WorldWideScience

Sample records for quasar absorption lines

  1. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaringi, Simone; Knigge, Christian; Cottis, Christopher E.; Goad, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  2. Using the Properties of Broad Absorption Line Quasars to Illuminate Quasar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Suk Yee; King, Anthea L.; Webster, Rachel L.; Bate, Nicholas F.; O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Labrie, Kathleen

    2018-06-01

    A key to understanding quasar unification paradigms is the emission properties of broad absorption line quasars (BALQs). The fact that only a small fraction of quasar spectra exhibit deep absorption troughs blueward of the broad permitted emission lines provides a crucial clue to the structure of quasar emitting regions. To learn whether it is possible to discriminate between the BALQ and non-BALQ populations given the observed spectral properties of a quasar, we employ two approaches: one based on statistical methods and the other supervised machine learning classification, applied to quasar samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The features explored include continuum and emission line properties, in particular the absolute magnitude, redshift, spectral index, line width, asymmetry, strength, and relative velocity offsets of high-ionisation C IV λ1549 and low-ionisation Mg II λ2798 lines. We consider a complete population of quasars, and assume that the statistical distributions of properties represent all angles where the quasar is viewed without obscuration. The distributions of the BALQ and non-BALQ sample properties show few significant differences. None of the observed continuum and emission line features are capable of differentiating between the two samples. Most published narrow disk-wind models are inconsistent with these observations, and an alternative disk-wind model is proposed. The key feature of the proposed model is a disk-wind filling a wide opening angle with multiple radial streams of dense clumps.

  3. Extreme Variability in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Daniel; Jun, Hyunsung D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Steidel, Charles C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arav, Nahum; Chamberlain, Carter [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Glikman, Eilat, E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    CRTS J084133.15+200525.8 is an optically bright quasar at z = 2.345 that has shown extreme spectral variability over the past decade. Photometrically, the source had a visual magnitude of V ∼ 17.3 between 2002 and 2008. Then, over the following five years, the source slowly brightened by approximately one magnitude, to V ∼ 16.2. Only ∼1 in 10,000 quasars show such extreme variability, as quantified by the extreme parameters derived for this quasar assuming a damped random walk model. A combination of archival and newly acquired spectra reveal the source to be an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar with extreme changes in its absorption spectrum. Some absorption features completely disappear over the 9 years of optical spectra, while other features remain essentially unchanged. We report the first definitive redshift for this source, based on the detection of broad H α in a Keck/MOSFIRE spectrum. Absorption systems separated by several 1000 km s{sup −1} in velocity show coordinated weakening in the depths of their troughs as the continuum flux increases. We interpret the broad absorption line variability to be due to changes in photoionization, rather than due to motion of material along our line of sight. This source highlights one sort of rare transition object that astronomy will now be finding through dedicated time-domain surveys.

  4. Lack of dust in quasar absorption line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the origin of absorption line systems in quasars is still uncertain. Most such systems apparently have atomic hydrogen column densities of the order of 10 19 /cm 2 , but at least two quasars, 1331 + 170 and PHL957, have such strong Lyman α absorption lines that atomic hydrogen column densities of the order of 10 21 /cm 2 are indicated. It should be possible to observe the dust produced 2,200 A extinction feature as it is red shifted into the visible, and to determine whether absorption line systems are produced in spiral galaxies where the dust content is similar to that in the interstellar medium. It has been argued that the emission line regions of quasars generally lack dust and that towards PHL957 the 2,200 A feature is absent. The present author argues that dust similar to that found in the interstellar medium is not found towards the quasars 1331 + 170 and PHL957. This could explain why H 2 is not found towards PHL957, and it indicates that the absorption line systems in quasars are not produced in spiral galaxies similar to our own. It seems from the analysis presented that the dust-to-gas ratio towards 1331 + 170 is at least a factor of 20 less than in the interstellar medium, and there is no reason to suppose that this lack of dust results from a lack of metals It is concluded that there seems to be a lack of normal dust towards PHL957 by at least a factor of two; and that the absorption region towards 1331 + 170 and probably the region towards PHL957 are lacking dust similar to that in our own galaxy. This can explain the lack of H 2 in these systems. (U.K.)

  5. Quasar outflow energetics from broad absorption line variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, S. M.; Shields, J. C.; Hamann, F. W.; Capellupo, D. M.; Herbst, H.

    2018-03-01

    Quasar outflows have long been recognized as potential contributors to the co-evolution between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. The role of outflows in active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback processes can be better understood by placing observational constraints on wind locations and kinetic energies. We utilize broad absorption line (BAL) variability to investigate the properties of a sample of 71 BAL quasars with P V broad absorption. The presence of P V BALs indicates that other BALs like C IV are saturated, such that variability in those lines favours clouds crossing the line of sight. We use these constraints with measurements of BAL variability to estimate outflow locations and energetics. Our data set consists of multiple-epoch spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and MDM Observatory. We detect significant (4σ) BAL variations from 10 quasars in our sample over rest-frame time-scales between ≤0.2-3.8 yr. Our derived distances for the 10 variable outflows are nominally ≲ 1-10 pc from the SMBH using the transverse-motion scenario, and ≲ 100-1000 pc from the central source using ionization-change considerations. These distances, in combination with the estimated high outflow column densities (i.e. NH ≳ 1022 cm-2), yield outflow kinetic luminosities between ˜ 0.001 and 1 times the bolometric luminosity of the quasar, indicating that many absorber energies within our sample are viable for AGN feedback.

  6. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China); Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Kai, E-mail: zhangshaohua@pric.gov.cn, E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  7. Monitoring the variability of intrinsic absorption lines in quasar spectra , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ∼10 3 -10 5 cm –3 and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage.

  8. Narrow Quasar Absorption Lines and the History of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebscher, Dierck-Ekkehard

    In order to get an estimation of the parameters of the cosmological model the statistics of narrow absorption lines in quasar spectra is evaluated. To this end a phenomenological model of the evolution of the corresponding absorbers in density, size, number and dimension is presented and compared with the observed evolution in the spectral density of the lines and their column density seen in the equivalent width. In spite of the wide range of possible models, the Einstein-deSitter model is shown to be unlikely because of the implied fast evolution in mass.

  9. Photoionization-driven Absorption-line Variability in Balmer Absorption Line Quasar LBQS 1206+1052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Luming; Zhou, Hongyan; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Bo; Pan, Xiang; Shi, Xiheng; Zhang, Shaohua [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai (China); Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Jianguo [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan (China); Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui (China); Miller, Lauren P., E-mail: lmsun@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Lehigh University, 27 Memorial Drive West, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of absorption-line variability in mini-BAL quasar LBQS 1206+1052. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum demonstrates that the absorption troughs can be divided into two components of blueshift velocities of ∼700 and ∼1400 km s{sup −1} relative to the quasar rest frame. The former component shows rare Balmer absorption, which is an indicator of high-density absorbing gas; thus, the quasar is worth follow-up spectroscopic observations. Our follow-up optical and near-infrared spectra using MMT, YFOSC, TSpec, and DBSP reveal that the strengths of the absorption lines vary for both components, while the velocities do not change. We reproduce all of the spectral data by assuming that only the ionization state of the absorbing gas is variable and that all other physical properties are invariable. The variation of ionization is consistent with the variation of optical continuum from the V -band light curve. Additionally, we cannot interpret the data by assuming that the variability is due to a movement of the absorbing gas. Therefore, our analysis strongly indicates that the absorption-line variability in LBQS 1206+1052 is photoionization driven. As shown from photoionization simulations, the absorbing gas with blueshift velocity of ∼700 km s{sup −1} has a density in the range of 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and a distance of ∼1 pc, and the gas with blueshift velocity of ∼1400 km s{sup −1} has a density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup −3} and a distance of ∼1 kpc.

  10. Observing broad-absorption line quasars with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Schnopper, H.W.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Broad-absorption line quasars are found to have extremely weak soft X-ray emission when compared with other optically selected quasars. In the only example of PHL 5200 for which a detailed X-ray spectrum has been obtained with ASCA, strong absorption in the source appears to be responsible...

  11. Identification of MgII Absorption Line Systems from SDSS Quasar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motivation. The quasar absorption lines are crucial to our understanding of the Universe since the absorption lines provide a wealth of information on the gaseous Universe from high redshift to present day. The absorption lines can also allow us to probe the metallicity and ionization state of the gas (Wild et al. 2008).

  12. Occurrence and Global Properties of Narrow CIV lambda 1549 Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    A statistical study is presented of (a) the frequency of narrow CIV lambda 1549 absorption lines in 1.5 ~50%) of narrow CIV absorbers is detected for the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars, and a constant ~25% of all the quasars, irrespective of radio type display associated CIV absorbers stronger...

  13. Thomson Thick X-Ray Absorption in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar, PG 0946+301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur; Green; Arav; Brotherton; Crenshaw; deKool; Elvis; Goodrich; Hamann; Hines; Kashyap; Korista; Peterson; Shields; Shlosman; van Breugel W; Voit

    2000-04-20

    We present a deep ASCA observation of a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PG 0946+301. The source was clearly detected in one of the gas imaging spectrometers, but not in any other detector. If BALQSOs have intrinsic X-ray spectra similar to normal radio-quiet quasars, our observations imply that there is Thomson thick X-ray absorption (NH greater, similar1024 cm-2) toward PG 0946+301. This is the largest column density estimated so far toward a BALQSO. The absorber must be at least partially ionized and may be responsible for attenuation in the optical and UV. If the Thomson optical depth toward BALQSOs is close to 1, as inferred here, then spectroscopy in hard X-rays with large telescopes like XMM would be feasible.

  14. Identification of Metal Absorption Lines on Quasar Spectra of SDSS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Baise 533000, China. 2Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China. 3Centre for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. ∗ e-mail: cysu@gdut.edu.cn. Abstract. Absorption lines are an important ...

  15. The Frequency of Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness among Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hezhen; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Gallagher, S. C.; Garmire, G. P.

    2018-06-01

    We present combined ≈14–37 ks Chandra observations of seven z = 1.6–2.7 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars selected from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS). These seven objects are high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) quasars, and they were undetected in the Chandra hard band (2–8 keV) in previous observations. The stacking analyses of previous Chandra observations suggested that these seven objects likely contain some candidates for intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars. With the new Chandra observations, six targets are detected. We calculate their effective power-law photon indices and hard-band flux weakness, and find that two objects, LBQS 1203+1530 and LBQS 1442–0011, show soft/steep spectral shapes ({{{Γ }}}eff}={2.2}-0.9+0.9 and {1.9}-0.8+0.9) and significant X-ray weakness in the hard band (by factors of ≈15 and 12). We conclude that the two HiBAL quasars are good candidates for intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars. The mid-infrared-to-ultraviolet spectral energy distributions of the two candidates are consistent with those of typical quasars. We constrain the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among HiBAL quasars to be ≈7%–10% (2/29–3/29), and we estimate it is ≈6%–23% (2/35–8/35) among the general BAL quasar population. Such a fraction is considerably larger than that among non-BAL quasars, and we suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars are preferentially observed as BAL quasars. Intrinsically X-ray weak AGNs likely comprise a small minority of the luminous type 1 AGN population, and they should not affect significantly the completeness of these AGNs found in deep X-ray surveys.

  16. Testing Disk-Wind Models with Quasar CIV 1549Å Associated Absorption Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Narrow associated C IV 1549Å absorption lines (NALs) with a rest equivalent width EW =3 Å detected in z ˜ 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, (a) exhibit evidence of an origin in radiatively accelerated gas, and (b) may be closely related to broad absorption line (BAL) outflows. These NALs...... and the few BALs detected in this quasar sample obey key predictions of models of radiatively driven disk-winds in which (1) the local disk luminosity launches the wind, (2) the central UV radiation drives it outwards, and (3) the wind acceleration (i.e., terminal velocity) depends on the strength of the X...

  17. Discovery of an X-ray Violently Variable Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Gutierrez, Carlos M.; Punsly, Brian; Chevallier, Loic; Goncalves, Anabela C.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, we report on a quasar that is violently variable in the X-rays, XVV. It is also a broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) that exhibits both high ionization and low ionization UV absorption lines (LoBALQSO). It is very luminous in the X-rays (approximately 10(exp 46) ergs s(sup -l) over the entire X-ray band). Surprisingly, this does not over ionize the LoBAL outflow. The X-rays vary by a factor of two within minutes in the quasar rest frame, which is shorter than 1/30 of the light travel time across a scale length equal to the black hole radius. We concluded that the X-rays are produced in a relativistic jet beamed toward earth in which variations in the Doppler enhancement produce the XVV behavior.

  18. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lundgren, B. F. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Myers, A. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Petitjean, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014, Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); York, D. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Weaver, B. A., E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  19. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  20. New Constraints on Quasar Broad Absorption and Emission Line Regions from Gravitational Microlensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Hutsemékers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool allowing one to probe the structure of quasars on sub-parsec scale. We report recent results, focusing on the broad absorption and emission line regions. In particular microlensing reveals the intrinsic absorption hidden in the P Cygni-type line profiles observed in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, as well as the existence of an extended continuum source. In addition, polarization microlensing provides constraints on the scattering region. In the quasar Q2237+030, microlensing differently distorts the Hα and CIV broad emission line profiles, indicating that the low- and high-ionization broad emission lines must originate from regions with distinct kinematical properties. We also present simulations of the effect of microlensing on line profiles considering simple but representative models of the broad emission line region. Comparison of observations to simulations allows us to conclude that the Hα emitting region in Q2237+030 is best represented by a Keplerian disk.

  1. New Constraints on Quasar Broad Absorption and Emission Line Regions from Gravitational Microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutsemékers, Damien; Braibant, Lorraine; Sluse, Dominique [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, Liège (Belgium); Anguita, Timo [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Goosmann, René, E-mail: hutsemekers@astro.ulg.ac.be [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2017-09-29

    Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool allowing one to probe the structure of quasars on sub-parsec scale. We report recent results, focusing on the broad absorption and emission line regions. In particular microlensing reveals the intrinsic absorption hidden in the P Cygni-type line profiles observed in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, as well as the existence of an extended continuum source. In addition, polarization microlensing provides constraints on the scattering region. In the quasar Q2237+030, microlensing differently distorts the Hα and CIV broad emission line profiles, indicating that the low- and high-ionization broad emission lines must originate from regions with distinct kinematical properties. We also present simulations of the effect of microlensing on line profiles considering simple but representative models of the broad emission line region. Comparison of observations to simulations allows us to conclude that the Hα emitting region in Q2237+030 is best represented by a Keplerian disk.

  2. THE INTRINSIC FRACTIONS AND RADIO PROPERTIES OF LOW-IONIZATION BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xinyu; Shankar, Francesco; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    Low-ionization (Mg II, Fe II, and Fe III) broad absorption line quasars (LoBALs) probe a relatively obscured quasar population and could be at an early evolutionary stage for quasars. We study the intrinsic fractions of LoBALs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm survey. We find that the LoBAL fractions of the near-infrared (NIR) and radio samples are approximately 5-7 times higher than those measured in the optical sample. This suggests that the fractions measured in the NIR and radio bands are closer to the intrinsic fractions of the populations, and that the optical fractions are significantly biased due to obscuration effects, similar to high-ionization broad absorption line quasars (HiBALs). Considering a population of obscured quasars that do not enter the SDSS, which could have a much higher LoBAL fraction, we expect that the intrinsic fraction of LoBALs could be even higher. We also find that the LoBAL fractions decrease with increasing radio luminosities, again, similarly to HiBALs. In addition, we find evidence for increasing fractions of LoBALs toward higher NIR luminosities, especially for FeLoBALs with a fraction of ∼18% at M K s < -31 mag. This population of NIR-luminous LoBALs may be at an early evolutionary stage of quasar evolution. To interpret the data, we use a luminosity-dependent model for LoBALs that yields significantly better fits than those from a pure geometric model.

  3. C IV BROAD ABSORPTION LINE ACCELERATION IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P.; Sun, M.; Beatty, T. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Filiz Ak, N. [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Anderson, S. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vivek, M.; Brownstein, Joel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Roman-Lopes, Alexandre, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile)

    2016-06-20

    We present results from the largest systematic investigation of broad absorption line (BAL) acceleration to date. We use spectra of 140 quasars from three Sloan Digital Sky Survey programs to search for global velocity offsets in BALs over timescales of ≈2.5–5.5 years in the quasar rest frame. We carefully select acceleration candidates by requiring monolithic velocity shifts over the entire BAL trough, avoiding BALs with velocity shifts that might be caused by profile variability. The C iv BALs of two quasars show velocity shifts consistent with the expected signatures of BAL acceleration, and the BAL of one quasar shows a velocity-shift signature of deceleration. In our two acceleration candidates, we see evidence that the magnitude of the acceleration is not constant over time; the magnitudes of the change in acceleration for both acceleration candidates are difficult to produce with a standard disk-wind model or via geometric projection effects. We measure upper limits to acceleration and deceleration for 76 additional BAL troughs and find that the majority of BALs are stable to within about 3% of their mean velocities. The lack of widespread acceleration/deceleration could indicate that the gas producing most BALs is located at large radii from the central black hole and/or is not currently strongly interacting with ambient material within the host galaxy along our line of sight.

  4. THE PITTSBURGH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY Mg II QUASAR ABSORPTION-LINE SURVEY CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quider, Anna M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.; Weyant, Anja N.; Monier, Eric M.; Busche, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalog of intervening Mg II quasar absorption-line systems in the redshift interval 0.36 ≤ z ≤ 2.28. The catalog was built from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Four (SDSS DR4) quasar spectra. Currently, the catalog contains ∼17, 000 measured Mg II doublets. We also present data on the ∼44, 600 quasar spectra which were searched to construct the catalog, including redshift and magnitude information, continuum-normalized spectra, and corresponding arrays of redshift-dependent minimum rest equivalent widths detectable at our confidence threshold. The catalog is available online. A careful second search of 500 random spectra indicated that, for every 100 spectra searched, approximately one significant Mg II system was accidentally rejected. Current plans to expand the catalog beyond DR4 quasars are discussed. Many Mg II absorbers are known to be associated with galaxies. Therefore, the combination of large size and well understood statistics makes this catalog ideal for precision studies of the low-ionization and neutral gas regions associated with galaxies at low to moderate redshift. An analysis of the statistics of Mg II absorbers using this catalog will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Quasars narrow absorption lines from SDSS (Chen+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.-F.; Gu, Q.-S.; Chen, Y.-M.; Cao, Y.

    2017-11-01

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS: Eisenstein et al. 2011AJ....142...72E; Paris et al. 2012, Cat. VII/269) is the main dark-time legacy survey of the third stage of the SDSS, which used the same 2.5-m telescope (Gunn et al. 2006AJ....131.2332G; Ross et al. 2012, J/ApJS/199/3) as the first and second stages of the SDSS (hereafter SDSS-I/II). SDSS-I/II spectra have a wavelength coverage from 3800-9200Å with a spectral resolution of 1800-2200 (e.g. York et al. 2000AJ....120.1579Y). BOSS spectra span a range from 3600-10500Å at a resolution of 1300-2500 (Paris et al. 2012, Cat. VII/269). During the first two years, BOSS detected 87822 quasars over an area of 3275 deg2, including 7932 quasars that were observed by SDSS-I/II as well. Quasars observed by both SDSS-I/II and BOSS provide a remarkable chance to study the variabilities of absorption lines in a large population. Throughout this work, we take the quasar emission redshifts provided by Hewett & Wild (2010, J/MNRAS/405/2302, http://das.sdss.org/va/HewettWilddr7qso_newz/) directly. (2 data files).

  6. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hamann, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Lundgren, B. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Pâris, I. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, P. [Universite Paris 6, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 75014, Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); York, Don, E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [The University of Chicago, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in 'shielding gas' may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

  7. Quasar Absorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  8. Narrow CIV lambda 1549A Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    A large, high-quality spectral data base of well-selected, moderate-redshift radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars is used to characterize the incidence of narrow associated CIV lambda 1549 absorption, and how this may depend on some quasar properties, including radio-type. Preliminary results...

  9. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z 330 times weaker than...... expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL...... quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three...

  10. X-RAYS FROM A RADIO-LOUD COMPACT BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASAR 1045+352 AND THE NATURE OF OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Katarzynski, Krzysztof; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    We present new results on X-ray properties of radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and focus on broadband spectral properties of a high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio-loud quasar 1045+352. This HiBAL quasar has a very complex radio morphology indicating either strong interactions between a radio jet and the surrounding interstellar medium or a possible re-start of the jet activity. We detected 1045+352 quasar in a short 5 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation. We applied theoretical models to explain spectral energy distribution of 1045+352 and argue that non-thermal, inverse-Compton (IC) emission from the innermost parts of the radio jet can account for a large fraction of the observed X-ray emission. In our analysis, we also consider a scenario in which the observed X-ray emission from radio-loud BAL quasars can be a sum of IC jet X-ray emission and optically thin corona X-ray emission. We compiled a sample of radio-loud BAL quasars that were observed in X-rays to date and report no correlation between their X-ray and radio luminosity. However, the radio-loud BAL quasars show a large range of X-ray luminosities and absorption columns. This is consistent with the results obtained earlier for radio-quiet BAL quasars and may indicate an orientation effect in BAL quasars or more complex dependence between X-ray emission, radio emission, and an orientation based on the radio morphology.

  11. Quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers - II. Correlation analysis and relationship with other absorption line systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Zhao, Yinan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, Honglin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the cold neutral content (H I and C I gas) of 13 quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers (2DAs) at z = 1.6-2.5 to investigate the correlation between the presence of the UV extinction bump with other physical characteristics. These 2DAs were initially selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys I-III and followed up with the Keck-II telescope and the Multiple Mirror Telescope as detailed in our Paper I. We perform a correlation analysis between metallicity, redshift, depletion level, velocity width, and explore relationships between 2DAs and other absorption line systems. The 2DAs on average have higher metallicity, higher depletion levels, and larger velocity widths than Damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) or subDLAs. The correlation between [Zn/H] and [Fe/Zn] or [Zn/H] and logΔV90 can be used as alternative stellar mass estimators based on the well-established mass-metallicity relation. The estimated stellar masses of the 2DAs in this sample are in the range of ˜109 to ˜2 × 1011 M⊙ with a median value of ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. The relationship with other quasar absorption line systems can be described as (1) 2DAs are a subset of Mg II and Fe II absorbers, (2) 2DAs are preferentially metal-strong DLAs/subDLAs, (3) More importantly, all of the 2DAs show C I detections with logN(C I) > 14.0 cm-2, and (4) 2DAs can be used as molecular gas tracers. Their host galaxies are likely to be chemically enriched, evolved, massive (more massive than typical DLA/subDLA galaxies), and presumably star-forming galaxies.

  12. Crowdsourcing Broad Absorption Line Properties and Other Features of Quasar Outflow Using Zooniverse Citizen Science Project Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Cassie; Lundgren, Britt; Grier, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) regularly publishes vast catalogs of quasars and other astronomical objects. Previously, the SDSS collaboration has used visual inspection to check quasar redshift validity and flag instances of broad absorption lines (BALs). This information helps researchers to easily single out the quasars with BAL properties and study their outflows and other intervening gas clouds. Due to the ever-growing number of new SDSS quasar observations, visual inspections are no longer possible using previous methods. Currently, BAL information is being determined entirely computationally, and the accuracy of that information is not precisely known. This project uses the Zooniverse citizen science platform to visually inspect quasar spectra for BAL properties, to check the accuracy of the current autonomous methods, and to flag multi-phase outflows and find candidates for in-falling gas into the quasar central engine. The layout and format of a Zooniverse project provides an easier way to inspect and record data on each spectrum and share the workload via crowdsourcing. Work done by the SDSS collaboration members is serving as a beta test for a public project upon the official release of the DR14 quasar catalog by SDSS.

  13. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ eff ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  14. What's in the Wind? Determining the Properties of Outflowing Gas in Powerful Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighly, Karen

    2017-08-01

    A significant fraction of quasars exhibits blueshifted broadabsorption lines (BALs) in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerfuloutflows emerging from the central engine. These outflows may removeangular momentum to enable black hole growth, enrich the intergalacticmedium with metals, and trigger quenching of star formation ingalaxies. Despite years of study, the physical conditions of theoutflowing gas are poorly understood. The handful of objects that havebeen subjected to detailed analysis are atypical and characterized byrelatively narrow lines where blending is unimportant. However,investigating more powerful BAL quasars will give us better insightinto the types of outflows much more likely to impact galaxyevolution.SimBAL is a novel spectral synthesis fitting method for BAL quasarsthat uses Bayesian model calibration to compare synthetic to observedspectra. With the model inputs of ionization parameter, columndensity, and covering fraction specified, the gas properties givingrise to the BAL features can be determined. We propose to applySimBAL to archival spectra of a sample of 14 luminous BAL quasars to characterize their bulk outflow properties as a function of velocityfor the first time. Our results will show the range of parameterstypical of powerful outflows, an essential step towards constrainingthe physics behind quasar winds and thus their impact on theirenvironments.

  15. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  16. WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  17. Unshifted Metastable He I* Mini-broad Absorption Line System in the Narrow-line Type 1 Quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tuo; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Ge, Jian; Wang, Huiyuan; Komossa, S.; Hamann, Fred; Zuther, Jens; Liu, Wenjuan; Lu, Honglin; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Chenwei; Yuan, Weimin

    2015-02-01

    We report the identification of an unusual absorption-line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and near-IR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II*, and Ni II*, which arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width Δv ~ 1500 km s-1 centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission-line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of n H ~ (1.0-2.5) × 105 cm-3 and a column density of N H ~ (1.0-3.2) × 1021 cm-2 and is located at R ~100-250 pc from the central supermassive black hole. The location of the absorber, the symmetric profile of the absorption lines, and the coincidence of the absorption- and emission-line centroid jointly suggest that the absorption gas originates from the host galaxy and is plausibly accelerated by stellar processes, such as stellar winds and/or supernova explosions. The implications for the detection of such a peculiar absorption-line system in an NLS1 are discussed in the context of coevolution between supermassive black hole growth and host galaxy buildup.

  18. NuSTAR reveals an intrinsically x-ray weak broad absorption line quasar in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt, W. N.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    -ionization broad absorption line quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may...

  19. Limits on variations in fundamental constants from 21-cm and ultraviolet Quasar absorption lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P; Webb, J K; Murphy, M T; Flambaum, V V; Curran, S J

    2005-07-22

    Quasar absorption spectra at 21-cm and UV rest wavelengths are used to estimate the time variation of x [triple-bond] alpha(2)g(p)mu, where alpha is the fine structure constant, g(p) the proton g factor, and m(e)/m(p) [triple-bond] mu the electron/proton mass ratio. Over a redshift range 0.24 < or = zeta(abs) < or = 2.04, (Deltax/x)(weighted)(total) = (1.17 +/- 1.01) x 10(-5). A linear fit gives x/x = (-1.43 +/- 1.27) x 10(-15) yr(-1). Two previous results on varying alpha yield the strong limits Deltamu/mu = (2.31 +/- 1.03) x 10(-5) and Deltamu/mu=(1.29 +/- 1.01) x10(-5). Our sample, 8 x larger than any previous, provides the first direct estimate of the intrinsic 21-cm and UV velocity differences 6 km s(-1).

  20. Nustar Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt. W. N.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin N(sub H) approx. 1.2(sup +0.3) sub-0.3) x 10(exp 23) / sq cm) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity L(sub 0.5-30 Kev) approx. 1.0 x 10(exp 43) erg /s) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is approx. 0.03% compared to the typical values of 2-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope alpha(sub 0X) approx. -1.7. It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  1. A CHANDRA SURVEY OF THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF BROAD ABSORPTION LINE RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Gibson, R. R.; Shemmer, O.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of a Chandra study of 21 broad absorption line (BAL) radio-loud quasars (RLQs). We conducted a Chandra snapshot survey of 12 bright BAL RLQs selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data/Faint Images of the Radio Sky data and possessing a wide range of radio and C IV absorption properties. Optical spectra were obtained nearly contemporaneously with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope; no strong flux or BAL variability was seen between epochs. In addition to the snapshot targets, we include in our sample nine additional BAL RLQs possessing archival Chandra coverage. We compare the properties of (predominantly high-ionization) BAL RLQs to those of non-BAL RLQs as well as to BAL radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) and non-BAL RQQs for context. All 12 snapshots and 8/9 archival BAL RLQs are detected, with observed X-ray luminosities less than those of non-BAL RLQs having comparable optical/UV luminosities by typical factors of 4.1-8.5. (BAL RLQs are also X-ray weak by typical factors of 2.0-4.5 relative to non-BAL RLQs having both comparable optical/UV and radio luminosities.) However, BAL RLQs are not as X-ray weak relative to non-BAL RLQs as are BAL RQQs relative to non-BAL RQQs. While some BAL RLQs have harder X-ray spectra than typical non-BAL RLQs, some have hardness ratios consistent with those of non-BAL RLQs, and there does not appear to be a correlation between X-ray weakness and spectral hardness, in contrast to the situation for BAL RQQs. RLQs are expected to have X-ray continuum contributions from both accretion-disk corona and small-scale jet emission. While the entire X-ray continuum in BAL RLQs cannot be obscured to the same degree as in BAL RQQs, we calculate that the jet is likely partially covered in many BAL RLQs. We comment briefly on implications for geometries and source ages in BAL RLQs.

  2. Investigating the reasons of variability in Si IV and C IV broad absorption line troughs of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Lyratzi, Evangelia; Danezis, Emmanuel; Antoniou, Antonios; Tzimeas, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the C IV and Si IV broad absorption troughs of two BALQSOs (J101056.69+355833.3, J114548.38+393746.6) to the individual components they consist of. By analyzing a BAL trough to its components we have the advantage to study the variations of the individual absorbing systems in the line of sight and not just the variations of the whole absorption trough or the variations of selected portions of BAL troughs exhibiting changes. We find that the velocity shifts and FWHMs (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the individual components do not vary between an interval of six years. All variable components show changes in the optical depths at line centers which are manifested as variations in the EW (Equivalent Width) of the components. In both BALQSOs, over corresponding velocities, Si IV has higher incidence of variability than C IV. From our analysis, evidence is in favour of different covering fractions between C IV and Si IV. Finally, although most of our results favour the crossing cloud scenario as the cause of variability, there is also strong piece of evidence indicating changing ionization as the source of variability. Thus, a mixed situation where both physical mechanisms contribute to BAL variability is the most possible scenario.

  3. Quasar Absorption in the UV: Probing the Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David; Katz, Neal

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to model the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest and exploration of the relation between Lyman-alpha absorbers and galaxies. This paper shows that the simulation models that are so successful at explaining properties of the high-redshift forest also account for the most important results of observational studies of the low-redshift forest, from HST (especially the Quasar Absorption Line Key Project) and ground-based follow-up.

  4. Weak hard X-ray emission from two broad absorption line quasars observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick absorption or intrinsic X-ray weakness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    are not significantly absorbed (NH ≲ 1024 cm-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain...... likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place...

  5. The Redshifted Hydrogen Balmer and Metastable He 1 Absorption Line System in Mini-FeLoBAL Quasar SDSS J112526.12+002901.3: A Parsec-scale Accretion Inflow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xi-Heng; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhang, Shao-Hua; Ji, Tuo; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan

    2016-10-01

    The accretion of the interstellar medium onto central super-massive black holes is widely accepted as the source of the gigantic energy released by the active galactic nuclei. However, few pieces of observational evidence have been confirmed directly demonstrating the existence of the inflows. The absorption line system in the spectra of quasar SDSS J112526.12+002901.3 presents an interesting example in which the rarely detected hydrogen Balmer and metastable He I absorption lines are found redshifted to the quasar's rest frame along with the low-ionization metal absorption lines Mg II, Fe II, etc. The repeated SDSS spectroscopic observations suggest a transverse velocity smaller than the radial velocity. The motion of the absorbing medium is thus dominated by infall. The He I* lines present a powerful probe to the strength of ionizing flux, while the Balmer lines imply a dense environment. With the help of photoionization simulations, we find that the absorbing medium is exposed to the radiation with ionization parameter U ≈ 10-1.8, and the density is n({{H}})≈ {10}9 {{cm}}-3. Thus the absorbing medium is located ˜4 pc away from the central engine. According to the similarity in the distance and physical conditions between the absorbing medium and the torus, we strongly propose the absorption line system as a candidate for the accretion inflow, which originates in the inner surface of the torus.

  6. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hamann, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Pâris, I. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014 Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); York, Don, E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  7. What are quasars. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautcourt, G.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered under the following headings: gigantic explosions in galaxies, the puzzle of far radio sources, all records are broken, the quasar light - a messenger from the far past, the radio mantle of quasars, where do spectral lines originate, mysterious absorption, restless quasars, quasars as infrared sources, what is the gist of the matter, was Einstein wrong, when is a quasar no quasar, quasars and cosmology, youthful escapades of a galaxy, and once again the red shift

  8. Do quasar ley lines really exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that the distribution of the quasars on the celestial sphere contains an unexpectedly large number of well-aligned triples is tested by applying, to the Cerro Tololo objective-prism sample, a shape-statistic which was originally developed to investigate whether neolithic standing stones were deliberately sited on ley lines. It is found that alignment in triples is not a conspicuous feature of the quasars in this sample. The sample does contain one well aligned triple whose properties resemble those of two triples found earlier in a different field by earlier authors, but the probability of this being a chance alignment is not low. The same authors have noted a total of four well-collimated triples which they consider remarkable, but an approximate probability calculation based on the shape-statistic indicates that they need not have a low probability of occurring by chance. (author)

  9. Nature and statistical properties of quasar associated absorption systems in the XQ-100 Legacy Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrotta, Serena; D'Odorico, Valentina; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We statistically study the physical properties of a sample of narrow absorption line (NAL) systems looking for empirical evidences to distinguish between intrinsic and intervening NALs without taking into account any a priori definition or velocity cut-off. We analyze the spectra of 100 quasars...

  10. Clues to quasar broad-line region geometry and kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vestergaard, M; Wilkes, BJ; Barthel, PD

    2000-01-01

    We present evidence that the high-velocity C IV lambda 1549 emission-line gas of radio-loud quasars may originate in a disklike configuration, in close proximity to the accretion disk often assumed to emit the low-ionization lines. For a sample of 36 radio-loud z approximate to 2 quasars, we find

  11. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a promine...

  12. Effective collision strengths of quasar ultraviolet emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.; Wallace, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The best available published collision strengths for excitation of permitted and semiforbidden emission lines of abundant ions observed or expected in quasars have been collected and averaged over Maxwellian velocity distributions. For a few ions for which calculations are not available, extrapolation along isoelectronic sequences or in principal quantum number n was used to estimate values. These collision strengths were used to correct differentially published photoionization models of quasars, and the corrected models compared with published observational data

  13. HIGH-REDSHIFT SDSS QUASARS WITH WEAK EMISSION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Kim, J. Serena; Schmidt, Gary D.; Smith, Paul S.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Young, Jason E.; Brandt, W. N.; Shemmer, Ohad; Gibson, Robert R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Shen Yue; Anderson, Scott F.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a prominent tail of the Lyα + N v equivalent width distribution, and we compare them to quasars with more typical emission-line properties and to low-redshift active galactic nuclei with weak/absent emission lines, namely BL Lac objects. We find that WLQs exhibit hot (T ∼ 1000 K) thermal dust emission and have rest-frame 0.1-5 μm spectral energy distributions that are quite similar to those of normal quasars. The variability, polarization, and radio properties of WLQs are also different from those of BL Lacs, making continuum boosting by a relativistic jet an unlikely physical interpretation. The most probable scenario for WLQs involves broad-line region properties that are physically distinct from those of normal quasars.

  14. Iron K Features in the Quasar E 1821+643: Evidence for Gravitationally Redshifted Absorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Serlemitsos, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We report a Chandra high-energy grating detection of a narrow, redshifted absorption line superimposed on the red wing of a broad Fe K line in the z = 0.297 quasar E 1821+643. The absorption line is detected at a confidence level, estimated by two different methods, in the range approx. 2 - 3 sigma. Although the detection significance is not high enough to exclude a non-astrophysical origin, accounting for the absorption feature when modeling the X-ray spectrum implies that the Fe-K emission line is broad, and consistent with an origin in a relativistic accretion disk. Ignoring the apparent absorption feature leads to the conclusion that the Fe-K emission line is narrower, and also affects the inferred peak energy of the line (and hence the inferred ionization state of Fe). If the absorption line (at approx. 6.2 keV in the quasar frame) is real, we argue that it could be due to gravitationally redshifted Fe XXV or Fe XXVI resonance absorption within approx. 10 - 20 gravitational radii of the putative central black hole. The absorption line is not detected in earlier ASCA and Chandra low-energy grating observations, but the absorption line is not unequivocally ruled out by these data. The Chandra high-energy grating Fe-K emission line is consistent with an origin predominantly in Fe I-XVII or so. In an ASCA observation eight years earlier, the Fe-K line peaked at approx. 6.6 keV, closer to the energies of He-like Fe triplet lines. Further, in a Chandra low-energy grating observation the Fe-K line profile was double-peaked, one peak corresponding to Fe I-XVII or so, the other peak to Fe XXVI Ly alpha. Such a wide range in ionization state of Fe is not ruled out by the HEG and ASCA data either, and is suggestive of a complex structure for the line-emitter.

  15. Emission Line Correlations as Diagnostics of Quasar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Keziah; Richards, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    We investigate correlations between UV and optical emission line properties for a sample of z~0.5 SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) quasars that have recently been observed by HST. The sample is designed to be comparable in luminosity to the existing reverberation mapping (RM) sample, but less biased in terms of their "eigenvector 1" properties. We seek to understand the conditions under which high-ionization emission lines become dominated by a wind. Our analysis takes advantage of spectral decomposition through Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and archival UV HST spectroscopy of SDSS quasars. With these data we will clarify the needs for RM analysis of quasars with wind-dominated emission features.

  16. Galactic absorption line coronae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated whether gaseous coronae around galaxies rise to the absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. In our model, gas originally located in the disk is heated to the million degree range and rises to surround the galaxy; the gas remains bound to the galaxy. Optically thin radiative cooling drives a thermal instability in the hot gas which causes cool clouds (T 4 K) to condense out of the corona. These clouds, which follow ballistic trajectories back to the disk, are the absorption sites. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic code with radiative cooling was used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of the corona as well as the position rate at which clouds form. Coupled to the code is a galaxy with two mass components, a disk (approx.10 11 M/sub sun/) and a dark halo (approx.10 12 M/sub sun/). In a model where the temperature at the base of the corona (in the disk) is 3 x 10 6 K, absorbing gas of column density NL> or approx. =10 18 cm 2 extends radially to 100 kpc (face-on orientation) and vertically to 60 Kpc (edge-on orientation). The total mass of gas required here (coronal plus cloud gas) is 1.4 x 10 10 M/sub sun/, while the minimum supernova heating rate is one supernova per 27 years. In two other models (base coronal temperatures of 0.50 x 10 6 K and 1 x 10 6 K), coronal gas rises from an extended gaseous disk (in the previous model, the gas comes from a typical gaseous disk approximately 15 kpc in extent). Here, column densities of 10 19 cm -2 out to a radius of 70 kpc (face-on orientation) are achieved with a total gas mass of 1.7 x 10 9 M/sub direct-product/ and 2.0 x 10 9 M/sub sun/ and minimum heating rates of approximately one supernova per 170 years and one supernova per 60 years

  17. The Associated Absorption Features in Quasar Spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Mg II Absorption Doublets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Huang, Wei-Rong; Pang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Hong-Yan; Pan, Da-Sheng; Yao, Min; Nong, Wei-Jing; Lu, Mei-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Using the SDSS spectra of quasars included in the DR7Q or DR12Q catalogs, we search for Mg II λλ2796, 2803 narrow absorption doublets in the spectra data around Mg II λ2798 emission lines. We obtain 17,316 Mg II doublets, within the redshift range of 0.3299 ≤ z abs ≤ 2.5663. We find that a velocity offset of υ r 6000 km s‑1. If associated Mg II absorbers are defined by υ r present at least one associated Mg II system with {W}{{r}}λ 2796≥slant 0.2 \\mathringA . The fraction of associated Mg II systems with high-velocity outflows correlates with the average luminosities of their central quasars, indicating a relationship between outflows and the quasar feedback power. The υ r distribution of the outflow Mg II absorbers is peaked at 1023 km s‑1, which is smaller than the corresponding value of the outflow C IV absorbers. The redshift number density evolution of absorbers (dn/dz) limited by υ r > ‑3000 km s‑1 differs from that of absorbers constrained by υ r > 2000 km s‑1. Absorbers limited by υ r > 2000 km s‑1 and higher values exhibit profiles similar to dn/dz. In addition, the dn/dz is smaller when absorbers are constrained with larger υ r . The distributions of equivalent widths, and the ratio of {W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803, are the same for associated and intervening systems, and independent of quasar luminosity.

  18. Outshining the quasars at reionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, D.; Reeves, J.N.; Hjorth, J.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma Rays: Bursts, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, Galaxies: Quasars: Absorption Lines, X-Rays: Galaxies, X-Rays: General Udgivelsesdato: 19 January......Gamma Rays: Bursts, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, Galaxies: Quasars: Absorption Lines, X-Rays: Galaxies, X-Rays: General Udgivelsesdato: 19 January...

  19. Narrow absorption lines with two observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei; Cao, Yue

    2015-07-01

    We assemble 3524 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with repeated observations to search for variations of the narrow C IV λ λ 1548,1551 and Mg II λ λ 2796,2803 absorption doublets in spectral regions shortward of 7000 Å in the observed frame, which corresponds to time-scales of about 150-2643 d in the quasar rest frame. In these quasar spectra, we detect 3580 C IV absorption systems with zabs = 1.5188-3.5212 and 1809 Mg II absorption systems with zabs = 0.3948-1.7167. In term of the absorber velocity (β) distribution in the quasar rest frame, we find a substantial number of C IV absorbers with β Hacker et al. However, in our Mg II absorption sample, we find that neither shows variable absorption with confident levels of >4σ for λ2796 lines and >3σ for λ2803 lines.

  20. H i Absorption in the Steep-Spectrum Superluminal Quasar 3C 216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlström; Vermeulen; Taylor; Conway

    1999-11-01

    The search for H i absorption in strong compact steep-spectrum sources is a natural way to probe the neutral gas contents in young radio sources. In turn, this may provide information about the evolution of powerful radio sources. The recently improved capabilities of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have made it possible to detect a 0.31% (19 mJy) deep neutral atomic hydrogen absorption line associated with the steep-spectrum superluminal quasar 3C 216. The redshift (z=0.67) of the source shifts the frequency of the 21 cm line down to the ultra-high-frequency (UHF) band (850 MHz). The exact location of the H i-absorbing gas remains to be determined by spectral line VLBI observations at 850 MHz. We cannot exclude that the gas might be extended on galactic scales, but we think it is more likely to be located in the central kiloparsec. Constraints from the lack of X-ray absorption probably rule out obscuration of the core region, and we argue that the most plausible site for the H i absorption is in the jet-cloud interaction observed in this source.

  1. Quasars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H J

    1966-11-01

    A short historical outline of the discovery and a description of observed properties of quasars introduces questions as to their nature. Some of the principal arguments concerning their reality, distance, intrinsic properties and age lead to the conclusion that, while there is room for other points of view; a strong case can be made for the interpretation, on which quasars are the most distant observable objects in the known universe. To produce such luminosities over times of thousands to millions of years requires the presence of millions of solar masses. For each quasar this enormous mass may be concentrated into a single object, in which case novel physics comes into play. Whatever the final interpretation, quasars seem certain to illuminate such questions as the origin and evolution of galaxies, perhaps also the structure and origin of the universe.

  2. Extended Emission-Line Regions: Remnants of Quasar Superwinds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Stockton, Alan

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of our recent integral-field-unit spectroscopy of luminous extended emission-line regions (EELRs) around low-redshift quasars, including new observations of five fields. Previous work has shown that the most luminous EELRs are found almost exclusively around steep-spectrum radio-loud quasars, with apparently disordered global velocity fields, and little, if any, morphological correlation with either the host galaxy or the radio structure. Our new observations confirm and expand these results. The EELRs often show some clouds with velocities exceeding 500 km s-1, ranging up to 1100 km s-1, but the velocity dispersions, with few exceptions, are in the 30-100 km s-1 range. Emission-line ratios show that the EELRs are clearly photoionized by the quasars. Masses of the EELRs range up to 1010Msun. Essentially all of the EELRs show relatively low metallicities, and they are associated with quasars that, in contrast to most, show similarly low metallicities in their broad-line regions. The two objects in our sample that do not have classical double-lobed radio morphologies (3C 48, with a compact-steep-spectrum source; Mrk 1014, radio quiet, but with a weak compact-steep-spectrum source) are the only ones that appear to have recent star formation. While some of the less luminous EELRs may have other origins, the most likely explanation for those in our sample is that they are examples of gas swept out of the host galaxy by a large-solid-angle blast wave accompanying the production of the radio jets. The triggering of the quasar activity is almost certainly the result of the merger of a gas-rich galaxy with a massive, gas-poor galaxy hosting the supermassive black hole. Based in part on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the

  3. GBT Detection of Polarization-Dependent HI Absorption and HI Outflows in Local ULIRGs and Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a 21-cm HI survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study (QUEST) sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L(sub 8 - 1000 micron) > 10(exp 12) solar L) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of HI absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with HI detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km/s in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent HI absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground HI clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the approx 10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into "mature" radio galaxies.

  4. DETECTION OF CA II ABSORPTION BY A HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD IN THE DIRECTION OF THE QUASAR PKS 0837-120

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROBERTSON, JG; SCHWARZ, UJ; VANWOERDEN, H; MURRAY, JD; MORTON, DC; HULSBOSCH, ANM

    1991-01-01

    We present optical absorption spectroscopy of the Ca II K and H lines along the sight line to the quasar PKS 0837-120, which lies in the direction of a high-velocity cloud (HVC) detected in H I 21-cm emission at V(LSR) = + 105 km s-1. Our data show Ca II absorption due to the HVC as well as a lower

  5. A Sample of Quasars with Strong Nitrogen Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7......We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7...

  6. VARIATIONS OF ABSORPTION TROUGHS IN THE QUASAR SDSS J125216.58+052737.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qin, Yi-Ping, E-mail: zhichenfu@126.com [Department of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Baise University, Baise 533000 (China)

    2015-01-20

    In this work, we analyze the spectra of quasar J125216.58+052737.7 (z {sub em} = 1.9035) which was observed by SDSS-I/II on 2003 January 30 and by BOSS on 2011 April 2. Both the continuum and the absorption spectra of this quasar show obvious variations between the two epochs. In the SDSS-I/II spectrum, we detect 8 C IV λλ1548,1551 absorption systems, which are detected at z {sub abs} = 1.9098, 1.8948, 1.8841, 1.8770, 1.8732, 1.8635, 1.8154, and 1.7359, respectively, and one Mg II λλ2796,2803 absorption system at z {sub abs} = 0.9912. Among these absorption systems, two C IV λλ1548,1551 absorption systems at z {sub abs} = 1.9098 and 1.7359 and the Mg II λλ2796,2803 absorption system are imprinted on the BOSS spectrum as well, and have similar absorption strengths when compared to those measured from the SDSS-I/II spectrum. Three C IV λλ1548,1551 absorption systems at z {sub abs} = 1.8948, 1.8841, and 1.8770 are also detected in the BOSS spectrum, while their absorption strengths are much weaker than those measured from the SDSS-I/II spectrum; three systems at z {sub abs} = 1.8732, 1.8635, and 1.8154 disappeared from the BOSS spectrum. Based on the variability analysis, the absorption systems that disappeared and weakened are likely to be intrinsic to the quasar. If these intrinsic absorption gases are blown away from the central region of the quasar, with respect to the quasar system, the absorption systems that disappeared would have separation velocities of 3147 kms{sup –1}, 4161 km s{sup –1}, and 9241 km s{sup –1}, while the absorption systems that weakened would have separation velocities of 900 km s{sup –1}, 2011 km s{sup –1}, and 2751 km s{sup –1}. Well-coordinated variations of the six C IV λλ1548,1551 absorption systems that disappeared and weakened, occurring on a timescale of 1026.7 days at the quasar rest frame, can be interpreted as a result of global changes in the ionization state of the absorbing gas.

  7. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  8. WHT spectroscopy of emission-line gas around two separate quasars at z = 0.87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, A.C.; Crawford, C.S.; Johnstone, R.M.; Hewett, P.C.; Allington-Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A report is given of observations made with the Faint Object Spectrograph on the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT), in which the line emission of the fuzz around two separate quasars, which coincidentally both have redshifts z = 0.87, is detected and measured. These represent the most distant quasars for which the spectrum of the fuzz has been obtained. The oxygen line ratios we observe are similar to those of the lower-z quasar 3C48 (to which the present quasars show a strong similarity) and again imply a high gas density. If confined by surrounding hot gas, the pressure is so high that an intracluster medium is required. This suggests that the quasars lie in clusters or groups of galaxies. (author)

  9. FIRST CONNECTION BETWEEN COLD GAS IN EMISSION AND ABSORPTION: CO EMISSION FROM A GALAXY–QUASAR PAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeleman, Marcel; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zwaan, Martin A.; Kampen, Eelco van; Møller, Palle [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411007 (India); Christensen, Lise; Fynbo, Johan P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Zafar, Tayyaba, E-mail: marcel@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2016-04-01

    We present the first detection of molecular emission from a galaxy selected to be near a projected background quasar using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The ALMA detection of CO(1−0) emission from the z = 0.101 galaxy toward quasar PKS 0439–433 is coincident with its stellar disk and yields a molecular gas mass of M{sub mol} ≈ 4.2 × 10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙} (for a Galactic CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor), larger than the upper limit on its atomic gas mass. We resolve the CO velocity field, obtaining a rotational velocity of 134 ± 11 km s{sup −1} and a resultant dynamical mass of ≥4 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. Despite its high metallicity and large molecular mass, the z = 0.101 galaxy has a low star formation rate, implying a large gas consumption timescale, larger than that typical of late-type galaxies. Most of the molecular gas is hence likely to be in a diffuse extended phase, rather than in dense molecular clouds. By combining the results of emission and absorption studies, we find that the strongest molecular absorption component toward the quasar cannot arise from the molecular disk, but is likely to arise from diffuse gas in the galaxy’s circumgalactic medium. Our results emphasize the potential of combining molecular and stellar emission line studies with optical absorption line studies to achieve a more complete picture of the gas within and surrounding high-redshift galaxies.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: QSOs narrow absorption line variability (Hacker+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, T. L.; Brunner, R. J.; Lundgren, B. F.; York, D. G.

    2013-06-01

    Catalogues of 2,522 QAL systems and 33 variable NAL systems detected in SDSS DR7 quasars with repeat observations. The object identifiers, position coordinates, and plate-MJD-fibre designations are taken from the SpecObjAll table in the SDSS Catalogue Archive Server (CAS) while the quasar redshifts (zqso) are from Hewett & Wild (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/405/2302). The absorption system redshift (zabs), system grade, and detected lines are outputs of the York et al. (2013, in. prep.) QAL detection pipeline. Some absorption lines are flagged based on alternate identifications (a), proximity of masked pixels (b), or questionable continuum fits (c). (3 data files).

  11. What makes red quasars red?. Observational evidence for dust extinction from line ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin

    2018-02-01

    Red quasars are very red in the optical through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which is possibly due to dust extinction in their host galaxies as expected in a scenario in which red quasars are an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies and unobscured type 1 quasars. However, alternative mechanisms also exist to explain their red colors: (i) an intrinsically red continuum; (ii) an unusual high covering factor of the hot dust component, that is, CFHD = LHD/Lbol, where the LHD is the luminosity from the hot dust component and the Lbol is the bolometric luminosity; and (iii) a moderate viewing angle. In order to investigate why red quasars are red, we studied optical and NIR spectra of 20 red quasars at z 0.3 and 0.7, where the usage of the NIR spectra allowed us to look into red quasar properties in ways that are little affected by dust extinction. The Paschen to Balmer line ratios were derived for 13 red quasars and the values were found to be 10 times higher than unobscured type 1 quasars, suggesting a heavy dust extinction with AV > 2.5 mag. Furthermore, the Paschen to Balmer line ratios of red quasars are difficult to explain with plausible physical conditions without adopting the concept of the dust extinction. The CFHD of red quasars are similar to, or marginally higher than, those of unobscured type 1 quasars. The Eddington ratios, computed for 19 out of 20 red quasars, are higher than those of unobscured type 1 quasars (by factors of 3-5), and hence the moderate viewing angle scenario is disfavored. Consequently, these results strongly suggest the dust extinction that is connected to an enhanced nuclear activity as the origin of the red color of red quasars, which is consistent with the merger-driven quasar evolution scenario. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A31

  12. NuSTAR Reveals Extreme Absorption in z < 0.5 Type 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Assef, R. J.; Aird, J.; Annuar, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Del Moro, A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S. M.; Luo, B.; Puccetti, S.; Stern, D.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-08-01

    The intrinsic column density (NH) distribution of quasars is poorly known. At the high obscuration end of the quasar population and for redshifts z 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) type 2 quasars (CTQSO2s); five new NuSTAR observations are reported herein, and four have been previously published. The candidate CTQSO2s lie at z < 0.5, have observed [O iii] luminosities in the range 8.4\\lt {log}({L}[{{O} {{III}}]}/{L}⊙ )\\lt 9.6, and show evidence for extreme, Compton-thick absorption when indirect absorption diagnostics are considered. Among the nine candidate CTQSO2s, five are detected by NuSTAR in the high-energy (8-24 keV) band: two are weakly detected at the ≈3σ confidence level and three are strongly detected with sufficient counts for spectral modeling (≳90 net source counts at 8-24 keV). For these NuSTAR-detected sources direct (i.e., X-ray spectral) constraints on the intrinsic active galactic nucleus properties are feasible, and we measure column densities ≈2.5-1600 times higher and intrinsic (unabsorbed) X-ray luminosities ≈10-70 times higher than pre-NuSTAR constraints from Chandra and XMM-Newton. Assuming the NuSTAR-detected type 2 quasars are representative of other Compton-thick candidates, we make a correction to the NH distribution for optically selected type 2 quasars as measured by Chandra and XMM-Newton for 39 objects. With this approach, we predict a Compton-thick fraction of {f}{CT}={36}-12+14 %, although higher fractions (up to 76%) are possible if indirect absorption diagnostics are assumed to be reliable.

  13. An Intercomparison Study of Two Proximate Damped Lyα Systems with Residual Flux upon the Lyα Absorption Trough toward Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Hongyan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng; Shi, Xiheng; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Wu, Shengmiao; Zhong, Zhihao

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present an intercomparison study of two quasars, SDSS J145618.32+340037.2 and SDSS J215331.50–025514.1, which have proximate damped Lyα systems (PDLAs) with residual flux upon the Lyα absorption trough. Though they both have residual flux as luminous as 1043 erg s‑1, their PDLAs are quite different in, e.g., neutral hydrogen column density, metal line absorption strength, high-ionization absorption lines as well as residual flux strength. For J1456+3400, the H I column density is log(N H I /cm–2) = 20.6 ± 0.2, with z abs = 2.3138, nearly identical to the quasar redshift (z = 2.3142) determined from the [O III] emission line. The metallicity of this system is typical of DLAs and there is high ionization therein, suggesting that the PDLA system is multiphase, putting it in the quasar environment. For J2153–0255, we measure the H I column density to be log(N H I /cm–2) = 21.5 ± 0.1 at z abs = 3.511, slightly redshifted with respect to the quasar (z = 3.490) measured from C III]. The metallicity of this system is quite low and there is a lack of significant high-ionization absorption lines therein, suggesting that the system is beyond the quasar host galaxy. The residual flux is wide (∼1000 km s‑1) in J1456, with a significance of ∼8σ, while also wide (∼1500 km s‑1) but with a smaller significance of ∼3σ in J2153. Among many explanations, we find that Lyα fuzz or resonant scattering can be used to explain the residual flux in the two sources while partial coverage cannot be excluded for J1456. By comparing these two cases, together with a similar case reported previously, we suggest that the strength of the residual flux is related to properties such as metallicity and high-ionization absorption lines of PDLAs. The residual flux recorded upon the PDLA absorption trough opens a window for us to see the physical conditions and processes of the quasar environment, and their profile and strength further remind us of their

  14. Intervening O vi Quasar Absorption Systems at Low Redshift: A Significant Baryon Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp; Savage; Jenkins

    2000-05-01

    Far-UV echelle spectroscopy of the radio-quiet QSO H1821+643 (zem=0.297), obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) at approximately 7 km s-1 resolution, reveals four definite O vi absorption-line systems and one probable O vi absorber at 0.15quasar in redshift; these are likely intervening systems unrelated to the background QSO. In the case of the strong O vi system at zabs=0.22497, multiple components are detected in Si iii and O vi as well as H i Lyman series lines, and the differing component velocity centroids and b-values firmly establish that this is a multiphase absorption system. A weak O vi absorber is detected at zabs=0.22637, i.e., offset by approximately 340 km s-1 from the zabs=0.22497 system. Lyalpha absorption is detected at zabs=0.22613, but no Lyalpha absorption is significantly detected at 0.22637. Other weak O vi absorbers at zabs=0.24531 and 0.26659 and the probable O vi system at 0.21326 have widely diverse O vi/H i column density ratios with N(O vi)/N(H i) ranging from

  15. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd =0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91 +0.24 -0.22 , which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  16. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Fan Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/V a correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 10 8 M sun . Our analysis implies that at a given M BH , z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  17. Narrow absorption lines complex I: one form of broad absorption line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Jian; Lin, Ying-Ru

    2018-03-01

    We discover that some of the broad absorption lines (BALs) are actually a complex of narrow absorption lines (NALs). As a pilot study of this type of BAL, we show this discovery through a typical example in this paper. Utilizing the two-epoch observations of J002710.06-094435.3 (hereafter J0027-0944) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that each of the C IV and Si IV BAL troughs contains at least four NAL doublets. By resolving the Si IV BAL into multiple NALs, we present the following main results and conclusions. First, all these NALs show coordinated variations between the two-epoch SDSS observations, suggesting that they all originate in the quasar outflow, and that their variations are due to global changes in the ionization condition of the absorbing gas. Secondly, a BAL consisting of a number of NAL components indicates that this type of BAL is basically the same as the intrinsic NAL, which tends to support the inclination model rather than the evolution model. Thirdly, although both the C IV and Si IV BALs originate from the same clumpy substructures of the outflow, they show different profile shapes: multiple absorption troughs for the Si IV BAL in a wider velocity range, while P-Cygni for the C IV BAL in a narrower velocity range. This can be interpreted by the substantial differences in fine structure and oscillator strength between the Si IVλλ1393, 1402 and C IVλλ1548, 1551 doublets. Based on the above conclusions, we consider that the decomposition of a BAL into NALs can serve as a way to resolve the clumpy structure for outflows, and it can be used to learn more about characteristics of the clumpy structure and to test the outflow model, when utilizing high-resolution spectra and photoionization model.

  18. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE DETECTION OF POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT H I ABSORPTION AND H I OUTFLOWS IN LOCAL ULIRGs AND QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Stacy H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Baker, Andrew J., E-mail: stacy.h.teng@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub 8{sub -{sub 1000{sub {mu}m}}}} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s{sup -1} in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the {approx}10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into ''mature'' radio galaxies.

  19. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Appenzeller, I.; Hamann, F.

    2003-01-01

    the chemical composition of the line emitting gas. Comparisons to photoionization calculations indicate gas metallicities in the broad emission line region in the range of solar to several times solar. The average of the mean metallicity of each high-z quasar in this sample is $Z/Z_\\odot = 4.3 \\pm 0...

  20. Quasars Probing Quasars: The Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding Z 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie Wingyee

    parameter U positively correlates with impact parameter, which implies the foreground quasar does not dominate the radiation field. The circumgalactic medium is significantly enriched even beyond the virial radius, and has median [M/H] = -0.6. O/Fe is supersolar. No evolution in the total H column is found up to projected distance of 200 kpc, within which the median N H = 1020.5 cm-2. Within the virial radius, the mass of the cool CGM is estimated at MCGM ≈ 1.5*10 11 Msun. In two cases, detection of CII* implies electron density ne > 10 cm-3. Motivated by the preliminary kinematic results from this high-resolution sample, kinematic analysis of 148 pairs with precise foreground quasar redshifts is performed. The background spectra of this sample are of low and high resolution. The mean absorptions in metals exhibit velocity widths sigmav ≈ 300 km s-1, however the large widths do not require outflows. The mean absorptions have centroids redshifted from the systemic redshift by +200 km s-1. The asymmetry may be explained if the quasars are anisotropic or intermittent, and the gas is not flowing onto the galaxy. Finally, several observational and theoretical lines of future inquiry using multiwavelength data are presented.

  1. High Redshift Quasars, Emission Lines and ‘Cloudy’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferland Gary J.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I describe some of the outstanding “big picture” questions in quasar research and how the development of the plasma simulation code Cloudy is being guided to answer them. QSO spectra are complex and challenge even the most sophisticated spectral codes. Particular emphasis is given to a central question - how do the properties of the central black hole and the accretion disk are manifested in the observed spectrum.

  2. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Monique C.; Dwek, Eliahu; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; hide

    2016-01-01

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.

  3. Implications of a primordial origin for the dispersion in D/H in quasar absorption systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copi, C J; Olive, K A; Schramm, D N

    1998-03-17

    We explore the difficulties with a primordial origin of variations of D/H in quasar absorption systems. In particular we examine options such as a very large-scale inhomogeneity in the baryon content of the universe. We show that very large-scale (much larger than 1 Mpc) isocurvature perturbations are excluded by current cosmic microwave background observations. Smaller-scale ad hoc perturbations (approximately 1 Mpc) still may lead to a large dispersion in primordial abundances but are subject to other constraints.

  4. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P.; Hall, P. B.; Shen, Yue; Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S.; Ak, N. Filiz; Chen, Yuguang; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M.; Green, Paul J.; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D.; Pâris, I.; Tao, Charling; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s −1 wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n e ≳ 3.9 × 10 5 cm −3 . The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios

  5. Galaxy correlations at high redshift and the environment of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, Steven

    1986-01-01

    In close line-of-sight pairs of quasars absorption lines may be seen in the spectrum of the further quasar at a redshift corresponding to that of the nearer quasar. This is indicative of the presence of an intervening galaxy belonging to the same cluster as the (galaxy containing the) nearer quasar. The likelihood of this occurring is calculated in terms of the galaxy correlation function and it is found that present results already suggest that quasars at redshifts above one must be associated with rich clusters. (author)

  6. THE JET POWER AND EMISSION-LINE CORRELATIONS OF RADIO-LOUD OPTICALLY SELECTED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, Brian; Zhang Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, the properties of the extended radio emission form Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars with 0.4 20-30 kpc). The frequency of quasars with FR II level extended radio emission is ∼2.3% and >0.4% of quasars have FR I level extended radio emission. The lower limit simply reflects the flux density limit of the survey. The distribution of the long-term time-averaged jet powers of these quasars, Q-bar , has a broad peak ∼3 x 10 44 erg s -1 that turns over below 10 44 erg s -1 and sources above 10 45 erg s -1 are extremely rare. It is found that the correlation between the bolometric (total thermal) luminosity of the accretion flow, L bol , and Q-bar is not strong. The correlation of Q-bar with narrow line luminosity is stronger than the correlation with broad line luminosity and the continuum luminosity. It is therefore concluded that previous interpretations of correlations of Q-bar with narrow line strengths in radio galaxies as a direct correlation of jet power and accretion power have been overstated. It is explained why this interpretation mistakenly overlooks the sizeable fraction of sources with weak accretion luminosity and powerful jets discovered by Ogle et al.

  7. INVESTIGATING THE COMPLEX X-RAY SPECTRUM OF A BROAD-LINE 2MASS RED QUASAR: XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF FTM 0830+3759

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Fiore, Fabrizio; Vignali, Cristian; Bianchi, Stefano; Miniutti, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    We report results from a 50 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dust-reddened broad-line quasar FTM 0830+3759 (z = 0.413) selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm/Two Micron All Sky Survey red quasar survey. For this active galactic nucleus (AGN), a very short 9 ks Chandra exposure had suggested a feature-rich X-ray spectrum and Hubble Space Telescope images revealed a very disturbed host galaxy morphology. Contrary to classical, optically selected quasars, the X-ray properties of red (i.e., with J - K s > 1.7 and R - K s > 4.0) broad-line quasars are still quite unexplored, although there is a growing consensus that, due to moderate obscuration, these objects can offer a unique view of spectral components typically swamped by the AGN light in normal, blue quasars. The XMM-Newton observation discussed here has definitely confirmed the complexity of the X-ray spectrum revealing the presence of a cold (or mildly ionized) absorber with N H ∼ 10 22 cm -2 along the line of sight to the nucleus and a Compton reflection component accompanied by an intense Fe Kα emission line in this quasar with a L 2-10 k eV ∼ 5 x 10 44 erg s -1 . A soft-excess component is also required by the data. The match between the column density derived by our spectral analysis and that expected on the basis of reddening due to the dust suggests the possibility that both absorptions occur in the same medium. FTM 0830+3759 is characterized by an extinction/absorption-corrected X-ray-to-optical flux ratio α ox = -2.3, which is steeper than expected on the basis of its UV luminosity. These findings indicate that the X-ray properties of FTM 0830+3759 differ from those typically observed for optically selected broad-line quasars with comparable hard X-ray luminosity.

  8. GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE LINE OF SIGHT TO BACKGROUND QUASARS. III. MULTI-OBJECT SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.; Barrientos, L. F.; Padilla, N.; Lacerna, I.; López, S.; Lira, P.; Maureira, M. J.; Gilbank, D. G.; Ellingson, E.; Gladders, M. D.; Yee, H. K. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present Gemini/GMOS-S multi-object spectroscopy of 31 galaxy cluster candidates at redshifts between 0.2 and 1.0 and centered on QSO sight lines taken from López et al. The targets were selected based on the presence of an intervening Mg II absorption system at a similar redshift to that of a galaxy cluster candidate lying at a projected distance 71 -1 Mpc from the QSO sight line (a p hotometric hit ) . The absorption systems span rest-frame equivalent widths between 0.015 and 2.028 Å. Our aim was three-fold: (1) to identify the absorbing galaxies and determine their impact parameters, (2) to confirm the galaxy cluster candidates in the vicinity of each quasar sightline, and (3) to determine whether the absorbing galaxies reside in galaxy clusters. In this way, we are able to characterize the absorption systems associated with cluster members. Our main findings are as follows. (1) We identified 10 out of 24 absorbing galaxies with redshifts between 0.2509 ≤ z gal ≤ 1.0955, up to an impact parameter of 142 h 71 -1 kpc and a maximum velocity difference of 280 km s –1 . (2) We spectroscopically confirmed 20 out of 31 cluster/group candidates, with most of the confirmed clusters/groups at z –1 from galaxy clusters/groups, in addition to two new ones related to galaxy group environments. These numbers imply efficiencies of 71% in finding such systems with MOS spectroscopy. This is a remarkable result since we defined a photometric hit as those cluster-absorber pairs having a redshift difference Δz = 0.1. The general population of our confirmed absorbing galaxies have luminosities L B ∼L B * and mean rest-frame colors (R c – z') typical of S cd galaxies. From this sample, absorbing cluster galaxies hosting weak absorbers are consistent with lower star formation activity than the rest, which produce strong absorption and agree with typical Mg II absorbing galaxies found in the literature. Our spectroscopic confirmations lend support to the selection of

  9. DETECTION OF REST-FRAME OPTICAL LINES FROM X-SHOOTER SPECTROSCOPY OF WEAK EMISSION-LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Gallo, Elena; Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P.; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 15 yr, examples of exotic radio-quiet quasars with intrinsically weak or absent broad emission line regions (BELRs) have emerged from large-scale spectroscopic sky surveys. Here, we present spectroscopy of seven such weak emission line quasars (WLQs) at moderate redshifts (z = 1.4–1.7) using the X-shooter spectrograph, which provides simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy covering the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) through optical. These new observations effectively double the number of WLQs with spectroscopy in the optical rest-frame, and they allow us to compare the strengths of (weak) high-ionization emission lines (e.g., C iv) to low-ionization lines (e.g., Mg ii, Hβ, Hα) in individual objects. We detect broad Hβ and Hα emission in all objects, and these lines are generally toward the weaker end of the distribution expected for typical quasars (e.g., Hβ has rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 15–40 Å). However, these low-ionization lines are not exceptionally weak, as is the case for high-ionization lines in WLQs. The X-shooter spectra also display relatively strong optical Fe ii emission, Hβ FWHM ≲ 4000 km s −1 , and significant C iv blueshifts (≈1000–5500 km s −1 ) relative to the systemic redshift; two spectra also show elevated UV Fe ii emission, and an outflowing component to their (weak) Mg ii emission lines. These properties suggest that WLQs are exotic versions of “wind-dominated” quasars. Their BELRs either have unusual high-ionization components, or their BELRs are in an atypical photoionization state because of an unusually soft continuum

  10. Paired quasars near NGC 2639: Evidence for quasars in superclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, H.; Ciardullo, R.; Harms, R.

    1983-01-01

    Arp found 10 quasars near a low-redshift galaxy 27' SSE of NGC 2639. Six of the quasars can be grouped into three redshift pairs which align across the anonymous galaxy. The large number of quasars and pairings could show an association with the low-redshift galaxy, or alternatively, might be due to superclusters seen along the line of sight. We tested the latter hypothesis by using deep, red-sensitive Lick 3 m prime focus plates to search for a supercluster associated with the z = 0.3 quasar pair. The plates show extended nebulosity associated with the quasar U10 (thetaapprox.7'', or 20 kpc at z = 0.3) and a richness class 1, Bautz-Morgan type III cluster 4' NW of U10. A spectrum of one the cluster's brightest galaxies gives z = 0.34, suggesting that the cluster and quasar are unassociated. We obtained spectra of eight of the quasars and find that (i) two of the quasars have very strong absorption shortward of Lyα, and (ii) two of Arp's redshifts (including one which Arp considered uncertain) are incorrect. Our redshifts break two of the redshift pairs, including the pair at z = 0.3. We use the redshift distribution of optically selected quasars to argue that the third pair has no statistical significance, and conclude that there is no basis for associating the quasars with the low-redshift anonymous galaxy. The disappearance of the redshift pairs vitiates the possibility of testing the paired-quasars-in-superclusters hypothesis in the NGC 2639 field

  11. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame ∼0.1-5 μm spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  12. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A., E-mail: RyanLane@my.unt.edu, E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  13. X-ray Spectral Survey of WGACAT Quasars, II: Optical and Radio Properties of Quasars with Low Energy X-ray Cut-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Two other cut-off quasars show reddening associated with the quasar. We conclude that absorption is highly likely to be the cause of the X-ray cut-offs, and that the abso...

  14. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...... no such relation with R, so the lowest velocity CIV-emitting gas has an inclination independent velocity field. We propose that this low-velocity gas is located at higher disk-altitudes than the high-velocity gas. A planar origin of the high-velocity CIV-emission is consistent with the current results...... and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out....

  15. Quasar Black Hole Mass Estimates from High-Ionization Lines: Breaking a Taboo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Can high ionization lines such as CIV λ 1549 provide useful virial broadening estimators for computing the mass of the supermassive black holes that power the quasar phenomenon? The question has been dismissed by several workers as a rhetorical one because blue-shifted, non-virial emission associated with gas outflows is often prominent in CIV λ 1549 line profiles. In this contribution, we first summarize the evidence suggesting that the FWHM of low-ionization lines like H β and MgII λ 2800 provide reliable virial broadening estimators over a broad range of luminosity. We confirm that the line widths of CIV λ 1549 is not immediately offering a virial broadening estimator equivalent to the width of low-ionization lines. However, capitalizing on the results of Coatman et al. (2016 and Sulentic et al. (2017, we suggest a correction to FWHM CIV λ 1549 for Eddington ratio and luminosity effects that, however, remains cumbersome to apply in practice. Intermediate ionization lines (IP ∼ 20–30 eV; AlIII λ 1860 and SiIII] λ 1892 may provide a better virial broadening estimator for high redshift quasars, but larger samples are needed to assess their reliability. Ultimately, they may be associated with the broad-line region radius estimated from the photoionization method introduced by Negrete et al. (2013 to obtain black hole mass estimates independent from scaling laws.

  16. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ak, N. Filiz [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Pâris, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Tao, Charling [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS /IN2P3, 163, avenue de Luminy, Case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s{sup −1} wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n{sub e} ≳ 3.9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  17. NuSTAR Reveals Extreme Absorption in z <0.5 Type 2 Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic column density (N-H) distribution of quasars is poorly known. At the high obscuration end of the quasar population and for redshifts z <1, the X-ray spectra can only be reliably characterized using broad-band measurements that extend to energies above 10 keV. Using the hard X-ray ob...

  18. The Discovery of a High-Redshift Quasar without Emission Lines from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan; Strauss; Gunn; Lupton; Carilli; Rupen; Schmidt; Moustakas; Davis; Annis; Bahcall; Brinkmann; Brunner; Csabai; Doi; Fukugita; Heckman; Hennessy; Hindsley; Ivezic; Knapp; Lamb; Munn; Pauls; Pier; Rockosi; Schneider; Szalay; Tucker; York

    1999-12-01

    We report observations of a luminous unresolved object at redshift z=4.62, with a featureless optical spectrum redward of the Lyalpha forest region, discovered from Sloan Digital Sky Survey commissioning data. The redshift is determined by the onset of the Lyalpha forest at lambda approximately 6800 Å and a Lyman limit system at lambda=5120 Å. A strong Lyalpha absorption system with weak metal absorption lines at z=4.58 is also identified in the spectrum. The object has a continuum absolute magnitude of -26.6 at 1450 Å in the rest frame (h0=0.5, q0=0.5) and therefore cannot be an ordinary galaxy. It shows no radio emission (the 3 sigma upper limit of its flux at 6 cm is 60 µJy), indicating a radio-to-optical flux ratio at least as small as that of the radio-weakest BL Lacertae objects known. It is also not linearly polarized to a 3 sigma upper limit of 4% in the observed I band. Therefore, it is either the most distant BL Lac object known to date, with very weak radio emission, or a new type of unbeamed quasar, whose broad emission line region is very weak or absent.

  19. REVERBERATION AND PHOTOIONIZATION ESTIMATES OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS IN LOW-z QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M{sub BH}. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r{sub BLR} measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r{sub BLR} directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r{sub BLR} estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our ''photoionization'' method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 A (Al III {lambda}1860/Si III] {lambda}1892, C IV {lambda}1549/Al III {lambda}1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r{sub BLR} and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r{sub BLR} values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M{sub BH} for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H{beta}, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.

  20. A large sample of Kohonen-selected SDSS quasars with weak emission lines: selection effects and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusinger, H.; Balafkan, N.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: A tiny fraction of the quasar population shows remarkably weak emission lines. Several hypotheses have been developed, but the weak line quasar (WLQ) phenomenon still remains puzzling. The aim of this study was to create a sizeable sample of WLQs and WLQ-like objects and to evaluate various properties of this sample. Methods: We performed a search for WLQs in the spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 based on Kohonen self-organising maps for nearly 105 quasar spectra. The final sample consists of 365 quasars in the redshift range z = 0.6 - 4.2 (z¯ = 1.50 ± 0.45) and includes in particular a subsample of 46 WLQs with equivalent widths WMg iiattention was paid to selection effects. Results: The WLQs have, on average, significantly higher luminosities, Eddington ratios, and accretion rates. About half of the excess comes from a selection bias, but an intrinsic excess remains probably caused primarily by higher accretion rates. The spectral energy distribution shows a bluer continuum at rest-frame wavelengths ≳1500 Å. The variability in the optical and UV is relatively low, even taking the variability-luminosity anti-correlation into account. The percentage of radio detected quasars and of core-dominant radio sources is significantly higher than for the control sample, whereas the mean radio-loudness is lower. Conclusions: The properties of our WLQ sample can be consistently understood assuming that it consists of a mix of quasars at the beginning of a stage of increased accretion activity and of beamed radio-quiet quasars. The higher luminosities and Eddington ratios in combination with a bluer spectral energy distribution can be explained by hotter continua, i.e. higher accretion rates. If quasar activity consists of subphases with different accretion rates, a change towards a higher rate is probably accompanied by an only slow development of the broad line region. The composite WLQ spectrum can be reasonably matched by the

  1. First Time Rapid and Accurate Detection of Massive Number of Metal Absorption Lines in the Early Universe Using Deep Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinan; Ge, Jian; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhao, Tiffany; Wang, Cindy

    2018-01-01

    Metal absorption line systems in the distant quasar spectra have been used as one of the most powerful tools to probe gas content in the early Universe. The MgII λλ 2796, 2803 doublet is one of the most popular metal absorption lines and has been used to trace gas and global star formation at redshifts between ~0.5 to 2.5. In the past, machine learning algorithms have been used to detect absorption lines systems in the large sky survey, such as Principle Component Analysis, Gaussian Process and decision tree, but the overall detection process is not only complicated, but also time consuming. It usually takes a few months to go through the entire quasar spectral dataset from each of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release. In this work, we applied the deep neural network, or “ deep learning” algorithms, in the most recently SDSS DR14 quasar spectra and were able to randomly search 20000 quasar spectra and detect 2887 strong Mg II absorption features in just 9 seconds. Our detection algorithms were verified with previously released DR12 and DR7 data and published Mg II catalog and the detection accuracy is 90%. This is the first time that deep neural network has demonstrated its promising power in both speed and accuracy in replacing tedious, repetitive human work in searching for narrow absorption patterns in a big dataset. We will present our detection algorithms and also statistical results of the newly detected Mg II absorption lines.

  2. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF RADIO-QUIET QUASARS WITH WEAK EMISSION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Shemmer, Ohad

    2010-01-01

    We present radio and X-ray observations, as well as optical light curves, for a subset of 26 BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) lacking strong radio emission and with z < 2.2. Half of these 26 objects are shown to be stars, galaxies, or absorbed quasars. We conclude that the other 13 objects are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with abnormally weak emission features; 10 of those 13 are definitively radio quiet, and, for those with available optical light curves, their level of optical flux variability is consistent with radio-quiet quasars. We cannot exclude the possibility that some of these 13 AGNs lie on the extremely radio-faint tail of the BL Lac distribution, but our study generally supports the notion that all BL Lac objects are radio-loud. These radio-quiet AGNs appear to have intrinsically weak or absent broad emission line regions (BELRs), and, based on their X-ray properties, we argue that some are low-redshift analogs to weak line quasars (WLQs). SDSS BL Lac searches are so far the only systematic surveys of the SDSS database capable of recovering such exotic low-redshift WLQs. There are 71 more z < 2.2 radio-quiet BL Lac candidates already identified in the SDSS, but not considered here, and many of those might be best unified with WLQs as well. Future studies combining low- and high-redshift WLQ samples will yield new insight on our understanding of the structure and formation of AGN BELRs.

  3. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  4. GALACTIC-SCALE ABSORPTION OUTFLOW IN THE LOW-LUMINOSITY QUASAR IRAS F04250-5718: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, Doug; Borguet, Benoit; Arav, Nahum; Dunn, Jay P.; Penton, Steve; Kriss, Gerard A.; Korista, Kirk; Bautista, Manuel; Costantini, Elisa; Kaastra, Jelle; Steenbrugge, Katrien; Ignacio Gonzalez-Serrano, J.; Benn, Chris; Aoki, Kentaro; Behar, Ehud; Micheal Crenshaw, D.; Everett, John; Gabel, Jack; Moe, Maxwell; Scott, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present absorption line analysis of the outflow in the quasar IRAS F04250-5718. Far-ultraviolet data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveal intrinsic narrow absorption lines from high ionization ions (e.g., C IV, N V, and O VI) as well as low ionization ions (e.g., C II and Si III). We identify three kinematic components with central velocities ranging from ∼-50 to ∼-230 km s -1 . Velocity-dependent, non-black saturation is evident from the line profiles of the high ionization ions. From the non-detection of absorption from a metastable level of C II, we are able to determine that the electron number density in the main component of the outflow is ∼ -3 . Photoionization analysis yields an ionization parameter log U H ∼ -1.6 ± 0.2, which accounts for changes in the metallicity of the outflow and the shape of the incident spectrum. We also consider solutions with two ionization parameters. If the ionization structure of the outflow is due to photoionization by the active galactic nucleus, we determine that the distance to this component from the central source is ∼>3 kpc. Due to the large distance determined for the main kinematic component, we discuss the possibility that this outflow is part of a galactic wind.

  5. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  6. Discovery of Variable Hydrogen Balmer Absorption Lines with Inverse Decrement in PG 1411+442

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xi-Heng; Pan, Xiang; Zhang, Shao-Hua; Sun, Lu-Ming; Ji, Tuo; Liu, Bo; Zhou, Hong-Yan [Polar Research Institute of China, Jinqiao Road 451, Shanghai 200136 (China); Wang, Jian-Guo [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Yang, Chen-Wei; Jiang, Ning, E-mail: zhouhongyan@pric.org.cn, E-mail: shixiheng@pric.org.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-07-01

    We present new optical spectra of the well-known broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1411+442, using the DBSP spectrograph at the Palomar 200 inch telescope in 2014 and 2017 and the YFOSC spectrograph at the Lijiang 2.4 m telescope in 2015. A blueshifted narrow absorption line system is clearly revealed in 2014 and 2015 consisting of hydrogen Balmer series and metastable He i lines. The velocity of these lines is similar to the centroid velocity of the UV BALs, suggesting that both originate from the outflow. The Balmer lines vary significantly between the two observations and vanished in 2017. They were also absent in the archived spectra obtained before 2001. The variation is thought to be driven by photoionization change. Besides, the absorption lines show inversed Balmer decrement, i.e., the apparent optical depths of higher-order Balmer absorption lines are larger than those of lower-order lines, which is inconsistent with the oscillator strengths of the transitions. We suggest that such anomalous line ratios can be naturally explained by the thermal structure of a background accretion disk, which allows the obscured part of the disk to contribute differently to the continuum flux at different wavelengths. High-resolution spectroscopic and photometric monitoring would be very useful to probe the structure of the accretion disk as well as the geometry and physical conditions of the outflow.

  7. An extreme Fe II emitter the narrow line quasar PHL 1092

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeron, J

    1980-01-01

    A search for Fe II emission in a sample of radio-quiet quasars has revealed the outstanding properties of PHL 1092. Intense Fe II lines dominate the entire spectrum, and the Fe II UV multiplets are nearly as strong as the optical ones. In contrast the extreme weakness of the Balmer and Mg II lines is striking. For the first time, Fe I lines are identified in an extra-galactic object. The lines are narrow, with a FWHM of 1300 km s/sup -1/. The presence of Fe II UV lines and Fe I lines from the ground state requires moderate column densities. However Fe/sup 0/ can exist only in a region completely shielded from the UV continuum. The weakness of Mg II and H beta relative to Fe II lines is best explained by their thermalization. The emitting region is of high electron density n/sub e/ approximately=10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/, low temperature T approximately=10000K, and has an optical depth in the Fe II UV lines tau /sub UV/ approximately=10/sup 3/-10/sup 4/. It is speculated that for higher densities all the lines wou...

  8. THE EXTENDED HIGH A ( V ) QUASAR SURVEY: SEARCHING FOR DUSTY ABSORBERS TOWARD MID-INFRARED-SELECTED QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogager, J.-K.; Noterdaeme, P. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Fynbo, J. P. U.; Heintz, K. E.; Vestergaard, M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Geier, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ledoux, C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Møller, P. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Venemans, B. P. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-20

    We present the results of a new spectroscopic survey for dusty intervening absorption systems, particularly damped Ly α absorbers (DLAs), toward reddened quasars. The candidate quasars are selected from mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer combined with optical and near-infrared photometry. Out of 1073 candidates, we secure low-resolution spectra for 108 using the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Spain. Based on the spectra, we are able to classify 100 of the 108 targets as quasars. A large fraction (50%) is observed to have broad absorption lines (BALs). Moreover, we find six quasars with strange breaks in their spectra, which are not consistent with regular dust reddening. Using template fitting, we infer the amount of reddening along each line of sight ranging from A ( V ) ≈ 0.1 to 1.2 mag (assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve). In four cases, the reddening is consistent with dust exhibiting the 2175 Å feature caused by an intervening absorber, and for two of these, an Mg ii absorption system is observed at the best-fit absorption redshift. In the rest of the cases, the reddening is most likely intrinsic to the quasar. We observe no evidence for dusty DLAs in this survey. However, the large fraction of BAL quasars hampers the detection of absorption systems. Out of the 50 non-BAL quasars, only 28 have sufficiently high redshift to detect Ly α in absorption.

  9. Absorption lines, Faraday rotation, and magnetic field estimates for QSO absorption-line clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, P.P.; Perry, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have estimated the extragalactic component of Faraday rotation for a sample of 37 QSOs for which there is good absorption line data, which we have also analyzed. Statistical evidence is presented which suggests that we have isolated a component of Faraday rotation which is occurring in the absorption clouds of some QSOs

  10. Hints on the Broad Line Region Structure of Quasars at High and Low Luminosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziani Paola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Quasars show a considerable spectroscopic diversity. However, the variety of quasar spectra at low redshifts is non-random: a principal component analysis applied to large samples customarily identifies two main eigenvectors. In this contribution we show that the range of quasar optical spectral properties observed at low-z and associated with the first eigenvector is preserved up to z ≈ 2 in a sample of high luminosity quasars. We also describe two major luminosity effects.

  11. Quasars Probing Quasars: the Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding z ~ 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie; Quasars Probing Quasars survey

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the circumgalactic medium--the gaseous halo surrounding a galaxy, is an integral part to understanding galaxy evolution. The z ~ 2-3 universe is interesting as this is when the star formation rate and AGN activity peak. My thesis concludes the decade-long Quasars Probing Quasars survey designed for studying massive galaxy formation and quasar feedback. I use background quasar sightlines that pass close to foreground quasars to study the circumgalactic medium of quasar-host galaxies in absorption. My sample of 149 quasar pairs involve spectra taken with 17 different optical and near IR instruments. I present results on the statistical and physical properties of the circumgalactic medium. The circumgalactic medium is enriched even beyond the virial radius. The alpha/Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting enrichment from core-collapse supernovae. The cool gas mass within the virial radius is enough to fuel star formation for another Gyr, and may account for 1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state increases with projected distance from the quasar, which implies the quasar does not dominate the ionizing radiation flux. However, detection of fluorescent Lyman-alpha emission and NV absorption imply these transverse absorbers are partially illuminated by the quasar. In one peculiar case, the absorbing clump has density >100 cm^-3 and sub-parsec size. The average absorption in the circumgalactic medium exhibits large velocity widths, and is asymmetric about the systemic redshift of the galaxies. The widths are consistent with gravitational motions and Hubble flow, and outflows are not required to explain them. The asymmetry can be explained if the ionizing radiation from the quasar is anisotropic or intermittent and the gas is not in inflow. My results pose challenges for cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to produce a substantial cool gas reservoir surrounding quasars, that is also enriched and shows extreme kinematics.

  12. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  13. Possible evidence for a variable fine-structure constant from QSO absorption lines: motivations, analysis and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. T.; Webb, J. K.; Flambaum, V. V.; Dzuba, V. A.; Churchill, C. W.; Prochaska, J. X.; Barrow, J. D.; Wolfe, A. M.

    2001-11-01

    An experimental search for variation in the fundamental coupling constants is strongly motivated by modern high-energy physics theories. Comparison of quasar (QSO) absorption-line spectra with laboratory spectra provides a sensitive probe for variability of the fine-structure constant, α, over cosmological time-scales. We have previously developed and applied a new method providing an order-of-magnitude gain in precision over previous optical astrophysical constraints. Here we extend that work by including new quasar spectra of damped Lyman-α absorption systems. We also reanalyse our previous lower-redshift data and confirm our initial results. The constraints on α come from simultaneous fitting of absorption lines of subsets of the following species: Mgi, Mgii, Alii, Aliii, Siii, Crii, Feii, Niii and Znii. We present a detailed description of our methods and results based on an analysis of 49 quasar absorption systems (towards 28 QSOs) covering the redshift range [formmu2]0.5quote above is the raw value, not corrected for any of these systematic effects. The only significant systematic effects so far identified, if removed from our data, would lead to a more significant deviation of [formmu5]Δα/α from zero.

  14. New constraints on Lyman-α opacity using 92 quasar lines of sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Sarah E. I.; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Reed, Sophie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Becker, George; Rorai, Albert

    2018-05-01

    The large scatter in Lyman-α opacity at z > 5.3 has been an ongoing mystery, prompting a flurry of numerical models. A uniform ultra-violet background has been ruled out at those redshifts, but it is unclear whether any proposed models produce sufficient inhomogeneities. In this paper we provide an update on the measurement which first highlighted the issue: Lyman-α effective optical depth along high-z quasar lines of sight. We nearly triple on the previous sample size in such a study thanks to the cooperation of the DES-VHS, SHELLQs, and SDSS collaborations as well as new reductions and spectra. We find that a uniform UVB model is ruled out at 5.1 < z < 5.3, as well as higher redshifts, which is perplexing. We provide the first such measurements at z ~ 6. None of the numerical models we confronted to this data could reproduce the observed scatter.

  15. The Size-Luminosity Relationship of Quasar Narrow-Line Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ross; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2018-04-01

    The presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) can strongly affect its host. Due to the copious radiative power of the nucleus, the effects of radiative feedback can be detected over the entire host galaxy and sometimes well into the intergalactic space. In this paper we model the observed size-luminosity relationship of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of AGN. We model the NLR as a collection of clouds in pressure equilibrium with the ionizing radiation, with each cloud producing line emission calculated by Cloudy. The sizes of the NLRs of powerful quasars are reproduced without any free parameters, as long as they contain massive (105M⊙ to 107M⊙) ionization-bounded clouds. At lower AGN luminosities the observed sizes are larger than the model sizes, likely due to additional unmodeled sources of ionization (e.g., star formation). We find that the observed saturation of sizes at ˜10kpc which is observed at high AGN luminosities (Lion ≃ 1046erg/s) is naturally explained by optically thick clouds absorbing the ionizing radiation and preventing illumination beyond a critical distance. Using our models in combination with observations of the [O III]/IR ratio and the [O III] size - IR luminosity relationship, we calculate the covering factor of the obscuring torus (and therefore the type 2 fraction within the quasar population) to be f = 0.5, though this is likely an upper bound. Finally, because the gas behind the ionization front is invisible in ionized gas transitions, emission-based NLR mass calculations underestimate the mass of the NLR and therefore of the energetics of ionized-gas winds.

  16. Steep Hard-X-ray Spectra Indicate Extremely High Accretion Rates in Weak Emission-Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlar, Andrea; Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. Niel; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Luo, Bin; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    We present XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of ten weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) at 0.928 ≤ z ≤ 3.767, six of which are radio quiet and four which are radio intermediate. The new X-ray data enabled us to measure the hard-X-ray power-law photon index (Γ) in each source with relatively high accuracy. These measurements allowed us to confirm previous reports that WLQs have steeper X-ray spectra, therefore indicating higher accretion rates with respect to "typical" quasars. A comparison between the Γ values of our radio-quiet WLQs and those of a carefully-selected, uniform sample of 84 quasars shows that the first are significantly higher, at the ≥ 3σ level. Collectively, the four radio-intermediate WLQs have lower Γ values with respect to the six radio-quiet WLQs, as may be expected if the spectra of the first group are contaminated by X-ray emission from a jet. These results suggest that, in the absence of significant jet emission along our line of sight, WLQs constitute the extreme high end of the accretion rate distribution in quasars. We detect soft excess emission in our lowest-redshift radio-quiet WLQ, in agreement with previous findings suggesting that the prominence of this feature is associated with a high accretion rate. We have not detected signatures of Compton reflection, Fe Kα lines, or strong variability between two X-ray epochs in any of our WLQs.

  17. The z=0.0912 and z=0.2212 damped Ly alpha galaxies along the sight line toward the quasar OI 363

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnshek, DA; Rao, S; Nestor, D; Lane, W; Monier, E; Bergeron, J; Smette, A

    2001-01-01

    New optical and infrared observations along the sight line toward the quasar OI 363 (0738+313) are presented and discussed. Excluding quasars selectively observed because they were known to be located behind gas-rich galaxies and systems which lack confirming UV spectroscopic observations of the

  18. X-RAY AND MULTIWAVELENGTH INSIGHTS INTO THE NATURE OF WEAK EMISSION-LINE QUASARS AT LOW REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92903 (United States); Hall, Patrick B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Shemmer, Ohad, E-mail: jfwu@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties of 11 radio-quiet quasars with weak or no emission lines identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with redshift z = 0.4-2.5. Our sample was selected from the Plotkin et al. catalog of radio-quiet, weak-featured active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The distribution of relative X-ray brightness for our low-redshift weak-line quasar (WLQ) candidates is significantly different from that of typical radio-quiet quasars, having an excess of X-ray weak sources, but it is consistent with that of high-redshift WLQs. Over half of the low-redshift WLQ candidates are X-ray weak by a factor of {approx}> 5, compared to a typical SDSS quasar with similar UV/optical luminosity. These X-ray weak sources generally show similar UV emission-line properties to those of the X-ray weak quasar PHL 1811 (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines, weak semiforbidden lines, and strong UV Fe emission); they may belong to the notable class of PHL 1811 analogs. The average X-ray spectrum of these sources is somewhat harder than that of typical radio-quiet quasars. Several other low-redshift WLQ candidates have normal ratios of X-ray-to-optical/UV flux, and their average X-ray spectral properties are also similar to those of typical radio-quiet quasars. The X-ray weak and X-ray normal WLQ candidates may belong to the same subset of quasars having high-ionization 'shielding gas' covering most of the wind-dominated broad emission-line region, but be viewed at different inclinations. The mid-infrared-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these sources are generally consistent with those of typical SDSS quasars, showing that they are not likely to be BL Lac objects with relativistically boosted continua and diluted emission lines. The mid-infrared-to-UV SEDs of most radio-quiet weak-featured AGNs without sensitive X-ray coverage (34 objects) are also consistent with those of typical SDSS quasars. However, one source in our

  19. X-RAY AND MULTIWAVELENGTH INSIGHTS INTO THE NATURE OF WEAK EMISSION-LINE QUASARS AT LOW REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Anderson, Scott F.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Hall, Patrick B.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Shemmer, Ohad

    2012-01-01

    We report on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties of 11 radio-quiet quasars with weak or no emission lines identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with redshift z = 0.4-2.5. Our sample was selected from the Plotkin et al. catalog of radio-quiet, weak-featured active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The distribution of relative X-ray brightness for our low-redshift weak-line quasar (WLQ) candidates is significantly different from that of typical radio-quiet quasars, having an excess of X-ray weak sources, but it is consistent with that of high-redshift WLQs. Over half of the low-redshift WLQ candidates are X-ray weak by a factor of ∼> 5, compared to a typical SDSS quasar with similar UV/optical luminosity. These X-ray weak sources generally show similar UV emission-line properties to those of the X-ray weak quasar PHL 1811 (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines, weak semiforbidden lines, and strong UV Fe emission); they may belong to the notable class of PHL 1811 analogs. The average X-ray spectrum of these sources is somewhat harder than that of typical radio-quiet quasars. Several other low-redshift WLQ candidates have normal ratios of X-ray-to-optical/UV flux, and their average X-ray spectral properties are also similar to those of typical radio-quiet quasars. The X-ray weak and X-ray normal WLQ candidates may belong to the same subset of quasars having high-ionization 'shielding gas' covering most of the wind-dominated broad emission-line region, but be viewed at different inclinations. The mid-infrared-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these sources are generally consistent with those of typical SDSS quasars, showing that they are not likely to be BL Lac objects with relativistically boosted continua and diluted emission lines. The mid-infrared-to-UV SEDs of most radio-quiet weak-featured AGNs without sensitive X-ray coverage (34 objects) are also consistent with those of typical SDSS quasars. However, one source in our X

  20. Time-dependent narrow emission-line profiles of quasars and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capriotti, E.R.; Foltz, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The narrow-line emitting regions of quasars and active nuclei of galaxies are assumed to consist of material undergoing gravitational infall due to acceleration by centrally located mass concentrations. Two cases are considered. In one, the material is assumed to be in the form of optically thick, similar clouds which emit line radiation monochromatically, isotropically and in inverse proportion to the square of the distance from the center of the system. In the other case, the material is assumed to be homogeneous, isothermal and to have the same ionization structure everywhere. The material is assumed to be excited by an ionizing continuum created ty a supernova-like outburst of radiation. Line profiles are computed for various combinations of epoch after outburst, continuum decay times, and spectral resolution. The computed profiles are clearly asymmetric to the blue of the profile peak and for certain combinations of epoch and decay time, clearly asymmetric to the blue of line center. The computed profiles compare well with many observed [O III] profiles

  1. SIMULTANEOUS ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL EMISSION-LINE PROFILES OF QUASARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BLACK HOLE MASS DETERMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Luis C.; Dong Xiaobo; Goldoni, Paolo; Ponti, Gabriele; Greene, Jenny E.

    2012-01-01

    The X-shooter instrument on the Very Large Telescope was used to obtain spectra of seven moderate-redshift quasars simultaneously covering the spectral range ∼3000 Å to 2.5 μm. At z ≈ 1.5, most of the prominent broad emission lines in the ultraviolet to optical region are captured in their rest frame. We use this unique data set, which mitigates complications from source variability, to intercompare the line profiles of C IV λ1549, C III] λ1909, Mg II λ2800, and Hα and evaluate their implications for black hole (BH) mass estimation. We confirm that Mg II and the Balmer lines share similar kinematics and that they deliver mutually consistent BH mass estimates with minimal internal scatter (∼<0.1 dex) using the latest virial mass estimators. Although no virial mass formalism has yet been calibrated for C III], this line does not appear promising for such an application because of the large spread of its velocity width compared to lines of both higher and lower ionization; part of the discrepancy may be due to the difficulty of deblending C III] from its neighboring lines. The situation for C IV is complex and, because of the limited statistics of our small sample, inconclusive. On the one hand, slightly more than half of our sample (4/7) have C IV line widths that correlate reasonably well with Hα line widths, and their respective BH mass estimates agree to within ∼0.15 dex. The rest, on the other hand, exhibit exceptionally broad C IV profiles that overestimate virial masses by factors of 2-5 compared to Hα. As C IV is widely used to study BH demographics at high redshifts, we urgently need to revisit our analysis with a larger sample.

  2. What BOSS has taught us about Quasars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nicholas; SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Science Working Group

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents science highlights from the SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Survey, which has obtained spectra for over 300,000 quasars, 200,000 of which are at redshift z>2. Using this dataset, new measurements of the luminosity function have been made, with the faint end of the luminosity function now measured to z~5. New clustering results from DR12 are presented, and the weak luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z~0.5 is also discussed.New studies of the broad absorption line (BAL) quasar population have also been performed, with a sample of BAL quasars from the original SDSS being re-observed. These new data have shown the disappearance of CIV BAL troughs and indeed the transformation of BAL QSOs to non-BAL QSOs. BAL disappearance, and emergence, events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, and have shed light on accretion-disk wind models.We highlight the discovery of new classes of quasars including: a population of broad-line Mg II emitters found in a passive galaxy sample; objects with extremely red optical-to-mid infrared colors; objects with very curious UV line (LyA:NV) ratios and potentially the long-sought after high-redshift Type 2 Quasar population.Finally, we describe two new dedicated programs, one focusing on reverberation mapping, the other on X-ray selected quasars.A full list of papers connected to the BOSS Quasar Survey is given at: http://www.sdss3.org/science/publications.php

  3. The Gaseous Environments of Quasars: Outflows, Feedback & Cold Mode Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Hamann, Fred

    2018-06-01

    The early stages of massive galaxy evolution can involve galaxy-scale outflows driven by a starburst or a central quasar and cold-mode accretion (infall) that adds to the mass buildup in the galaxies. I will describe three related studies that use quasar absorption lines to measure outflows, infall, and the general gaseous environments of quasars across a range of spatial scales. The three studies are: 1) High-resolution spectroscopy with Keck-HIRES and VLT-UVES to study associated absorption lines (AALs) that have redshifts greater than the emission redshifts indicating infall and/or rich multi-component AAL complexes that might be interstellar clouds in the host galaxies that have been shredded and dispersed by a fast unseen quasar-driven wind. The data provide strong constraints on the gas kinematics, spatial structure, column densities, metallicities, and energetics. 2) A complete inventory of high-velocity CIV 1548,1550 mini-BAL outflows in quasars using high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra in the public VLT-UVES and Keck-HIRES archives. This sensitive mini-BAL survey fills an important niche between previous work on narrow absorption lines (NALs) and the much-studied broad absorption lines (BALs) to build a more complete picture of quasar outflows. I will report of the mini-BAL statistics, the diversity of lines detected, and some tests for correlations with the quasar properties. We find, for example, that mini-BALs at v > 4000 km/s in at least 10% of 511 quasars studied, including 1% at v > 0.1 c. Finally, 3) Use the much larger database of NALs measured in 262,449 BOSS quasars by York et al. (in prep.) to study their potential relationships to the quasars and, specifically, their origins in quasar outflows. This involves primarily comparisons of the incidence and properties of NALs at different velocity shifts to other measured properties of the quasars such as BAL outflows, emission line characteristics, radio-loudness, and red colors. We find

  4. Broad absorption line symbiotic stars: highly ionized species in the fast outflow from MWC 560

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Adrian B.; Knigge, Christian; Sokoloski, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    In symbiotic binaries, jets and disk winds may be integral to the physics of accretion onto white dwarfs from cool giants. The persistent outflow from symbiotic star MWC 560 (≡V694 Mon) is known to manifest as broad absorption lines (BALs), most prominently at the Balmer transitions. We report the detection of high-ionization BALs from C IV, Si IV, N V, and He II in International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra obtained on 1990 April 29 - 30, when an optical outburst temporarily erased the obscuring `iron curtain' of absorption troughs from Fe II and similar ions. The C IV and Si IV BALs reached maximum radial velocities at least 1000 km s-1 higher than contemporaneous Mg II and He II BALs; the same behaviors occur in the winds of quasars and cataclysmic variables. An iron curtain lifts to unveil high-ionization BALs during the P Cygni phase observed in some novae, suggesting by analogy a temporary switch in MWC 560 from persistent outflow to discrete mass ejection. At least three more symbiotic stars exhibit broad absorption with blue edges faster than 1500 km s-1; high-ionization BALs have been reported in AS 304 (≡V4018 Sgr), while transient Balmer BALs have been reported in Z And and CH Cyg. These BAL-producing fast outflows can have wider opening angles than has been previously supposed. BAL symbiotics are short-timescale laboratories for their giga-scale analogs, broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs), which display a similarly wide range of ionization states in their winds.

  5. Quasars Probing Quasars. X. The Quasar Pair Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Joseph R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fumagalli, Michele; Myers, Adam D.; Bartle, Stephanie; Chehade, Ben; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Shanks, Tom; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Rubin, Kate H. R.

    2018-06-01

    The rare close projection of two quasars on the sky provides the opportunity to study the host galaxy environment of a foreground quasar in absorption against the continuum emission of a background quasar. For over a decade the “Quasars probing quasars” series has utilized this technique to further the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution in the presence of a quasar at z > 2, resolving scales as small as a galactic disk and from bound gas in the circumgalactic medium to the diffuse environs of intergalactic space. Presented here is the public release of the quasar pair spectral database utilized in these studies. In addition to projected pairs at z > 2, the database also includes quasar pair members at z useful for small-scale clustering studies. In total, the database catalogs 5627 distinct objects, with 4083 lying within 5‧ of at least one other source. A spectral library contains 3582 optical and near-infrared spectra for 3028 of the cataloged sources. As well as reporting on 54 newly discovered quasar pairs, we outline the key contributions made by this series over the last 10 years, summarize the imaging and spectroscopic data used for target selection, discuss the target selection methodologies, describe the database content, and explore some avenues for future work. Full documentation for the spectral database, including download instructions, is supplied at http://specdb.readthedocs.io/en/latest/.

  6. FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.

    2003-01-01

    the evolution of the FeII/MgII ratio over a wider range in cosmic time, we measured this ratio for composite quasar spectra which cover a redshift range of 0 4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f = 6 to 9, when the age of the universe was ~0.5 Gyr (H_o = 72 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0...

  7. Black hole mass estimates and emission-line properties of a sample of redshift z > 6.5 quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, Gisella; Peterson, Bradley M.; Frank, Stephan [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Venemans, Bram P.; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gennaro, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Simcoe, Robert A. [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Lab 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Mortlock, Daniel J. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Simpson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    We present the analysis of optical and near-infrared spectra of the only four z > 6.5 quasars known to date, discovered in the UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA-VIKING surveys. Our data set consists of new Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter and Magellan/FIRE observations. These are the best optical/NIR spectroscopic data that are likely to be obtained for the z > 6.5 sample using current 6-10 m facilities. We estimate the black hole (BH) mass, the Eddington ratio, and the Si IV/C IV, C III]/C IV, and Fe II/Mg II emission-line flux ratios. We perform spectral modeling using a procedure that allows us to derive a probability distribution for the continuum components and to obtain the quasar properties weighted upon the underlying distribution of continuum models. The z > 6.5 quasars show the same emission properties as their counterparts at lower redshifts. The z > 6.5 quasars host BHs with masses of ∼10{sup 9} M{sub ☉} that are accreting close to the Eddington luminosity ((log(L{sub Bol}/L{sub Edd})) = –0.4 ± 0.2), in agreement with what has been observed for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.5 quasars. By comparing the Si IV/C IV and C III]/C IV flux ratios with the results obtained from luminosity-matched samples at z ∼ 6 and 2 ≤ z ≤ 4.5, we find no evidence of evolution of the line ratios with cosmic time. We compare the measured Fe II/Mg II flux ratios with those obtained for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.4 sources. The two samples are analyzed using a consistent procedure. There is no evidence that the Fe II/Mg II flux ratio evolves between z = 7 and z = 4. Under the assumption that the Fe II/Mg II traces the Fe/Mg abundance ratio, this implies the presence of major episodes of chemical enrichment in the quasar hosts in the first ∼0.8 Gyr after the Big Bang.

  8. CONSTRAINTS ON BLACK HOLE GROWTH, QUASAR LIFETIMES, AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE SDSS BROAD-LINE QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Hernquist, Lars; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan Xiaohui; Hopkins, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of the black hole mass function of broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) that self-consistently corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates, based on a sample of 9886 quasars at 1 1 it is highly incomplete at M BH ∼ 9 M sun and L/L Edd ∼ BL > 150 ± 15 Myr for black holes at z = 1 with a mass of M BH = 10 9 M sun , and we constrain the maximum mass of a black hole in a BLQSO to be ∼3 x 10 10 M sun . Our estimated distribution of BLQSO Eddington ratios peaks at L/L Edd ∼ 0.05 and has a dispersion of ∼0.4 dex, implying that most BLQSOs are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit; however, the location of the peak is subject to considerable uncertainty. The steep increase in number density of BLQSOs toward lower Eddington ratios is expected if the BLQSO accretion rate monotonically decays with time. Furthermore, our estimated lifetime and Eddington ratio distributions imply that the majority of the most massive black holes spend a significant amount of time growing in an earlier obscured phase, a conclusion which is independent of the unknown obscured fraction. These results are consistent with models for self-regulated black hole growth, at least for massive systems at z > 1, where the BLQSO phase occurs at the end of a fueling event when black hole feedback unbinds the accreting gas, halting the accretion flow.

  9. Interferometric measurement of lines shift in flames in connection with interpretation of lined absorption method in atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'vov, B.V.; Polzik, L.K.; Katskov, D.A.; Kruglikova, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is concerned with interferometric measuring of the line shift in flames in the view of interpretation of absorption lines in the atomic absorption spectroscopy. The newly measured line shifts were compared to the known data on Lorentz broadening of the same lines obtained by methods free of the systematic errors. The resonant lines of the alkaline earth elements (Sr, Ca, Ba) were investigated. To reduce self-absorption in the flame the solutions with minimum concentrations of the elements were used. The computation scheme includes the spectrometer apparatus width and line broadening due to the self-absorption. Formulae are given for computing the values studied. Good agreement was observed between the computed and experimental results. Error analysis was performed. It was concluded that any line shifts in the hydrocarbons were correctly taken into an account in the absolute computations of absorption

  10. THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE OPTICALLY BRIGHTEST MINI-BAL QUASARS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Comins, M. L.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gibson, Robert R.; Shemmer, Ohad

    2010-01-01

    We have compiled a sample of 14 of the optically brightest radio-quiet quasars (m i ≤ 17.5 and z ≥ 1.9) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog that have C IV mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) present in their spectra. X-ray data for 12 of the objects were obtained via a Chandra snapshot survey using ACIS-S, while data for the other two quasars were obtained from archival XMM-Newton observations. Joint X-ray spectral analysis shows that the mini-BAL quasars have a similar average power-law photon index (Γ ∼ 1.9) and level of intrinsic absorption (N H ∼ 21 cm -2 ) as non-BMB (neither BAL nor mini-BAL) quasars. Mini-BAL quasars are more similar to non-BMB quasars than to BAL quasars in their distribution of relative X-ray brightness (assessed with Δα ox ). Relative colors indicate mild dust reddening in the optical spectra of mini-BAL quasars. Significant correlations between Δα ox and UV absorption properties are confirmed for a sample of 56 sources combining mini-BAL and BAL quasars with high signal-to-noise ratio rest-frame UV spectra, which generally supports models in which X-ray absorption is important in enabling driving of the UV absorption-line wind. We also propose alternative parameterizations of the UV absorption properties of mini-BAL and BAL quasars, which may better describe the broad absorption troughs in some respects.

  11. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher; McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui; Greiner, Jochen; Price, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i P1 dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z P1 magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 × 10 47 erg s –1 , and a black hole mass of 6.9 × 10 9 M ☉ . It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Lyβ peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i P1 dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z P1 dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  12. Constraining The Abundance Of Massive Black Hole Binaries By Spectroscopic Monitoring Of Quasars With Offset Broad Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Shen, Y.

    2012-05-01

    A fraction of quasars have long been known to show significant bulk velocity offsets (of a few hundred to thousands of km/s) in the broad permitted emission lines with respect to host galaxy systemic redshift. Various scenarios may explain these features such as massive black hole binaries or broad line region gas kinematics. As previously demonstrated by the dedicated work of Eracleous and colleagues, long-term spectroscopic monitoring provides a promising test to discriminate between alternative scenarios. Here, we present a sample of 300 shifted-line quasars homogeneously selected from the SDSS DR7. For 60 of them, we have conducted second-epoch optical spectra using MMT/BCS, ARC 3.5m/DIS, and/or FLWO 1.5m/FAST. These new observations, combined with the existing SDSS spectra, enable us to constrain the velocity drifts of these shifted broad lines with time baselines of a few years up to a decade. Previous work has been focusing on objects with extreme velocity offsets: > 1000 km/s. Our work extends to the parameter space of smaller velocity offsets, where larger velocity drifts would be expected in the binary scenario. Our results may be used to identify strong candidates for and to constrain the abundance of massive black hole binaries, which are expected in the hierarchical universe, but have so far been illusive.

  13. Thermal wind model for the broad emission line region of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.; Scott, J.S.; Schiano, A.V.R.; Christiansen, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Arguments are summarized for supposing that the clouds giving rise to the broad emission lines of QSOs are confined by the pressure of an expanding thermal gas and that a flux of relativistic particles with luminosity comparable to the photon luminosity streams through this gas. The resulting heating and momentum deposition produces a transonic thermal wind whose dynamical properties are calculated in detail. This wind accelerates and confines the emission line clouds, thereby producing the broad emission line (BEL) profiles. In a companion paper, the properties of the wind at much larger distances (approx.kpc) than the BEL region are used to explain the production of the broad absorption lines (BAL) observed in some QSOs. The same set of wind parameters can account for the properties of both the BEL and BAL regions, and this unification in the physical description of the BEL and BAL regions is one of the most important advantages of this model. A characteristic size of approx.1 pc for the QSO emission line region is one consequence of the model. This characteristic size is shown to depend upon luminosity in such a way that the ionization parameter is roughly constant over a wide range of luminosities. An X-ray luminosity due to thermal bremsstrahlung of approx.1%--10% of the optical luminosity is another consequence of the model. The trajectories of clouds under the combined influence of ram pressure acceleration and radiative acceleration are calculated. From these trajectories emission line profiles are also calculated, as well as the wind and cloud parameters yielding profiles in fair agreement with observed profiles explored. Opacity in the wind due to electron scattering displaces the line cores of optically thin lines to the blue. This is roughly compensated for by the redward skewing of optically thick lines due to preferential emission of photons from the back side of the clouds.void rapid depletion due to Compton losses are discussed

  14. Discovery and spectrophotometry of high-redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAlpine, G.M.; Feldman, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    We report on the discovery and spectrophotometry of 30 new high-redshift quasars, which were detected using the Curtis Schmidt technique. We also discuss new follow-up spectrophotometry for 23 quasar candidates from University of Michigan Lists I--IV. Our program sample contains eight quasars with z>3, at least five objects exhibiting broad absorption troughs, and a pair of quasars which are 1' apart on the sky and nearly identical in redshift, at z near 2.13. The redshift distribution for the majority of quasars in UM List IV suggests that most of the single-line quasar candidates in the UM List have low to moderate redshifts, with the reported line often being Mg II lambda2798 or C III] lambda1909. For 17 high-redshift quasars where lambda912 at the emission-line redshift could be examined, we did not find any definite Lyman limit cutoffs. Although three objects show a decline of the continuum within 100 A of lambda912, we do not believe them to be unambiguous examples for emission-line clouds situated in the line of sight. When our O I lambda1304 measurements are combined with the data of others to yield a composite spectrum, we obtain O I lambda1304/lambda8446 = 1.35. This suggests reddening with E/sub B/-Vroughly-equal0.23. Finally, our data exhibit a correlation between Lyα emission line velocity widths and redshift. The higher z quasars in the sample tend to have narrower lines, due, at least in part, to bias in the detection technique

  15. Simultaneous detection and analysis of optical and ultraviolet broad emission lines in quasars at z 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, S.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Goldoni, P.; Ho, L. C.; Marconi, A.; Ponti, G.; Risaliti, G.

    2017-06-01

    We studied the spectra of six z 2.2 quasars obtained with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. The redshift of these sources and the X-shooter's spectral coverage allow us to cover the rest of the spectral range 1200-7000 Å for the simultaneous detection of optical and ultraviolet lines emitted by the broad-line region. Simultaneous measurements, avoiding issues related to quasars variability, help us understand the connection between the different broad-line region line profiles generally used as virial estimators of black hole masses in quasars. The goal of this work is to compare the different emission lines for each object to check on the reliability of Hα, Mg II and C iv with respect to Hβ. Hα and Mg II linewidths correlate well with Hβ, while C iv shows a poorer correlation, due to the presence of strong blueshifts and asymmetries in the profile. We compared our sample with the only other two whose spectra were taken with the same instrument and for all examined lines our results are in agreement with the ones obtained with X-shooter at z 1.5-1.7. We finally evaluate C III] as a possible substitute of C iv in the same spectral range and find that its behaviour is more coherent with those of the other lines: we believe that, when a high quality spectrum such as the ones we present is available and a proper modelization with the Fe II and Fe III emissions is performed, it is more appropriate to use this line than that of C iv if not corrected for the contamination by non-virialized components. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under programme 086.B-0320(A).The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/603/A1

  16. NEW PERSPECTIVE ON GALAXY OUTFLOWS FROM THE FIRST DETECTION OF BOTH INTRINSIC AND TRAVERSE METAL-LINE ABSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Cooke, Jeff [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Martin, Crystal L.; Ho, Stephanie H. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bouché, Nicolas; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane [CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie (IRAP) de Toulouse, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Churchill, Christopher W.; Klimek, Elizabeth, E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z = 0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy (down-the-barrel) and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by Mg II, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes Mg I and Mg II absorption obtained from the Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer as well as Lyα, Si II, and Si III absorption obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between V {sub dtb} = 45-255 km s{sup –1}. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities V {sub outflow} = 40-80 km s{sup –1} to reproduce the transverse Mg II absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of V {sub dtb}. The galaxy has a metallicity, derived from Hα and N II, of [O/H] = –0.21 ± 0.08, whereas the transverse absorption has [X/H] = –1.12 ± 0.02. The galaxy star formation rate is constrained between 4.6-15 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} while the estimated outflow rate ranges between 1.6-4.2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and yields a wind loading factor ranging between 0.1-0.9. The galaxy and gas metallicities, the galaxy-quasar sight-line geometry, and the down-the-barrel and transverse modeled outflow velocities collectively suggest that the transverse gas originates from ongoing outflowing material from the galaxy. The ∼1 dex decrease in metallicity from the base of the outflow to the outer halo suggests metal dilution of the gas by the time it reached 58 kpc.

  17. Circum-Galactic Medium in the Halo of Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Ottolina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of circum-galactic gas in the halo of quasar host galaxies are investigated analyzing Mg II 2800 and C IV 1540 absorption-line systems along the line of sight close to quasars. We used optical spectroscopy of closely aligned pairs of quasars (projected distance ≤ 200 kpc, but at very different redshift obtained at the VLT and Gran Telescopio Canarias to investigate the distribution of the absorbing gas for a sample of quasars at z ~1. Absorption systems of EW ≥0.3 associated with the foreground quasars are revealed up to 200 kpc from the centre of the host galaxy, showing that the structure of the absorbing gas is patchy with a covering fraction quickly decreasing beyond 100 kpc. In this contribution we use optical and near-IR images obtained at VLT to investigate the relations between the properties of the circum-galactic medium of the host galaxies and of the large scale galaxy environments of the foreground quasars.

  18. THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF BROAD-LINE QUASARS IN THE MASS-LUMINOSITY PLANE. II. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We employ a flexible Bayesian technique to estimate the black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio functions for Type 1 (i.e., broad line) quasars from a uniformly selected data set of {approx}58, 000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We find that the SDSS becomes significantly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} or L/L {sub Edd} {approx}< 0.07, and that the number densities of Type 1 quasars continue to increase down to these limits. Both the mass and Eddington ratio functions show evidence of downsizing, with the most massive and highest Eddington ratio BHs experiencing Type 1 quasar phases first, although the Eddington ratio number densities are flat at z < 2. We estimate the maximum Eddington ratio of Type 1 quasars in the observable universe to be L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 3. Consistent with our results in Shen and Kelly, we do not find statistical evidence for a so-called sub-Eddington boundary in the mass-luminosity plane of broad-line quasars, and demonstrate that such an apparent boundary in the observed distribution can be caused by selection effect and errors in virial BH mass estimates. Based on the typical Eddington ratio in a given mass bin, we estimate growth times for the BHs in Type 1 quasars and find that they are comparable to or longer than the age of the universe, implying an earlier phase of accelerated (i.e., with higher Eddington ratios) and possibly obscured growth. The large masses probed by our sample imply that most of our BHs reside in what are locally early-type galaxies, and we interpret our results within the context of models of self-regulated BH growth.

  19. A Faraday rotation search for magnetic fields in quasar damped Ly alpha absorption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Abraham L.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a Faraday rotation survey of 61 radio-bright QSOs conducted at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The Galactic contribution to the Faraday rotation is estimated and subtracted to determine the extragalactic rotation measure (RRM) for each source. Eleven of these QSOs are known to exhibit damped Ly alpha absorption. The rate of incidence of significant Faraday rotation of these 11 sources is compared to the remaining 50 and is found to be higher at the 99.8% confidence level. However, as this is based upon only two detections of Faraday rotation in the damped Ly alpha sample, the result is only tentative. If the two detections in the damped Ly alpha sample are dug to the absorbing systems, then the inferred rotation measure induced by these systems is roughly 250 rad/sq m. The two detections were for the two lowest redshift absorbers in the sample. We find that a rotation measure of 250 rad/sq m would have gone undetected for any other absorber in the damped Ly alpha sample due to the 1/(1 + 2) squared dilution of the observed RRM with redshift. Thus the data are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is a generic property of damped Ly alpha absorbers. We do not confirm the suggestion that the amplitude of RRMs increases with redshift. Rather, the data are consistent with no redshift evolution. We find that the uncertainty in the estimation of the Galactic rotation measure (GRM) is a more serious problem than previously realized for extra-galactic Faraday rotation studies of QSO absorbers. A careful analysis of current methods for estimating GRM indicate that it can be determined to an accuracy of about 15 - 20 rad/sq m. Previous studies underestimated this uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. Due to this uncertainty, rotation measures such as we suspect are associated with damped Ly alpha absorption systems can only be detected at redshifts less than z approximately

  20. Starburst-driven Superwinds in Quasar Host Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, Peter; Podigachoski, Pece; Wilkes, Belinda; Haas, Martin

    2017-01-01

    During the past five decades astronomers have been puzzled by the presence of strong absorption features including metal lines, observed in the optical and ultraviolet spectra of quasars, signaling inflowing and outflowing gas winds with relative velocities up to several thousands of km s-1. In

  1. Quasars as probes of gas in extended protogalaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of a galaxy involves infall of gas from radii ∼ 100 kpc, at epochs corresponding to redshifts z 4 K would become largely neutral. Clouds or sheets of such gas, in galaxies along the line-of-sight to a background quasar, could readily give rise to at least as many HI absorption systems of high column density as are observed. (author)

  2. Objective-prism spectrophotometry of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clowes, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is derived for obtaining low-resolution spectrophotometry of quasars directly from the objective-prism plates on which they were discovered. Measurements with a PDS microdensitometer of approximately 130 quasar candidates in approximately the central 19 square degrees of the UK Schmidt prism plate UJ3682P were used in the application of the procedure. The success of the objective-prism spectrophotometry is demonstrated in a comparison with 12 slit spectra. Redshifts and equivalent widths can be determined with typical discrepancies of 1% and 40% respectively. This work on objective-prism spectrophotometry leads to a quantification of the selection effects that operate in the searches for emission-line objects on objective-prism plates. The quantification successfully explains an apparent discrepancy in the detection efficiencies of the CTIO-4m and Curtis Schmidt surveys for quasars. Spectra of quasars that were observed with the Image Photon Counting System on the Anglo-Australian Telescope are presented. The observations of quasars with broad absorption troughs indicate the ejection of matter with velocities up to approximately 22000kms -1 and with velocity dispersions up to approximately 11000kms -1 . Data on the wavelength dependences of the contrast γ and the grain response function g of the Kodak emulsion IIIaJ are presented. (author)

  3. The intrinsic far-UV spectrum of the high-redshift quasar B1422+231

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, M.; Bate, N. F.; Webster, R. L.; Labrie, K.; King, A. L.; Yong, S.-. Y.

    2018-02-01

    We present new spectroscopy of the z = 3.62 gravitationally lensed quasar B1422+117 from the Gemini North GMOS integral field spectrograph. We observe significant differential magnifications between the broad emission lines and the continuum, as well as across the velocity structure of the Lyman-α line. We take advantage of this differential microlensing to algebraically decompose the quasar spectrum into the absorbed broad emission line and absorbed continuum components. We use the latter to derive the intrinsic Ly α forest absorption spectrum. The proximity effect is clearly detected, with a proximity zone edge of 8.6-17.3 Mpc from the quasar, implying (perhaps intermittent) activity over at least 28 Myr. The Ly α line profile exhibits a blue excess that is inconsistent with a symmetric fit to the unabsorbed red side. This has important implications for the use of this fitting technique in estimating the absorbed blue Ly α wings of Gunn-Peterson trough quasars.

  4. The low-ion QSO absorption-line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzetta, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Various techniques are used to investigate the class of QSO absorption-line systems that exhibit low-ion absorption lines. Four separate investigations are conducted as follows: Spectroscopy of 32 QSOs at red wavelengths is presented and used to investigate intermediate-redshift MgII absorption. A total of 22 Mg II doublets are detected, from which properties of the Mg II absorbers are derived. Marginal evidence for intrinsic evolution of the number density of the Mg II absorbers with redshift is found. The data are combined with previous observations of C IV and C II seen in the same QSOs at blue wavelengths, and the properties of Mg II- and C IV-selected systems are compared. A sample is constructed of 129 QSOs for which are available published data suitable for detecting absorption-line systems that are optically thick to Lyman continuum radiation. A total of 53 such Lyman-limit systems are found, from which properties of the Lyman-limit systems are derived. It is found that the rate of incidence of the systems does not strongly evolved with redshift. This result is contrasted with the evolution found previously for systems selected on the basis of Mg II absorption. Spectroscopy at red wavelengths of eight QSOs with known damped Lyα absorption systems is presented. Spectroscopic and spectrophotometric observations aimed at detecting molecular hydrogen and dust in the z = 2.796 damped Lyα absorber toward Q1337 + 113 are presented

  5. Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostinski, Natalie; Olsen, Ben A.; Marsland, Robert III; McGuyer, Bart H.; Happer, William

    2011-01-01

    Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines.

  6. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog: Fourteenth data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Aubourg, Éric; Myers, Adam D.; Streblyanska, Alina; Lyke, Brad W.; Anderson, Scott F.; Armengaud, Éric; Bautista, Julian; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brandt, William Nielsen; Burtin, Étienne; Dawson, Kyle; de la Torre, Sylvain; Georgakakis, Antonis; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Green, Paul J.; Hall, Patrick B.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; MacLeod, Chelsea; Mariappan, Vivek; McGreer, Ian D.; Merloni, Andrea; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tojeiro, Rita; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Yèche, Christophe; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2018-05-01

    We present the data release 14 Quasar catalog (DR14Q) from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV). This catalog includes all SDSS-IV/eBOSS objects that were spectroscopically targeted as quasar candidates and that are confirmed as quasars via a new automated procedure combined with a partial visual inspection of spectra, have luminosities Mi [z = 2] < -20.5 (in a Λ CDM cosmology with H0 = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ω M =0.3, and Ω Λ = 0.7), and either display at least one emission line with a full width at half maximum larger than 500 km s-1 or, if not, have interesting/complex absorption features. The catalog also includes previously spectroscopically-confirmed quasars from SDSS-I, II, and III. The catalog contains 526 356 quasars (144 046 are new discoveries since the beginning of SDSS-IV) detected over 9376 deg2 (2044 deg2 having new spectroscopic data available) with robust identification and redshift measured by a combination of principal component eigenspectra. The catalog is estimated to have about 0.5% contamination. Redshifts are provided for the Mg II emission line. The catalog identifies 21 877 broad absorption line quasars and lists their characteristics. For each object, the catalog presents five-band (u, g, r, i, z) CCD-based photometry with typical accuracy of 0.03 mag. The catalog also contains X-ray, ultraviolet, near-infrared, and radio emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys. The calibrated digital spectra, covering the wavelength region 3610-10 140 Å at a spectral resolution in the range 1300 < R < 2500, can be retrieved from the SDSS Science Archiver Server. http://www.sdss.org/dr14/algorithms/qso_catalog

  7. The luminosity function of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yichuan C.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new evolutionary model for the optical luminosity function of quasars. Our analytical model is derived from fits to the empirical luminosity function estimated by Hartwick and Schade and Warren, Hewett, and Osmer on the basis of more than 1200 quasars over the range of redshifts 0 approximately less than z approximately less than 4.5. We find that the evolution of quasars over this entire redshift range can be well fitted by a Gaussian distribution, while the shape of the luminosity function can be well fitted by either a double power law or an exponential L(exp 1/4) law. The predicted number counts of quasars, as a function of either apparent magnitude or redshift, are fully consistent with the observed ones. Our model indicates that the evolution of quasars reaches its maximum at z approximately = 2.8 and declines at higher redshifts. An extrapolation of the evolution to z approximately greater than 4.5 implies that quasars may have started their cosmic fireworks at z(sub f) approximately = 5.2-5.5. Forthcoming surveys of quasars at these redshifts will be critical to constrain the epoch of quasar formation. All the results we derived are based on observed quasars and are therefore subject to the bias of obscuration by dust in damped Ly alpha systems. Future surveys of these absorption systems at z approximately greater than 3 will also be important if the formation epoch of quasars is to be known unambiguously.

  8. Emission-line galaxies and quasars in the southern hemisphere. I. Description and applications of an objective-prism survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    A selection of objects from the first plates of a low-dispersion, objective-prism survey for emission-line galaxies and quasars is used to illustrate the application of the survey to the following lines of research in extragalactic astronomy: quasi-stellar objects, Seyfert galaxies, instabilities in galaxies produced by tidal interaction or explosive events, and rates of star formation and the general chemical evolution of galaxies. Included in the discussion is a description of how the survey provides a new, purely optical, color-independent method for the direct isolation of bright, high-redshift QSOs with strong emission lines (Lα is often directly visible on the Schmidt-survey plates). The newly discovered objects used for illustration are a radio-quiet QSO of redshift 2.07, a luminous, class 2 Seyfert galaxy, a compact blue emission-line galaxy with a jet or streamer, yet with no obvious interacting companion, and a blue galaxy with Hβ flux 50 times that of 30 Doradus, and low metal abundances, which is undergoing a very intense burst of star formation. These objects are to be discussed in greater detail in subsequent papers in this series

  9. High-Redshift Quasars Found in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data. II. The Spring Equatorial Stripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Anderson, Scott F.; Voges, Wolfgang; Margon, Bruce; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series aimed at finding high-redshift quasars from five-color (u ' g ' r ' i ' z ' ) imaging data taken along the Celestial Equator by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) during its commissioning phase. In this paper, we present 22 high-redshift quasars (z>3.6) discovered from ∼250 deg2 of data in the spring Equatorial Stripe, plus photometry for two previously known high-redshift quasars in the same region of the sky. Our success rate in identifying high-redshift quasars is 68%. Five of the newly discovered quasars have redshifts higher than 4.6 (z=4.62, 4.69, 4.70, 4.92, and 5.03). All the quasars have i * B 0 =0.5). Several of the quasars show unusual emission and absorption features in their spectra, including an object at z=4.62 without detectable emission lines, and a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar at z=4.92. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society

  10. GAMMA–GAMMA ABSORPTION IN THE BROAD LINE REGION RADIATION FIELDS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böttcher, Markus; Els, Paul, E-mail: Markus.Bottcher@nwu.ac.za [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2531 (South Africa)

    2016-04-20

    The expected level of γγ absorption in the Broad Line Region (BLR) radiation field of γ -ray loud Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) is evaluated as a function of the location of the γ -ray emission region. This is done self-consistently with parameters inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in a single-zone leptonic EC-BLR model scenario. We take into account all geometrical effects both in the calculation of the γγ opacity and the normalization of the BLR radiation energy density. As specific examples, we study the FSRQs 3C279 and PKS 1510-089, keeping the BLR radiation energy density at the location of the emission region fixed at the values inferred from the SED. We confirm previous findings that the optical depth due to γγ absorption in the BLR radiation field exceeds unity for both 3C279 and PKS 1510-089 for locations of the γ -ray emission region inside the inner boundary of the BLR. It decreases monotonically, with distance from the central engine and drops below unity for locations within the BLR. For locations outside the BLR, the BLR radiation energy density required for the production of GeV γ -rays rapidly increases beyond observational constraints, thus making the EC-BLR mechanism implausible. Therefore, in order to avoid significant γγ absorption by the BLR radiation field, the γ -ray emission region must therefore be located near the outer boundary of the BLR.

  11. A SURVEY OF ALKALI LINE ABSORPTION IN EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Adam G.; Redfield, Seth; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Koesterke, Lars; Barman, Travis S.

    2011-01-01

    We obtained over 90 hr of spectroscopic observations of four exoplanetary systems with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Observations were taken in transit and out of transit, and we analyzed the differenced spectra—i.e., the transmission spectra—to inspect it for absorption at the wavelengths of the neutral sodium (Na I) doublet at λλ5889, 5895 and neutral potassium (K I) at λ7698. We used the transmission spectrum at Ca I λ6122—which shows strong stellar absorption but is not an alkali metal resonance line that we expect to show significant absorption in these atmospheres—as a control line to examine our measurements for systematic errors. We use an empirical Monte Carlo method to quantify these systematic errors. In a reanalysis of the same data set using a reduction and analysis pipeline that was derived independently, we confirm the previously seen Na I absorption in HD 189733b at a level of (– 5.26 ± 1.69) × 10 –4 (the average value over a 12 Å integration band to be consistent with previous authors). Additionally, we tentatively confirm the Na I absorption seen in HD 209458b (independently by multiple authors) at a level of (– 2.63 ± 0.81) × 10 –4 , though the interpretation is less clear. Furthermore, we find Na I absorption of (– 3.16 ± 2.06) × 10 –4 at <3σ in HD 149026b; features apparent in the transmission spectrum are consistent with real absorption and indicate this may be a good target for future observations to confirm. No other results (Na I in HD 147506b and Ca I and K I in all four targets) are significant to ≥3σ, although we observe some features that we argue are primarily artifacts.

  12. Determination numbers of ionized atoms from emission and absorption lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh Azimi, A.; Shokouhi, N.

    2002-01-01

    Saha, M., (1920) estimated that salter chromosphere is not only due to radiation from neutral atoms, but from ionized atoms. The failure to observe these stellar lines in the laboratory was attributed to internal temperature and pressure about 10* E + 6 K 10* E-7 atm. In this research we found that emission lines of ionized atoms (like Cs) could be measured in laboratory condition, (about 10* E-3 atm and 2000 K) by using Graphite France Atomic Absorption with injection 124 u g C sel. We calculated the numbers of ionized atoms from Bottzman law. We also measured these numbers from area under the energy-time curve

  13. THE FIRST HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASAR FROM Pan-STARRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; De Rosa, Gisella; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chambers, Ken; Burgett, William; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Sweeney, Bill; Waters, Christopher [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McGreer, Ian; Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Greiner, Jochen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Price, Paul, E-mail: morganson@mpia.de [Princeton University Observatory, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We present the discovery of the first high-redshift (z > 5.7) quasar from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1). This quasar was initially detected as an i{sub P1} dropout in PS1, confirmed photometrically with the SAO Wide-field InfraRed Camera at Arizona's Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector at the MPG 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. The quasar was verified spectroscopically with the MMT Spectrograph, Red Channel and the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Its near-infrared spectrum was taken at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBT) with the LBT Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research. It has a redshift of 5.73, an AB z{sub P1} magnitude of 19.4, a luminosity of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, and a black hole mass of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. It is a broad absorption line quasar with a prominent Ly{beta} peak and a very blue continuum spectrum. This quasar is the first result from the PS1 high-redshift quasar search that is projected to discover more than 100 i{sub P1} dropout quasars and could potentially find more than 10 z{sub P1} dropout (z > 6.8) quasars.

  14. Measurements of Narrow Mg II Associated Absorption Doublets with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The measurement of the variations of absorption lines over time is a good method to study the physical conditions of absorbers. In this paper, we measure the variations of the line strength of 36 narrow Mg II2796, 2803 associated absorption doublets, which are imprinted on 31 quasar spectra with two ...

  15. MISALIGNMENT OF THE JET AND THE NORMAL TO THE DUSTY TORUS IN THE BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QSO FIRST J155633.8+351758

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Cormac; Punsly, Brian; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    We performed Very Long Baseline Array observations of the broad absorption line quasar FIRST J155633.8+351758, ''the first radio loud BALQSO''. Our observations at 15.3 GHz partially resolved a secondary component at position angle (P.A.) ≈35°. We combine this determination of the radio jet projection on the sky plane, with the constraint that the jet is viewed within 14.°3 of the line of sight (as implied by the high variability brightness temperature) and with the P.A. of the optical/UV continuum polarization in order to study the quasar geometry. Within the context of the standard model, the data indicates a ''dusty torus'' (scattering surface) with a symmetry axis tilted relative to the accretion disk normal and a polar broad absorption line outflow aligned with the accretion disk normal. We compare this geometry to that indicated by the higher resolution radio data, brightness temperature, and optical/UV continuum polarization P.A. of a similar high optical polarization BALQSO, Mrk 231. A qualitatively similar geometry is found in these two polar BALQSOs; the continuum polarization is determined primarily by the tilt of the dusty torus

  16. A SAMPLE OF SEYFERT-2 GALAXIES WITH ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY-WIDE NARROW-LINE REGIONS: QUASAR LIGHT ECHOES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, M.; Diaz, R.; Levenson, N. A.; Winge, C.; Holhjem, K.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of Seyfert-2 galaxies in SDSS-DR8 with galaxy-wide, ultraluminous narrow-line regions (NLRs) at redshifts z = 0.2-0.6. With a space density of 4.4 Gpc –3 at z ∼ 0.3, these 'green beans' (GBs) are amongst the rarest objects in the universe. We are witnessing an exceptional and/or short-lived phenomenon in the life cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The main focus of this paper is on a detailed analysis of the GB prototype galaxy J2240–0927 (z = 0.326). Its NLR extends over 26 × 44 kpc and is surrounded by an extended NLR. With a total [O III] λ5008 luminosity of (5.7 ± 0.9) × 10 43 erg s –1 , this is one of the most luminous NLRs known around any type-2 galaxy. Using VLT/XSHOOTER, we show that the NLR is powered by an AGN, and we derive resolved extinction, density, and ionization maps. Gas kinematics is disturbed on a global scale, and high-velocity outflows are absent or faint. This NLR is unlike any other NLR or extended emission line region known. Spectroscopy with Gemini/GMOS reveals extended, high-luminosity [O III] emission also in other GBs. WISE 24 μm luminosities are 5-50 times lower than predicted by the [O III] fluxes, suggesting that the NLRs reflect earlier, very active quasar states that have strongly subsided in less than a galaxy's light-crossing time. These light echoes, or ionization echoes, are about 100 times more luminous than any other such echo known to date. X-ray data are needed for photoionization modeling and to verify the light echoes.

  17. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE AT 0.7 < z < 1.6 DERIVED FROM ABUNDANCE DIAGNOSTICS OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION OF QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameshima, H. [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy, Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yoshii, Y.; Kawara, K., E-mail: sameshima@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    We present an analysis of Mg ii λ 2798 and Fe ii UV emission lines for archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to explore the diagnostics of the magnesium-to-iron abundance ratio in a broad-line region cloud. Our sample consists of 17,432 quasars selected from the SDSS Data Release 7 with a redshift range of 0.72 <  z  < 1.63. A strong anticorrelation between the Mg ii equivalent width (EW) and the Eddington ratio is found, while only a weak positive correlation is found between the Fe ii EW and the Eddington ratio. To investigate the origin of these differing behaviors of Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines, we perform photoionization calculations using the Cloudy code, where constraints from recent reverberation mapping studies are considered. We find from calculations that (1) Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines are created at different regions in a photoionized cloud, and (2) their EW correlations with the Eddington ratio can be explained by just changing the cloud gas density. These results indicate that the Mg ii/Fe ii flux ratio, which has been used as a first-order proxy for the Mg/Fe abundance ratio in chemical evolution studies with quasar emission lines, depends largely on the cloud gas density. By correcting this density dependence, we propose new diagnostics of the Mg/Fe abundance ratio for a broad-line region cloud. In comparing the derived Mg/Fe abundance ratios with chemical evolution models, we suggest that α -enrichment by mass loss from metal-poor intermediate-mass stars occurred at z  ∼ 2 or earlier.

  18. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM A RELATIVISTIC JET IN THE NARROW-LINE QUASAR PMN J0948+0022

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Axelsson, M.; Battelino, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G. A.; Bruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy γ-ray emission from the peculiar quasar PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846). The optical spectrum of this object exhibits rather narrow Hβ (FWHM(Hβ) ∼1500 km s -1 ), weak forbidden lines, and is therefore classified as a narrow-line type I quasar. This class of objects is thought to have relatively small black hole mass and to accrete at a high Eddington ratio. The radio loudness and variability of the compact radio core indicate the presence of a relativistic jet. Quasi-simultaneous radio/optical/X-ray and γ-ray observations are presented. Both radio and γ-ray emissions (observed over five months) are strongly variable. The simultaneous optical and X-ray data from Swift show a blue continuum attributed to the accretion disk and a hard X-ray spectrum attributed to the jet. The resulting broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and, in particular, the γ-ray spectrum measured by Fermi are similar to those of more powerful Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs). A comparison of the radio and γ-ray characteristics of PMN J0948+0022 with the other blazars detected by LAT shows that this source has a relatively low radio and γ-ray power with respect to other FSRQs. The physical parameters obtained from modeling the SED also fall at the low power end of the FSRQ parameter region discussed in Celotti and Ghisellini. We suggest that the similarity of the SED of PMN J0948+0022 to that of more massive and more powerful quasars can be understood in a scenario in which the SED properties depend on the Eddington ratio rather than on the absolute power.

  19. Superconducting cosmic string evolution of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulin.

    1988-09-01

    The quasars may have been undergoing two evolutionary processes after they formed. As a result of the string loops shrinking at the first stage, the luminosities of the quasars increased gradually up to their maximum value at the redshift z ∼ 2, after then the second evolutionary stage began and the luminosity reduced. This result can be fitted by luminosity counting of quasars. Observable limit of quasars can be obtained naturally. Many phenomena, such as radiomorphology, density distribution between fuzz structure and broad line region and rotational curve may also originate from the first evolutionary stage of quasars as cosmic string. (author). 10 refs

  20. A main sequence for quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziani, Paola; Dultzin, Deborah; Sulentic, Jack W.; Del Olmo, Ascensión; Negrete, C. A.; Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Bon, Edi; Bon, Natasa; Stirpe, Giovanna M.

    2018-03-01

    The last 25 years saw a major step forward in the analysis of optical and UV spectroscopic data of large quasar samples. Multivariate statistical approaches have led to the definition of systematic trends in observational properties that are the basis of physical and dynamical modeling of quasar structure. We discuss the empirical correlates of the so-called “main sequence” associated with the quasar Eigenvector 1, its governing physical parameters and several implications on our view of the quasar structure, as well as some luminosity effects associated with the virialized component of the line emitting regions. We also briefly discuss quasars in a segment of the main sequence that includes the strongest FeII emitters. These sources show a small dispersion around a well-defined Eddington ratio value, a property which makes them potential Eddington standard candles.

  1. A Main Sequence for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The last 25 years saw a major step forward in the analysis of optical and UV spectroscopic data of large quasar samples. Multivariate statistical approaches have led to the definition of systematic trends in observational properties that are the basis of physical and dynamical modeling of quasar structure. We discuss the empirical correlates of the so-called “main sequence” associated with the quasar Eigenvector 1, its governing physical parameters and several implications on our view of the quasar structure, as well as some luminosity effects associated with the virialized component of the line emitting regions. We also briefly discuss quasars in a segment of the main sequence that includes the strongest FeII emitters. These sources show a small dispersion around a well-defined Eddington ratio value, a property which makes them potential Eddington standard candles.

  2. Spectroscopic and polarimetric study of radio-quiet weak emission line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Chand, Hum; Gopal-Krishna; Srianand, Raghunathan; Stalin, Chelliah Subramonian; Petitjean, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    A small subset of optically selected radio-quiet QSOs with weak or no emission lines may turn out to be the elusive radio-quiet BL Lac objects, or simply be radio-quiet QSOs with an infant/shielded broad line region (BLR). High polarisation (p > 3-4%), a hallmark of BL Lacs, can be used to test whether some optically selected ‘radio-quiet weak emission line QSOs’ (RQWLQs) show a fractional polarisation high enough to qualify as radio-quiet analogues of BL Lac objects. To check this possibility, we have made optical spectral and polarisation measurements of a sample of 19 RQWLQs. Out of these, only 9 sources show a non-significant proper motion (hence very likely extragalactic) and only two of them are found to have p > 1%. For these two RQWLQs, namely J142505.59+035336.2 and J154515.77+003235.2, we found the highest polarization to be 1.59±0.53%, which is again too low to classify them as (radio-quiet) BL Lacs, although one may recall that even genuine BL Lacs sometimes appear weakly polarised. We also present a statistical comparison of the optical spectral index, for a sample of 45 RQWLQs with redshift-luminosity matched control samples of 900 QSOs and an equivalent sample of 120 blazars, assembled from the literature. The spectral index distribution of RQWLQs is found to differ, at a high significance level, from that of blazars. This, too, is consistent with the common view that the mechanism of the central engine in RQWLQs, as a population, is close to that operating in normal QSOs and the primary difference between them is related to the BLR.

  3. ANOMALOUSLY STEEP REDDENING LAW IN QUASARS: AN EXCEPTIONAL EXAMPLE OBSERVED IN IRAS 14026+4341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Peng; Zhou Hongyan; Ji Tuo; Shu Xinwen; Liu Wenjuan; Dong Xiaobo; Wang Huiyuan; Wang Tinggui; Wang Jianguo; Bai Jinming

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of the heavily reddened quasars require a reddening curve that is even steeper than that of the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this paper, we thoroughly characterize the anomalously steep reddening law in quasars via an exceptional example observed in IRAS 14026+4341. By comparing the observed spectrum to the quasar composite spectrum, we derive a reddening curve in the rest-frame wavelength range of 1200-10000 Å. It has a steep rise at wavelengths shorter than 3000 Å, but no significant reddening at longer wavelengths. The absence of dust reddening in the optical continuum is confirmed by the normal broad-line Balmer decrement (the Hα/Hβ ratio) in IRAS 14026+4341. The anomalous reddening curve can be satisfactorily reproduced with a dust model containing silicate grains in a power-law size distribution, dn(a)/da∝a –1.4 , truncated at a maximum size of a max = 70 nm. The unusual size distribution may be caused by the destruction of large 'stardust' grains by quasar activities or a different dust formation mechanism (i.e., the in situ formation of dust grains in quasar outflows). It is also possible that the analogies of the dust grains observed near the Galactic center are responsible for the steep reddening curve. In addition, we find that IRAS 14026+4341 is a weak emission-line quasar (i.e., PHL 1811 analogies) with heavy dust reddening and blueshifted broad absorption lines.

  4. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus

  5. Studying the complex spectral line profiles in the spectra of hot emission stars and quasars .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, E.; Lyratzi, E.; Antoniou, A.; Popović, L. Č.; Dimitrijević, M. S.

    Some Hot Emission Stars and AGNs present peculiar spectral line profiles which are due to DACs and SACs phenomena. The origin and the mechanisms which are responsible for the creation of DACs/SACs is an important problem that has been studied by many researchers. This paper is a review of our efforts to study the origin and the mechanisms of these phenomena. At first we present a theoretic ad hoc picture for the structure of the plasma that surrounds the specific category of hot emission stars that present DACs or SACs. Then we present the mathematical model that we constructed, which is based on the properties of the above ad hoc theoretical structure. Finally, we present some results from our statistical studies that prove the consistency of our model with the classical physical theory.

  6. Proper motions and distances of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshni, Y.P.

    1982-01-01

    The author's theory that quasars are stars raises the question of their proper motions. From the evidence presented in a previous paper, it is hypothesised that planetary nuclei and quasars are related objects and that their distributions in the galaxy are not very different. Proper motions of 30 quasars, calculated from existing measurements, are discussed. It is shown that three of these, namely PHL 1033, LB 8956 and LB 8991, have proper motions comparable to the largest proper motion known amongst the planetary nuclei. From this it is estimated that these three quasars lie within a few hundred parsecs from the sun. The evidence presented in a previous paper and the present one clearly supports the theory that quasars are stars. The possibility of using the interstellar K and H lines as distance indicators of quasars is discussed and the available evidence summarised. The desirability of determining more accurate values of the proper motions of quasars is emphasised. (Auth.)

  7. A Massive X-ray Outflow From The Quasar PDS 456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ward, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton spectroscopic observations of the luminous, radio-quiet quasar PDS 456. The hard X-ray spectrum of PDS 456 shows a deep absorption trough (constituting 50% of the continuum) at energies above 7 keV in the quasar rest frame, which can be attributed to a series of blue-shifted K-shell absorption edges due to highly ionized iron. The higher resolution soft X-ray grating RGS spectrum exhibits a broad absorption line feature near 1 keV, which can be modeled by a blend of L-shell transitions from highly ionized iron (Fe XVII - XXIV). An extreme outflow velocity of approx. 50000 km/s is required to model the K and L shell iron absorption present in the XMM-Newton data. Overall, a large column density (N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm) of highly ionized gas (log xi = 2.5) is required in PDS 456. A large mass outflow rate of approx. 10 solar mass/year (assuming a conservative outflow covering factor of 0.1 steradian) is derived, which is of the same order as the overall mass accretion rate in PDS 456. This represents a substantial fraction (approx. 10%) of the quasar energy budget, whilst the large column and outflow velocity place PDS 456 towards the extreme end of the broad absorption line quasar population.

  8. Starburst-driven Superwinds in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Peter; Podigachoski, Pece [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wilkes, Belinda [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Haas, Martin, E-mail: pdb@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: podigachoski@astro.rug.nl [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    During the past five decades astronomers have been puzzled by the presence of strong absorption features including metal lines, observed in the optical and ultraviolet spectra of quasars, signaling inflowing and outflowing gas winds with relative velocities up to several thousands of km s{sup −1}. In particular, the location of these winds—close to the quasar, further out in its host galaxy, or in its direct environment—and the possible impact on their surroundings have been issues of intense discussion and uncertainty. Using our Herschel Space Observatory data, we report a tendency for this so-called associated metal absorption to occur along with prodigious star formation in the quasar host galaxy, indicating that the two phenomena are likely to be interrelated, that the gas winds likely occur on the kiloparsec scale and would then have a strong impact on the interstellar medium of the galaxy. This correlation moreover would imply that the unusually high cold dust luminosities in these quasars are connected with ongoing star formation. Given that we find no correlation with the AGN strength, the wind feedback that we establish in these radio-loud objects is most likely associated with their host star formation rather than with their black hole accretion.

  9. A POPULATION OF X-RAY WEAK QUASARS: PHL 1811 ANALOGS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Hall, Patrick B.; Gibson, Robert R.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Richards, Gordon T.; Shemmer, Ohad; Just, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 10 type 1 quasars selected to have unusual UV emission-line properties (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines; strong UV Fe emission) similar to those of PHL 1811, a confirmed intrinsically X-ray weak quasar. These quasars were identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at high redshift (z ∼ 2.2); eight are radio quiet while two are radio intermediate. All of the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, without exception, are notably X-ray weak by a mean factor of ∼13. These sources lack broad absorption lines and have blue UV/optical continua, supporting the hypothesis that they are intrinsically X-ray weak like PHL 1811 itself. However, their average X-ray spectrum appears to be harder than those of typical quasars, which may indicate the presence of heavy intrinsic X-ray absorption. Our sample of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs supports a connection between an X-ray weak spectral energy distribution and PHL 1811-like UV emission lines; this connection provides an economical way to identify X-ray weak type 1 quasars. The fraction of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs in the radio-quiet quasar population is estimated to be ∼< 1.2%. We have investigated correlations between relative X-ray brightness and UV emission-line properties (e.g., C IV equivalent width and blueshift) for a sample combining our radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, PHL 1811 itself, and typical type 1 quasars. These correlation analyses suggest that PHL 1811 analogs may have extreme wind-dominated broad emission-line regions. Observationally, the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs appear to be a subset (∼30%) of radio-quiet weak-line quasars (WLQs). The existence of a subset of quasars in which high-ionization 'shielding gas' covers most of the broad emission-line region (BELR), but little more than the BELR, could potentially unify the PHL 1811 analogs and WLQs. The two radio-intermediate PHL 1811 analogs are X-ray bright. X

  10. GALEX FAR-ULTRAVIOLET COLOR SELECTION OF UV-BRIGHT HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worseck, Gabor; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We study the small population of high-redshift (z em >2.7) quasars detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX), whose far-UV emission is not extinguished by intervening H I Lyman limit systems. These quasars are of particular importance to detect intergalactic He II absorption along their sight lines. We correlate almost all verified z em >2.7 quasars to the GALEX GR4 source catalog covering ∼ 25,000 deg 2 , yielding 304 sources detected at signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >3. However, ∼50% of these are only detected in the GALEX NUV band, signaling the truncation of the FUV flux by low-redshift optically thick Lyman limit systems. We exploit the GALEX UV color m FUV - m NUV to cull the most promising targets for follow-up studies, with blue (red) GALEX colors indicating transparent (opaque) sight lines. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations indicate an He II detection rate of ∼60% for quasars with m FUV - m NUV ∼ em ∼ 3 to be most promising for Hubble Space Telescope follow-up, with an additional 114 quasars if we consider S/N >2 detections in the FUV. Combining the statistical properties of H I absorbers with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar luminosity function, we predict a large all-sky population of ∼200 quasars with z em >2.7 and i ∼ 304 em ∼ em ∼ em ∼< 3.5 quasars have likely underestimated their space density by selecting intergalactic medium sight lines with an excess of strong H I absorbers.

  11. The Low-Resolution Spectrograph of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. II. Observations of Quasar Candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D. P.; Hill, Gary J.; Fan, X.; Ramsey, L. W.; MacQueen, P. J.; Weedman, D. W.; Booth, J. A.; Eracleous, M.; Gunn, J. E.; Lupton, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes spectra of quasar candidates acquired during the commissioning phase of the Low-Resolution Spectrograph of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The objects were identified as possible quasars from multicolor image data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The 10 sources had typical r' magnitudes of 19-20, except for one extremely red object with r ' ≅23. The data, obtained with exposure times between 10 and 25 minutes, reveal that the spectra of four candidates are essentially featureless and are not quasars, five are quasars with redshifts between 2.92 and 4.15 (including one broad absorption line quasar), and the red source is a very late M star or early L dwarf. (c) (c) 2000. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific

  12. Investigations of Short-Timescale Outflow Variability in Quasars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemler, Zachary; Grier, Catherine; Brandt, William; Hall, Patrick; Schneider, Donald; Shen, Yue; Fernandez-Trincado, Jose; SDSS-RM Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Quasar outflows are hypothesized to regulate the growth of a quasar's host galaxy and the supermassive black hole (SMBH) itself. Thus, understanding the physics of these outflows is imperative to understanding galactic evolution. The physical properties of these outflows, such as density, radial distance from the SMBH, and kinetic energy can be investigated by measuring both the strength and shape variability of broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra. However, the accuracy of physical properties calculated using BAL variability methods is limited by the time resolution of the observations. Recent spectral data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping program (SDSS-RM) provides a novel opportunity to investigate the short-term BAL variability of many quasars at many epochs. The SDSS-RM program took many epochs of spectra for a large sample of quasars over a period of several years, many of which exhibit BALs. The median rest-frame time resolution of these observations is roughly 2 days, in contrast to previous large-sample studies, which typically have time spacing on the order of hundred of days. We are using the SDSS-RM dataset to conduct a BAL variability study that will further constrain outflow properties and provide significant insights into the variability mechanisms of quasar outflows. We are searching for variability in BALs on timescales of less than 2 days among our sample of 22 quasars and determining whether this behavior is common among quasars. We are also investigating the general short-term (less than 10 days) variability characteristics of the entire sample. We will present preliminary results from this study and the possible implications to our understanding of quasar outflows.

  13. Is 1146+111B, C a lensed quasar or a quasar pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchra, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    It has been speculated that the quasar pair 1146+B, C are two bright images of a single quasar produced by a gravitational lens. The author reports additional observations of these objects, made with an ultraviolet-sensitive spectrograph on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. The ultraviolet spectra of the two quasars are different. There are also different velocity shifts between the quasars as measured by the C III] and Mg II lines. Although it is impossible to rule out the lensing hypothesis, these observations increase the probability that these objects are just two quasars at nearly the same redshift. (author)

  14. Determination of astrophysical parameters of quasars within the Gaia mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delchambre, L.

    2018-01-01

    We describe methods designed to determine the astrophysical parameters of quasars based on spectra coming from the red and blue spectrophotometers of the Gaia satellite. These methods principally rely on two already published algorithms that are the weighted principal component analysis and the weighted phase correlation. The presented approach benefits from a fast implementation, an intuitive interpretation as well as strong diagnostic tools on the potential errors that may arise during predictions. The production of a semi-empirical library of spectra as they will be observed by Gaia is also covered and subsequently used for validation purpose. We detail the pre-processing that is necessary in order for these spectra to be fully exploitable by our algorithms along with the procedures that are used to predict the redshifts of the quasars, their continuum slopes, the total equivalent width of their emission lines and whether these are broad absorption line (BAL) quasars or not. Performances of these procedures were assessed in comparison with the extremely randomized trees learning method and were proven to provide better results on the redshift predictions and on the ratio of correctly classified observations though the probability of detection of BAL quasars remains restricted by the low resolution of these spectra as well as by their limited signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, the triggering of some warning flags allows us to obtain an extremely pure subset of redshift predictions where approximately 99 per cent of the observations come along with absolute errors that are below 0.1.

  15. Absorption of aluminium X-ray lines in a laser created gold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combis, P.; Busquet, M.; Louis-Jacquet, M.

    1986-04-01

    We have studied the absorption of aluminium X-ray lines through a gold plasma by focusing a high intensity laser-beam onto a specific target. Absorption in the wavelength range of 5 to 7 A has been evidenced and measured for Aluminium resonance lines

  16. Discovery of a z = 0.65 post-starburst BAL quasar in the DES supernova fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudd, Dale; Martini, Paul; Tie, Suk Sien; Lidman, Chris; McMahon, Richard; Banerji, Manda; Davis, Tamara; Peterson, Bradley; Sharp, Rob; Seymour, Nicholas; Childress, Michael; Lewis, Geraint; Tucker, Brad; Yuan, Fang; Abbot, Tim; Abdalla, Filipe; Allam, Sahar; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Camero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Carretero, Jorge; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, Thomas; Eifler, Tim; Finley, David; Flaugher, Brenna; Glazebrook, Karl; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; Gutierrez, Gaston; Hinton, Samuel; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolav; Macaulay, Edward; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Miquel, Ramon; Ogando, Ricardo; Plazas, Andres; Riel, Kevin; Sanchez, Eusebio; Santiago, Basillio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Smith, Robert C.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly; Tarle, Gregory; Thomas, Daniel; Uddin, Syed; Walker, Alistair; Zhang, Bonnie

    2017-03-23

    We present the discovery of a z=0.65 low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar in a post-starburst galaxy in data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and spectroscopy from the Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES). LoBAL quasars are a minority of all BALs, and rarer still is that this object also exhibits broad FeII (an FeLoBAL) and Balmer absorption. This is the first BAL quasar that has signatures of recently truncated star formation, which we estimate ended about 40 Myr ago. The characteristic signatures of an FeLoBAL require high column densities, which could be explained by the emergence of a young quasar from an early, dust-enshrouded phase, or by clouds compressed by a blast wave. The age of the starburst component is comparable to estimates of the lifetime of quasars, so if we assume the quasar activity is related to the truncation of the star formation, this object is better explained by the blast wave scenario.

  17. THE FIFTH DATA RELEASE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY/XMM-NEWTON QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 792 Fifth Data Release Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars with optical spectra that have been observed serendipitously in the X-rays with the XMM-Newton. These quasars cover a redshift range of z = 0.11-5.41 and a magnitude range of i = 15.3-20.7. Substantial numbers of radio-loud (70) and broad absorption line (51) quasars exist within this sample. Significant X-ray detections at ≥2σ account for 87% of the sample (685 quasars), and 473 quasars are detected at ≥6σ, sufficient to allow X-ray spectral fits. For detected sources, ∼60% have X-ray fluxes between F 2-10keV = (1-10) x10 -14 erg cm -2 s -1 . We fit a single power law, a fixed power law with intrinsic absorption left free to vary, and an absorbed power-law model to all quasars with X-ray signal-to-noise ratio ≥ 6, resulting in a weighted mean photon index Γ = 1.91 ± 0.08, with an intrinsic dispersion σ Γ = 0.38. For the 55 sources (11.6%) that prefer intrinsic absorption, we find a weighted mean N H = 1.5 ± 0.3 x 10 21 cm -2 . We find that Γ correlates significantly with optical color, Δ(g - i), the optical-to-X-ray spectral index (α ox ), and the X-ray luminosity. While the first two correlations can be explained as artifacts of undetected intrinsic absorption, the correlation between Γ and X-ray luminosity appears to be a real physical correlation, indicating a pivot in the X-ray slope.

  18. Reddening and He i{sup ∗} λ 10830 Absorption Lines in Three Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan; Shi, Xiheng; Pan, Xiang; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Shufen [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai, 200136 (China); Liu, Wenjuan [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Jiang, Ning, E-mail: zhangshaohua@pric.org.cn, E-mail: zhouhongyan@pric.org.cn [Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China)

    2017-08-20

    We report the detection of heavy reddening and the He i* λ 10830 absorption lines at the active galactic nucleus (AGN) redshift in three narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies: SDSS J091848.61+211717.0, SDSS J111354.66+124439.0, and SDSS J122749.13+321458.9. They exhibit very red optical to near-infrared colors, narrow Balmer/Paschen broad emission lines and He i* λ 10830 absorption lines. The ultraviolet-optical-infrared nucleus continua are reddened by the SMC extinction law of E ( B − V ) ∼ 0.74, 1.17, and 1.24 mag for three objects, which are highly consistent with the values obtained from the broad-line Balmer decrements, but larger than those of narrow emission lines. The reddening analysis suggests that the extinction dust simultaneously obscures the accretion disk, the broad emission-line region, and the hot dust from the inner edge of the torus. It is possible that the dust obscuring the AGN structures is the dusty torus itself. Furthermore, the Cloudy analysis of the He i* λ 10830 absorption lines proposes the distance of the absorption materials to be the extend scale of the torus, which greatly increases probabilities of the obscure and absorption materials being the dusty torus.

  19. A Survey of Metal Lines at High Redshift. II. SDSS Absorption Line Studies—O VI Line Density, Space Density, and Gas Metallicity at z abs ~ 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N >=5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r >= 0.19 Å for the O VI 1032 Å component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs >= 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the "incompleteness and S/N-corrected" redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O VI,c /Δzc (2.8 secure lower limit for the contribution of O VI to the closure mass density at the redshifts probed here: ΩO VI (2.8 = 1.9 × 10-8 h -1. We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, {O VI}/{O}, and adopting the Anders & Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 = 3.6 × 10-4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution.

  20. A SURVEY OF METAL LINES AT HIGH REDSHIFT. II. SDSS ABSORPTION LINE STUDIES-O VI LINE DENSITY, SPACE DENSITY, AND GAS METALLICITY AT zabs ∼ 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N ≥5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r ≥ 0.19 A for the O VI 1032 A component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs ≥ 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the 'incompleteness and S/N-corrected' redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O V I,c /Δz c (2.8 O V I,c /Δz c (3.2 O V I,c /Δz c (3.6 O V I (2.8 -8 h -1 . We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, O VI /O, and adopting the Anders and Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 -4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution.

  1. Lens-Aided Multi-Angle Spectroscopy (LAMAS) Reveals Small-Scale Outflow Structure in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul J.

    2006-06-01

    Spectral differences between lensed quasar image components are common. Since lensing is intrinsically achromatic, these differences are typically explained as the effect of either microlensing, or as light path time delays sampling intrinsic quasar spectral variability. Here we advance a novel third hypothesis: some spectral differences are due to small line-of-sight differences through quasar disk wind outflows. In particular, we propose that variable spectral differences seen only in component A of the widest separation lens SDSS J1004+4112 are due to differential absorption along the sight lines. The absorber properties required by this hypothesis are akin to known broad absorption line (BAL) outflows but must have a broader, smoother velocity profile. We interpret the observed C IV emission-line variability as further evidence for spatial fine structure transverse to the line of sight. Since outflows are likely to be rotating, such absorber fine structure can consistently explain some of the UV and X-ray variability seen in AGNs. The implications are many: (1) Spectroscopic differences in other lensed objects may be due to this ``lens-aided multi-angle spectroscopy'' (LAMAS). (2) Outflows have fine structure on size scales of arcseconds, as seen from the nucleus. (3) Assuming either broad absorption line region sizes proposed in recent wind models, or typically assumed continuum emission region sizes, LAMAS and/or variability provide broadly consistent absorber size scale estimates of ~1015 cm. (4) Very broad smooth absorption may be ubiquitous in quasar spectra, even when no obvious troughs are seen.

  2. Anomalies in resonant absorption line profiles of atoms with large hyperfine splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, A.I.; Pod'yachev, S.P.; Privalov, T.I.; Shalagin, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    We examine a monochromatic absorption line in the velocity-nonselective excitation of atoms when the components of the hyperfine stricture of the electronic ground states are optically pumped. We show that the absorption lines possess unusual substructures for some values of the hyperfine splitting of the ground state (which exceed the Doppler absorption linewidth severalfold). These substructures in the absorption spectrum are most apparent if the hyperfine structure of the excited electronic state is taken into account. We calculate the absorption spectra of monochromatic light near the D 1 and D 2 lines of atomic rubidium 85,87 Rb. With real hyperfine splitting taken into account, the D 1 and D 2 lines are modeled by 4- and 6-level diagrams, respectively. Finally, we show that atomic rubidium vapor can be successfully used to observe the spectral features experimentally

  3. QUASARS PROBING QUASARS. VIII. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COOL CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM SURROUNDING z ∼ 2–3 MASSIVE GALAXIES HOSTING QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Marie Wingyee; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hennawi, Joseph F., E-mail: lwymarie@ucolick.org [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    We characterize the physical properties of the cool T  ∼ 10{sup 4} K circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding z  ∼ 2–3 quasar host galaxies, which are predicted to evolve into present-day massive ellipticals. Using a statistical sample of 14 quasar pairs with projected separation <300 kpc and spectra of high dispersion and high signal-to-noise ratio, we find extreme kinematics with low metal ion lines typically spanning ≈500 km s{sup −1}, exceeding any previously studied galactic population. The CGM is significantly enriched, even beyond the virial radius, with a median metallicity [M/H] ≈ −0.6. The α /Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting that halo gas is primarily enriched by core-collapse supernovae. The projected cool gas mass within the virial radius is estimated to be 1.9 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙} ( R {sub ⊥}/160 kpc){sup 2}, accounting for ≈1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state of CGM gas increases with projected distance from the foreground quasars, contrary to expectation if the quasar dominates the ionizing radiation flux. However, we also found peculiarities not exhibited in the CGM of other galaxy populations. In one absorption system, we may be detecting unresolved fluorescent Ly α emission, and another system shows strong N v lines. Taken together, these anomalies suggest that transverse sightlines are—at least in some cases—possibly illuminated. We also discovered a peculiar case where detection of the C ii fine-structure line implies an electron density >100 cm{sup −3} and sub-parsec-scale gas clumps.

  4. Gemini long-slit observations of luminous obscured quasars: Further evidence for an upper limit on the size of the narrow-line region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Greene, Jenny E.; Myers, Adam D.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Liu, Guilin; Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    We examine the spatial extent of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of a sample of 30 luminous obscured quasars at 0.4 < z < 0.7 observed with spatially resolved Gemini-N GMOS long-slit spectroscopy. Using the [O III] λ5007 emission feature, we estimate the size of the NLR using a cosmology-independent measurement: the radius where the surface brightness falls to 10 –15 erg s –1 cm –2 arcsec –2 . We then explore the effects of atmospheric seeing on NLR size measurements and conclude that direct measurements of the NLR size from observed profiles are too large by 0.1-0.2 dex on average, as compared to measurements made to best-fit Sérsic or Voigt profiles convolved with the seeing. These data, which span a full order of magnitude in IR luminosity (log (L 8 μm /erg s –1 ) = 44.4-45.4), also provide strong evidence that there is a flattening of the relationship between NLR size and active galactic nucleus luminosity at a seeing-corrected size of ∼7 kpc. The objects in this sample have high luminosities which place them in a previously under-explored portion of the size-luminosity relationship. These results support the existence of a maximal size of the NLR around luminous quasars; beyond this size, there is either not enough gas or the gas is over-ionized and does not produce enough [O III] λ5007 emission.

  5. SDSS J090152.05+624342.6: A NEW “OVERLAPPING-TROUGH” FeLoBAL QUASAR AT Z ~ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Dawei; Wei, Jianyan, E-mail: wj@bao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); School of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-11-22

    We here report an identification of SDSS J090152.04+624342.6 as a new “overlapping-trough” iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar at redshift of z ~ 2.1. No strong variation of the broad absorption lines can be revealed through the two spectra taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with a time interval of ~6 yr. Further optical and infrared spectroscopic study on this object is suggested.

  6. Frequency metrology on the Mg 3s21S→3s4p 1P line for comparison with quasar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, S.; Salumbides, E. J.; Witte, S.; Zinkstok, R. Th.; Duijn, E.-J. van; Eikema, K. S. E.; Ubachs, W.

    2006-01-01

    We report a frequency metrology study on the Mg 3s 2 1 S→3s4p 1 P transition near 202.5 nm. For this purpose, the fourth harmonic of the output from an injection-seeded Ti:sapphire pulsed laser is employed in a Mg atomic beam experiment with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Absolute frequency calibration with a frequency comb laser is performed on the cw seeding radiation, while the chirp-induced frequency shift between the pulsed output and the seed light is monitored on line. The resulting transition frequency for the main isotope 24 Mg is determined at 49 346.756 809(35) m -1 . This value is three orders of magnitude more precise than the best value in the literature. The line positions of the other isotopes 25 Mg and 26 Mg are also measured at comparable accuracy, giving rise to very exact values for the isotopic shifts. The achieved precision for the transition frequency at the 7x10 -10 level makes this second resonance line of Mg I an additional candidate for inclusion in many-multiplet methods, aimed at detecting a possible temporal variation of the fine-structure constant α from comparison with quasar spectra. The isotopic shifts obtained are also important to correct for possible systematic shifts due to evolution of isotopic abundances, which may mimic α-variation effects

  7. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  8. A Search for Radio-loud Quasars within the Epoch of Reionization

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Matt J.; Rawlings, Steve; Barrio, F. Eugenio; Hill, Gary J.; Bauer, Amanda; Croft, Steve

    2003-01-01

    The Universe became fully reionized, and observable optically, at a time corresponding to redshift z~6.5, so it is only by studying the HI and molecular absorption lines against higher-redshift, radio-loud sources that one can hope to make detailed studies of the earliest stages of galaxy formation. At present no targets for such studies are known. In these proceedings we describe a survey which is underway to find radio-loud quasars at z > 6.5.

  9. Extended and broad Ly α emission around a BAL quasar at z ˜ 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginolfi, M.; Maiolino, R.; Carniani, S.; Arrigoni Battaia, F.; Cantalupo, S.; Schneider, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we report deep MUSE observations of a broad absorption line (BAL) quasar at z ˜ 5, revealing a Ly α nebula with a maximum projected linear size of ˜60 kpc around the quasar (down to our 2σ SB limit per layer of ˜ 9× 10^{-19} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} arcsec^{-2} for a 1 arcsec2 aperture). After correcting for the cosmological surface brightness dimming, we find that our nebula, at z ˜ 5, has an intrinsically less extended Ly α emission than nebulae at lower redshift. However, such a discrepancy is greatly reduced when referring to comoving distances, which take into account the cosmological growth of dark matter (DM) haloes, suggesting a positive correlation between the size of Ly α nebulae and the sizes of DM haloes/structures around quasars. Differently from the typical nebulae around radio-quiet non-BAL quasars, in the inner regions (˜10 kpc) of the circumgalactic medium of our source, the velocity dispersion of the Ly α emission is very high (FWHM > 1000 km s-1), suggesting that in our case we may be probing outflowing material associated with the quasar.

  10. The large-scale quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; Arnau, Eduard; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption in redshift space, using ∼ 60000 quasar spectra from Data Release 9 (DR9) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is detected over a wide range of scales, up to comoving separations r of 80 h −1 Mpc. For r > 15 h −1 Mpc, we show that the cross-correlation is well fitted by the linear theory prediction for the mean overdensity around a quasar host halo in the standard ΛCDM model, with the redshift distortions indicative of gravitational evolution detected at high confidence. Using previous determinations of the Lyα forest bias factor obtained from the Lyα autocorrelation, we infer the quasar bias factor to be b q = 3.64 +0.13 −0.15 at a mean redshift z = 2.38, in agreement with previous measurements from the quasar auto-correlation. We also obtain a new estimate of the Lyα forest redshift distortion factor, β F = 1.1±0.15, slightly larger than but consistent with the previous measurement from the Lyα forest autocorrelation. The simple linear model we use fails at separations r −1 Mpc, and we show that this may reasonably be due to the enhanced ionization due to radiation from the quasars. We also provide the expected correction that the mass overdensity around the quasar implies for measurements of the ionizing radiation background from the line-of-sight proximity effect

  11. The large-scale quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Arnau, Eduard [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC/UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi, E-mail: font@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: edu.arnau.lazaro@gmail.com, E-mail: miralda@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); and others

    2013-05-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption in redshift space, using ∼ 60000 quasar spectra from Data Release 9 (DR9) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is detected over a wide range of scales, up to comoving separations r of 80 h{sup −1}Mpc. For r > 15 h{sup −1}Mpc, we show that the cross-correlation is well fitted by the linear theory prediction for the mean overdensity around a quasar host halo in the standard ΛCDM model, with the redshift distortions indicative of gravitational evolution detected at high confidence. Using previous determinations of the Lyα forest bias factor obtained from the Lyα autocorrelation, we infer the quasar bias factor to be b{sub q} = 3.64{sup +0.13}{sub −0.15} at a mean redshift z = 2.38, in agreement with previous measurements from the quasar auto-correlation. We also obtain a new estimate of the Lyα forest redshift distortion factor, β{sub F} = 1.1±0.15, slightly larger than but consistent with the previous measurement from the Lyα forest autocorrelation. The simple linear model we use fails at separations r < 15h{sup −1}Mpc, and we show that this may reasonably be due to the enhanced ionization due to radiation from the quasars. We also provide the expected correction that the mass overdensity around the quasar implies for measurements of the ionizing radiation background from the line-of-sight proximity effect.

  12. A Hubble Space Telescope imaging study of four FeLoBAL quasar host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, D.; Vestergaard, M.; Fan, X.

    2018-04-01

    We study the host galaxies of four Iron Low-Ionization Broad Absorption-line Quasars (FeLoBALs), using Hubble Space Telescope imaging data, investigating the possibility that they represent a transition between an obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ordinary optical quasar. In this scenario, the FeLoBALs represent the early stage of merger-triggered accretion, in which case their host galaxies are expected to show signs of an ongoing or recent merger. Using PSF subtraction techniques, we decompose the images into host galaxy and AGN components at rest-frame ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The ultraviolet is sensitive to young stars, while the optical probes stellar mass. In the ultraviolet we image at the BAL absorption trough wavelengths so as to decrease the contrast between the quasar and host galaxy emission. We securely detect an extended source for two of the four FeLoBALs in the rest-frame optical; a third host galaxy is marginally detected. In the rest-frame UV we detect no host emission; this constrains the level of unobscured star formation. Thus, the host galaxies have observed properties that are consistent with those of non-BAL quasars with the same nuclear luminosity, i.e. quiescent or moderately star-forming elliptical galaxies. However, we cannot exclude starbursting hosts that have the stellar UV emission obscured by modest amounts of dust reddening. Thus, our findings also allow the merger-induced young quasar scenario. For three objects, we identify possible close companion galaxies that may be gravitationally interacting with the quasar hosts.

  13. Experimental design and methodology for a new Moessbauer scan experiment: absorption line tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, A.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Zelis, P. Mendoza; Sanchez, F. H.; Fernandez van Raap, M. B.; Martinez, N.

    2009-01-01

    A new experimental setup and methodology that allows the automatic tracking of a Moessbauer absorption line as its energy position varies during the experiment is introduced. As a test the sixth spectral line of FeSn 2 was tracked while temperature was varied between room temperature and a value slightly above its Neel temperature.

  14. Spectral line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional spectroscopy with skewed frequency distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Marwa H.; Hoenders, Bernhard J.; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Gaussian dynamics on the line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy is well understood as the second-order cumulant expansion provides exact spectra. Gaussian solvent dynamics can be well analyzed using slope line analysis of two-dimensional

  15. Study of cancer cell lines with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uceda Otero, E. P.; Eliel, G. S. N.; Fonseca, E. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell lines: the Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) human cervix carcinoma and 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell lines. Our goal is to experimentally investigate biochemical changes...

  16. Using quasars as standard clocks for measuring cosmological redshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn D; Stojkovic, Branislav; Stojkovic, Dejan; Weltman, Amanda

    2012-06-08

    We report hitherto unnoticed patterns in quasar light curves. We characterize segments of the quasar's light curves with the slopes of the straight lines fit through them. These slopes appear to be directly related to the quasars' redshifts. Alternatively, using only global shifts in time and flux, we are able to find significant overlaps between the light curves of different pairs of quasars by fitting the ratio of their redshifts. We are then able to reliably determine the redshift of one quasar from another. This implies that one can use quasars as standard clocks, as we explicitly demonstrate by constructing two independent methods of finding the redshift of a quasar from its light curve.

  17. Quasars and galactic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Woltjer, L

    1978-01-01

    The evolution of quasars is discussed. It is noted that substantial clustering may be present at faint magnitudes. The relationship between quasar evolution and galactic evolution is considered. (4 refs).

  18. C IV LINE-WIDTH ANOMALIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly Dianne; Pogge, R.W.; Assef, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of six high-redshift quasar spectra obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope with previous observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that failure to correctly identify absorption and other problems with accurate characterization of the CIV emission line profile in low S/N...

  19. Optical spectra and radio properties of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Using high quality spectrophotometric scans obtained at the McDonald Observatory, and data from the literature the author shows that, for quasars, the relative strength of optical Fe II emission (the broad blended feature lambda4570) may be roughly inversely proportional to line widths (full width at half maximum, FWHM). A similar relation between the relative intensity of the UV Fe II blend between 2300 and 2600 A (the lambda2500 feature) and the widths of Mg II and Hβ is shown. She distinguishes between compact and extended radio sources and includes radio quiet quasars, Seyfert 1 galaxies and BLRG's. The quasars associated with extended radio sources have the broadest emission lines and the weakest Fe II, falling close to the region occupied by BLRG's which also have extended radio structure. Those quasars with strong Fe II and compact radio structure are most similar to the Seyfert 1 galaxies. (Auth.)

  20. The Mean Metal-line Absorption Spectrum of Damped Ly α Systems in BOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (UB-IEEC), Barcelona E-08028, Catalonia (Spain); Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UPMC and CNRS, UMR7095 98bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014—Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); York, Donald G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ge, Jian, E-mail: l.m.ribas@astro.uio.no [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We study the mean absorption spectrum of the Damped Ly α (DLA) population at z ∼ 2.6 by stacking normalized, rest-frame-shifted spectra of ∼27,000 DLA systems from the DR12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)/SDSS-III. We measure the equivalent widths of 50 individual metal absorption lines in five intervals of DLA hydrogen column density, five intervals of DLA redshift, and overall mean equivalent widths for an additional 13 absorption features from groups of strongly blended lines. The mean equivalent width of low-ionization lines increases with N {sub H} {sub i}, whereas for high-ionization lines the increase is much weaker. The mean metal line equivalent widths decrease by a factor ∼1.1–1.5 from z ∼ 2.1 to z ∼ 3.5, with small or no differences between low- and high-ionization species. We develop a theoretical model, inspired by the presence of multiple absorption components observed in high-resolution spectra, to infer mean metal column densities from the equivalent widths of partially saturated metal lines. We apply this model to 14 low-ionization species and to Al iii, S iii, Si iii, C iv, Si iv, N v, and O vi. We use an approximate derivation for separating the equivalent width contributions of several lines to blended absorption features, and infer mean equivalent widths and column densities from lines of the additional species N i, Zn ii, C ii*, Fe iii, and S iv. Several of these mean column densities of metal lines in DLAs are obtained for the first time; their values generally agree with measurements of individual DLAs from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra when they are available.

  1. Upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at z = 5.9 from quasar absorption line spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei

    2016-11-01

    We present upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at z = 5.9 calculated from the model-independent limit on the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium of x_{H I} chain Monte Carlo Epoch of Reionization analysis code, we explore the probability distribution of 21 cm power spectra consistent with this constraint on the neutral fraction. We present 99 per cent confidence upper limits of Δ2(k) limit dependent on the sampled k mode. This limit can be used as a null test for 21 cm experiments: a detection of power at z = 5.9 in excess of this value is highly suggestive of residual foreground contamination or other systematic errors affecting the analysis.

  2. Parsec-Scale Radio Structure and Broad Optical Emission Lines in a Complete Sample of 3CR Lobe-dominated Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, D. H.; Vermeulen, R. C.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Cross, L. L.; Barth, E. L.; Yu, L. H.; Beyer, P. J.; Phifer, E. M.

    2002-03-01

    We present results from VLBI observations of 24 of the 25 lobe-dominated quasars (LDQs) in the 3CR complete sample and from optical spectrophotometry of 14 of these objects. The VLBI observations were made with a variety of arrays-most recently the Very Long Baseline Array-at frequencies ranging from 5 to 22 GHz during the period 1981-1997. The optical spectra were obtained with the Hale 200 inch (5 m) telescope at Palomar Observatory, using the blue and red CCDs of the Double Spectrograph, between 1984 and 1992. The radio nuclei range in strength over nearly 3 orders of magnitude, from ~0.9 Jy down to ~3 mJy, and were imaged at typical resolutions of ~0.5-1.0 mas and sensitivities of ~0.1-0.2 mJy beam-1. All 24 LDQs show detectable radio structure in their nuclei. All 19 objects for which VLBI images could be made show one-sided nuclear jets, often several milliarcseconds in length and significantly curved, on the same side of the compact core as the one-sided large-scale jets seen on Very Large Array images. No counterjets were observed; jet-to-counterjet ratios that virtually all exceed ~10 suggest that these objects are all oriented within ~70° to the line of sight. For the 10 sources in which parsec-scale jet speeds could be estimated, the well-defined motions range from orientations, it is more easily accomodated by a restricted range of orientations. Evidence for slower jet speeds and larger apparent bends close to the core support the concept of a ``transition'' zone in the inner few parsecs of these jets. There are significant correlations among the prominences of the cores and jets, relative jet length, maximum jet deflection angles, and variability amplitude, as well as possible trends involving jet speed and strength of compact jet knots; furthermore, these objects tend to exhibit flat-spectrum cores and steep-spectrum jets. These results are all consistent with orientation-dependent relativistic beaming effects and unification of core- and lobe

  3. Measurement of the small-scale structure of the intergalactic medium using close quasar pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorai, Alberto; Hennawi, Joseph F; Oñorbe, Jose; White, Martin; Prochaska, J Xavier; Kulkarni, Girish; Walther, Michael; Lukić, Zarija; Lee, Khee-Gan

    2017-04-28

    The distribution of diffuse gas in the intergalactic medium (IGM) imprints a series of hydrogen absorption lines on the spectra of distant background quasars known as the Lyman-α forest. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations predict that IGM density fluctuations are suppressed below a characteristic scale where thermal pressure balances gravity. We measured this pressure-smoothing scale by quantifying absorption correlations in a sample of close quasar pairs. We compared our measurements to hydrodynamical simulations, where pressure smoothing is determined by the integrated thermal history of the IGM. Our findings are consistent with standard models for photoionization heating by the ultraviolet radiation backgrounds that reionized the universe. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. PG 1700 + 518 - a low-redshift, broad absorption line QSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettini, M.; Boksenberg, A.

    1985-01-01

    The first high-resolution optical spectra and lower resolution UV spectra of PG 1700 + 518, the only known broad-absorption-line (BAL) QSO at low emission redshift (0.288) are presented. The optical data were obtained with the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma and the UV data with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The outstanding feature of the optical spectrum is a strong, broad Mg II absorption trough, detached from the Mg II emission line and indicative of ejection velocities of between 7000 and 18,000 km/s. Also detected were narrow (FWHM = 350 km/s) Mg II absorption lines at absolute z = 0.2698, which are probably related to the mass ejection phenomenon. It is concluded that the emission-line spectrum is similar to that of other low-redshift QSOs although there are some obvious differences from typical BAL QSOs, most notably in the unusually low level of ionization of both emission-line and broad absorption line gas. 21 references

  5. An XMM-Newton Study of the Bright Ultrasoft Narrow-Line Quasar NAB 0205+024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Niel

    2004-01-01

    The broad-band X-ray continuum of NAB 0205424 is well constrained due to the excellent photon statistics obtained (about 97,700 counts), and its impressive soft X-ray excess is clearly apparent. The hard X-ray power law has become notably steeper than when NAB 0205424 was observed with ASCA, attesting to the presence of significant X-ray spectral variability. A strong and broad emission feature is detected from about 5 to 6.4 keV, and we have modeled this as a relativistic line emitted close to the black hole from a narrow annulus of the accretion disk. Furthermore, a strong X-ray flare is detected with a hard X-ray spectrum; this flare may be responsible for illuminating the inner line-emitting part of the accretion disk. The combined observational results can be broadly interpreted in terms of the "thundercloud model proposed by Merloni & Fabian (2001).

  6. Relationship between the intensity of nonthermal radiation and widths of Balmer lines in the spectra of quasar-like nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komberg, B.V.; Shefer, E.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The data summarized by Steiner (1981) were used to derive the relationship between the intensity of nonthermal X-ray and radio emission and fullwidths of Balmer emission lines. It is shown that the existence of such dependences does not contradict the assumption on partition equidistribution of nonthermal radiation and motion of gas clouds energy in the region of formation of wide lines. Emphasis is given to similar dependence drived by Vayana (1981) for X-ray radiation from hot coronas of fast-rotating single stars, and a suggestion is made about radiation anisotropy from active nuclei (similar to that observed in the SS 433 system). The latter may imply the double nature of active nuclei

  7. Line-shape asymmetry of water vapor absorption lines in the 720-nm wavelength region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1991-01-01

    Spectral line-shape analyses were performed for water vapor lines broadened by argon, oxygen, and xenon in the 720-nm wavelength region. A line-shape asymmetry was observed, which is attributed to statistical dependence or correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions. The generalized (asymmetric) Galatry profile, which results from the soft-collision profile and includes correlation between velocity- and state-changing collisions, was fitted to the observed line shapes and was found to compare favorably with the observed data. The most prominent asymmetries were observed with xenon as the buffer gas.

  8. White line structure in the x-ray Lsub(III) absorption edge of holmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, B.K.; Agarwal, B.R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The white line at the Ho Lsub(III) absorption edge has been recorded in Ho metal, Ho 2 O 3 and HoCl 3 . The white line structure in Ho 2 O 3 has been analysed by regarding it as due to the transition into bound states of the Lsub(III) excited ion. The extended fine structure has been used to obtain information on the bond lengths in the compounds. (author)

  9. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog. 4. Fifth Data Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W.N.; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Jester,; Gray, Jim; Gunn, James E.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /York U., Canada /Johns Hopkins U. /Princeton U. Observ. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Arizona

    2007-04-01

    We present the fourth edition of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Catalog. The catalog contains 77,429 objects; this is an increase of over 30,000 entries since the previous edition. The catalog consists of the objects in the SDSS Fifth Data Release that have luminosities larger than M{sub i} = -22.0 (in a cosmology with H{sub 0} = 70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, {Omega}{sub M} = 0.3, and {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.7), have at least one emission line with FWHM larger than 1000 km s{sup -1} or have interesting/complex absorption features, are fainter than i {approx} 15.0, and have highly reliable redshifts. The area covered by the catalog is {approx} 5740 deg{sup 2}. The quasar redshifts range from 0.08 to 5.41, with a median value of 1.48; the catalog includes 891 quasars at redshifts greater than four, of which 36 are at redshifts greater than five. Approximately half of the catalog quasars have i < 19; nearly all have i < 21. For each object the catalog presents positions accurate to better than 0.2-minutes rms per coordinate, five-band (ugriz) CCD-based photometry with typical accuracy of 0.03 mag, and information on the morphology and selection method. The catalog also contains basic radio, near-infrared, and X-ray emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys. The calibrated digital spectra cover the wavelength region 3800-9200 {angstrom} at a spectral resolution of {approx_equal} 2000; the spectra can be retrieved from the public database using the information provided in the catalog. The average SDSS colors of quasars as a function of redshift, derived from the catalog entries, are presented in tabular form. Approximately 96% of the objects in the catalog were discovered by the SDSS.

  10. Absorption-line strengths of 18 late-type spiral galaxies observed with SAURON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganda, Katia; Peletier, Reynier F.; McDermid, Richard M.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We present absorption line strength maps for a sample of 18 Sb-Sd galaxies observed using the integral-field spectrograph SAURON operating at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma, as part of a project devoted to the investigation of the kinematics and stellar populations of late-type spirals,

  11. Spectro web: oscillator strength measurements of atomic absorption lines in the sun and procyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobel, A

    2008-01-01

    We update the online SpectroWeb database of spectral standard reference stars with 1178 oscillator strength values of atomic absorption lines observed in the optical spectrum of the Sun and Procyon (α CMi A). The updated line oscillator strengths are measured with best fits to the disk-integrated KPNO-FTS spectrum of the Sun observed between 4000 A and 6800 A using state-of-the-art detailed spectral synthesis calculations. A subset of 660 line oscillator strengths is validated with synthetic spectrum calculations of Procyon observed with ESO-UVES between 4700 A and 6800 A. The new log(gf)-values in SpectroWeb are improvements upon the values offered in the online Vienna Atomic Line Database (VALD). We find for neutral iron-group elements, such as Fe I, Ni I, Cr I, and Ti I, a statistically significant over-estimation of the VALD log((gf)-values for weak absorption lines with normalized central line depths below 15 %. For abundant lighter elements (e.g. Mg I and Ca I) this trend is statistically not significantly detectable, with the exception of Si I for which the log(gf)-values of 60 weak and medium-strong lines are substantially decreased to best fit the observed spectra. The newly measured log(gf)-values are available in the SpectroWeb database at http://spectra.freeshell.org, which interactively displays the observed and computed stellar spectra, together with corresponding atomic line data.

  12. Some new ideas for the study of the complex spectral line profiles of hot emission stars and quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, E.

    2013-01-01

    Some Hot Emission Stars and AGNs present peculiar spectral line profiles which are due to DACs and SACs phenomena. The origin and the mechanisms which are responsible for the creation of DACs/SACs is an important problem that has been studied by many researchers. This paper is a review of our efforts to study the origin and the mechanisms of these phenomena. At first we present a theoretic ad hoc picture for the structure of the plasma that surrounds the specific category of hot emission stars that present DACs or SACs. Then we present the mathematical model that we constructed, which is based on the properties of the above ad hoc theoretical structure. Finally, we present some results from our statistical studies that prove the consistency of our model with the classical physical theory.

  13. Diversity of soft X-ray spectra in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B.J.; Tananbaum, H.

    1985-01-01

    Soft X-ray spectra for three quasars obtained with the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter covering the 0.1-4.0 keV band are reported. Power-law fits to these spectra have best-fit energy indices of 1.2 +0.6 or -0.2, for the quasar NAB 0205 + 024, 0.6 +0.3 or -0.2 for the quasar B2 1028 + 313, and 2.2 + or -0.4 for the quasar PG 1211 + 143. None of the quasars shows any evidence for a column density of cold matter in excess of the galactic values. The derived spectra demonstrate that there is no single universal power law slope for quasar X-ray spectra. The implications of these results for the X-ray background, X-ray continuum emission mechanisms, and the production of the optical/UV emission lines are briefly discussed. 46 references

  14. On the periodicity in the distribution of quasar redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaergaard, P.

    1978-01-01

    The periodicity in the distribution of quasar redshifts is explained in terms of selection effects. Special attention is drawn to a selection effect caused by the redshift dependent influence of the strong emission lines on the limiting magnitude for detecting quasars. This is especially important since the number of quasars increases with a large factor per magnitude. The limiting magnitude effect applies both to spectroscopic and to UV-excess surveys. It is shown that the redshift distribution of quasars selected by a combination of UV-excess information and agreement between radio and optical position is intermediate between the redshift distribution of the two groups of quasars selected by one of the two criteria. It is also shown that the distribution of redshifts for UV-excess selected quasars is very similar to the variation of the ultrsviolet excess as a function of redshift. This evidence indicates that strong selection effects are in play. (Auth.)

  15. Summary of the workshop on active galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weistrop, D.

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports highlights of discussions carried out at the Tenth Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics concerning BL Lacertae objects and quasars and their relationship to active galactic nuclei. The discussions considered X-ray, optical and radio observations of active galaxies and quasars showing features which may be interpreted as jets or beams, and X-ray and VLBI observations of core-jet structures exhibiting apparent supraluminal expansion. Attention was also given to the properties of the energy source in the center of the active galaxies and quasars, the nature of quasar emission line regions, the production of the continuum in quasars and active galactic nuclei, and evidence for the association of quasars and BL Lac objects with galaxies

  16. Impact of line parameter database and continuum absorption on GOSAT TIR methane retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, A.; Saitoh, N.; Nonogaki, R.; Imasu, R.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.

    2017-12-01

    The current methane retrieval algorithm (V1) at wavenumber range from 1210 cm-1 to 1360 cm-1 including CH4 ν 4 band from the thermal infrared (TIR) band of Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) uses LBLRTM V12.1 with AER V3.1 line database and MT CKD 2.5.2 continuum absorption model to calculate optical depth. Since line parameter databases have been updated and the continuum absorption may have large uncertainty, the purpose of this study is to assess the impact on {CH}4 retrieval from the choice of line parameter databases and the uncertainty of continuum absorption. We retrieved {CH}4 profiles with replacement of line parameter database from AER V3.1 to AER v1.0, HITRAN 2004, HITRAN 2008, AER V3.2, or HITRAN 2012 (Rothman et al. 2005, 2009, and 2013. Clough et al., 2005), we assumed 10% larger continuum absorption coefficients and 50% larger temperature dependent coefficient of continuum absorption based on the report by Paynter and Ramaswamy (2014). We compared the retrieved CH4 with the HIPPO CH4 observation (Wofsy et al., 2012). The difference from HIPPO observation of AER V3.2 was the smallest and 24.1 ± 45.9 ppbv. The differences of AER V1.0, HITRAN 2004, HITRAN 2008, and HITRAN 2012 were 35.6 ± 46.5 ppbv, 37.6 ± 46.3 ppbv, 32.1 ± 46.1 ppbv, and 35.2 ± 46.0 ppbv, respectively. Maximum {CH}4 retrieval differences were -0.4 ppbv at the layer of 314 hPa when we used 10% larger absorption coefficients of {H}2O foreign continuum. Comparing AER V3.2 case to HITRAN 2008 case, the line coupling effect reduced difference by 8.0 ppbv. Line coupling effects were important for GOSAT TIR {CH}4 retrieval. Effects from the uncertainty of continuum absorption were negligible small for GOSAT TIR CH4 retrieval.

  17. Quasars and superclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmer, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for quasar superclusters is discussed, together with implications and survey techniques. The data base of clusters of pairs of quasars with similar redshifts, which is supportive of theories of gravitational lenses, indicates that quasar superclusters do exist. Surveys of large redshift quasars have shown that the quasars do not necessarily cluster. It is cautioned that randomness in an observational scheme, followed by assumptions of uniformity in analyses, will produce results that support a uniformity that may not exist. It is suggested that clusters observed in one survey should be sought in other direction using the same techniques. Continuing expanded surveys of large redshift quasars are recommended in order to form an all-sky distribution of the objects. 18 references

  18. Quasars, Seyfert galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the spectroscopic methods for analyzing the observed plasma in the nuclei of quasars, Seyfert galazies, and active galactic nuclei. Both the narrow-line region and the broad-line region are discussed. Physical models are presented

  19. X-ray, optical, and radio properties of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, G.R.; Keel, W.C.; Miller, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    We have examined a sample of 26 low-redshift quasars for the relationships between X-ray luminosity and optical spectroscopic features. All quasars were observed with the Einstein Observatory and with the IDS on the Lick 3 meter telescope. We find evidence for correlations between quasar X-ray luminosity and both optical continuum luminosity and Hβ luminosity. In the latter case, there is a smooth relationship connecting quasars, Seyfert 1, and Seyfert 2 galaxies. For the quasars in this sample, there is also a strong correlation between optical continuum luminosity and both the Hβ luminosity and equivalent width. Unlike the case for Seyfert 1 nuclei, there is no evidence for a correlation between X-ray luminosity and either the Hβ/[O III] ratio or the width at zero intensity of the Hβ line. However, we do find some evidence for a weak correlation between α'/sub o/x, the mean continuum spectral index between 5000 A and 2 keV, and Fe II equivalent width, Hβ equivalent width, Hβ line width at zero intensity, and the ratio of Hβ equivalent width to its line width at zero intensity. Overall, we found few strong correlations between optical spectroscopic quanitites and X-ray properties of quasars. Some of the implications of these results for models of quasars and quasar emission line regions are discussed

  20. Selection of the optimal combination of water vapor absorption lines for detection of temperature in combustion zones of mixing supersonic gas flows by diode laser absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironenko, V.R.; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Bolshov, M.A.; Liger, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Determination of a gas medium temperature by diode laser absorption spectrometry (DLAS) is based on the measurement of integral intensities of the absorption lines of a test molecule (generally water vapor molecule). In case of local thermodynamic equilibrium temperature is inferred from the ratio of the integral intensities of two lines with different low energy levels. For the total gas pressure above 1 atm the absorption lines are broadened and one cannot find isolated well resolved water vapor absorption lines within relatively narrow spectral interval of fast diode laser (DL) tuning range (about 3 cm"−"1). For diagnostics of a gas object in the case of high temperature and pressure DLAS technique can be realized with two diode lasers working in different spectral regions with strong absorption lines. In such situation the criteria of the optimal line selection differs significantly from the case of narrow lines. These criteria are discussed in our work. The software for selection the optimal spectral regions using the HITRAN-2012 and HITEMP data bases is developed. The program selects spectral regions of DL tuning, minimizing the error of temperature determination δT/T, basing on the attainable experimental error of line intensity measurement δS. Two combinations of optimal spectral regions were selected – (1.392 & 1.343 μm) and (1.392 & 1.339 μm). Different algorithms of experimental data processing are discussed.

  1. Quasar Parallax: a Method for Determining Direct Geometrical Distances to Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    We describe a novel method to determine direct geometrical distances to quasars that can measure the cosmological constant, Lambda, with minimal assumptions. This method is equivalent to geometric parallax, with the `standard length' being the size of the quasar broad emission line region (BELR) as determined from the light travel time measurements of reverberation mapping. The effect of non-zero Lambda on angular diameter is large, 40% at z=2, so mapping angular diameter distances vs. redshi...

  2. Anomaly in shape of resonance absorption lines of atoms with large fine-structure splitting of levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, A.I.; yachev, S.P."" >Podyachev, S.P.; Privalov, T.I.; Shalagin, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Absorption line of monochromatic radiation by atoms nonselective excitation by velocities under conditions of optical excitation of components of superfine structure of the basic electron state is considered. It is shown that the absorption line has unusual substructures for certain values of the basic state superfine desintegration. These substructures in the absorption spectrum may be pointed out by accounting the superfine structure of the electron excited state. The absorption spectra of monochromatic radiation close tot he D 1 - and D 2 -lines of the atomic rubidium are calculated

  3. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog. 3. Third data release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Anderson, Scott F.; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Jester, Sebastian; Stoughton, Chris; Strauss,; SubbaRao, Mark; Brandt, W.N.; Gunn, James E.; Yanny, Brian; Bahcall, Neta A.; Barentine, J.C.; Blanton, Michael R.; Boroski, William N.; Brewington, Howard J.; Brinkmann, J.; Brunner, Robert; Csabai, Istvan; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /York U., Canada /Princeton U. Observ. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Arizona U.,

    2005-03-01

    We present the third edition of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Catalog. The catalog consists of the 46,420 objects in the SDSS Third Data Release that have luminosities larger than M{sub i} = -22 (in a cosmology with H{sub 0} = 70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, {Omega}{sub M} = 0.3, and {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.7), have at least one emission line with FWHM larger than 1000 km s{sup -1} or are unambiguously broad absorption line quasars, are fainter than i = 15.0, and have highly reliable redshifts. The area covered by the catalog is {approx} 4188 deg{sup 2}. The quasar redshifts range from 0.08 to 5.41, with a median value of 1.47; the high-redshift sample includes 520 quasars at redshifts greater than four, of which 17 are at redshifts greater than five. For each object the catalog presents positions accurate to better than 0.2'' rms per coordinate, five-band (ugriz) CCD-based photometry with typical accuracy of 0.03 mag, and information on the morphology and selection method. The catalog also contains radio, near-infrared, and X-ray emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys. The calibrated digital spectra cover the wavelength region 3800-9200 at a spectral resolution of {approx} 2000; the spectra can be retrieved from the public database using the information provided in the catalog. A total of 44,221 objects in the catalog were discovered by the SDSS; 28,400 of the SDSS discoveries are reported here for the first time.

  4. A CONSTRAINT ON QUASAR CLUSTERING AT z = 5 FROM A BINARY QUASAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a quasar pair at z = 5 separated by 21″. Both objects were identified as quasar candidates using simple color selection techniques applied to photometric catalogs from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Spectra obtained with the MMT present no discernible offset in redshift between the two objects; on the other hand, there are clear differences in the emission line profiles and in the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions that strongly disfavor the hypothesis that they are gravitationally lensed images of a single quasar. Both quasars are surprisingly bright given their proximity (a projected separation of ∼135 kpc), with i = 19.4 and i = 21.4. Previous measurements of the luminosity function demonstrate that luminous quasars are extremely rare at z = 5; the existence of this pair suggests that quasars have strong small-scale clustering at high redshift. Assuming a real-space correlation function of the form ξ(r) ∝ (r/r 0 ) −2 , this discovery implies a correlation length of r 0 ≳ 20h −1 Mpc, consistent with a rapid strengthening of quasar clustering at high redshift as seen in previous observations and predicted by theoretical models where feedback effects are inefficient at shutting down black hole growth at high redshift

  5. A CONSTRAINT ON QUASAR CLUSTERING AT z = 5 FROM A BINARY QUASAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam D., E-mail: imcgreer@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We report the discovery of a quasar pair at z = 5 separated by 21″. Both objects were identified as quasar candidates using simple color selection techniques applied to photometric catalogs from the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Spectra obtained with the MMT present no discernible offset in redshift between the two objects; on the other hand, there are clear differences in the emission line profiles and in the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions that strongly disfavor the hypothesis that they are gravitationally lensed images of a single quasar. Both quasars are surprisingly bright given their proximity (a projected separation of ∼135 kpc), with i = 19.4 and i = 21.4. Previous measurements of the luminosity function demonstrate that luminous quasars are extremely rare at z = 5; the existence of this pair suggests that quasars have strong small-scale clustering at high redshift. Assuming a real-space correlation function of the form ξ(r) ∝ (r/r{sub 0}){sup −2}, this discovery implies a correlation length of r{sub 0} ≳ 20h{sup −1} Mpc, consistent with a rapid strengthening of quasar clustering at high redshift as seen in previous observations and predicted by theoretical models where feedback effects are inefficient at shutting down black hole growth at high redshift.

  6. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Martínez-Aldama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (L/LEdd ~ 1.0 at high redshift, z ~2–3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as Aliiiλ1860, Siiii]λ1892 and Ciii]λ1909. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  7. Highly Accreting Quasars at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Perea, Jaime; D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic analysis for a sample of type 1 highly accreting quasars (LLedd>0.2) at high redshift, z 2-3. The quasars were observed with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC 10.4 m telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The highly accreting quasars were identified using the 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism, which is able to organize type 1 quasars over a broad range of redshift and luminosity. The kinematic and physical properties of the broad line region have been derived by fitting the profiles of strong UV emission lines such as AlIII, SiIII and CIII. The majority of our sources show strong blueshifts in the high-ionization lines and high Eddington ratios which are related with the productions of outflows. The importance of highly accreting quasars goes beyond a detailed understanding of their physics: their extreme Eddington ratio makes them candidates standard candles for cosmological studies.

  8. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog V. Seventh Data Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U.; Richards, Gordon T.; /Drexel U.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Strauss, Michael A.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Boroson, Todd A.; /Kitt Peak Observ.; Ross, Nicholas P.; /Penn State U.; Shen, Yue; /Princeton U. Observ.; Brandt, W.N.; /Penn State U.; Fan, Xiaohui; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Inada, Naohisa; /Wako, RIKEN /Southampton U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.

    2010-04-01

    We present the fifth edition of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Catalog, which is based upon the SDSS Seventh Data Release. The catalog, which contains 105,783 spectroscopically confirmed quasars, represents the conclusion of the SDSS-I and SDSS-II quasar survey. The catalog consists of the SDSS objects that have luminosities larger than M{sub i} = -22.0 (in a cosmology with H{sub 0} = 70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, {Omega}{sub M} = 0.3, and {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.7), have at least one emission line with FWHM larger than 1000 km s{sup -1} or have interesting/complex absorption features, are fainter than i {approx} 15.0, and have highly reliable redshifts. The catalog covers an area of {approx} 9380 deg{sup 2}. The quasar redshifts range from 0.065 to 5.46, with a median value of 1.49; the catalog includes 1248 quasars at redshifts greater than 4, of which 56 are at redshifts greater than 5. The catalog contains 9210 quasars with i < 18; slightly over half of the entries have i < 19. For each object the catalog presents positions accurate to better than 0.1-inch rms per coordinate, five-band (ugriz) CCD-based photometry with typical accuracy of 0.03 mag, and information on the morphology and selection method. The catalog also contains radio, near-infrared, and X-ray emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys. The calibrated digital spectra cover the wavelength region 3800-9200 {angstrom} at a spectral resolution of {approx_equal} 2000; the spectra can be retrieved from the SDSS public database using the information provided in the catalog. Over 96% of the objects in the catalog were discovered by the SDSS. We also include a supplemental list of an additional 207 quasars with SDSS spectra whose archive photometric information is incomplete.

  9. Search for gravitational redshifted absorption lines in LMXB Serpens X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Hiroki; Done, Chris; Paerels, Frits; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin

    2018-04-01

    The equation of state for ultradense matter can be tested from observations of the ratio of mass to radius of neutron stars. This could be measured precisely from the redshift of a narrow line produced on the surface. X-rays bursts have been intensively searched for such features, but so far without detection. Here instead we search for redshifted lines in the persistent emission, where the accretion flow dominates over the surface emission. We discuss the requirements for narrow lines to be produced, and show that narrow absorption lines from highly ionized iron can potentially be observable in accreting low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs; low B field) that have either low spin or low inclination so that Doppler broadening is small. This selects Serpens X-1 as the only potential candidate persistent LMXB due to its low inclination. Including surface models in the broad-band accretion flow model predicts that the absorption line from He-like iron at 6.7 keV should be redshifted to ˜5.1-5.7 keV (10-15 km for 1.4 M⊙) and have an equivalent width of 0.8-8 eV for surface temperatures of 7-10 × 106 K. We use the high-resolution Chandra grating data to give a firm upper limit of 2-3 eV for an absorption line at ˜5 keV. We discuss possible reasons for this lack of detection (the surface temperature and the geometry of the boundary layer etc.). Future instruments with better sensitivity are required in order to explore the existence of such features.

  10. Evaluation of self-absorption coefficients of aluminum emission lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sherbini, A.M.; El Sherbini, Th.M.; Hegazy, H.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In quantitative Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements it is essential to account for the effect of self-absorption on the emission lines intensity. In order to quantify this effect, in this paper we propose a simple method for evaluating the ratio between the actual measured line intensity and the intensity expected in absence of self-absorption and, if necessary, correcting the effect of self-absorption on line intensity. The method, based on a homogeneous plasma model, is applicable when the plasma electron density is known and in particular to lines whose Stark broadening parameter is available

  11. The Properties of Quasar 2175 Å Dust Absorbers at z = 1.0-2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, Jason; Zhao, Yinan; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Lundgren, Britt; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, Honglin; Schneider, Donald

    2018-01-01

    Quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers (2DAs) are a population of quasar absorption line systems identified by the broad absorption feature centered around rest-frame 2175 Å, which is ubiquitously seen in the Milky Way extinction curves. These absorbers are excellent tracers of gas and dust properties, metal abundances, chemical evolution, physical conditions, as well as kinematics in the absorbing galaxies. We present the metallicity, depletion pattern, kinematics, and the cold neutral content (HI and CI gas) of a sample of 2DAs at z = 1.0-2.5 that were initially selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and followed up with Keck and MMT spectrographs. We perform a correlation analysis between metallicity, redshift, depletion level, velocity width, and explore relationships between 2DAs and other absorption line systems. The 2DAs on average have higher metallicity, higher depletion levels, and larger velocity widths than Damped Lyman-α absorbers (DLAs) or subDLAs. The correlation between [Zn/H] and [Fe/Zn] or [Zn/H] and logΔV90 can be used as alternative stellar mass estimators based on the well-established mass-metallicity relation. The relationship with other quasar absorption line systems can be described as (1) 2DAs are a subset of Mg II and Fe II absorbers, (2) 2DAs are preferentially metal-strong DLAs/subDLAs, (3) More importantly, all of the 2DAs show CI detections with N(CI) > 14.0 cm-2, (4) 2DAs can be used as molecular gas tracers. Their host galaxies are likely to be chemically enriched, evolved, and massive galaxies (more massive than typical DLA/subDLA galaxies). In addition, we have, for the first time, identified the host galaxy of a 2DA beyond the local Universe using HST IR direct imaging and grism spectroscopy.

  12. Neutral atomic absorption lines and far-UV extinction: Possible implications for depletions and grain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers examine nine lines of sight within the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for which data on both neutral atomic absorption lines (Snow 1984; White 1986; Welty, Hobbs, and York 1989) and far UV extinction (Bless and Savage 1972; Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer 1986) are available, in order to test the assumption that variations in gamma/alpha will cancel in taking ratios of the ionization balance equation, and to try to determine to what extent that assumption has affected the aforementioned studies of depletions and grain properties.

  13. UV spectroscopy including ISM line absorption: of the exciting star of Abell 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    Reliable spectral analysis that is based on high-resolution UV observations requires an adequate, simultaneous modeling of the interstellar line absorption and reddening. In the case of the central star of the planetary nebula Abell 35, BD-22 3467, we demonstrate our current standard spectral-analysis method that is based on the Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP). We present an on- going spectral analysis of FUSE and HST/STIS observations of BD-22 3467.

  14. Gravitational lensing of quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenbrod, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, the book describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applications of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher r...

  15. Radio structure in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, observational attention is given to the extended extragalactic radio sources associated with quasars. The isolated compact radio sources, often identified with quasars, are only included in the discussions. Three aspects of the radio structure in quasars and their cosmic evolution are considered: a study of the parsec scale morphology in quasar cores, in relation to the extended morphologies; an investigation of possible epoch dependent hotspot properties as well as a more detailed investigation of this fine scale structure; a VLA project was carried out to obtain morphological information on scales of 0.5 arcsec on high redshift quasars and to investigate possible epoch dependent morphological properties. MERLIN observations at 0.1 arcsec resolution to supplement the VLA data were initiated. (Auth.)

  16. The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Quasar Survey: Quasar Properties from Data Release Two and Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X. Y.; Wu, Xue-Bing; Ai, Y. L.; Yang, J. Y.; Yang, Q.; Wang, F.; Zhang, Y. X.; Luo, A. L.; Xu, H.; Yuan, H. L.; Zhang, J. N.; Wang, M. X.; Wang, L. L.; Li, Y. B.; Zuo, F.; Hou, W.; Guo, Y. X.; Kong, X.; Chen, X. Y.; Wu, Y.; Yang, H. F.; Yang, M.

    2018-05-01

    This is the second installment for the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Quasar Survey, which includes quasars observed from 2013 September to 2015 June. There are 9024 confirmed quasars in DR2 and 10911 in DR3. After cross-match with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar catalogs and NED, 12126 quasars are discovered independently. Among them, 2225 quasars were released by SDSS DR12 QSO catalog in 2014 after we finalized the survey candidates. 1801 sources were identified by SDSS DR14 as QSOs. The remaining 8100 quasars are considered as newly founded, and among them, 6887 quasars can be given reliable emission line measurements and the estimated black hole masses. Quasars found in LAMOST are mostly located at low-to-moderate redshifts, with a mean value of 1.5. The highest redshift observed in DR2 and DR3 is 5. We applied emission line measurements to Hα, Hβ, Mg II, and C IV. We deduced the monochromatic continuum luminosities using photometry data, and estimated the virial black hole masses for the newly discovered quasars. Results are compiled into a quasar catalog, which will be available online.

  17. A Polarimetric Search for Hidden Quasars in Three Radio-selected Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.D.; Brotherton, M.S.; Stanford, S.A.; Breugel, W. van; Dey, A.; Stern, D.; Antonucci, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have carried out a spectropolarimetric search for hidden broad-line quasars in three ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) discovered in the positional correlations between sources detected in deep radio surveys and the IRAS Faint Source Catalog. Only the high-ionization Seyfert 2 galaxy TF J1736+1122 is highly polarized, displaying a broad-line spectrum visible in polarized light. The other two objects, TF J1020+6436 and FF J1614+3234, display spectra dominated by a population of young (A type) stars similar to those of open-quotes E+Aclose quotes galaxies. They are unpolarized, showing no sign of hidden broad-line regions. The presence of young starburst components in all three galaxies indicates that the ULIRG phenomenon encompasses both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and starburst activity, but the most energetic ULIRGs do not necessarily harbor open-quotes buried quasars.close quotes We find that a luminous infrared galaxy is most likely to host an obscured quasar if it exhibits a high-ionization ([O iii] λ5007/Hβ approx-gt 5) spectrum typical of a 'classic' Seyfert 2 galaxy with little or no Balmer absorption lines, is 'ultraluminous' (L IR approx-gt 10 12 L circle-dot ), and has a 'warm' IR color (f 25 /f 60 approx-gt 0.25). The detection of hidden quasars in this group but not in the low-ionization, starburst-dominated ULIRGs (classified as LINERs or H ii galaxies) may indicate an evolutionary connection, with the latter being found in younger systems. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  18. Low resolution infrared spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J.B.; Matthews, K.

    1980-01-01

    Low resolution spectra of a significant sample of quasars show that the Paschen α and Balmer line ratios do not agree with the radiative recombination case B result and vary widely within the quasars sampled. The range in Pα:Hβ ratios is a factor of approximately 6, while the range in Lyα:Hα ratios is a factor of approximately 5. For the Pα:Balmer series, the deviations from case B recombination are not consistent with reddening, but appear, within large dispersions, to be consistent with optical depth effects in the Balmer lines affecting the line ratios. The Lyα:Hα ratio is, however, correlated with the continuum spectral index, and can be explained as due to reddening affecting both the lines and continuum. Recent observational results based on a joint infrared/optical survey of the hydrogen line spectra of a significant number of the brightest low and high redshift quasars are summarised. This survey includes 12 quasars in the redshift range 0.07 1.5, where Hα and/or Hβ is redshifted into the 1.65μm or 2.2μm atmospheric windows. (Auth.)

  19. Conduction noise absorption by ITO thin films attached to microstrip line utilizing Ohmic loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    For the aim of wide-band noise absorbers with a special design for low frequency performance, this study proposes conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films as the absorbent materials in microstrip line. ITO thin films were deposited on the polyimide film substrates by rf magnetron cosputtering of In 2 O 3 and Sn targets. The deposited ITO films show a typical value of electrical resistivity (∼10 -4 Ω m) and sheet resistance can be controlled in the range of 20-230 Ω by variation in film thickness. Microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω was used for determining their noise absorbing properties. It is found that there is an optimum sheet resistance of ITO films for the maximum power absorption. Reflection parameter (S 11 ) is increased with decrease in sheet resistance due to impedance mismatch. On the while, transmission parameter (S 21 ) is decreased with decrease in sheet resistance due to larger Ohmic loss of the ITO films. Experimental results and computational prediction show that the optimum sheet resistance is about 100 Ω. For this film, greater power absorption is predicted in the lower frequency region than ferrite thin films of high magnetic loss, which indicates that Ohmic loss is the predominant loss parameter for power absorption in the low frequency range.

  20. Quasar Elemental Abundances at High Redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Shields, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    the framework of the most recent photoionization models to estimate the metallicity of the gas associated with the high-z quasars. Standard photoionization parameters and the assumption of secondary nitrogen enrichment indicate an average abundance of Z/Z_sol = 4 to 5 in the line emitting gas. Assuming a time...

  1. Low redshift Lyman alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations using the Hubble Space Telescope of the z = 0.156 QSO 3C 273 have discovered a surprisingly large number of Ly-alpha absorption lines. In particular, Morris et al. found 9 certain and 7 possible Ly-alpha lines with equivalent widths above 25 mA. This is much larger (by a factor of 5-10) than the number expected from extrapolation of the high-redshift behavior of the Ly-alpha forest. Within the context of pressure-confined models for the Ly-alpha clouds, this behavior can be understood if the ionizing background declines sharply between z is approximately 2 and z is approximately 0. However, this requires that the ionizing photon flux drop as rapidly as the QSO volume emissivity; moreover, the absorbers must have a space density n(sub O) is approximately 2.6(N/10)h/((D/100 kpc)(sup 2)) Mpc(sup -3) where D is the present-day diameter of the absorbers. It is somewhat surprising that such necessarily fragile objects could have survived in such numbers to the present day. It is shown that it is plausible that the atomic hydrogen extents of spiral and irregular galaxies are large enough to produce the observed number of Ly-alpha absorption lines toward 3C 273, and that the neutral column densities and doppler b-values expected under these conditions fall in the range found by Morris et al. (1991).

  2. Quasar-Lyman α forest cross-correlation from BOSS DR11: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Kirkby, David; Blomqvist, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Busca, Nicolas; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC/UB), Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona, 08028 Catalonia (Spain); Ross, Nicholas P.; Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian; Carithers, Bill [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton, NY, 11375 (United States); Rich, James; Delubac, Timothée [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 France (France); Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, Jon [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S., E-mail: font@physik.uzh.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112 (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    We measure the large-scale cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyα forest absorption, using over 164,000 quasars from Data Release 11 of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We extend the previous study of roughly 60,000 quasars from Data Release 9 to larger separations, allowing a measurement of the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale along the line of sight c/(H(z = 2.36)r{sub s}) = 9.0±0.3 and across the line of sight D{sub A}(z = 2.36)/r{sub s} = 10.8±0.4, consistent with CMB and other BAO data. Using the best fit value of the sound horizon from Planck data (r{sub s} = 147.49 Mpc), we can translate these results to a measurement of the Hubble parameter of H(z = 2.36) = 226±8 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1} and of the angular diameter distance of D{sub A}(z = 2.36) = 1590±60 Mpc. The measured cross-correlation function and an update of the code to fit the BAO scale (baofit) are made publicly available.

  3. A Full Year's Chandra Exposure on Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasars from the Chandra Multiwavelength Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul J.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Richards, G. T.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Constantin, A.; Haggard, D.; Karovska, M.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Anderson, S. F.; Mossman, A.; Kashyap, V.; Myers, A. D.; Silverman, J. D.; Wilkes, B. J.; Tananbaum, H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectral energy distributions and evolution of a large sample of optically selected quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that were observed in 323 Chandra images analyzed by the Chandra Multiwavelength Project. Our highest-confidence matched sample includes 1135 X-ray detected quasars in the redshift range 0.2 3, substantially expanding the known sample. We find no evidence for evolution out to z ~ 5 for either the X-ray photon index Γ or for the ratio of optical/UV to X-ray flux αox. About 10% of detected QSOs show best-fit intrinsic absorbing columns greater than 1022 cm-2, but the fraction might reach ~1/3 if most nondetections are absorbed. We confirm a significant correlation between αox and optical luminosity, but it flattens or disappears for fainter (MB gsim -23) active galactic nucleus (AGN) alone. We report significant hardening of Γ both toward higher X-ray luminosity, and for relatively X-ray loud quasars. These trends may represent a relative increase in nonthermal X-ray emission, and our findings thereby strengthen analogies between Galactic black hole binaries and AGN. For uniformly selected subsamples of narrow-line Seyfert 1s and narrow absorption line QSOs, we find no evidence for unusual distributions of either αox or Γ.

  4. Probing Extragalactic Planets Using Quasar Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinyu; Guerras, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    Previously, planets have been detected only in the Milky Way galaxy. Here, we show that quasar microlensing provides a means to probe extragalactic planets in the lens galaxy, by studying the microlensing properties of emission close to the event horizon of the supermassive black hole of the background quasar, using the current generation telescopes. We show that a population of unbound planets between stars with masses ranging from Moon to Jupiter masses is needed to explain the frequent Fe Kα line energy shifts observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar RXJ 1131–1231 at a lens redshift of z = 0.295 or 3.8 billion lt-yr away. We constrain the planet mass-fraction to be larger than 0.0001 of the halo mass, which is equivalent to 2000 objects ranging from Moon to Jupiter mass per main-sequence star.

  5. A large area search for radio-loud quasars within the epoch of reionization

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Matt J.; Rawlings, Steve; Barrio, F. Eugenio; Hill, Gary J.; Bauer, Amanda; Croft, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Universe became fully reionized, and observable optically, at a time corresponding to redshift z ~ 6.5, so it is only by studying the HI and molecular absorption lines against higher-redshift, radio-loud sources that one can hope to make detailed studies of the earliest stages of galaxy formation. At present no targets for such studies are known. In these proceedings we describe a survey which is underway to find radio-loud quasars at z > 6.5, and present broad-band SEDs of our most promi...

  6. Space Density of Optically Selected Type 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Strauss, Michael A.; Green, Joshua; Krolik, Julian H.; Shen, Yue; Richards, Gordon T.; Anderson, Scott F.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2008-12-01

    Type 2 quasars are luminous active galactic nuclei whose central regions are obscured by large amounts of gas and dust. In this paper, we present a catalog of type 2 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, selected based on their optical emission lines. The catalog contains 887 objects with redshifts z < 0.83; this is 6 times larger than the previous version and is by far the largest sample of type 2 quasars in the literature. We derive the [O III]5007 luminosity function (LF) for 108.3 L sun < L [O III] < 1010 L sun (corresponding to intrinsic luminosities up to M[2500 Å] ~= -28 mag or bolometric luminosities up to 4 × 1047 erg s-1). This LF provides robust lower limits to the actual space density of obscured quasars due to our selection criteria, the details of the spectroscopic target selection, and other effects. We derive the equivalent LF for the complete sample of type 1 (unobscured) quasars and determine the ratio of type 2 to type 1 quasar number densities. Our data constrain this ratio to be at least ~1.5:1 for 108.3 L sun < L [O III] < 109.5 L sun at z < 0.3, and at least ~1.2:1 for L [O III] ~ 1010 L sun at 0.3 < z < 0.83. Type 2 quasars are at least as abundant as type 1 quasars in the relatively nearby universe (z <~ 0.8) for the highest luminosities.

  7. On-line determination of manganese in solid seafood samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra, M.C.; Moreno-Cid, A.

    2003-01-01

    Manganese is extracted on-line from solid seafood samples by a simple continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction system (CUES). This system is connected to an on-line manifold, which permits the flow-injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese. Optimisation of the continuous leaching procedure is performed by an experimental design. The proposed method allows the determination of manganese with a relative standard deviation of 0.9% for a sample containing 23.4 μg g -1 manganese (dry mass). The detection limit is 0.4 μg g -1 (dry mass) for 30 mg of sample and the sample throughput is ca. 60 samples per hour. Accurate results are obtained by measuring TORT-1 certified reference material. The procedure is finally applied to mussel, tuna, sardine and clams samples

  8. THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF INTERVENING WEAK Mg II QUASAR ABSORBERS AND A CURIOUS DEPENDENCE ON QUASAR LUMINOSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jessica L.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Klimek, Elizabeth S. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Murphy, Michael T. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Melbourne, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    We have identified 469 Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2796, 2803 doublet systems having W{sub r} {>=} 0.02 A in 252 Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer and UVES/Very Large Telescope quasar spectra over the redshift range 0.1 < z < 2.6. Using the largest sample yet of 188 weak Mg II systems (0.02 A {<=}W{sub r} < 0.3 A), we calculate their absorber redshift path density, dN/dz. We find clear evidence of evolution, with dN/dz peaking at z {approx} 1.2, and that the product of the absorber number density and cross section decreases linearly with increasing redshift; weak Mg II absorbers seem to vanish above z {approx_equal} 2.7. If the absorbers are ionized by the UV background, we estimate number densities of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} Mpc{sup -3} for spherical geometries and 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} Mpc{sup -3} for more sheetlike geometries. We also find that dN/dz toward intrinsically faint versus bright quasars differs significantly for weak and strong (W{sub r} {>=} 1.0 A) absorbers. For weak absorption, dN/dz toward bright quasars is {approx}25% higher than toward faint quasars (10{sigma} at low redshift, 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 1.4, and 4{sigma} at high redshift, 1.4 < z {<=} 2.34). For strong absorption the trend reverses, with dN/dz toward faint quasars being {approx}20% higher than toward bright quasars (also 10{sigma} at low redshift and 4{sigma} at high redshift). We explore scenarios in which beam size is proportional to quasar luminosity and varies with absorber and quasar redshifts. These do not explain dN/dz's dependence on quasar luminosity.

  9. Deep learning of quasar spectra to discover and characterize damped Lyα systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, David; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Dong, Shawfeng; Cai, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    We have designed, developed, and applied a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture using multi-task learning to search for and characterize strong H I Lyα absorption in quasar spectra. Without any explicit modelling of the quasar continuum or application of the predicted line profile for Lyα from quantum mechanics, our algorithm predicts the presence of strong H I absorption and estimates the corresponding redshift zabs and H I column density N_{H I}, with emphasis on damped Lyα systems (DLAs, absorbers with N_{H I}≥ 2 × 10^{20} cm^{-2}). We tuned the CNN model using a custom training set of DLAs injected into DLA-free quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), data release 5 (DR5). Testing on a held-back validation set demonstrates a high incidence of DLAs recovered by the algorithm (97.4 per cent as DLAs and 99 per cent as an H I absorber with N_{H I}> 10^{19.5} cm^{-2}) and excellent estimates for zabs and N_{H I}. Similar results are obtained against a human-generated survey of the SDSS DR5 data set. The algorithm yields a low incidence of false positives and negatives but is challenged by overlapping DLAs and/or very high N_{H I} systems. We have applied this CNN model to the quasar spectra of SDSS DR7 and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (data release 12) and provide catalogues of 4913 and 50 969 DLAs, respectively (including 1659 and 9230 high-confidence DLAs that were previously unpublished). This work validates the application of deep learning techniques to astronomical spectra for both classification and quantitative measurements.

  10. Experimental determination of line strengths for selected carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide absorption lines at temperatures between 295 and 1250 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvecz, P.J.; Nichols, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used for the determination of the line strengths of 41 CO and CO 2 absorption lines at temperatures between 295 and 1250 K. The CO vibrational-rotational lines were from the P branch of the fundamental absorption band (2150--1950 cm -1 ) while the CO 2 vibrational-rotational lines were from the far wing of the R branch of the ν 3 fundamental band (2395--2380 cm -1 ). The intensities of the lines were measured from absorption spectra recorded in a high-temperature gas cell containing known concentrations of CO/CO 2 /N 2 gas mixtures at atmospheric pressure. Absorption spectra were recorded through the cell with the use of a moderate-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The absorption spectra were mathematically corrected for distortions resulting from the finite resolution of the spectrometer and for peak overlap. Line strength measurements were made from the corrected peaks by using the Bouguer-Lambert law and assuming a Lorentzian line profile. The experimentally obtained line strengths were evaluated by statistical calculations, by consideration of the validity of the Bouguer-Lambert assumption for these data, by comparison with existing room-temperature and high-temperature data, and by comparison with theoretical calculations. For CO, the statistical analysis suggests that the reported values have an uncertainty of ±10--12%, which is similar to the observed discrepancies with other reported values at room temperature. At high temperatures, the difference between these data and previously reported data and theoretical predictions is less than 10%. For CO 2 , the statistical uncertainty associated with the line strength calculations is less than 5%, which is also the approximate level of agreement with existing room-temperature data

  11. Water-vapor absorption line measurements in the 940-nm band by using a Raman-shifted dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiping; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Singh, Upendra N.

    1993-01-01

    We report water-vapor absorption line measurements that are made by using the first Stokes radiation (930-982 nm) with HWHM 0.015/cm generated by a narrow-linewidth, tunable dye laser. Forty-five absorption line strengths are measured with an uncertainty of 6 percent and among them are fourteen strong lines that are compared with previous measurements for the assessment of spectral purity of the light source. Thirty air-broadened linewidths are measured with 8 percent uncertainty at ambient atmospheric pressure with an average of 0.101/cm. The lines are selected for the purpose of temperature-sensitive or temperature-insensitive lidar measurements. Results for these line strengths and linewidths are corrected for broadband radiation and finite laser linewidth broadening effects and compared with the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sgr B2 los molecular absorption line spectra (Corby+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, J. F.; McGuire, B. A.; Herbst, E.; Remijan, A. J.

    2017-11-01

    Spectra covering transitions of c-C3H2, c-H1 SO, CCS, H2CS, HCS+, OH, SiO, 29SiO, H2CO, H2(13C)O, l-C3H, and l-C3H+ with line-of-sight absorption observed in the 1-50 GHz data from the PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecular Survey (PRIMOS) taken with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Data were observed between 2001 and 2014, with the majority of the data obtained in 2007 in GBT Key Science project ID GBT07A-051. Spectra have been baseline-subtracted using best fit polynomials as described in the paper, and normalized by the continuum, so that the y-axis represents (T/TC-1). Data are provided in the FITS format; each FITS file contains all lines of a single molecule that are observed to have foreground absorption. Please refer to Table 1 of the paper to obtain molecular transition rest frequencies, energies, GBT beam sizes, and transition quantum numbers. (2 data files).

  13. An immortal cell line to study the role of endogenous CFTR in electrolyte absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C L; Quinton, P M

    1995-01-01

    The intact human reabsorptive sweat duct (RD) has been a reliable model for investigations of the functional role of "endogenous" CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) in normal and abnormal electrolyte absorptive function. But to overcome the limitations imposed by the use of fresh, intact tissue, we transformed cultured RD cells using the chimeric virus Ad5/SV40 1613 ori-. The resultant cell line, RD2(NL), has remained differentiated forming a polarized epithelium that expressed two fundamental components of absorption, a cAMP activated Cl- conductance (GCl) and an amiloride-sensitive Na+ conductance (GNa). In the unstimulated state, there was a low level of transport activity; however, addition of forskolin (10(-5) M) significantly increased the Cl- diffusion potential (Vt) generated by a luminally directed Cl- gradient from -15.3 +/- 0.7 mV to -23.9 +/- 1.1 mV, n = 39; and decreased the transepithelial resistance (Rt) from 814.8 +/- 56.3 omega.cm2 to 750.5 +/- 47.5 omega.cm2, n = 39, (n = number of cultures). cAMP activation, anion selectivity (Cl- > I- > gluconate), and a dependence upon metabolic energy (metabolic poisoning inhibited GCl), all indicate that the GCl expressed in RD2(NL) is in fact CFTR-GCl. The presence of an apical amiloride-sensitive GNa was shown by the amiloride (10(-5) M) inhibition of GNa as indicated by a reduction of Vt and equivalent short circuit current by 78.0 +/- 3.1% and 77.9 +/- 2.6%, respectively, and an increase in Rt by 7.2 +/- 0.8%, n = 36. In conclusion, the RD2(NL) cell line presents the first model system in which CFTR-GCl is expressed in a purely absorptive tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Quasars in galaxy cluster environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of radio loud quasars is found to be strongly dependent upon their galaxy cluster environment. Previous studies have shown that bright quasars are found in rich clusters, while high luminosity quasars are found only in poorer environments. The analysis of low luminosity radio quiet quasars indicate that they are never found in rich environments, suggesting that they are a physically different class of objects. Properties of the quasar environment are investigated to determine constraints on the physical mechanisms of quasar formation and evolution. The optical cluster morphology indicates that the cluster cores have smaller radii and higher galaxy densities than are typical for low redshift clusters of similar richness. Radio morphologies may indicate that the formation of a dense intra-cluster medium is associated with the quasars' fading at these epochs. Galaxy colors appear to be normal, but there may be a tendency for clusters associated with high luminosity quasars to contain a higher fraction of gas-rich galaxies than those associated with low luminosity quasars. Multislit spectroscopic observations of galaxies associated with high luminosity quasars indicate that quasars are preferentially located in regions of low relative velocity dispersion, either in rich clusters of abnormally low dispersion, or in poor groups which are dynamically normal. This suggests that galaxy-galaxy interactions may play a role in quasar formation and sustenanace. Virialization of rich clusters and the subsequent increase in galaxy velocities may therefore be responsible for the fading of quasars in rich environments

  15. Line by Line CO2 Absorption in the Atmosphere for Input Data to Calculate Global Warming, David C. Smith, DCS Lasers & Optics LLC, Old Saybrook CT 06475

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Compter modeling of global climate change require an input (asssumption) of the forcing function for CO2 absorption. All codes use a long term forcing function of ~ 4 W/M2. (IPCC 2007 Summary for Policymakers. In:Climate Change 2007. The Physical Sciences Basis.Contributions of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Cambridge U. Press N.Y.)..This is based on a band model of the CO2 rotational/vibrational absorption where a band of absorption averages over all the rotational levels of the vibration transition. (Ramananathan,V.,et al, J. of Geophysical Research,Vol 84 C8,p4949,Aug.1979).. The model takes into account the line width,the spacing between lines and identifies 10 CO2 bands.. This approach neglects the possibility that the peak absorption transitions in a band can "use up" all of the earths IR radiation at that wavelength and does not contribute to global warming no matter how much the CO2 is increased. The lines in the wings of a band increase their absorption as the CO2 is increased. However, the lines that are lost are the strong absorbers and those that are added are the weaker absorption lines. When a band begins to use up the IR then the net result of increasing the atmospheric CO2 is a decrease in the absorption change. This presentation calculates the absorption of each line individualy using the Behr's Law Approach. The dependence of the absorption and line width of each transition as a function of altitude is accounted for. The temperature dependence of the absorption with altitude is not and an evaluation of this error is given. For doubling CO2 from 320ppm to 640 ppm, the calculation gives a forcing function of 1.1 W/M2. The results show the importance of using individual lines to calculate the CO2 contribution to global warming, We can speculate on the imact and anticipate a computer code calculation of a factor of 4 less global warming than the published results.

  16. A z = 3 Lyα BLOB ASSOCIATED WITH A DAMPED Lyα SYSTEM PROXIMATE TO ITS BACKGROUND QUASAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Kollmeier, Juna; Zheng Zheng

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a bright Lyα blob associated with the z = 3 quasar SDSS J124020.91+145535.6 which is also coincident with strong damped Lyα absorption from a foreground galaxy (a so-called proximate damped Lyα (PDLA) system). The one-dimensional spectrum acquired by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) shows a broad Lyα emission line with a FWHM ≅500 km s -1 and a luminosity of L Lyα = 3.9 x 10 43 erg s -1 superposed on the trough of the PDLA. Follow-up observations using the Keck/LRIS spectrometer confirm that this source has a Lyα nebula with spatial extent exceeding 5'', corresponding to a proper size >39 kpc. Mechanisms for powering the large Lyα luminosity in this nebula are discussed. We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation to investigate the possibility that the line emission is fluorescent recombination radiation from a kpc-scale PDLA galaxy powered by the ionizing flux of the quasar, but find that the predicted Lyα flux is several orders of magnitude lower than observed. We conclude that the Lyα emission is not associated with the PDLA galaxy at all, but instead is intrinsic to the quasar's host and similar to the extended Lyα f uzzwhich is detected around many active galactic nuclei. PDLAs are natural coronagraphs that block their background quasar at Lyα and we discuss how systems similar to SDSS J124020.91+145535.6 might be used to image the neutral hydrogen in the PDLA galaxy in silhouette against the screen of extended Lyα emission from the background quasar.

  17. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  18. Are quasars really far away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Most astrophysicists think that quasars are distant objects. But new data, based on red-shift anomalies, and new theories embracing non-cosmological doppler effect and gravitational effects could account for the peculiarities of quasars. (U.K.)

  19. Space density of optically-selected type 2 quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Strauss, Michael A.; Green, Joshua; Krolik, Julian H.; Shen, Yue; Richards, Gordon; Anderson, Scott; Schneider, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 quasars are luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) whose central regions are obscured by large amounts of gas and dust. In this paper, we present a catalog of type 2 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), selected based on their optical emission lines. The catalog contains 887 objects with redshifts z < 0.83; this is six times larger than the previous version and is by far the largest sample of type 2 quasars in the literature. We derive the [OIII]5008 luminosity function for...

  20. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG RED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Spoon, Henrik; Glikman, Eilat; Petric, Andreea; Schulz, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry of 13 redshift 0.4 < z < 1 dust reddened quasars obtained with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We compare properties derived from their infrared spectral energy distributions (intrinsic active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity and far-infrared luminosity from star formation) to the host luminosities and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and black hole masses estimated from optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results are broadly consistent with models in which most dust reddened quasars are an intermediate phase between a merger-driven starburst triggering a completely obscured AGN, and a normal, unreddened quasar. We find that many of our objects have high accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit. These objects tend to fall below the black hole mass-bulge luminosity relation as defined by local galaxies, whereas most of our low accretion rate objects are slightly above the local relation, as typical for normal quasars at these redshifts. Our observations are therefore most readily interpreted in a scenario in which galaxy stellar mass growth occurs first by about a factor of three in each merger/starburst event, followed sometime later by black hole growth by a similar amount. We do not, however, see any direct evidence for quasar feedback affecting star formation in our objects, for example, in the form of a relationship between accretion rate and star formation. Five of our objects, however, do show evidence for outflows in the [O III]5007 Å emission line profile, suggesting that the quasar activity is driving thermal winds in at least some members of our sample.

  1. The Identification of Z-dropouts in Pan-STARRS1: Three Quasars at 6.5< z< 6.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venemans, B. P.; Bañados, E.; Decarli, R.; Farina, E. P.; Walter, F.; Chambers, K. C.; Fan, X.; Rix, H.-W.; Schlafly, E.; McMahon, R. G.; Simcoe, R.; Stern, D.; Burgett, W. S.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Waters, C.; AlSayyad, Y.; Banerji, M.; Chen, S. S.; González-Solares, E. A.; Greiner, J.; Mazzucchelli, C.; McGreer, I.; Miller, D. R.; Reed, S.; Sullivan, P. W.

    2015-03-01

    Luminous distant quasars are unique probes of the high-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) and of the growth of massive galaxies and black holes in the early universe. Absorption due to neutral hydrogen in the IGM makes quasars beyond a redshift of z≃ 6.5 very faint in the optical z band, thus locating quasars at higher redshifts requires large surveys that are sensitive above 1 micron. We report the discovery of three new z\\gt 6.5 quasars, corresponding to an age of the universe of \\lt 850 Myr, selected as z-band dropouts in the Pan-STARRS1 survey. This increases the number of known z\\gt 6.5 quasars from four to seven. The quasars have redshifts of z = 6.50, 6.52, and 6.66, and include the brightest z-dropout quasar reported to date, PSO J036.5078 + 03.0498 with {{M}1450}=-27.4. We obtained near-infrared spectroscopy for the quasars, and from the Mg ii line, we estimate that the central black holes have masses between 5 × 108 and 4 × 109 {{M}⊙ } and are accreting close to the Eddington limit ({{L}Bol}/{{L}Edd}=0.13-1.2). We investigate the ionized regions around the quasars and find near-zone radii of {{R}NZ}=1.5-5.2 proper Mpc, confirming the trend of decreasing near-zone sizes with increasing redshift found for quasars at 5.7\\lt z\\lt 6.4. By combining RNZ of the PS1 quasars with those of 5.7\\lt z\\lt 7.1 quasars in the literature, we derive a luminosity-corrected redshift evolution of {{R}NZ,corrected}=(7.2+/- 0.2)-(6.1+/- 0.7)× (z-6) Mpc. However, the large spread in RNZ in the new quasars implies a wide range in quasar ages and/or a large variation in the neutral hydrogen fraction along different lines of sight. Based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, programs 179.A-2010, 092.A-0150, 093.A-0863, and 093.A-0574, and at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). This paper

  2. Prediction of temperature-insensitive molecular absorption lines in laser-assisted combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walewski, Joachim W.; Elmqvist, Anders

    2005-01-01

    In laser-assisted combustion diagnostics it is a recurring task to predict molecular transitions whose signal strength depends only weakly on variations in temperature. The signal strength is proportional to the Boltzmann fraction of the level probed and the amplitude of the absorption line profile. In the past investigations have been presented in which this task was attack by detailed numerical calculations of the temperature dependence of pertinent physical properties of the molecule. Another widely applied approach relies on an analytical formula for the Boltzmann fraction of hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules and the neglect of line shape effects. The analytical approach experiences a continuing popularity in laser-assisted combustion diagnostics, which is why we compared both approaches with each other. The objective of this comparison was to assess the accuracy of the analytical approach and to reveal its potential pitfalls. Our comparison revealed that the analytical approach suffers from mediocre accuracy, which makes it unfit for practical applications. One cause is the neglect of higher lying vibrational levels, which show a non-negligible population for typical flame temperatures. Another reason is the neglect of fine structure splitting in molecules with non-zero orbit angular momentum in the ground state. Another reason for the observed inaccuracy is the neglect of line shape effects quenching, which were found to have a significant effect on the temperature sensitivity of a line. Because of its insufficient accuracy due to both oversimplified models of the molecular energy levels and the neglect of line shape effects and quenching we discourage from applying the analytical approach and recommend the use of detailed numerical approaches that are free of the above limitations

  3. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  4. Luminosity and Redshift dependence of quasar spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel E. Vanden Berk et al.

    2004-03-09

    Using a large sample of quasar spectra from the SDSS, we examine the composite spectral trends of quasars as functions of both redshift and luminosity, independently of one another. Aside from the well known Baldwin effect (BE)--the decrease of line equivalent width with luminosity--the average spectral properties are remarkably similar. Host galaxy contamination and the BE are the primary causes for apparent changes in the average spectral slope of the quasars. The BE is detected for most emission lines, including the Balmer lines, but with several exceptions including NV1240A. Emission line shifts of several lines are associated with the BE. The BE is mainly a function of luminosity, but also partly a function of redshift in that line equivalent widths become stronger with redshift. Some of the complex iron features change with redshift, particularly near the small blue bump region.

  5. CORRELATIONS OF QUASAR OPTICAL SPECTRA WITH RADIO MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimball, Amy E.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Wiita, Paul J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Using the largest homogeneous quasar sample with high-quality optical spectra and robust radio morphology classifications assembled to date, we investigate relationships between radio and optical properties with unprecedented statistical power. The sample consists of 4714 radio quasars from FIRST with S 20 ≥ 2 mJy and with spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Radio morphology classes include core-only (core), core-lobe (lobe), core-jet (jet), lobe-core-lobe (triple), and double-lobe. Electronic tables of the quasar samples, along with spectral composites for individual morphology classes, are made available. We examine the optical colors of these subsamples and find that radio quasars with core emission unresolved by FIRST (on ∼5'' scale) have a redder color distribution than radio-quiet quasars (S 20 ∼ I ) are correlated, which supports the hypothesis that both parameters are indicative of line-of-sight orientation. We investigate spectral line equivalent widths (EWs) as a function of R and R I , including the O [III] narrow line doublet and the C IV λ1549 and Mg II λ2799 broad lines. We find that the rest EWs of the broad lines correlate positively with R I at the 4σ-8σ level. However, we find no strong dependence of EW on R, in contrast to previously published results. A possible interpretation of these results is that EWs of quasar emission lines increase as the line-of-sight angle to the radio-jet axis decreases. These results are in stark contrast to commonly accepted orientation-based theories, which suggest that continuum emission should increase as the angle to the radio-jet axis decreases, resulting in smaller EWs of emission lines (assumed isotropic). Finally, we observe the Baldwin effect in our sample and find that it does not depend strongly on quasar radio morphology.

  6. Kinematics of the ionized gas around the quasar MR 2251-178

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.S.; Valentijn, E. A.

    O III forbidden line observations of the nearby quasar MR 2251-178 were made with the Taurus II imaging Fabry-Perot instrument. The line emission around the quasar is found to consist of several regions of high surface brightness located in two half-cones with an opening angle of about 37 deg

  7. Gravitationally Lensed Quasars in Gaia: II. Discovery of 24 Lensed Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Cameron A.; Auger, Matthew W.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ostrovski, Fernanda

    2018-04-01

    We report the discovery, spectroscopic confirmation and preliminary characterisation of 24 gravitationally lensed quasars identified using Gaia observations. Candidates were selected in the Pan-STARRS footprint with quasar-like WISE colours or as photometric quasars from SDSS, requiring either multiple detections in Gaia or a single Gaia detection near a morphological galaxy. The Pan-STARRS grizY images were modelled for the most promising candidates and 60 candidate systems were followed up with the William Herschel Telescope. 13 of the lenses were discovered as Gaia multiples and 10 as single Gaia detections near galaxies. We also discover 1 lens identified through a quasar emission line in an SDSS galaxy spectrum. The lenses have median image separation 2.13″ and the source redshifts range from 1.06 to 3.36. 4 systems are quadruply-imaged and 20 are doubly-imaged. Deep CFHT data reveal an Einstein ring in one double system. We also report 12 quasar pairs, 10 of which have components at the same redshift and require further follow-up to rule out the lensing hypothesis. We compare the properties of these lenses and other known lenses recovered by our search method to a complete sample of simulated lenses to show the lenses we are missing are mainly those with small separations and higher source redshifts. The initial Gaia data release only catalogues all images of ˜ 30% of known bright lensed quasars, however the improved completeness of Gaia data release 2 will help find all bright lensed quasars on the sky.

  8. Observations of nickel, chromium, and zinc in QSO absorption-line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.M.; Roth, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    New observations of Ni II, Cr II, and Zn II in several damped Ly-alpha QSO absorption-line systems at z about 2 are presented. Using the N(Zn II)/N(H I) ratio as a probe of the metallicity and N(Cr II)/N(Zn II) as a measure of the dust content, it is found that the heavy-element abundances in the z = 1.921 system toward the QSO 2206-199N are 20 percent solar and that the dust-to-gas ratio is 11 percent of the Galactic disk value. The observations of these species in the z = 2.309 system toward PHL 957 yield a more extreme metallicity (4 percent solar) and dust-to-gas ratio (3 percent Galactic). In addition, a depletion of Ni in the z = 2.039 absorber toward PKS 0458 - 020 and an absence of C I absorption in the z about 2 damped systems toward 1215 + 333 and 2359 - 022 are found which are consistent with a lack of dust. Among the four damped systems whose Ni, Cr, and Zn abundances have been examined quantitatively to date, all show convincing evidence of much lower metallicities and dust content than the Galactic disk. The implications of these results with regard to the interpretation of the high-redshift damped Ly-alpha systems as an evolving population of young galaxies are discussed. 41 refs

  9. Are quasars local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.

    1974-01-01

    The problems of interpreting quasars as galaxies, at distances of billions of light-years, seem to be increasing with time and with observational knowledge. The incredibly large energy and brightness requirements, the very small size and thus high surface brightness required by their rapid fluctuations in luminosity, the recently-discovered radio-source separation speeds apparently much greater than the speed of light, their general lack of association with distant galaxies, and many other properties are all very difficult to explain on the basis of cosmological distance. The very local quasar model, involving much less massive and bright objects--perhaps similar to Type O stars--emitted at relativistic speeds by the center of our own galaxy, greatly eases these difficulties. Since such ejected objects also seem necessary to explain the similarly strange properties of radio galaxies, the emission of local quasars from some galaxies might be deduced on this basis alone. (6 figures) (U.S.)

  10. XMM-Newton Survey of Local O VII Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Galactic X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao; Ma, Renyi

    2018-04-01

    The detection of highly ionized metal absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) implies the distribution of hot gas along the sightline toward the background sources. However, the origin of this hot gas is still unclear: it can arise in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is intrinsic to the XRBs. In this paper, we present an XMM-Newton survey of the O VII absorption lines in the spectra of Galactic XRBs. A total of 33 XRBs were selected, with 29 low-mass XRBs and 4 high-mass XRBs. At a more than 3σ threshold, O VII absorption line was detected in 16 targets, among which 4 were newly discovered in this work. The average line equivalent width is centered around ∼20 mÅ. Additionally, we do not find strong correlations between the O VII EWs and the Galactic neutral absorption N H, the Galactic coordinates, or the distance of background targets. Such non-correlation may suggest contamination of the circumstellar material, or a lack of constraints on the line Doppler-b parameter. We also find that regardless of the direction of the XRBs, the O VII absorption lines are always detected when the flux of the background XRBs reaches a certain level, suggesting a uniform distribution of this hot gas. We estimate a ratio of 0.004–0.4 between the hot and neutral phases of the ISM. This is the second paper in the series following Fang et al. (2015), in which we focused on the local O VII absorption lines detected in the background AGN spectra. Detailed modeling of the hot ISM distribution will be investigated in a future paper.

  11. Direct absorption and transfer of cesium 137 in a simplified fresh water supply line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.; Grauby, A.; Lambrechts, A.

    1977-01-01

    Experimentally the transfer of Cesium 137 through the supply line: Daphnia Magna Straus→Lebistes Reticulatus Peters→Anguilla Anguilla L. starting from water at 50μCi/l is studied. In the direct transfer water→organisms, the three links used have a concentration factor comprised between 2 and 4. The organisms retain a maximum of 0,3% of the water's radioactivity. The muscular mass of the eel represents 60% of the animal's total activity. The biological period is close to 400 days indicating that the fixed Cesium is strongly retained. Through the absorption of a contaminated meal, the Lebists, after two days, retain 67% of the activities of the Daphnies and the Eels, after seven days, 39% of the activity of the Guppys. At the end of the experiment, the Eels contaminated by food 3.500. It takes 63 meals for the level of contamination due to food to equal that due to water. The concentration factors measured in situ are always distinctly higher than those obtained in the laboratory. The experiment proves the possibilities of concentration through the food supply line [fr

  12. Quasars in the field of SA94. III. A colour survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, S.; Barbieri, C.; La Franca, F.; Nota, A.

    1989-01-01

    A new sample of quasars has been selected in the central 10 square degrees of SA 94. The colour-colour U - B, B - V diagram has been used to identify low-redshift quasar candidates down to B = 19.8.99 extragalactic emission-line objects have been spectroscopically confirmed. The quasar surface density for QSOs with z ≤ 2.25 and other properties of this sample are derived and compared with other surveys

  13. A far wing line shape theory and its application to the foreign-broadened water continuum absorption. III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The far wing line shape theory developed previously and applied to the calculation of the continuum absorption of pure water vapor is extended to foreign-broadened continua. Explicit results are presented for H2O-N2 and H2O-CO2 in the frequency range from 0 to 10,000/cm. For H2O-N2 the positive and negative resonant frequency average line shape functions and absorption coefficients are computed for a number of temperatures between 296 and 430 K for comparison with available laboratory data. In general the agreement is very good.

  14. Microlensing of quasar ultraviolet iron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea S/N, La Laguna 38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Muñoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V.; Rojas, K. [Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avda. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2013-12-01

    We measure the differential microlensing of the UV Fe II and Fe III emission line blends between 14 quasar image pairs in 13 gravitational lenses. We find that the UV iron emission is strongly microlensed in four cases with amplitudes comparable to that of the continuum. Statistically modeling the magnifications, we infer a typical size of r{sub s}∼4√(M/M{sub ⊙}) light-days for the Fe line-emitting regions, which is comparable to the size of the region generating the UV continuum (∼3-7 light-days). This may indicate that a significant part of the UV Fe II and Fe III emission originates in the quasar accretion disk.

  15. Mean and Extreme Radio Properties of Quasars and the Origin of Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Kratzer, R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the fraction of radio loud quasars and the mean radio properties of quasars. Although any quasar has only a ~10% chance of being radio loud and the average quasar has a radio luminosity of ~4x10^30 ergs/s/Hz, these properties are strong functions of not only luminosity, redshift, black hole mass, and accretion rate, but also the strength of the accretion disk wind (as characterized by CIV emission line properties). Quasars with higher optical luminosity and/or lower redshift have a higher than average probability of being radio loud, but their median radio luminosity (relative to optical) is much lower than average. We find that, while radio properties of quasars generally cannot be predicted from their optical properties, objects where one expects a strong radiation line driven wind (based on emission line features) have virtually no chance of being radio loud. The redder quasars are in the optical, the more radio flux (relative to optical) they have; this trend holds even for quasars that are not expected to be significantly dust reddened/extincted in the optical. Finally, we consider the radio properties of quasars in the framework of models which describe the radio loud extrema as being due to particularly high spin resulting from second generation mergers and in the context of star formation at lower levels of radio flux. This work was supported by NSF AAG grant 1108798.

  16. One millimeter continuum observations of high redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, D.J.; Soifer, B.T.

    1981-01-01

    Upper limits to the one-millimeter continuum flux densities of the high redshift quasars B2 1225 + 31, Ton 490, and PHL 957 are presented. The upper limit to the power observed from these quasars at 1 mm is, on the average, one half of the observed power in the continuum at L-alpha. These observations are used to constrain the temperature of a hypothetical dust shell which reddens the quasar line and continuum emission by an extinction optical depth sufficient to account for the anomalously low L-alpha/H-alpha emission line ratio observed in each of these quasars. For the quasars studied, dust shell temperatures between 25 K and 50 to 95 K are prohibited by the present data. A dust shell at a temperature within this span reradiating all the power absorbed from the quasar ultraviolet continuum would produce a one-millimeter flux density greater than the measured upper limit. The average radius of the model dust shell cannot be between 70 kpc and 1 Mpc

  17. DISSECTING THE QUASAR MAIN SEQUENCE: INSIGHT FROM HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jiayi; Shen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The diverse properties of broad-line quasars appear to follow a well-defined main sequence along which the optical Fe ii strength increases. It has been suggested that this sequence is mainly driven by the Eddington ratio (L/L Edd ) of the black hole (BH) accretion. Shen and Ho demonstrated with quasar clustering analysis that the average BH mass decreases with increasing Fe ii strength when quasar luminosity is fixed, consistent with this suggestion. Here we perform an independent test by measuring the stellar velocity dispersion σ * (hence, the BH mass via the M–σ * relation) from decomposed host spectra in low-redshift Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars. We found that at fixed quasar luminosity, σ * systematically decreases with increasing Fe ii strength, confirming that the Eddington ratio increases with Fe ii strength. We also found that at fixed luminosity and Fe ii strength, there is little dependence of σ * on the broad Hβ FWHM. These new results reinforce the framework that the Eddington ratio and orientation govern most of the diversity seen in broad-line quasar properties

  18. Diagnosing the reionization of the universe - The absorption spectrum of the intergalactic medium and Lyman alpha clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal and ionization evolution of a uniform intergalactic medium composed of H and He and undergoing reionization is studied. The diagnosis of the metagalactic ionizing radiation background at z of about three using metal line ratios for Lyman limit quasar absorption line systems is addressed. The use of the He II Gunn-Peterson effect to diagnose the reionization source and/or nature of the Hy-alpha forest clouds is considered.

  19. A search for changing look quasars in second epoch imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Joseph; Myers, Adam; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has compiled a catalog of over half a million confirmed quasars. During that period approximately ten percent of these objects have been spectroscopically observed in two or more epochs over baselines of ten or more years. This led recently to the discovery of the largest change in luminosity ever before observed in a quasar. The dimming emission was a reflection of very significant changes in continuum and broad line properties, the source had effectively transitioned from a Type I quasar to a Type II AGN. Since then several more "changing look" quasars have been discovered in multi-epoch SDSS spectroscopy. Among them are objects with rising and falling luminosities, appearing and disappearing broad lines. The origin of this behavior is still very uncertain, currently favored is the scenario in which an accreting black hole is simply starved of fuel. Other plausible scenarios include flaring due to stellar tidal disruption close to the black hole or large changes in accretion flow, which can occur during transitions between radiatively efficient and inefficient accretion regimes. Monitoring of larger numbers of changing look quasars will help to elucidate these ideas.In this poster, we report on the progress of a pilot study in which we hope to learn how to select changing look quasars in multi-epoch imaging. This will allow us to take advantage of the entire SDSS quasar catalog rather than just the ten percent of objects with multi-epoch spectroscopy. Comparing archival SDSS and more recent Legacy Survey imaging over ten-year baselines we select objects whose photometry is consistent with the large changes in luminosity expected in changing look quasars. We aim to build up a catalog of both transitioned and transitioning objects for future monitoring.

  20. Quasars Probing Galaxies. I. Signatures of Gas Accretion at Redshift z ≈ 0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Stephanie H.; Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Churchill, Christopher W., E-mail: shho@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We describe the kinematics of circumgalactic gas near the galactic plane, combining new measurements of galaxy rotation curves and spectroscopy of background quasars. The sightlines pass within 19–93 kpc of the target galaxy and generally detect Mg ii absorption. The Mg ii Doppler shifts have the same sign as the galactic rotation, so the cold gas co-rotates with the galaxy. Because the absorption spans a broader velocity range than disk rotation can explain, we explore simple models for the circumgalactic kinematics. Gas spiraling inwards (near the disk plane) offers a successful description of the observations. An appendix describes the addition of tangential and radial gas flows and illustrates how the sign of the disk inclination produces testable differences in the projected line-of-sight velocity range. This inflow interpretation implies that cold flow disks remain common down to redshift z ≈ 0.2 and prolong star formation by supplying gas to the disk.

  1. The SAURON project - XI. Stellar populations from absorption-line strength maps of 24 early-type spirals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Ganda, Katia; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We present absorption-line strength maps of a sample of 24 representative early-type spiral galaxies, mostly of type Sa, obtained as part of the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph. Using

  2. Observational Constraints on Quasar Black Hole Mass Distributions, Eddington Ratio Distributions, and Lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.

    2010-01-01

    I will present the black hole mass function (BHMF) of broad line quasars in the SDSS DR3. We employ a powerful Bayesian statistical technique that corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates. We find evidence that the most massive black hole appeared as quasars...... earlier in the universe, and that most quasars are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit. I will also present constraints on the quasar lifetime and maximum black hole mass, derived from the mass functions....

  3. The Discovery of a Luminous Z=5.80 Quasar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohui; White, Richard L.; Davis, Marc; Becker, Robert H.; Strauss, Michael A.; Haiman, Zoltan; Schneider, Donald P.; Gregg, Michael D.; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, G. R.; Lupton, Robert H.; Anderson, John E., Jr.; Anderson, Scott F.; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Boroski, William N.; Brunner, Robert J.; Chen, Bing; Connolly, Andrew J.; Csabai, István; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Hennessy, G. S.; Hindsley, Robert B.; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ivezić, Željko; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; McKay, Timothy A.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Nichol, Robert; Okamura, Sadanori; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Sekiguchi, Maki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Stoughton, Chris; Szalay, Alexander S.; Szokoly, Gyula P.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Vogeley, Michael S.; York, Donald G.

    2000-09-01

    We present observations of SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2, a luminous quasar at z=5.80 discovered from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) multicolor imaging data. This object was selected as an i'-band dropout object, with i*=21.8+/-0.2 and z*=19.2+/-0.1. It has an absolute magnitude M1450=-27.2 (H0=50 km s-1 Mpc-1, q0=0.5). The spectrum shows a strong and broad Lyα emission line, strong Lyα forest absorption lines with a mean continuum decrement DA=0.91 and a Lyman limit system at z=5.72. The spectrum also shows strong O I and Si IV emission lines similar to those of quasars at zuniverse is already highly ionized at z~5.8. Using a high-resolution spectrum in the Lyα forest region, we place a conservative upper limit on the optical depth because of the Gunn-Peterson effect of τUniversity of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  4. NARROW Na AND K ABSORPTION LINES TOWARD T TAURI STARS: TRACING THE ATOMIC ENVELOPE OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascucci, I.; Simon, M. N. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Edwards, S. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Heyer, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Rigliaco, E. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Hillenbrand, L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D., E-mail: pascucci@lpl.arizona.edu [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We present a detailed analysis of narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines toward nearly 40 T Tauri stars in Taurus with the goal of clarifying their origin. The Na i λ5889.95 line is detected toward all but one source, while the weaker K i λ7698.96 line is detected in about two-thirds of the sample. The similarity in their peak centroids and the significant positive correlation between their equivalent widths demonstrate that these transitions trace the same atomic gas. The absorption lines are present toward both disk and diskless young stellar objects, which excludes cold gas within the circumstellar disk as the absorbing material. A comparison of Na i and CO detections and peak centroids demonstrates that the atomic gas and molecular gas are not co-located, the atomic gas being more extended than the molecular gas. The width of the atomic lines corroborates this finding and points to atomic gas about an order of magnitude warmer than the molecular gas. The distribution of Na i radial velocities shows a clear spatial gradient along the length of the Taurus molecular cloud filaments. This suggests that absorption is associated with the Taurus molecular cloud. Assuming that the gradient is due to cloud rotation, the rotation of the atomic gas is consistent with differential galactic rotation, whereas the rotation of the molecular gas, although with the same rotation axis, is retrograde. Our analysis shows that narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines are useful tracers of the atomic envelope of molecular clouds. In line with recent findings from giant molecular clouds, our results demonstrate that the velocity fields of the atomic and molecular gas are misaligned. The angular momentum of a molecular cloud is not simply inherited from the rotating Galactic disk from which it formed but may be redistributed by cloud–cloud interactions.

  5. NARROW Na AND K ABSORPTION LINES TOWARD T TAURI STARS: TRACING THE ATOMIC ENVELOPE OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascucci, I.; Simon, M. N.; Edwards, S.; Heyer, M.; Rigliaco, E.; Hillenbrand, L.; Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines toward nearly 40 T Tauri stars in Taurus with the goal of clarifying their origin. The Na i λ5889.95 line is detected toward all but one source, while the weaker K i λ7698.96 line is detected in about two-thirds of the sample. The similarity in their peak centroids and the significant positive correlation between their equivalent widths demonstrate that these transitions trace the same atomic gas. The absorption lines are present toward both disk and diskless young stellar objects, which excludes cold gas within the circumstellar disk as the absorbing material. A comparison of Na i and CO detections and peak centroids demonstrates that the atomic gas and molecular gas are not co-located, the atomic gas being more extended than the molecular gas. The width of the atomic lines corroborates this finding and points to atomic gas about an order of magnitude warmer than the molecular gas. The distribution of Na i radial velocities shows a clear spatial gradient along the length of the Taurus molecular cloud filaments. This suggests that absorption is associated with the Taurus molecular cloud. Assuming that the gradient is due to cloud rotation, the rotation of the atomic gas is consistent with differential galactic rotation, whereas the rotation of the molecular gas, although with the same rotation axis, is retrograde. Our analysis shows that narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines are useful tracers of the atomic envelope of molecular clouds. In line with recent findings from giant molecular clouds, our results demonstrate that the velocity fields of the atomic and molecular gas are misaligned. The angular momentum of a molecular cloud is not simply inherited from the rotating Galactic disk from which it formed but may be redistributed by cloud–cloud interactions

  6. Distribution in depth of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Green, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the distribution in depth of different kinds of quasars: quasi-stellar radio sources with steep radio spectrum, those with flat radio spectrum, and optically selected quasars. All exhibit an increase of space density with distance to a different degree. The optically selected quasars, in particular, show a steep increase of surface density with magnitude. The steepness of the increase is inconsistent with a uniform distribution of quasars in the local hypothesis. In the cosmological hypothesis the co-moving space density of optically selected quasars increases by a factor of 100,000 to a redshift of 2, and by factors of 1000 and 10 for steep-spectrum and flat-spectrum radio quasars, respectively. (Auth.)

  7. A HIGH RESOLUTION VIEW OF THE WARM ABSORBER IN THE QUASAR MR 2251-178

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.; Nardini, E. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Porquet, D. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Braito, V. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46 I-23807 Merate (Italy); Turner, T. J. [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Crenshaw, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Kraemer, S. B., E-mail: j.n.reeves@keele.ac.uk [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the warm absorber in a nearby quasar, MR 2251-178 (z = 0.06398), is presented. The observations were carried out in 2011 using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer, with net exposure times of approximately 400 ks each. A multitude of absorption lines from C to Fe are detected, revealing at least three warm absorbing components ranging in ionization parameter from log (ξ/erg cm s{sup –1}) = 1-3 with outflow velocities ∼< 500 km s{sup –1}. The lowest ionization absorber appears to vary between the Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, which implies a radial distance of between 9 and 17 pc from the black hole. Several broad soft X-ray emission lines are strongly detected, most notably from He-like oxygen, with FWHM velocity widths of up to 10,000 km s{sup –1}, consistent with an origin from broad-line region (BLR) clouds. In addition to the warm absorber, gas partially covering the line of sight to the quasar appears to be present, with a typical column density of N{sub H} = 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. We suggest that the partial covering absorber may arise from the same BLR clouds responsible for the broad soft X-ray emission lines. Finally, the presence of a highly ionized outflow in the iron K band from both the 2002 and 2011 Chandra HETG observations appears to be confirmed, which has an outflow velocity of –15600 ± 2400 km s{sup –1}. However, a partial covering origin for the iron K absorption cannot be excluded, resulting from low ionization material with little or no outflow velocity.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ROSAT detected quasars. I. (Brinkmann+ 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, W.; Yuan, W.

    1996-09-01

    We have compiled a sample of all quasars with measured radio emission from the Veron-Cetty - Veron catalogue (1993, VV93 ) detected by ROSAT in the ALL-SKY SURVEY (RASS, Voges 1992), as targets of pointed observations, or as serendipitous sources from pointed observations as publicly available from the ROSAT point source catalogue (ROSAT-SRC, Voges et al. 1995). The total number of ROSAT detected radio quasars from the above three sources is 654 objects. 69 of the objects are classified as radio-quiet using the defining line at a radio-loudness of 1.0, and 10 objects have no classification. The 5GHz data are from the 87GB radio survey, the NED database, or from the Veron-Cetty - Veron catalogue. The power law indices and their errors are estimated from the two hardness ratios given by the SASS assuming Galactic absorption. The X-ray flux densities in the ROSAT band (0.1-2.4keV) are calculated from the count rates using the energy to counts conversion factor for power law spectra and Galactic absorption. For the photon index we use the value obtained for a individual source if the estimated 1 sigma error is smaller than 0.5, otherwise we use the mean value 2.14. (1 data file).

  9. The QUASAR facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, David

    2013-10-01

    The QUAsi-Axisymmetric Research (QUASAR) stellarator is a new facility which can solve two critical problems for fusion, disruptions and steady-state, and which provides new insights into the role of magnetic symmetry in plasma confinement. If constructed it will be the only quasi-axisymmetric stellarator in the world. The innovative principle of quasi-axisymmetry (QA) will be used in QUASAR to study how ``tokamak-like'' systems can be made: 1) Disruption-free, 2) Steady-state with low recirculating power, while preserving or improving upon features of axisymmetric tokamaks, such as 1) Stable at high pressure simultaneous with 2) High confinement (similar to tokamaks), and 3) Scalable to a compact reactor Stellarator research is critical to fusion research in order to establish the physics basis for a magnetic confinement device that can operate efficiently in steady-state, without disruptions at reactor-relevant parameters. The two large stellarator experiments - LHD in Japan and W7-X under construction in Germany are pioneering facilities capable of developing 3D physics understanding at large scale and for very long pulses. The QUASAR design is unique in being QA and optimized for confinement, stability, and moderate aspect ratio (4.5). It projects to a reactor with a major radius of ~8 m similar to advanced tokamak concepts. It is striking that (a) the EU DEMO is a pulsed (~2.5 hour) tokamak with major R ~ 9 m and (b) the ITER physics scenarios do not presume steady-state behavior. Accordingly, QUASAR fills a critical gap in the world stellarator program. This work supported by DoE Contract No. DEAC02-76CH03073.

  10. Luminosity function of high redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Data from ten different emission-line surveys are included in a study of the luminosity function of high redshift quasars. Five of the surveys are analyzed through microdensitometric techniques and the data for new quasars are given. The uncertainties in magnitudes, redshifts, and line equivalent widths are assessed and found to be +-0.3 mag. +-0.04 in z and approx. 30%, respectively. Criteria for selecting the redshift range 1.8 less than or equal to z - 1 Mpc - 1 for each of two cosmologies (q 0 = 1 and q 0 = 0). For either cosmology, the function exhibits a steep increase with magnitude at high luminosities and a gentler increase at intermediate luminosities. Data from the new surveys indicate a possible turnover at the faint end of the distribution. Total volume densities of quasars are computed for each of three extrapolations of the trend of the data to low luminosities. These densities are compared to those of active galaxies and field galaxies

  11. Quasars and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliche, H.-H.; Souriau, J.-M.

    1978-03-01

    On the basis of colorimetric data a composite spectrum of quasars is established from the visible to the Lyman's limit. Its agreement with the spectrum of the quasar 3C273, obtained directly, confirms the homogeneity of these objects. The compatibility of the following hypotheses: negligible evolution of quasars, Friedmann type model of the universe with cosmological constant, is studied by means of two tests: a non-correlation test adopted to the observation conditions and the construction of diagrams (absolute magnitude, volume) using the K-correction deduced from the composite spectrum. This procedure happens to give relatively well-defined values of the parameters; the central values of the density parameter, the reduced curvature and the reduced cosmological constant are: Ω 0 =0.053, k 0 =0.245, lambda-zero=1.19, which correspond to a big bang model, eternally expanding, spatially finite, in which Hubble's parameter H is presently increasing. This model responds well to different cosmological tests: density of matter, diameter of radio sources, age of the universe. Its characteristics suggest various cosmogonic mechanisms, espacially mass formation by growth of empty spherical bubbles [fr

  12. The New BeppoSAX Observation of the Brightest X-Ray Quasar at Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This grant was to support the reduction and analysis of our approved SAX observation of the high redshift (z=3.2) blazar PKS 2126-158. This is the brightest quasar at z greater than 3 and has been intensively studied in X-ray, since the first Einstein detection. In 1994 Elvis et al., discovered a strong low energy cutoff in this object, which could imply either quasar frame photoelectric absorption by a column of 0.8-2.7 x 1e22 cm-2 cold gas, or a lower column of cold gas at z=0. Subsequent ASCA observations of this object, could not definitely address this issue, nor could establish whether the curvature of the low energy portion of the spectrum was due to pure photoelectric absorption (considerably exceeding the Galactic value along the line of sight) or to an intrinsic continuum curvature. We proposed to observe PKS 2126-158 with BeppoSAX, to try to solve this puzzle (thanks to the broadband of BeppoSAX: 0.1-250 keV). PKS 2126 was observed by BeppoSAX on May 1999, with a MECS exposure of 100 ks. We have reduced and analyzed the BeppoSAX data, and compared them with a Chandra ACIS observation of the same object, taken only 6 months apart (Nov. 1999). We have recently finished to write a paper on the BeppoSAX data only, that concentrate on the properties of the X-ray absorber, which is highly requested by our SAX data, independently on the continuum model adopted. The paper (P.I.F. Fiore) will be submitted to APJ in the next few days. A second paper on the combined BeppoSAX and Chandra data, and based on the broad band spectral energy distribution of this quasar, is currently in preparation. Our main results, on the X-ray absorber, are: (a) the presence of an X-ray absorber is confirmed, indipendently on the continuum adopted (simple power law, or curved continuum); (b) if the absorber is not significantly ionized, then the BeppoSAX data do prefer a low redshift absorber; (c) if the gas is ionized, then it can be located in the quasar environment, but its metal

  13. Determination of self-absorption in emission lines from some optically thick plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Gagne, J.M.; Larin, G.; Saint-Dizier, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    We present a relatively simple method by which the amount of self-absorption in laboratory-produced plasmas can be evaluated. As an illustration we apply it here to the evaluation of self-absorption of a U I resonance transition from a hollow-cathode-generated plasma. The method can be generalized to include more-complex situations

  14. DISCOVERY OF A FAINT QUASAR AT z ∼ 6 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMIC REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yongjung; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Duho; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Building 45, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minjin; Park, Won-Kee [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Karouzos, Marios [Astronomy Program, FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Pak, Soojong, E-mail: yjkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [School of Space Research and Institute of Natural Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies suggest that faint active galactic nuclei may be responsible for the reionization of the universe. Confirmation of this scenario requires spectroscopic identification of faint quasars (M{sub 1450} > −24 mag) at z ≳ 6, but only a very small number of such quasars have been spectroscopically identified so far. Here, we report the discovery of a faint quasar IMS J220417.92+011144.8 at z ∼ 6 in a 12.5 deg{sup 2} region of the SA22 field of the Infrared Medium-deep Survey (IMS). The spectrum of the quasar shows a sharp break at ∼8443 Å, with emission lines redshifted to z = 5.944 ± 0.002 and rest-frame ultraviolet continuum magnitude M{sub 1450} = −23.59 ± 0.10 AB mag. The discovery of IMS J220417.92+011144.8 is consistent with the expected number of quasars at z ∼ 6 estimated from quasar luminosity functions based on previous observations of spectroscopically identified low-luminosity quasars. This suggests that the number of M{sub 1450} ∼ −23 mag quasars at z ∼ 6 may not be high enough to fully account for the reionization of the universe. In addition, our study demonstrates that faint quasars in the early universe can be identified effectively with a moderately wide and deep near-infrared survey such as the IMS.

  15. High redshift quasars and high metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    1997-01-01

    A large-scale code called Cloudy was designed to simulate non-equilibrium plasmas and predict their spectra. The goal was to apply it to studies of galactic and extragalactic emission line objects in order to reliably deduce abundances and luminosities. Quasars are of particular interest because they are the most luminous objects in the universe and the highest redshift objects that can be observed spectroscopically, and their emission lines can reveal the composition of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the universe when it was well under a billion years old. The lines are produced by warm (approximately 10(sup 4)K) gas with moderate to low density (n less than or equal to 10(sup 12) cm(sup -3)). Cloudy has been extended to include approximately 10(sup 4) resonance lines from the 495 possible stages of ionization of the lightest 30 elements, an extension that required several steps. The charge transfer database was expanded to complete the needed reactions between hydrogen and the first four ions and fit all reactions with a common approximation. Radiative recombination rate coefficients were derived for recombination from all closed shells, where this process should dominate. Analytical fits to Opacity Project (OP) and other recent photoionization cross sections were produced. Finally, rescaled OP oscillator strengths were used to compile a complete set of data for 5971 resonance lines. The major discovery has been that high redshift quasars have very high metallicities and there is strong evidence that the quasar phenomenon is associated with the birth of massive elliptical galaxies.

  16. INVISIBLE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. RADIO MORPHOLOGIES AND FIVE NEW H i 21 cm ABSORPTION LINE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sharma, Soniya [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2016-03-15

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  17. Modeling the distribution of Mg II absorbers around galaxies using background galaxies and quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Kacprzak, G. G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Churchill, C. W., E-mail: rongmonb@phys.ethz.ch [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We present joint constraints on the distribution of Mg II absorption around high redshift galaxies obtained by combining two orthogonal probes, the integrated Mg II absorption seen in stacked background galaxy spectra and the distribution of parent galaxies of individual strong Mg II systems as seen in the spectra of background quasars. We present a suite of models that can be used to predict, for different two- and three-dimensional distributions, how the projected Mg II absorption will depend on a galaxy's apparent inclination, the impact parameter b and the azimuthal angle between the projected vector to the line of sight and the projected minor axis. In general, we find that variations in the absorption strength with azimuthal angles provide much stronger constraints on the intrinsic geometry of the Mg II absorption than the dependence on the inclination of the galaxies. In addition to the clear azimuthal dependence in the integrated Mg II absorption that we reported earlier in Bordoloi et al., we show that strong equivalent width Mg II absorbers (W{sub r} (2796) ≥ 0.3 Å) are also asymmetrically distributed in azimuth around their host galaxies: 72% of the absorbers in Kacprzak et al., and 100% of the close-in absorbers within 35 kpc of the center of their host galaxies, are located within 50° of the host galaxy's projected semi minor axis. It is shown that either composite models consisting of a simple bipolar component plus a spherical or disk component, or a single highly softened bipolar distribution, can well represent the azimuthal dependencies observed in both the stacked spectrum and quasar absorption-line data sets within 40 kpc. Simultaneously fitting both data sets, we find that in the composite model the bipolar cone has an opening angle of ∼100° (i.e., confined to within 50° of the disk axis) and contains about two-thirds of the total Mg II absorption in the system. The single softened cone model has an exponential fall off with

  18. Real-time trace gas sensor using a multimode diode laser and multiple-line integrated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2015-07-01

    We describe and demonstrate a highly sensitive trace gas sensor based on a simplified design that is capable of measuring sub-ppb concentrations of NO2 in tens of milliseconds. The sensor makes use of a relatively inexpensive Fabry-Perot diode laser to conduct off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy. The broad frequency range of a multimode Fabry-Perot diode laser spans a large number of absorption lines, thereby removing the need for a single-frequency tunable laser source. The use of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy enhances the sensitivity of the sensor by providing a pathlength on the order of 1 km in a small volume. Off-axis alignment excites a large number of cavity modes simultaneously, thereby reducing the sensor's susceptibility to vibration. Multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy (where one integrates the absorption spectra over a large number of rovibronic transitions of the molecular species) further improves the sensitivity of detection. Relatively high laser power (∼400  mW) is used to compensate for the low coupling efficiency of a broad linewidth laser to the optical cavity. The approach was demonstrated using a 407 nm diode laser to detect trace quantities of NO2 in zero air. Sensitivities of 750 ppt, 110 ppt, and 65 ppt were achieved using integration times of 50 ms, 5 s, and 20 s respectively.

  19. Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-08-02

    We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

  20. Higher‐order mode absorption measurement of X-band choke-mode cavities in a radial line structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Hao [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Shi, Jiaru, E-mail: shij@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Wu, Xiaowei; Chen, Huaibi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2016-04-01

    An experiment is presented to study the higher-order mode (HOM) suppression of X-band choke-mode structures with a vector network analyzer (VNA). Specific radial line disks were built to test the reflection from the corresponding damping load and different choke geometries. The mismatch between the radial lines and the VNA was calibrated through a special multi-short-load calibration method. The measured reflections of different choke geometries showed good agreement with the theoretical calculations and verified the HOM absorption feature of each geometric design.

  1. Higher‐order mode absorption measurement of X-band choke-mode cavities in a radial line structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha, Hao; Shi, Jiaru; Wu, Xiaowei; Chen, Huaibi

    2016-01-01

    An experiment is presented to study the higher-order mode (HOM) suppression of X-band choke-mode structures with a vector network analyzer (VNA). Specific radial line disks were built to test the reflection from the corresponding damping load and different choke geometries. The mismatch between the radial lines and the VNA was calibrated through a special multi-short-load calibration method. The measured reflections of different choke geometries showed good agreement with the theoretical calculations and verified the HOM absorption feature of each geometric design.

  2. DETECTING THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM THROUGH X-RAY ABSORPTION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Cash, Webster [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Wang, Q. Daniel, E-mail: yaoys@colorado.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance ({approx}< 3{sigma}) and/or controversial. In this work, we aim to establish the detection limits of current X-ray observatories and explore requirements for next-generation X-ray telescopes for studying the WHIM through X-ray absorption lines. We analyze all available grating observations of Mrk 421 and obtain spectra with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of {approx}90 and 190 per 50 mA spectral bin from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively. Although these spectra are two of the best ever collected with Chandra and XMM-Newton, we cannot confirm the two WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. in 2005. Our bootstrap simulations indicate that spectra with such high S/N cannot constrain the WHIM with O VII column densities N{sub Ovii}{approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mA for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s{sup -1}) at {approx}> 3{sigma} significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N{sub Ovii} at {>=}4{sigma} from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of {approx}0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R {approx} 4000 and effective area A {>=} 100 cm{sup 2} to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of {approx}2 Ms and would require {approx}11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux {approx}> 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.

  3. Spatial dispersion effects in spectral line broadening by pressure. I. The Bouguer Law and absorption coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasov, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the general principles of semiclassical electrodynamics, the Bouguer law is derived, and the expression for the absorption coefficient is obtained, formally including all effects related to the phenomenon of spatial dispersion

  4. Star formation in active galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    I review the observational evidence for a causal or statistical link between star formation and active galactic nuclei. The chief difficulty is in quantitatively ascertaining the star formation rate in active galaxies: most of the readily observable manifestations of star formation superficially resemble those of an active nucleus. Careful multi-wavelength spatially-resolved observations demonstrate that many Seyfert galaxies are undergoing star formation. Our survey of CO emission from Seyferts (interpreted in conjunction IRAS data) suggests that type 2 Seyferts have unusually high rates of star formation, but type 1 Seyferts do not. Recent work also suggests that many powerful radio galaxies may be actively forming stars: radio galaxies with strong emission-lines often have blue colors and strong far-infrared emission. Determining the star formation rate in the host galaxies of quasars is especially difficult. Multi-color imaging and long-slit spectroscopy suggests that many of the host galaxies of radio-loud quasars are blue and a cold interstellar medium has been detected in some quasar hosts

  5. Reverberation Mapping of High-Luminosity Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, Shai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Maoz, Dan; Netzer, Hagai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Shemmer, Ohad, E-mail: shai@wise.tau.ac.il [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Over the past three decades reverberation mapping (RM) has been applied to about 100 AGNs. Their broad line region (BLR) sizes were measured and yielded mass estimates of the black holes in their center. However, very few attempts were carried out for high-luminosity quasars, at luminosities higher than 10{sup 46} erg/sec in the optical. Most of these attempts failed since RM of such quasars is difficult due to a number of reasons, mostly due to the long time needed to monitor these objects. During the past two decades we carried out a RM campaign on six high-luminosity quasars. This contribution presents some of the final light curves of that RM campaign in which we measured the BLR size in C iv of three of the objects (S5 0836+71, SBS 1116+603, and SBS 1425+606). We present the C iv BLR size and luminosity relation over eight orders of magnitude in luminosity, pushing the luminosity limit to its highest point so far.

  6. GNIRS-DQS: A Gemini Near Infrared Spectrograph Distant Quasar Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandon; Shemmer, Ohad; Brotherton, Michael S.; Andruchow, Ileana; Boroson, Todd A.; Brandt, W. Niel; Cellone, Sergio; Ferrero, Gabriel; Gallagher, Sarah; Green, Richard F.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lira, Paulina; Myers, Adam D.; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Runnoe, Jessie; Schneider, Donald P.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Willott, Chris J.; Wills, Beverley J.

    2018-06-01

    We describe an ongoing three-year Gemini survey, launched in 2017, that will obtain near-infrared spectroscopy of 416 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars between redshifts of 1.5 and 3.5 in the ~1.0-2.5 μm band. These spectra will cover critical diagnostic emission lines, such as Mg II, Hβ, and [O III], in each source. This project will more than double the existing inventory of near-infrared spectra of luminous quasars at these redshifts, including the era of fast quasar growth. Additional rest frame ultraviolet coverage of at least the C IV emission line is provided by the SDSS spectrum of each source. We will utilize the spectroscopic inventory to determine the most accurate and precise quasar black hole masses, accretion rates, and redshifts, and use the results to derive improved prescriptions for UV-based proxies for these parameters. The improved redshifts will establish velocities of quasar outflows that interact with the host galaxies, and will help constrain how imprecise distance estimates bias quasar clustering measurements. Furthermore, our measurements will facilitate a more complete understanding of how the rest-frame UV-optical spectral properties depend on redshift and luminosity, and test whether the physical properties of the quasar central engine evolve over cosmic time. We will make our data immediately available to the public, provide reduced spectra via a dedicated website, and produce a catalog of measurements and fundamental quasar properties.

  7. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: BIASES IN z  > 1.46 REDSHIFTS DUE TO QUASAR DIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Trump, J. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ge, J., E-mail: denney@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Astronomy Department University of Florida 211 Bryant Space Science Center P.O. Box 112055 Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We use the coadded spectra of 32 epochs of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Reverberation Mapping Project observations of 482 quasars with z  > 1.46 to highlight systematic biases in the SDSS- and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)-pipeline redshifts due to the natural diversity of quasar properties. We investigate the characteristics of this bias by comparing the BOSS-pipeline redshifts to an estimate from the centroid of He ii λ 1640. He ii has a low equivalent width but is often well-defined in high-S/N spectra, does not suffer from self-absorption, and has a narrow component which, when present (the case for about half of our sources), produces a redshift estimate that, on average, is consistent with that determined from [O ii] to within the He ii and [O ii] centroid measurement uncertainties. The large redshift differences of ∼1000 km s{sup −1}, on average, between the BOSS-pipeline and He ii-centroid redshifts, suggest there are significant biases in a portion of BOSS quasar redshift measurements. Adopting the He ii-based redshifts shows that C iv does not exhibit a ubiquitous blueshift for all quasars, given the precision probed by our measurements. Instead, we find a distribution of C iv-centroid blueshifts across our sample, with a dynamic range that (i) is wider than that previously reported for this line, and (ii) spans C iv centroids from those consistent with the systemic redshift to those with significant blueshifts of thousands of kilometers per second. These results have significant implications for measurement and use of high-redshift quasar properties and redshifts, and studies based thereon.

  8. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: BIASES IN z  > 1.46 REDSHIFTS DUE TO QUASAR DIVERSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M.; Horne, Keith; Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Trump, J. R.; Ho, Luis C.; Ge, J.

    2016-01-01

    We use the coadded spectra of 32 epochs of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Reverberation Mapping Project observations of 482 quasars with z  > 1.46 to highlight systematic biases in the SDSS- and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)-pipeline redshifts due to the natural diversity of quasar properties. We investigate the characteristics of this bias by comparing the BOSS-pipeline redshifts to an estimate from the centroid of He ii λ 1640. He ii has a low equivalent width but is often well-defined in high-S/N spectra, does not suffer from self-absorption, and has a narrow component which, when present (the case for about half of our sources), produces a redshift estimate that, on average, is consistent with that determined from [O ii] to within the He ii and [O ii] centroid measurement uncertainties. The large redshift differences of ∼1000 km s −1 , on average, between the BOSS-pipeline and He ii-centroid redshifts, suggest there are significant biases in a portion of BOSS quasar redshift measurements. Adopting the He ii-based redshifts shows that C iv does not exhibit a ubiquitous blueshift for all quasars, given the precision probed by our measurements. Instead, we find a distribution of C iv-centroid blueshifts across our sample, with a dynamic range that (i) is wider than that previously reported for this line, and (ii) spans C iv centroids from those consistent with the systemic redshift to those with significant blueshifts of thousands of kilometers per second. These results have significant implications for measurement and use of high-redshift quasar properties and redshifts, and studies based thereon.

  9. Discovery of a very Lyman-α-luminous quasar at z = 6.62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptelova, Ekaterina; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Yu, Po-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Ping; Guo, Jhen-Kuei

    2017-02-02

    Distant luminous quasars provide important information on the growth of the first supermassive black holes, their host galaxies and the epoch of reionization. The identification of quasars is usually performed through detection of their Lyman-α line redshifted to 0.9 microns at z > 6.5. Here, we report the discovery of a very Lyman-α luminous quasar, PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 at redshift z = 6.618, selected based on its red colour and multi-epoch detection of the Lyman-α emission in a single near-infrared band. The Lyman-α line luminosity of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 is unusually high and estimated to be 0.8 × 10 12 Solar luminosities (about 3% of the total quasar luminosity). The Lyman-α emission of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 shows fast variability on timescales of days in the quasar rest frame, which has never been detected in any of the known high-redshift quasars. The high luminosity of the Lyman-α line, its narrow width and fast variability resemble properties of local Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies which suggests that the quasar is likely at the active phase of the black hole growth accreting close or even beyond the Eddington limit.

  10. Extreme Variability Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumbaugh, N.; Shen, Yue; Morganson, Eric; Liu, Xin; Banerji, M.; McMahon, R. G.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2018-02-20

    We perform a systematic search for long-term extreme variability quasars (EVQs) in the overlapping Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and 3-Year Dark Energy Survey (DES) imaging, which provide light curves spanning more than 15 years. We identified ~1000 EVQs with a maximum g band magnitude change of more than 1 mag over this period, about 10% of all quasars searched. The EVQs have L_bol~10^45-10^47 erg/s and L/L_Edd~0.01-1. Accounting for selection effects, we estimate an intrinsic EVQ fraction of ~30-50% among all g<~22 quasars over a baseline of ~15 years. These EVQs are good candidates for so-called "changing-look quasars", where a spectral transition between the two types of quasars (broad-line and narrow-line) is observed between the dim and bright states. We performed detailed multi-wavelength, spectral and variability analyses for the EVQs and compared to their parent quasar sample. We found that EVQs are distinct from a control sample of quasars matched in redshift and optical luminosity: (1) their UV broad emission lines have larger equivalent widths; (2) their Eddington ratios are systematically lower; and (3) they are more variable on all timescales. The intrinsic difference in quasar properties for EVQs suggest that internal processes associated with accretion are the main driver for the observed extreme long-term variability. However, despite their different properties, EVQs seem to be in the tail of a continuous distribution of quasar properties, rather than standing out as a distinct population. We speculate that EVQs are normal quasars accreting at relatively low accretion rates, where the accretion flow is more likely to experience instabilities that drive the factor of few changes in flux on multi-year timescales.

  11. Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of high-redshift quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C. D.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Webb, Wayne; Petry, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of three bright high-redshift low-polarization quasars (LPQs) was obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the quasars, PG 1634+706 and PG 2302+029, had polarizations p approximately = 0.5%-1.0% throughout the ultraviolet, and showed no significant variation of polarization amplitude or position angle with wavelength. PG 2302+029 was also marginally (2.4 sigma) circularly polarized in the optical continuum. For the highest redshift quasar, PG 1222+228 (Ton 1530), the polarization was measured down to rest wavelengths below 800 A. Although the continuum of PG 1222+228 was weakened by Lyman limit absorption from an intergalactic gas cloud, the polarization increased sharply from 1% to about 4.5%, a change of 4 sigma significance. This abrupt rise in polarization does not appear attributable to any known instrumental artifact. These UV polarizations were only slightly less than those previously observed for these same objects in the optical. The polarization spectra were flat with a typical slope of the polarized flux pF(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -0.8 +/- 0.5). Unlike the case of several high luminosity Seyfert 1 nuclei studied previously, polarization caused by scattering from dust grains does not provide the best fit to the polarization spectra of these luminous quasars. These observed spectra are consistent with a wavelength-independent polarization proportional to the total nonstellar light or, possibly, to the contribution of the blue thermal component. The polarization spectra have insufficient signal-to-noise to locate the scatterers with respect to the continuum source and the much larger broad line region. A decrease in amplitude and rotation of the position angle of the polarization vector at the shortest wavelengths, which could result from general relativistic effects near a spinning black hole, was not observed. In fact, in PG 1222+228, the polarization was observed to

  12. Interpretation of the X-ray variability of type 1 Seyfert galaxy nuclei and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentsova, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis is analyzed that the X-ray variability of type 1 Seyfert galaxies ad quasars causes the absorption of the central object X radiation by emission clouds. It is shown that this hypothesis can explain the characteristic time scale of the X-ray variability and its amplitude. It is indicated that systematic X-ray observations of Seyfert galaxies and quasars for the investigation of the physical conditions in the emission clouds are important

  13. Intergalactic dust and quasar distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltan, A.

    1979-01-01

    Non-homogeneous intergalactic extinction may considerably affect the quasar distribution. Especially samples of quasars isolated on the basis of B-V colours are subject to this phenomenon. Apparent grouping and close pairs of quasars reported in the literature may be a result of intergalactic dust. Using surface distribution of faint blue objects selected by Hawkins and Reddish it is estimated that intergalactic extinction in B should reach approximately 1 mag out to the redshift of approximately 1. This is slightly larger than predicted by theory and comparable to the mean dust density derived from observations. (Author)

  14. Study of the optical and x-ray properties of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is now widely believed that photoionization by the central nucleus is primarily responsible for the emission lines observed in quasars. If this view is correct, x-ray wavelength photons from the nucleus could play a role in determining the emission line strengths of the various chemical species present in quasars. Indeed, recent photoionization models predict the enhancement of some emission lines arising from an extended ionized zone heated by soft x-rays. In an attempt to investigate this possibility, a sample of 17 quasars exhibiting a wide range of x-ray to optical luminosities has been observed spectrophotometrically in an effort to correlate their optical spectroscopic features with published x-ray and radio luminosities. Such correlations are known to exist for Seyfert galaxies, but at present it is unclear whether quasars also exhibit these correlations. All of the quasars in this sample have been previously observed with the Einstein Observatory. Strengths of the broad permitted emission lines as well as the narrow forbidden lines are analyzed for correlations with the x-ray strength and the optical strength; also, ratios of lines such as Hβ to [O III] and Fe II to Hβ are considered, as well as high excitation lines such as [Ne V]. Because of the difficulty in obtaining high signal-to-noise data for objects as faint as quasars, resolving this issue may well require many such studies as this one, each contributing a fraction of knowledge to the whole, before the question can adequately be answered

  15. Quasars in the 4D Eigenvector 1 Context: a stroll down memory lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulentic, Jack; Marziani, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Recently some pessimism has been expressed about our lack of progress in understanding quasars over more than fifty year since their discovery. It is worthwhile to look back at some of the progress that has been made - but still lies under the radar - perhaps because few people are working on optical/UV spectroscopy in this field. Great advances in understanding quasar phenomenology have emerged using eigenvector techniques. The 4D eigenvector 1 context provides a surrogate H-R Diagram for quasars with a source main sequence driven by Eddington ratio convolved with line-of-sight orientation. Appreciating the striking differences between quasars at opposite ends of the main sequence (so-called population A and B sources) opens the door towards a unified model of quasar physics, geometry and kinematics. We present a review of some of the progress that has been made over the past 15 years, and point out unsolved issues.

  16. Quasars in the 4D Eigenvector 1 Context: a stroll down memory lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack W. Sulentic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently some pessimism has been expressed about our lack of progress in understanding quasars over more than fifty year since their discovery. It is worthwhile to look back at some of the progress that has been made – but still lies under the radar – perhaps because few people are working on optical/UV spectroscopy in this field. Great advances in understanding quasar phenomenology have emerged using eigenvector techniques. The 4D eigenvector 1 context provides a surrogate H-R Diagram for quasars with a source main sequence driven by Eddington ratio convolved with line-of-sight orientation. Appreciating the striking differences between quasars at opposite ends of the main sequence (so-called population A and B sources opens the door towards a unified model of quasar physics, geometry and kinematics. We present a review of some of the progress that has been made over the past 15 years, and point out unsolved issues.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Fourteen Low-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganguly, Rajib; Brotherton, Michael S.; Arav, Nahum

    2007-01-01

    We present low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of 14 low redshift (z zz 1.4 Large Bright Quasar samples. By design, our objects sample luminosities in between these two surveys, and our four absorbed objects are consistent with the v ~ L^0.62 relation derived by Laor & Brandt (2002). Another quasar......, HE0441-2826, contains extremely weak emission lines and our spectrum is consistent with a simple power-law continuum. The quasar is radio-loud, but has a steep spectral index and a lobe-dominated morphology, which argues against it being a blazar. The unusual spectrum of this quasar resembles...... the spectra of the quasars PG1407+265, SDSSJ1136+0242, and PKS1004+13 for which several possible explanations have been entertained....

  18. Quasars in the 4D eigenvector 1 context: a stroll down memory lane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulentic, Jack W.; Marziani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Recently some pessimism has been expressed about our lack of progress in understanding quasars over the 50+ year since their discovery (Antonucci, 2013). It is worthwhile to look back at some of the progress that has been made—but still lies under the radar—perhaps because few people are working on optical/UV spectroscopy in this field. Great advances in understanding quasar phenomenology have emerged using eigenvector techniques. The 4D eigenvector 1 context provides a surrogate H-R Diagram for quasars with a source main sequence driven by Eddington ratio convolved with line-of-sight orientation. Appreciating the striking differences between quasars at opposite ends of the main sequence (so-called population A and B sources) opens the door toward a unified model of quasar physics, geometry and kinematics. We present a review of some of the progress that has been made over the past 15 years, and point out unsolved issues.

  19. Quasars in the 4D eigenvector 1 context: a stroll down memory lane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulentic, Jack W. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Granada (Spain); Marziani, Paola, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-13

    Recently some pessimism has been expressed about our lack of progress in understanding quasars over the 50+ year since their discovery (Antonucci, 2013). It is worthwhile to look back at some of the progress that has been made—but still lies under the radar—perhaps because few people are working on optical/UV spectroscopy in this field. Great advances in understanding quasar phenomenology have emerged using eigenvector techniques. The 4D eigenvector 1 context provides a surrogate H-R Diagram for quasars with a source main sequence driven by Eddington ratio convolved with line-of-sight orientation. Appreciating the striking differences between quasars at opposite ends of the main sequence (so-called population A and B sources) opens the door toward a unified model of quasar physics, geometry and kinematics. We present a review of some of the progress that has been made over the past 15 years, and point out unsolved issues.

  20. Impact of line parameter database, continuum absorption, full grind configuration, and L1B update on GOSAT TIR methane retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, A.; Saitoh, N.; Nonogaki, R.; Imasu, R.; Shiomi, K.; Kuze, A.

    2016-12-01

    The thermal infrared (TIR) band of Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) observes CH4 profile at wavenumber range from 1210 cm-1 to 1360 cm-1 including CH4 ν4 band. The current retrieval algorithm (V1.0) uses LBLRTM V12.1 with AER V3.1 line database to calculate optical depth. LBLRTM V12.1 include MT_CKD 2.5.2 model to calculate continuum absorption. The continuum absorption has large uncertainty, especially temperature dependent coefficient, between BPS model and MT_CKD model in the wavenumber region of 1210-1250 cm-1(Paynter and Ramaswamy, 2014). The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on CH4 retrieval from the line parameter databases and the uncertainty of continuum absorption. We used AER v1.0 database, HITRAN2004 database, HITRAN2008 database, AER V3.2 database, and HITRAN2012 database (Rothman et al. 2005, 2009, and 2013. Clough et al., 2005). AER V1.0 database is based on HITRAN2000. The CH4 line parameters of AER V3.1 and V3.2 databases are developed from HITRAN2008 including updates until May 2009 with line mixing parameters. We compared the retrieved CH4 with the HIPPO CH4 observation (Wofsy et al., 2012). The difference of AER V3.2 was the smallest and 24.1 ± 45.9 ppbv. The differences of AER V1.0, HITRAN2004, HITRAN2008, and HITRAN2012 were 35.6 ± 46.5 ppbv, 37.6 ± 46.3 ppbv, 32.1 ± 46.1 ppbv, and 35.2 ± 46.0 ppbv, respectively. Compare AER V3.2 case to HITRAN2008 case, the line coupling effect reduced difference by 8.0 ppbv. Median values of Residual difference from HITRAN2008 to AER V1.0, HITRAN2004, AER V3.2, and HITRAN2012 were 0.6 K, 0.1 K, -0.08 K, and 0.08 K, respectively, while median values of transmittance difference were less than 0.0003 and transmittance differences have small wavenumber dependence. We also discuss the retrieval error from the uncertainty of the continuum absorption, the test of full grid

  1. A high signal-to-noise ratio composite quasar spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Foltz, C.B.; Chaffee, F.H.; Weymann, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N of about 400) composite spectrum of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical region of high luminosity quasars is presented. The spectrum is derived from 718 individual spectra obtained as part of the Large Bright Quasar Survey. The moderate resolution, 4A or less, and high signal-to-noise ratio allow numerous weak emission features to be identified. Of particular note is the large equivalent-width of the Fe II emission in the rest-frame ultraviolet and the blue continuum slope of the composite. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a reference spectrum for use in line identifications, and a series of large-scale representations of the composite spectrum are shown. A measure of the standard deviation of the individual quasar spectra from the composite spectrum is also presented. 12 refs

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV-bright quasars (Syphers+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphers, D.; Anderson, S. F.; Zheng, W.; Haggard, D.; Meiksin, A.; Schneider, D. P.; York, D. G.

    2010-03-01

    Absorption along quasar sightlines remains among the most sensitive direct measures of HeII reionization in much of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Until recently, fewer than a half-dozen unobscured quasar sightlines suitable for the HeII Gunn-Peterson test were known; although these handful demonstrated great promise, the small sample size limited confidence in cosmological inferences. We have recently added nine more such clean HeII quasars, exploiting Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar samples, broadband ultraviolet (UV) imaging from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), and high-yield UV spectroscopic confirmations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here we markedly expand this approach by cross-correlating SDSS DR7 and GALEX GR4+5 to catalog 428 SDSS and 165 other quasars with z>2.78 having likely (~70%) GALEX detections, suggesting they are bright into the far-UV. Reconnaissance HST Cycle 16 Supplemental prism data for 29 of these new quasar-GALEX matches spectroscopically confirm 17 as indeed far-UV bright. At least 10 of these confirmations have clean sightlines all the way down to HeII Lyα, substantially expanding the number of known clean HeII quasars, and reaffirming the order of magnitude enhanced efficiency of our selection technique. Combined confirmations from this and our past programs yield more than 20 HeII quasars, quintupling the sample. These provide substantial progress toward a sample of HeII quasar sightlines large enough, and spanning a sufficient redshift range, to enable statistical IGM studies that may avoid individual object peculiarity and sightline variance. Our expanded catalog of hundreds of high-likelihood far-UV-bright QSOs additionally will be useful for understanding the extreme-UV properties of the quasars themselves. (2 data files).

  3. SDSS J1254+0846: A BINARY QUASAR CAUGHT IN THE ACT OF MERGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Paul J.; Cox, Thomas J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Myers, Adam D.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Bennert, Vardha N.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first luminous, spatially resolved binary quasar that clearly inhabits an ongoing galaxy merger. SDSS J125455.09+084653.9 and SDSS J125454.87+084652.1 (SDSS J1254+0846 hereafter) are two luminous z = 0.44 radio-quiet quasars, with a radial velocity difference of just 215 km s -1 , separated on the sky by 21 kpc in a disturbed host galaxy merger showing obvious tidal tails. The pair was targeted as part of a complete sample of binary quasar candidates with small transverse separations drawn from SDSS DR6 photometry. We present follow-up optical imaging which shows broad, symmetrical tidal arm features spanning some 75 kpc at the quasars' redshift. Previously, the triggering of two quasars during a merger had only been hypothesized but our observations provide strong evidence of such an event. SDSS J1254+0846, as a face-on, pre-coalescence merger hosting two luminous quasars separated by a few dozen kpc, provides a unique opportunity to probe quasar activity in an ongoing gas-rich merger. Numerical modeling suggests that the system consists of two massive disk galaxies prograde to their mutual orbit, caught during the first passage of an active merger. This demonstrates rapid black hole growth during the early stages of a merger between galaxies with pre-existing bulges. Neither of the two luminous nuclei show significant intrinsic absorption by gas or dust in our optical or X-ray observations, illustrating that not all merging quasars will be in an obscured, ultraluminous phase. We find that the Eddington ratio for the fainter component B is rather normal, while for the A component L/L Edd is quite (>3σ) high compared to quasars of similar luminosity and redshift, possibly evidence for strong merger-triggered accretion. More such mergers should be identifiable at higher redshifts using binary quasars as tracers.

  4. Test and evaluation of the in-line plutonium solution K-absorption-edge densitometer at the Savannah River Plant. Phase I. Off-line testing results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Marks, T.; Johnson, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    An in-line, plutonium-solution, K-edge absorption densitometer has been developed at Los Alamos and is currently undergoing test and evaluation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The first phase of the test and evaluation (off-line instrument calibration and solution assays) was completed, and preparations are under way to install the instrument in-line, as soon as process schedules permit. Calibration data in the design concentration range of 25 to 40 g Pu/L demonstrate routine achievement of densitometry assay precisions of 0.5% or better in 40 min. Plutonium assays at concentrations outside the calibration range were investigated in an effort to define better the limitations of the instrument and address other possible assay situations at SRP. Densitometry precisions obtained for 40-min assays range from 3% to 5 g Pu/L down to 0.4% at 70 g Pu/L. At higher plutonium concentrations, the precision deteriorated due to increasing gamma-ray absorption by the solution. In addition, with actinide concentrations above approximately 100 g/L, the assay accuracy also suffered because of enhanced small-angle scattering effects in the large sample cell. Measurements on mixed U/Pu solutions demonstrated the feasibility of accurate plutonium assays with correction for the large uranium matrix contributions being determined from the measurement data. The 239 240 Pu weight fractions and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu and 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios can be determined. In a mockup of the in-line solution plumbing system, all assay sequences, error conditions, and interlock criteria were exercised and verified to be working properly

  5. NuSTAR Reveals Relativistic Reflection but no Ultra-fast Outflow in the Quasar PG1211+143

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoghbi, A.; Miller, J. M.; Walton, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on four epochs of observations of the quasar PG 1211+143 using NuSTAR. The net exposure time is 300 ks. Prior work on this source found suggestive evidence of an ultra-fast outflow ( UFO) in the Fe K band with a velocity of approximately 0.1c. The putative flow would carry away a high...... a broad Fe K emission line and Compton back-scattering curvature. The data offer only weak constraints on the spin of the black hole. A careful search for UFOs shows no significant absorption feature above 90% confidence. The limits are particularly tight when relativistic reflection is included. We...

  6. Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Esparza-Arredondo, Donají; Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.

  7. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Bisogni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cosmological model is at present not tested between the redshift of the farthest observed supernovae (z ~ 1.4 and that of the Cosmic Microwave Background (z ~ 1,100. Here we introduce a new method to measure the cosmological parameters: we show that quasars can be used as “standard candles” by employing the non-linear relation between their intrinsic UV and X-ray emission as an absolute distance indicator. We built a sample of ~1,900 quasars with available UV and X-ray observations, and produced a Hubble Diagram up to z ~ 5. The analysis of the quasar Hubble Diagram, when used in combination with supernovae, provides robust constraints on the matter and energy content in the cosmos. The application of this method to forthcoming, larger quasar samples, will also provide tight constraints on the dark energy equation of state and its possible evolution with time.

  8. Quasars as Cosmological Standard Candles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [CONACYT Research Fellow - Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padua (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain); Esparza-Arredondo, Donají [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Morelia (Mexico); Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión, E-mail: alenka@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Granada (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    We propose the use of quasars with accretion rate near the Eddington ratio (extreme quasars) as standard candles. The selection criteria are based on the Eigenvector 1 (E1) formalism. Our first sample is a selection of 334 optical quasar spectra from the SDSS DR7 database with a S/N > 20. Using the E1, we define primary and secondary selection criteria in the optical spectral range. We show that it is possible to derive a redshift-independent estimate of luminosity for extreme Eddington ratio sources. Our results are consistent with concordance cosmology but we need to work with other spectral ranges to take into account the quasar orientation, among other constrains.

  9. Ultraviolet photometry from the orbiting astronomical observatory. XVI - The stellar Lyman-alpha absorption line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, B. D.; Panek, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The stellar Lyman-alpha line at 1216 A was observed in 29 lightly reddened stars of spectral type B2.5 to B9 by a far-UV spectrophotometer on OAO-2. The equivalent widths obtained range from 15 A at type B2.5 to 65 A at type B8; in the late-B stars, the L-alpha line removes 2 to 3% of the total stellar flux. In this sampling, the strength of the L-alpha line correlates well with measures of the Balmer discontinuity and Balmer line strengths; luminosity classification does not seem to affect the line strength. The observed line widths also agree with the predictions of Mihala's grid of non-LTE model atmospheres. In some cases, the L-alpha line influences the interstellar column densities reported in the interstellar OAO-2 L-alpha survey. Hence, these data toward lightly reddened B2 and B1.5 stars should be regarded as upper limits only.

  10. On-line Incorporation of Cloud Point Extraction in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Silver

    OpenAIRE

    DALALI, Nasser; JAVADI, Nasrin; AGRAWAL, Yadvendra KUMAR

    2008-01-01

    A cloud point extraction method was incorporated into a flow injection system, coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry, for determination of trace amounts of silver. The analyte in the aqueous solution was acidified with 0.2 mol L-1 sulfuric acid and complexed with dithizone. The cloud point extraction was performed using the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. After obtaining the cloud point, the surfactant-rich phase containing the dithizonate complex was collected in a m...

  11. Absorption line profiles in a moving atmosphere - A single scattering linear perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, P. B.; Abreu, V. J.

    1989-01-01

    An integral equation is derived which linearly relates Doppler perturbations in the spectrum of atmospheric absorption features to the wind system which creates them. The perturbation theory is developed using a single scattering model, which is validated against a multiple scattering calculation. The nature and basic properties of the kernels in the integral equation are examined. It is concluded that the kernels are well behaved and that wind velocity profiles can be recovered using standard inversion techniques.

  12. Using Quasars as Standard Candles for Studying Dark Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Watson, D.

    2012-01-01

    , which relies on the technique of reverberation mapping to measure time delays between the quasar continuum and emission line variability signatures. Measuring this time delay effectively measures the radius between the central source and the emission-line gas. The emission line gas is photo-ionized...... by the continuum photons, and the radius to this emission-line region scales tightly with the nuclear luminosity - a consequence of the photoionization physics responsible for regulating the production of line-emitting photons. Hence, measuring the radius of the emission-line gas provides a measure...

  13. Isoquercetin as an Adjunct Therapy in Patients With Kidney Cancer Receiving First-Line Sunitinib (QUASAR: Results of a Phase I Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Buonerba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunitinib is the most commonly prescribed drug for advanced renal cell carcinoma in the first-line setting and has been associated with multiple adverse events related to its on–and off–target effects, including hand and foot syndrome and fatigue. It was hypothesized that sunitinib-induced fatigue may be related to off target inhibition of the AMPK enzyme, which results in impairment of energy-producing processes at a systemic level. Quercetin is a naturally occurring flavonol with established AMPK-stimulating activity. While clinical use of quercetin is limited by its poor bio-availability, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, that is isoquercetin, has an improved pharmacokinetic profile. On the grounds of the in vitro stimulatory activity with respect to AMPk, we hypothesized that oral isoquercetin could improve fatigue in kidney cancer patients receiving sunitinib. Given the lack of data on the safety of isoquercetin given concomitantly with sunitinib, we conducted a phase I trial to assess the safety of GMP manufactured isoquercetin given at two dose levels (450 and 900 mg a day. In the 12-patient study cohort included in this study, isoquercetin was administered concomitantly with 50 mg sunitinib for a median 81 days (IQR, 75.5, 86.5. None of the 12 patients required isoquercetin suspension or isoquercetin dose reduction because of adverse events. No abnormalities in ECG, heart or lower limbs doppler ultrasound were detected. A statistically significant improvement was reported for the FACIT fatigue score (6.8 points; 95% CI: 2.8–10.8; p = 0.002 and for the FACIT Adverse Events score (18.9 points; 95% CI: 9.1–28.8; p < 0.001 after isoquercetin consumption vs. baseline. In this phase I trial, isoquercetin was remarkably safe, with a preliminary signal of activity in terms of improvement of sunitinib adverse events.

  14. Isoquercetin as an Adjunct Therapy in Patients With Kidney Cancer Receiving First-Line Sunitinib (QUASAR): Results of a Phase I Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonerba, Carlo; De Placido, Pietro; Bruzzese, Dario; Pagliuca, Martina; Ungaro, Paola; Bosso, Davide; Ribera, Dario; Iaccarino, Simona; Scafuri, Luca; Liotti, Antonietta; Romeo, Valeria; Izzo, Michela; Perri, Francesco; Casale, Beniamino; Grimaldi, Giuseppe; Vitrone, Francesca; Brunetti, Arturo; Terracciano, Daniela; Marinelli, Alfredo; De Placido, Sabino; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Sunitinib is the most commonly prescribed drug for advanced renal cell carcinoma in the first-line setting and has been associated with multiple adverse events related to its on-and off-target effects, including hand and foot syndrome and fatigue. It was hypothesized that sunitinib-induced fatigue may be related to off target inhibition of the AMPK enzyme, which results in impairment of energy-producing processes at a systemic level. Quercetin is a naturally occurring flavonol with established AMPK-stimulating activity. While clinical use of quercetin is limited by its poor bio-availability, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, that is isoquercetin, has an improved pharmacokinetic profile. On the grounds of the in vitro stimulatory activity with respect to AMPk, we hypothesized that oral isoquercetin could improve fatigue in kidney cancer patients receiving sunitinib. Given the lack of data on the safety of isoquercetin given concomitantly with sunitinib, we conducted a phase I trial to assess the safety of GMP manufactured isoquercetin given at two dose levels (450 and 900 mg a day). In the 12-patient study cohort included in this study, isoquercetin was administered concomitantly with 50 mg sunitinib for a median 81 days (IQR, 75.5, 86.5). None of the 12 patients required isoquercetin suspension or isoquercetin dose reduction because of adverse events. No abnormalities in ECG, heart or lower limbs doppler ultrasound were detected. A statistically significant improvement was reported for the FACIT fatigue score (6.8 points; 95% CI: 2.8-10.8; p = 0.002) and for the FACIT Adverse Events score (18.9 points; 95% CI: 9.1-28.8; p < 0.001) after isoquercetin consumption vs. baseline. In this phase I trial, isoquercetin was remarkably safe, with a preliminary signal of activity in terms of improvement of sunitinib adverse events.

  15. Relativistic beaming and quasar statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, M.J.L.; Browne, I.W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The statistical predictions of a unified scheme for the radio emission from quasars are explored. This scheme attributes the observed differences between flat- and steep-spectrum quasars to projection and the effects of relativistic beaming of the emission from the nuclear components. We use a simple quasar model consisting of a compact relativistically beamed core with spectral index zero and unbeamed lobes, spectral index - 1, to predict the proportion of flat-spectrum sources in flux-limited samples selected at different frequencies. In our model this fraction depends on the core Lorentz factor, γ and we find that a value of approximately 5 gives satisfactory agreement with observation. In a similar way the model is used to construct the expected number/flux density counts for flat-spectrum quasars from the observed steep-spectrum counts. Again, good agreement with the observations is obtained if the average core Lorentz factor is about 5. Independent estimates of γ from observations of superluminal motion in quasars are of the same order of magnitude. We conclude that the statistical properties of quasars are entirely consistent with the predictions of simple relativistic-beam models. (author)

  16. Gaia Space Mission and Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwitter, Tomaž, E-mail: tomaz.zwitter@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-11-15

    Quasars are often considered to be point-like objects. This is largely true and allows for an excellent alignment of the optical positional reference frame of the ongoing ESA mission Gaia with the International Celestial Reference Frame. But presence of optical jets in quasars can cause shifts of the optical photo-centers at levels detectable by Gaia. Similarly, motion of emitting blobs in the jet can be detected as proper motion shifts. Gaia's measurements of spectral energy distribution for around a million distant quasars is useful to determine their redshifts and to assess their variability on timescales from hours to years. Spatial resolution of Gaia allows to build a complete magnitude limited sample of strongly lensed quasars. The mission had its first public data release in September 2016 and is scheduled to have the next and much more comprehensive one in April 2018. Here we briefly review the capabilities and current results of the mission. Gaia's unique contributions to the studies of quasars are already being published, a highlight being a discovery of a number of quasars with optical jets.

  17. Does the X-ray outflow quasar PDS 456 have a UV outflow at 0.3c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Chartas, George; Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele

    2018-05-01

    The quasar PDS 456 (at redshift ˜0.184) has a prototype ultra-fast outflow (UFO) measured in X-rays. This outflow is highly ionized with relativistic speeds, large total column densities log NH(cm-2) > 23, and large kinetic energies that could be important for feedback to the host galaxy. A UV spectrum of PDS 456 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2000 contains one well-measured broad absorption line (BAL) at ˜1346 Å (observed) that might be Ly α at v ≈ 0.06c or N V λ1240 at v ≈ 0.08c. However, we use photoionization models and comparisons to other outflow quasars to show that these BAL identifications are problematic because other lines that should accompany them are not detected. We argue that the UV BAL is probably C IV at v ≈ 0.30c. This would be the fastest UV outflow ever reported, but its speed is similar to the X-ray outflow and its appearance overall is similar to relativistic UV BALs observed in other quasars. The C IV BAL identification is also supported indirectly by the tentative detection of another broad C IV line at v ≈ 0.19c. The high speeds suggest that the UV outflow originates with the X-ray UFO crudely 20-30 rg from the central black hole. We speculate that the C IV BAL might form in dense clumps embedded in the X-ray UFO, requiring density enhancements of only ≳0.4 dex compared to clumpy structures already inferred for the soft X-ray absorber in PDS 456. The C IV BAL might therefore be the first detection of low-ionization clumps proposed previously to boost the opacities in UFOs for radiative driving.

  18. The CO_2 absorption spectrum in the 2.3 µm transparency window by high sensitivity CRDS: (I) Rovibrational lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, S.; Konefal, M.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Čermák, P.; Tashkun, S.A.; Perevalov, V.I.; Campargue, A.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption of carbon dioxide is very weak near 2.3 µm which makes this transparency window of particular interest for the study of Venus’ lower atmosphere. As a consequence of the weakness of the transitions located in this region, previous experimental data are very scarce and spectroscopic databases provide calculated line lists which should be tested and validated by experiment. In this work, we use the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique for a high sensitivity characterization of the CO_2 absorption spectrum in two spectral intervals of the 2.3 µm window: 4248–4257 and 4295–4380 cm"−"1 which were accessed using a Distributed Feed Back (DFB) diode laser and a Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL) as light sources, respectively. The achieved sensitivity (noise equivalent absorption, α_m_i_n, on the order of 5×10"−"1"0 cm"−"1) allowed detecting numerous new transitions with intensity values down to 5×10"−"3"0 cm/molecule. The rovibrational assignments were performed by comparison with available theoretical line lists in particular those obtained at IAO Tomsk using the global effective operator approach. Hot bands of the main isotopologue and "1"6O"1"2C"1"8O bands were found to be missing in the HITRAN database while they contribute importantly to the absorption in the region. Additional CRDS spectra of a CO_2 sample highly enriched in "1"8O were recorded in order to improve the spectroscopy of this isotopologue. As a result about 700 lines of "1"6O"1"2C"1"8O, "1"6O"1"2C"1"7O, "1"7O"1"2C"1"8O, "1"2C"1"8O_2 and "1"3C"1"8O_2 were newly measured. The status of the different databases (HITRAN, CDSD, variational calculations) in the important 2.3 µm transparency window is discussed. Possible improvements to correct evidenced deficiencies are suggested. - Highlights: • High sensitivity CRDS with a VECSEL in the 2.3 µm transparency window of CO_2. • Natural and "1"8O enriched CO_2 spectra recorded with

  19. White lines at the Lsub(I), Lsub(II), and Lsub(III) absorption edges of some rare earth compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, K B; Sharma, B K; Jain, D C [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Dept. of Physics; Sinha, A I.P. [Banasthali Vidyapeeth (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1980-11-01

    The paper reports the appearance of white lines (WLS) at all the three L-absorption edges of the sulfur coordinated thiosalicylic acid compounds of Sm, Tb, and Dy. The profiles of the observed WLS are presented and discussed.

  20. The Quasar Fraction in Low-Frequency Selected Complete Samples and Implications for Unified Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lacy, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Low-frequency radio surveys are ideal for selecting orientation-independent samples of extragalactic sources because the sample members are selected by virtue of their isotropic steep-spectrum extended emission. We use the new 7C Redshift Survey along with the brighter 3CRR and 6C samples to investigate the fraction of objects with observed broad emission lines - the 'quasar fraction' - as a function of redshift and of radio and narrow emission line luminosity. We find that the quasar fraction is more strongly dependent upon luminosity (both narrow line and radio) than it is on redshift. Above a narrow [OII] emission line luminosity of log(base 10) (L(sub [OII])/W) approximately > 35 [or radio luminosity log(base 10) (L(sub 151)/ W/Hz.sr) approximately > 26.5], the quasar fraction is virtually independent of redshift and luminosity; this is consistent with a simple unified scheme with an obscuring torus with a half-opening angle theta(sub trans) approximately equal 53 deg. For objects with less luminous narrow lines, the quasar fraction is lower. We show that this is not due to the difficulty of detecting lower-luminosity broad emission lines in a less luminous, but otherwise similar, quasar population. We discuss evidence which supports at least two probable physical causes for the drop in quasar fraction at low luminosity: (i) a gradual decrease in theta(sub trans) and/or a gradual increase in the fraction of lightly-reddened (0 approximately quasar luminosity; and (ii) the emergence of a distinct second population of low luminosity radio sources which, like M8T, lack a well-fed quasar nucleus and may well lack a thick obscuring torus.

  1. THE MAGELLANIC QUASARS SURVEY. III. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF 758 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI BEHIND THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozłowski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Onken, Christopher A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Meixner, M.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The Magellanic Quasars Survey (MQS) has now increased the number of quasars known behind the Magellanic Clouds by almost an order of magnitude. All survey fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 70% of those in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) have been observed. The targets were selected from the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) based on their optical variability, mid-IR, and/or X-ray properties. We spectroscopically confirmed 758 quasars (565 in the LMC and 193 in the SMC) behind the clouds, of which 94% (527 in the LMC and 186 in the SMC) are newly identified. The MQS quasars have long-term (12 yr and growing for OGLE), high-cadence light curves, enabling unprecedented variability studies of quasars. The MQS quasars also provide a dense reference grid for measuring both the internal and bulk proper motions of the clouds, and 50 quasars are bright enough (I ∼< 18 mag) for absorption studies of the interstellar/intergalactic medium of the clouds

  2. An accelerated line-by-line option for MODTRAN combining on-the-fly generation of line center absorption within 0.1 cm-1 bins and pre-computed line tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Alexander; Conforti, Patrick; Hawes, Fred

    2015-05-01

    A Line-By-Line (LBL) option is being developed for MODTRAN6. The motivation for this development is two-fold. Firstly, when MODTRAN is validated against an independent LBL model, it is difficult to isolate the source of discrepancies. One must verify consistency between pressure, temperature and density profiles, between column density calculations, between continuum and particulate data, between spectral convolution methods, and more. Introducing a LBL option directly within MODTRAN will insure common elements for all calculations other than those used to compute molecular transmittances. The second motivation for the LBL upgrade is that it will enable users to compute high spectral resolution transmittances and radiances for the full range of current MODTRAN applications. In particular, introducing the LBL feature into MODTRAN will enable first-principle calculations of scattered radiances, an option that is often not readily available with LBL models. MODTRAN will compute LBL transmittances within one 0.1 cm-1 spectral bin at a time, marching through the full requested band pass. The LBL algorithm will use the highly accurate, pressure- and temperature-dependent MODTRAN Padé approximant fits of the contribution from line tails to define the absorption from all molecular transitions centered more than 0.05 cm-1 from each 0.1 cm-1 spectral bin. The beauty of this approach is that the on-the-fly computations for each 0.1 cm-1 bin will only require explicit LBL summing of transitions centered within a 0.2 cm-1 spectral region. That is, the contribution from the more distant lines will be pre-computed via the Padé approximants. The status of the LBL effort will be presented. This will include initial thermal and solar radiance calculations, validation calculations, and self-validations of the MODTRAN band model against its own LBL calculations.

  3. Indium determination by spectral overlappings of lines in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.J.; Huicque, L. d'; Garcia Vior, L.O.

    1991-01-01

    A molybdenum hollow-cathode lamp filled with neon can be used to determine indium. Characteristic concentration for this element is 4.5 mg/L in the 325 nm spectral region for the Mo(I) 325.621 nm line. In addition, values of 0.4 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L are obtained with the Mo(I) 410.215 nm and Ne(I) 451.151 nm lines, respectively. These spectral overlappings allow the determination of indium in silver-cadmium-indium alloys. (Author) [es

  4. Seeing the Unseen: MIR Spectroscopic Constraints on Quasar Big Blue Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Hines, Dean; Leighly, Karen; Ogle, Patrick; Richards, Gordon

    2008-03-01

    The IRS on Spitzer offers an exciting opportunity for detailed, mid-infrared spectroscopy of z~2 quasars for the first time. This epoch, sampling the peak of the quasar luminosity evolution, is particularly important for understanding the nature of quasar activity in the most massive galaxies. We aim to use this powerful tool to constrain the shape and power of the far-ultraviolet through soft-X-ray ionizing continuum of luminous quasars. Though these so-called `big blue bumps' dominate the power of quasar spectral energy distributions, they are largely unobservable as a result of hydrogen opacity in the Universe. However, we can determine the properties of the big blue bump by studying emission lines from ions in the coronal line region that emit in the mid-infrared and are created by those same energetic and elusive photons. We propose deep, high quality IRS observations of 5 luminous quasars with a range of HeII emission properties to investigate the mid-infrared spectral region in depth and constrain the shape of the ionizing continuum in each quasar. In addition, these high S/N spectra will provide templates for interpreting lower resolution, lower S/N IRS spectra.

  5. Experimental Line List of Water Vapor Absorption Lines in the Spectral Ranges 1850 - 2280 CM-1 and 2390-4000 CM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Joep; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2017-06-01

    A new experimental line parameter list of water vapor absorption lines in the spectral ranges 1850 - 2280 cm-1 and 2390 - 4000 cm-1 is presented. The line list is based on the analysis of several transmittance spectra measured using a Bruker IFS 125 HR high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 54 measurements of pure water and water/air-mixtures at 296 K as well as water/air-mixtures at high and low temperatures were performed. A multispectrum fitting approach was used applying a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision line shape model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation in order to retrieve line positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening parameters, their speed-dependence, self- and air-shifts as well as line mixing and in some cases collisional narrowing parameters. Additionally, temperature dependence parameters for widths, shifts and in a few cases line mixing were retrieved. For every parameter an extensive error estimation calculation was performed identifying and specifying systematic error sources. The resulting parameters are compared to the databases HITRAN12 as well as experimental values. For intensities, a detailed comparison to results of recent ab initio calculations performed at University College London was done showing an agreement within 2 % for a majority of the data. However, for some bands there are systematic deviations attributed to ab initio calculation errors. .H. Ngo et al. JQSRT 129, 89-100 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.05.034; JQSRT 134, 105 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.016. H. Tran et al. JQSRT 129, 199-203 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.06.015; JQSRT 134, 104 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.015. L.S. Rothman et al. JQSRT 130, 4-50 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.002. N. Jacquinet-Husson et al. JMS 112, 2395-2445 (2016) doi:10.1016/j.jms.2016.06.007.

  6. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  7. The SLUGGS survey: globular cluster stellar population trends from weak absorption lines in stacked spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Conroy, Charlie; Foster, Caroline; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Arnold, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey, we stack 1137 Keck DEIMOS (Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph) spectra of globular clusters from 10 galaxies to study their stellar populations in detail. The stacked spectra have median signal-to-noise ratios of ˜90 Å-1. Besides the calcium triplet, we study weaker sodium, magnesium, titanium and iron lines as well as the Hα and higher order Paschen hydrogen lines. In general, the stacked spectra are consistent with old ages and a Milky Way-like initial mass function. However, we see different metal line index strengths at fixed colour and magnitude, and differences in the calcium triplet-colour relation from galaxy to galaxy. We interpret this as strong evidence for variations in the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation between galaxies. Two possible explanations for the colour-metallicity relation variations are that the average ages of globular clusters vary from galaxy to galaxy or that the average abundances of light elements (i.e. He, C, N and O) differ between galaxies. Stacking spectra by magnitude, we see that the colours become redder and metal line indices stronger with brighter magnitudes. These trends are consistent with the previously reported `blue tilts' being mass-metallicity relations.

  8. Far infrared peculiar behavior of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulin; Liu Jiying

    1988-09-01

    Many quasars possibly have nebulous envelopes with far infrared radiation. These nebulosities may be similar to fuzz in the optical region in morphology. These quasars have many properties in common. (author). Refs, 3 figs

  9. The statistics of radio emission from quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Miller, L.; Longair, M.S.; Edinburgh Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The radio properties of quasars have traditionally been discussed in terms of the radio-to-optical flux-density ratio R, implying a correlation between emission in these wavebands. It is here shown that, for bright quasars, this apparent correlation is largely due to an abrupt change in the radio properties of the quasar population near absolute magnitude Msub(B)=-24. It is suggested that this change in due to the existence of two classes of quasar with differing host galaxies: a proportion of quasars brighter than Msub(B)approx.=-24 lie in elliptical galaxies and thus generate powerful radio sources, while elliptical galaxies with weaker nuclear quasar components are classified as N-galaxies rather than quasars; quasars fainter than Msub(B)approx.=-24 lie in spiral galaxies and thus are high-luminosity analogues of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. (author)

  10. Interstellar Gas-phase Element Depletions in the Small Magellanic Cloud: A Guide to Correcting for Dust in QSO Absorption Line Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Edward B. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Wallerstein, George, E-mail: ebj@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: walleg@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Seattle, Dept. of Astronomy, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present data on the gas-phase abundances for 9 different elements in the interstellar medium of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), based on the strengths of ultraviolet absorption features over relevant velocities in the spectra of 18 stars within the SMC. From this information and the total abundances defined by the element fractions in young stars in the SMC, we construct a general interpretation on how these elements condense into solid form onto dust grains. As a group, the elements Si, S, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn exhibit depletion sequences similar to those in the local part of our Galaxy defined by Jenkins. The elements Mg and Ti deplete less rapidly in the SMC than in the Milky Way, and Mn depletes more rapidly. We speculate that these differences might be explained by the different chemical affinities to different existing grain substrates. For instance, there is evidence that the mass fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the SMC are significantly lower than those in the Milky Way. We propose that the depletion sequences that we observed for the SMC may provide a better model for interpreting the element abundances in low-metallicity Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption systems that are recorded in the spectra of distant quasars and gamma-ray burst afterglows.

  11. Molecular hydrogen in the z = 2.811 absorbing material toward the quasar PKS 0528-250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levshakov, S.A.; Varshalovich, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Among the previously unidentified absorbtion features in the spectrum of the quasar PKS 0528-250 obtained by previous authors tentative evidence has been found for H 2 lines at the same redshift (z = 2.811) as that of the well-known absorption-line system. The column density of molecules has been estimated from the curve of growth; the fraction of H 2 appears to be about 2 x 10 -5 . The ortho- to para-H 2 ratio corresponds to the excitation temperature of Tsub(ex)(H 2 ) = 300 +- 150 K, though the upper rotational levels J >= 3 turn out be overpopulated. The results obtained seem to provide substantial evidence for the existence of molecular hydrogen at the early cosmological epoch with z approx. 3. (author)

  12. Optical spectral properties of active galactic nuclei and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Four separate investigations dealing with the properties of optical continuum and emission-lines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars are presented. Multichannel scans of 3CR radio galaxies are decomposed by using a two-component model-an elliptical galaxy and a power-law nonthermal component. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the luminosity of the power-law component and the strength of the Balmer emission-lines. In most cases, by extrapolating to the Lyman continuum, the power-law models derived provide enough ionizing radiation to account for the Balmer line strengths. Extending the study of radio galaxies to include Seyfert galaxies and quasars, it is found that there is a strong continuity between broad-line AGN's and quasars in terms of similarities in the correlations between line luminosities and nonthermal continuum luminosity. Next, a study of the variability of absolute optical energy distribution and emission-lines of the N-galaxies 3C382 and 3C390.3 is made. Lastly, a preliminary study of surface photometry of Markarian Seyfert galaxies are presented. It is found that the properties of the underlying galaxies such as scale-length and surface brightness of the disk, color, and total brightness, do not depart systematically from those of luminous normal spiral galaxies

  13. X-Ray Observations of Optically Selected, Radio-quiet Quasars. I. The ASCA Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, I. M.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.; Netzer, H.; Laor, A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Nandra, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2000-03-01

    We present the result of 27 ASCA observations of 26 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) from the Palomar-Green (PG) survey. The sample is not statistically complete, but it is reasonably representative of RQQs in the PG survey. For many of the sources, the ASCA data are presented here for the first time. All the RQQs were detected except for two objects, both of which contain broad absorption lines in the optical band. We find the variability characteristics of the sources to be consistent with Seyfert 1 galaxies. A power law offers an acceptable description of the time-averaged spectra in the 2-10 keV (quasar frame) band for all but one data set. The best-fitting values of the photon index vary from object to object over the range 1.5~=2 and dispersion σ(Γ2-10)~=0.25. The distribution of Γ2-10 is therefore similar to that observed in other RQ active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and seems to be unrelated to X-ray luminosity. No single model adequately describes the full 0.6-10 keV (observed frame) continuum of all the RQQs. Approximately 50% of the sources can be adequately described by a single power law or by a power law with only very subtle deviations. All but one of the remaining data sets were found to have convex spectra (flattening as one moves to higher energies). The exception is PG 1411+442, in which a substantial column density (NH,z~2x1023 cm-2) obscures ~98% of the continuum. We find only five (maybe six) of 14 objects with z<~0.25 to have ``soft excesses'' at energies <~1 keV, but we find no universal shape for these spectral components. The spectrum of PG 1244+026 contains a rather narrow emission feature centered at an energy ~1 keV (quasar frame). The detection rate of absorption due to ionized material in these RQQs is lower than that seen in Seyfert 1 galaxies. In part, this may be due to selection effects. However, when detected, the absorbers in the RQQs exhibit a similar range of column density and ionization parameter as Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of the detailed iron absorption line profiles from thermal winds in X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Ryota; Done, Chris; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2018-05-01

    Blueshifted absorption lines from highly ionized iron are seen in some high inclination X-ray binary systems, indicating the presence of an equatorial disc wind. This launch mechanism is under debate, but thermal driving should be ubiquitous. X-ray irradiation from the central source heats disc surface, forming a wind from the outer disc where the local escape velocity is lower than the sound speed. The mass-loss rate from each part of the disc is determined by the luminosity and spectral shape of the central source. We use these together with an assumed density and velocity structure of the wind to predict the column density and ionization state, then combine this with a Monte Carlo radiation transfer to predict the detailed shape of the absorption (and emission) line profiles. We test this on the persistent wind seen in the bright neutron star binary GX 13+1, with luminosity L/LEdd ˜ 0.5. We approximately include the effect of radiation pressure because of high luminosity, and compute line features. We compare these to the highest resolution data, the Chandra third-order grating spectra, which we show here for the first time. This is the first physical model for the wind in this system, and it succeeds in reproducing many of the features seen in the data, showing that the wind in GX13+1 is most likely a thermal-radiation driven wind. This approach, combined with better streamline structures derived from full radiation hydrodynamic simulations, will allow future calorimeter data to explore the detail wind structure.

  15. The Physical Driver of the Optical Eigenvector 1 in Quasar Main Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Swayamtrupta; Czerny, Bożena [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Wildy, Conor, E-mail: panda@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-11-07

    Quasars are complex sources, characterized by broad band spectra from radio through optical to X-ray band, with numerous emission and absorption features. This complexity leads to rich diagnostics. However, Boroson and Green (1992) used Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and with this analysis they were able to show significant correlations between the measured parameters. The leading component, related to Eigenvector 1 (EV1) was dominated by the anticorrelation between the FeII optical emission and [OIII] line and EV1 alone contained 30% of the total variance. It opened a way in defining a quasar main sequence, in close analogy to the stellar main sequence on the Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram (Sulentic et al., 2001). The question still remains which of the basic theoretically motivated parameters of an active nucleus (Eddington ratio, black hole mass, accretion rate, spin, and viewing angle) is the main driver behind the EV1. Here we limit ourselves to the optical waveband, and concentrate on theoretical modeling the FeII to Hβ ratio, and we test the hypothesis that the physical driver of EV1 is the maximum of the accretion disk temperature, reflected in the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED). We performed computations of the Hβ and optical FeII for a broad range of SED peak position using CLOUDY photoionisation code. We assumed that both Hβ and FeII emission come from the Broad Line Region represented as a constant density cloud in a plane-parallel geometry. We expected that a hotter disk continuum will lead to more efficient production of FeII but our computations show that the FeII to Hβ ratio actually drops with the rise of the disk temperature. Thus either hypothesis is incorrect, or approximations used in our paper for the description of the line emissivity is inadequate.

  16. The Physical Driver of the Optical Eigenvector 1 in Quasar Main Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swayamtrupta Panda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasars are complex sources, characterized by broad band spectra from radio through optical to X-ray band, with numerous emission and absorption features. This complexity leads to rich diagnostics. However, Boroson and Green (1992 used Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and with this analysis they were able to show significant correlations between the measured parameters. The leading component, related to Eigenvector 1 (EV1 was dominated by the anticorrelation between the FeII optical emission and [OIII] line and EV1 alone contained 30% of the total variance. It opened a way in defining a quasar main sequence, in close analogy to the stellar main sequence on the Hertzsprung-Russel (HR diagram (Sulentic et al., 2001. The question still remains which of the basic theoretically motivated parameters of an active nucleus (Eddington ratio, black hole mass, accretion rate, spin, and viewing angle is the main driver behind the EV1. Here we limit ourselves to the optical waveband, and concentrate on theoretical modeling the FeII to Hβ ratio, and we test the hypothesis that the physical driver of EV1 is the maximum of the accretion disk temperature, reflected in the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED. We performed computations of the Hβ and optical FeII for a broad range of SED peak position using CLOUDY photoionisation code. We assumed that both Hβ and FeII emission come from the Broad Line Region represented as a constant density cloud in a plane-parallel geometry. We expected that a hotter disk continuum will lead to more efficient production of FeII but our computations show that the FeII to Hβ ratio actually drops with the rise of the disk temperature. Thus either hypothesis is incorrect, or approximations used in our paper for the description of the line emissivity is inadequate.

  17. A Limit on the Warm Dark Matter Particle Mass from the Redshifted 21 cm Absorption Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Scannapieco, Evan; Babul, Arif

    2018-06-01

    The recent Experiment to Detect the Global Epoch of Reionization Signature (EDGES) collaboration detection of an absorption signal at a central frequency of ν = 78 ± 1 MHz points to the presence of a significant Lyα background by a redshift of z = 18. The timing of this signal constrains the dark matter particle mass (m χ ) in the warm dark matter (WDM) cosmological model. WDM delays the formation of small-scale structures, and therefore a stringent lower limit can be placed on m χ based on the presence of a sufficiently strong Lyα background due to star formation at z = 18. Our results show that coupling the spin temperature to the gas through Lyα pumping requires a minimum mass of m χ > 3 keV if atomic cooling halos dominate the star formation rate at z = 18, and m χ > 2 keV if {{{H}}}2 cooling halos also form stars efficiently at this redshift. These limits match or exceed the most stringent limits cited to date in the literature, even in the face of the many uncertainties regarding star formation at high redshift.

  18. In-Line Capacitance Sensor for Real-Time Water Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Perusich, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A capacitance/dielectric sensor was designed, constructed, and used to measure in real time the in-situ water concentration in a desiccant water bed. Measurements were carried out with two experimental setups: (1) passing nitrogen through a humidity generator and allowing the gas stream to become saturated at a measured temperature and pressure, and (2) injecting water via a syringe pump into a nitrogen stream. Both water vapor generating devices were attached to a downstream vertically-mounted water capture bed filled with 19.5 g of Moisture Gone desiccant. The sensor consisted of two electrodes: (1) a 1/8" dia stainless steel rod placed in the middle of the bed and (2) the outer shell of the stainless steel bed concentric with the rod. All phases of the water capture process (background, heating, absorption, desorption, and cooling) were monitored with capacitance. The measured capacitance was found to vary linearly with the water content in the bed at frequencies above 100 kHz indicating dipolar motion dominated the signal; below this frequency, ionic motion caused nonlinearities in the water concentration/capacitance relationship. The desiccant exhibited a dielectric relaxation whose activation energy was lowered upon addition of water indicating either a less hindered rotational motion or crystal reorientation.

  19. Intersstellar absorption lines between 2000 and 3000 A in nearby stars observed with BUSS. [Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, K. S.; Lenhart, H.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Kamperman, T. M.; Kondo, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained between 2000 and 3000 A with the Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (BUSS) payload were examined for interstellar absorption lines. In bright stars, with spectral types between O9V and F5V, such lines were measured of Mg I, Mg II, Cr II, Mn II, Fe II and Zn II, with Cr II and Zn II data of especially high quality. Column densities were derived and interstellar abundances were determined for the above species. It was found that metal depletion increases with increasing E(B-V); Fe was most affected and Zn showed a small depletion for E(B-V) greater than 0.3 towards Sco-Oph. The metal column densities, derived for Alpha-And, Kappa-Dra, Alpha-Com, Alpha-Aql, and 29 Cyg were used to infer N(H I). It was shown that the ratio of Mg I to Na I is instrumental in determining the ionization structure along each line of sight. The spectra of Aql stars confirms the presence of large gas densities near Alpha-Oph. Moreover, data indicated that the Rho-Oph N(H I) value needs to be altered to 35 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm, based on observed ion ratios and analysis of the Copernicus L-alpha profile.

  20. Star Formation in Dusty Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Stuart; Croom, Scott

    2012-04-01

    Quasar mode feedback is thought to be a crucial ingredient in galaxy formation for luminous merging and star-bursting systems at high redshift. The energy from the active nucleus should cause significant gas outflows, reducing the available free gas reservoir for future star formation. It is currently unknown which observational state best corresponds to the stage at which this "blowout" should occur. We intend to test one possible source population for this transition phase, by studying the molecular gas content in a small, statistically complete sample of 3 K-band selected reddened quasars from the AUS survey. All lie in the redshift range 2quasar activity in typical galaxies, where we also expect the bulk of the stars for form as well.

  1. A DISTANT QUASAR'S BRILLIANT LIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The arrow in this image, taken by a ground-based telescope, points to a distant quasar, the brilliant core of an active galaxy residing billions of light-years from Earth. As light from this faraway object travels across space, it picks up information on galaxies and the vast clouds of material between galaxies as it moves through them. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope decoded the quasar's light to find the spectral 'fingerprints' of highly ionized (energized) oxygen, which had mixed with invisible clouds of hydrogen in intergalactic space. The quasar's brilliant beam pierced at least four separate filaments of the invisible hydrogen laced with the telltale oxygen. The presence of oxygen between the galaxies implies there are huge quantities of hydrogen in the universe. Credits: WIYN Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. The telescope is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

  2. The statistics of quasar-galaxy separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.

    1983-01-01

    One of the arguments put forward in favor of physical associations between low redshift galaxies and high redshift quasars is shown to be void. The argument is based on the form of the relationship for 'close' pairs of quasars and galaxies and on the size of their separations. Simple statistical reasoning based on selection effects shows that the relationship for quasar-galaxy pairs is expected if the objects are not physically associated. Further, the actual separations of the closest pairs are in close agreement with those expected given the observed numbers of nearby galaxies and the total number of known quasars. This argument avoids the controversial number density of quasars

  3. TESTING THE POSSIBLE INTRINSIC ORIGIN OF THE EXCESS VERY STRONG Mg II ABSORBERS ALONG GAMMA-RAY BURST LINES-OF-SIGHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiara, A.; Jones, T.; Charlton, J. C.; Fox, D. B.; Einsig, D.; Narayanan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The startling discovery by Prochter et al. that the frequency of very strong (W r (2796)>1 A) Mg II absorbers along gamma-ray burst (GRB) lines of sight ([dN/dz] GRB = 0.90) is more than three times the frequency along quasar lines of sight ([dN/dz] QSO = 0.24), over similar redshift ranges, has yet to be understood. In particular, explanations appealing to dust antibias in quasar samples, partial covering of the quasar sources, and gravitational-lensing amplification of the GRBs have all been carefully examined and found wanting. We therefore reconsider the possibility that the excess of very strong Mg II absorbers toward GRBs is intrinsic either to the GRBs themselves or to their immediate environment, and associated with bulk outflows with velocities as large as v max ∼ 0.3c. In order to examine this hypothesis, we accumulate a sample of 27 W r (2796)>1 A absorption systems found toward 81 quasars, and compare their properties to those of 8 W r (2796) > 1 A absorption systems found toward six GRBs; all systems have been observed at high spectral resolution (R = 45, 000) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. We make multiple comparisons of the absorber properties across the two populations, testing for differences in metallicity, ionization state, abundance patterns, dust abundance, kinematics, and phase structure. We find no significant differences between the two absorber populations using any of these metrics, implying that, if the excess of absorbers along GRB lines of sight are indeed intrinsic, they must be produced by a process which has strong similarities to the processes yielding strong Mg II systems associated with intervening galaxies. Although this may seem a priori unlikely, given the high outflow velocities required for any intrinsic model, we note that the same conclusion was reached, recently, with respect to the narrow absorption line systems seen in some quasars.

  4. Thermal Boundary Layer Effects on Line-of-Sight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Gas Concentration Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhechao; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2018-06-01

    The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified. A CO 2 TDLAS spectrometer, which has two gas cells to generate the spatial temperature gradients, was employed to validate the simulation results. The measured deviations and LOS averaged collisional widths are in very good agreement with the simulated results for conditions with different temperature gradients. We demonstrate quantification of thermal boundary layers' thickness with proposed method by exploitation of the LOS averaged the collisional width of the path-integrated spectrum.

  5. The discovery of timescale-dependent color variability of quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu-Han; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Yang [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya, E-mail: sunyh92@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey g- and r-band photometric monitoring data for quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits the opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ∼10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5; thus, it cannot be due to contamination to broadband photometry from emission lines that do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component such as the host galaxy. It cannot be interpreted as changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored in the sense that fluctuations in the inner, hotter region of the disk are responsible for short-term variations, while longer-term and stronger variations are expected from the larger and cooler disk region. An interesting implication is that one can use quasar variations at different timescales to probe disk emission at different radii.

  6. AN STIS ATLAS OF Ca II TRIPLET ABSORPTION LINE KINEMATICS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheldor, D.; Mandalou, J.; Axon, D.; Valluri, M.; Merritt, D.

    2013-01-01

    The relations observed between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest a fundamental link in the processes that cause these two objects to evolve. A more comprehensive understanding of these relations could be gained by increasing the number of supermassive black hole mass (M . ) measurements. This can be achieved, in part, by continuing to model the stellar dynamics at the centers of galactic bulges using data of the highest possible spatial resolution. Consequently, we present here an atlas of galaxies in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) data archive that may have spectra suitable for new M . estimates. Archived STIS G750M data for all non-barred galactic bulges are co-aligned and combined, where appropriate, and the radial signal-to-noise ratios calculated. The line-of-sight velocity distributions from the Ca II triplet are then determined using a maximum penalized likelihood method. We find 19 out of 42 galaxies may provide useful new M . estimates since they are found to have data that is comparable in quality with data that has been used in the past to estimate M . . However, we find no relation between the signal-to-noise ratio in the previously analyzed spectra and the uncertainties of the black hole masses derived from the spectra. We also find that there is a very limited number of appropriately observed stellar templates in the archive from which to estimate the effects of template mismatching

  7. Primary orbit and the absorption lines of HDE 226868 (Cygnus X-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkov, Z.; Walker, G.A.H.; Yang, S.

    1987-01-01

    From Reticon spectra of about 1 A resolution taken between 1980 and 1984, the radial velocity curve of HDE 226868 is found to be characteristic of a single-line spectroscopic binary with K = 75.0 + or - 1.0 km/s and e = 0.0. Combining historical velocities from the literature with present data and applying a period-folding analysis, a period of 5.59964 + or - 0.00001 days is found. These values agree well with those published by Gies and Bolton (1982). The value of v sin i is estimated to be 94.3 + or - 5 km/s from CFHT Reticon spectra taken at 0.1 A resolution. Assuming that the rotation of the primary is synchronized to the orbital revolution of the secondary gives a primary to secondary mass ratio between 1.5 and 2.3. An absolute magnitude of -6.5 + or - 0.2 is derived from the equivalent width of H-gamma (1.5 + or - 0.1 A) and the calibration of Walker and Millward (1985), which is consistent with the spectral classification of O9.7 Iab. Assuming 20 solar masses as a reasonable estimate for the mass of the primary implies a mass of 10 + or - 1 solar masses for the secondary. 62 references

  8. Brush border membrane vesicle and Caco-2 cell line: Two experimental models for evaluation of absorption enhancing effects of saponins, bile salts, and some synthetic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of absorption enhancers in the uptake of hydrophilic compounds. The permeation of the two hydrophilic drug models gentamicin and 5 (6-carboxyfluorescein (CF across the brush border membrane vesicles and Caco-2 cell lines were evaluated using total saponins of Acanthophyllum squarrosum, Quillaja saponaria, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium glycocholate, sodium taurodeoxycholate , and Tween 20 as absorption enhancers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER measurement was utilized to assess the paracellular permeability of cell lines. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM was performed to obtain images of the distribution of CF in Caco-2 cells. These compounds were able to loosen tight junctions, thus increasing paracellular permeability. CLSM confirmed the effect of these absorption enhancers on CF transport across Caco-2 lines and increased the Caco-2 permeability via transcellular route. It was also confirmed that the decrease in TEER was transient and reversible after removal of permeation enhancers.

  9. Axions and polarisation of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payez, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Hutsemekers, D.

    2008-01-01

    We present results showing that, thanks to axion-photon mixing in external magnetic fields, it is actually possible to produce an effect similar to the one needed to explain the large-scale coherent orientations of quasar polarisation vectors in visible light that have been observed in some regions of the sky

  10. IRAS 10479 - 2808: a quasar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clowes, R.G.; Leggett, S.K.; Savage, A.

    1991-01-01

    The IRAS point source 10479-2808 is a quasar with B J ∼ 16 and z = 0.190. It is not in the Parkes and Molonglo radio catalogues. At the resolution of the UK and ESO Schmidt telescopes it appears to be star-like, with no sign of surrounding fuzz or interactions; it is probably optically variable. (author)

  11. The methane absorption spectrum near 1.73 μm (5695-5850 cm-1): Empirical line lists at 80 K and 296 K and rovibrational assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, M.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Nikitin, A. V.; Rey, M.; Campargue, A.

    2018-07-01

    The methane absorption spectrum is studied at 297 K and 80 K in the center of the Tetradecad between 5695 and 5850 cm-1. The spectra are recorded by differential absorption spectroscopy (DAS) with a noise equivalent absorption of about αmin≈ 1.5 × 10-7 cm-1. Two empirical line lists are constructed including about 4000 and 2300 lines at 297 K and 80 K, respectively. Lines due to 13CH4 present in natural abundance were identified by comparison with a spectrum of pure 13CH4 recorded in the same temperature conditions. About 1700 empirical values of the lower state energy level, Eemp, were derived from the ratios of the line intensities at 80 K and 296 K. They provide accurate temperature dependence for most of the absorption in the region (93% and 82% at 80 K and 296 K, respectively). The quality of the derived empirical values is illustrated by the clear propensity of the corresponding lower state rotational quantum number, Jemp, to be close to integer values. Using an effective Hamiltonian model derived from a previously published ab initio potential energy surface, about 2060 lines are rovibrationnally assigned, adding about 1660 new assignments to those provided in the HITRAN database for 12CH4 in the region.

  12. Optical and mechanical design of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) beam-line at Indus-II synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.C.; Jha, S.N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sinha, A.K.; Mishra, V.K.; Verma, Vishnu; Ghosh, A.K.

    2002-11-01

    An extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) beam line for x-ray absorption studies using energy dispersive geometry and position sensitive detector is being designed for the INDUS-II Synchrotron source. The beam line would be used for doing x-ray absorption experiments involving measurements of fme structures above the absorption edge of different species of atoms in a material The results of the above experiments would lead to the determination of different important structural parameters of materials viz.. inter-atomic distance. co-ordination number, degree of disorder and radial distribution function etc. The optical design of the beam line has been completed based on the working principle that a single crystal bent in the shape of an ellipse by a crystal bender would act as a dispersing as well as focusing element. The mechanical design of the beam line including the crystal bender has also been completed and discussed here. Calculations have been done to detennine the temperature profile on the different components of the beam line under exposure to synchrotron radiation and proper cooling channels have been designed to bring down the heat load on the components. (author)

  13. Absorption-line detections of 105-106 K gas in spiral-rich groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocke, John T.; Keeney, Brian A.; Danforth, Charles W.; Syphers, David; Yamamoto, H.; Shull, J. Michael; Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia; Savage, Blair D.; Wakker, Bart; Kim, Tae-Sun; Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.

    2014-01-01

    Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, the COS Science Team has conducted a high signal-to-noise survey of 14 bright QSOs. In a previous paper, these far-UV spectra were used to discover 14 'warm' (T ≥ 10 5 K) absorbers using a combination of broad Lyα and broad O VI absorptions. A reanalysis of a few of this new class of absorbers using slightly relaxed fitting criteria finds as many as 20 warm absorbers could be present in this sample. A shallow, wide spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey has been conducted around these sight lines to investigate the warm absorber environment, which is found to be spiral-rich groups or cluster outskirts with radial velocity dispersions σ = 250-750 km s –1 . While 2σ evidence is presented favoring the hypothesis that these absorptions are associated with the galaxy groups and not with the individual, nearest galaxies, this evidence has considerable systematic uncertainties and is based on a small sample size so it is not entirely conclusive. If the associations are with galaxy groups, the observed frequency of warm absorbers (dN/dz = 3.5-5 per unit redshift) requires them to be very extended as an ensemble on the sky (∼1 Mpc in radius at high covering factor). Most likely these warm absorbers are interface gas clouds whose presence implies the existence of a hotter (T ∼ 10 6.5 K), diffuse, and probably very massive (>10 11 M ☉ ) intra-group medium which has yet to be detected directly.

  14. Gemini Near-infrared Spectroscopy of Luminous z~6 Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    We present Gemini near-infrared spectroscopic observations of six luminous quasars at z=5.8$\\sim$6.3. Five of them were observed using Gemini-South/GNIRS, which provides a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.9--2.5 $\\mu$m in cross dispersion mode. The other source was observed in K band...... with Gemini-North/NIRI. We calculate line strengths for all detected emission lines and use their ratios to estimate gas metallicity in the broad-line regions of the quasars. The metallicity is found to be supersolar with a typical value of $\\sim$4 Z_{\\sun}, and a comparison with low-redshift observations...... shows no strong evolution in metallicity up to z$\\sim$6. The FeII/MgII ratio of the quasars is 4.9+/-1.4, consistent with low-redshift measurements. We estimate central BH masses of 10^9 to 10^{10} M_{\\sun} and Eddington luminosity ratios of order unity. We identify two MgII $\\lambda\\lambda$2796...

  15. NuSTAR Reveals Relativistic Reflection But No Ultra-Fast Outflow in the Quasar Pg∼1211+143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi, A.; Miller, J. M.; Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on four epochs of observations of the quasar PG 1211+143 using NuSTAR. The net exposure time is 300 ks. Prior work on this source found suggestive evidence of an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) in the Fe K band with a velocity of approximately 0.1c. The putative flow would carry away a high-mass flux and kinetic power, with broad implications for feedback and black hole--galaxy co-evolution. NuSTAR detects PG 1211+143 out to 30 keV, meaning that the continuum is well-defined both through and above the Fe K band. A characteristic relativistic disk reflection spectrum is clearly revealed via a broad Fe K emission line and Compton back-scattering curvature. The data offer only weak constraints on the spin of the black hole. A careful search for UFOs shows no significant absorption feature above 90% confidence. The limits are particularly tight when relativistic reflection is included. We discuss the statistics and the implications of these results in terms of connections between accretion onto quasars, Seyferts, and stellar-mass black holes, and feedback into their host environments.

  16. NuSTAR REVEALS RELATIVISTIC REFLECTION BUT NO ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOW IN THE QUASAR PG 1211+143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, A.; Miller, J. M.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on four epochs of observations of the quasar PG 1211+143 using NuSTAR. The net exposure time is 300 ks. Prior work on this source found suggestive evidence of an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) in the Fe K band with a velocity of approximately 0.1c. The putative flow would carry away a high-mass flux and kinetic power, with broad implications for feedback and black hole--galaxy co-evolution. NuSTAR detects PG 1211+143 out to 30 keV, meaning that the continuum is well-defined both through and above the Fe K band. A characteristic relativistic disk reflection spectrum is clearly revealed via a broad Fe K emission line and Compton back-scattering curvature. The data offer only weak constraints on the spin of the black hole. A careful search for UFOs shows no significant absorption feature above 90% confidence. The limits are particularly tight when relativistic reflection is included. We discuss the statistics and the implications of these results in terms of connections between accretion onto quasars, Seyferts, and stellar-mass black holes, and feedback into their host environments

  17. NuSTAR REVEALS RELATIVISTIC REFLECTION BUT NO ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOW IN THE QUASAR PG 1211+143

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoghbi, A.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Walton, D. J.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harrison, F. A. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Reynolds, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space. National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Zhang, W. W., E-mail: abzoghbi@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We report on four epochs of observations of the quasar PG 1211+143 using NuSTAR. The net exposure time is 300 ks. Prior work on this source found suggestive evidence of an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) in the Fe K band with a velocity of approximately 0.1c. The putative flow would carry away a high-mass flux and kinetic power, with broad implications for feedback and black hole--galaxy co-evolution. NuSTAR detects PG 1211+143 out to 30 keV, meaning that the continuum is well-defined both through and above the Fe K band. A characteristic relativistic disk reflection spectrum is clearly revealed via a broad Fe K emission line and Compton back-scattering curvature. The data offer only weak constraints on the spin of the black hole. A careful search for UFOs shows no significant absorption feature above 90% confidence. The limits are particularly tight when relativistic reflection is included. We discuss the statistics and the implications of these results in terms of connections between accretion onto quasars, Seyferts, and stellar-mass black holes, and feedback into their host environments.

  18. UV-luminous, star-forming hosts of z ˜ 2 reddened quasars in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethers, C. F.; Banerji, M.; Hewett, P. C.; Lemon, C. A.; McMahon, R. G.; Reed, S. L.; Shen, Y.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; CarrascoKind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first rest-frame UV population study of 17 heavily reddened, high-luminosity [E(B - V)QSO ≳ 0.5; Lbol > 1046 erg s-1] broad-line quasars at 1.5 VISTA Hemisphere Survey and UKIDSS Large Area Survey data, from which the reddened quasars were initially identified. We demonstrate that the significant dust reddening towards the quasar in our sample allows host galaxy emission to be detected at the rest-frame UV wavelengths probed by the DES photometry. By exploiting this reddening effect, we disentangle the quasar emission from that of the host galaxy via spectral energy distribution fitting. We find evidence for a relatively unobscured, star-forming host galaxy in at least 10 quasars, with a further three quasars exhibiting emission consistent with either star formation or scattered light. From the rest-frame UV emission, we derive instantaneous, dust-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) in the range 25 < SFRUV < 365 M⊙ yr-1, with an average SFRUV = 130 ± 95 M⊙ yr-1. We find a broad correlation between SFRUV and the bolometric quasar luminosity. Overall, our results show evidence for coeval star formation and black hole accretion occurring in luminous, reddened quasars at the peak epoch of galaxy formation.

  19. Polarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsemékers, D.; Agís González, B.; Sluse, D.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Acosta Pulido, J.-A.

    2017-07-01

    If the disappearance of the broad emission lines observed in changing-look quasars were caused by the obscuration of the quasar core through moving dust clouds in the torus, high linear polarization typical of type 2 quasars would be expected. We measured the polarization of the changing-look quasar J1011+5442 in which the broad emission lines have disappeared between 2003 and 2015. We found a polarization degree compatible with null polarization. This measurement suggests that the observed change of look is not due to a change of obscuration hiding the continuum source and the broad line region, and that the quasar is seen close to the system axis. Our results thus support the idea that the vanishing of the broad emission lines in J1011+5442 is due to an intrinsic dimming of the ionizing continuum source that is most likely caused by a rapid decrease in the rate of accretion onto the supermassive black hole. Based on observations made with the William Herschel telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  20. On The Dark Side of Quasar Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Menou, Kristen; Haiman, Zoltan

    2004-01-01

    Recent improved determinations of the mass density rho_BH of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the local universe have allowed accurate comparisons of rho_BH with the amount of light received from past quasar activity. These comparisons support the notion that local SMBHs are ``dead quasars'' and yield a value epsilon >~ 0.1 for the average radiative efficiency of cosmic SMBH accretion. BH coalescences may represent an important component of the quasar mass assembly and yet not produce any ...

  1. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  2. Distortion of absorption-line velocity curves due to x-ray heating in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgrom, M.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of X-ray heating on the measured absorption line velocities, in X-ray binaries with low X-rays to optical luminosities ratio are considered. These effects may be appreciable even for such binaries where the effect of X-ray heating on the light-curve is negligible. The effects are studied qualitatively and suggest possible ways to partially eliminate the systematic errors introduced by them. The individual systems Cyg x-1 and SMC x-1 are treated and the results of numerical calculations are presented for them. For Cyg x-1 it is found that the effect is detectable during the X-ray 'high' state in all regions of the spectrum. During the 'low' state it may be important in the red region of the spectrum. The results for the case in which soft X-ray fluxes (E < or approximately .4 keV, suggested by theoretical models) are present are also given. For SMC x-1 a strong effect for Hα, Hβ, Hγ had been found. This effect may be responsible for the observed variable velocity curve. We also find for SMC x-1 that the average X-ray intensity falling on the primary must be considerably smaller than what is derived from the detected flux, or else the effect is too large. (author)

  3. On-line preconcentration and determination of mercury in biological and environmental samples by cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrua, N.; Cerutti, S.; Salonia, J.A.; Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    An on-line procedure for the determination of traces of total mercury in environmental and biological samples is described. The present methodology combines cold vapor generation associated to atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with preconcentration of the analyte on a minicolumn packed with activated carbon. The retained analyte was quantitatively eluted from the minicolumn with nitric acid. After that, volatile specie of mercury was generated by merging the acidified sample and sodium tetrahydroborate(III) in a continuous flow system. The gaseous analyte was subsequently introduced via a stream of Ar carrier into the atomizer device. Optimizations of both, preconcentration and mercury volatile specie generation variables were carried out using two level full factorial design (2 3 ) with 3 replicates of the central point. Considering a sample consumption of 25 mL, an enrichment factor of 13-fold was obtained. The detection limit (3σ) was 10 ng L -1 and the precision (relative standard deviation) was 3.1% (n = 10) at the 5 μg L -1 level. The calibration curve using the preconcentration system for mercury was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 at levels near the detection limit up to at least 1000 μg L -1 . Satisfactory results were obtained for the analysis of mercury in tap water and hair samples

  4. Constraints on gamma-ray burst and supernova progenitors through circumstellar absorption lines : II. Post-LBV Wolf-Rayet stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, A.J.; Langer, N.; Garcia-Segura, G.

    2007-01-01

    Van Marle et al. (2005) showed that circumstellar absorption lines in early Type Ib/c supernova and gamma-ray burst afterglow spectra may reveal the progenitor evolution of the exploding Wolf-Rayet star. While the quoted paper deals with Wolf-Rayet stars which evolved through a red supergiant stage,

  5. CH+(1-0) and 13CH+(1-0) absorption lines in the direction of massive star-forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, E.; Godard, B.; Cernicharo, J.; de Luca, M.; Gerin, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Black, J. H.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T. A.; Boulanger, F.; Coutens, A.; Dartois, E.; Encrenaz, P.; Giesen, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Gry, C.; Hennebelle, P.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Joblin, C.; Kaźmierczak, M.; Kołos, R.; Krełowski, J.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Monje, R.; Mookerjea, B.; Neufeld, D. A.; Perault, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Persson, C.; Plume, R.; Salez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Stutzki, J.; Teyssier, D.; Vastel, C.; Yu, S.; Menten, K.; Geballe, T. R.; Schlemmer, S.; Shipman, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Philipp, S.; Cros, A.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Samoska, L. A.; Klein, K.; Lorenzani, A.; Szczerba, R.; Péron, I.; Cais, P.; Gaufre, P.; Ravera, L.; Morris, P.; Lord, S.; Planesas, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the ground-state rotational transition of the methylidyne cation CH+ and its isotopologue 13CH+ toward the remote massive star-forming regions W33A, W49N, and W51 with the HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite. Both lines are seen only in absorption against the

  6. Determination of cobalt in biological samples by line-source and high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using solid sampling or alkaline treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Furtado da Silva, Alessandra; Borges, Daniel L. Gallindo; Welz, Bernhard; Heitmann, Uwe; Curtius, Adilson Jose

    2005-01-01

    Two procedures for the determination of Co in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) were compared: solid sampling (SS) and alkaline treatment with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using two different instruments for the investigation: a conventional line-source (LS) atomic absorption spectrometer and a prototype high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer. For the direct introduction of the solid samples, certified reference materials (CRM) were ground to a particle size ≤50 μm. Alkaline treatment was carried out by placing about 250 mg of the sample in polypropylene flasks, adding 2 mL of 25% m/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide and de-ionized water. Due to its unique capacity of providing a 3-D spectral plot, a high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used as a tool to evaluate potential spectral interferences, including background absorption for both sample introduction procedures, revealing that a continuous background preceded the atomic signal for pyrolysis temperatures lower than 700 deg. C. Molecular absorption bands with pronounced rotational fine structure appeared for atomization temperatures >1800 deg. C probably as a consequence of the formation of PO. After optimization had been carried out using high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry, the optimized conditions were adopted also for line-source atomic absorption spectrometry. Six biological certified reference materials were analyzed, with calibration against aqueous standards, resulting in agreement with the certified values (according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level) and in detection limits as low as 5 ng g -1

  7. COMPLETE IONIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL GAS: WHY THERE ARE SO FEW DETECTIONS OF 21 cm HYDROGEN IN HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, S. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Whiting, M. T., E-mail: sjc@physics.usyd.edu.au [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2012-11-10

    From the first published z {approx}> 3 survey of 21 cm absorption within the hosts of radio galaxies and quasars, Curran et al. found an apparent dearth of cool neutral gas at high redshift. From a detailed analysis of the photometry, each object is found to have a {lambda} = 1216 A continuum luminosity in excess of L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}, a critical value above which 21 cm has never been detected at any redshift. At these wavelengths, and below, hydrogen is excited above the ground state so that it cannot absorb in 21 cm. In order to apply the equation of photoionization equilibrium, we demonstrate that this critical value also applies to the ionizing ({lambda} {<=} 912 A) radiation. We use this to show, for a variety of gas density distributions, that upon placing a quasar within a galaxy of gas, there is always an ultraviolet luminosity above which all of the large-scale atomic gas is ionized. While in this state, the hydrogen cannot be detected or engage in star formation. Applying the mean ionizing photon rate of all of the sources searched, we find, using canonical values for the gas density and recombination rate coefficient, that the observed critical luminosity gives a scale length (3 kpc) similar that of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Milky Way, a large spiral galaxy. Thus, this simple yet physically motivated model can explain the critical luminosity (L {sub 912} {approx} L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}), above which neutral gas is not detected. This indicates that the non-detection of 21 cm absorption is not due to the sensitivity limits of current radio telescopes, but rather that the lines of sight to the quasars, and probably the bulk of the host galaxies, are devoid of neutral gas.

  8. AGN feedback on molecular gas reservoirs in quasars at z 2.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Feruglio, C.; Brusa, M.; Cresci, G.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Balmaverde, B.; Fiore, F.; Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Sani, E.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.; Testi, L.

    2017-09-01

    We present new ALMA observations aimed at mapping molecular gas reservoirs through the CO(3-2) transition in three quasars at z ≃ 2.4, LBQS 0109+0213, 2QZ J002830.4-281706, and [HB89] 0329-385. Previous [Oiii]λ5007 observations of these quasars showed evidence for ionised outflows quenching star formation in their host galaxies. Systemic CO(3-2) emission has been detected only in one quasar, LBQS 0109+0213, where the CO(3-2) emission is spatially anti-correlated with the ionised outflow, suggesting that most of the molecular gas may have been dispersed or heated in the region swept by the outflow. In all three sources, including the one detected in CO, our constraints on the molecular gas mass indicate a significantly reduced reservoir compared to main-sequence galaxies at the same redshift, supporting a negative feedback scenario. In the quasar 2QZ J002830.4-281706, we tentatively detect an emission line blob blue-shifted by v - 2000 km s-1 with respect to the galaxy systemic velocity and spatially offset by 0.2'' (1.7 kpc) with respect to the ALMA continuum peak. Interestingly, such emission feature is coincident in both velocity and space with the ionised outflow as seen in [Oiii]λ5007. This tentative detection must be confirmed with deeper observations but, if real, it could represent the molecular counterpart of the ionised gas outflow driven by the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Finally, in all ALMA maps we detect the presence of serendipitous line emitters within a projected distance 160 kpc from the quasars. By identifying these features with the CO(3-2) transition, we find that the serendipitous line emitters would be located within | Δv | < 500 km s-1 from the quasars, hence suggesting an overdensity of galaxies in two out of three quasars.

  9. Spectroscopic Observations of the Outflowing Wind in the Lensed Quasar SDSS J1001+5027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Toru; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Koyamada, Suzuka; Itoh, Daisuke

    2018-02-01

    We performed spectroscopic observations of the small-separation lensed quasar SDSS J1001+5027, whose images have an angular separation θ =2\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 86, and placed constraints on the physical properties of gas clouds in the vicinity of the quasar (i.e., in the outflowing wind launched from the accretion disk). The two cylinders of sight to the two lensed images go through the same region of the outflowing wind and they become fully separated with no overlap at a very large distance from the source (∼330 pc). We discovered a clear difference in the profile of the C IV broad absorption line (BAL) detected in the two lensed images in two observing epochs. Because the kinematic components in the BAL profile do not vary in concert, the observed variations cannot be reproduced by a simple change of ionization state. If the variability is due to gas motion around the background source (i.e., the continuum source), the corresponding rotational velocity is {v}rot} ≥ 18,000 km s‑1, and their distance from the source is r≤slant 0.06 pc assuming Keplerian motion. Among three Mg II and three C IV NAL systems that we detected in the spectra, only the Mg II system at {z}abs} = 0.8716 shows a hint of variability in its Mg I profile on a rest-frame timescale of {{Δ }}{t}rest} ≤slant 191 days and an obvious velocity shear between the sightlines whose physical separation is ∼7 kpc. We interpret this as the result of motion of a cosmologically intervening absorber, perhaps located in a foreground galaxy. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  10. Extreme Variability Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, N.; Shen, Yue; Morganson, Eric; Liu, Xin; Banerji, M.; McMahon, R. G.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; (DES Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    We perform a systematic search for long-term extreme variability quasars (EVQs) in the overlapping Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 3 Year Dark Energy Survey imaging, which provide light curves spanning more than 15 years. We identified ∼1000 EVQs with a maximum change in g-band magnitude of more than 1 mag over this period, about 10% of all quasars searched. The EVQs have L bol ∼ 1045–1047 erg s‑1 and L/L Edd ∼ 0.01–1. Accounting for selection effects, we estimate an intrinsic EVQ fraction of ∼30%–50% among all g≲ 22 quasars over a baseline of ∼15 yr. We performed detailed multi-wavelength, spectral, and variability analyses for the EVQs and compared them to their parent quasar sample. We found that EVQs are distinct from a control sample of quasars matched in redshift and optical luminosity: (1) their UV broad emission lines have larger equivalent widths; (2) their Eddington ratios are systematically lower; and (3) they are more variable on all timescales. The intrinsic difference in quasar properties for EVQs suggests that internal processes associated with accretion are the main driver for the observed extreme long-term variability. However, despite their different properties, EVQs seem to be in the tail of a continuous distribution of quasar properties, rather than standing out as a distinct population. We speculate that EVQs are normal quasars accreting at relatively low rates, where the accretion flow is more likely to experience instabilities that drive the changes in flux by a factor of a few on multi-year timescales.

  11. Star formation quenching in quasar host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniani, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionised and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ˜2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [OIII]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e. star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50 - 100 M⊙/yr, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  12. Space Density Of Optically-Selected Type II Quasars From The SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Zakamska, N. L.; Strauss, M. A.; Green, J.; Krolik, J. H.; Shen, Y.; Richards, G. T.

    2007-12-01

    Type II quasars are luminous Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) whose central regions are obscured by large amounts of gas and dust. In this poster, we present a catalog of 887 type II quasars with redshifts z<0.83 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), selected based on their emission lines, and derive the 1/Vmax [OIII] 5007 luminosity function from this sample. Since some objects may not be included in the sample because they lack strong emission lines, the derived luminosity function is only a lower limit. We also derive the [OIII] 5007 luminosity function for a sample of type I (broad-line) quasars in the same redshift range. Taking [OIII] 5007 luminosity as a tracer of intrinsic luminosity in both type I and type II quasars, we obtain lower limits to the type II quasar fraction as a function of [OIII] 5007 luminosity, from L[OIII] = 108.3 to 1010 Lsun, which roughly correspond to bolometric luminosities of 1044 to 1046 erg/s.

  13. Discovery of three z > 6.5 quasars in the VISTA kilo-degree infrared galaxy (VIKING) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venemans, B. P. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Findlay, J. R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Sutherland, W. J. [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); De Rosa, G. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); McMahon, R. G.; González-Solares, E. A.; Lewis, J. R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Simcoe, R. [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kuijken, K., E-mail: venemans@mpia.de [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-12-10

    Studying quasars at the highest redshifts can constrain models of galaxy and black hole formation, and it also probes the intergalactic medium in the early universe. Optical surveys have to date discovered more than 60 quasars up to z ≅ 6.4, a limit set by the use of the z-band and CCD detectors. Only one z ≳ 6.4 quasar has been discovered, namely the z = 7.08 quasar ULAS J1120+0641, using near-infrared imaging. Here we report the discovery of three new z ≳ 6.4 quasars in 332 deg{sup 2} of the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) survey, thus extending the number from 1 to 4. The newly discovered quasars have redshifts of z = 6.60, 6.75, and 6.89. The absolute magnitudes are between –26.0 and –25.5, 0.6-1.1 mag fainter than ULAS J1120+0641. Near-infrared spectroscopy revealed the Mg II emission line in all three objects. The quasars are powered by black holes with masses of ∼(1-2) × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. In our probed redshift range of 6.44 < z < 7.44 we can set a lower limit on the space density of supermassive black holes of ρ(M {sub BH} > 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) > 1.1 × 10{sup –9} Mpc{sup –3}. The discovery of three quasars in our survey area is consistent with the z = 6 quasar luminosity function when extrapolated to z ∼ 7. We do not find evidence for a steeper decline in the space density of quasars with increasing redshift from z = 6 to z = 7.

  14. ABSORPTION-LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED GALAXIES: FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING PHOTONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Ellis, Richard S.; Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jones, Tucker A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The fraction of ionizing photons escaping from high-redshift star-forming galaxies is a key obstacle in evaluating whether galaxies were the primary agents of cosmic reionization. We previously proposed using the covering fraction of low-ionization gas, measured via deep absorption-line spectroscopy, as a proxy. We now present a significant update, sampling seven gravitationally lensed sources at 4 < z < 5. We show that the absorbing gas in our sources is spatially inhomogeneous, with a median covering fraction of 66%. Correcting for reddening according to a dust-in-cloud model, this implies an estimated absolute escape fraction of ≃19% ± 6%. With possible biases and uncertainties, collectively we find that the average escape fraction could be reduced to no less than 11%, excluding the effect of spatial variations. For one of our lensed sources, we have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to demonstrate the presence of such spatial variations and scatter in its dependence on the Ly α equivalent width, consistent with recent simulations. If this source is typical, our lower limit to the escape fraction could be reduced by a further factor ≃2. Across our sample, we find a modest anticorrelation between the inferred escape fraction and the local star formation rate, consistent with a time delay between a burst and leaking Lyman continuum photons. Our analysis demonstrates considerable variations in the escape fraction, consistent with being governed by the small-scale behavior of star-forming regions, whose activities fluctuate over short timescales. This supports the suggestion that the escape fraction may increase toward the reionization era when star formation becomes more energetic and burst-like.

  15. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-type Galaxies from Absorption Line Spectroscopy. I. Data and Empirical Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-11-01

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 μm and 0.72-1.03 μm for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is >~ 200 Å-1 out to 1 μm, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I λ8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH λ9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II λ8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  16. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. I. DATA AND EMPIRICAL TRENDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 μm and 0.72-1.03 μm for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is ∼> 200 Å –1 out to 1 μm, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I λ8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH λ9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II λ8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  17. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Worseck, Gabor [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Hennawi, Joseph F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Crighton, Neil H. M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lukić, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Oñorbe, Jose, E-mail: tschmidt@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-17

    The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of t{sub Q} > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

  18. Lens Model and Time Delay Predictions for the Sextuply Lensed Quasar SDSS J2222+2745*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Dahle, Hakon; Florian, Michael K.; Gladders, Michael D.; Johnson, Traci L.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Rigby, Jane R.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Wuyts, Eva

    2017-01-01

    SDSS J2222+2745 is a galaxy cluster at z = 0.49, strongly lensing a quasar at z = 2.805 into six widely separated images. In recent Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the field, we identify additional multiply lensed galaxies and confirm the sixth quasar image that was identified by Dahle et al. We used the Gemini-North telescope to measure a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.56 of one of the lensed galaxies. These data are used to refine the lens model of SDSS J2222+2745, compute the time delay and magnifications of the lensed quasar images, and reconstruct the source image of the quasar host and a lensed galaxy at z = 2.3. This galaxy also appears in absorption in our Gemini spectra of the lensed quasar, at a projected distance of 34 kpc. Our model is in agreement with the recent time delay measurements of Dahle et al., who found T(sub AB) = 47.7 +/- 6.0 days and T(sub AC) = 722 +/- 24 days. We use the observed time delays to further constrain the model, and find that the model-predicted time delays of the three faint images of the quasar are T(sub AD) = 502+/- 68 days, T( sub AE) = 611 +/- 75 days, and T(sub AF) = 415 +/- 72 days. We have initiated a follow-up campaign to measure these time delays with Gemini North. Finally, we present initial results from an X-ray monitoring program with Swift, indicating the presence of hard X-ray emission from the lensed quasar, as well as extended X-ray emission from the cluster itself, which is consistent with the lensing mass measurement and the cluster velocity dispersion.

  19. LENS MODEL AND TIME DELAY PREDICTIONS FOR THE SEXTUPLY LENSED QUASAR SDSS J2222+2745

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci L.; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bayliss, Matthew B. [Colby College, 5800 Mayflower Hill, Waterville, 04901, Maine (United States); Dahle, Håkon [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Florian, Michael K.; Gladders, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Whitaker, Katherine E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Wuyts, Eva, E-mail: kerens@umich.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    SDSS J2222+2745 is a galaxy cluster at z = 0.49, strongly lensing a quasar at z = 2.805 into six widely separated images. In recent Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the field, we identify additional multiply lensed galaxies and confirm the sixth quasar image that was identified by Dahle et al. We used the Gemini-North telescope to measure a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.56 of one of the lensed galaxies. These data are used to refine the lens model of SDSS J2222+2745, compute the time delay and magnifications of the lensed quasar images, and reconstruct the source image of the quasar host and a lensed galaxy at z = 2.3. This galaxy also appears in absorption in our Gemini spectra of the lensed quasar, at a projected distance of 34 kpc. Our model is in agreement with the recent time delay measurements of Dahle et al., who found τ {sub AB} = 47.7 ± 6.0 days and τ {sub AC} = −722 ± 24 days. We use the observed time delays to further constrain the model, and find that the model-predicted time delays of the three faint images of the quasar are τ {sub AD} = 502 ± 68 days, τ {sub AE} = 611 ± 75 days, and τ {sub AF} = 415 ± 72 days. We have initiated a follow-up campaign to measure these time delays with Gemini North. Finally, we present initial results from an X-ray monitoring program with Swift , indicating the presence of hard X-ray emission from the lensed quasar, as well as extended X-ray emission from the cluster itself, which is consistent with the lensing mass measurement and the cluster velocity dispersion.

  20. Discovery of a Color-selected Quasar at z = 5.50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern; Spinrad; Eisenhardt; Bunker; Dawson; Stanford; Elston

    2000-04-20

    We present observations of RD J030117+002025, a quasar at z=5.50 discovered from deep, multicolor, ground-based observations covering 74 arcmin2. This is the most distant quasar or active galaxy currently known. The object was targeted as an R-band dropout, with RAB>26.3 (3 sigma limit in a 3&arcsec; diameter region), IAB=23.8, and zAB=23.4. The Keck/Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer spectrum shows broad Lyalpha/N v lambda1240 emission and sharp absorption decrements from the highly redshifted hydrogen forests. The fractional continuum depression due to the Lyalpha forest is DA=0.90. RD J030117+002025 is the least luminous high-redshift quasar known (MB approximately -22.7).

  1. Quasars: Active nuclei of young galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    The hypothetical properties of 'young' galaxies and possible methods of observing them are discussed. It is proposed that star formation first takes place in the central regions of protogalaxies which may appear as quasar-like objects. An evolutionary scheme is outlined in which the radio quasars are transformed in time into the nuclei of radio galaxies.

  2. The Ultraluminous X-Ray Source X-37 Is a Background Quasar in the Antennae Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Christopher, M. H.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2005-10-01

    In this Letter we report that a bright, X-ray source in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9), previously identified as an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), is in fact a background quasar. We identify an isolated infrared and optical counterpart within 0.3" +/- 0.5" of the X-ray source X-37. After acquiring an optical spectrum of its counterpart, we use the narrow [O III] and broad Hα emission lines to identify X-37 as a quasar at a redshift of z=0.26. Through a U, V, and Ks photometric analysis, we demonstrate that most of the observable light along this line of sight is from the quasar. We discuss the implications of this discovery and the importance of acquiring spectra for optical and IR counterparts to ULXs.

  3. Phylogenetic Analyses of Quasars and Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Marziani, Paola

    2017-10-01

    Phylogenetic approaches have proven to be useful in astrophysics. We have recently published a Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z phylogeny of quasars may be represented by the ontogeny of their central black hole, i.e. the increase of the black hole mass. However these exciting results are based on a small sample of low-z quasars, so that the work must be extended. We are here faced with two difficulties. The first one is the current lack of a larger sample with similar observables. The second one is the prohibitive computation time to perform a cladistic analysis on more that about one thousand objects. We show in this paper an experimental strategy on about 1500 galaxies to get around this difficulty. Even if it not related to the quasar study, it is interesting by itself and opens new pathways to generalize the quasar findings.

  4. A NEW METHOD TO DIRECTLY MEASURE THE JEANS SCALE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM USING CLOSE QUASAR PAIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorai, Alberto; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Although the baryons in the intergalactic medium (IGM) trace dark matter fluctuations on megaparsec scales, on smaller scales ∼100 kpc, fluctuations are suppressed because the finite temperature gas is pressure supported against gravity, analogous to the classical Jeans argument. This Jeans filtering scale, which quantifies the small-scale structure of the IGM, has fundamental cosmological implications. First, it provides a thermal record of heat injected by ultraviolet photons during cosmic reionization events, and thus constrains the thermal and reionization history of the universe. Second, the Jeans scale determines the clumpiness of the IGM, a critical ingredient in models of cosmic reionization. Third, it sets the minimum mass scale for gravitational collapse from the IGM, and hence plays a pivotal role in galaxy formation. Unfortunately, it is extremely challenging to measure the Jeans scale via the standard technique of analyzing purely longitudinal Lyα forest spectra, because the thermal Doppler broadening of absorption lines along the line-of-sight, is highly degenerate with Jeans smoothing. In this work, we show that the Jeans filtering scale can be directly measured by characterizing the coherence of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, with separations small enough ∼100 kpc to resolve it. We present a novel technique for this purpose, based on the probability density function (PDF) of phase angle differences of homologous longitudinal Fourier modes in close quasar pair spectra. A Bayesian formalism is introduced based on the phase angle PDF, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques are used to characterize the precision of a hypothetical Jeans scale measurement, and explore degeneracies with other thermal parameters governing the IGM. A semi-analytical model of the Lyα forest is used to generate a large grid (500) of thermal models from a dark matter only simulation. Our full parameter study indicates that a realistic sample of

  5. A NEW METHOD TO DIRECTLY MEASURE THE JEANS SCALE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM USING CLOSE QUASAR PAIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorai, Alberto; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); White, Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Although the baryons in the intergalactic medium (IGM) trace dark matter fluctuations on megaparsec scales, on smaller scales ∼100 kpc, fluctuations are suppressed because the finite temperature gas is pressure supported against gravity, analogous to the classical Jeans argument. This Jeans filtering scale, which quantifies the small-scale structure of the IGM, has fundamental cosmological implications. First, it provides a thermal record of heat injected by ultraviolet photons during cosmic reionization events, and thus constrains the thermal and reionization history of the universe. Second, the Jeans scale determines the clumpiness of the IGM, a critical ingredient in models of cosmic reionization. Third, it sets the minimum mass scale for gravitational collapse from the IGM, and hence plays a pivotal role in galaxy formation. Unfortunately, it is extremely challenging to measure the Jeans scale via the standard technique of analyzing purely longitudinal Lyα forest spectra, because the thermal Doppler broadening of absorption lines along the line-of-sight, is highly degenerate with Jeans smoothing. In this work, we show that the Jeans filtering scale can be directly measured by characterizing the coherence of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, with separations small enough ∼100 kpc to resolve it. We present a novel technique for this purpose, based on the probability density function (PDF) of phase angle differences of homologous longitudinal Fourier modes in close quasar pair spectra. A Bayesian formalism is introduced based on the phase angle PDF, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques are used to characterize the precision of a hypothetical Jeans scale measurement, and explore degeneracies with other thermal parameters governing the IGM. A semi-analytical model of the Lyα forest is used to generate a large grid (500) of thermal models from a dark matter only simulation. Our full parameter study indicates that a realistic sample of

  6. Relativistic beaming and orientation effects in core-dominated quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubachukwu, A.A.; Chukwude, A.E.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relativistic beaming effects in a well-defined sample of core- dominated quasars using the correlation between the relative prominence of the core with respect to the extended emission (defined as the ratio of the core- to the lobe- flux density measured in the rest frame of the source) and the projected linear size as an indicator of relativistic beaming and source orientation. Based on the orientation-dependent relativistic beaming and unification paradigm for high luminosity sources in which the Fanaroff-Riley class-ll radio galaxies form the unbeamed parent population of both the lobe- and core-dominated quasars which are expected to lie at successively smaller angles to the line of sight, we find that the flows in the cores of these core-dominated quasars are highly relativistic, with optimum bulk Lorentz factor, γ opt ∼6-16, and also highly anisotropic, with an average viewing angle, ∼ 9 deg. - 16 deg. Furthermore, the largest boosting occurs within a critical cone angle of ∼ 4 deg. - 10 deg. The results suggest that relativistic bulk flow appears to extend to kilo-parsec scales in these sources. (author)

  7. The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Ho, Luis C

    2014-09-11

    Quasars are rapidly accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of massive galaxies. They display a broad range of properties across all wavelengths, reflecting the diversity in the physical conditions of the regions close to the central engine. These properties, however, are not random, but form well-defined trends. The dominant trend is known as 'Eigenvector 1', in which many properties correlate with the strength of optical iron and [O III] emission. The main physical driver of Eigenvector 1 has long been suspected to be the quasar luminosity normalized by the mass of the hole (the 'Eddington ratio'), which is an important parameter of the black hole accretion process. But a definitive proof has been missing. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals that the Eddington ratio indeed drives Eigenvector 1. We also find that orientation plays a significant role in determining the observed kinematics of the gas in the broad-line region, implying a flattened, disk-like geometry for the fast-moving clouds close to the black hole. Our results show that most of the diversity of quasar phenomenology can be unified using two simple quantities: Eddington ratio and orientation.

  8. THE SUBARU HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: DISCOVERY OF FAINT z ∼ 6 QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Niino, Yuu; Ishizaki, Yoshifumi; Onoue, Masafusa; Toshikawa, Jun; Ishikawa, Shogo; Willott, Chris J.; Im, Myungshin; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami; Hibon, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of one or two extremely faint z ∼ 6 quasars in 6.5 deg 2 utilizing a unique capability of the wide-field imaging of the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The quasar selection was made in (i'-z B ) and (z B -z R ) colors, where z B and z R are bandpasses with central wavelengths of 8842 Å and 9841 Å, respectively. The color selection can effectively isolate quasars at z ∼ 6 from M/L/T dwarfs without the J-band photometry down to z R < 24.0, which is 3.5 mag deeper than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have selected 17 promising quasar candidates. The follow-up spectroscopy for seven targets identified one apparent quasar at z = 6.156 with M 1450 = –23.10. We also identified one possible quasar at z = 6.041 with a faint continuum of M 1450 = –22.58 and a narrow Lyα emission with HWHM =427 km s –1 , which cannot be distinguished from Lyman α emitters. We derive the quasar luminosity function at z ∼ 6 by combining our faint quasar sample with the bright quasar samples by SDSS and CFHQS. Including our data points invokes a higher number density in the faintest bin of the quasar luminosity function than the previous estimate employed. This suggests a steeper faint-end slope than lower z, though it is yet uncertain based on a small number of spectroscopically identified faint quasars, and several quasar candidates still remain to be diagnosed. The steepening of the quasar luminosity function at the faint end does increase the expected emission rate of the ionizing photon; however, it only changes by a factor of approximately two to six. This was found to still be insufficient for the required photon budget of reionization at z ∼ 6

  9. Constraining the Evolution of the Ionizing Background and the Epoch of Reionization with z~6 Quasars. II. A Sample of 19 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, J.; Fukugita, Masataka

    2006-07-01

    We study the evolution of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at the end of the reionization epoch using moderate-resolution spectra of a sample of 19 quasars at 5.745.7: the GP optical depth evolution changes from τeffGP~(1+z)4.3 to (1+z)>~11, and the average length of dark gaps with τ>3.5 increases from 80 comoving Mpc. The dispersion of IGM properties along different lines of sight also increases rapidly, implying fluctuations by a factor of >~4 in the UV background at z>6, when the mean free path of UV photons is comparable to the correlation length of the star-forming galaxies that are thought to have caused reionization. The mean length of dark gaps shows the most dramatic increase at z~6, as well as the largest line-of-sight variations. We suggest using dark gap statistics as a powerful probe of the ionization state of the IGM at yet higher redshift. The sizes of H II regions around luminous quasars decrease rapidly toward higher redshift, suggesting that the neutral fraction of the IGM has increased by a factor of >~10 from z=5.7 to 6.4, consistent with the value derived from the GP optical depth. The mass-averaged neutral fraction is 1%-4% at z~6.2 based on the GP optical depth and H II region size measurements. The observations suggest that z~6 is the end of the overlapping stage of reionization and are inconsistent with a mostly neutral IGM at z~6, as indicated by the finite length of the dark absorption gaps. Based on observations obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation, with the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution, and with the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 m Mayall Telescope. This paper

  10. COMMENT ON THE BLACK HOLE RECOIL CANDIDATE QUASAR SDSS J092712.65+294344.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G. A.; Bonning, E. W.; Salviander, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar J092712.65+294344.0 has been proposed as a candidate for a supermassive black hole (∼10 8.8 M sun ) ejected at high speed from the host galactic nucleus by gravitational radiation recoil, or alternatively for a supermassive black hole binary. This is based on a blueshift of 2650 km s -1 of the broad emission lines ('b-system') relative to the narrow emission lines ('r-system') presumed to reflect the galaxy velocity. New observations with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) confirm the essential features of the spectrum. We note a third redshift system, characterized by weak, narrow emission lines of [O III] and [O II] at an intermediate velocity 900 km s -1 redward of the broad-line velocity ('i-system'). A composite spectrum of SDSS QSOs similar to J0927+2943 illustrates the feasibility of detecting the calcium K absorption line in spectra of sufficient quality. The i-system may represent the QSO host galaxy or a companion. Photoionization requires the black hole to be ∼3 kpc from the r-system emitting gas, implying that we are observing the system only 10 6 yr after the recoil event and contributing to the low probability of observing such a system. The HET observations give an upper limit of 10 km s -1 per year on the rate of change of the velocity difference between the r- and b-systems, constraining the orbital phase in the binary model. These considerations and the presence of a cluster of galaxies apparently containing J0927+2943 favor the idea that this system represents a superposition of two active galactic nuclei.

  11. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF SDSS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Nagai, Daisuke; Zheng Zheng; Shen Yue

    2012-01-01

    We present an estimate of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over the full range of one- and two-halo scales, 0.02 h –1 Mpc p –1 Mpc. This was achieved by combining data from SDSS DR7 on large scales and Hennawi et al. (with appropriate statistical corrections) on small scales. Our combined clustering sample is the largest spectroscopic quasar clustering sample to date, containing ∼48, 000 quasars in the redshift range 0.4 ∼ sat = (7.4 ± 1.4) × 10 –4 , be satellites in dark matter halos. At z ∼ 1.4, the median masses of the host halos of central and satellite quasars are constrained to be M cen = 4.1 +0.3 –0.4 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ and M sat = 3.6 +0.8 –1.0 × 10 14 h –1 M ☉ , respectively. To investigate the redshift evolution of the quasar-halo relationship, we also perform HOD modeling of the projected 2PCF measured by Shen et al. for SDSS quasars with median redshift 3.2. We find tentative evidence for an increase in the mass scale of quasar host halos—the inferred median mass of halos hosting central quasars at z ∼ 3.2 is M cen = 14.1 +5.8 –6.9 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ . The cutoff profiles of the mean occupation functions of central quasars reveal that quasar luminosity is more tightly correlated with halo mass at higher redshifts. The average quasar duty cycle around the median host halo mass is inferred to be f q = 7.3 +0.6 –1.5 × 10 –4 at z ∼ 1.4 and f q = 8.6 +20.4 –7.2 × 10 –2 at z ∼ 3.2. We discuss the implications of our results for quasar evolution and quasar-galaxy co-evolution.

  12. Nonlinear Color–Metallicity Relations of Globular Clusters. VII. Nonlinear Absorption-line Index versus Metallicity Relations and Bimodal Index Distributions of NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin, E-mail: sjyoon0691@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 5128 revealed bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of its old GCs. GC division is a widely observed and studied phenomenon whose interpretation has depicted host galaxy formation and evolution such that it harbors two distinct metallicity groups. Such a conventional view of GC bimodality has mainly been based on photometry. The recent GC photometric data, however, presented an alternative perspective in which the nonlinear metallicity-to-color transformation is responsible for color bimodality of GC systems. Here we apply the same line of analysis to the spectral indices and examine the absorption-line index versus metallicity relations for the NGC 5128 GC system. NGC 5128 GCs display nonlinearity in the metallicity-index planes, most prominently for the Balmer lines and by a non-negligible degree for the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line. We demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic division of NGC 5128 GCs can be caused by the nonlinear nature of the metallicity-to-index conversions and thus one does not need to resort to two separate GC subgroups. Our analysis incorporating this nonlinearity provides a new perspective on the structure of NGC 5128's GC system, and a further piece to the global picture of the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  13. INFRARED ABSORPTION LINES TOWARD NGC 7538 IRS 1: ABUNDANCES OF H{sub 2}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, AND CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Miwa [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A‘ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Usuda, Tomonori, E-mail: mgoto@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: tgeballe@gemini.edu, E-mail: usuda@naoj.org [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A‘ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    We report high-resolution near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of H{sub 2}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, and CO toward the young high mass object NGC 7538 IRS 1. The v = 1–0 H{sub 2} S(0) line and lines in the CO v = 2–0 band were detected; the v = 1–0 H{sub 2} S(1) line and the v = 1–0 H{sub 3}{sup +} lines [R(1, 1){sup l}, R(1, 0), R(1, 1){sup u}] were not detected. The line of sight traverses two clouds, with temperatures 45 and 259 K and with roughly equal column densities of CO. Assuming that H{sub 2} is at the same temperature as CO and that the two species are uniformly mixed, [H{sub 2}]/[CO] = 3600 ± 1200. NGC 7538 is the most distant object from the Galactic center for which [H{sub 2}]/[CO] has been directly measured using infrared absorption spectroscopy.

  14. QUASAR CLUSTERING FROM SDSS DR5: DEPENDENCES ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Bahcall, Neta A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Weinberg, David H.; Shankar, Francesco; Connolly, Andrew J.; Fan Xiaohui; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Brunner, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a homogenous sample of 38,208 quasars with a sky coverage of ∼4000 deg. 2 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Five quasar catalog, we study the dependence of quasar clustering on luminosity, virial black hole (BH) mass, quasar color, and radio loudness. At z 13 h -1 M sun , compared to ∼2 x 10 12 h -1 M sun for radio-quiet quasar hosts at z ∼ 1.5.

  15. He I lambda 584 in quasars and gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferland, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The He I Lα lambda 584 transfer problem for gaseous nebulae is investigated. Realistic photo-ionization models of quasar clouds and planetary nebulae are combined with the Monte Carlo line transfer technique to determine both the efficiency of destruction of lambda 584 by photo-ionization of hydrogen and the mean number of scatterings undergone before destruction. It is found that large fractions (approximately > 90 per cent) of the lambda 584 photons are destroyed before escaping in all cases considered. Nonetheless, the He I lambda lambda 584, 626 doublet should be present in high redshift quasars with an observed equivalent width of approximately 1 A. Detection of this doublet would provide the only clear indication of the presence or absence of a low density narrow line region for objects in which optical forbidden lines have been redshifted beyond the optical window. The strength of the He I 2 1 S-2 1 P 2.0 μm line is predicted to be approximately 4 times stronger than is actually observed in the planetary nebulae NGC 7027. This suggests that dust is embedded in the ionized gas and causes additional destruction of lambda 584. Finally, the calculations show that photo-ionization model calculations can safely assume nearly complete on-the-spot destruction of lambda 584. The common assumption that the He I singlets are formed in case B conditions is examined in an appendix. (author)

  16. Phylogenetic Analyses of Quasars and Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier [University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble (France); D' Onofrio, Mauro [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (INAF), Padua (Italy); Marziani, Paola, E-mail: didier.fraix-burnet@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2017-10-10

    Phylogenetic approaches have proven to be useful in astrophysics. We have recently published a Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z < 0.7) which offer a satisfactory coverage of the Eigenvector 1-derived main sequence. Cladistics is not only able to group sources radiating at higher Eddington ratios, to separate radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) quasars and properly distinguishes core-dominated and lobe-dominated quasars, but it suggests a black hole mass threshold for powerful radio emission as already proposed elsewhere. An interesting interpretation from this work is that the phylogeny of quasars may be represented by the ontogeny of their central black hole, i.e. the increase of the black hole mass. However these exciting results are based on a small sample of low-z quasars, so that the work must be extended. We are here faced with two difficulties. The first one is the current lack of a larger sample with similar observables. The second one is the prohibitive computation time to perform a cladistic analysis on more that about one thousand objects. We show in this paper an experimental strategy on about 1,500 galaxies to get around this difficulty. Even if it not related to the quasar study, it is interesting by itself and opens new pathways to generalize the quasar findings.

  17. HUBBLE CAPTURES MERGER BETWEEN QUASAR AND GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows evidence fo r a merger between a quasar and a companion galaxy. This surprising result might require theorists to rethink their explanations for the nature of quasars, the most energetic objects in the universe. The bright central object is the quasar itself, located several billion light-years away. The two wisps on the (left) of the bright central object are remnants of a bright galaxy that have been disrupted by the mutual gravitational attraction between the quasar and the companion galaxy. This provides clear evidence for a merger between the two objects. Since their discovery in 1963, quasars (quasi-stellar objects) have been enigmatic because they emit prodigious amounts of energy from a very compact source. The most widely accepted model is that a quasar is powered by a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy. These new observations proved a challenge for theorists as no current models predict the complex quasar interactions unveiled by Hubble. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. Credit: John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study, NASA.

  18. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-01-01

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a ∼ 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that ∼> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K (le) 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%

  19. Phylogenetic Analyses of Quasars and Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Marziani, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic approaches have proven to be useful in astrophysics. We have recently published a Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z < 0.7) which offer a satisfactory coverage of the Eigenvector 1-derived main sequence. Cladistics is not only able to group sources radiating at higher Eddington ratios, to separate radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) quasars and properly distinguishes core-dominated and lobe-dominated quasars, but it suggests a black hole mass threshold for powerful radio emission as already proposed elsewhere. An interesting interpretation from this work is that the phylogeny of quasars may be represented by the ontogeny of their central black hole, i.e. the increase of the black hole mass. However these exciting results are based on a small sample of low-z quasars, so that the work must be extended. We are here faced with two difficulties. The first one is the current lack of a larger sample with similar observables. The second one is the prohibitive computation time to perform a cladistic analysis on more that about one thousand objects. We show in this paper an experimental strategy on about 1,500 galaxies to get around this difficulty. Even if it not related to the quasar study, it is interesting by itself and opens new pathways to generalize the quasar findings.

  20. The optical variability of SDSS quasars from multi-epoch spectroscopy. I. Results from 60 quasars with ≥ six-epoch spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hengxiao; Gu, Minfeng, E-mail: hxguo@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: gumf@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-09-01

    In a sample of 60 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with at least six-epoch spectroscopy, we investigate the variability of emission lines and continuum luminosity at various aspects. A strong anti-correlation between the variability and continuum luminosity at 2500 Å is found for the sample, which is consistent with previous works. In individual sources, we find that half of the sample objects follow the trend of being bluer when brighter, while the remaining half follow the redder-when-brighter (RWB) trend. Although the mechanism for RWB is unclear, the effects of host galaxy contribution due to seeing variations cannot be completely ruled out. As expected from the photoionization model, the positive correlations between the broad emission line and continuum luminosity are found in most individual sources, as well as for the whole sample. We confirm the Baldwin effect in most individual objects and the whole sample, while a negative Baldwin effect is also found in several quasars, which can be at least partly (if not all) due to the host galaxy contamination. We find positive correlations between the broad emission line luminosity and line width in most individual quasars, as well as the whole sample, implying a line base that is more variable than the line core.

  1. THE PROPERTIES OF QUASAR HOSTS AT THE PEAK OF THE QUASAR ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Falomo, Renato; Decarli, Roberto; Treves, Aldo; Uslenghi, Michela; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared imaging obtained with ESO VLT/ISAAC of a sample of 16 low luminosity radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) at the epoch around the peak of the quasar activity (2 2. The luminosity trend with a cosmic epoch resembles that observed for massive inactive galaxies, suggesting a similar star formation history. In particular, both quasar host galaxies and massive inactive galaxies appear mostly assembled already at the peak age of the quasar activity. This result is of key importance for testing the models of joint formation and evolution of galaxies and their active nuclei.

  2. Recent advances in on-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis to atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry for speciation analysis and studies of metal-biomolecule interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Yin Xuebo; Yan Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Speciation information is vital for the understanding of the toxicity, mobility and bioavailability of elements in environmental or biological samples. Hyphenating high resolving power of separation techniques and element-selective detectors provides powerful tools for studying speciation of trace elements in environmental and biological systems. During the last five years several novel hybrid techniques based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and atomic spectrometry have been developed for speciation analysis and metal-biomolecule interaction study in our laboratory. These techniques include CE on-line coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), chip-CE on-line coupled with AFS, CE on-line coupled with flame heated quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FHF-AAS), and CE on-line coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The necessity for the development of these techniques, their interface design, and applications in speciation analysis and metal-biomolecule interaction study are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of the developed hybrid techniques are critically discussed, and further development is also prospected

  3. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 micron) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  4. Radiation damage of light guide fibers in gamma radiation field - on-line monitoring of absorption centers formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.; Simane, C.; Finger, M.; Slunecka, M.; Finger, M. Jr.; Sluneckova, V.; Janata, A.; Vognar, M.; Sulc, M.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of radiation-induced changes of absorption coefficient was studied by online transmission spectra measurement for two different Kuraray light guide fibers. The samples were irradiated by bremsstrahlung gamma radiation, dose rates were from 2 Gy/s to 25 Gy/s. The kinetic coefficients both for absorption centers formation and for recovery processes were calculated. Good agreement of experimental data and simple one-short-lived absorption center model were received for radiation-hard light guide Kuraray (KFC). The more complicated process was observed on Kuraray (PSM) clear fiber. It was caused by the reaction of the oxygen dissolved in fiber and created radicals. The results are very useful for prediction of an optical fibers response in conditions of new nuclear and particle physics experiments. (author)

  5. INFRARED SPECTRA AND PHOTOMETRY OF COMPLETE SAMPLES OF PALOMAR-GREEN AND TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yong [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L. [Department of Astronomy And Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ogle, P. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Balog, Z., E-mail: yshipku@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    As a step toward a comprehensive overview of the infrared (IR) diagnostics of the central engines and host galaxies of quasars at low redshift, we present Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic (5-40 μm) and photometric (24, 70, and 160 μm) measurements of all Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at z < 0.5 and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z < 0.3. We supplement these data with Herschel measurements at 160 μm. The sample is composed of 87 optically selected PG quasars and 52 near-IR-selected 2MASS quasars. Here we present the data, measure the prominent spectral features, and separate emission due to star formation from that emitted by the dusty circumnuclear torus. We find that the mid-IR (5-30 μm) spectral shape for the torus is largely independent of quasar IR luminosity with scatter in the spectral energy distribution (SED) shape of ≲0.2 dex. Except for the silicate features, no large difference is observed between PG (unobscured—silicate emission) and 2MASS (obscured—silicate absorption) quasars. Only mild silicate features are observed in both cases. When in emission, the peak wavelength of the silicate feature tends to be longer than 9.7 μm, possibly indicating effects on grain properties near the active galactic nucleus. The IR color is shown to correlate with the equivalent width of the aromatic features, indicating that the slope of the quasar mid- to far-IR SED is to first order driven by the fraction of radiation from star formation in the IR bands.

  6. The Sightline to Q2343-BX415: Clues to Galaxy Formation in a Quasar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Samantha A.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Adelberger, Kurt L.; Erb, Dawn K.; Shapley, Alice E.

    2007-11-01

    We have discovered a strong DLA coincident in redshift with the faint QSO Q2343-BX415 (R=20.2, zem=2.57393). Follow-up observations at intermediate spectral resolution reveal that the metal lines associated with this proximate DLA (PDLA) consist of two sets of absorption components. One set is moving toward the quasar with velocities of ~150-600 km s-1 this gas is highly ionized and does not fully cover the continuum source, suggesting that it is physically close to the active nucleus. The other, which accounts for most of the neutral gas, is blueshifted relative to the QSO, with the strongest component at ~-160 km s-1. We consider the possibility that the PDLA arises in the outflowing interstellar medium of the host galaxy of Q2343-BX415, an interpretation supported by strong C IV and N V absorption at nearby velocities, and by the intense radiation field longward of the Lyman limit implied by the high C II*/H I ratio. If Q2343-BX415 is the main source of these UV photons, then the PDLA is located at either ~8 or ~37 kpc from the active nucleus. Alternatively, the absorber may be a foreground star-forming galaxy unrelated to the quasar and coincidentally at the same redshift, but our deep imaging and follow-up spectroscopy of the field of Q2343-BX415 has not yet produced a likely candidate. We measure the abundances of 14 elements in the PDLA, finding an overall metallicity of ~1/5 solar and a normal pattern of relative element abundances for this metallicity. Thus, in this PDLA there is no evidence for the supersolar metallicities that have been claimed for some proximate, high-ionization, systems. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Flow injection on-line dilution for zinc determination in human saliva with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burguera-Pascu, Margarita [Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)], E-mail: margaburpas@hotmail.com; Rodriguez-Archilla, Alberto [Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Burguera, Jose Luis; Burguera, Marcela; Rondon, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela)

    2007-09-26

    An automated method is described for the determination of zinc in human saliva by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) after on-line dilution of samples with a significant reduction of sample consumption per analysis (<0.4 mL including the dead volume of the system). In order to fulfill this aim without changing the sample transport conduits during the experiments, a flow injection (FI) dilution system was constructed. Its principal parts are: one propulsion device (peristaltic pump, PP) for either samples, standards or washing solution all located in an autosampler tray and for the surfactant solution (Triton X-100) used as diluent, and a two-position time based solenoid injector (TBSI{sub 1}) which allowed the introduction of 10 {mu}L of either solution in the diluent stream. To avoid unnecessary waste of samples, the TBSI{sub 1} also permitted the recirculation of the solutions to their respective autosampler cups. The downstream diluted solution fills a home made sampling arm assembly. The sequential deposition of 20 {mu}L aliquots of samples or standards on the graphite tube platform was carried out by air displacement with a similar time based solenoid injector (TBSI{sub 2}). The dilution procedure and the injection of solutions into the atomizer are computer controlled and synchronized with the operation of the temperature program. Samples or standards solutions were submitted to two drying steps (at 90 and 130 deg. C), followed by pyrolysis and atomization at 700 and 1700 deg. C, respectively. The aqueous calibration was linear up to 120.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} for diluted standard solutions/samples and its slope was similar (p > 0.05) to the standard addition curve, indicating lack of matrix effect. The precision tested by repeated analysis of real saliva samples was less than 3% and the detection limit (3{sigma}) was of 0.35 {mu}g L{sup -1}. To test the accuracy of the proposed procedure, recovery tests were performed, obtaining mean recovery

  8. MMTF DISCOVERY OF GIANT IONIZATION CONES IN MR 2251–178: IMPLICATIONS FOR QUASAR RADIATIVE FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimeyer, Kory; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of giant ionization cones in the 140 kpc nebula around quasar MR 2251–178 based on deep [O III] λ5007/Hβ and [N II] λ6583/Hα flux ratio maps obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter on the Baade-Magellan 6.5 m Telescope. These cones are aligned with the weak double-lobed radio source observed on smaller scale (<30 kpc). They have an opening angle ∼120° ± 10° and subtend ∼65%-90% of 4π sr, where the uncertainty takes into account possible projection effects. The material in the outer ionization cones is matter-bounded, indicating that all ionizing photons emitted through the cones escape from the system. The quasar ionizing flux is ∼2-3 times fainter outside of these cones, despite the largely symmetric geometry of the nebula in [O III]. Overall, adding up the contributions from both inside and outside the cones, we find that ∼65%-95% of the quasar ionizing radiation makes its way out of the system. These results emphasize the need for line ratio maps to quantify the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from quasars and the importance of quasar radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium

  9. Discovery of a cyclotron absorption line in the spectrum of the binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538 - 52 observed by Ginga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, George W.; Woo, Jonathan W.; Nagase, Fumiaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakao, Taro

    1990-01-01

    A cyclotron absorption line near 20 keV has been found in the spectrum of the massive eclipsing binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538 - 52 in observations with the Ginga observatory. The line is detected throughout the 529 s pulse cycle with a variable equivalent width that has its maximum value during the smaller peak of the two-peak pulse profile. It is found that the profile of the pulse and the phase-dependence of the cyclotron line can be explained qualitatively by a pulsar model based on recent theoretical results on the properties of pencil beams emitted by accretion-heated slabs of magnetized plasma at the magnetic poles of a neutron star. The indicated field at the surface of the neutron star is 1.7 (1 + z) x 10 to the 12th G, where z is the gravitational redshift.

  10. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carniani, Stefano, E-mail: sc888@mrao.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-16

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s), which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  11. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Carniani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN. In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s, which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M⊙ yr−1, has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2 ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2 transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  12. Star Formation Quenching in Quasar Host Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carniani, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy evolution is likely to be shaped by negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the whole range of redshifts and luminosities studied so far, galaxies hosting an AGN frequently show fast and extended outflows consisting in both ionized and molecular gas. Such outflows could potentially quench the start formation within the host galaxy, but a clear evidence of negative feedback in action is still missing. Hereby I will analyse integral-field spectroscopic data for six quasars at z ~ 2.4 obtained with SINFONI in the H- and K-band. All the quasars show [Oiii]λ5007 line detection of fast, extended outflows. Also, the high signal-to-noise SINFONI observations allow the identification of faint narrow Hα emission (FWHM < 500 km/s), which is spatially extended and associated with star formation in the host galaxy. On paper fast outflows are spatially anti-correlated with star-formation powered emission, i.e., star formation is suppressed in the area affected by the outflow. Nonetheless as narrow, spatially-extended Hα emission, indicating star formation rates of at least 50–100 M ⊙ yr −1 , has been detected, either AGN feedback is not affecting the whole host galaxy, or star formation is completely quenched only by several feedback episodes. On the other hand, a positive feedback scenario, supported by narrow emission in Hα extending along the edges of the outflow cone, suggests that galaxy-wide outflows could also have a twofold role in the evolution of the host galaxy. Finally, I will present CO(3-2) ALMA data for three out of the six QSOs observed with SINFONI. Flux maps obtained for the CO(3-2) transition suggest that molecular gas within the host galaxy is swept away by fast winds. A negative-feedback scenario is supported by the inferred molecular gas mass in all three objects, which is significantly below what observed in non-active main-sequence galaxies at high-z.

  13. Evaluation of Optical Depths and Self-Absorption of Strontium and Aluminum Emission Lines in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarraj, Bader A; Bhatt, Chet R; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a widely used laser spectroscopic technique in various fields, such as material science, forensic science, biological science, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In most LIBS work, the analysis is performed using radiative transitions from atomic emissions. In this study, the plasma temperature and the product [Formula: see text] (the number density N and the absorption path length [Formula: see text]) were determined to evaluate the optical depths and the self-absorption of Sr and Al lines. A binary mixture of strontium nitrate and aluminum oxide was used as a sample, consisting of variety of different concentrations in powder form. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected by varying various parameters, such as laser energy, gate delay time, and gate width time to optimize the LIBS signals. Atomic emission from Sr and Al lines, as observed in the LIBS spectra of different sample compositions, was used to characterize the laser induced plasma and evaluate the optical depths and self-absorption of LIBS.

  14. Laser-based absorption spectroscopy as a technique for rapid in-line analysis of respired gas concentrations of O2 and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Beth; Hamilton, Michelle L; Ciaffoni, Luca; Pragnell, Timothy R; Peverall, Rob; Ritchie, Grant A D; Hancock, Gus; Robbins, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    The use of sidestream analyzers for respired gas analysis is almost universal. However, they are not ideal for measurements of respiratory gas exchange because the analyses are both temporally dissociated from measurements of respiratory flow and also not generally conducted under the same physical conditions. This study explores the possibility of constructing an all optical, fast response, in-line breath analyzer for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Using direct absorption spectroscopy with a diode laser operating at a wavelength near 2 μm, measurements of expired carbon dioxide concentrations were obtained with an absolute limit of detection of 0.04% at a time resolution of 10 ms. Simultaneously, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy at a wavelength near 760 nm was employed to obtain measurements of expired oxygen concentrations with an absolute limit of detection of 0.26% at a time resolution of 10 ms. We conclude that laser-based absorption spectroscopy is a promising technology for in-line analysis of respired carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations.

  15. The Physical Relation between Disc and Coronal Emission in Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Lusso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a modified version of the observed non-linear relation between the X-ray (2 keV and the ultraviolet (2,500 Å emission in quasars (i.e., LX∝LUVγ which involves the full width at half-maximum, FWHM, of the broad emission line, i.e., LX∝LUVγ^ FWHMβ^. By analyzing a sample of 550 optically selected non-jetted quasars in the redshift range of 0.36–2.23 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey cross matched with the XMM-Newton catalog 3XMM-DR6, we found that the additional dependence of the observed LX − LUV correlation on the FWHM of the Mgii broad emission line is statistically significant. Our statistical analysis leads to a much tighter relation with respect to the one neglecting FWHM, and it does not evolve with redshift. We interpret this new relation within an accretion disc corona scenario where reconnection and magnetic loops above the accretion disc can account for the production of the primary X-ray radiation. For a broad line region size depending on the disc luminosity as Rblr∝Ldisc0.5, we find that LX∝LUV4/7 FWHM4/7, which is in very good agreement with the observed correlation.

  16. The zig-zag walk with scattering and absorption on the real half line and in a lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Darwin-Hamilton equations, describing one-dimensional transport with scattering and absorption, are expanded into a recursion. The solution involves ballot numbers. The recurrence probability as function of scattering order is given by Catalan numbers. To reproduce this analytical result in a lattice model, a novel relation between Narayana and Catalan numbers is derived.

  17. SELECTING QUASARS BY THEIR INTRINSIC VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Jester, Sebastian; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Marshall, Philip J.; Dobler, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    We present a new and simple technique for selecting extensive, complete, and pure quasar samples, based on their intrinsic variability. We parameterize the single-band variability by a power-law model for the light-curve structure function, with amplitude A and power-law index γ. We show that quasars can be efficiently separated from other non-variable and variable sources by the location of the individual sources in the A-γ plane. We use ∼60 epochs of imaging data, taken over ∼5 years, from the SDSS stripe 82 (S82) survey, where extensive spectroscopy provides a reference sample of quasars, to demonstrate the power of variability as a quasar classifier in multi-epoch surveys. For UV-excess selected objects, variability performs just as well as the standard SDSS color selection, identifying quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 95%. In the redshift range 2.5 < z < 3, where color selection is known to be problematic, variability can select quasars with a completeness of 90% and a purity of 96%. This is a factor of 5-10 times more pure than existing color selection of quasars in this redshift range. Selecting objects from a broad griz color box without u-band information, variability selection in S82 can afford completeness and purity of 92%, despite a factor of 30 more contaminants than quasars in the color-selected feeder sample. This confirms that the fraction of quasars hidden in the 'stellar locus' of color space is small. To test variability selection in the context of Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) we created mock PS1 data by down-sampling the S82 data to just six epochs over 3 years. Even with this much sparser time sampling, variability is an encouragingly efficient classifier. For instance, a 92% pure and 44% complete quasar candidate sample is attainable from the above griz-selected catalog. Finally, we show that the presented A-γ technique, besides selecting clean and pure samples of quasars (which are stochastically varying objects), is also

  18. High-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry for the simultaneous or sequential monitoring of multiple lines. A critical review of current possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Flórez, M.R.; García-Ruiz, E.

    2013-01-01

    This work examines the capabilities and limitations of commercially available high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry instrumentation for multi-line monitoring, discussing in detail the possible strategies to develop multi-element methodologies that are truly simultaneous, or else sequential, but from the same sample aliquot. Moreover, the simultaneous monitoring of various atomic or molecular lines may bring other important analytical advantages, such as: i) expansion of the linear range by monitoring multiplets; ii) improvements in the limit of detection and in precision by summing the signals from different lines of the same element or molecule; iii) simple correction for matrix-effects by selecting a suitable internal standard; or iv) accurate mathematical correction of spectral overlaps by simultaneous monitoring of free lines of the interfering molecule or element. This work discusses how authors have made use of these strategies to develop analytical methodologies that permit the straightforward analysis of complex samples. - Highlights: • HR CS AAS potential for simultaneous multi-line monitoring is critically examined. • Strategies to develop simultaneous multi-element methods are discussed. • Other benefits of multi-line monitoring (e.g., use of an IS or LSBC) are highlighted. • Selected examples from the literature are discussed in detail

  19. Dust in the Quasar Wind (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dusty grains -- including tiny specks of the minerals found in the gemstones peridot, sapphires and rubies -- can be seen blowing in the winds of a quasar, or active black hole, in this artist's concept. The quasar is at the center of a distant galaxy. Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that such quasar winds might have forged these dusty particles in the very early universe. The findings are another clue in an ongoing cosmic mystery: where did all the dust in our young universe come from? Dust is crucial for efficient star formation as it allows the giant clouds where stars are born to cool quickly and collapse into new stars. Once a star has formed, dust is also needed to make planets and living creatures. Dust has been seen as far back as when the universe was less than a tenth of its current age, but how did it get there? Most dust in our current epoch forms in the winds of evolved stars that did not exist when the universe was young. Theorists had predicted that winds from quasars growing in the centers of distant galaxies might be a source of this dust. While the environment close to a quasar is too hot for large molecules like dust grains to survive, dust has been found in the cooler, outer regions. Astronomers now have evidence that dust is created in these outer winds. Using Spitzer's infrared spectrograph instrument, scientists found a wealth of dust grains in a quasar called PG2112+059 located at the center of a galaxy 8 billion light-years away. The grains - including corundum (sapphires and rubies); forsterite (peridot); and periclase (naturally occurring in marble) - are not typically found in galaxies without quasars, suggesting they might have been freshly formed in the quasar's winds.

  20. The CTIO surveys for large redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmer, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    Lyman α emission in large redshift quasars is readily detectable on slitless spectrograms taken with an objective combination on the 4m telescope. This provides a new survey method, independent of color for finding radio-quiet quasars in large numbers. Surveys by Smith with the Curtis Schmidt and Hoag and Smith with the 4 m telescope, have produced more than 200 candidates with 1.5< z<3.5 and 16< m<21. Spectroscopic observations with the CTIO SIT vidicon system have been carried out for more than 50 of the candidates, with the result that the basic properties of the surveys are known. To date three 16th magnitude quasars with zapproximately2.2 and six quasars with 3.0< z<3.25 have been found. One of the most important uses of the surveys will be the determination of the surface and surface densities of large redshift quasars. A preliminary analysis of the data indicates that the space density of quasars is at least constant, if not increasing, over the interval 1.0< z<3.25. However, the Hoag-Smith sample has only one candidate with z<3.2.(Auth.)

  1. Accurate Theoretical Methane Line Lists in the Infrared up to 3000 K and Quasi-continuum Absorption/Emission Modeling for Astrophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrei V.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2017-10-01

    Modeling atmospheres of hot exoplanets and brown dwarfs requires high-T databases that include methane as the major hydrocarbon. We report a complete theoretical line list of 12CH4 in the infrared range 0-13,400 cm-1 up to T max = 3000 K computed via a full quantum-mechanical method from ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. Over 150 billion transitions were generated with the lower rovibrational energy cutoff 33,000 cm-1 and intensity cutoff down to 10-33 cm/molecule to ensure convergent opacity predictions. Empirical corrections for 3.7 million of the strongest transitions permitted line position accuracies of 0.001-0.01 cm-1. Full data are partitioned into two sets. “Light lists” contain strong and medium transitions necessary for an accurate description of sharp features in absorption/emission spectra. For a fast and efficient modeling of quasi-continuum cross sections, billions of tiny lines are compressed in “super-line” libraries according to Rey et al. These combined data will be freely accessible via the TheoReTS information system (http://theorets.univ-reims.fr, http://theorets.tsu.ru), which provides a user-friendly interface for simulations of absorption coefficients, cross-sectional transmittance, and radiance. Comparisons with cold, room, and high-T experimental data show that the data reported here represent the first global theoretical methane lists suitable for high-resolution astrophysical applications.

  2. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ∼ 0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Aird, J. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W 120th Street, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Koss, M., E-mail: g.b.lansbury@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2014-04-10

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N {sub H}) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at >10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N {sub H}. (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at >8 keV with a no-source probability of <0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N {sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}). We find that for quasars at z ∼ 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (<10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  3. Studies of the $\\beta$-decay of Sr nuclei on and near the N=Z Line with a Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Marechal, F; Caballero ontanaya, L

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the investigation of the shapes of the ground states of the parent nucleus, we propose to carry out measurements of the complete Gamow-Teller strength distribution for the $^{76-80}$Sr isotopes, with a new Total Absorption Gamma Spectrometer installed on a new beam line. The results will be compared with theoretical calculations based on the mean field approach. A brief report on the IS370 experiment on $^{72-75}$Kr decay, which was recently performed at ISOLDE, will be given and the performance of the sum spectrometer will be presented.

  4. Quasar energy distributions. I. Soft X-ray spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, B.J.; Elvis, M.

    1987-01-01

    As the initial stage of a study of quasar energy distributions (QEDs), Einstein IPC spectra of 24 quasars are presented. These are combined with previously reported IPC spectra to form a sample of 33 quasars with well-determined soft X-ray slopes. A correlation analysis shows that radio loudness, rather than redshift or luminosity, is fundamentally related to the X-ray slope. This correlation is not followed by higher energy spectra of active galaxies. Two components are required to explain both sets of results. The best-fit column densities are systematically smaller than the Galactic values. The same effect is not present in a sample of BL Lac objects, implying that the effect is intrinsic to the quasars and is caused by a low-energy turnup in the quasar spectra. 74 references

  5. THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: QUASAR TARGET SELECTION FOR DATA RELEASE NINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Nicholas P.; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A.; Carithers, William C.; Ho, Shirley [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Astronomy, MC-221, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sheldon, Erin S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton, NY 11375 (United States); Yeche, Christophe; Aubourg, Eric [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Strauss, Michael A.; Lee, Khee-Gan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bovy, Jo; Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Croft, Rupert A. C. [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Da Silva, Robert [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dawson, Kyle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hennawi, Joseph F., E-mail: npross@lbl.gov [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-03-01

    The SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), a five-year spectroscopic survey of 10,000 deg{sup 2}, achieved first light in late 2009. One of the key goals of BOSS is to measure the signature of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in the distribution of Ly{alpha} absorption from the spectra of a sample of {approx}150,000 z > 2.2 quasars. Along with measuring the angular diameter distance at z Almost-Equal-To 2.5, BOSS will provide the first direct measurement of the expansion rate of the universe at z > 2. One of the biggest challenges in achieving this goal is an efficient target selection algorithm for quasars in the redshift range 2.2 < z < 3.5, where their colors tend to overlap those of the far more numerous stars. During the first year of the BOSS survey, quasar target selection (QTS) methods were developed and tested to meet the requirement of delivering at least 15 quasars deg{sup -2} in this redshift range, with a goal of 20 out of 40 targets deg{sup -2} allocated to the quasar survey. To achieve these surface densities, the magnitude limit of the quasar targets was set at g {<=} 22.0 or r {<=} 21.85. While detection of the BAO signature in the distribution of Ly{alpha} absorption in quasar spectra does not require a uniform target selection algorithm, many other astrophysical studies do. We have therefore defined a uniformly selected subsample of 20 targets deg{sup -2}, for which the selection efficiency is just over 50% ({approx}10 z > 2.20 quasars deg{sup -2}). This 'CORE' subsample will be fixed for Years Two through Five of the survey. For the remaining 20 targets deg{sup -2}, we will continue to develop improved selection techniques, including the use of additional data sets beyond the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this paper, we describe the evolution and implementation of the BOSS QTS algorithms during the first two years of BOSS operations (through 2011 July), in support of the science investigations

  6. Recent Chandra/HETGS and NuSTAR observations of the quasar PDS 456 and its Ultra-Fast Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissay Malaquin, Rozenn; Marshall, Herman L.; Nowak, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Evidence is growing that the interaction between outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their surrounding medium may play an important role in galaxy evolution, i.e. in the regulation of star formation in galaxies, through AGN feedback processes. Indeed, powerful outflows, such as the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) that can reach mildly relativistic velocities of 0.2-0.4c, could blow away a galaxy’s reservoir of star-forming gas and hence quench the star formation in host galaxies. The low-redshift (z=0.184) radio-quiet quasar PDS 456 has showed the presence of a strong and blueshifted absorption trough in the Fe K band above 7 keV, that has been associated with the signature of such a fast and highly ionized accretion disk wind of a velocity of 0.25-0.3c. This persistent and variable feature has been detected in many observations of PDS 456, in particular by XMM-Newton, Suzaku and NuSTAR, together with other blueshifted absorption lines in the soft energy band (e.g. Nardini et al. 2015, Reeves et al. 2016). I will present here the results of the analysis of recent and contemporaneous high-resolution Chandra/HETGS and NuSTAR observations of PDS 456, and compare them with the previous findings.

  7. The analysis of the external factors influence on the efficiency of the absorption heat pumps inclusion in the scheme of a two-stage line installation of a STP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzhkovoy Dmitriy S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative analysis of the efficiency of a two-stage line installation in a heating turbine before and after the inclusion of absorption heat pumps into its scheme with a decrease in the outside air temperature. The research shows the dependence of the efficiency of the line installation on its heat load while using AHP in its scheme, as well as on the heat conversion factor of the absorption heat pumps.

  8. C IV EMISSION AND THE ULTRAVIOLET THROUGH X-RAY SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruczek, Nicholas E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Deo, Rajesh P.; Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hewett, Paul C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Proga, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), two of the parameters that best characterize the range of emission-line properties in quasar broad emission-line regions are the equivalent width and the blueshift of the C IV λ1549 line relative to the quasar rest frame. We explore the connection between these emission-line properties and the UV through X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars. Our sample consists of a heterogeneous compilation of 406 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (at z > 1.54) and Palomar-Green survey (at z < 0.4) that have well-measured C IV emission-line and X-ray properties (including 164 objects with measured Γ). We find that RQ quasars with both strong C IV emission and small C IV blueshifts can be classified as 'hard-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) strong in the X-ray as compared to the UV. On the other hand, RQ quasars with both weak C IV emission and large C IV blueshifts are instead 'soft-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) weak in the X-ray as compared to the UV. This work helps to further bridge optical/soft X-ray 'eigenvector 1' relationships to the UV and hard X-ray. Based on these findings, we argue that future work should consider systematic errors in bolometric corrections (and thus accretion rates) that are derived from a single mean SED. Detailed analysis of the C IV emission line may allow for SED-dependent corrections to these quantities.

  9. INFRARED CLASSIFICATION AND LUMINOSITIES FOR DUSTY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE MOST LUMINOUS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine; Houck, James; Barry, Donald; Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2012-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic measurements from the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on Spitzer are given for 125 hard X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs; 14-195 keV) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample and for 32 AGNs with black hole masses (BHMs) from reverberation mapping. The 9.7 μm silicate feature in emission or absorption defines an infrared AGN classification describing whether AGNs are observed through dust clouds, indicating that 55% of the BAT AGNs are observed through dust. The mid-infrared dust continuum luminosity is shown to be an excellent indicator of intrinsic AGN luminosity, scaling closely with the hard X-ray luminosity, log νL ν (7.8 μm)/L(X) = –0.31 ± 0.35, and independent of classification determined from silicate emission or absorption. Dust luminosity scales closely with BHM, log νL ν (7.8 μm) = (37.2 ± 0.5) + 0.87 log BHM for luminosity in erg s –1 and BHM in M ☉ . The 100 most luminous type 1 quasars as measured in νL ν (7.8 μm) are found by comparing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optically discovered quasars with photometry at 22 μm from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), scaled to rest frame 7.8 μm using an empirical template determined from IRS spectra. The most luminous SDSS/WISE quasars have the same maximum infrared luminosities for all 1.5 IR = 10 14.4 L ☉ . Comparing with dust-obscured galaxies from Spitzer and WISE surveys, we find no evidence of hyperluminous obscured quasars whose maximum infrared luminosities exceed the maximum infrared luminosities of optically discovered quasars. Bolometric luminosities L bol estimated from rest-frame optical or ultraviolet luminosities are compared to L IR . For the local AGN, the median log L IR /L bol = –0.35, consistent with a covering factor of 45% for the absorbing dust clouds. For the SDSS/WISE quasars, the median log L IR /L bol = 0.1, with extremes indicating that ultraviolet-derived L bol can be seriously underestimated even for type 1

  10. Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magain, Pierre; Letawe, Géraldine; Courbin, Frédéric; Jablonka, Pascale; Jahnke, Knud; Meylan, Georges; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2005-09-15

    A quasar is thought to be powered by the infall of matter onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of a massive galaxy. Because the optical luminosity of quasars exceeds that of their host galaxy, disentangling the two components can be difficult. This led in the 1990s to the controversial claim of the discovery of 'naked' quasars. Since then, the connection between quasars and galaxies has been well established. Here we report the discovery of a quasar lying at the edge of a gas cloud, whose size is comparable to that of a small galaxy, but whose spectrum shows no evidence for stars. The gas in the cloud is excited by the quasar itself. If a host galaxy is present, it is at least six times fainter than would normally be expected for such a bright quasar. The quasar is interacting dynamically with a neighbouring galaxy, whose gas might be feeding the black hole.

  11. First observation of a quasar with a redshift of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Irwin, M.J.; McMahon, R.G.; Bridgeland, M.T.; Bunclark, P.S.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the discovery of a quasar (0046-293) with a redshift z = 4.01 and another (0044-276) with a redshift z 3.42. The redshift of the former quasar is the highest yet detected and compares with the z = 3.80 of the previous most distant known quasar. The new quasars lie in the same field as three other known high-redshift quasars and were identified in a preliminary analysis of new multi-colour data derived from measurements of direct photographic plates taken with the United Kingdom Schmidt Telescope. The two new quasars are significantly fainter (msub(R) > 19) than previously known high-redshift quasars discovered by optical techniques, and demonstrate that the luminosity function of optically selected high-redshift quasars extends over at least two magnitudes. (author)

  12. RADIO-SELECTED QUASARS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Helfand, David J.; White, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a pilot survey for z > 3.5 quasars by combining the FIRST radio survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). While SDSS already targets FIRST sources for spectroscopy as quasar candidates, our survey includes fainter quasars and greatly improves the discovery rate by using strict astrometric criteria for matching the radio and optical positions. Our method allows for selection of high-redshift quasars with less color bias than with optical selection, as using radio selection essentially eliminates stellar contamination. We report the results of spectroscopy for 45 candidates, including 29 quasars in the range 0.37 3.5. We compare quasars selected using radio and optical criteria, and find that radio-selected quasars have a much higher fraction of moderately reddened objects. We derive a radio-loud quasar luminosity function at 3.5 < z < 4.0, and find that it is in good agreement with expectations from prior SDSS results.

  13. Spatial distribution, luminosity function and cosmological evolution of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathez, G.

    1981-01-01

    The different ways of studying quasars statistics and evolution are reviewed. Attempt is given to deduce, from the observed evolution, some constraints on physical models of energy sources in quasars [fr

  14. High-redshift quasars in the Cold Dark Matter cosmogony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Rees, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between high-redshift quasars and the epoch of galaxy formation in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmogony is investigated. Luminous quasars could only form after galactic sized systems had collapsed. A constant comoving density of luminous quasars between z = 2 and z = 4 is compatible with the CDM model if quasars are short-lived and radiate at about the Eddington limit. However, according to the CDM model the abundance of high-luminosity quasars must decline exponentially at higher redshifts. Even if all protogalaxies form quasars, and about 1 per cent of the baryons within a protogalaxy collapse into a compact object, a steep fall in the density of quasars with L > 10 47 erg s -1 at redshifts z ≥ 5. The existence of a 'cut-off' in the quasar numbers at high redshift could therefore supply an important test of the CDM theory. (author)

  15. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  16. The Phylogeny of Quasars and the Ontogeny of Their Central Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier [University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble (France); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova (Italy); D' Onofrio, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Dultzin, Deborah, E-mail: didier.fraix-burnet@univ-grenoble-alpes.fr [Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2017-02-27

    The connection between multifrequency quasar observational and physical parameters related to accretion processes is still open to debate. In the last 20 year, Eigenvector 1-based approaches developed since the early papers by Boroson and Green (1992) and Sulentic et al. (2000b) have been proven to be a remarkably powerful tool to investigate this issue, and have led to the definition of a quasar “main sequence.” In this paper we perform a cladistic analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z ≲ 0.7) which were studied in several previous works and which offer a satisfactory coverage of the Eigenvector 1-derived main sequence. The data encompass accurate measurements of observational parameters which represent key aspects associated with the structural diversity of quasars. Cladistics is able to group sources radiating at higher Eddington ratios, as well as to separate radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) quasars. The analysis suggests a black hole mass threshold for powerful radio emission and also properly distinguishes core-dominated and lobe-dominated quasars, in accordance with the basic tenet of RL unification schemes. Considering that black hole mass provides a sort of “arrow of time” of nuclear activity, a phylogenetic interpretation becomes possible if cladistic trees are rooted on black hole mass: the ontogeny of black holes is represented by their monotonic increase in mass. More massive radio-quiet Population B sources at low-z become a more evolved counterpart of Population A i.e., wind dominated sources to which the “local” Narrow-Line Seyfert 1s belong.

  17. The phylogeny of quasars and the ontogeny of their central black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Marziani, Paola; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Dultzin, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    The connection between multifrequency quasar observational and physical parameters related to accretion processes is still open to debate. In the last 20 year, Eigenvector 1-based approaches developed since the early papers by Boroson and Green (1992) and Sulentic et al. (2000b) have been proved to be a remarkably powerful tool to investigate this issue, and have led to the definition of a quasar "main sequence". In this paper we perform a cladistic analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z ~ 0.7) which were studied in several previous works and which offer a satisfactory coverage of the Eigenvector 1-derived main sequence. The data encompass accurate measurements of observational parameters which represents key aspects associated with the structural diversity of quasars. Cladistics is able to group sources radiating at higher Eddington ratios, as well as to separate radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) quasars. The analysis suggests a black hole mass threshold for powerful radio emission and also properly distinguishes core-dominated and lobe-dominated quasars, in accordance with the basic tenet of RL unification schemes. Considering that black hole mass provides a sort of "arrow of time" of nuclear activity, a phylogenetic interpretation becomes possible if cladistic trees are rooted on black hole mass: the ontogeny of black holes is represented by their monotonic increase in mass. More massive radio-quiet Population B sources at low-z become a more evolved counterpart of Population A i.e., wind dominated sources to which the "local" Narrow-Line Seyfert 1s belong.

  18. The Phylogeny of Quasars and the Ontogeny of Their Central Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Marziani, Paola; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Dultzin, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The connection between multifrequency quasar observational and physical parameters related to accretion processes is still open to debate. In the last 20 year, Eigenvector 1-based approaches developed since the early papers by Boroson and Green (1992) and Sulentic et al. (2000b) have been proven to be a remarkably powerful tool to investigate this issue, and have led to the definition of a quasar “main sequence.” In this paper we perform a cladistic analysis on two samples of 215 and 85 low-z quasars (z ≲ 0.7) which were studied in several previous works and which offer a satisfactory coverage of the Eigenvector 1-derived main sequence. The data encompass accurate measurements of observational parameters which represent key aspects associated with the structural diversity of quasars. Cladistics is able to group sources radiating at higher Eddington ratios, as well as to separate radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) quasars. The analysis suggests a black hole mass threshold for powerful radio emission and also properly distinguishes core-dominated and lobe-dominated quasars, in accordance with the basic tenet of RL unification schemes. Considering that black hole mass provides a sort of “arrow of time” of nuclear activity, a phylogenetic interpretation becomes possible if cladistic trees are rooted on black hole mass: the ontogeny of black holes is represented by their monotonic increase in mass. More massive radio-quiet Population B sources at low-z become a more evolved counterpart of Population A i.e., wind dominated sources to which the “local” Narrow-Line Seyfert 1s belong.

  19. The WISSH quasars project. II. Giant star nurseries in hyper-luminous quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duras, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Piconcelli, E.; Bianchi, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Valiante, R.; Bischetti, M.; Feruglio, C.; Martocchia, S.; Schneider, R.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Zappacosta, L.; La Franca, F.; Fiore, F.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Studying the coupling between the energy output produced by the central quasar and the host galaxy is fundamental to fully understand galaxy evolution. Quasar feedback is indeed supposed to dramatically affect the galaxy properties by depositing large amounts of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM). Aims: In order to gain further insights on this process, we study the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of sources at the brightest end of the quasar luminosity function, for which the feedback mechanism is assumed to be at its maximum, given their high efficiency in driving powerful outflows. Methods: We modelled the rest-frame UV-to-far-IR SEDs of 16 WISE-SDSS Selected Hyper-luminous (WISSH) quasars at 1.8 code to account for the contribution of the quasar-related emission to the far-IR fluxes. Results: Most SEDs are well described by a standard combination of accretion disc plus torus and cold dust emission. However, about 30% of SEDs require an additional emission component in the near-IR, with temperatures peaking at 750 K, which indicates that a hotter dust component is present in these powerful quasars. We measure extreme values of both AGN bolometric luminosity (LBOL > 1047 erg/s) and star formation rate (up to 2000 M⊙/yr) based on the quasar-corrected, IR luminosity of the host galaxy. A new relation between quasar and star formation luminosity is derived (LSF ∝ L0.73QSO) by combining several Herschel-detected quasar samples from z 0 to 4. WISSH quasars have masses ( 108M⊙) and temperatures ( 50 K) of cold dust in agreement with those found for other high-z IR luminous quasars. Conclusions: Thanks to their extreme nuclear and star formation luminosities, the WISSH quasars are ideal targets to shed light on the feedback mechanism and its effect on the evolution of their host galaxies, as well as on the merger-induced scenario that is commonly assumed to explain these exceptional luminosities. Future observations will be

  20. The 9.7 and 18 µm silicate absorption profiles towards diffuse and molecular cloud lines-of-sight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breemen, J.M.; Min, M.; Chiar, J.E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Kemper, F.; Boogert, A.C.A.; Cami, J.; Decin, L.; Knez, C.; Sloan, G.C.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Studying the composition of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial for understanding the cycle of dust in our galaxy. Aims. The mid-infrared spectral signature of amorphous silicates, the most abundant dust species in the ISM, is studied in different lines-of-sight through the

  1. ATOMIC DATA FOR ABSORPTION-LINES FROM THE GROUND-LEVEL AT WAVELENGTHS GREATER-THAN-228-ANGSTROM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERNER, DA; BARTHEL, PD; TYTLER, D

    1994-01-01

    We list wavelengths, statistical weigths and oscillator strengths for 2249 spectral lines arising from the ground states of atoms and ions. The compilation covers all wavelengths longward of the HeII Lyman limit at 227.838 Angstrom and all the ion states of all elements from hydrogen to bismuth (Z =

  2. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us to simultaneously measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the on-line water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity o