, at least in the whole temperature interval investigated.

  9. Neutron scattering study of spin ordering and stripe pinning in superconducting La1.93Sr0.07CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H.; Zaliznyak, I. A.; Savici, A. T.; Winn, B. L.; Chang, S.; Hücker, M.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    The relationships among charge order, spin fluctuations, and superconductivity in underdoped cuprates remain controversial. We use neutron scattering techniques to study these phenomena in La1.93Sr0.07CuO4 , a superconductor with a transition temperature of Tc=20 K. At T ≪Tc we find incommensurate spin fluctuations with a quasielastic energy spectrum and no sign of a gap within the energy range from 0.2 to 15 meV. A weak elastic magnetic component grows below ˜10 K, consistent with results from local probes. Regarding the atomic lattice, we have discovered unexpectedly strong fluctuations of the CuO6 octahedra about Cu-O bonds, which are associated with inequivalent O sites within the CuO2 planes. Furthermore, we observed a weak elastic (3 3 ¯0 ) superlattice peak that implies a reduced lattice symmetry. The presence of inequivalent O sites rationalizes various pieces of evidence for charge stripe order in underdoped La2 -xSrxCuO4 . The coexistence of superconductivity with quasistatic spin-stripe order suggests the presence of intertwined orders; however, the rotation of the stripe orientation away from the Cu-O bonds might be connected with evidence for a finite gap at the nodal points of the superconducting gap function.

  10. Spatial photon correlations in multiple scattering media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Muskens, O.; Lagendijk, A.;

    2010-01-01

    We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations.......We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations....

  11. Scattering series in mobility problem for suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Makuch, Karol

    2012-01-01

    The mobility problem for suspension of spherical particles immersed in an arbitrary flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid is considered in the regime of low Reynolds numbers. The scattering series which appears in the mobility problem is simplified. The simplification relies on the reduction of the number of types of single-particle scattering operators appearing in the scattering series. In our formulation there is only one type of single-particle scattering operator.

  12. Classical and quantum scattering in optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puentes, Graciana

    2007-01-01

    The central topic of the Thesis concerns light scattering experiments with entangled photons. Specifically, we study the effect of scattering processes on polarization-entanglement of twin-photons. The main idea is that scattering generally couples polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of pho

  13. Elastic Scattering Properties of Ultracold Strontium Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张计才; 朱遵略; 刘玉芳; 孙金锋

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the elastic scattering properties of strontium atoms at ultracold temperatures.The scattering parameters,such as s-wave scattering lengths,effective ranges and p-wave scattering lengths,are calculated for all stable isotope combinations of Sr atoms by the quantal method and semiclassical method,respectively.Good agreements are obtained.The scattering parameters are very sensitive to small changes of the reduced mass.Due to the repulsive interisotope and intraisotope s-wave scattering length and large elastic cross sections,84Sr-86Srmixture is a good candidate to realize Bose-Bose quantum degenerate atomic gases.%We investigate the elastic scattering properties of strontium atoms at ultracold temperatures. The scattering parameters, such as s-wave scattering lengths, effective ranges and p-wave scattering lengths, are calculated for all stable isotope combinations of Sr atoms by the quantal method and semiclassical method, respectively. Good agreements are obtained. The scattering parameters are very sensitive to small changes of the reduced mass. Due to the repulsive interisotope and intraisotope s-wave scattering length and large elastic cross sections, MSr-s(iSr mixture is a good candidate to realize Bose-Bose quantum degenerate atomic gases.

  14. Decreased scattering coefficient of blue sclerae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, P J; Borsboom, P C; te Meerman, G J; ten Kate, L P

    1985-01-01

    The optical scattering properties of blue and normal sclerae were studied with a fiber optic scattering monitor. The scattering was clearly reduced in two osteogenesis imperfecta patients with blue sclerae, and low normal in one osteogenesis imperfecta patient without blue sclerae.

  15. Multiple scattering Model in GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Urbàn, L

    2002-01-01

    We present a new multiple scattering (MSC) model to simulate the multiple scattering of charged particles in matter. This model does not use the Moliere formalism, it is based on the more complete Lewis theory. The model simulates the scattering of the particle after a given step, computes the path length correction and the lateral displacement as well.

  16. Scattering by two spheres: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    on three issues: (1) to develop a simplified theory for scattering by two elastical spheres; (2) to measure the scattering by two spheres in a water tank, and (3) to compare the theoretical/numerical results with the measured data. A number of factors influencing multiple scattering, including...

  17. Decreased scattering coefficient of blue sclerae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, P J; Borsboom, P C; te Meerman, G J; ten Kate, L P

    The optical scattering properties of blue and normal sclerae were studied with a fiber optic scattering monitor. The scattering was clearly reduced in two osteogenesis imperfecta patients with blue sclerae, and low normal in one osteogenesis imperfecta patient without blue sclerae.

  18. Scattering characteristics from porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabet-Dariani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet.   In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.

  19. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  20. Perspectives on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    This collection of papers describes research that goes into detail on some of the more important issues in the physics of stimulated Brillouin scattering. This perspective describes the earliest years of the physics of stimulated Brillouin scattering, along with key developments that have led to this technically and physically rich field of today’s nonlinear optics. Stimulated Brillouin has a profound effect in optical fiber communications, initially discovered by its limit on the transmitted power. By controlling SBS in fibers and making use of its phase conjugation properties in both fibers and bulk media, a wide range of applications have been enabled. Today ring Brillouin lasers in fibers, whispering gallery modes and in photonic integrated circuits provide optical delay lines and switches, pulse shapers and components for increasingly complex and important optical systems.