WorldWideScience

Sample records for quartz glass fibers

  1. Evaluation of the flexural strength of carbon, quartz, and glass fiber-based posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Rama Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was done to evaluate the flexural strength of carbon, quartz, and glass fiber posts by means of three-point bending test. Materials and Methods: Thirty pre-fabricated fiber posts were used and divided into three groups. Group I carbon fiber posts (C-Post, group II quartz fiber post (Aestheti Plus, group III glass fiber post (Para Post White Ten posts (N = 10 were used for each experimental group and were measured with digital caliper before test accomplishment. The fracture load of post specimens was measured, and flexural strength was obtained by the formula using S = 8FL/pd 3 . The values in Kgf/mm 2 were obtained and calculated to Mpa and submitted to ANOVA (a = 0.01 and to the Tukey′s test. Results: The mean values of flexural strength show that group II quartz fiber posts (666 MPa are significantly higher than group I carbon fiber (614 MPa and group III glass fiber (575 MPa. C onclusion: Hence, this study concluded that quartz fiber post showed significantly higher flexural strength values. Further scope of this study lies in the evaluation and evolution of a restorative materials used for post and core preparation, which have modulus of elasticity in harmony with that of dentin and near-natural esthetic appearance.

  2. QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, R.P.

    1957-09-17

    An instrument carried unobtrusively about the person such as in a finger ring to indicate when that person has been exposed to an unusual radiation hazard is described. A metallized quartz fiber is electrically charged to indicate a full scale reading on an etched glass background. The quartz fiber and the scale may be viewed through a magnifying lens for ease of reading. Incident radiation will ionize gaseous particles in the sealed structure thereby allowing the charge to leak off the quartz fiber with its resulting movement across the scale proportionally indicating the radiation exposure.

  3. Radiation on luminescent properties of quartz glasses and fiber light pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurakhmanov, B S; Gulamova, R R; Alimov, R; Yuldashev, B S; Ashurov, M K; Rustamov, I R

    2002-01-01

    Paper contains the results of investigation into X-ray luminescence of KI and KU-1 quartz glasses and of various composition and size quartz fiber light pipes (FLP) gamma-irradiated within 10 sup 2 -10 sup 7 Gy dose range. On the basis of analysis of X-ray luminescence spectra of glasses and FLP and comparison of the experimental data one detected in spectra two luminescence bands within 410, 450-470 nm range. One determined dose dependences of X-ray luminescence intensity of every of these bands of luminescence and hypothesized about the nature of the relevant centers. The protective role of OH-groups in the process of radiation-induced generation of luminescence centres under gamma-irradiation of quartz glasses and FLP was confirmed experimentally

  4. Radiation Damage of Quartz Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Hagopian, V

    1999-01-01

    Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating ( buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with quartz clad and aluminum buffer.

  5. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Influence of γ irradiation on the temperature dependence of the optical losses in quartz glass-polymer fiber waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. Ts; Borkina, G. Yu; Bubnov, M. M.; Voĭtsekhovskiĭ, V. V.; Dianov, Evgenii M.; Kotov, V. M.; Pryakhina, Tatiana A.

    1981-08-01

    A study was made of the influence of γ irradiation on the temperature dependences of the optical losses in quartz glass-polymer fiber waveguides. The working temperature range was extended by γ irradiation to subzero temperatures in the case of two types of waveguide: those with a cladding made of SIÉL commercial silicone rubber and those made by the Quartz-Silice firm. The results obtained were explained by changes in the structure of silicone rubber under the action of γ irradiation.

  6. Concurrent measurements of size-segregated particulate sulfate, nitrate and ammonium using quartz fiber filters, glass fiber filters and cellulose membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shili; Pan, Yuepeng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-11-01

    Current science and policy requirements have focused attention on the need to expand and improve particulate matter (PM) sampling methods. To explore how sampling filter type affects artifacts in PM composition measurements, size-resolved particulate SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ (SNA) were measured on quartz fiber filters (QFF), glass fiber filters (GFF) and cellulose membranes (CM) concurrently in an urban area of Beijing on both clean and hazy days. The results showed that SNA concentrations in most of the size fractions exhibited the following patterns on different filters: CM > QFF > GFF for NH4+; GFF > QFF > CM for SO42-; and GFF > CM > QFF for NO3-. The different patterns in coarse particles were mainly affected by filter acidity, and that in fine particles were mainly affected by hygroscopicity of the filters (especially in size fraction of 0.65-2.1 μm). Filter acidity and hygroscopicity also shifted the peaks of the annual mean size distributions of SNA on QFF from 0.43-0.65 μm on clean days to 0.65-1.1 μm on hazy days. However, this size shift was not as distinct for samples measured with CM and GFF. In addition, relative humidity (RH) and pollution levels are important factors that can enhance particulate size mode shifts of SNA on clean and hazy days. Consequently, the annual mean size distributions of SNA had maxima at 0.65-1.1 μm for QFF samples and 0.43-0.65 μm for GFF and CM samples. Compared with NH4+ and SO42-, NO3- is more sensitive to RH and pollution levels, accordingly, the annual mean size distribution of NO3- exhibited peak at 0.65-1.1 μm for CM samples instead of 0.43-0.65 μm. These methodological uncertainties should be considered when quantifying the concentrations and size distributions of SNA under different RH and haze conditions.

  7. Glass Fibers: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Mäder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1930s, the process of melting glass and subsequently forming fibers, in particular discontinuous fiber glass or continuous glass filaments, evolved into commercial-scale manufacturing.[...

  8. Development of Quartz Fiber Calorimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD40 \\\\ \\\\ Very Forward Calorimeters (VFCs) in LHC detectors should cover the pseudorapidity range from $\\eta$~=~2.5 to at least $\\eta$~=~5 in order to compute missing transverse energy and for jet tagging. Operation at such high rapidity requires the use of a calorimetry technique that is very radiation resistant, fast and insensitive to radioactivity (especially to neutrons). This can be accomplished through the Quartz-Calorimeter~(Q-Cal) concept of embedding silica core fibers, that resist to the Gigarad radiation level, into an absorber. In this calorimeter the shower particles produce light through the Cherenkov effect generating a signal less than 10~ns in duration. Unique to this new technology the visible energy of hadronic showers has a transverse dimension nearly an order of magnitude smaller than that in conventional calorimeters, enabling precise spatial resolution, sharper isolation cuts and better jet recognition against the minimum bias events background. Last but not least, most radioactive ...

  9. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  10. Removal of Ozone by Carbon Nanotubes/Quartz Fiber Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shen; Nie, Jingqi; Wei, Fei; Yang, Xudong

    2016-09-01

    Ozone is recognized as a harmful gaseous pollutant, which can lead to severe human health problems. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tested as a new approach for ozone removal. The CNTs/quartz fiber film was fabricated through growth of CNTs upon pure quartz fiber using chemical vapor deposition method. Ozone conversion efficiency of the CNTs/quartz fiber film was tested for 10 h and compared with that of quartz film, activated carbon (AC), and a potassium iodide (KI) solution under the same conditions. The pressure resistance of these materials under different airflow rates was also measured. The results showed that the CNTs/quartz fiber film had better ozone conversion efficiency but also higher pressure resistance than AC and the KI solution of the same weight. The ozone removal performance of the CNTs/quartz fiber film was comparable with AC at 20 times more weight. The CNTs played a dominant role in ozone removal by the CNTs/quartz fiber film. Its high ozone conversion efficiency, lightweight and free-standing properties make the CNTs/quartz fiber film applicable to ozone removal. Further investigation should be focused on reducing pressure resistance and studying the CNT mechanism for removing ozone.

  11. Quartz Fibers For Laser Therapy In Tissue Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, P.; Sabber, G.; Lambert, R.; Berger, F.

    1984-03-01

    Quartz fibers not protected by a gas stream and used in tissue contact can work virtually indefinitely due to "self cleaning" and "regeneration". Tissue lesions are similar to those obtained with conventional devices.

  12. Photochromic glass optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Bilal A.; Israr, Amber; Asif, Muhammad; Aamir, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and analysis of novel twin cored fiber which contains a transparent and silver halide doped photochromic core in same cladding. The Photochromic core fibers were fabricated in twin cored structure by rode and tube method. The diameter of photochromic core and transparent core is around 15 m. The distance between two cores is 1.5m. The transparent core was used to guide the probe beam and photochromic core was excited by UV source. The interaction of the probe beam with the excited photochromic core showed the photochromic behavior of the fiber.

  13. Simulation of Glass Fiber Forming Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von der Ohe, Renate

    Two glass fiber forming processes have been simulated using FEM, which are the drawing of continuous glass fibers for reinforcement purposes and the spinning of discontinuous glass fibers - stone wool for insulation. The aim of this work was to set up a numerical model for each process, and to use...

  14. Quenching the radiation induced luminescence in quartz fibers under light monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Demenkov, P V; Stepanov, V A; Stepanov, P A

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the luminescence intensity in the optical fiber with the quartz glass core by the reactor pulsed irradiation in the visible range are carried out. Decrease in the intensity of the radiation-induced luminescence with growth of the sounding light intensity is determined by sounding the light guide by the laser radiation (the wave length of 532 and 632 nm). The decrease in the luminescence intensity takes place by the wave lengths greater, smaller or equal to the sounding light wave length

  15. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus...... the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had...

  16. Control of Montmorillonite Surface Coatings on Quartz Grains in Bentonite by Precursor Volcanic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, R. F.; Harrison, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    The pathogenic tendencies of respirable-sized quartz grains may be dependent on inherent characteristics of the quartz as well as external factors. Surface coatings on quartz are of particular interest as they modify both physical and chemical properties of quartz grain surfaces and sequester the grain from contact with reactive lung fluids. Wendlandt et al. (Appl. Geochem. 22, 2007) investigated the surface properties of respirable-sized quartz grains in bentonites and recognized pervasive montmorillonite surface coatings on the quartz that resisted removal by repeated vigorous washings and reaction with HCl. To understand the persistence of montmorillonite coatings on quartz grains of igneous origin, volcanic ash deposits of varying age and degree of alteration to montmorillonite were sampled in Utah, including the distal Lava Creek (c. 0.64 Ma) and Bishop Tuffs (c. 0.74 Ma), and SW Colorado (Conejos Fm, San Juan Volcanic Field) for comparison with commercial grade Cretaceous-age "western" and "southern" bentonites. Quartz grains, hand-picked from these samples, were analyzed using FE-SEM and HRTEM. Continuous coatings of volcanic glass occur on quartz grains from the distal volcanic ash samples. As glass alteration to montmorillonite becomes more extensive, quartz grain surfaces start to display patches of montmorillonite. These patches become continuous in extent on quartz grains from the bentonites. Late precipitation of opal- CT lepispheres is consistent with the alteration reaction for volcanic glass: Volcanic glass + H2O = montmorillonite + SiO2(am) + ions(aq). HRTEM of quartz grains reveals an amorphous surface layer, consistent with a volcanic glass coating. Our results indicate that persistent montmorillonite coatings on quartz grains in bentonites are related to precursor volcanic glass coatings on these grains. The absence of glass coatings on other mineral grains in bentonite (feldspar, biotite) may be a consequence of the presence of strong cleavage

  17. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtos, Gabriel, E-mail: gfurtos@yahoo.co.uk [Raluca Ripan Institute of Research in Chemistry, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Baldea, Bogdan [Dep. of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Timisoara (Romania); Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura [Raluca Ripan Institute of Research in Chemistry, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) when evaluated with one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84 wt.% and 86.02 wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Future glass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler. - Highlights: • AR glass fibers for dental applications • AR glass fibers have a great potential for obtaining radiopaque glass fiber posts. • Experimental AR glass fiber posts could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts for clinical application.

  18. Germanate Glass Fiber Lasers for High Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    evidence of crystallisation after thermal cycling, and is of a low enough loss to realize a fiber laser. The glass stability is demonstrated by...2low-loss fiber can be realized . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Germanate fiber Laser, Fiber Laser, Structured Fiber 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...the profile of bare fibres and the loss value at 630 matches with the spot loss measurement done by Naveed. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution

  19. Chalcogenide glass hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désévédavy, Frédéric; Renversez, Gilles; Troles, Johann; Houizot, Patrick; Brilland, Laurent; Vasilief, Ion; Coulombier, Quentin; Traynor, Nicholas; Smektala, Frédéric; Adam, Jean-Luc

    2010-09-01

    We report the first hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC PCF) in chalcogenide glass. To design the required HC PCF profiles for such high index glass, we use both band diagram analysis to define the required photonic bandgap and numerical simulations of finite size HC PCFs to compute the guiding losses. The material losses have also been taken into account to compute the overall losses of the HC PCF profiles. These fibers were fabricated by the stack and draw technique from TeAsSe (TAS) glass. The fibers we drew in this work are composed of six rings of holes and regular microstructures. Two profiles are presented, one is known as a kagome lattice and the other one corresponds to a triangular lattice. Geometrical parameters are compared to the expected parameters obtained by computation. Applications of such fibers include power delivery or fiber sensors among others.

  20. Glass-clad semiconductor core optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephanie Lynn

    Glass-clad optical fibers comprising a crystalline semiconductor core have garnered considerable recent attention for their potential utility as novel waveguides for applications in nonlinear optics, sensing, power delivery, and biomedicine. As research into these fibers has progressed, it has become evident that excessive losses are limiting performance and so greater understanding of the underlying materials science, coupled with advances in fiber processing, is needed. More specifically, the semiconductor core fibers possess three performance-limiting characteristics that need to be addressed: (a) thermal expansion mismatches between crystalline core and glass cladding that lead to cracks, (b) the precipitation of oxide species in the core upon fiber cooling, which results from partial dissolution of the cladding glass by the core melt, and (c) polycrystallinity; all of which lead to scattering and increased transmission losses. This dissertation systematically studies each of these effects and develops both a fundamental scientific understanding of and practical engineering methods for reducing their impact. With respect to the thermal expansion mismatch and, in part, the dissolution of oxides, for the first time to our knowledge, oxide and non-oxide glass compositions are developed for a series of semiconductor cores based on two main design criteria: (1) matching the thermal expansion coefficient between semiconductor core and glass cladding to minimize cracking and (2) matching the viscosity-temperature dependences, such that the cladding glass draws into fiber at a temperature slightly above the melting point of the semiconductor in order to minimize dissolution and improve the fiber draw process. The x[Na 2O:Al2O3] + (100 - 2x)SiO2 glass compositional family was selected due to the ability to tailor the glass properties to match the aforementioned targets through slight variations in composition and adjusting the ratios of bridging and non-bridging oxygen

  1. Multicomponent glass fiber optic integrated structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Dariusz; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Szarniak, Przemyslaw; Franczyk, Marcin; Stepien, Ryszard; Buczynski, Ryszard

    2005-09-01

    A range of integrated fiber optic structures - lightguides, image guides, multicapillary arrays, microstructured (photonic) fibers - manufactured in the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME) is described. All these structures are made of multicomponent glasses (a part of them melted in ITME). They can be manufactured in similar multistep process that involves drawing glass or lightguide rods and tubes preparing glass performs, stacking a bundle with rods and (or) tubes, drawing multifiber or multicapillary performs. Structure formation, technological process, characterization and applications of different integrated structures are presented.

  2. New glass developments for fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higby, Paige L.; Holst, Karen; Tabor, Kevin; James, William; Chase, Elizabeth; Pucilowski, Sally; Gober-Mangan, Elizabeth; Klimek, Ronald; Karetta, Frank; Schreder, Bianca

    2014-02-01

    Fiber optic components for lighting and imaging applications have been in use for decades. Recent requirements such as a need for RoHS compliance, attractive market pricing, or particular optical properties, such as numerical aperture (NA) or transmission, have required SCHOTT to develop and implement new glasses for these applications. From Puravis™ lead-free fibers for lighting applications, to new glasses for digital X-ray imaging and sensor applications, the challenges for SCHOTT scientists are considerable. Pertinent properties of these glasses and methods of determination for suitability will be discussed.

  3. Diaplectic Glass Content in Experimentally Shock-loaded Quartz Determined by X-Ray Powder Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, R.; Hoerz, F.; Langenhorst, F.

    2003-01-01

    Quartz is the most common mineral of terrestrial crustal rocks and thus a widespread indicator for impact cratering and associated shock metamorphism. Planar deformation features (PDFs) are among the most prominent and diagnostic shock features in quartz and they represent thin lamellae of glass that formed via solid-state transformations. This socalled 'diaplectic' glass becomes pervasive at higher pressures and results in optically isotropic and X-ray-amorphous phases that resemble texturally the original quartz grains (without evidence of melt flow). In the past, it has been shown that the amount of this amorphous material in experimentally shock-loaded quartz correlates with peak shock pressure. Both reports derive the glass content from density measurements of individual crystals employing the equation X(%) = (rho(sub x) - rho(sub 0))/(rho(sub x) - rho(sub gl)), where x and 0 stands for X-ray and average (optical) density, respectively. The density of glass, rho(sub gl), was adopted as 2.2 g/cu cm. Though the same procedures had been applied, the resulting glass content differs significantly among the above studies. In the present study, we are using a new approach based solely on the integral intensity of a single, carefully selected reflection in the XRD pattern, and we will compare our data to those reported in the literature.

  4. Experimental evaluation of a hollow glass fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, A; Croitoru, N

    1986-02-01

    Very high interest in making a low-loss fiber for the infrared has been stimulated by important applications in optical communication, surgery, cutting, welding, and heat treatment. The leaky waveguide is one of the most promising types of future fiber in the infrared region where low-loss materials are not available or not suitable for making fibers (i.e., CO2 laser light lambda = 10.6 microm). In this paper a comparative model of a He-Ne laser beam and an oxide glass leaky hollow fiber for a CO2 laser light beam and a chalcogenide glass leaky hollow fiber are studied. Measurements of attenuation, dependence of output power on diameter and angle, and the angular dependence of output angle vs input angle were made. The experimental data were compared with theoretical calculations, and the critical value of the wall thickness for minimum attenuation is given.

  5. Defect-free surface of quartz glass polished in elastic mode by chemical impact reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文强; 关朝亮; 李圣怡

    2014-01-01

    Removal of brittle materials in the brittle or ductile mode inevitably causes damaged or strained surface layers containing cracks, scratches or dislocations. Within elastic deformation, the arrangement of each atom can be recovered back to its original position without any defects introduced. Based on surface hydroxylation and chemisorption theory, material removal mechanism of quartz glass in the elastic mode is analyzed to obtain defect-free surface. Elastic contact condition between nanoparticle and quartz glass surface is confirmed from the Hertz contact theory model. Atoms on the quartz glass surface are removed by chemical bond generated by impact reaction in the elastic mode, so no defects are generated without mechanical process. Experiment was conducted on a numerically controlled system for nanoparticle jet polishing, and one flat quartz glass was polished in the elastic mode. Results show that scratches on the sample surface are completely removed away with no mechanical defects introduced, and micro-roughness (Ra) is decreased from 1.23 nm to 0.47 nm. Functional group Ce—O—Si on ceria nanoparticles after polishing was detected directly and indirectly by FTIR, XRD and XPS spectra analysis from which the chemical impact reaction is validated.

  6. Chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaev, Vladimir S.

    2015-03-01

    The recent developments on chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers (HC-MOFs) are presented. The comparative analysis of simulated optical properties for chalcogenide HC-MOFs of negative-curvature with different size and number of capillaries is given. The technique for the manufacture of microstructured chalcogenide preforms, which includes the assembly of the substrate glass tube and 8-10 capillaries, is described. Further trends to improve the optical transmission in chalcogenide NCHCFs are considered.

  7. Fluoride Glass Fiber Sources: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    in collaboration with P.Brun’s laboratory at Rennes University ZBLAN glass compositions were characterized in 1980. [Furukawa (Shibata & Oshawa...PGICZ 30 PbF2, 22GaF3,13 InF3,18 CdF2,13 ZnF2,2 GdF3, 2 NaF ( n = 1.595 ) General physical properties PROPERTY HMFG ZBLAN Glass transition...fibers Large potential May be achieved with ZBLAN glass Probably more difficult than silica or chalcogenides Thermal properties of ZBLAN offer extended

  8. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p b 0.05)when evaluatedwith one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84wt.% and 86.02wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Futureglass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler.

  9. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...... different recycling processes, mechanical, burn off, pyrolysis and glycolysis are selected are compared based on the properties of the glass fiber recovered. The intention is to use the same characterization methodology....

  10. Glass Fiber Resin Composites and Components at Arctic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited GLASS FIBER RESIN...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GLASS FIBER RESIN COMPOSITES AND COMPONENTS AT ARCTIC TEMPERATURES 5...public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Glass fiber reinforced composites (GFRC

  11. Stability of Glass Fiber-Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    These treatments were 1. As-received, 2. heat treated 0.5 hours at 550°C, 3. washed in acetone, and 4. washed in aqua regla . 1. Microscopy S-glass... regla . No apparent effect on the surface of the fibers is visible as a result of these surface treatments. Figures 30-33 show the results of the

  12. Development Of Porous Glass Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, P. B.; Barkatt, Aa.; Feng, X.; Finger, S. M.; Hojaji, H.; Laberge, N.; Mohr, R.; Penafiel, M.; Saad, E.

    A method for producing rugged, continuous porous glass fiber optic sensors was developed. pH and temperature sensors based on this technology have been successfully produced. The sensor portion of the fiber is made porous by selective leaching of a specially formulated borosilicate glass fiber. This results in a strong, monolithic structure where the sensor portion of the fiber remains integrally attached to the rest of the fiber (which acts as a light pipe), essentially eliminating losses at the sensor-light pipe interface. Pore size in the sensor can be controllably varied by modifying heat treatment conditions, making these sensors suitable for chemical concentration measurements in liquids and gases. Appropriate dyes were chemically bonded by silanization to the large interior surface area of the porous sensors to produce the pH and temperature sensors. Cresol red and phenol red were used for pH and pinacyanol chloride was used for temperature sensing. The sensitivity of these devices can be controlled by varying the concentration of the chemically bonded dye and the length of the porous region. Optical absorbance measurements were made in the visible range. The tip of the sensors was coated with a thin, porous layer of gold to reflect the incident light, resulting in a double pass across the porous sensor. Experimental measurements were made over a pH range of 3 to 8 and a temperature range of 28-70 C. These porous glass fiber optic sensors were found to be rugged and reliable due to their monolithic structure and large interior surface area for attachment of active species. A broad range of sensors based on this technology could be developed by using different active species, such as enzymes and other biochemicals, which could be bonded to the interior surface of the porous glass sensor.

  13. Technical compatibility and safety of glass fiber in battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, R. [Schuller International, Toledo, OH (United States); Versen, R. [Schuller International, Littleton, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Nonwovens comprised of glass fibers are both compatible with the relatively harsh chemical environment in lead acid batteries, and yet are safe to handle. The health and safety of glass fibers may seem confusing from a regulatory viewpoint, but are in fact highly tested and well understood scientifically to not cause respiratory disease. Nonwoven separators made from glass fibers are well situated to withstand scientific scrutiny in these times of suspicion of negative health effects ranging from second-hand smoke to tap water. This paper examines technical compatibility of the glass fibers in the battery, the health and safety aspects of glass fibers, and governmental and regulatory interpretation of studies.

  14. Glass fiber addition strengthens low-density ablative compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Approximately 15% of E-glass fibers was added to compositions under test and greatly improved char stability. Use of these fibers also reduced thermal strains which, in turn, minimized char shrinkage and associated cracks, subsurface voids, and disbonds. Increased strength allows honeycomb core reinforcement to be replaced by equivalent amount of glass fibers.

  15. Reinforcement of conventional glass-ionomer restorative material with short glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Ibrahim M

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the strengthening effect of glass fibers when added to conventional glass-ionomer restorative material. Glass fibers were incorporated into glass-ionomer powder in 3 wt% and 5 wt%. The fibers used had 1 mm length and 10 microm thickness. These criteria of fiber length, diameter, and concentration represent a new approach for reinforcing conventional glass-ionomer [Medifill, conventional restorative glass-ionomer]. The mechanical properties tested were diametral tensile strength, hardness, flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness after 24-h and 7-days of storage in deionized water. Glass short fibers were mixed thoroughly into the glass-ionomer powder before mixing with the cement liquid. Samples of specific dimensions were prepared for each time interval and fiber loading according to the manufacturer's instructions and international standards. Hardness was measured using a micro-hardness tester at 100 gram applied load for 15 s. The other mechanical properties were measured using a Lloyd universal testing machine. The results showed increased diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and fracture toughness by the addition of glass fibers. There was an appreciable increase of the tested mechanical properties of glass-ionomer restorative material as a result of increasing fiber loading and water storage for 1 week. It was concluded that conventional glass-ionomer can be reinforced by the addition of short glass fibers.

  16. Ultrathermostable, Magnetic-Driven, and Superhydrophobic Quartz Fibers for Water Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ran; Zhao, Qiuchen; Li, Pan; Ren, Huaying; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-13

    A quartz fiber based 3D monolithic materials was fabricated, which combines ultrahigh thermostability, remote controllability, mechanical flexibility, high water/oil selectivity, high processing capacity, and regeneration ability. This material exhibited great potential in water remediation, such as large absorption capacity (50- to 172-fold weight gain) toward oil standing in front of all magnetic sorbents and remarkable oil/water separation performance.

  17. Class II direct composite resin restorations with beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, R E

    1993-11-01

    With the increasing demand for esthetic posterior restorations, numerous techniques have been developed. The direct resin restoration has probably been used most extensively in Class II situations. Problems with Class II direct resin restorations include difficulty in developing proximal contact, occlusal wear, and polymerization shrinkage. Beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts have been developed in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these potential problems. They can be placed in a one-appointment technique, are relatively inexpensive, and can readily be utilized by the clinician adept in placing Class II composite resin restorations.

  18. SOVIET TRENDS IN ORIENTED GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLASS TEXTILES, *PLASTICS, *REINFORCING MATERIALS, ADHESION, BINDERS, DEFORMATION, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, EPOXY RESINS , FIBERS, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, POLYMERS, PROCESSING, SILICATES, STYRENES, TEXTILES, VISCOSITY

  19. Glass-like, low-energy excitations in neutron-irradiated quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, John William [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1980-01-01

    The specific heat and thermal conductivity of neutron-irradiated crystalline quartz have been measured for temperatures ≈ 0.1 to 5 K. Four types of low-energy excitations are observed in the irradiated samples, two of which can be removed selectively by heat treatment. One set of remaining excitations gives rise to low-temperature thermal behavior characteristic of glassy (amorphous) solids. The density of these glass-like excitations can be 50% the density observed in vitreous silica, yet the sample still retains long-range atomic order. In a less-irradiated sample, glass-like excitations may be present with a density only ≈ 2.5% that observed in vitreous silica and possess a similar broad energy spectrum over 0.1 to 1 K.

  20. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J., E-mail: jesuskuh@live.com.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Nistal, A. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Rubio, F.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bartolo-Pérez, P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Cinvestav, Unidad Mérida, C.P., 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  1. Phosphate-based glass fiber vs. bulk glass: Change in fiber optical response to probe in vitro glass reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massera, J; Ahmed, I; Petit, L; Aallos, V; Hupa, L

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fiber drawing on the thermal and structural properties as well as on the glass reactivity of a phosphate glass in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-buffered (TRIS) solution and simulated body fluid (SBF). The changes induced in the thermal properties suggest that the fiber drawing process leads to a weakening and probable re-orientation of the POP bonds. Whereas the fiber drawing did not significantly impact the release of P and Ca, an increase in the release of Na into the solution was noticed. This was probably due to small structural reorientations occurring during the fiber drawing process and to a slight diffusion of Na to the fiber surface. Both the powders from the bulk and the glass fibers formed a Ca-P surface layer when immersed in SBF and TRIS. The layer thickness was higher in the calcium and phosphate supersaturated SBF than in TRIS. This paper for the first time presents the in vitro reactivity and optical response of a phosphate-based bioactive glass (PBG) fiber when immersed in SBF. The light intensity remained constant for the first 48h after which a decrease with three distinct slopes was observed: the first decrease between 48 and 200h of immersion could be correlated to the formation of the Ca-P layer at the fiber surface. After this a faster decrease in light transmission was observed from 200 to ~425h in SBF. SEM analysis suggested that after 200h, the surface of the fiber was fully covered by a thin Ca-P layer which is likely to scatter light. For immersion times longer than ~425h, the thickness of the Ca-P layer increased and thus acted as a barrier to the dissolution process limiting further reduction in light transmission. The tracking of light transmission through the PBG fiber allowed monitoring of the fiber dissolution in vitro. These results are essential in developing new bioactive fiber sensors that can be used to monitor bioresponse in situ.

  2. Hollow infrared fibers fabricated by glass-drawing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yuji; Kasahara, Ryosuke; Katagiri, Takashi; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2002-06-17

    Hollow glass fibers for delivery of mid-infrared lasers are drawn from a glass-tube preform to produce a long and flexible hollow fiber at low cost. To utilize the interference effect of the thin glass wall, the wall thickness is controlled by the drawing speed. A Pyrex-glass hollow fiber with an inner diameter of 280 microm and a wall thickness of 9.92 microm shows a low loss at 2.94 microm of the Er:YAG laser wavelength when coated with a silver film on the outer surface.

  3. Recycling and Utilization of Waste Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan-chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduced the recovery method, classification and comprehensive utilization process of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP. Among the current methods of utilization, the physical method is most promising. After pre-processing of waste GFRP, the short glass fiber can be used in gypsum block to improve the anti-cracking and operation performance of the material; waste GFRP powder can be used in plastic fiber reinforced manhole covers to increase the mechanical strength, and the products conformed to JC 1009-2006. Based on these studies, we also point out some problems concerning the utilization of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics.

  4. Design and development of thin quartz glass WFXT polynomial mirror shells by direct polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, L.; Campana, S.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Combrinck, H.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Freeman, R.; Langstrof, P.; Mattaini, E.; Morton, R.; Oberle, B.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.; Pels, C.; Schenk, C.; Stock, R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2010-07-01

    The Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) is a medium class mission for X-ray surveys of the sky with an unprecedented area and sensitivity. In order to meet the effective area requirement, the design of the optical system is based on very thin mirror shells, with thicknesses in the 1-2 mm range. In order to get the desired angular resolution (10 arcsec requirement, 5 arcsec goal) across the entire 1x1 degree FOV (Field Of View), the design of the optical system is based on nested modified grazing incidence Wolter-I mirrors realized with polynomial profiles, focal plane curvature and plate scale corrections. This design guarantees an increased angular resolution at large off-axis angle with respect to the normally used Wolter I configuration, making WFXT ideal for survey purposes. The WFXT X-ray Telescope Assembly is composed by three identical mirror modules of 78 nested shells each, with diameter up to 1.1 m. The epoxy replication process with SiC shells has already been proved to be a valuable technology to meet the angular resolution requirement of 10 arcsec. To further mature the telescope manufacturing technology and to achieve the goal of 5 arcsec, a deterministic direct polishing method is under investigation. The direct polishing method has already been used for past missions (as Einstein, Rosat, Chandra): the technological challenge now is to apply it for almost ten times thinner shells. Under investigation is quartz glass (fused silica), a well-known material with good thermo-mechanical and polishability characteristics that could meet our goal in terms of mass and stiffness, with significant cost and time saving with respect to SiC. Our approach is based on two main steps: first quartz glass tubes available on the market are grinded to conical profiles, and second the obtained shells are polished to the required polynomial profiles by CNC (Computer Numerical Control) polishing machine. In this paper, the first results of the direct grinding and polishing of

  5. Mechanical behavior of quartz fiber reinforced epoxy resins for teeth restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, A M; Calabrese, L; Campo, N; Torrisi, L; Oteri, G; Lo Giudice, G; Cicciù, D

    2006-01-01

    In this work composite materials, based on quartz fibers and epoxy resins, were employed with the aim to restore damaged teeth. The composite materials were chosen because they show biomechanical features very similar to that of the dentine, the main constituent of the tooth. Extracted teeth were rebuilt with two different restorative procedures: in the first, the composite material was pre-formed in a conical trunk shape abutment (PA) and then bonded to a fiber quartz post with a dental bonder. In the second rebuilt system the abutment was prepared by cross linking the resin on the fiber quartz post with a halogen lamp (CRA). The restored teeth were then mechanically tested and observed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with the aim to study the interaction between the reconstructive materials. Wetting and roughness measurements were also carried out in order to study the interface adhesion between the post and the abutments. Characterization analysis evidenced that the CRA restorative procedure improves the adhesion between the substitutive materials and shows higher fracture strength than the PA ones. Anyway both the rebuilt systems are able to support the masticator load. An explanation of the interfacial post-abutment interaction phenomenon is discussed.

  6. Interfacial fracture of dentin adhesively bonded to quartz-fiber reinforced composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Renata M. [Department of Dental Materials and Pronsthodontics at Sao Jose dos Campos Dental Shool, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo 12245-820 (Brazil); Rahbar, Nima, E-mail: nrahbar@umassd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts 02720 (United States); Soboyejo, Wole [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of interfacial failure in a multilayered structure consisting of a dentin/resin cement/quartz-fiber reinforced composite (FRC). Slices of dentin close to the pulp chamber were sandwiched by two half-circle discs made of a quartz-fiber reinforced composite, bonded with bonding agent (All-bond 2, BISCO, Schaumburg) and resin cement (Duo-link, BISCO, Schaumburg) to make Brazil-nut sandwich specimens for interfacial toughness testing. Interfacial fracture toughness (strain energy release rate, G) was measured as a function of mode mixity by changing loading angles from 0 deg. to 15 deg. The interfacial fracture surfaces were then examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the failure modes when loading angles changed. A computational model was also developed to calculate the driving forces, stress intensity factors and mode mixities. Interfacial toughness increased from {approx} 1.5 to 3.2 J/m{sup 2} when the loading angle increases from {approx} 0 to 15 deg. The hybridized dentin/cement interface appeared to be tougher than the resin cement/quartz-fiber reinforced epoxy. The Brazil-nut sandwich specimen was a suitable method to investigate the mechanical integrity of dentin/cement/FRC interfaces.

  7. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of island nuclei formed at the initial stage of quartz glass crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankin, D. V.; Zolotarev, V. M.; Colas, M.; Cornette, J.; Evdokimova, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    Island nuclei formed on a polished quartz-glass surface upon heating to 1100°C have been investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy. The structural and chemical composition of islands is shown to be a central nucleus, a shell around the nucleus, and a thin peripheral ring closing this shell. The formation and growth of individual regions of an island nucleus are found to occur in several stages. The shell around the nucleus is mainly formed by α-SiO2 and α-cristobalite nanoparticles with a size ≥40 nm, whereas the α-SiO2 nanoparticles in the nucleus and peripheral ring are 2-15 nm in size.

  8. Effects of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bending strength and bonding of glass fibers in fiber-embedded maxillofacial silicone prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watts, David C

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of different periods of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bond strength of glass fiber bundles embedded into maxillofacial silicone elastomer and on bending strength of the glass fiber bundles. Forty specimens were fabricated by embedding resin-impregnated fiber bundles (1.5-mm diameter, 20-mm long) into maxillofacial silicone elastomer. Specimens were randomly allocated into four groups, and each group was subjected to different periods of accelerated daylight aging as follows (in hours); 0, 200, 400, and 600. The aging cycle included continuous exposure to quartz-filtered visible daylight (irradiance 760 W/m(2)) under an alternating weathering cycle (wet for 18 minutes, dry for 102 minutes). Pull-out tests were performed to evaluate bond strength between fiber bundles and silicone using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Also a three-point bending test was performed to evaluate bending strength of the fiber bundles. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were carried out to detect statistical significance (p bending strengths of fiber bundles were in the range of 917.72 MPa to 1124.06 MPa. Bending strength significantly increased after 200 and 400 hours of aging only. After 200 hours of exposure to artificial daylight and moisture conditions, bond strength between glass fibers and heat-cured silicones is optimal, and the bending strength of the glass fiber bundles is enhanced.

  9. Inconel crucibles - an alternative to quartz glass crucibles when analysing problematic samples by EA-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen; Neal, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Anecdotal evidence as well as observations made in our own stable isotope laboratory suggest for samples with either a high halogen content (such as marine samples) or a high carbon and oxygen content (such as carbohydrates) to result in flash combustion temperatures exceeding temperature or burn time or both of flash combustion under typical conditions. Whatever the exact circumstances during combustion of such samples, they weaken the wall of the quartz glass reactors in the combustion zone and ultimately lead to pin-prick holes being formed through which carrier gas escapes thus resulting in a dramatic loss of carrier gas flow. Occasionally these pin-prick holes get plugged or "sealed" by molten tin thus restoring carrier gas flow but at the other end of the spectrum these pin-prick holes can become so wide for molten tin being able to pass through and to run down the outside of the reactor tube. In the latter event, a catastrophic failure of the reactor tube is inevitable with carrier gas flow downstream of the holes dropping to almost zero. While pin-prick holes (going unnoticed during an autosampler run of a large batch of samples) typically result in the loss of 3 or 4 samples until the hole/s "self-sealed" with molten tin, in a worst case scenario a catastrophic failure of the reactor tube can result in the loss of 40 or more samples (depending on number of samples in a batch run and when the failure occurred). Here we present examples of combustion reactor failure as well as observations made with crucibles made of quartz glass, stainless steel or inconel alloy during experiments to see if crucible design can mitigate against the effects of problematic samples.

  10. Optical and mechanical anisotropy of oxide glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, J.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Upon fiber drawing, glass forming oxide melts are thermally quenched and mechanically stretched. High cooling rates (up to 106 K/min) of quenched glass fibres lead to higher enthalpy state of liquids, thereby, to higher fictive temperature than regular quenching (e.g. 20 K/min) of bulk glass...... products [1], whereas stretching (frozen-in strain) results in optical and mechanical anisotropy of glass fibers, which is quantified inter alia by the specific birefringence [2]. The paper will stress the later effects by combining previous results on the structural origins of birefringence...... and anisotropic shrinkage in silica and phosphate fibers with recent studies on relaxation of optical anisotropy in E-glass fibers [3,4]....

  11. Nanostructures formed in pure quartz glass under irradiation in the reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimova, E. M.; Mussaeva, M. A.; Kalanov, M. U.

    2014-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for studying nanoscale particles grown in pure SiO2 glass under irradiation with fast neutron fluencies within 6×1016-5·1019 cm-2 and gamma-quanta ~1.8×1020 cm-2 in the reactor core in water. The neutron irradiation results in destroying of the initial α- and β-quartz mesoscopic order of 1.7 and 1.2 nm sizes and growing of cristobalite and tridymite nanocrystals of 16 and 8 nm sizes in the thermal peaks of displacements reapectively. The point defects (oxygen deficient E‧s, E'1, E'2 and non-bridging oxygen centers) induced by the γ-irradiation are accumulated in the nanocrystals shell of 0.65-0.85 nm thickness. Interaction of close point defects at the nanocrystal-glass interface causes the splitting of optical absorption bands into the intensive (D~2-4) resonances characteristic for local interband electron transitions, having the width of 10-15 nm close to the nanocrystals' sizes and the energy depending on their structure.

  12. Effects of bond primers on bending strength and bonding of glass fibers in fiber-embedded maxillofacial silicone prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watts, David C

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of three commonly used bond primers on the bending strength of glass fibers and their bond strength to maxillofacial silicone elastomer after 360 hours of accelerated daylight aging. Eighty specimens were fabricated by embedding resin-impregnated fiber bundles (1.5-mm diameter, 20-mm long) into maxillofacial silicone elastomer M511 (Cosmesil). Twenty fiber bundles served as control and did not receive surface treatment with primers, whereas the remaining 60 fibers were treated with three primers (n = 20): G611 (Principality Medical), A-304 (Factor II), and A-330-Gold (Factor II). Forty specimens were dry stored at room temperature (23 ± 1°C) for 24 hours, and the remaining specimens were aged using an environmental chamber under accelerated exposure to artificial daylight for 360 hours. The aging cycle included continuous exposure to quartz-filtered visible daylight (irradiance 760 W/m(2) ) under an alternating weathering cycle (wet for 18 minutes, dry for 102 minutes). Pull-out tests were performed to evaluate bond strength between fiber bundles and silicone using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. A 3-point bending test was performed to evaluate the bending strength of the fiber bundles. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni post hoc test, and an independent t-test were carried out to detect statistical significances (p bending strengths of fiber bundles at baseline increased after treatment with primers and light aging in comparison with control specimens (p bending strength of glass fibers. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Fiber Fabrication Facility for Non-Oxide and Specialty Glasses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Unique facility for the research, development, and fabrication of non-oxide and specialty glasses and fibers in support of Navy/DoD programs. DESCRIPTION:...

  14. MICROWAVE INDUCED DEGRADATION OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYESTER FOR FIBER AND RESIN RECOVERY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Hülya; Nielsen, Rudi Pankratz; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen;

    A solvolysis process to depolymerize the resin in glass fiber reinforced composites and recover the glass fibers has been investigated using microwave induced irradiation. The depolymerization was carried out in HNO3 with concentrations in the range of 1M-7M and in KOH with concentrations ranging...

  15. Machining of glass fiber reinforced polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The machinability of a 30 wt% glass fiber reinforced polyamide (PA was investigated by means of drilling tests. A disk was cut from an extruded rod and drilled on the flat surface: thrust was acquired during drilling at different drilling speed, feed rate and drill diameter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and indentation were used to characterize PA so as to evaluate the intrinsic lack of homogeneity of the extruded material. In conclusion, it was observed that the chip formation mechanism affects the thrust dependence on the machining parameters. A traditional modeling approach is able to predict thrust only in presence of a continuous chip. In some conditions, thrust increases as drilling speed increases and feed rate decreases; this evidence suggests not to consider the general scientific approach which deals the machining of plastics in analogy with metals. Moreover, the thrust can be significantly affected by the workpiece fabrication effect, as well as by the machining parameters; therefore, the fabrication effect is not negligible in the definition of an optimum for the machining process.

  16. Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chalcogenide glasses with polymer photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is a difficult and challenging task due to their different thermo-mechanical material properties. Here we report the first experimental realization of a hybrid polymer-chalcogenide PCF with integrated As2S3 glass ...

  17. Subnanosecond Short Wavelength Generation Using Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    was focussed by a *short focal length lens (4-5 cm) into quartz fibers of 200 - 300 um * diameter. These were solid core with plastic or glass ...October, 1983]. 3. "Gas in Glass - experiments The intention of these experiments was to provide Reman-active * media within a quartz fiber in order to...200 um hollow quartz capillary tubes surrounded by a larger glass tube for protection, and with two liquid cells at each end, as shown in Figure (5

  18. Near-field light scattering by parallel glass fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Daniel S.; Tsuei, Tak-Goa; Barber, Peter W.

    1987-09-01

    Single glass fibers whose radius-to-wavelength ratio is large, for example, r/λ=100, strongly focus normally incident laser light to give greatly enhanced intensities both within and in the near field of the fiber, even when the fiber is not at resonance. Calculated results show that the enhancement is dependent on the radius-to-wavelength ratio and on the fiber index of refraction. Even greater enhancements are observed for spherical particles. The near-field intensity for a single fiber is greatly modified when a second fiber is moved into its near field. Calculations of the near-field intensities for two coupled fibers provide insight into the coupling mechanism, especially the dependence of the coupling on the fiber separation and on the orientation of the two fibers relative to the incident wave.

  19. Soft-glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Leonid; Khromova, Irina; Scherbakov, Andrey; Nikishin, Nikolay

    2005-09-01

    The results of numerical modeling and experimental investigations of manufactured diamond-shaped and large area hollow core photonic crystal fibers with periodical cladding (kagome-lattice and closely packed tubes) are presented. The use of soft glasses allows to fabricate high-quality structures with moderate losses. Numerical methods, designing strategies and fabrication issues of these promising fiber structures are discussed.

  20. High-Power ZBLAN Glass Fiber Lasers: Review and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiushan Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF, considered as the most stable heavy metal fluoride glass and the excellent host for rare-earth ions, has been extensively used for efficient and compact ultraviolet, visible, and infrared fiber lasers due to its low intrinsic loss, wide transparency window, and small phonon energy. In this paper, the historical progress and the properties of fluoride glasses and the fabrication of ZBLAN fibers are briefly described. Advances of infrared, upconversion, and supercontinuum ZBLAN fiber lasers are addressed in detail. Finally, constraints on the power scaling of ZBLAN fiber lasers are analyzed and discussed. ZBLAN fiber lasers are showing promise of generating high-power emissions covering from ultraviolet to mid-infrared considering the recent advances in newly designed optical fibers, beam-shaped high-power pump diodes, beam combining techniques, and heat-dissipating technology.

  1. Electrical and dielectric properties of irradiated KU1 quartz glass from DC to 145 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Vila, R; Heidinger, R; Morono, A; Hodgson, E R

    2002-01-01

    To characterize and examine the possible use of the KU1 quartz glass for both diagnostic and remote handling applications, the radiation induced conductivity and electrical degradation (RIC and RIED), together with dielectric loss and permittivity (10 mHz-145 GHz) have been determined for as-received, electron and neutron irradiated material. Results show that the RIC is extremely low (<10 sup - sup 8 S/m compared with about 10 sup - sup 7 S/m) for candidate oxide materials at the same dose rate, but markedly increases for doses up to about 3x10 sup - sup 5 dpa while the conductivity without radiation is reduced with dose. Dielectric measurements from 1 kHz to 20 GHz during electron irradiation show that prompt effects are only observed at very low frequencies, consistent with the low RIC results. For neutron irradiation to 10 sup - sup 4 dpa, post-irradiation measurements indicate a permanent increase in loss by up to a factor of 2 below 60 MHz. No effect is observed in the GHz range.

  2. Monitoring Fiber Stress During Curing of Single Fiber Glass- and Graphite-Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhukar, Madhu S.; Kosuri, Ranga P.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    The difference in thermal expansion characteristics of epoxy matrices and graphite fibers can produce significant residual stresses in the fibers during curing of composite materials. Tests on single fiber glass-epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite specimens were conducted in which the glass and graphite fibers were preloaded in tension, and the epoxy matrix was cast around the fibers. The fiber tension was monitored while the matrix was placed around the fiber and subjected to the temperature-time curing cycle. Two mechanisms responsible for producing stress in embedded fibers were identified as matrix thermal expansion and contraction and matrix cure shrinkage. A simple analysis based on the change in fiber tension during the curing cycle was conducted to estimate the produced stresses. Experimental results on single fiber glass- and graphite-epoxy composites show that the fiber was subjected to significant tensile stresses when the temperature was raised from the first to the second dwell period. When initial fiber pretension is about 60 percent of the fiber failure load, these curing-induced stresses can cause tensile fracture of the embedded fiber.

  3. Fiber movements and sound attenuation in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1999-01-01

    Propagation of a plane harmonic sound wave in fiber materials such as glass wool is studied theoretically and experimentally. Wave equations are set up that take into account the movement of the fiber skeleton. The attenuation of the sound wave in slabs of glass wool was calculated and measured....... The main new result is that the experimental attenuation at low-frequency propagating wave is lower when the fibers move. For wave with frequency 100 Hz in glass wool of density 20 kg/m3, the attenuation of a layer of thickness 0.20 m is 4 dB if the fibers move, and 12 dB if they do not move...

  4. High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treossi, Emanuele; Melucci, Manuela; Liscio, Andrea; Gazzano, Massimo; Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo

    2009-11-04

    We present a novel approach for detecting and visualizing graphene oxide (GO) with high contrast on different substrates, including glass, quartz, and silicon. Visualization of GO sheets is accomplished through quenching the fluorescence of a thiophene dye, giving high optical contrast without the need to use interference methods. A comparison of fluorescence, AFM, and XRD measurements confirmed that even a single GO sheet can completely quench the fluorescence and thus be quickly visualized.

  5. Quartz Capillary Cladding Anthracene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon(PAH)-Core Scintillating/WLS Fibers for High Rates and Radiation Damage Resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Albayrak-Yetkin, A; Corso, J; Jennings, G; Mestvirisvilli, A; Onel, Y; Schmidt, I; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D R; Yetkin, T

    2013-01-01

    Quartz capillary tube/fibers have been filled with anthracene by a melt and vacuum inbibition process to fabricate a scintillating core fiber. Other polcyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH), such as p-Terphenyl (pTP), stilbene or naphthalene are also well-suited to scintillating/shifting fiber cores. The resulting scintillating core with quartz cladding capillary fibers (250-750 micron cores) had a high specific light output when tested with muons (8 p.e. per MIP). These PAH core quartz capillary cladding scintillating/shifting optical fibers have the potential of high radiation resistance, fast response, and are applicable to many energy and intensity frontier experiments.

  6. Characterization of all-glass photonic band gap fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynski, Ryszard; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Lusawa, Marzenna; Pysz, Dariusz; Martynkien, Tadeusz; Berghmans, Francis; Nasilowski, Tomasz; Thienpont, Hugo; Stepien, Ryszard

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we report on the fabrication and characterization of a double glass micro-structured fiber with low index core and photonic cladding made of high index micro-rods. Micro rods are made of lead-oxide F2 commercially available glass (SCHOTT Inc.) with a refractive index nD=1.619, while as background we use a borosilicate NC21 glass with a refractive index nD=1.533. The fiber cladding is composed of 8 rings of F2 glass micro rods ordered in hexagonal lattice. A core is created by replacement of seven F2 rods with NC21 rods. A fabricated fiber has a linear filling factor of 0.75 and micro rods diameter of 1.2 μm. A core has a diameter of 3.7 μm while cladding and total fiber diameter are 42,6μm and 120 μm, respectively. Using supercontinuum source we have measured transmission properties of the fabricated fiber. Based on measurements of the fiber samples of 18-80 cm long we have identified two photonic band gaps. Fist band gap is localized in visible range at 610 nm central wavelength. The second broadband photonic band gap is localized in near infrared and it is 80 nm wide at 840 nm central wavelength.

  7. Surface Characterization of Glass Fiber by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaohua; LI Bin; SHI Baoli; GUO Xuefei; JIA Lina

    2008-01-01

    The surface properties of glass fiber were quantificationally analyzed by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Five n-alkanes (C6, C7, C8, C9, and C10) were chosen as apolar probes to characterize the dispersive component of surface free energy. Trichloromethane (CHCl3), acetone,and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were chosen as polar probes to detect the Lewis acid-base parameters. It is found that the dispersive components of free energy are 32.3, 30.5, 27.5, and 26.9 Mj/m2 at 70,80, 90, and 100 ℃, respectively. The Lewis acidic number Ka of the glass fiber is 0.512 4, and the basic number Kb is 2.862. The results mean the glass fiber is a Lewis basic material.

  8. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Mechanical Properties Enhancement by Adhesion Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Etcheverry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass fibers (GF are the reinforcement agent most used in polypropylene (PP based composites, as they have good balance between properties and costs. However, their final properties are mainly determined by the strength and stability of the polymer-fiber interphase. Fibers do not act as an effective reinforcing material when the adhesion is weak. Also, the adhesion between phases can be easily degraded in aggressive environmental conditions such as high temperatures and/or elevated moisture, and by the stress fields to which the material may be exposed. Many efforts have been done to improve polymer-glass fiber adhesion by compatibility enhancement. The most used techniques include modifications in glass surface, polymer matrix and/or both. However, the results obtained do not show a good costs/properties improvement relationship. The aim of this work is to perform an accurate analysis regarding methods for GF/PP adhesion improvement and to propose a new route based on PP in-situ polymerization onto fibers. This route involves the modification of fibers with an aluminum alkyl and hydroxy-α-olefin and from there to enable the growth of the PP chains using direct metallocenic copolymerization. The adhesion improvements were further proved by fragmentation test, as well as by mechanical properties measurements. The strength and toughness increases three times and the interfacial strength duplicates in PP/GF composites prepared with in-situ polymerized fibers.

  9. Physical Properties of AR-Glass Fibers in Continuous Fiber Spinning Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji-Sun; Lee, MiJai; Lim, Tae-Young; Lee, Youngjin; Jeon, Dae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Ho [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Soong-Keun [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a glass fiber is fabricated using a continuous spinning process from alkali resistant (AR) glass with 4 wt%zirconia. In order to confirm the melting properties of the marble glass, the raw material is placed into a Pt crucible and melted at 1650 ℃ for 2 h, and then annealed. In order to confirm the transparency of the clear marble glass, the visible transmittance is measured and the fiber spinning condition is investigated by using high temperature viscosity measurements. A change in the diameter is observed according to the winding speed in the range of 100–900 rpm; it is also verified as a function of the fiberizing temperature in the range of 1200–1260 ℃. The optimum winding speed and spinning temperature are 500 rpm and 1240 ℃, respectively. The properties of the prepared spinning fiber are confirmed using optical microscope, tensile strength, modulus, and alkali-resistant tests.

  10. Chemical cleaning agents and bonding to glass-fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Ogliari, Aline de Oliveira; Jardim, Patrícia dos Santos; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2013-01-01

    The influence of chemical cleaning agents on the bond strength between resin cement and glass-fiber posts was investigated. The treatments included 10% hydrofluoric acid, 35% phosphoric acid, 50% hydrogen peroxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, isopropanol, and tetrahydrofuran. Flat glass-fiber epoxy substrates were exposed to the cleaners for 60 s. Resin cement cylinders were formed on the surfaces and tested in shear. All treatments provided increased bond strength compared to untreated control specimens. All failures were interfacial. Although all agents improved the bond strength, dichloromethane and isopropanol were particularly effective.

  11. Chemical cleaning agents and bonding to glass-fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Gonçalves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chemical cleaning agents on the bond strength between resin cement and glass-fiber posts was investigated. The treatments included 10% hydrofluoric acid, 35% phosphoric acid, 50% hydrogen peroxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, isopropanol, and tetrahydrofuran. Flat glass-fiber epoxy substrates were exposed to the cleaners for 60 s. Resin cement cylinders were formed on the surfaces and tested in shear. All treatments provided increased bond strength compared to untreated control specimens. All failures were interfacial. Although all agents improved the bond strength, dichloromethane and isopropanol were particularly effective.

  12. Stimulated Raman scattering in soft glass fluoride fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Agger, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650 nm. We found a peak gain of gR=4.0±2×10−14 m W−1.......We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650 nm. We found a peak gain of gR=4.0±2×10−14 m W−1....

  13. Stimulated Raman scattering in soft glass fluoride fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune; Agger, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650nm. We found a peak gain of gR ¼ 4:0 2 × 10−14mW−1.......We have measured the absolute Raman gain spectrum in short fluoride soft glass fibers with a pump wavelength of 1650nm. We found a peak gain of gR ¼ 4:0 2 × 10−14mW−1....

  14. High-Power ZBLAN Glass Fiber Lasers: Review and Prospect

    OpenAIRE

    Xiushan Zhu; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-01-01

    ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF), considered as the most stable heavy metal fluoride glass and the excellent host for rare-earth ions, has been extensively used for efficient and compact ultraviolet, visible, and infrared fiber lasers due to its low intrinsic loss, wide transparency window, and small phonon energy. In this paper, the historical progress and the properties of fluoride glasses and the fabrication of ZBLAN fibers are briefly described. Advances of infrared, upconversion, and supe...

  15. Infrared transmission at the 3.39 micron helium-neon laser wavelength in liquid-core quartz fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, A. K.; Hinkley, E. D.; Menzies, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared transmission at the 3.39 micron helium-neon laser wavelength has been measured in a tetrachloroethylene-filled fused-quartz fiber. The loss measurements were taken for three different settings of laser light intensity using a series of neutral density filters. The average value of transmission loss at this wavelength was found to be 56 dB/km.

  16. The Effect of Two Different E Glass Fiber Reinforcements on Mechanical Properties of Polymethyl Metacrylate Denture Base Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Sinmazisik, G.; Ozyegin, LS.; Akesi, S.

    2002-01-01

    Denture base polymers were reinforced with various types of fibers, such as glass, carbon/graphite and ultrahigh-modulus polyethylene fibers. These procedures were performed to take advantage of the good esthetic qualities of glass fibers and good bonding of glass fibers to polymers via silane coupling agents. The most common type of glass used in fiber production is the so-called E glass (electrical glass). This study investigated the effect of chopped fibers with two different silane coupli...

  17. Midinfrared optical rogue waves in soft glass photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Steffensen, Henrik; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike

    2011-01-01

    We investigate numerically the formation of extreme events or rogue waves in soft glass tellurite fibers and demonstrate that optical loss drastically diminishes shot-to-shot fluctuations characteristic of picosecond pumped supercontinuum (SC). When loss is neglected these fluctuations include...... distributions. Our results thus implicitly show that rogue waves will not occur in any SC spectrum that is limited by loss, such as commercial silica fiber based SC sources. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  18. Fiber glass-bioactive glass composite for bone replacing and bone anchoring implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O; Hupa, Leena

    2015-04-01

    Although metal implants have successfully been used for decades, devices made out of metals do not meet all clinical requirements, for example, metal objects may interfere with some new medical imaging systems, while their stiffness also differs from natural bone and may cause stress-shielding and over-loading of bone. Peer-review articles and other scientific literature were reviewed for providing up-dated information how fiber-reinforced composites and bioactive glass can be utilized in implantology. There has been a lot of development in the field of composite material research, which has focused to a large extent on biodegradable composites. However, it has become evident that biostable composites may also have several clinical benefits. Fiber reinforced composites containing bioactive glasses are relatively new types of biomaterials in the field of implantology. Biostable glass fibers are responsible for the load-bearing capacity of the implant, while the dissolution of the bioactive glass particles supports bone bonding and provides antimicrobial properties for the implant. These kinds of combination materials have been used clinically in cranioplasty implants and they have been investigated also as oral and orthopedic implants. The present knowledge suggests that by combining glass fiber-reinforced composite with particles of bioactive glass can be used in cranial implants and that the combination of materials may have potential use also as other types of bone replacing and repairing implants. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aerodynamic Size Classification of Glass Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosmaa, Pekka J. J.

    The objective of this research was to examine a technique by which fibers may be aerodynamically classified by diameter and/or length. In this study a system for fiber preparation and generation as well as an in situ fiber classifier were constructed and evaluated. A recently developed technique, the size classification of particles by opposing jets, was modified. The research set-up consisted of (1) a vibrating bed fiber generator, which also functioned as a preselector, (2) an opposing-jet classifier equipped with electrodes and high voltage power supplies to create fiber-aligning electric fields inside the classifier and (3) an optoelectric fiber sensor to measure the concentration and length of fibers. The classified fibers were also collected on filters for the counting and dimensional analysis of the fibers. Some flow instability problems were found during the initial tests of the classifier. They were attributed to random flow fluctuations in the nozzles caused by very small perturbations upstream of the nozzles. Within a critical range of flow Reynolds numbers the flow becomes "intermittent", i.e. it alternates in time between being laminar and turbulent in a random sequence. Small disturbances upstream of the point of consideration can "trigger" the changes from laminar to turbulent flow and the initial disturbance may be "amplified", sending a turbulent flash through the flow system. The classifier performed well with test aerosols after the nozzle flowrate had been decreased to correspond to a lower and less critical Reynolds number and after some modifications had been made to smooth the flow inside the classifier inlet chambers. The cut-off of test aerosols was sharp, but the loss of particles greater than 2.5 (mu)m in aerodynamic diameter was unsatisfactorily high. The classifier was able to classify fibers by aerodynamic diameter, but not as predicted through calculations. The results were difficult to interpret because of the high loss of fibers

  20. Inductive effect of crystalline nucleus on the structure of its local environment in the process of quartz glass crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, V. M.; Pan'kin, D. V.; Shimko, A. A.; Kasatkin, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    The morphology and the structural and chemical properties of crystalline formations appearing on the surface of commercial quartz glasses at the beginning of the induction stage upon heating at temperatures of 1000-1300°C are studied by optical polarization microscopy, μ-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It is shown that crystalline island nuclei induce crystallization not only in the local environment of the surface layer, but also in the glass bulk at a depth of up to ≈200 μm. Crystalline nuclei in the center of islands often have an imperfect crystal structure formed by intermediate mesophases based on individual low-symmetry SiO4 tetrahedra. However, the induced phase at the periphery of these nuclei has a well-ordered crystal structure consisting mainly of α-SiO2 (quartz) and/or α-cristobalite. The proportion of these two phases depends on the glass heating temperature, namely, at 1000°C, the induced structure for the most part contains α-SiO2, while α-cristobalite dominates at 1300°C.

  1. Effects of moisture on glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    performance of wind turbine blades over their lifetime. Here, environmental moisture conditions were simulated by immersing glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens in salt water for a period of up to 8 years. The mechanical properties of specimens were analyzed before and after immersion to evaluate...... the degradation mechanisms. Single-fiber tensile testing was also performed at different moisture conditions. The water-diffusion mechanism was studied to quantify the diffusion coefficients as a function of salt concentration, sample geometry, and fiber direction. Three degradation mechanisms were observed...

  2. Ytterbium-Phosphate Glass for Microstructured Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Stępień

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we report on the development of a synthesis and melting method of phosphate glasses designed for active microstructured fiber manufacturing. Non-doped glass synthesized in a P2O5-Al2O3-BaO-ZnO-MgO-Na2O oxide system served as the matrix material; meanwhile, the glass was doped with 6 mol% (18 wt% of Yb2O3, as fiber core. The glasses were well-fitted in relation to optical (refractive index and thermal proprieties (thermal expansion coefficient, rheology. The fiber with the Yb3+-doped core, with a wide internal photonic microstructure for a laser pump, as well as with a high relative hole size in the photonic outer air-cladding, was produced. The laser built on the basis of this fiber enabled achieving 8.07 W of output power with 20.5% slope efficiency against the launched pump power, in single-mode operation M2 = 1.59, from a 53 cm-long cavity.

  3. Infrared evanescent-absorption spectroscopy with chalcogenide glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, J S; Kung, F H; Pureza, P C; Nguyen, V Q; Miklos, R E; Aggarwal, I D

    1994-09-20

    We have used telluride glass fibers fabricated in house to measure the evanescent-absorption spectra of water, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethanoic acid, hexane, and chloroform. Furthermore, detection limits of less than 2 vol. % solute were obtained for mixtures of water and methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, and ethanoic acid. Techniques to reduce the detection limits are discussed.

  4. Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Soft-glass Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian

    This Ph.D.-project presents numerical simulations of supercontinuum (SC) generation in optical fiber laser systems based on various soft-glass materials. Extensive numerical modeling is performed in order to understand and characterize the generated SC. This includes a review of the generalized n...

  5. In vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity of chemically treated glass fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Leão Andrade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a commercial glass fiber FM® (Fiber Max were used to test the efficacy of a chemical sol-gel surface treatment to enhance their bioactivity. After treatment with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, individual fiber samples were soaked into a simulated body fluid (SBF solution, from which they were removed at intervals of 5 and 10 days. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis of samples chemically treated with TEOS revealed the formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA coating layer after 5 days into SBF solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR analyses confirmed that the coating layer has P-O vibration bands characteristic of HA. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using a direct contact test, minimum essential medium elution test (ISO 10993-5 and MTT assay. Fibers immersed in SBF and their extracts exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the controls not subjected to immersion, suggesting that SBF treatment improves the biocompatibility of the fiber.

  6. Fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic glass with fibered-silica network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Shi, Zhenwu; Jiang, Yingjie; Xu, Chengyun; Wu, Zhuhui; Wang, Yanyan; Peng, Changsi

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, silica was deposited on the soot film pre-coated glass via chemical vapor deposition. Through calcination at 500 °C with the assistance of O2 airflow, the soot film was removed and a novel robust fibered-silica network film was then decorated onto the glass substrate. After modification with fluorosilane, the surface water contact angle (WCA) was 166° and sliding angle (SA) was 1° which behaves a good self-cleaning for the as-prepared glass. And its average transmittance was still over 88% in visible wavelength. Moreover, this fibered-silica coating showed a strong tolerance for heavy water droplets, acid/alkali corrosion, salt solution immersion and thermal treatment.

  7. Characterization and reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Rivera, Lymaris; Bakaev, Victor A.; Banerjee, Joy; Mueller, Karl T.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2016-05-01

    Multicomponent complex oxides, such as sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fibers, are important materials used for thermal insulation in buildings and homes. Although the surface properties of single oxides, such as silica, have been extensively studied, less is known about the distribution of reactive sites at the surface of multicomponent oxides. Here, we investigated the reactivity of sodium aluminoborosilicate glass fiber surfaces for better understanding of their interface chemistry and bonding with acrylic polymers. Acetic acid (with and without a 13C enrichment) was used as a probe representative of the carboxylic functional groups in many acrylic polymers and adhesives. Inverse gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (IGC-MS), and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), were used to characterize the fiber surface reactions and surface chemical structure. In this way, we discovered that both sodium ions in the glass surface, as well as sodium carbonate salts that formed on the surface due to the intrinsic reactivity of this glass in humid air, are primary sites of interaction with the carboxylic acid. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of sodium carbonates on these surfaces. Computer simulations of the interactions between the reactive sites on the glass fiber surface with acetic acid were performed to evaluate energetically favorable reactions. The adsorption reactions with sodium in the glass structure provide adhesive bonding sites, whereas the reaction with the sodium carbonate consumes the acid to form sodium-carboxylate, H2O and CO2 without any contribution to chemical bonding at the interface.

  8. DUCTILITY BEHAVIOR FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH EXTERNALLY BONDED GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariappan Mahalingam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC beams with externally bonded Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP laminates with a view to study their strength and ductility. A total of ten beams, 150×250 mm in cross-section were tested in the laboratory over an effective span of 2800 mm. Three fiber reinforced concrete beams were used as reference beams. Six fiber reinforced concrete beams were provided with externally bonded GFRP laminates. One concrete beam was left virgin without any fiber reinforcement and external GFRP laminates. All the beams were tested until failure. The variables considered included volume fraction of fiber reinforcement and stiffness of GFRP laminates. The static responses of all the beams were evaluated in terms of strength, stiffness and ductility. The test results show that the beams provided with externally bonded GFRP laminates exhibit improved performance over the beams with internal fiber reinforcement.

  9. Delivery of cold hydrogen in glass fiber composite pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, Andrew H.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias; Myers, Blake [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Engineering, 7000 East Avenue L-792, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    We are proposing to minimize hydrogen delivery cost through utilization of glass fiber tube trailers at 200 K and 70 MPa to produce a synergistic combination of container characteristics with properties of hydrogen gas: (1) hydrogen cooled to 200 K is {proportional_to}35% more compact for a small increase in theoretical storage energy (exergy); and (2) these cold temperatures (200 K) strengthen glass fibers by as much as 50%, expanding trailer capacity without the use of much more costly carbon fiber composite vessels. Analyses based on US Department of Energy H2A cost and efficiency parameters and economic methodology indicate the potential for hydrogen delivery costs below $1/kg H{sub 2}. Dispensing cold hydrogen may also allow rapid refueling without overtemperatures and overpressures which are typically as high as 25%, simplifying automotive vessel design and improving safety while potentially reducing vessel weight and cost. Based on these results, we suggest hydrogen delivery by truck with trailers carrying hydrogen gas at pressures as high as 70 MPa, cooled to approximately 200 K in glass fiber vessels. (author)

  10. Fiber fuse light-induced continuous breakdown of silica glass optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the fiber fuse phenomenon that causes a serious problem for the present optical communication systems. High-power light often brings about catastrophic damage to optical devices. Silica glass optical fibers with ultralow transmission loss are not the exception. A fiber fuse appears in a heated region of the fiber cable delivering a few watts of light and runs toward the light source destroying its core region. Understanding this phenomenon is a necessary first step in the development of future optical communication systems. This book provides supplementary videos and photog

  11. Quantitative risk assessment for a glass fiber insulation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerweather, W E; Bender, J R; Hadley, J G; Eastes, W

    1997-04-01

    California Proposition 65 (Prop65) provides a mechanism by which the manufacturer may perform a quantitative risk assessment to be used in determining the need for cancer warning labels. This paper presents a risk assessment under this regulation for professional and do-it-yourself insulation installers. It determines the level of insulation glass fiber exposure (specifically Owens Corning's R-25 PinkPlus with Miraflex) that, assuming a working lifetime exposure, poses no significant cancer risk under Prop65's regulations. "No significant risk" is defined under Prop65 as a lifetime risk of no more than one additional cancer case per 100,000 exposed persons, and nonsignificant exposure is defined as a working lifetime exposure associated with "no significant risk." This determination can be carried out despite the fact that the relevant underlying studies (i.e., chronic inhalation bioassays) of comparable glass wool fibers do not show tumorigenic activity. Nonsignificant exposures are estimated from (1) the most recent RCC chronic inhalation bioassay of nondurable fiberglass in rats; (2) intraperitoneal fiberglass injection studies in rats; (3) a distributional, decision analysis approach applied to four chronic inhalation rat bioassays of conventional fiberglass; (4) an extrapolation from the RCC chronic rat inhalation bioassay of durable refractory ceramic fibers; and (5) an extrapolation from the IOM chronic rat inhalation bioassay of durable E glass microfibers. When the EPA linear nonthreshold model is used, central estimates of nonsignificant exposure range from 0.36 fibers/cc (for the RCC chronic inhalation bioassay of fiberglass) through 21 fibers/cc (for the i.p. fiberglass injection studies). Lower 95% confidence bounds on these estimates vary from 0.17 fibers/cc through 13 fibers/cc. Estimates derived from the distributional approach or from applying the EPA linear nonthreshold model to chronic bioassays of durable fibers such as refractory ceramic fiber

  12. Microtensile bond strength of quartz fiber posts to different composite cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khamverdi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the microtensile bond strength of quartz fiber posts to different composites, and to composite combinations used as core materials. Thirty fiber posts were treated with a 24% hydrogen peroxide solution and silanized. The posts were divided into 5 groups according to the resin composite used as follows (n = 6: G1 - Ælite Flow (Bisco, Inc, G2 - Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE, G3 - Biscore (Bisco, Inc, G4 - Ælite Flow + Filtek Z250, G5 - Ælite Flow + Biscore. The resin composites were placed around the posts to produce cylindrical specimens. Two 1-mm² thick sticks containing the post in the center and composite cores on both ends were provided from each cylinder and tested for microtensile strength with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. Fractured surfaces were observed using a stereomicroscope with 20× magnification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to evaluate the interface of the fractured sticks. The results showed that G2 had the highest bond strength values, and the lowest values were seen with G3. There were significant differences between groups 1, 2, 4 and groups 3, 5 (p < 0.05. Under the stereomicroscope, most of the failures were adhesive between the post and core material. Under SEM, Ælite and Z250 had smoother surfaces than Biscore, containing less porosities and voids.

  13. Hadron energy measurement with a highly non compensating quartz fiber calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi, M

    2005-01-01

    The HF calorimeter is a hadronic calorimeter composed of iron absorber with quartz fibers as active medium. The Cerenkov light generated by the relativistic components of the shower is detected by an array of photomultipliers. The construction of the calorimeter, which will cover the pseudorapidity interval 2.8-5.2 (0.6-7 degrees) in the CMS experiment at LHC is being completed at CERN. The main physics goal of the HF calorimeter is to tag high energy jets generated by boson-boson fusion events at LHC. In this paper the results from a test beam exposure at the CERN north area test beam will be presented. Details about the energy response and the response uniformity to electrons and hadrons will be presented. The main part of the talk will be devoted to the studies done to optimize the energy reconstruction algorithm for pions in the energy range 20 to 300 GeV. Special care has to be devoted to this task given that, with its e/h=5, this calorimeter is probably one of the most non compensating hadron calorimete...

  14. Product stewardship and science: safe manufacture and use of fiber glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Anderson, Robert; Bernstein, David M; Bunn, William B; Chase, Gerald A; Jankousky, Angela Libby; Marsh, Gary M; McClellan, Roger O

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a proactive product stewardship program for glass fibers. That effort included epidemiological studies of workers, establishment of stringent workplace exposure limits, liaison with customers on safe use of products and, most importantly, a research program to evaluate the safety of existing glass fiber products and guide development of new even safer products. Chronic inhalation exposure bioassays were conducted with rodents and hamsters. Amosite and crocidolite asbestos produced respiratory tract cancers as did exposure to "biopersistent" synthetic vitreous fibers. "less biopersistent" glass fibers did not cause respiratory tract cancers. Corollary studies demonstrated the role of slow fiber dissolution rates and biopersistence in cancer induction. These results guided development of safer glass fiber products and have been used in Europe to regulate fibers and by IARC and NTP in classifying fibers. IARC concluded special purpose fibers and refractory ceramic fibers are "possibly carcinogenic to humans" and insulation glass wool, continuous glass filament, rock wool and slag wool are "not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to human." The NTP's 12th report on carcinogens lists "Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable)" as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." "Certain" in the descriptor refers to "biopersistent" glass fibers and excludes "less biopersistent" glass fibers.

  15. Effect of carbon nanotube on physical and mechanical properties of natural fiber/glass fiber/cement composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamed Younesi Kordkheili; Shokouh Etedali Shehni; Ghorban Niyatzade

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to introduce a cement-based composite of higher quality. For this purpose new hybrid nanocomposite from bagasse fiber, glass fiber and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were manufactured. The physical and mechanical proper-ties of the manufactured composites were measured according to standard methods. The properties of the manufactured hybrid nanocomposites were dramatically better than traditional composites. Also all the reinforced composites with carbon nanotube, glass fiber or bagasse fiber exhibited better properties rather than neat cement. The results indicated that bagasse fiber proved suitable for substitution of glass fiber as a reinforcing agent in the cement composites. The hybrid nanocomposite containing 10%glass fiber, 10%bagasse fiber and 1.5%MWCNTs was selected as the best compound.

  16. Glass fiber effect on mechanical properties of Eco-SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad M. L., V.; Loksesh, G.; Ramanjaneyulu, B.; Venkatesh, S.; Mousumi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Sustainable Construction encouraging the use of recycled materials and implies adoption of fewer natural resources in buildings and other infrastructure. In this paper Quarry Dust (QD) is used as partial replacement for River Sand (RS) to make Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) of grade M40. Glass fiber is used as strengthening material to the developed concrete. The present study mainly focused to develop Eco-SCC using QD. In this study it was found that, for developing Eco-SCC, what is the optimum dosage of replacement of QD in RS. Fresh properties of SCC are satisfying the EFNARC specifications and also target strength is achieved. Further it is concluded that, with the glass fiber addition there is an improvement in the split and flexural strength values.

  17. Influence of different glass fiber reinforcements on denture base polymer strength (Fiber reinforcements of dental polymer)

    OpenAIRE

    Ketij Mehulić,; Asja Čelebić,; Zdravko Schauperl,; Dragutin Komar,; Denis Vojvodić,; Domagoj Žabarović

    2009-01-01

    Aim Assessment of flexural strength values of dental base polymersreinforced with different glass fibers (“dental” and “industrial”origin) after performed artificial ageing procedures.Methods Three hundred specimens (dimensions 18 x 10 x 3 mm)were produced of denture base polymers reinforced with differentglass fibers. The “short beam” testing method was used to determinethe flexural strength of the specimens after polymerization,immersion in water of temperature 37oC for 28 days, and thermoc...

  18. Diffusion between glass and metals for optical fiber preform extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Felicia Yan Xin; Zhang, Zhifeng; Kumar Chakkathara Janardhanan Nair, Dileep; Zhang, Yilei

    2015-07-01

    When silica is extruded, diffusion of metal atoms into silica results contamination to the silica being heated, and thus is a serious concern for the glass extrusion process, such as extrusion of glass fiber preform. This paper examines diffusion between fused silica and two high strength metals, the stainless steel SS410 and the superalloy Inconel 718, at 1000 °C and under the normal atmosphere condition by SEM and Electron Dispersion Spectrum. It is found that diffusion occurs between silica and SS410, and at the same time, SS410 is severely oxidized during diffusion experiment. On the contrary, the diffusion between Inconel 718 and silica is unnoticeable, suggesting excellent high temperature performance of Inconel 718 for glass extrusion.

  19. [Granulomatous lung lesions after occupational exposure to glass fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, A; Langfort, R; Zych, J; Bestry, I; Rowińska-Zakrzewska, E

    2000-01-01

    39 years old man with granulomatous lesions in both lungs caused by occupational contact with glass fibers was described. He has been working as an bricklayer-plasterer for 18 years and was in contact with lime, cement, plaster, asbestos, dust of coal and wood and with glass fibers. For the last two years before admission in 1993 he has had frequent bronchial infections. On admission he was in good general condition, his spirometric examination and blood gases were within normal limits. On chest x-ray disseminated lesions were found. Those lesions were of the round shapes on chest CT. Many sputum cultures for tubercle bacilli were negative. ANA and ANCA were not found in the serum. ACE was within normal limits. No precipitins to environmental antigens were found. Cancer metastases were suspected and lung biopsy during videothoracoscopy was done. Many foreign body type granulomas were found throughout the specimen. The character of the lesions was not typical for tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, silicosis or asbestosis. There are some reports concerning the possibility of development of such lesions after the exposition to glass fibers. We suspect that case is an example of such pathology. His occupational exposition was stopped in 1993 and he was observed without treatment. During the 5 years of observation (up till 1998) he was in good health with stable chest x-ray picture and results of respiratory system function.

  20. Optimization and kinetics of electroless Ni-P-B plating of quartz optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Boquan; Xiao, Lin; Hu, Shufen; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Minwei

    2009-08-01

    The preparation of Ni-P-B coatings on surface of quartz optical fibers was carried out using electroless plating method. The effects of the concentrations of nickel chloride, sodium hypophosphite, potassium borohydride, ethylenediamine, cadmium sulfate and temperature on the quality of Ni-P-B coatings were investigated by orthogonal experiment and their optimal values were determined to be: 0.1 mol L -1, 0.094 mol L -1, 0.185 mol L -1, 0.36 mol L -1, 5.68 × 10 -4 mol L -1 and 90 °C, respectively. The effect of coarsening time of the naked fiber on the quality of Ni-P-B coatings was also researched and the optimal coarsening time was determined to be 15 min. Stereomicroscope, Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray diffractometer were used to characterize the apparentness, morphology and structure of the prepared Ni-P-B coatings. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, Thermal Shock Method and Gravimetric Analysis Method were employed to analyze the composition, force of adhesion and solderability of the coatings, respectively. The results showed that a Ni-P-B coating with low surface roughness, good strength of adhesion, low resistivity and good solderability was successfully prepared. The kinetic models (Ni-P-B deposition rate equations) of the process were established as v=7.95×10-6cA0.830cB0.428cC-0.288cD-0.645cE0..02exp{26788(T-298)298RT; v=1.03×10-7c}/{A0.830cB0.428cC-0.288cD-0.645cE-0.614exp 26788(T-298)298RT. The theoretical values calculated by the models were proved to be basically consistent with the practical measurements through experimental verification.

  1. Polymer/glass nanocomposite fiber as an insulating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taygun, M. Erol; Akkaya, I.; Gönen, S. Ö.; Küçükbayrak, S.

    2017-02-01

    Production of the insulation materials with using nanofibers is the unique idea. With this idea, insulating facilities are enhanced with compressing air between the layers of nanofibers. Basically, glass wool is used as an insulation material. On the other hand, nanofiber glasses can be preferred for insulation purposes to be able to obtain insulation materials better then glass wool. From this point of view in this study, glass nanofibers were formed with sol-gel method by utilizing electrospinning technique. In the experimental part, first of all, sol-gel and polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP)/ethanol solutions were prepared. Then the relation of rheological properties with electrospinnability of PVP/sol-gel solutions was investigated by using a rheometer. Results showed that viscosity increased with the concentration of PVP. Meanwhile, the morphology of electrospun PVP/glass nanofibers was investigated by scanning electron microscope. It was also observed that the homogeneous nanofiber structure was obtained when the viscosity of the solution was 0.006 Pa.s. According to SEM results, it was concluded that nanocomposite fiber having a nanostructured morphology may be a good candidate for thermal insulation applications in the industry.

  2. MICROWAVE INDUCED DEGRADATION OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYESTER FOR FIBER AND RESIN RECOVERY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Hülya; Nielsen, Rudi Pankratz; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    A solvolysis process to depolymerize the resin in glass fiber reinforced composites and recover the glass fibers has been investigated using microwave induced irradiation. The depolymerization was carried out in HNO3 with concentrations in the range of 1M-7M and in KOH with concentrations ranging...... from 1M-3.5M. With HNO3 concentrations of 3.5 M, 100 % resin removal was achieved at 208°C and recovery of pristine glass fibers without damage on the surface. Furthermore, it was possible to recover the monomer phthalic acid most efficiently at HNO3 concentrations ≤ 3.5M. Decreased level...... of depolymerization was achieved using KOH at concentrations ranging from 1-3.5M. Maximum 63 % resin removal was achieved using 1 M KOH and the resin removal efficiency decreased at higher KOH concentrations (3.5M). The glass fiber surfaces were damaged at both concentrations with more pronounced damages using 3.5M...

  3. Study of Au/Cr multilayer thin-film surface morphology, structure and constituents on borosilicate glass, and quartz surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, John; Kemble, Eric; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    2014-03-01

    Au/Cr/substrate multilayer thin films have a wide area of applications in both industry and proof of concept investigations in device engineering. Borosilicate glass and quartz are used for substrate materials. Typically, Cr deposition on substrates give rise to Stanski-Krastonov (SK) like growth while Frank-van der Merwe (FM) like growth is desired in many engineering applications. A thermal evaporator is used to deposit Cr with a thickness of ~ 100nm on the previously mentioned substrates. The additional Au layer is then deposited via magnetron sputter deposition at 100mtorr at low deposition rates (~ 1ML/min) onto the Cr thin film. These systems were then annealed using different temperatures for various durations. After annealing these systems were characterized via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) probes for surface topography and structure. Further, the ambient contamination and elemental distribution/diffusion at annealing was investigated via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

  4. Tool wear of a single-crystal diamond tool in nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Terano, Motoki

    2015-12-01

    Tool wear characteristics of a diamond tool in ductile mode machining are presented in this paper. Nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate was conducted to examine the tool wear rate of a single-crystal diamond tool. Effects of lubrication on the tool wear rate were also evaluated. A numerical simulation technique was developed to evaluate the tool temperature and normal stress acting on the wear surface. From the simulation results it was found that the tool temperature does not increase during the machining experiment. It is also demonstrated that tool wear is attributed to the abrasive wear mechanism, but the effect of the adhesion wear mechanism is minor in nano-groove machining. It is found that the tool wear rate is reduced by using water or kerosene as a lubricant.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Coir Rope-Glass Fibers Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Bakri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber composites have been developed and taken more attention in the last decades. Coir fiber is the natural fiber which has been used as reinforcement of composites. This fiber is hybridized with glass fiber for reinforcement composite. In this paper, coir rope and glass fibers were combined as reinforcement into hybrid composites with unsaturated polyester resin as matrix. The composition of fibers and matrix into hybrid composites are used 30:70 (volume fraction with unsaturated polyester. Volume fractions of coir rope mat and glass fiber mat in hybrid composites are 10:20, 15:15 and 20:10 respectively. The mechanical properties of the coir rope-glass fiber composite hybrid were described in this paper. Their properties include tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact energy and impact strength. Fractography of tensile composite hybrid is also analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope.

  6. Optimization of the contents of hollow glass microsphere and sodium hexametaphosphate for glass fiber vacuum insulation panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. D.; Chen, Z. F.; Zhou, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, various additive amounts of hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) powders were blended with flame attenuated glass wool (FAGW) to form hybrid core materials (HCMs) through the wet method. Among them, the SHMP was dissolved in the glass fiber suspension and coated on the surface of glass fibers while the HGMs were insoluble in the glass fiber suspension and filled in the fiber-fiber pores. The average pore diameter of the FAGW/HGM HCMs was 8-11 μm which was near the same as that of flame attenuated glass fiber mats (FAGMs, i.e., 10.5 µm). The tensile strength of the SHMP coated FAGMs was enhanced from 160 N/m to 370 N/m when SHMP content increased from 0 wt.% to 0.2 wt.%. By contrast, the tensile strength of the FAGW/HGM HCMs decreased from 160 N/m to 40 N/m when HGM content increased from 0 wt.% to 50 wt.%. Both the FAGW/HGM HCMs and SHMP coated FAGMs were vacuumed completely to form vacuum insulation panels (VIPs). The results showed that both the addition of SHMP and HGM led a slight increase in the thermal conductivity of the corresponding VIPs. To obtain a high-quality VIP, the optimal SHMP content and HGM content in glass fiber suspension was 0.12-0.2 wt.% and 0 wt.%.

  7. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-11-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications.

  8. Development of Glass/Jute Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites play significant role as engineering material and their use has been increasing day by day due to their specific properties such as high strength to weight ratios, high modulus to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. In present work, an attempt is made to hybridize the material using synthetic (glass as well as natural fibres (chemically treated jute, such that to reduce the overall use of synthetic reinforcement, to reduce the overall cost, and to enhance the mechanical properties. All composite specimens with different weight percentages of fibres were manufactured using hand lay-up process and testing was done by using ASTM standards. Experimental results revealed that hybridization of composite with natural and synthetic fibres shows enhanced tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength. The content of natural reinforcement was found to be in the range of 25–33.3% for best results. The effect of treated jute on flexural properties was more than that on tensile properties, which was due to greater stiffness of jute fibers. Chemical treatment of jute fibers lowers the water absorption and results were comparable to glass fiber reinforced polyester composites. The addition of jute also reduced the overall cost by 22.18%.

  9. Composite materials of glass fiber. Los materiales compuestos de fibra de vidrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antequera, P.; Jimenez, L.; Miravete, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book analyzes the composite materials of glass fiber. The main aspect are: matrix materials, fabrication process, composite materials properties. Design, analysis, quality control, material testing and applications.

  10. Linear and nonlinear properties in soft glass optical fibers for device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Leily; Munasinghe, Tilanka; Zhang, Wen Qi; Afshar, Shahraam; Sharping, Jay

    2012-02-01

    Optical fiber technology is predominantly based on silica glass fibers. Non-silica soft glass fibers exhibit substantially different optical properties such as higher refractive index, larger nonlinear coefficient and structural fabrication flexibility. We aim to exploit these novel properties for device applications such as sensing and light generation. We report measurement of linear dispersion and nonlinear coefficient in the range of 1.5 μm in two custom designed soft glass microstructure optical fibers. The fibers are composed of SF57 (Schott) and Bismuth-doped silica (Asahi Glass Co.) respectively with Hexagonal Wagonwheel microstructure design. These fibers are designed to allow phase matching of nonlinear optical processes near 1.6μm. Our measurements indicate nonlinear coefficients 1000 times that of standard silica fiber. Transverse modes in these fibers are difficult to separate leading to a complicated dispersion results. Next steps include observation of parametric generation and Brillouin gain.

  11. Engineering of Glasses for Advanced Optical Fiber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Carlie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced optical applications (such as fiber opticsdemand the engineering of innovative materialswhich provide the requisite optical performance in aform with specific functionality necessary for thedesired application. We will report on recent effortsto engineer new non-oxide glasses with tailoredphoto-sensitive response, and multi-component oxideglasses optimized for use in next generation Ramanamplification applications. The ultimate performanceof such glasses relies on control of the formation andstability of defective and/or metastable structuralconfigurations and their impact on physical as well aslinear and nonlinear optical properties. Direct laserwriting has drawn considerable attention since thedevelopment of femtosecond lasers and therecognition that such systems possess the requisiteintensity to modify, reversibly or irreversibly thephysical properties of optical materials. Such“structuring” has emerged as one of several possibleroutes for the fabrication of waveguides and otherphoto-induced structures.

  12. Mechanical properties of non-woven glass fiber geopolymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, D.; Kadlec, J.; Pola, M.; Kovářík, T.; Franče, P.

    2017-02-01

    This experimental research focuses on mechanical properties of non-woven glass fabric composites bound by geopolymeric matrix. This study investigates the effect of different matrix composition and amount of granular filler on the mechanical properties of final composites. Matrix was selected as a metakaolin based geopolymer hardened by different amount of potassium silicate activator. The ceramic granular filler was added into the matrix for investigation of its impact on mechanical properties and workability. Prepared pastes were incorporated into the non-woven fabrics by hand roller and final composites were stacked layer by layer to final thickness. The early age hardening of prepared pastes were monitored by small amplitude dynamic rheology approach and after 28 days of hardening the mechanical properties were examined. The electron microscopy was used for detail description of microstructural properties. The imaging methods revealed good wettability of glass fibers by geopolymeric matrix and results of mechanical properties indicate usability of these materials for constructional applications.

  13. Mid-infrared multimode fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser for off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhili; Shi, Chao; Ren, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A mid-infrared quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor was developed using a multimode fiber (MMF)-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) and demonstrated for sensitive nitric oxide (NO) detection at a wavelength near 5.26 μm. The QCL radiation was readily coupled into a solid-core InF3 MMF (100 μm core) with 97% coupling efficiency using an aspheric lens. Despite the 25.5% transmission loss for the 1 m long MMF, the Gaussian beam-like fiber output of 5.72° divergence was almost completely focused through the microresonator tube (length, 8.0 mm; ID, 600 μm) designed for off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy. The sensor exploiting the R6.5 (Π21/2) doublet of NO at 1900.08  cm-1 demonstrated a minimum detection limit of 24 parts per billion by volume at an averaging time of 130 s. The sensor was found to be insensitive to the fiber bending noise for a bending radius >5  cm.

  14. CO2 Laser Cutting of Glass Fiber Reinforce Polymer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, S.; Ishak, M.; Aqida, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The lamination, matrix properties, fiber orientation, and relative volume fraction of matrix of polymer structure make this polymer hard to process. The cutting of polymer composite using CO2 laser could involve in producing penetration energy in the process. Identification of the dominant factors that significantly affect the cut quality is important. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the CO2 spot size of beam cutting for Glass Fiber Reinforce Polymer Composite (GFRP). The focal length selected 9.5mm which gave smallest focus spot size according to the cutting requirements. The effect of the focal length on the cut quality was investigated by monitoring the surface profile and focus spot size. The beam parameter has great effect on both the focused spot size and surface quality.

  15. Midinfrared optical rogue waves in soft glass photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Steffensen, Henrik; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M; Bang, Ole

    2011-09-12

    We investigate numerically the formation of extreme events or rogue waves in soft glass tellurite fibers and demonstrate that optical loss drastically diminishes shot-to-shot fluctuations characteristic of picosecond pumped supercontinuum (SC). When loss is neglected these fluctuations include extreme events such as formation of highly energetic pulses located at the red end of the spectrum and we obtain right-skewed heavy-tailed distributions characteristic of extreme events statistics. On the other hand, when loss is included bandwidth fluctuations follow Gaussian-like statistical distributions. Our results thus implicitly show that rogue waves will not occur in any SC spectrum that is limited by loss, such as commercial silica fiber based SC sources.

  16. The coupled effect of fiber volume fraction and void fraction on hydraulic fluid absorption of quartz/BMI laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdelbrink, Keith R.; Anderson, Jacob P.; Siddique, Zahed; Altan, M. Cengiz

    2016-03-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resin with quartz (AQ581) fiber reinforcement is a composite material frequently used in aerospace applications, such as engine cowlings and radomes. Various composite components used in aircrafts are exposed to different types of hydraulic fluids, which may lead to anomalous absorption behavior over the service life of the composite. Accurate predictive models for absorption of liquid penetrants are particularly important as the composite components are often exposed to long-term degradation due to absorbed moisture, hydraulic fluids, or similar liquid penetrants. Microstructural features such as fiber volume fraction and void fraction can have a significant effect on the absorption behavior of fiber-reinforced composites. In this paper, hydraulic fluid absorption characteristics of quartz/BMI laminates fabricated from prepregs preconditioned at different relative humidity and subsequently cured at different pressures are presented. The composite samples are immersed into hydraulic fluid at room temperature, and were not subjected to any prior degradation. To generate process-induced microvoids, prepregs were conditioned in an environmental chamber at 2% or 99% relative humidity at room temperature for a period of 24 hours prior to laminate fabrication. To alter the fiber volume fraction, the laminates were fabricated at cure pressures of 68.9 kPa (10 psi) or 482.6 kPa (70 psi) via a hot-press. The laminates are shown to have different levels of microvoids and fiber volume fractions, which were observed to affect the absorption dynamics considerably and exhibited clear non-Fickian behavior. A one-dimensional hindered diffusion model (HDM) was shown to be successful in predicting the hydraulic fluid absorption. Model prediction indicates that as the fabrication pressure increased from 68.9 kPa to 482.6 kPa, the maximum fluid content (M∞) decreased from 8.0% wt. to 1.0% wt. The degree of non-Fickian behavior, measured by hindrance coefficient (

  17. Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Epoxy/ultra-short Glass Fibers Composite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng Hao; Fuchun Liu; En-Hou Han

    2012-01-01

    Epoxy coatings containing different volume fractions of ultra-short glass fibers were prepared successfully. Ultra-short glass fiber not only can improve the hardness, adhesion of the coating, and glass transition tem-perature (Tg), but also can decrease the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the coating. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the barrier properties of the coatings containing different volume fractions of ultra-short glass fibers. The EIS results showed that the coating had the best barrier property when it contained 20% (volume fraction) ultra-short glass fibers. The functions of the ultra-short glass fibers in epoxy coating are two fold: first, they can improve the coating mechanical properties as reinforcement materials; second, they parallel to the substrate and inhibit the corrosive medium to pass through the coating.

  18. From Selenium- to Tellurium-Based Glass Optical Fibers for Infrared Spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lucas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chalcogenide glasses are based on sulfur, selenium and tellurium elements, and have been studied for several decades regarding different applications. Among them, selenide glasses exhibit excellent infrared transmission in the 1 to 15 µm region. Due to their good thermo-mechanical properties, these glasses could be easily shaped into optical devices such as lenses and optical fibers. During the past decade of research, selenide glass fibers have been proved to be suitable for infrared sensing in an original spectroscopic method named Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS. FEWS has provided very nice and promising results, for example for medical diagnosis. Then, some sophisticated fibers, also based on selenide glasses, were developed: rare-earth doped fibers and microstructured fibers. In parallel, the study of telluride glasses, which can have transmission up to 28 µm due to its atom heaviness, has been intensified thanks to the DARWIN mission led by the European Space Agency (ESA. The development of telluride glass fiber enables a successful observation of CO2 absorption band located around 15 µm. In this paper we review recent results obtained in the Glass and Ceramics Laboratory at Rennes on the development of selenide to telluride glass optical fibers, and their use for spectroscopy from the mid to the far infrared ranges.

  19. From selenium- to tellurium-based glass optical fibers for infrared spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuo; Chahal, Radwan; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Nazabal, Virginie; Doualan, Jean-Louis; Troles, Johann; Lucas, Jacques; Bureau, Bruno

    2013-05-10

    Chalcogenide glasses are based on sulfur, selenium and tellurium elements, and have been studied for several decades regarding different applications. Among them, selenide glasses exhibit excellent infrared transmission in the 1 to 15 µm region. Due to their good thermo-mechanical properties, these glasses could be easily shaped into optical devices such as lenses and optical fibers. During the past decade of research, selenide glass fibers have been proved to be suitable for infrared sensing in an original spectroscopic method named Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS). FEWS has provided very nice and promising results, for example for medical diagnosis. Then, some sophisticated fibers, also based on selenide glasses, were developed: rare-earth doped fibers and microstructured fibers. In parallel, the study of telluride glasses, which can have transmission up to 28 µm due to its atom heaviness, has been intensified thanks to the DARWIN mission led by the European Space Agency (ESA). The development of telluride glass fiber enables a successful observation of CO₂ absorption band located around 15 µm. In this paper we review recent results obtained in the Glass and Ceramics Laboratory at Rennes on the development of selenide to telluride glass optical fibers, and their use for spectroscopy from the mid to the far infrared ranges.

  20. Analysis of the strength and stiffness of timber beams reinforced with carbon fiber and glass fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of pinewood beams (Pinus caribea var hondurensis reinforced with glass and/or carbon fibers is discussed. The theoretical model employed to calculate the beam's bending strength takes into account the timber's ultimate limit states of tensile strength and failure by compression, considering a model of fragile elastic tension and plastic elastic compression. The validity of the theoretical model is confirmed by a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results, while the efficiency of the fiber reinforcement is corroborated by the increased strength and stiffness of the reinforced timber beams.

  1. Kekuatan transversa resin akrilik hybrid setelah penambahan glass fiber dengan metode berbeda (The transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resin after glass fiber reinforcement with different method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nirwana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Different types of fibers have been added to acrylic resin materials to improve their mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to know the transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resins after glass fiber reinforcement with difference method. This study used rectangular specimens of 65 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 2.5 mm in thickness. There were 3 groups consisting of 6 specimens each, hybrid acrylic resin without glass fiber (control, glass fibers dipped in methyl methacrylate monomer for 15 minutes before being reinforced into hybrid acrylic resin (first method, glass fibers reinforced into a mixture of polymer powder and monomer liquid after the hybrid acrylic resin was mixed directly (second method. All of the specimens were cured for 20 minutes at 100° C. Transverse strength was measured using Autograph. The statistical analyses using one way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there were significant differences in transverse strength (p < 0.05 among the groups. The means of transverse strength were 94,94; 118,27; and 116,34 MPa. It meant that glass fibers reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin enhanced their transverse strength compared with control. Glass fiber reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin with differenciate method didn’t enhance their transverse strength.

  2. Woven Glass Fiber Composites with Aligned Carbon Nanotube Sheet Interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Bhanushali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation describes the design, fabrication, and testing of woven glass fiber reinforced epoxy matrix laminates with aligned CNT sheets integrated between plies in order to improve the matrix dominated through thickness properties such as the interlaminar fracture toughness at ply interfaces. Using aligned CNT sheets allows for a concentration of millimeter long CNTs at the most likely point of laminate failure. Mode I and Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness of various CNT modified samples were investigated using double cantilever beam (DCB and end notched flexure (ENF experiments, respectively. Short beam strength (SBS and in-plane tensile properties of the CNT modified samples were also investigated. Moderate improvement was observed in Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness at crack initiation when aligned CNT sheets with a basis weight of 0.354 g/m2 were used to modify the ply interface. No compromise in the in-plane mechanical properties of the laminate was observed and very little improvement was observed in the shear related short beam strength of the CNT modified laminates as compared to the control samples. Integration of aligned CNT sheets into the composite laminate imparted in-plane and through thickness electrical properties into the nonconductive glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates.

  3. A Comparative Study of Natural Fiber and Glass Fiber Fabrics Properties with Metal or Oxide Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusis, Andrej; Pentjuss, Evalds; Bajars, Gunars; Sidorovicha, Uljana; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly growing global demand for technical textiles industries is stimulated to develop new materials based on hybrid materials (yarns, fabrics) made from natural and glass fibres. The influence of moisture on the electrical properties of metal and metal oxide coated bast (flax, hemp) fibre and glass fibre fabrics are studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The bast fibre and glass fiber fabrics are characterized with electrical sheet resistance. The method for description of electrical sheet resistance of the metal and metal oxide coated technical textile is discussed. The method can be used by designers to estimate the influence of moisture on technical data of new metal coated hybrid technical textile materials and products.

  4. Prevention of cancer risk of workers of glass fibers manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Mukhammadieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of producing of continuous glass fiber workers are exposed to complex impact of carcinogenic chemicals released into the air of the working area (including formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, ethane acids, aerosol of mineral oil. The penetrating effect of harmful substances through the skin is enhanced by the fine glass dust, which has a traumatic and irritating effect. Aggravating factors of the impact of lubricants on the body of the operators is the increased temperature and the excess of heat radiation. A risk factor is also the unfavorable climate of the workplace. Among the professional patients (71 person of 170 examined employees most of persons aged 50–59 years. The average age of the patients at the time of detection of hyperkeratosis was 51,9 ± 0,9 years, skin cancer – 57,3 ± 1,7 years. Professional skin neoplasms were diagnosed mainly in workers who have been working for more than 10 years (average period of 12.6 ± 2.4 years. The period of transformation of limited hyperkeratosis to the skin cancer was on average 5–8 years. It was found that the molecular-genetic factors predisposing to the development of professional skin lesions are polymorphic variants of the gene suppressor of tumor growth TP53 (Ex4 + 119G>C, IVS3 16 bp Del/Ins and IVS6+62A>G. It has been shown that the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of occupational diseases is relevant and should include the interaction of administration, engineering and technical staff of the enterprise, labor protection service, Rospotrebnadzor specialists, doctors specialized in occupational diseases and the workers themselves. The complex of measures of primary and secondary prevention of health problems is suggested. The necessity of including the continuous glass fiber production to the list of carcinogen production processes, presented in national normative documents.

  5. Evaluating the mechanical properties of E-Glass fiber/carbon fiber reinforced interpenetrating polymer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suresh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of vinyl ester and polyurethane interpenetrating polymer networks were prepared by changing the component ratios of VER (Vinyl ester and PU (Polyurethane and the polymerization process was confirmed with Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. IPN (Inter Penetrating Polymer Network - VER/PU reinforced Glass and carbon fiber composite laminates were made using the Hand lay up technique. The Mechanical properties of the E-glass and carbon fiber specimens were compared from tests including Tensile, Compressive, Flexural, ILSS (Inter Laminar Shear Strength, Impact & Head Deflection Test (HDT. The IPN Reinforced Carbon fiber specimen showed better results in all the tests than E-Glass fibre reinforced IPN laminate with same thickness of the specimen, according to ASTM standards. It was found that the combination of 60%VER and 40%PU IPN exhibits better impact strength and maximum elongation at break, but at the slight expense of mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural, ILSS properties. The morphology of the unreinforced and reinforced composites was analyzed with help of scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  7. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenu Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF was finally evaluated.

  8. Visualization Experiments of a Specific Fuel Flow Through Quartz-glass Tubes Under both Sub-and Supercritical Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Hongwu; ZHANG Chunben; XU Guoqiang; TAO Zhi; ZHU Kun; WANG Yingjie

    2012-01-01

    The present work is a visualization study of a typical kerosene (RP-3) flowing through vertical and horizontal quartz-glass tubes under both sub- and supercritical conditions by a high speed camera.The experiments are accomplished at temperatures of 300-730 K under pressures from 0.107-5 MPa.Six distinctive two-phase flow patterns are observed in upward flow and the critical point of RP-3 is identified as critical pressure pc=2.33 MPa and critical temperature Tc=645.04 K and it is found that when the fluid pressure exceeds 2.33 MPa the flow can be considered as a single phase flow.The critical opalescence phenomenon of RP-3 is observed when the temperature is between 643.16 K and 648.61 K and the pressure is between 2.308 MPa and 2.366 MPa.The region filled by the critical opalescence in the upward flow is clearly larger than that in the downward flow due to the interaction between the buoyancy force and fluid inertia.Morecover,obvious layered flow phenomenon is observed in horizontal flow under supercritical pressures due to the differences of gravity and density.

  9. Nd3+ Doped Silicate Glass Photonic Crystal Fiber with Random Hole Distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fabrication of one kind of large core area Nd3+ doped silicate glass photonic crystal fiber, and demonstration of the fiber's waveguidence properties were reported. This fiber owns a random air hole distribution in the cladding. The measured minimum loss of this kind of fiber is 10 dB·m-1 at 660 nm. These fibers can sustain only a single mode at least over wavelength ranging from 660 nm to 980 nm.

  10. Rheological Behavior of Slurries Containing Short Glass Fibers for Preparation of Investment Casting Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Hai-jiao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The short glass fibers were introduced into the slurries by 0%-0.5% (mass fraction of refractory powders for preparation of fiber-reinforced shells for investment casting. The rheological properties of coatings containing different amounts of glass fibers were measured by R/S rheometer and the rheological behaviors of coatings were investigated. The results show that the apparent viscosities of coatings containing different amounts of glass fibers decrease with increasing shear rate, i.e., shear thinning behavior, similar to that of the coating without fibers. At the same shear rate, the apparent viscosities of coatings containing fibers are higher than that of the coating without fibers and the apparent viscosities of coatings containing 0.3% (mass fraction fibers are higher than that of the others. The high shear viscosities of coatings containing fibers increase initially, but later decrease, with increasing amount of fibers. The high shear viscosity of the coating containing 0.3% fibers reaches a maximum value of 102.6×10-3Pa·s, increased by about 31.9%, in comparison to the coating without fibers. And this coating with a maximum thixotropical loop area value of 11.8Pa·s-1 exhibits an excellent thixotropical behavior. However, it is not found that there is a noticeable effect of the amount of glass fibers on the yield stress or suspensibility of coatings.

  11. Fabrication of an IR hollow-core Bragg fiber based on chalcogenide glass extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minming; Wang, Xunsi; Pan, Zhanghao; Cheng, Ci; Zhu, Qingde; Jiang, Chen; Nie, Qiuhua; Zhang, Peiqing; Wu, Yuehao; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Tao, Guangming; Zhang, Xianghua

    2015-05-01

    The theoretical analysis and experimental preparation of a hollow-core Bragg fiber based on chalcogenide glasses are demonstrated. The fiber has potential applications in bio-sensing and IR energy transmission. Two chalcogenide glasses with, respectively, high and low refractive indexes are investigated in detail for the fabrication of hollow-core Bragg fibers. The most appropriate structure is selected; this structure is composed of four concentric rings and a center air hole . Its band gap for the Bragg fiber is analyzed by the plane wave method. The chalcogenide glasses Ge15Sb20S58.5I13 and Ge15Sb10Se75 are chosen to extrude the robust multi-material glass preform with a specialized punch and glass container. The glass preform is simultaneously protected with a polyetherimide polymer. The hollow-core Bragg fibers are finally obtained after glass preform extrusion, fiber preform fabrication, and fiber drawing. Results showed that the fiber has a transparency window from 2.5 to 14 μm, including a low-loss transmission window from 10.5 to 12 μm. The location of this low-loss transmission window matches the predicted photonic band gap in the simulation.

  12. Evaluation of bond strength between glass fiber and resin composite using different protocols for dental splinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral R Fabrício

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Many different polymeric materials to chair-side application on pre-impregnated glass fibers (PGF are available and different protocols are used in clinical procedure. Aims: This study evaluated protocols used for dental splinting on adhesion between PGF and resin. Settings and Design: 42 pair of nano composite resin blocks with (6 × 6 × 8 mm 3 were assigned into seven groups (n=6 and bonded according to the protocol: Gar adhesive, resin; Ggr glass fiber, resin; Ggar glass fiber, adhesive, resin; Gfgar flowable resin, glass fiber, adhesive, resin; Ggafr glass fiber, adhesive, flowable resin, resin; Ggfar glass fiber, flowable resin, adhesive, resin; Gfgr flowable resin, glass fiber, resin. Materials and Methods: Micro sticks obtained from each group were submitted to the micro tensile bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically evaluated using ANOVA and Tukey`s test (5%. Results: The protocol had a significant effect on the bond strength results (P=0.00. Gar and Ggar resulted in the highest bond strength with no statistical difference. Conclusions: The use of adhesive agent showed to be efficient to promote initial adhesion between fiber and nano composite resin.

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity of Manville Code 100 glass fibers: Effect of fiber length on human alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones William

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs are inorganic noncrystalline materials widely used in residential and industrial settings for insulation, filtration, and reinforcement purposes. SVFs conventionally include three major categories: fibrous glass, rock/slag/stone (mineral wool, and ceramic fibers. Previous in vitro studies from our laboratory demonstrated length-dependent cytotoxic effects of glass fibers on rat alveolar macrophages which were possibly associated with incomplete phagocytosis of fibers ≥ 17 μm in length. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fiber length on primary human alveolar macrophages, which are larger in diameter than rat macrophages, using length-classified Manville Code 100 glass fibers (8, 10, 16, and 20 μm. It was hypothesized that complete engulfment of fibers by human alveolar macrophages could decrease fiber cytotoxicity; i.e. shorter fibers that can be completely engulfed might not be as cytotoxic as longer fibers. Human alveolar macrophages, obtained by segmental bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking volunteers, were treated with three different concentrations (determined by fiber number of the sized fibers in vitro. Cytotoxicity was assessed by monitoring cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase release and loss of function as indicated by a decrease in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence. Results Microscopic analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages completely engulfed glass fibers of the 20 μm length. All fiber length fractions tested exhibited equal cytotoxicity on a per fiber basis, i.e. increasing lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing chemiluminescence in the same concentration-dependent fashion. Conclusion The data suggest that due to the larger diameter of human alveolar macrophages, compared to rat alveolar macrophages, complete phagocytosis of longer fibers can occur with the human cells. Neither incomplete phagocytosis nor length-dependent toxicity was

  14. Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA, specific gravity (SG, coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE, flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively.

  15. Kenaf-glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites: Tensile properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhafer, S. F.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Shahnaz, S. B. S.; Musa, L.; Zuliahani, A.

    2016-07-01

    The use of natural fibers in composite is rising in recent years due their lightweight, non-abrasive, combustible, non-toxic, low cost and biodegradable properties. However, in comparison with synthetic fibers, the mechanical properties of natural fibers are lower. Therefore, the inclusion of synthetic fibers could improve the mechanical performance of natural fiber based composites. In this study, kenaf bast fiber and glass fiber at different weight percentage loading were used as reinforcement to produce hybrid composites. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin was used as matrix and hand lay-up process was performed to apply the UP resin on the hybrid kenaf bast/glass fiber composite. Effect of different fiber loading on tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break of the hybrid composite was studied. It has been found that the highest value of tensile strength and modulus was achieved at 10 wt.% kenaf/10 wt.% glass fiber loading. It was concluded that addition of glass fiber has improved the tensile properties of kenaf bast fiber based UP composites.

  16. Commercial Production of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass Fiber in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  17. Nanodiamond in tellurite glass Part II: practical nanodiamond-doped fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Yinlan; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Greentree, Andrew D; Gibson, Brant C; Monro, Tanya M; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Tellurite glass fibers with embedded nanodiamond are attractive materials for quantum photonics applications. Reducing the loss of these fibers in the 600-800 nm wavelength range of nanodiamond fluorescence is essential to exploit the unique properties of nanodiamond in the new hybrid material. The first part of this study reported the origin of loss in nanodiamond-doped glass and impact of glass fabrication conditions. Here, we report the fabrication of nanodiamond-doped tellurite fibers with significantly reduced loss in the visible through further understanding of the impact of glass fabrication conditions on the interaction of the glass melt with the embedded nanodiamond. We fabricated tellurite fibers containing nanodiamond in concentrations up to 0.7 ppm-weight, while reducing the loss by more than an order of magnitude down to 10 dB/m at 600-800 nm.

  18. Ni(2+) doped glass ceramic fiber fabricated by melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zaijin; Zheng, Shupei; Peng, Wencai; Zhang, Hang; Ma, Zhijun; Dong, Guoping; Zhou, Shifeng; Chen, Danping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2015-11-02

    Glass ceramic fibers containing Ni(2+) doped LiGa(5)O(8) nanocrystals were fabricated by a melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment. Fiber precursors were prepared by drawing at high temperature where fiber core glass was melted while fiber clad glass was softened. After heat treatment, LiGa(5)O(8) nanocrystals were precipitated in the fiber core. Excited by 980 nm laser, efficient broadband near-infrared emission was observed in the glass ceramic fiber compared to that of precursor fiber. The melt-in-tube method can realize controllable crystallization and is suitable for fabrication of novel glass ceramic fibers. The Ni(2+)-doped glass ceramic fiber is promising for broadband optical amplification.

  19. In-plane spectroscopy with optical fibers and liquid-filled APEX™ glass microcuvettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, William R.; Hasan Tantawi, Khalid; Waddell, Emanuel; Fedorov, Vladimir; Williams, John D.

    2013-10-01

    Chemical etching and laser drilling of microstructural glass results in opaque or translucent sidewalls, limiting the optical analysis of glass microfluidic devices to top down or non-planar topologies. These non-planar observation topologies prevent each layer of a multilayered device from being independently optically addressed. However, novel photosensitive glass processing techniques in APEX™ have resulted in microfabricated glass structures with transparent sidewalls. Toward the goal of a transparent multilayered glass microfluidic device, this study demonstrates the ability to perform spectroscopy with optical fibers and microcuvettes fabricated in photosensitive APEX™ glass.

  20. Flexural, Impact Properties and Sem Analysis of Bamboo and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao. H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flexural, Impact properties and Scanning electron microscope analysis of Bamboo/glass fibers Reinforced polyester Hybrid composites were studied. The effect of alkali treatment of the bamboo fibers on these properties was also studied. It was observed that the Flexural, impact properties of the hybrid composite increase with glass fiber content. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in the hybrid composites. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treated leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glass/Bamboo reinforced polyester composites. The effect of alkali treatment on the bonding between Glass/Bamboo composites was also studied.

  1. Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Glass Fibers and Nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of asphaltic pavements during their service life is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of the asphaltic layers. Therefore, in order to extend their service life, scientists and engineers are constantly trying to improve the mechanical properties of the asphaltic mixtures. One common method of improving the performance of asphaltic mixtures is using different types of additives. This research investigated the effects of reinforcement by randomly distributed glass fibers and the simultaneous addition of nanoclayon some engineering properties of asphalt concrete have been investigated. The properties of a typical asphalt concrete reinforced by different percentages of glass fibers were compared with those containing both the fibers and nanoclay. Engineering properties, including Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient, volumetric properties and indirect tensile strength were studied. Glass fibers were used in different percentages of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% (by weight of total mixture, and nanoclay was used in 2, 4 and 6% (by the weight of bitumen. It was found that the addition of fibers proved to be more effective than the nanoclay in increasing the indirect tensile strength. However, nanoclay improved the resistance of the mixture against permanent deformation better than the glass fibers. The results also showed that the mixture reinforced by 0.2% of glass fiber and containing 6% nanoclay possessed the highest Marshall quotient, and the mixture containing 0.6% glass fibers and 2% nanoclay possessedthe highest indirect tensile strength.

  2. The effect of silanated and impregnated fiber on the tensile strength of E-glass fiber reinforced composite retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswati Fathmah Rosyida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fiber reinforced composite (FRC is can be used in dentistry as an orthodontic retainer. FRC  still has a limitations because of to  a weak bonding between fibers and matrix. Purpose: This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of silane as coupling agent and fiber impregnation on the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Methods: The samples of this research were classified into two groups each of which consisted of three subgroups, namely the impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane and the non-impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane. The tensile strength was measured by a universal testing machine. The averages of the tensile strength in all groups then were compared by using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney post hoc tests. Results: The averages of the tensile strength (MPa in the impregnated fiber group can be known as follow; original impregnated fiber (26.60±0.51, 1x addition of silane (43.38±4.42, and 2x addition of silane (36.22±7.23. The averages of tensile strength (MPa in the non-impregnated fiber group can also be known as follow; original non-impregnated fiber (29.38±1.08, 1x addition of silane (29.38±1.08, 2x addition of silane (12.48±2.37. Kruskal Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference between the impregnated fiber group and the non-impregnated fiber group (p<0.05. Based on the results of post hoc test, it is also known that the addition of silane in the impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the increasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC (p<0.05, while the addition of silane in the non-impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the decreasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the addition of silane in the non-silanated fiber group can increase the tensile strength of E-glass FRC, but the addition of silane in the silanated fiber group can

  3. Modification of polyester resins during molding of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushin, V.; Jansons, J.; Bulmanis, V.; Cabulis, U.; Bulmanis, A.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of addition of two new urethane prepolymers on the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester resins and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics based on them is investigated. The effect of concentration of these additives on the elastic modulus, elongation at break, and flexural strength of hardened orthophthalic resins is evaluated. A significant increase in the strength of the binders and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) based on them is observed upon adding urethane prepolymers to the resins. The properties of laminated and randomly reinforced glass-fiber plastics with the modified orthophthalic resins are compared with those of similar GFRPs based on popular brands of industrial resins.

  4. Compression Molding of Chemical/Thermal Resistant Composite Materials Using Wastes of Glass Fiber Reinforced PTFE and Carbon Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    This report proposed the compression molding method of chemical/thermal resistant composite materials reinforced by the carbon fiber extracted from CFRP waste and the waste of glass fiber coated by PTFE. The FEP resin was used for the matrix material. The contents of carbon fiber and FEP resin were varied in the experiments, and the machanical properties of composite materials were discussed in detail. As a result, the bending strength and modulus increased with increasing the content of carb...

  5. Mechanical Characterization and Fractography of Glass Fiber/Polyamide (PA6) Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Pillai, Saju; Charca, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the glass fiber reinforced Polyamide (PA6) composites made by prepreg tapes and commingled yarns were studied by in-plane compression, short-beam shear, and flexural tests. The composites were fabricated with different fiber volume contents (prepregs—47%, 55%, 60...... (SEM) were used. Both commingled and prepreg glass fiber/PA6 composites (with Vf ∼ 48%) give mechanical properties such as compression strength (530–570 MPa), inter-laminar shear strength (70–80 MPa), and transverse strength (80–90 MPa). By increasing small percentage in the fiber content show...... significant rise in compression strength, slight decrease in the ILSS and transverse strengths, whereas semipreg give very poor properties with the slight increase in fiber content. Overall comparison of mechanical properties indicates commingled glass fiber/PA6 composite shows much better performance...

  6. Influence of the Initial Fiber Orientation on the Weld Strength in Welding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fiebig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The welding factors are significantly lower in welding of fiber reinforced thermoplastics than in welding of unreinforced thermoplastics due to the fiber orientation in the weld. This paper presents results from investigations on the influence of the initial fiber orientation on the weld strength in hot plate and vibration welding for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene and polyamide 6. Injection molded specimens are compared to specimens with main initial fiber orientation being longitudinal and transverse to the joining direction. The results of CT analysis of the fiber orientation in the weld show the opportunity to achieve a higher weld strength by using specimens with fibers being initially oriented longitudinally to the joining direction. The influence of the initial fiber orientation in the parts to be welded on the weld strength in hot plate welding is more distinct than in vibration welding.

  7. NUMERICAL ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE ELASTIC MODULI OF SYNTACTIC FOAMS REINFORCED BY SHORT GLASS FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hollow glass microsphere/epoxy resin syntactic foams reinforced by short glass fibers are studied using representative volume elements. Both the glass fibers and the hollow glass microspheres exhibit random arrangement in the epoxy resin. The volume fraction and wall thickness of hollow glass microspheres and the volume fraction of glass fibers are considered as parameters. It is observed that the elastic modulus values of syntactic foams decrease with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the microsphere relative wall thickness is lower. However, it increases with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the relative wall thickness exceeds a critical value. The elastic modulus value goes through a maximum when the relative wall thickness is around 0.06 at 25 % volume fraction of microspheres. The addition of glass fibers reduces the critical wall thickness values of the microspheres and increases the mechanical properties of the composites. The highest stress lies on the equatorial plane perpendicular to the loading direction. Adding fibers reduces the large stress distribution areas on the microspheres, and the fibers aligned with the loading direction play an important load-bearing role.

  8. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Il Seo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %. The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  9. Flexural Strength of Glass and Polyethylene Fiber Combined with Three Different Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafeddin F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available tatement of Problem: The flexure of the fiber- reinforced composites (FRC which can be generally used instead of fixed metal- framework prostheses have been more advocated due to the enormous demands for the conservative and esthetic restoration. The flexure of the fiber should be well-fitted to its covering composite. No study has been reported the comparison of the combination of glass and polyethylene fiber with particulate filled composite and fiber reinforced composite yet.Purpose: This study compared the flexural strength of two types of fibers combined with three types of composites.Materials and Method: Sixty-six specimens were prepared in a split mold (25×2×2 mm. The specimens were divided into six groups according to the type of resin and the fiber (N = 11: group 1: Z250 composite + Polyethylene fiber; group 2: Build It composite + Polyethylene fiber; group 3: Nulite F composite+ Polyethylene fiber; group 4: glass fiber + Z250 composite; group 5: glass fiber + Build-It composite and group 6: glass fiber + Nulite F. The mean flexural strengths (MPa values were determined in a 3-point bending test at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min by a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany. The results were statistically analyzed, using one and two- way ANOVA and LSD post-hoc tests (p< 0.05.Results: The highest flexural strength was registered for glass fiber in combination with Z250 composite (500 MPa and the lowest for polyethylene fiber in combination with Build-It composite (188 MPa. One-way ANOVA test revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between polyethylene fiber combinations (p= 0.62 but there was a significant difference between glass fiber combinations (p= 0.0001. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the fiber type had a significant effect on flexural strength (p= 0.0001.Conclusion: The choice of fiber and composite type was shown to have a significant positive influence on the flexural properties of the

  10. PbTe quantum dots in tellurite glass microstructured optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G. J.; Almeida, D. B.; Faustino, W. M.; Chillcce, E. F.; Rodriguez, E.; Brito Cruz, C. H.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

    2008-02-01

    PbTe doped tellurite glass photonic optical fiber for non linear application were developed using rod in tube method in a draw tower. We follow the growth kinetics of the quantum dots in the optical fiber by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy giving some results related with the growth kinetic of the same in function of time so much for optical fiber as for the glass bulk. Absorption peak near 1500 nm as observed and it was attributed the optical resonance due PbTe quantum dots in the core fiber.

  11. Numerical and experimental analysis on tensile properties of banana and glass fibers reinforced epoxy composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A SHADRACH JEYASEKARAN; K PALANI KUMAR; S RAJARAJAN

    2016-11-01

    In present day scenario, moving towards an environment friendly material is a key issue for manufacturing industries in order to provide suitable alternatives for the existing conventional materials. Natural fibers have higher economic impact and miniature in density when compared to glass fibers while making composites. Though the strength of natural fibers is not as high as glass fibers, their specific properties are comparable. In this paper a study has been carried out to find the tensile characteristics of hybrid composite made by intruding unidirectional banana and glass fibers into epoxy resin mixture. The hand lay-up method of fabrication was employed in preparing the composites of unidirectional glass fiber (UGF) and unidirectional banana/glass fiber (U B/G F). Tensile properties of the composites are verified using ANSYS. It is observed from the findings that the numerical analysis is found to be higher than experimental analysis. Hybridization of banana fiber shows better tensile properties. It is evident from the result that, comparatively equal displacement is obtained for the varying load for both the composites. The surface morphology of the tested composites is analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  12. Ultrasonic assisted consolidation of commingled thermoplastic/glass fibers rovings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eLionetto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic matrix composites are finding new applications in different industrial area thanks to their intrinsic advantages related to environmental compatibility and processability. The approach presented in this work consists in the development of a technology for the simultaneous deposition and consolidation of commingled thermoplastic rovings through to the application of high energy ultrasound. An experimental equipment, integrating both fiber impregnation and ply consolidation in a single process, has been designed and tested. It is made of an ultrasonic welder, whose titanium sonotrode is integrated on a filament winding machine. During winding, the commingled roving is at the same time in contact with the mandrel and the horn. The intermolecular friction generated by ultrasound is able to melt the thermoplastic matrix and impregnate the reinforcement fibers. The heat transfer phenomena occurring during the in situ consolidation were simulated solving by finite element (FE analysis an energy balance accounting for the heat generated by ultrasonic waves and the melting characteristics of the matrix. To this aim, a calorimetric characterization of the thermoplastic matrix has been carried out to obtain the input parameters for the model. The FE analysis has enabled to predict the temperature distribution in the composite during heating and cooling The simulation results have been validated by the measurement of the temperature evolution during ultrasonic consolidation.The reliability of the developed consolidation equipment was proved by producing hoop wound cylinder prototypes using commingled continuous E-glass rovings and Polypropylene (PP filaments. The consolidated composite cylinders are characterized by high mechanical properties, with values comparable with the theoretical ones predicted by the micromechanical analysis.

  13. Glass fiber contamination of cigarette filters: an additional health risk to the smoker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Lee, H J; Hurley, E L; Cummings, K M; Lesses, J D; Streck, R J

    1998-11-01

    We report here the results of studies documenting the contamination of a cigarette-appearing smoking article labeled Eclipse with glass fibers, fragments, and particles. Eclipse, a product of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJR), was commercialized in June of 1996. Eclipse is unlike conventional cigarettes in that, like its predecessor Premier, it is designed to heat and not burn tobacco. The purpose of Eclipse was to simplify the chemical composition and reduce the biological activity of the mainstream and sidestream smoke and to achieve a significant reduction of environmental tobacco smoke. In Eclipse, tobacco pyrolysis is reduced by a carbon fuel rod that serves as a heat source for generating an aerosol having nicotine and tobacco flavor. The carbon rod, at the tip of the cigarette, is insulated and bound with two wrapping mats of glass fibers. Recently, Eclipse has been modified to address consumer complaints of burdensome draw and off-taste. The redesigned Eclipse, which we have termed the NEW Eclipse, has an unconventional filter-appearing mouthpiece that consists of a cellulose acetate cylindrical bundle with a central hollow tunnel. In our analysis of Eclipse, glass fibers (length:width aspect ratio, > or = 3:1) were: (a) observed protruding from the tip; (b) identified on the white cigarette wrapping paper; (c) viewed on the surface of the cork-appearing tipping paper; (d) found in the pack residue; (e) discovered lying freely on the cut surface of the filter by both light and electron microscopy; (f) harvested from the filter with adhesive tape; and (g) displaced when Eclipse was smoked mechanically. In a study of Eclipse that had not been removed from carefully opened packs, we observed that > or = 95% of the filters were contaminated with glass fibers (Eclipse: Regular, n = 114/120, 95%; Milds, n = 118/120, 98%; Menthol, n = 120/120, 100%). Likewise, 99% of NEW Eclipse had glass fibers on the redesigned filter (Regular, n = 119/120). In contrast

  14. Effects of EVA Latex on the Properties of Glass-fiber/ Magnesium-oxychloride Cement Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of Ethylene- Vinyl Acetate copolymer ( EVA ) latex as an additive or a glass fiber sur face modifier on the properties of Glass- Fiber ( GF ) / Magnesium Oxychloride Cement ( MOC ) composites was studied.The mechanical properties, water resistance and aging resistance of the cured GF/ MOC composites were estimated and chemical ingredients analysis and morphological study of the GF/ MOC composites were also performed.It is found that EVA added to the MOC matrix could substantially improve the interfacial adhesion, water resistance and aging resistance of GF / MOC composites.EVA treatment on glass fibers resulted in decreasing initial flexural strength of GF/ MOC composites while enhancing the soft coefficients.In addition, the drying time and dilution of the EVA treatment on glass fibers also had an obvious effect on the properties of GF/ MOC composites.GF / MOC composites.

  15. hybrid effect on the mechanical properties of sisal fiber and e-glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-glass fiber reinforced polyester composite was studied. Hybrid composites of ... Introduction. Polymer composites ... erties of a polymer composite are dependent upon the properties ..... Yang, S.H., Rice-husk filled polypropylene composites ...

  16. The effect of exposed glass fibers and particles of bioactive glass on the surface wettability of composite implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Lassila, Lippo V; Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the wettability of a material is a predictive index of cytocompatibility. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposed E-glass fibers and bioactive glass (BAG) particles on the surface wettability behavior of composite implants. Two different groups were investigated: (a) fiber reinforced composites (FRCs) with different fiber orientations and (b) polymer composites with different wt. % of BAG particles. Photopolymerized and heat postpolymerized composite substrates were made for both groups. The surface wettability, topography, and roughness were analyzed. Equilibrium contact angles were measured using the sessile drop method. Three liquids were used as a probe for surface free energy (SFE) calculations. SFE values were calculated from contact angles obtained on smooth surfaces. The surface with transverse distribution of fibers showed higher (P < 0.001) polar (γ(P)) and total SFE (γ(TOT)) components (16.9 and 51.04 mJ/m(2), resp.) than the surface with in-plane distribution of fibers (13.77 and 48.27 mJ/m(2), resp.). The increase in BAG particle wt. % increased the polar (γ(P)) value, while the dispersive (γ(D)) value decreased. Postpolymerization by heat treatment improved the SFE components on all the surfaces investigated (P < 0.001). Composites containing E-glass fibers and BAG particles are hydrophilic materials that show good wettability characteristics.

  17. The Effect of Exposed Glass Fibers and Particles of Bioactive Glass on the Surface Wettability of Composite Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aous A. Abdulmajeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the wettability of a material is a predictive index of cytocompatibility. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposed E-glass fibers and bioactive glass (BAG particles on the surface wettability behavior of composite implants. Two different groups were investigated: (a fiber reinforced composites (FRCs with different fiber orientations and (b polymer composites with different wt. % of BAG particles. Photopolymerized and heat postpolymerized composite substrates were made for both groups. The surface wettability, topography, and roughness were analyzed. Equilibrium contact angles were measured using the sessile drop method. Three liquids were used as a probe for surface free energy (SFE calculations. SFE values were calculated from contact angles obtained on smooth surfaces. The surface with transverse distribution of fibers showed higher (<0.001 polar (P and total SFE (TOT components (16.9 and 51.04 mJ/m2, resp. than the surface with in-plane distribution of fibers (13.77 and 48.27 mJ/m2, resp.. The increase in BAG particle wt. % increased the polar (P value, while the dispersive (D value decreased. Postpolymerization by heat treatment improved the SFE components on all the surfaces investigated (<0.001. Composites containing E-glass fibers and BAG particles are hydrophilic materials that show good wettability characteristics.

  18. Reinforcing Effect of Glass Fiber-incorporated ProRoot MTA and Biodentine as Intraorifice Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagas, Emre; Cehreli, Zafer C; Uyanik, Ozgur; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of roots by using intraorifice barriers with glass fiber-incorporated ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. The diametral tensile strength and compressive strength of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were determined after incorporation of 5 wt% and 10 wt% alkali resistant (AR) glass fiber powder into both cements. On the basis of higher diametral tensile strength and compressive strength values, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine with 5 wt% AR glass fiber were selected for further testing as intraorifice barriers. The 14-mm-long root specimens obtained from extracted mandibular premolars (n = 60) were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files and obturated with gutta-percha + AH Plus sealer. After removal of coronal 3 mm of root fillings, the roots were grouped with respect to the intraorifice barrier material (n = 12/group): (1) ProRoot MTA, (2) ProRoot MTA with 5 wt% AR glass fibers, (3) Biodentine, (4) Biodentine with 5 wt% AR glass fibers, and (5) control (no intraorifice barrier). The specimens were loaded vertically at 1 mm/min crosshead speed until vertical root fracture occurred. The data were evaluated statistically by using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Both incorporation of glass fiber and the type of material significantly affected fracture resistance (both P = .002). Roots with glass fiber-reinforced Biodentine barriers showed the highest fracture strength (P = .000). Incorporation of 5 wt% AR glass fiber can significantly improve the reinforcement effect of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine when used as intraorifice barriers. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Weathering on Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (Grp) Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, H.; S. Al Araimi and R. A. Siddiqui

    2012-01-01

    Glass fiber reinforced plastics composite is extensively used as a structural material for pools, oil pipes and tanks because it has good corrosion resistance properties.  The effects of weathering on the mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GRP) in the Sultanate of Oman have been studied.  The tensile and three point bend specimens were exposed to outdoor conditions (open atmosphere) in sunlight and tested for various intervals of time.  It was observed th...

  20. Isothermal and hygrothermal agings of hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjasteh, Ehsan

    New applications of fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) are arising in non-traditional sectors of industry, such as civil infrastructure, automotive, and power distribution. For example, composites are being used in place of steel to support high-voltage overhead conductors. In this application, conductive strands of aluminum are wrapped around a solid composite rod comprised of unidirectional carbon and glass fibers in an epoxy matrix, which is commercially called ACCC conductor. Composite-core conductors such as these are expected to eventually replace conventional steel-reinforced conductors because of the reduced sag at high temperatures, lower weight, higher ampacity, and reduced line losses. Despite the considerable advantages in mechanical performance, long-term durability of composite conductors is a major concern, as overhead conductors are expected to retain properties (with minimal maintenance) over a service life that spans multiple decades. These concerns stem from the uncertain effects of long-term environmental exposure, which includes temperature, moisture, radiation, and aggressive chemicals, all of which can be exacerbated by cyclic loads. In general, the mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites are adversely affected by such environmental factors. Consequently, the ability to forecast changes in material properties as a function of environmental exposure, particularly bulk mechanical properties, which are affected by the integrity of fiber-matrix interfaces, is required to design for extended service lives. Polymer composites are susceptible to oxidative degradation at high temperatures approaching but not quite reaching the glass transition temperature ( Tg). Although the fibers are stable at such temperatures, the matrix and especially the fiber-matrix interface can undergo degradation that affects the physical and mechanical properties of the structure over time. Therefore, as a first step, the thermal aging of an

  1. Mechanical behavior of glass fiber polyester hybrid composite filled with natural fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G.; Gupta, A.; Dhanola, A.; Raturi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Now-a-days, the natural fibers and fillers from renewable natural resources offer the potential to act as a reinforcing material for polymer composite material alternative to the use of synthetic fiber like as; glass, carbon and other man-made fibers. Among various natural fibers and fillers like banana, wheat straw, rice husk, wood powder, sisal, jute, hemp etc. are the most widely used natural fibers and fillers due to its advantages like easy availability, low density, low production cost and reasonable physical and mechanical properties This research work presents the effect of natural fillers loading with 5%, 10% and 15% on mechanical behavior of polyester based hybrid composites. The result of test depicted that hybrid composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite under impact and flexural loads. However it is found that the hybrid composite have better strength as compared to single glass fibre composites.

  2. High-Strength / High Alkaline Resistant Fe-Phosphate Glass Fibers as Concrete Reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano Velez

    2008-03-31

    Calcium-iron-phosphate glasses were developed whose chemical durabilities in alkaline solutions (pH 13) were comparable or superior to those of commercial alkaline-resistant (AR) silica-based glasses. However, the tensile strength of Ca-Fe-phosphate fibers, after being exposed to alkaline environments, including wet Portland cement pastes, is lower than that of current AR silicate fibers. Another series of Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses were developed with excellent chemical durability in strong acidic solutions (H2SO4, HF), indicating potential applications where silica-based fibers degrade very quickly, including E-glass. The new Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses can be melted and processed 300 to 500°C lower than silica-based glasses. This offers the possibility of manufacturing glass fibers with lower energy costs by 40-60% and the potential to reduce manufacturing waste and lower gas emissions. It was found that Ca-Fe-phosphate melts can be continuously pulled into fibers depending on the slope of the viscosity-temperature curve and with viscosity ~100 poise, using multi-hole Pt/Rh bushings.

  3. UV-transmitting step-index fluorophosphate glass fiber fabricated by the crucible technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleani, Gustavo; Ledemi, Yannick; de Lima Filho, Elton Soares; Morency, Steeve; Delaizir, Gaëlle; Chenu, Sébastien; Duclere, Jean René; Messaddeq, Younes

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we report on the fabrication process of highly pure step-index fluorophosphate glass optical fibers by a modified crucible technique. High-purity fluorophosphate glasses based on 10 mol% of barium metaphosphate and 90 mol% of metal fluorides (AlF3sbnd CaF2sbnd MgF2sbnd SrF2) have been studied in order to produce step-index optical fibers transmitting in the deep-ultraviolet (DUV) region. The characteristic temperatures, viscosity around softening temperature and optical transmission in the UV-visible region of the prepared bulk glasses were characterized in a first step. The selected glass compositions were then used to prepare core-cladding optical preforms by using a modified built-in casting technique. While uncontrolled crystallization of the fiber was observed during the preform stretching by using the conventional method, we successfully obtained crystal-free fiber by using a modified crucible technique. In this alternative approach, the produced core-cladding preforms were inserted into a home-designed fused silica crucible assembly and heated at 643 °C to allow glass flowing throughout the crucible, preventing the formation of crystals. Single index fluorophosphate glass fibers were fabricated following the same process as well. The optical attenuation at 244 nm and in the interval 350-1750 nm was measured on both single index and step-index optical fibers. Their potential for using in DUV applications is discussed.

  4. Monitoring of Radiation Damage of Quartz Fibers in the Hf-Cms Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Jean-Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Two HF calorimeters are in the range 3 monitors this loss and is used to correct energies. Since 2010, 29 fb-1 were accumulated and "Raddam runs" were taken in beam stops. The raddam data are compared to our light transmission measurements of irradiated fibers. A FLUKA simulation of dose at 14 TeV for a luminosity accumulated of 3000 fb-1 is presented.

  5. Effects of glass fibers on the properties of micro molded plastic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    of polymeric thin ribs. It investigates the effect of feature size and gate location on distribution of glass fibers inside the molded parts. The results from this work indicate that glass filled plastic materials have poor replication quality and nonhomogeneous mechanical properties due to the nonuniform...

  6. Dynamic mechanical and dielectric behavior of banana–glass hybrid fiber reinforced polyester composites.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pothan, LA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available of the two fibers on the ultimate viscoelastic behavior of the composites are also investigated. Composites are prepared with banana as the surface layer and glass as the surface layer and also as an intimate mixture of glass and banana. At temperatures above...

  7. The microstructure of erbium-ytterbium co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyn, Elżbieta; Żelechower, Michał; Stróż, Danuta; Chrapoński, Jacek

    2012-04-01

    Oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics combine some features of glasses (easier shaping or lower than single crystals cost of fabrication) and some advantages of rare-earth doped single crystals (narrow absorption/emission lines and longer lifetimes of luminescent levels). Since the material seems to be promising candidate for efficient fiber amplifiers, the manufacturing as well as structural and optical examination of the oxyfluoride glass-ceramic fibers doped with rare-earth ions seems to be a serious challenge. In the first stage oxyfluoride glasses of the following compositions 48SiO2-11Al2O3-7Na2CO3-10CaO-10PbO-11PbF2-3ErF3 and 48SiO2-11Al2O3-7Na2CO3-10CaO-10PbO-10PbF2-3YbF3-1ErF3 (in molar%) were fabricated from high purity commercial chemicals (Sigma-Aldrich). The fabricated glass preforms were drawn into glass fibers using the mini-tower. Finally, the transparent Er3+ doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramic fibers were obtained by controlled heat treatment of glass fibers. The preceding differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies allowed estimating both the fiber drawing temperature and the controlled crystallization temperature of glass fibers. X-ray diffraction examination (XRD) at each stage of the glass-ceramic fibers fabrication confirmed the undesirable crystallization of preforms and glass fibers has been avoided. The fibers shown their mixed amorphous-crystalline microstructure with nano-crystals of size even below 10 nm distributed in the glassy host. The crystal structure of the grown nano-crystals has been determined by XRD and confirmed by electron diffraction (SAED). Results obtained by both techniques seem to be compatible: Er3FO10Si3 (monoclinic; ICSD 92512), Pb5Al3F19 (triclinic; ICSD 91325) and Er4F2O11Si3 (triclinic; ICSD 51510) against to initially expected PbF2 crystals.

  8. The recycling of comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Jia, Weifeng; Li, Jinhui

    2010-05-01

    The reuse of comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin with various granularities gathered from printed circuit manufacturing residues was investigated. As fillers, these residues were converted into polymeric composite board by an extrusion and injection process using polypropylene as a bonding agent. The mechanical properties of the reproduced composite board were examined by considering the effects of mass fraction and glass-fiber distribution. Interfacial-layer micrograph analysis of the composite material fracture surface was used to study the fiber reinforcement mechanism. Results showed that using comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin as a filler material greatly enhanced the performance properties of the composite board. Although the length and diameter of filler varied, these variations had no appreciable effect on the mechanical properties of the processed board. Maximum values of 48.30 MPa for flexural strength, 31.34 MPa for tensile strength, and 31.34 J/m for impact strength were achieved from a composite board containing mass fractions of 30, 10, and 20% glass-fiber-reinforced resin waste, respectively. It was found that the maximum amount of recyclate that could be added to a composite board was 30% of weight. Beyond these percentages, the materials blend became unmanageable and the mixture less amenable to impregnation with fiber. Presented studies indicated that comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin waste-filled polypropylene composites are promising candidates for structural applications where high stiffness and fracture resistance are required.

  9. Optical fibers of As2S3 glasses: preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrazký, Ondřej; Matějec, Vlastimil; Kostka, Petr; Pedliková, Jitka; Bašinová, Nikola; Zavadil, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Chalcogenide glasses based on arsenic sulfide (As2S3), arsenic selenide or telluride are known to exhibit high optical nonlinearities which are necessary for advanced applications in telecommunications. Both, standard optical fibers and microstructured fibers have been fabricated from chalcogenide glasses. In this paper we deal with As2S3 solid core fibers and capillary fibers coated with a polymer jacket of UV acrylate. The guiding mechanism employing the reflection on boundary of high-index glass (a refractive index of about 2.4) and hollow cavity (n=1) was confirmed by ray-optic calculations. Fibers were drawn from input As2S3 rods and tubes. The rods were prepared from extra pure arsenic and sulfur by their melting in an evacuated ampoule. The tubes were prepared by using rotational melting technique in an evacuated ampoule rotating at 1600 rpm. Rods and tubes were elongated into fibers by using a fiber drawing facilities for preparation of optical fibers from soft optical glasses. Temperatures in a range 300-400 °C and drawing velocities of about 0.1 m/s were used. Fibers were prepared either without any polymeric jacket or they were provided by a jacket of UV acrylate (n ˜ 1.5). Fibers with diameters from 0.2 to 0.4 mm were fabricated. Dimensions of prepared fibers were measured by optical microscopy without prior polishing. Transmission properties of prepared fibers were characterized by measuring angular distributions of output power at the wavelength of 670 nm. Optical losses of fibers exceeding 2 dB/m were determined by using the cut back method.

  10. Modifying glass fiber surface with grafting acrylamide by UV-grafting copolymerization for preparation of glass fiber reinforced PVDF composite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nan; Zhong, Hui; Yang, Min; Yuan, Xing; Fan, Yaobo

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the modification of conditions for glass surface grafting with acrylamide (AM) monomer for preparation of a glass fiber reinforced poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite membrane (GFRP-CM). The factors considered for experimental design were the UV (ultraviolet)-irradiation time, the concentrations of the initiator and solvent, and the kinds and concentrations of the silane coupling agent. The optimum operating conditions determined were UV-irradiation time of 25 min, an initiator concentration of 0-0.25 wt.%, solvent of N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC), and silane coupling agent KH570 with a concentration of 7 wt.%. The obtained optimal parameters were located in the valid region and the experimental confirmation tests conducted showed good accordance between predicted and experimental values. Under these optimal conditions, the water absorption of the grafted modified glass fiber was improved from 13.6% to 23%; the tensile strength was enhanced and the peeling strength of the glass fiber reinforced PVDF composite membrane was improved by 23.7% and 32.6% with an AM concentration at 1 wt.% and 2 wt.%. The surface composition and microstructure of AM grafted glass fiber were studied via several techniques including Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The analysis of the EDX and FTIR-ATR results confirmed that the AM was grafted to the glass fiber successfully by detecting and proving the existence of nitrogen atoms in the GFRP-CM.

  11. Effect of fiber content on flexural properties of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 prepared by injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Manamu; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2017-07-26

    The use of non-metal clasp denture (NMCD) materials may seriously affect the remaining tissues because of the low rigidity of NMCD materials such as polyamides. The purpose of this study was to develop a high-rigidity glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (GFRTP) composed of E-glass fiber and polyamide-6 for NMCDs using an injection molding. The reinforcing effects of fiber on the flexural properties of GFRTPs were investigated using glass fiber content ranging from 0 to 50 mass%. Three-point bending tests indicated that the flexural strength and elastic modulus of a GFRTP with a fiber content of 50 mass% were 5.4 and 4.7 times higher than those of unreinforced polyamide-6, respectively. The result showed that the physical characteristics of GFRTPs were greatly improved by increasing the fiber content, and the beneficial effects of fiber reinforcement were evident. The findings suggest that the injection-molded GFRTPs are adaptable to NMCDs because of their excellent mechanical properties.

  12. Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Zhang, Ligong; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jingbo; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K.

    2017-01-01

    An ultra-high sensitive acetylene (C2H2) Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor based on a high power laser and a quartz tuning fork with a resonance frequency f0 of 30.72 kHz was demonstrated. An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) amplified distributed feedback diode laser with a center wavelength of 1.53 μm was used as the exciting source. A 33.2 ppb minimum detection limit (MDL) at 6534.37 cm-1 was achieved, and the calculated normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient was 3.54 × 10-8 cm-1 W/√Hz when the laser output power was 1500 mW. The ppb-level detection sensitivity of C2H2 validated the reported QEPAS method.

  13. Effect of winding layer and speed on kenaf/glass fiber hybrid reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoni, Norizzahthul Ainaa Abdul; Sharifah Shahnaz S., B.; Ghazali, Che Mohd Ruzaidi

    2016-07-01

    The usage of natural fiber is becoming significant in composite industries due to their good performance. Single and continuous natural fibers have relatively high mechanical properties; especially their young modulus can be as high as glass fibers. Filament winding is a method to produce technically aligned composites which have high fibers content. The properties of filament winding can be tailored to meet the end product requirements. This research studied the compression properties of kenaf/glass fibers hybrid reinforced composites. Kenaf/glass fibers hybrid composite samples were fabricated by filament winding technique and their properties were compared with the properties of neat kenaf fiber and glass fibers composites. The kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites exhibited higher strength compared to the neat glass fibers composites. Composites of helical pattern, which produced at low winding speed showed better compression resistance than hoop pattern winding, which produced at high winding speed. As predicted, kenaf composite showed highest water absorption; followed by kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites while neat glass fiber has lowest water absorption capability.

  14. Tm-Yb Doped Optical Fiber Performance with Variation of Host-Glass Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Dhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of Thulium-Ytterbium doped optical fiber comprising different host glass through the Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD coupled with solution doping technique is presented. The material and optical performance of different fibers are compared with special emphasis on their lasing efficiency for 2 µm application.

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Glass/Steel Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. McBride

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While conventional fiber-reinforced polymer composites offer high strength and stiffness, they lack ductility and the ability to absorb energy before failure. This work investigates hybrid fiber composites for structural applications comprised of polymer, steel fiber, and glass fibers to address this shortcoming. Varying volume fractions of thin, ductile steel fibers were introduced into glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Non-hybrid and hybrid composite specimens were prepared and subjected to monolithic and half-cyclic tensile testing to obtain stress-strain relationships, hysteresis behavior, and insight into failure mechanisms. Open-hole testing was used to assess the vulnerability of the composites to stress concentration. Incorporating steel fibers into glass/epoxy composites offered a significant improvement in energy absorption prior to failure and material re-centering capabilities. It was found that a lower percentage of steel fibers (8.2% in the hybrid composite outperformed those with higher percentages (15.7% and 22.8% in terms of energy absorption and re-centering, as the glass reinforcement distributed the plasticity over a larger area. A bilinear hysteresis model was developed to predict cyclic behavior of the hybrid composite.

  16. Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, Raymond T.

    2005-12-31

    Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ce¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is

  17. In vivo and in vitro studies of borate based glass micro-fibers for dermal repairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Shichang; Zhou, Nai; Li, Le; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Full-thickness skin defects represent urgent clinical problem nowadays. Wound dressing materials are hotly needed to induce dermal reconstruction or to treat serious skin defects. In this study, the borate bioactive glass (BG) micro-fibers were fabricated and compared with the traditional material 45S5 Bioglass(®) (SiG) micro-fibers. The morphology, biodegradation and bioactivity of BG and SiG micro-fibers were investigated in vitro. The wound size reduction and angiogenic effects of BG and SiG micro-fibers were evaluated by the rat full-thickness skin defect model and Microfil technique in vivo. Results indicated that the BG micro-fibers showed thinner fiber diameter (1 μm) and better bioactivity than the SiG micro-fibers did. The ionic extracts of BG and SiG micro-fibers were not toxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, the BG micro-fiber wound dressings obviously enhanced the formation of blood vessel, and resulted in a much faster wound size reduction than the SiG micro-fibers, or than the control groups, after 9 days application. The good skin defect reconstruction ability of BG micro-fibers contributed to the B element in the composition, which results in the better bioactivity and angiogenesis. As shown above, the novel bioactive borate glass micro-fibers are expected to provide a promising therapeutic alternative for dermal reconstruction or skin defect repair.

  18. Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Bamboo/Glass Fibers Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sudha Madhuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical resistance of Bamboo/Glass reinforced Polyester hybrid composites to acetic acid, Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Benzene, Toluene, Carbon tetrachloride and Water was studied. The tensile and impact properties of these composites were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment of bamboo fibers on these properties was studied. It was observed that the tensile and impact properties of the hybrid composites increase with glass fiber content. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glsss/Bamboo fiber composites by SEM. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in hybrid composites. The hybrid fiber composites showed better resistance to the chemicals mentioned above. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treatment leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations.

  19. Hybrid carbon/glass fiber composites: Micromechanical analysis of structure–damage resistance relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Dai, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    A computational study of the effect of microstructure of hybrid carbon/glass fiber composites on their strength is presented. Unit cells with hundreds of randomly located and misaligned fibers of various properties and arrangements are subject to tensile and compression loading, and the evolution...... of fiber damages is analyzed in numerical experiments. The effects of fiber clustering, matrix properties, nanoreinforcement, load sharing rules on the strength and damage resistance of composites are studied. It was observed that hybrid composites under uniform displacement loading might have lower...... strength than pure composites, while the strength of hybrid composites under inform force loading increases steadily with increasing the volume content of carbon fibers....

  20. Effects of glass fiber mesh with different fiber content and structures on the compressive properties of complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sang-Hui; Cho, Hye-Won; Oh, Seunghan; Bae, Ji-Myung

    2015-06-01

    No study has yet evaluated the strength of complete dentures reinforced with glass fiber meshes with different content and structures. The purpose of this study was to compare the reinforcing effects of glass fiber mesh with different content and structures with that of metal mesh in complete dentures. Two types of glass fiber mesh were used: SES mesh (SES) and glass cloth (GC2, GC3, and GC4). A metal mesh was used for comparison. The complete dentures were made by placing the reinforcement 1 mm away from the tissue surface. A control group was prepared without any reinforcement (n=10). The compressive properties were measured by a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Duncan multiple range test (α=.05). The fracture resistance of the SES group was significantly higher than that of the control, GC4, and metal groups (asymptotic P=.004), but not significantly different from the GC2 and GC3 groups. The toughness of the SES and GC3 groups was significantly higher than that of the others (asymptotic Pcomplete dentures. The content of the glass fiber mesh seemed more important than the structures. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of GeO2 on the lasing performance of Yb: Phosphate glass fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Yajie; Zhang, Liyan; Chen, Danping

    2017-02-01

    A novel GeO2 modified Yb: phosphate glass with good luminescent properties has been demonstrated. P and PG fibers were fabricated by the stack-and-draw method. An output power of 6.4 W with slope efficiency of 46% was obtained from 40.5 cm long PG fiber, while 40.2 cm long P fiber had an output power of 2.7 W and 34% slope efficiency.

  2. Characterization of hollow chemical garden fibers from metal salts and water glass

    OpenAIRE

    Balköse, Devrim; Çakıcıoğlu Özkan, Seher Fehime; Köktürk, Uğur; Ulutan, Sevgi; Ülkü, Semra; Nişli, Gürel

    2002-01-01

    Hollow fibers formed from water glass and metal salts of IIA(Ca), VIIB(Fe, Co, Ni) and IB(Cu) groups were characterised in this study. Fragile fibres obtained herein broke down into small pieces during isolation and drying. Quantitative information about morphology, chemical composition and surface structure of the fibres were obtained. The diameter and wall thickness of the fibers were around 50 μ and 3 μ. respectively. They had particulate inner and smooth outer surfaces. Fibers had variabl...

  3. Glass and Process Development for the Next Generation of Optical Fibers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ballato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applications involving optical fibers have grown considerably in recent years with intense levels of research having been focused on the development of not only new generations of optical fiber materials and designs, but also on new processes for their preparation. In this paper, we review the latest developments in advanced materials for optical fibers ranging from silica, to semi-conductors, to particle-containing glasses, to chalcogenides and also in process-related innovations.

  4. Monitoring ageing of alkali resistant glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) using guided ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Amjad, U.; Mahmoudabadi, E.; Payá, J.; Bonilla, M.; Kundu, T.

    2013-04-01

    Glass fiber reinforced cement (GRC) is a Portland cement based composite with alkali resistant (AR) glass fibers. The main drawback of this material is the ageing of the reinforcing fibers with time and especially in presence of humidity in the environment. Until now only destructive methods have been used to evaluate the durability of GRC. In this study ultrasonic guided wave inspection of plate shaped specimens has been carried out. The results obtained here show that acoustic signatures are capable of discerning ageing in GRC. Therefore, the ultrasonic guided wave based inspection technique is a promising method for the nondestructive evaluation of the durability of the GRC.

  5. Photosensitive, all-glass AgPO3/silicaphotonic bandgap fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidakis, Ioannis; Zito, Gianluigi; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2012-07-01

    Photonic bandgap (PBG) guidance is observed in a solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) consisting of silver metaphosphate (AgPO(3)) glass embedded into a silica cladding, realized by vacuum-assisted infiltration of the molten glass into the hollow channels of a commercial silica PCF. Morphologic analysis of the cladding microstructure by optical and scanning electron microscopy reveals the formation of highly homogeneous glass strands along the PCF length. The characteristic transmission spectrum of the fiber shows PBG guidance in the range between 350 and 1650 nm. The exposure of the cladding glass matrix, using 355 nm, 150 ps laser irradiation, allows photo-induced enhancement of the transmission-to-stop-band extinction ratio by ∼60 dB/cm and bandwidth tuning. Numerical calculations of the transmission pattern of the fabricated AgPO(3)/silica bandgap fiber are in good agreement with experiments.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of bare Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide glass fiber taper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Baohua; Wang, Yingying; Sun, Ya'nan; Dai, Shixun; Yang, Peilong; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Xunsi; Chen, Feifei; Wang, Rongping

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Ge15Sb20Se65 bare glass fiber with a diameter of 500 μm was fabricated, and then tapered with different tapering parameters. The analysis of Raman and energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) indicated that, a slight change in the chemical composition of the glass, fiber and tapering fiber has negligible effect on the glass structure. It was found that, the waist diameter decreases exponentially with increasing tapering length and speed, and high quality taper fiber with the cone diameter of 2.65 μm can be achieved under the optimal tapering conditions. Finally, the simulated and experimental results of the output transmission under different waist length and taper ratio show that the transmission decreases with increasing waist length and taper ratio.

  7. Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Fiber Glass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Haun

    2005-07-15

    The U.S. fiber glass industry disposes of more than 260,000 tons of industrial fiber glass waste in landfills annually. New technology is needed to reprocess this industrial waste into useful products. A low-cost energy-saving method of manufacturing ceramic tile from fiber glass waste was developed. The technology is based on sintering fiber glass waste at 700-900 degrees C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 degrees C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 degrees C. The process also eliminates other energy intensive processing steps, including mining and transportation of raw materials, spray-drying to produce granulated powder, drying pressed tile, and glazing. The technology completely transforms fiber glass waste into a dense ceramic product, so that all future environmental problems in the handling and disposal of the fibers is eliminated. The processing steps were developed and optimized to produce glossy and matte surface finishes for wall and floor tile applications. High-quality prototype tile samples were processed for demonstration and tile standards testing. A Market Assessment confirmed the market potential for tile products produced by the technology. Manufacturing equipment trials were successfully conducted for each step of the process. An industrial demonstration plant was designed, including equipment and operating cost analysis. A fiber glass manufacturer was selected as an industrial partner to commercialize the technology. A technology development and licensing agreement was completed with the industrial partner. Haun labs will continue working to transfer the technology and assist the industrial partner with commercialization beyond the DOE project.

  8. Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, A. B.; Matthewson, M. J.; Castelino, K. T.; Wojcik, J.; Walewski, A.

    2006-04-01

    Specialty optical fibers operating in harsh aerospace environments are typically exposed to high temperatures and elevated humidity. This calls for better performing protective coatings. Recently developed sol-gel derived inorganicorganic hybrid materials called hybrid glass offered improved protective performance as compared to standard dual polymer coated fibers [1]. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of online UV curing for the protective ability of hybrid glass coatings. For this purpose two types of UV-curable hybrid glass candidates representing two different concentrations of acrylate groups were applied online to silica fibers as single and dual coats. Samples of fibers were collected and subjected to dynamic fatigue testing by two-point bending. The stress corrosion parameter, n, as well as the strength of the fibers were determined. Both the strength and n were higher for fibers with two layers of coating as compared to single coatings even when the thickness of both one and two layer coatings was the same. This may be caused by the greater degree of cross linking of the inorganic component when the coating is exposed twice to the heat generated in the UV chamber. Coating materials with reduced acrylate group content had higher values of the fatigue parameter n but at the same time reduced strength.

  9. Transmission photocathodes based on stainless steel mesh and quartz glass coated with N-doped DLC thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Huran, J.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Arbet, J.

    2016-03-01

    The influence was investigated of N-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films properties on the quantum efficiency of a prepared transmission photocathode. N-doped DLC thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, a stainless steel mesh and quartz glass (coated with 5 nm thick Cr adhesion film) by reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and gas mixture Ar, 90%N2+10%H2. The elements' concentration in the films was determined by RBS and ERD. The quantum efficiency was calculated from the measured laser energy and the measured cathode charge. For the study of the vectorial photoelectric effect, the quartz type photocathode was irradiated by intensive laser pulses to form pin-holes in the DLC film. The quantum efficiency (QE), calculated at a laser energy of 0.4 mJ, rose as the nitrogen concentration in the DLC films was increased and rose dramatically after the micron-size perforation in the quartz type photocathodes.

  10. Use of quartz fiber post for reattachment of complex crown root fractures: A 4-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha G Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental hard tissue trauma is among the most common cases encountered in dental practice. Simple tooth fractures, which occur due to sharp blows, are widely seen in all age groups, especially in young adults. If in case of complex fractures the fractured tooth fragments are available to the dentist in a clean and hydrated state, reattachment of the tooth fragment is the most conservative and biological treatment option possible. Cases of enamel and dentin fractures not involving pulp are treated by reattaching the fragment with adhesives and composite resin. However, fractures involving the pulp require reinforcement by quartz fiber posts and resin luting cement. In cases of fractures extending subgingivally, an envelope flap helps to achieve the desired isolation and visibility. This article presents 2 case reports of reattachment of fractured tooth fragments. The first case showing a 4-year success was treated without raising a flap. The second case with a subgingival fracture was treated by raising a flap. Reattachment is the most economical, biologically acceptable and esthetic restorative option for dental trauma.

  11. Impact Wear Properties of Metal-Plastic Multilayer Composites Filled with Glass Fiber Treated with Rare Earth Element Surface Modifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程先华; 薛玉君

    2001-01-01

    The friction and wear properties of metal-plastic multilayer composites filled with glass fiber, which is treated with rare earth element surface modifier, under impact load and dry friction conditions were investigated. Experimental results show that the metal-plastic multilayer composite filled with glass fiber exhibits excellent friction and impact wear properties when using rare earth elements as surface modifier for the surface treatment of glass fiber.

  12. Hierarchical composite structures prepared by electrophoretic deposition of carbon nanotubes onto glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi; Rider, Andrew N; Thostenson, Erik T

    2013-03-01

    Carbon nanotube/glass fiber hierarchical composite structures have been produced using an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) approach for integrating the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into unidirectional E-glass fabric, followed by infusion of an epoxy polymer matrix. The resulting composites show a hierarchical structure, where the structural glass fibers, which have diameters in micrometer range, are coated with CNTs having diameters around 10-20 nm. The stable aqueous dispersions of CNTs were produced using a novel ozonolysis and ultrasonication technique that results in dispersion and functionalization in a single step. Ozone-oxidized CNTs were then chemically reacted with a polyethyleneimine (PEI) dendrimer to enable cathodic EPD and promote adhesion between the CNTs and the glass-fiber substrate. Deposition onto the fabric was accomplished by placing the fabric in front of the cathode and applying a direct current (DC) field. Microscopic characterization shows the integration of CNTs throughout the thickness of the glass fabric, where individual fibers are coated with CNTs and a thin film of CNTs also forms on the fabric surfaces. Within the composite, networks of CNTs span between adjacent fibers, and the resulting composites exhibit good electrical conductivity and considerable increases in the interlaminar shear strength, relative to fiber composites without integrated CNTs. Mechanical, chemical and morphological characterization of the coated fiber surfaces reveal interface/interphase modification resulting from the coating is responsible for the improved mechanical and electrical properties. The CNT-coated glass-fiber laminates also exhibited clear changes in electrical resistance as a function of applied shear strain and enables self-sensing of the transition between elastic and plastic load regions.

  13. Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on a glass microsphere glued at the etched end of multimode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiping P.; Wang, Dongning N.; Xu, Ben; Wang, Zhaokun K.; Zhao, Chun-Liu

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate an optical Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on a glass microsphere glued at the etched end of a multimode fiber. The fiber device is miniature and robust, with a convenient reflection mode of operation, a high temperature sensitivity of 202.6 pm/°C within the range from 5°C to 90°C, a good refractive index sensitivity of ˜119 nm/RIU within the range from 1.331 to 1.38, and a gas pressure sensitivity of 0.19 dB/MPa.

  14. Ferromagnetic glass ceramics and glass fibers based on the composition of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Fe2O3 glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianan; Zhu, Chaofeng; Zhang, Meimei; Zhang, Yanfei; Yang, Xuena

    2017-03-01

    Ferromagnetic glass-ceramics and glass fibers were obtained by the melt-method from the glass system SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Fe2O3 without performing any nucleation and crystallization heat treatments. Glass-ceramics and glass fibers were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, magnetic measurements, and thermal expansion instrument. The influence of alumina content on the spontaneous crystallization of magnetite, magnetism properties and thermal expansion performances in glass were investigated. We examined the crystallization behavior of the glasses and found that the spontaneous crystallization capacity of magnetite and magnetism properties in base glass increases with increasing the content of alumina. The ferromagnetic glass fibers containing magnetite nano-crystals are also obtained.

  15. Glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals for frequency conversion of lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zaijin; Xiao, Xusheng; Wang, Xin; Ma, Zhijun; Lewis, Elfed; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei; Ren, Jing; Guo, Haitao; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    A glass-ceramic optical fiber containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals fabricated using a novel combination of the melt-in-tube method and successive heat treatment is reported for the first time. For the melt-in-tube method, fibers act as a precursor at the drawing temperature for which the cladding glass is softened while the core glass is melted. It is demonstrated experimentally that following heat treatment, Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals with diameters below 10 nm are evenly distributed throughout the fiber core. Comparing to the conventional rod-in-tube method, the melt-in-tube method is superior in terms of controllability of crystallization to allow for the fabrication of low loss glass-ceramic fibers. When irradiated using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser, an enhanced green emission at a wavelength of 515 nm is observed in the glass-ceramic fiber, which demonstrates second harmonic generation of a laser action in the fabricated glass-ceramic fibers. Therefore, this new glass-ceramic fiber not only provides a highly promising development for frequency conversion of lasers in all optical fiber based networks, but the melt-in-tube fabrication method also offers excellent opportunities for fabricating a wide range of novel glass-ceramic optical fibers for multiple future applications including fiber telecommunications and lasers. PMID:28358045

  16. Single-mode hollow-core photonic crystal fiber made from soft glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Euser, T. G.; Abdolvand, A.; Babic, F.; Tani, F.; Joly, N. Y.; Travers, J. C.; St. J. Russell, P.

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the first soft-glass hollow core photonic crystal fiber. The fiber is made from a high-index lead-silicate glass (Schott SF6, refractive index 1.82 at 500 nm). Fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique, the fiber incorporates a 7-cell hollow core embedded in a highly uniform 6-layer cladding structure that resembles a kagomé-like lattice. Effective single mode guidance of light is observed from 750 to 1050 nm in a large mode area (core diameter ~30 μm) with a low loss of 0.74 dB/m. The underlying guidance mechanism of the fiber is investigated using finite element modeling. The fiber is promising for applications requiring single mode guidance in a large mode area, such as particle guidance, fluid and gas filled devices.

  17. Influence of masticatory fatigue on the fracture resistance of the pulpless teeth restored with quartz-fiber post-core and crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Er-Min; Chen, Xia-Yun; Zhang, Chun-Yuan; Qi, Li-Li; Huang, Ying-He

    2012-12-01

    To investigate whether masticatory fatigue affects the fracture resistance and pattern of lower premolars restored with quartz-fiber post-core and full crown, 44 single rooted lower premolars recently extracted from orthodontic patients were divided into two groups of 22 each. The crowns of all teeth were removed and endodontically treated and then restored with quartz-fiber post-core and full crown. Twenty-two teeth in one group were selected randomly and circularly loaded at 45° to the long axis of the teeth of 127.4 N at a 6 Hz frequency, and the other group was not delivered to cyclic loading and considered as control. Subsequently, all teeth in two groups were continually loaded to fail at 45° to the long axis of the teeth at a crosshead speed of 1 mm⋅min(-1). The mean destructive force values were (733.88±254.99) and (869.14±280.26) N for the experimental and the control group, respectively, and no statistically significant differences were found between two groups (P>0.05). Bevel fracture and horizontal fracture in the neck of root were the major fracture mode of the specimens. Under the circumstances of this study, it seems that cyclic loading does not affect the fracture strength and pattern of the quartz-fiber post-core-crown complex.

  18. Environmental effects on the hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-I.

    2009-12-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) have been widely used to replace conventional metals due to the high specific strength, fatigue resistance, and light weight. In the power distribution industry, an advanced composites rod has been developed to replace conventional steel cable as the load-bearing core of overhead conductors. Such conductors, called aluminum conductor composite core (ACCC) significantly increases the transmitting efficiency of existing power grid system without extensive rebuilding expenses, while meeting future demand for electricity. In general, the service life of such overhead conductors is required to be at least 30 years. Therefore, the long-term endurance of the composite core in various environments must be well-understood. Accelerated aging by hygrothermal exposure was conducted to determine the effect of moisture on the glass fiber (GF)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid composites. The influence of water immersion and humid air exposure on mechanical properties is investigated. Results indicated that immersion in water is the most severe environment for such hybrid GF/CF composites, and results in greater saturation and degradation of properties. When immersed directly in water, the hybrid GF/CF composites exhibit a moisture uptake behavior that is more complex than composite materials reinforced with only one type of fiber. The unusual diffusion behavior is attributed to a higher packing density of fibers at the annular GF/CF interface, which acts as a temporary moisture barrier. Moisture uptake leads to the mechanical and thermal degradation of such hybrid GF/CF composites. Findings presented here indicate that the degradation is a function of exposure temperature, time, and moisture uptake level. Results also indicate that such hybrid GF/CF composites recover short beam shear (SBS) strength and glass transition temperature (Tg) values comparable to pre-aged samples after removal of the absorbed moisture. In the hygrothermal environment

  19. PERBANDINGAN METODE 2K-P FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DENGAN METODE TAGUCHI PADA PROSES PEMBUATAN FIBER GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanata Rahardja

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber glass products are widely used in the industry. High quality fiberglass product requires a composition and to obtain the optimal composition, an experiment needs to be done. In this project, experimental designs in 2k-p fractional factorial design and Taguchi method were carried out to obtain the optimal composition. According to the impact test results based on the model by the JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard for fiber glass, it was found that the 2k-p fractional factorial design method and Taguchi methods are the same. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Produk fiber glass banyak digunakan di dunia industri saat ini. Produk fiber glass berkualitas tinggi dibutuhkan suatu komposisi, dimana untuk komposisi yang tepat diperlukan eksperimen. Desain eksperimen 2k-p fractional factorial design dengan metode Taguchi telah digunakan untuk mendapatkan komposisi yang optimal. Hasil pengujian kekuatan impak dengan bentuk dan pengujian sesuai JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard pada fiber glass didapatkan bahwa metode 2k-p fractional factorial design dengan metode Taguchi tidak berbeda. Kata kunci : 2k-p fractional factorial design, Taguchi, JIS

  20. Fabrication and gain performance of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped tellurite glass fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shixun; XU Tiefeng; NIE Qiuhua; SHEN Xiang; WANG Xunsi

    2008-01-01

    Er3+/Yb3+-codoped TeO2-ZnO-BaO-La2O3 tellurite glass fiber was fabricated by rotation and rod-in-tube technologies. The ther-mal stability and optical refractive index of the core and cladding glasses were determined by DTA and optical coupler, respectively. The av-erage background loss of tellurite glass fiber was 1.8 dB/m at 1310 nm. Optical microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) were used to study structural characteristics of preforms and optical fibers. The main loss of tellurite glass fiber could be attributed to scatter centre due to core-cladding interface defects. The amplifier performance of tellurite glass fiber was investigated by pumping with 980 nm laser diode (LD). The gain coefficient and maximum signal gain were 0.21 dB/mW and 10 dB, respectively, for a pumping power of 120 mW. Gains exceeding 5 dB were obtained over 30 um bandwidth from 1535 to 1565 nm. The minimum noise figure was 4.8 dB at 1557 um.

  1. Silica-glass contribution to the effective nonlinearity of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher J; Ouzounov, Dimitre G; Gaeta, Alexander L; Venkataraman, Natesan; Gallagher, Michael T; Koch, Karl W

    2007-03-19

    We measure the effective nonlinearity of various hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers. Our findings indicate that differences of tens of nanometers in the fiber structure result in significant changes to the power propagating in the silica glass and thus in the effective nonlinearity of the fiber. These results show that it is possible to engineer the nonlinear response of these fibers via small changes to the glass structure.

  2. Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维和Super-Bond C & B粘结剂固定下前牙松动牙疗效比较%Comparison of the clinical effect of Quartz splintTM high strength quartz fiber and Super-Bond C & B adhesive for anterior teeth loosening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维和Super-Bond C&B粘结剂固定慢性牙周炎下前牙松动牙的临床效果。方法:选取下前牙松动需要做牙周夹板松牙固定患者40例,随机分为两组。A组:在洁治、刮治和根面平整后,使用Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维做牙周固定;B组:在在洁治、刮治和根面平整后,使用Super-Bond C&B粘结剂做牙周固定。两组固定后即刻让患者对于固定物做出异物感评价。固定6个月后比较治疗前后的牙周探诊深度和牙周附着丧失情况。结果:两组治疗前后的牙周探诊深度和牙周附着丧失均比治疗前有明显减少,有统计学意义。组间比较,无统计学意义。固定后即刻异物感评价,B组优于A组,有统计学意义。结论:对于下前牙松动的患者,洁治、刮治和根面平整后使用Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维和Super-Bond C&B粘结剂牙周夹板固定,均可以使牙周状况明显改善。Super-Bond C&B粘结剂牙周夹板异物感小于Quartz splintTM高强度石英纤维。%Objective To compare the clinical effect of Quartz splintTM high strength silica fiber and Super-Bond C&B adhesive in the treatment of anterior teeth loosening of the periodontal disease. Methods 40 patients with anterior teeth loosening need to be fixed in patients with loose teeth, and were randomly divided into two groups. In group A, scaling and root planing, the use of Quartz splintTM high strength quartz fiber periodontal fixed. In group B, scaling, root planing, the use of Super-Bond C&B adhesive periodontal fixation. A group and B group make foreign body sensation evaluation after fixation immediately. After 6 months of treatment, the depth of the periodontal probe and the loss of periodontal attachment were compared with that before and after the treatment. Results The depth of the periodontal probe and the loss of periodontal attachment in the A group and the B

  3. Ply Thickness Fiber Glass on Windmill Drive Salt Water Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifa, Agus; Badruzzaman; Suwandi, Dedi

    2016-04-01

    Factors management of salt-making processes need to be considered selection of the location and the season is very important to support the efforts of salting. Windmills owned by the farmers are still using wood materials are made each year it is not effectively done and the shape of windmills made not in accordance with the requirements without considering the wind speed and the pumping speed control influenced by the weight and size of windmill, it affects the productivity of salt. to optimize the function of windmills on pumping salt water by change the material blade on the wheel by using a material composite, composite or fiberglass are used for blades on windmills made of a material a mixture of Epoxy-Resin and Matrix E-Glass. The mechanical characteristics of the power of his blade one of determining the materials used and the thickness of the blade, which needed a strong and lightweight. The calculation result thick fiberglass with a composition of 60% fiber and 40% epoxy, at a wind speedof area salt fields 9 m/s, the drag force that occurs at 11,56 kg, then the calculation result by 0,19 mm thick with a layer of 10, the total thickness of 1,9 mm, with a density of 1760 kg/m3, mechanical character of elongated elastic modulus of 46200 MPa, modulus of transverse elasticity of 10309,6 MPa, shear modulus of 3719 MPa and Poisson ratio of 0,31, then the calculation using the finite element ABAQUS obtained critical point at the confluence of the blade to the value of Von Mises tension was happening 1,158e9 MPa maximum and minimum 2,123e5 MPa, for a maximum value of displacement occurred condition at the tip of the blade. The performance test results windmills at a wind speed of 5,5 m/s wind power shows that occur 402,42 watts and power turbines produced 44,21 watt, and TSR 0,095 and the value Cp of 0,1, test results windmill in salt fields in the beginning rotation windmill lighter, able to move above wind speed of 5.5 m/s.

  4. Side-pumped short rectangular Nd-doped phosphate glass fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Tang; Yong Yang; Jianqiu Xu

    2008-01-01

    Watt-level short fiber lasers side-pumped through fiber-to-waveguide couplers are demonstrated. The fiber lasers are fabricated from Nd-doped phosphate glass with large numerical aperture of 0.2 and rectangular cross section of 1.5 × 0.5 (mm). Single transverse mode output is achieved by the gain-guiding effect. Average power of 1 W is generated from a 4.0-cm-long fiber laser with a slope efficiency of 10%.

  5. Optical and mechanical properties of glass fiber and ribbon reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, John Matthew

    Composites with excellent optical clarity have been fabricated by matching the refractive index of the glass fiber reinforcement to that of the polymer matrix. Refractive index mismatch, resulting from temperature changes, leads to degradation of optical clarity in fiber composites due to light impinging upon the fiber/matrix interface at oblique angles of incidence. The plane parallel surfaces of glass ribbon reinforcement minimize incidence at oblique angles, thereby reducing the sensitivity to refractive index mismatch. Optical data show that the use of ribbons in place of fibers increases the temperature range over which these composites retain good optical clarity by more than five times. A Monte Carlo type simulation of optical transmission of fiber reinforced composites has been developed. Temperature dependent optical transmission of glass fiber and ribbon reinforced composites was measured using a He/Ne laser and a detection assembly with an acceptance angle of 0.15sp°. Good agreement was observed between the measured transmission data and the calculations from the computer model. The computer model was used to predict achievable optical transmission in hypothetical fiber and ribbon composites with varying dn/dT and glass content. Results indicate that ribbon reinforced composites have the potential for nearly temperature independent optical clarity. Flexural strength of glass fiber and ribbon reinforced composites was calculated from 3-point bend data on specimens with a neat PMMA core and composite veneer on the surfaces. Veneer strength was 40 to 50% higher than that of neat PMMA. A hypothetical quasi-isotropic veneered composite was designed using lamination theory. For equivalent load bearing capacity beams, the mass of the composite is 16 and 70% less than neat PMMA and fused silica, respectively.

  6. MACRO-LOCK石英纤维桩的修复效果及安全性评价%MACRO-LOCK quartz fiber post restoration effect and safety evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何钢清; 邓敏; 廖明华; 潘超; 邓如平

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the good physical and chemical properties, the quartz fiber post is considered as a prefer alternative to metal posts.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical effect and safety of MACRO-LOCK quartz fiber post restoration for residual root and crown.METHODS: The patients with large-area anterior defect were randomly divided into 2 groups: quartz fiber post group: following complete root canal therapy, MACRO-LOCK quartz fiber post, ULPDENT resin adhesive, PULPDENT dual cure resin core material were used to restore tooth post and core, and then all-ceramic crowns or metal ceramic crown was applied; control group: cast metal teeth crown restoration was performed. The patients were followed up for 6 months and 3 years for observation of restoration effects.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During the 3-year follow-up, there was 1 case of post and core loss, 1of broken fiber post, and no root fracture in the quartz fiber post group. The successful rate of the quartz fiber post group was higher than that of the control group during the 3-year follow-up (P < 0.05). The findings indicatethat MACRO-LOCK quartz fiber post has a goodlong-term effect and safety to restore residual roots and crowns.%背景:在桩核的设计选择中,石英纤维桩因其良好的理化性能被认为是金属桩的良好替代品.目的:评价MACRO-LOCK石英纤维桩树脂核全冠修复残根、残冠的临床疗效和安全性.方法:将大面积前牙牙体缺损患者随机分为2组:石英纤维桩组患牙行完善的根管治疗后,利用MACRO-LOCK石英纤维桩、ULPDENT树脂黏接剂,PULPDENT双固化树脂核材料恢复桩核,以全瓷冠或贵金属烤瓷全冠修复.对照组患牙行传统的铸造金属桩核冠修复.随诊6个月及3年时的修复效果.结果与结论:与对照组相比,石英纤维桩组RTD-MACOK POST石英纤维桩修复后随访3年仅1例发生桩核脱落,1例出现纤维桩折断,未出现根折现象,3年随访的成功率较高(P < 0.05).结

  7. Mid-infrared surface plasmon polariton chemical sensing on fiber-coupled ITO coated glass

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Javier; Aguilo, Magdalena; Fernandez, Toney; Solis, Javier; Diaz, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    A novel fiber-coupled ITO coated glass slide sensor for performing surface plasmon polariton chemical monitoring in the 3.5 um mid-IR range is reported. Efficient mid-IR fiber coupling is achieved with 3D laser written waveguides, and the coupling of glass waveguide modes to ITO SPPs is driven by the varying phase matching conditions of different aqueous analytes across the anomalous dispersion range determined by their molecular fingerprints. By means of using both a mid-IR fiber supercontinuum source and a diode laser the excitation of SPPs is demonstrated. The efficient optical monitoring of mid-IR SPPs in smart glass could have a broad range of applications in biological and chemical sensing.

  8. Tensile Properties of Surface-Treated Glass Fiber Reinforced PTFE Composite with Rare Earth Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛玉君; 程先华

    2003-01-01

    The optimum amount of rare earth elements (RE) for treating glass fiber surface and its effect on the tensile properties of glass fiber reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (GF/PTFE) composites were investigated. The tensile properties of GF/PTFE composites with different surface treatment conditions were measured. The fracture surface morphologies were observed and analyzed by SEM. The results indicate that rare earth elements can effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between the glass fiber and PTFE, owing to the effects of rare earth elements on the compatibility. The tensile properties of GF/PTFE composites can be improved considerably when the content of RE in surface modifier is 0.2%~0.4%, and the optimum performance of GF/PTFE composites is obtained at 0.3%RE content.

  9. Optimal forming zone length in continuous extrusion of lead-clad glass fiber wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 唐景林; 王丽薇; 高明

    2008-01-01

    Forming zone length (FZL) is a key parameter of the lead-clad glass fiber extrusion dies, and an unsuitable FZL will lead to breakage of the glass fiber and/or unacceptable geometric and metallographic qualities of the product. The optimal FZL was determined theoretically based on a mathematical model established by upper bound method, and accepted Pb-GF wire was actually obtained experimentally by symmetric side-feed extrusion at a much lower temperature than that published before. The wire has features of fine grains, uniform diameter, good coaxiality and satisfied mechanical property. The results and conclusions obtained in the research can be used to design the forming tools for lead-clad glass fiber extrusion and have significance to further research on the extrusion of other complex wires of metal-clad brittle core.

  10. Simulation of Light Propagation within Glass Fiber Filled Thermoplastics for Laser Transmission Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Martin; Devrient, Martin; Klämpfl, Florian; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    Laser transmission welding is a well-known joining technology for thermoplastics. Because of the needs of lightweight, cost effective and green production nowadays injection molded parts usually have to be welded. These parts are made out of semi-crystalline thermoplastics which are filled to a high amount with glass fibers. This leads to higher absorption and more scattering within the upper joining partner and hasa negative influence onto the welding process. Here a ray tracing model capable of considering every single glass fiber is introduced. Hence spatially not equally distributed glass fibers can be taken into account. Therefore the model is able to calculate in detail the welding laser intensity distribution after transmission through the upper joining partner. Data gained by numerical simulation is compared to data obtained by laser radiation scattering experiments. Thus observed deviation is quantified and discussed.

  11. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Ricardo PEREIRA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs and resinmodified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05. The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148. The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. CONCLUSIONS: Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values.

  12. Electrical Resistance Behavior of Vinylester Composites Filled with Glass-carbon Hybrid Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; ZHANG Lianmeng; XU Renxin; DUAN Huajun; YANG Xiaoli; WANG Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Vinylester (bismethacryloxy derivative of a bisphenol-A type EP resin, VE) composites with glass-carbon hybrid fibers (CF-GF) weight fraction of 50%, were prepared by the compress molding method. The distribution of carbon fiber in the hybrids was observed by stereomicroscope. The electrical resistance behavior of the composites filled with different carbon fiber (CF) weight contents (0.5% to 20%) was studied. The experimental results show that the electrical resistance behaviors of CF-GF/VE composites are different with those of CF/VE composites because carbon fibers' conducting networks are broken by the glass fibers in the CF-GF/VE composites. The carbon fibers distribute uniformly in the networks of glass fibers (GF) like single silk and form the semi-continuous conducting networks. Composite filled with GF-CF hybrid has a higher percolation threshold than that filled with pure CF. At that time, the resistivity of CF-GF/VE composites varies little with the temperature increasing. The temperature coefficient of resistivity in GF-CF/VE composite is less than 317 ppm and the variation of the resistivity after ten thermal cycles from 20 ℃to 240 ℃ is less than 1.96%.

  13. Two Octaves Supercontinuum Generation in Lead-Bismuth Glass Based Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Buczynski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a two octave spanning supercontinuum generation in a bandwidth of 700–3000 nm in a single-mode photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-gallate glass. To our knowledge this is the broadest supercontinuum reported in heavy metal oxide glass based fibers. The fiber was fabricated using an in-house synthesized glass with optimized nonlinear, rheological and transmission properties in the range of 500–4800 nm. The photonic cladding consists of 8 rings of air holes. The fiber has a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW at 1460 nm. Its dispersion is determined mainly by the first ring of holes in the cladding with a relative hole size of 0.73. Relative hole size of the remaining seven rings is 0.54, which allows single mode performance of the fiber in the infrared range and reduces attenuation of the fundamental mode. The fiber is pumped into anomalous dispersion with 150 fs pulses at 1540 nm. Observed spectrum of 700–3000 nm was generated in 2 cm of fiber with pulse energy below 4 nJ. A flatness of 5 dB was observed in 950–2500 nm range.

  14. Solid-core tellurite glass fiber for infrared and nonlinear applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aoxiang; Zhang, Aidong; Bushong, Elizabeth J; Toulouse, Jean

    2009-09-14

    By optimizing glass composition and using a multistage dehydration process, a ternary 80TeO(2)-10ZnO-10Na(2)O glass is obtained that shows excellent transparency in the wavelength range from 0.38 microm up to 6.10 microm. Based on this optimized composition, we report on the fabrication of a single-mode solid-core tellurite glass fiber with large mode area of 103 microm(2) and low loss of 0.24-0.7 dB/m at 1550 nm. By using the continuous-wave self-phase modulation method, the non-resonant nonlinear refractive index n(2) and the effective nonlinear parameter gamma of this made tellurite glass fiber were estimated to be 3.8x10(-19) m(2)/W and 10.6 W(-1) x km(-1) at 1550 nm, respectively.

  15. Comparative analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of polyester hybrid composites reinforced by jute and glass fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, R. A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced polyester hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Polyester resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios(77/23/0, 68/25/7 and 56/21/23 respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in polyester, increase the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decrease the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope.

  16. Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R A; Magalhaes, P A A

    2015-11-01

    This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fiber-matrix integrity, micromorphology and flexural strength of glass fiber posts: Evaluation of the impact of rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Lançanova, Mateus; Wandscher, Vinicius Felipe; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Limberger, Inácio; Özcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2015-08-01

    Several rotary instruments have been daily employed on clinic to promote cut aiming to adjust the length of fiber posts to the radicular conduct, but there is no information on the literature about the effects of the different rotary instruments and its impact on the micromorphology of surface and mechanical properties of the glass fiber post. This study aimed the impact of rotary instruments upon fiber-matrix integrity, micromorphology and flexural-strength of glass-fiber posts (GFP). GFP (N=110) were divided into 5 groups: Ctrl: as-received posts, DBc: coarse diamond-bur, DBff: extra-fine diamond-bur, CB: carbide-bur, DD: diamond-disc. Cutting procedures were performed under abundant irrigation. Posts exposed to rotary instruments were then subjected to 2-point inclined loading test (compression 45°) (n=10/group) and 3-point flexural-strength test (n=10/group). Fiber-matrix integrity and micromorphology at the cut surface were analyzed using a SEM (n=2/group). Cutting procedures did not significantly affect the 2-point (51.7±4.3-56.7±5.1 MPa) (p=0.0233) and 3-point flexural-strength (671.5±35.3-709.1±33.1 MPa) (p=0.0968) of the posts (One-way ANOVA and Tukey׳s test). Fiber detachment was observed only at the end point of the cut at the margins of the post. Cut surfaces of the CB group were smoother than those of the other groups. After 3-point flexural strength test, fiber-matrix separation was evident at the tensile side of the post. Rotary instruments tested with simultaneous water-cooling did not affect the resistance of the tested fiber posts but caused disintegration of the fibers from the matrix at the end of the cut, located at the margins.

  18. Glass surface metal deposition with high-power femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Deng, Cheng; Bai, Shuang

    2016-12-01

    Using femtosecond fiber laser-based additive manufacturing (AM), metal powder is deposited on glass surface for the first time to change its surface reflection and diffuse its transmission beam. The challenge, due to mismatch between metal and glass on melting temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, brittleness, is resolved by controlling AM parameters such as power, scan speed, hatching, and powder thickness. Metal powder such as iron is successfully deposited and demonstrated functions such as diffusion of light and blackening effects.

  19. Adhesion strategy and early bond strengths of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Faria-e-Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of coinitiator solutions and self-adhesive resin cement on the early retention of glass-fiber posts. Cylindrical glass-fiber posts were luted into 40 incisor roots with different adhesion strategies (n = 10: SB2, Single Bond 2 + conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC; AP, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP activator + primer + ARC; APC, SBMP activator + primer + catalyst + ARC; and UNI, self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem. Pull-out bond strength results at 10 min after cementation showed APC > UNI > SB2 = AP (P < 0.05. The adhesion strategy significantly affected early bonding to root canals.

  20. Two-color mid-infrared thermometer with a hollow glass optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; Matthews, D L; Soltz, B A

    1998-10-01

    We have developed a low-temperature optical-fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. A single 700-mum-bore hollow glass optical fiber collects and transmits radiation that is then modulated and split into two paths by a reflective optical chopper. Two different thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared HgCdZnTe photoconductors monitor the chopped signals that are recovered with lock-in amplification. With the two previously obtained blackbody calibration equations, a computer algorithm calculates the true temperature and emissivity of a target in real time, taking into account reflection of the ambient radiation field from the target surface. The small numerical aperture of the hollow glass fiber and the fast response of the detectors, together with the two-color principle, permit high spatial and temporal resolution while allowing the user to dynamically alter the fiber-to-target distance.

  1. Influence of the curing cycles on the fatigue performance of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüther, Jonas; Brøndsted, Povl

    2016-01-01

    stresses are built up and frozen, as residual stresses occur. In the present work, a glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminate with an unidirectional architecture based on non-crimp fabrics with backing fibers is investigated. Three different curing cycles (time-temperature cycles) are used, leading...... demonstrated that the resulting residual stresses barely influences the quasi-static mechanical properties of reinforced glass-fiber composites. It is found that the fatigue performance in the 0° direction is significantly influenced by the internal stresses, whereas the fatigue performance in the off axes......During the manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polymers the curing reaction of the resin results in shrinkage of the resin and introduces internal stresses in the composites. When curing at higher temperatures in order to shorten up the processing time, higher curing stresses and thermal...

  2. Glass fiber reinforcement in repaired acrylic resin removable dentures: preliminary results of a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, P K

    1997-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of continuous E-glass partial fiber reinforcement of acrylic resin removable dentures was evaluated an average 13 months after the insertion of the fibers. Twelve removable complete dentures and ten removable partial dentures with a history of recurrent fracture were selected for this study. The partial fiber reinforcement was incorporated into the denture at the time of repair. One complete denture and one removable partial denture fractured in the region of reinforcement during the examination period. These fractures were most likely caused by faulty placement of the fiber reinforcement in the denture in the dental laboratory. In six dentures, new fractures occurred in regions without partial fiber reinforcement. The results revealed the importance of both the correct positioning of the partial fiber reinforcement in the denture and the use of accurate laboratory techniques.

  3. Reinforcing Wooden Composite with Glass Fiber Fabric - Manufacturing Technology as a Factor Limiting Mechanical Properties and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deskiewicz Adam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the strength and reliability of the wooden composites reinforced with glass fiber for the skateboard application. Three different methods of glass-fiber reinforcement have been used to prepare totally 94 samples, including control trial. Two lamination methods have been utilized: vacuum and HPL (High Pressure Lamination. Conducted analysis allowed to determine preferred production technique.

  4. Mechanical properties of short carbon/glass fiber reinforced high mechanical performance epoxy resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竞; 黄培

    2009-01-01

    To research the relationship between epoxy and fiber inherent property and mechanical properties of composite,we prepared a series of composites using three kinds of high mechanical performance epoxy resins as matrices and reinforced by the same volume fraction(5%)of short carbon and glass fiber.Their mechanical properties were investigated from the perspective of chemical structure and volume shrinkage ratio of epoxy.We analyzed their tensile strength and modulus based on the mixing rule and Halpin-Tsai eq...

  5. Fabrication of Rare Earth-Doped Transparent Glass Ceramic Optical Fibers by Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Rare earth (RE) doped silica-based optical fibers with transparent glass ceramic (TGC) core was fabricated through the well-known modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process without going through the commonly used stage of post-ceramming. The main characteristics of the RE-doped oxyde nanoparticles namely, their density and mean diameter in the fibers are dictated by the concentration of alkaline earth element used as phase separating agent. Magnesium and erbium ...

  6. Sitotoksisitas resin akrilik hybrid setelah penambahan glass fiber dengan metode berbeda (Cytotoxicity of the hybrid acrylic resin after glass fiber reinforcement with difference method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nirwana

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforcement of the hybrid acrylic resin with difference method can enhance residual monomer content of the material; it can cause cytotoxic effect on fibroblast cells. The purpose of this study was to know the cytotoxicity of hybrid acrylic resins after glass fiber reinforcement with difference method on the cultured fibroblasts. The squared specimens of 10 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 1.5 mm in thickness were cured for 20 minutes at 100° C. The fibroblast cells were grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium to be 2 × 105 cells/ml, then the cells were added to the samples in the plates and incubated at 37° C. After 48 hours, the cytotoxic effect was determined by direct cell number count using microscope and a hemocytometer. The statistical analyses using one way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there were significant difference in cell viability (p < 0.05 among the groups. The means percentage of cell viability were 90.00%, 99.,11%, 98.66%, it could be concluded that glass fiber reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin with either first method or second method was not toxic.

  7. Breaking the glass ceiling: hollow OmniGuide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven G.; Ibanescu, Mihai; Skorobogatiy, Maksim A.; Weisberg, Ori; Engeness, Torkel D.; Soljacic, Marin; Jacobs, Steven A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2002-04-01

    We argue that OmniGuide fibers, which guide light within a hollow core by concentric multilayer films having the property of omnidirectional reflection, have the potential to lift several physical limitations of silica fibers. We show how the strong confinement in OmniGuide fibers greatly suppresses the properties of the cladding materials: even if highly lossy and nonlinear materials are employed, both the intrinsic losses and nonlinearities of silica fibers can be surpassed by orders of magnitude. This feat, impossible to duplicate in an index-guided fiber with existing materials, would open up new regimes for long-distance propagation and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM). The OmniGuide-fiber modes bear a strong analogy to those of hollow metallic waveguides; from this analogy, we are able to derive several general scaling laws with core radius. Moreover, there is strong loss discrimination between guided modes, depending upon their degree of confinement in the hollow core: this allows large, ostensibly multi-mode cores to be used, with the lowest-loss TE01 mode propagating in an effectively single-mode fashion. Finally, because this TE01 mode is a cylindrically symmetrical ('azimuthally' polarized) singlet state, it is immune to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), unlike the doubly-degenerate linearly-polarized modes in silica fibers that are vulnerable to birefringence.

  8. Optical and electrical characterizations of multifunctional silver phosphate glass and polymer-based optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Maxime; Ledemi, Yannick; Morency, Steeve; de Lima Filho, Elton Soares; Messaddeq, Younès

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the fabrication of multifunctional fibers has expanded for multiple applications that require the transmission of both light and electricity. Fibers featuring these two properties are usually composed either of a single material that supports the different characteristics or of a combination of different materials. In this work, we fabricated (i) novel single-core step-index optical fibers made of electrically conductive AgI-AgPO3-WO3 glass and (ii) novel multimaterial fibers with different designs made of AgI-AgPO3-WO3 glass and optically transparent polycarbonate and poly (methyl methacrylate) polymers. The multifunctional fibers produced show light transmission over a wide range of wavelengths from 500 to 1000 nm for the single-core fibers and from 400 to 1000 nm for the multimaterial fibers. Furthermore, these fibers showed excellent electrical conductivity with values ranging between 10−3 and 10−1 S·cm−1 at room temperature within the range of AC frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Multimodal taper-tipped fibre microprobes were then fabricated and were characterized. This advanced design could provide promising tools for in vivo electrophysiological experiments that require light delivery through an optical core in addition to neuronal activity recording. PMID:28256608

  9. Numerical study on mixing performance of glass fiber dispersion in a twin-screw extruder with backward-mixing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kunihiro; Ishida, Hiroshi; Hiragori, Motohiro; Nakayama, Yasuya; Kajiwara, Toshihisa

    2015-05-01

    In the kneading of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics by twin-screw extrusion, the use of a backward-mixing screw (BMS) element for melt mixing has been found to be effective in dispersing glass-fiber bundles. In this study, we use the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study the mechanism of dispersion by a BMS element for glass fiber bundles. The result of CFD for a BMS and a forward kneading disk (FKD) reveals that the melt mixing by a BMS is highly effective to act the required stress on overall resin. In addition, there is a good correlation between the incidence of undispersed glass-fiber bundles measured experimentally and the minimum value of distribution of the time-integrated stress calculated numerically. On the basis of the above results, we propose a method to predict the operating conditions in which the incident probability of undispersed glass-fiber bundles and thermal degradation are controlled.

  10. THE PROPERTIES OF GUIDED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MODES ON THE GaAs-BASED FIBER GLASS AND LASERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa TEMİZ

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available On the lasers or fiber optic communication electromagnetic waves are transmitted by confining and guiding between special layer's or fiber glass respectively. It is desired that electric and magnetic waves are in the active region of the lasers and in the core of the fiber glass. It is obtained by making more larger the of refractive index of the regions. On this work, the behavior and varying of the electric and magnetic waves and the effects on the electromagnetic waves in the fiber glass and lasers are investigated.

  11. Improving the lateral resolution of quartz tuning fork-based sensors in liquid by integrating commercial AFM tips into the fiber end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura; Martínez-Martín, David; Otero, Jorge; de Pablo, Pedro José; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Gómez-Herrero, Julio

    2015-01-14

    The use of quartz tuning fork sensors as probes for scanning probe microscopy is growing in popularity. Working in shear mode, some methods achieve a lateral resolution comparable with that obtained with standard cantilevered probes, but only in experiments conducted in air or vacuum. Here, we report a method to produce and use commercial AFM tips in electrically driven quartz tuning fork sensors operating in shear mode in a liquid environment. The process is based on attaching a standard AFM tip to the end of a fiber probe which has previously been sharpened. Only the end of the probe is immersed in the buffer solution during imaging. The lateral resolution achieved is about 6 times higher than that of the etched microfiber on its own.

  12. High-efficiency ytterbium-free erbium-doped all-glass double cladding silicate glass fiber for resonantly-pumped fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zexuan; Geng, Jihong; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Shibin

    2014-02-01

    A highly efficient ytterbium-free erbium-doped silicate glass fiber has been developed for high-power fiber laser applications at an eye-safe wavelength near 1.55 μm. Our preliminary experiments show that high laser efficiency can be obtained from a relatively short length of the gain fiber when resonantly pumped at 1535 nm in both core- and cladding-pumping configurations. With a core-pumping configuration as high as 75%, optical-to-optical efficiency and 4 W output power were obtained at 1560 nm from a 1 m long gain fiber. When using a cladding-pumping configuration, approximately 13 W output power with 67.7% slope efficiency was demonstrated from a piece of 2 m long fiber. The lengths of silicate-based gain fiber are much shorter than their silica-based counterparts used in other experiments, which is significantly important for high-power narrow-band and/or pulsed laser applications.

  13. Thermo-tunable hybrid photonic crystal fiber based on solution-processed chalcogenide glass nanolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to combine silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as low-loss platform with advanced functional materials, offers an enormous range of choices for the development of fiber-based tunable devices. Here, we report a tunable hybrid silica PCF with integrated As2S3 glass nanolayers inside...... antiresonances by taking advantage the high thermo-optic coefficient of the solution-processed nanolayers. Two different hybrid fiber structures, with core diameter 10 and 5 mu m, were developed and characterized using a supercontinuum source. The maximum sensitivity was measured to be as high as 3.6 nm...

  14. Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Newhouse, Norman L. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Led by PPG and partnered with Hexagon Lincoln and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the team recently carried out a project “Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass”. The project was funded by DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, starting on September 1, 2014 as a two-year project to assess technical and commercial feasibilities of manufacturing low-cost, high-strength glass fibers to replace T700 carbon fibers with a goal of reducing the composite total cost by 50% of the existing, commercial 700 bar hydrogen storage tanks used in personal vehicles.

  15. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of brush anodes and glass fiber (GF1) separators, and plastic mesh supporters were used here for the first time to create a scalable microbial fuel cell architecture. Separators prevented short circuiting of closely-spaced electrodes, and cathode supporters were used to avoid water gaps between the separator and cathode that can reduce power production. The maximum power density with a separator and supporter and a single cathode was 75±1W/m3. Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power to 154±1W/m3. Current was increased by connecting two MFCs connected in parallel. These results show that brush anodes, combined with a glass fiber separator and a plastic mesh supporter, produce a useful MFC architecture that is inherently scalable due to good insulation between the electrodes and a compact architecture. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  17. Optical coherence elastography for measuring the deformation within glass fiber composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.; Groves, R.M.; Benedictus, R.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has been applied to the study of microscopic deformation in biological tissue under compressive stress for more than a decade. In this paper, OCE has been extended for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, to deformation measurement in a glass fiber

  18. Influences of chemical aging on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2008-01-01

    The impact of aging in high humidity and water on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers has been studied using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The results show that interaction between the fi...

  19. Glass Solder Approach for Robust, Low-Loss, Fiber-to-Waveguide Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Shirley; Battle, Philip; Hawthorne, Todd; Lower, John; Wiley, Robert; Clark, Brett

    2012-01-01

    The key advantages of this approach include the fact that the index of interface glass (such as Pb glass n = 1.66) greatly reduces Fresnel losses at the fiber-to-waveguide interface, resulting in lower optical losses. A contiguous structure cannot be misaligned and readily lends itself for use on aircraft or space operation. The epoxy-free, fiber-to-waveguide interface provides an optically pure, sealed interface for low-loss, highpower coupling. Proof of concept of this approach has included successful attachment of the low-melting-temperature glass to the x-y plane of the crystal, successful attachment of the low-meltingtemperature glass to the end face of a standard SMF (single-mode fiber), and successful attachment of a wetted lowmelting- temperature glass SMF to the end face of a KTP crystal. There are many photonic components on the market whose performance and robustness could benefit from this coupling approach once fully developed. It can be used in a variety of fibercoupled waveguide-based components, such as frequency conversion modules, and amplitude and phase modulators. A robust, epoxy-free, contiguous optical interface lends itself to components that require low-loss, high-optical-power handling capability, and good performance in adverse environments such as flight or space operation.

  20. The importance of material structure in the laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced plastic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprino, G. (Univ. di Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione); Tagliaferri, V. (Univ. di Salerno (Italy). Istituto di Ingegneria Meccanica); Covelli, L. (IMU-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy))

    1995-01-01

    A previously proposed micromechanical formula, aiming to predict the vaporization energy Q[sub v] of composite materials as a function of fiber and matrix properties and fiber volume ratio, was assessed. The experimental data, obtained on glass fiber reinforced plastic panels with different fiber contents cut by a medium power CO[sub 2] cw laser, were treated according to a procedure previously suggested, in order to evaluate Q[sub v]. An excellent agreement was found between experimental and theoretical Q[sub v] values. Theory was then used to predict the response to laser cutting of a composite material with a fiber content varying along the thickness. The theoretical predictions indicated that, in this case, the interpretation of the experimental results may be misleading, bringing to errors in the evaluation of the material thermal properties, or in the prediction of the kerf depth. Some experimental data were obtained, confirming the theoretical findings.

  1. Development of potassium ion conducting hollow glass fibers. [potassium sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium ion conducting glasses, chemically resistant to potassium, potassium sulfide and sulfur, were made and their possible utility as the membrane material for a potassium/sulfur battery was evaluated. At least one satisfactory candidate was found. It possesses an electrical resistance which makes it usable as a membrane in the form of a fine hollow fiber. It's chemical and electrochemical resistances are excellent. The other aspects of the possible potassium sulfur battery utilizing such fine hollow fibers, including the header (or tube sheet) and a cathode current collector were studied. Several cathode materials were found to be satisfactory. None of the tube sheet materials studied possessed all the desired properties. Multi-fiber cells had very limited life-time due to physical failure of fibers at the fiber/tube sheet junctions.

  2. Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, R.A., E-mail: roney.braga@fiat.com.br [FIAT Automóveis S.A., Teardown, CEP 32530-000 Betim, MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, P.A.A., E-mail: pamerico@pucminas.br [PUC—MINAS, Instituto Politécnico, CEP 30535-610 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    This work describes the study to investigate and compare the mechanical and thermal properties of raw jute and glass fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. To improve the mechanical properties, jute fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Epoxy resin, jute and glass fibers were laminated in three weight ratios (69/31/0, 68/25/7 and 64/18/19) respectively to form composites. The tensile, flexural, impact, density, thermal and water absorption tests were carried out using hybrid composite samples. This study shows that the addition of jute fiber and glass fiber in epoxy, increases the density, the impact energy, the tensile strength and the flexural strength, but decreases the loss mass in function of temperature and the water absorption. Morphological analysis was carried out to observe fracture behavior and fiber pull-out of the samples using scanning electron microscope. - Highlights: • The work is the study of the mechanical of raw jute and glass fiber with epoxy resin. • The mechanical properties increased with more proportions of glass fibers. • The density of E69-J31-V0 was the lower. • The flexural strength did not have a significant increase. • The water absorption of E69-J31-V0 was the best.

  3. Theoretical studies on mid-infrared amplification in Ho{sup 3+}-doped chalcogenide glass fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shulin [Laboratory of Infrared Materials and Devices, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Xu, Yinsheng [Laboratory of Infrared Materials and Devices, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); The School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Dai, Shixun, E-mail: daishixun@nbu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Infrared Materials and Devices, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Zhou, Yaxun [Laboratory of Infrared Materials and Devices, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Lin, Changgui [Laboratory of Infrared Materials and Devices, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); The School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Zhang, Peiqing [Laboratory of Infrared Materials and Devices, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2013-05-01

    This paper investigated the MIR emission of Ho{sup 3+}-doped Ge{sub 20}Ga{sub 5}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 65} chalcogenide glasses upon excitation of 900 nm laser diode. The spontaneous emission probability, absorption cross-section, and emission cross-section were calculated using the Judd-Ofelt theory and the Fuchbauer–Ladenburg equation. Theoretical studies of the Ho{sup 3+}-doped chalcogenide glass fiber amplifier operating in the MIR wavelength range, specifically around the 2.86 μm wavelength, were performed based on the rate and light propagation equations. The results indicate that the chalcogenide glass fiber presented a larger signal MIR gain and wider MIR gain spectrum. The maximum signal gain was 36 dB and the gain width was 20 dB.

  4. Properties of glass/carbon fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. H.; Sevkani, V. R.; Patel, B. R.; Patel, V. B.

    2016-05-01

    Composite Materials are well known for their tailor-made properties. For the fabrication of composites different types of reinforcements are used for different applications. Sometimes for a particular application, one type of reinforcement may not fulfill the requirements. Therefore, more than one type of reinforcements may be used. Thus, the idea of hybrid composites arises. Hybrid composites are made by joining two or more different reinforcements with suitable matrix system. It helps to improve the properties of composite materials. In the present work glass/carbon fiber reinforcement have been used with a matrix triglycidyl ether of tris(m-hydroxy phenyl) phosphate epoxy resin using amine curing agent. Different physical and mechanical properties of the glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber reinforced polymeric systems have been found out.

  5. Impact strength of denture polymethyl methacrylate reinforced with continuous glass fibers or metal wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, P K; Vojtkova, H; Lassila, V P

    1995-12-01

    The impact strength of heat-cured acrylic resin test specimens that had been reinforced in various ways was compared in this study. Ten rectangular test specimens were fabricated for each test group. The strengtheners included 1.0-mm-diameter steel wire and continuous E-glass fibers. Both notched and unnotched test specimens were tested in a Charpy-type impact test. In a further analysis the concentration of glass fibers in the test specimens was determined and plotted against the impact strength of the test specimens. The results showed that, compared with the unreinforced specimens, both types of reinforcement increased the impact strength of the test specimens considerably (p < 0.001). There was no clear difference between the mean impact strength value of the test specimens reinforced with metal wire and that of the specimens reinforced with glass fiber. The correlation coefficient between the fiber concentration of the test specimens and their impact strength was 0.818 (p < 0.005). Specimens with fiber concentrations greater than 25 wt% yielded to the higher impact strength more readily than those with metal wire reinforcement did.

  6. Mid infrared supercontinuum generation from chalcogenide glass waveguides and fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luther-Davies, Barry; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Bin;

    2015-01-01

    I report work on mid-infrared super-continuum generation in chalcogenide fibers and waveguides pumped by 320fsec pulses at 21MHz in the 3-4.6µm range. Average powers of ≈20mW were produced with spectral coverage from <2µm to >11µm.......I report work on mid-infrared super-continuum generation in chalcogenide fibers and waveguides pumped by 320fsec pulses at 21MHz in the 3-4.6µm range. Average powers of ≈20mW were produced with spectral coverage from 11µm....

  7. Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.

  8. In situ fabrication of depth-type hierarchical CNT/quartz fiber filters for high efficiency filtration of sub-micron aerosols and high water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zong, Yichen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Rufan; Li, Shuiqing; Wei, Fei

    2013-03-01

    We fabricated depth-type hierarchical CNT/quartz fiber (QF) filters through in situ growth of CNTs upon quartz fiber (QF) filters using a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The filter specific area of the CNT/QF filters is more than 12 times higher than that of the pristine QF filters. As a result, the penetration of sub-micron aerosols for CNT/QF filters is reduced by two orders of magnitude, which reaches the standard of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Simultaneously, due to the fluffy brush-like hierarchical structure of CNTs on QFs, the pore size of the hybrid filters only has a small increment. The pressure drop across the CNT/QF filters only increases about 50% with respect to that of the pristine QF filters, leading to an obvious increased quality factor of the CNT/QF filters. Scanning electron microscope images reveal that CNTs are very efficient in capturing sub-micron aerosols. Moreover, the CNT/QF filters show high water repellency, implying their superiority for applications in humid conditions.We fabricated depth-type hierarchical CNT/quartz fiber (QF) filters through in situ growth of CNTs upon quartz fiber (QF) filters using a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The filter specific area of the CNT/QF filters is more than 12 times higher than that of the pristine QF filters. As a result, the penetration of sub-micron aerosols for CNT/QF filters is reduced by two orders of magnitude, which reaches the standard of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Simultaneously, due to the fluffy brush-like hierarchical structure of CNTs on QFs, the pore size of the hybrid filters only has a small increment. The pressure drop across the CNT/QF filters only increases about 50% with respect to that of the pristine QF filters, leading to an obvious increased quality factor of the CNT/QF filters. Scanning electron microscope images reveal that CNTs are very efficient in capturing sub-micron aerosols

  9. Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, Raymond T.

    2005-12-31

    Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ce¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is

  10. The interlaminar strength of the glass fiber polyester composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Putić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the method and the results of the experimental investigation of interlaminar strength of glass fibre reinforced polyester composites, with the aim of determining the influence that the structure, a reinforcement type and a sort of resin exert upon the interlaminar strength. The tested specimens were fabricated under different formation conditions, namely in eight composition patterns and with three sorts of resin used for polymerization.

  11. Voronoi polygons and self-consistent technique used to compute the airflow resistivity of randomly placed fibers in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    2002-01-01

    harmonic waves at low frequencies, the effective mass density is determined by the friction between air and fibers. The friction is described by the airflow resistivity, which depends on frequency, but for frequencies below 1000 Hz in glass wool with density 15–30 kg/m3, the resistivity to airflow......Sound in glass wool propagates mainly in the air between glass fibers. For sound waves considered here, the distance between fibers is much smaller than the wavelength. Therefore, the sound velocity and attenuation can be computed from an effective mass density and compressibility. For simple...... is constant, and equal to the constant current value. A computation of resistivity from fiber density and diameter will be presented for a model of glass wool that consists of parallel randomly placed fibers with equal diameters. The computation is based on Voronoi polygons, and the results will be compared...

  12. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X.W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  13. Performance of Photoluminescence Glass Fiber in Eu3+ Doped ZMCB and ZMLB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Shulan

    2005-01-01

    The photoluminescence glass fiber in Eu3+ doped ZnO-MgO-CdO-B2O3 is drawn artificially by high-temperature solid state reaction and glass stream hauling method in handling of photoluminecent waste material. Its diameter is 0.01~0.30 mm and its length is more than 10 m. The strong emission band of Eu3+ at 613 nm belongs to 5D0→7F2 electric dipole transition, and the emission intensity at 591 nm is 40% of that at 613 nm and intensity belongs to 5D0→7F1 magnetic dipole transition. It is known to all that Eu3+ mainly hold asymmetrical center lattice in local ambient and also possesses symmetrical center lattice. By fitting decay curves of Eu3+ of different concentrations, it is discovered that the luminescence changes from the first order decay to the second order decay while the concentrations of Eu3+ are increased. It is observed by SEM that glass fiber shows smooth surface, low crystal growing rate, high density of fracture and shellfish veins of fracture obviously submits ditch form. Meanwhile, a series of mechanics parameters were measured and the spectral behaviors of the glass fiber in Eu3+ doped ZnO-MgO-CdO-B2O3 were studied.

  14. Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H{sub 2}S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongpeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zheng, Huadan; Yin, Xukun; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Sampaolo, Angelo [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari and Politecnico di Bari, CNR-IFN UOS BARI, Via Amendola 173, Bari 70126 (Italy); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Dong, Lei, E-mail: donglei@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Patimisco, Pietro; Spagnolo, Vincenzo [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari and Politecnico di Bari, CNR-IFN UOS BARI, Via Amendola 173, Bari 70126 (Italy); Tittel, Frank K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    A quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor, employing an erbium-doped fiber amplified laser source and a custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) with its two prongs spaced ∼800 μm apart, is reported. The sensor employs an acoustic micro-resonator (AmR) which is assembled in an “on-beam” QEPAS configuration. Both length and vertical position of the AmR are optimized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, significantly improving the QEPAS detection sensitivity by a factor of ∼40, compared to the case of a sensor using a bare custom QTF. The fiber-amplifier-enhanced QEPAS sensor is applied to H{sub 2}S trace gas detection, reaching a sensitivity of ∼890 ppb at 1 s integration time, similar to those obtained with a power-enhanced QEPAS sensor equipped with a standard QTF, but with the advantages of easy optical alignment, simple installation, and long-term stability.

  15. Translucent quartz-fiber post luted in vivo with self-curing composite cement: case report and microscopic examination at a two-year clinical follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallari, Adriano; Rovatti, Laura; Dallari, Beatrice; Mason, Pier Nicola; Suh, Byoung In

    2006-06-01

    A maxillary central incisor with mild periodontitis and extensive loss of coronal tooth structure was endodontically treated and restored with a translucent quartz-fiber post and a composite core. Treatment was completed with the cementation of full-ceramic crowns on teeth 11 and 21. Informed consent was obtained from the patient. Due to the extent of the periodontal disease, tooth 11 was extracted two years later. With the patient's consent, the tooth was used for research. The tooth was sectioned at 11 levels perpendicularly to the long axis and investigated by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The visual examination showed perfect adhesion between the various interfaces (restoration-dentin-post) at both the coronal and root levels. The adhesion between the post and dentin appeared to be free of gaps, and even where the composite cement showed a nonhomogeneous thickness, voids were not apparent. The tooth under examination allowed the authors to check the effectiveness of the adhesion and the integrity of the hybrid layer after exposure to the oral cavity for two years. The results of this investigation show that there were no gaps between the adhesive resin and dentin and no hydrolysis of the adhesive bond. This case suggests that it is possible to obtain good results in the short term from the cementation of quartz-fiber posts with composite resin cements.

  16. In situ fabrication of depth-type hierarchical CNT/quartz fiber filters for high efficiency filtration of sub-micron aerosols and high water repellency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zong, Yichen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Rufan; Li, Shuiqing; Wei, Fei

    2013-04-21

    We fabricated depth-type hierarchical CNT/quartz fiber (QF) filters through in situ growth of CNTs upon quartz fiber (QF) filters using a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The filter specific area of the CNT/QF filters is more than 12 times higher than that of the pristine QF filters. As a result, the penetration of sub-micron aerosols for CNT/QF filters is reduced by two orders of magnitude, which reaches the standard of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Simultaneously, due to the fluffy brush-like hierarchical structure of CNTs on QFs, the pore size of the hybrid filters only has a small increment. The pressure drop across the CNT/QF filters only increases about 50% with respect to that of the pristine QF filters, leading to an obvious increased quality factor of the CNT/QF filters. Scanning electron microscope images reveal that CNTs are very efficient in capturing sub-micron aerosols. Moreover, the CNT/QF filters show high water repellency, implying their superiority for applications in humid conditions.

  17. Effect of different thickness h-BN coatings on interface shear strength of quartz fiber reinforced Si-O-C-N composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shubin [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zheng, Yu, E-mail: shubinwang@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); International Centre for Bamboo and Rattan, Beijing 100102 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) coatings with different thickness were prepared on quartz fibers to improve mechanical properties of quartz fiber reinforced Si-O-C-N composite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), push-out test and single edge notched beam (SENB) in three point bending test were employed to study morphology, interface shear strength and fracture toughness of the composite. The results showed that h-BN coatings changed the crack growth direction and weaken the interface shear strength efficiently. When the h-BN coating was 308.2 nm, the interface shear strength was about 5.2 MPa, which was about one-quarter of that of the sample without h-BN coatings. After the heating process for obtaining composite, the h-BN nanometer-sized grains would grow up to micron-sized hexagonal grains. Different thickness h-BN coatings had different structure. When the coatings were relatively thin, the hexagonal grains were single layer structure, and when the coatings were thicker, the hexagonal grains were multiple layer structure. This multiple layer interface phase would consume more power of cracks, thus interface shear strength of the composite decreased steadily with the increasing of h-BN coatings thickness. When the coating thickness was 238.8 nm, K{sub IC} reaches the peak value 3.8 MPa m{sup 1/2}, which was more than two times of that of composites without h-BN coatings.

  18. Investigation of High-Nonlinearity Glass Fibers for Potential Applications in Ultrafast Nonlinear Fiber Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Kook

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear fiber devices have been attracting considerable attention in recent years, due to their inherent ultrafast response time and potential applications in optical communication systems. They usually require long fibers to generate sufficient nonlinear phase shifts, since nonlinearities of conventional silica-core silica-clad fibers are too low. These long devices, however, cause the serious problems of pulse walk-off, pulse broadening, and polarization fluctuation which are major limiti...

  19. Morphological analysis of glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber posts and bonding to self or dual-cured resin luting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Oro Spazzin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF, carbon (CF and glass/carbon (G/CF fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. RESULTS: GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p0.05, but higher than that of G/CF (p0.05 were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. CONCLUSION: The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable.

  20. In vitro study of improved wound-healing effect of bioactive borate-based glass nano-/micro-fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingbo; Chen, Sisi; Shi, Honglan; Xiao, Hai; Ma, Yinfa

    2015-10-01

    Because of the promising wound-healing capability, bioactive glasses have been considered as one of the next generation hard- and soft-tissue regeneration materials. The lack of understanding of the substantial mechanisms, however, indicates the need for further study on cell-glass interactions to better interpret the rehabilitation capability. In the present work, three bioactive glass nano-/micro-fibers, silicate-based 45S5, borate-based 13-93B3 and 1605 (additionally doped with copper oxide and zinc oxide), were firstly compared for their in vitro soaking/conversion rate. The results of elemental monitoring and electron microscopic characterization demonstrated that quicker ion releasing and glass conversion occurred in borate-based fibers than that of silicate-based one. This result was also reflected by the formation speed of hydroxyapatite (HA). This process was further correlated with original boron content and surrounding rheological condition. We showed that an optimal fiber pre-soaking time (or an ideal dynamic flow rate) should exist to stimulate the best cell proliferation and migration ability. Moreover, 13-93B3 and 1605 fibers showed different glass conversion and biocompatibility properties as well, indicating that trace amount variation in composition can also influence fiber's bioactivity. In sum, our in vitro rheological module closely simulated in vivo niche environment and proved a potentially improved wound-healing effect by borate-based glass fibers, and the results shall cast light on future improvement in bioactive glass fabrication.

  1. Coherent supercontinuum bandwidth limitations under femtosecond pumping at 2 µm in all-solid soft glass photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Mariusz; Siwicki, Bartłomiej; Zhou, Binbin;

    2016-01-01

    Two all-solid glass photonic crystal fibers with all-normal dispersion profiles are evaluated for coherent supercontinuum generation under pumping in the 2.0 μm range. Inhouse boron-silicate and commercial lead-silicate glasses were used to fabricate fibers optimized for either flat dispersion......, albeit with lower nonlinearity, or with larger dispersion profile curvature but with much higher nonlinearity. Recorded spectra at the redshifted edge reached 2500-2800 nm depending on fiber type. Possible factors behind these differences are discussed with numerical simulations. The fiber enabling...

  2. Influence of glass and sisal fibers on the cure kinetics of unsaturated polyester resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pistor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of grinded glass and sisal fibers (25 vol% on the cure kinetics of composites of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The DSC analysis was carried out at four different heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40 °C/min, and the cure enthalpy and activation energy (Ea were determined according to the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO method. The results showed that increasing heating rates promoted reduced reaction times. The sisal fiber-containing composites exhibit higher activation energy values for the cure process in comparison with the neat polyester resin and the glass fiber composites. This can be due to the presence of polar groups in the sisal components, which physically interact with the polyester resin and retard the cure reaction. Hence, as sisal fiber retarded the cure reaction of the UPR resin, it is suggested that the use of natural fibers in polymer matrix composites can affect the cure kinetics of the polyester resin.

  3. Mechanisms of optical losses in Bi:SiO2 glass fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlenko, Alexander S; Mashinsky, Valery M; Iskhakova, Ludmila D; Semjonov, Sergey L; Koltashev, Vasiliy V; Karatun, Nikita M; Dianov, Evgeny M

    2012-10-01

    The mechanisms of optical losses in bismuth-doped silica glass (Bi:SiO(2)) and fibers were studied. It was found that in the fibers of this composition the up-conversion processes occur even at bismuth concentrations lower than 0.02 at.%. Bi:SiO(2) core holey fiber drawn under oxidizing conditions was investigated. The absorption spectrum of this fiber has no bands of the bismuth infrared active center. Annealing of this fiber under reducing conditions leads to the formation of the IR absorption bands of the bismuth active center (BAC) and to the simultaneous growth of background losses. Under the realized annealing conditions (argon atmosphere, T(max) = 1100°C, duration 30 min) the BAC concentration reaches its maximum and begins to decrease in the process of excessive Bi reduction, while the background losses only increase. It was shown that the cause of these background losses is the absorption of light by nanoparticles of metallic bismuth formed in bismuth-doped glasses as a result of reduction of a part of the bismuth ions to Bi(0) and their following aggregation. The growth of background losses occurs owing to the increase of the concentration and the size of the metallic bismuth nanoparticles.

  4. Bending moment of galvanized iron glass fiber sandwich panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurustal Somnath Swamy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this project is to prepare a laminated with Galvanized iron thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GF were fabricated by hand lay-up method and evaluated for their bending moment properties of the sandwich panel using universal testing machine. This paper theoretically calculates the bending behavior of sandwich panel. The recent need to develop a new range of materials has resulted in the development of high performance lightweight composites with excellent properties. Metal– composite systems consist of alternating layers of metal and fiber-reinforced polymer composites which are bonded by an adhesive. Sandwich beams were tested under Air Bending. Stress-strain and stress-displacement were recorded by using AIMIL UTM. The beam face sheets exhibited a softening non-linearity on the bending side. Experimental results were in good agreement with predictions from simple models. On an overall basis, the sandwich panel exhibited better bending moment performance than the monolithic galvanized iron

  5. Ferrule and use thereof for cooling a melt spun hollow glass fiber as it emerges from a spinnerette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improvement in the process of melt spinning thin walled, hollow fibers from relatively low melting glasses results if cooling of the emerging fiber is accomplished by use of a thin layer of gas to transfer heat from the fiber to a ferrule which fits closely to the spinnerette face and the individual fiber. The ferrule incorporates or is in contact with a heat sink and is slotted or segmented so that it may be brought into position around the moving fiber. Thinner walled, more uniform fibers may be spun when this method of cooling is employed.

  6. Influence of Carbon & Glass Fiber Reinforcements on Flexural Strength of Epoxy Matrix Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Jagannatha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composite materials are more attracted by the engineers because of their properties like stiffness and high specific strength which leads to the potential application in the area of aerospace, marine and automobile sectors. In the present investigation, the flexural strength and flexural modulus of carbon and glass fibers reinforced epoxy hybrid composites were studied. The vacuum bagging technique was adopted for the fabrication of polymer hybrid composite materials. The hardness, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the hybrid composites were determined as per ASTM standards. The hardness, flexural strength and flexural modulus were improved as the fiber reinforcement contents increased in the epoxy matrix material.

  7. Volumetric composition and shear strength evaluation of pultruded hybrid kenaf/glass fiber composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Fariborz; Tahir, Paridah Md; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, six different combinations of pultruded hybrid kenaf/glass composites were fabricated. The number of kenaf and glass rovings was specifically selected to ensure constant local fiber volume fractions in the composites. The volumetric composition of the composites was determined...... by using a gravimetrically based method. Optical microscopy was used to determine the location of voids. The short-beam test method was used to determine the interlaminar shear strength of the composites, and the failure mode was observed. It was found that the void volume fraction of the composites...... was increased as a function of the kenaf fiber volume fraction. A linear relationship with high correlation (R2=0.95) was established between the two volume fractions. Three types of voids were observed in the core region of the composites (lumen voids, interface voids and impregnation voids). The failure...

  8. Mechanical Behavior of a Glass-fiber Reinforced Composite to Steel Joint for Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowen Li; Ping Li; Zhuang Lin; Dongmei Yang

    2015-01-01

    The use of a glass-fiber reinforced composite in marine structures is becoming more common, particularly due to the potential weight savings. The mechanical response of the joint between a glass-fiber reinforced polymer (GRP) superstructure and a steel hull formed is examined and subsequently modified to improve performance through a combined program of modeling and testing. A finite-element model is developed to predict the response of the joint. The model takes into account the contact at the interface between different materials, progressive damage, large deformation theory, and a non-linear stress-strain relationship. To predict the progressive failure, the analysis combines Hashin failure criteria and maximum stress failure criteria. The results show stress response has a great influence on the strength and bearing of the joint. The Balsawood-steel interface is proved to be critical to the mechanical behavior of the joint. Good agreement between experimental results and numerical predictions is observed.

  9. Optimization of TM-Doped Phosphosilicate Glass for High Power Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    High power fiber lasers have been revolutionizing machining in manufacturing in the past decade. Increasingly, automotive industries are turning to the...micro- machining at precision much beyond current mechanical tools with a focused laser beam and high throughput machining of much harder materials...such as glass and ceramics, again way beyond the capability of current mechanical tools. Some of the key applications include drilling micron-size

  10. Experimental Test of Stainless Steel Wire Mesh and Aluminium Alloy With Glass Fiber Reinforcement Hybrid Composite

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    At present, composite materials are mostly used in aircraft structural components, because of their excellent properties like lightweight, high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness, and corrosion resistance and less expensive. In this experimental work, the mechanical properties of laminate, this is reinforced with stainless steel wire mesh, aluminum sheet metal, perforated aluminum sheet metal and glass fibers to be laminate and investigated. The stainless steel wire mesh and...

  11. Optical fiber sensors using hollow glass spheres and CCD spectrometer interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, John P.; Ecke, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Kerstin; Reuter, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Hollow glass micro-spheres, firstly used to make fiber optic sensors for high hydrostatic pressure, have been interrogated using a high-resolution CCD-based spectrometer, to give far better precision than conventional spectrometric read out. It is found that these simple, low-cost micro-sensors have excellent sensitivity to both static and dynamic pressure, and have the advantage of being hermetically sealed. Many other application areas are foreseen for these low-cost sensors.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH ON GLASS FIBER SANDWICH COMPOSITE BY VARYING Z-PINS PITCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin*, Jeyapratha

    2016-01-01

    This paper ambit to evaluate the flexural strength of glass fiber sandwich panels with varying z-pins pitches. Failure of sandwich panel are delamination and core shear, to minimize the crack propagation, pins are inserted in z-direction, by varying pitches through its thickness. During the insertion of pin, may cause the material some damage. Despite the damage, flexural property does not affected due interpolation of pins. Although the experiment were pull out with a phenomenal results of z...

  13. Sodium sulfate corrosion of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sodium sulfate hot corrosion of a SiC fiber-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass-ceramic matrix composite was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Changes in the microstructural chemical composition of the specimens were investigated. The samples provided by Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, PA were grouped as follows: (1) as-received, (2) Na2SO4 salt-coated and heat-treate...

  14. Mechanical behaviour of glass fiber weaven UD/high fluidity PA-based polymers for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Hossein Ramezani; Gomina, Moussa; Bréard, Joël; Orange, Gilles

    2016-10-01

    This experimental work addresses the mechanical behavior of weaven UD glass fiber-thermoplastic composites designed for layered materials to be used in the automotive industry. The investigation was implemented in terms of the formulation of the PA66-based thermoplastic resins, the architecture of the fibrous reinforcement (warp spacer) and the glass fiber content. Longitudinal and transverse tensile tests results demonstrate the excellent mechanical behavior of these composites, which correlates with the rheological/permeability properties and wettability behaviour.

  15. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    OpenAIRE

    Chen X.W.; Chen G

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic anal...

  16. Er3+/Ho3+-Codoped Fluorotellurite Glasses for 2.7 µm Fiber Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the enhanced emission at 2.7 µm in Er3+/Ho3+-codoped fluorotellurite glass upon a conventional 980 nm laser diode. The significantly reduced green upconversion and 1.5 µm emission intensity in Er3+/Ho3+-codoped samples are observed. The results suggest that the Er3+: 4I13/2 state can be efficiently depopulated via energy transfer from Er3+ to Ho3+ and the detailed energy transfer mechanisms are discussed qualitatively. The energy transfer efficiency from Er3+: 4I13/2 to Ho3+: 5I7 is calculated to be as high as 67.33%. The calculated emission cross-section in Er3+/Ho3+-codoped fluorotellurite glass is 1.82 × 10−20 cm2. This suggests that Er3+/Ho3+-codoped fluorotellurite glass is a potential material for 2.7 µm fiber laser.

  17. The Effects of Weathering on Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (Grp Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced plastics composite is extensively used as a structural material for pools, oil pipes and tanks because it has good corrosion resistance properties.  The effects of weathering on the mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GRP in the Sultanate of Oman have been studied.  The tensile and three point bend specimens were exposed to outdoor conditions (open atmosphere in sunlight and tested for various intervals of time.  It was observed that as the exposure time to sunlight, ultraviolet radiation and dust increases the mechanical properties of GRP materials decrease.  The effects of relative humidity (%RH on the mechanical properties were also studied. It was found that as the relative humidity increased in the atmosphere during the exposure time, the tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity are lowered. This work has revealed that the decrease in the mechanical properties of GRP under weathering conditions is subjected to atmospheric conditions such as humidity, temperature, ultraviolet radiation and pollutant.Key Words: Weathering, Glass-Fiber Reinforced Plastics, Degradation

  18. Development of New Generation of Thermally-Enhanced Fiber Glass Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    This report presents experimental and numerical results from thermal performance studies. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and John s Manville was to design a basic concept of a new generation of thermally-enhanced fiber glass insulation. Different types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been tested as dynamic components in buildings during the last 4 decades. Most historical studies have found that PCMs enhance building energy performance. Some PCM-enhanced building materials, like PCM-gypsum boards or PCM-impregnated concretes have already found their limited applications in different countries. Today, continued improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that throughout Southern and Central U.S. climates, residences may soon be routinely constructed with PCM in order to maximize insulation effectiveness and maintain low heating and cooling loads. The proposed thermally-enhanced fiber glass insulation will maximize this integration by utilizing a highly-efficient building envelope with high-R thermal insulation, active thermal mass and superior air-tightness. Improved thermal resistance will come from modifications in infrared internal characteristics of the fiber glass insulation. Thermal mass effect can be provided by proprietary thermally-active microencapsulated phase change material (PCM). Work carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on the CRADA is described in this report.

  19. Tribological Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene Composites Filled with Rare Earths Modified Glass Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xianhua; XUE Yujun; SHANGGUAN Qianqian

    2006-01-01

    Rare earths were used to modify the surface of glass fiber in order to enhance the interfacial adhesion and improve the tribological properties of GF/PTFE composites. Three surface modifiers, a coupling agent, rare earths, and a mixture of coupling agent and rare earths, were investigated. It is found that the tensile properties of rare earths modified GF/PTFE composites were improved considerably under the same experimental conditions. The PTFE composites, filled with rare earths modified glass fibers, exhibited the lowest friction coefficient and the highest wear resistance under both dry friction and oil-dropped lubrication conditions. In addition, rare earths modified GF/PTFE composites showed the highest wear resistance under reciprocating impact load. The worn surfaces observation shows that rare earth elements modifier are superior to coupling agent modifier and the mixture of coupling agent and rare earths in promoting interfacial adhesion between the glass fiber and PTFE, accordingly improve tribological properties of GF/TFE composites due to their outstanding chemical activity.

  20. Development and Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics Geogrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingbiao; ZHANG Cong; WEN Xiaokang; L Rongshan; LIANG Xunmei; LU Shide

    2015-01-01

    Glassfi ber reinforced plastics geogrid has a wide application in thefi eld of soil reinforcement because of its high strength, good toughness, and resistance to environmental stress, creep resistance and strong stability. In order to get high-powered glassfi ber reinforced plastics geogrid and its mechanical characteristics, the properties and physical mechanical index of geogrid have been got through the study of its raw material, production process and important quality index. The analysis and study have been made to the geogrid’s mechanical properties with loading speed, three-axial compression, temperature tensile test and FLAC3D numerical simulation, thus obtain the mechanical parameters of its displacement time curve, breaking strength and elongation at break. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (a) Using glassfi ber materials, knurling and coated projection process, the fracture strength and corrosion resistance of geogrid are greatly improved and the interlocking bite capability of soil is enhanced. (b) The fracture strength of geogrid is related to temperature and loading rate. When the surrounding rock pressure is fixed, the strength and anti-deformation ability of reinforced soil are significantly enhanced with increasing reinforced layers. (c) The pullout test shows the positive correlation between geogrid displacement and action time. (d) As a new reinforced material, the glass fi ber reinforced plastics geogrid is not mature enough in theoretical research and practical experience, so it has become an urgent problem both in theoretical study and practical innovation.

  1. Increasing the blue-shift of a supercontinuum by modifying the fiber glass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosz, Michael H; Moselund, Peter M; Rasmussen, Per D; Thomsen, Carsten L; Bang, Ole

    2008-12-08

    Supercontinuum light sources spanning into the ultraviolet- visible wavelength region are highly useful for applications such as fluorescence microscopy. A method of shifting the supercontinuum spectrum into this wavelength region has recently become well understood. The method relies on designing the group-velocity profile of the nonlinear fiber in which the supercontinuum is generated, so that red-shifted solitons are group-velocity matched to dispersive waves in the desired ultraviolet-visible wavelength region. The group-velocity profile of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) can be engineered through the structure of the PCF, but this mostly modifies the group-velocity in the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. In this work, we first consider how the group-velocity profile can be engineered more directly in the short-wavelength part of the spectrum through alternative choices of the glass material from which the PCF is made. We then make simulations of supercontinuum generation in PCFs made of alternative glass materials. It is found that it is possible to increase the blue-shift of the generated supercontinuum by about 20 nm through a careful choice of glass composition, provided that the alternative glass composition does not have a significantly higher loss than silica in the near-infrared.

  2. Effect of surface treatment on mechanical properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N, Karunagaran [S.K.P Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai (India); A, Rajadurai [Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates the effect of surface treatment for glass fiber, stainless steel wire mesh on tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties of glass fiber/stainless steel wire mesh reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. The glass fiber fabric is surface treated either by 1 N solution of sulfuric acid or 1 N solution of sodium hydroxide. The stainless steel wire mesh is also surface treated by either electro dissolution or sand blasting. The hybrid composites are fabricated using epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber and fine stainless steel wire mesh by hand lay-up technique at room temperature. The hybrid composite consisting of acid treated glass fiber and sand blasted stainless steel wire mesh exhibits a good combination of tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact behavior in comparison with the composites made without any surface treatment. The fine morphological modifications made on the surface of the glass fiber and stainless steel wire mesh enhances the bonding between the resin and reinforcement which inturn improved the tensile, flexural, inter-laminar shear and impact properties.

  3. Ce(3+)/Yb(3+)/Er(3+) triply doped bismuth borosilicate glass: a potential fiber material for broadband near-infrared fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yushi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Peng, Gangding; Yang, Jun; Wang, Pengfei; Yuan, Libo

    2016-09-20

    Erbium doped bismuth borosilicate (BBS) glasses, possessing the broadest 1.55 μm near infrared (NIR) emission band among oxide glasses, stand out as excellent fiber material for optical fiber amplifiers. In this work, we demonstrate that both broadened and enhanced NIR emission of Er(3+) can be obtained by sensibly combining the effects such as mixed glass former effect, phonon-assisted energy transfer (PAET) and de-excitation effect induced by codopant. Specially, by codoping CeO2 in a controlled manner, it leads to not only much improved optical quality of the glasses, enhanced NIR emission, but also significantly suppressed energy transfer up-conversion (ETU) luminescence which is detrimental to the NIR emission. Cerium incorporated in the glasses exists overwhelmingly as the trivalent oxidation state Ce(3+) and its effects on the luminescence properties of Er(3+) are discussed. Judd-Ofelt analysis is used to evaluate gain amplification of the glasses. The result indicates that Ce(3+)/Yb(3+)/Er(3+) triply doped BBS glasses are promising candidate for erbium doped fiber amplifiers. The strategy described here can be readily extended to other rare-earth ions (REs) to improve the performance of REs doped fiber lasers and amplifiers.

  4. Ce3+/Yb3+/Er3+ triply doped bismuth borosilicate glass: a potential fiber material for broadband near-infrared fiber amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yushi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Peng, Gangding; Yang, Jun; Wang, Pengfei; Yuan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    Erbium doped bismuth borosilicate (BBS) glasses, possessing the broadest 1.55 μm near infrared (NIR) emission band among oxide glasses, stand out as excellent fiber material for optical fiber amplifiers. In this work, we demonstrate that both broadened and enhanced NIR emission of Er3+ can be obtained by sensibly combining the effects such as mixed glass former effect, phonon-assisted energy transfer (PAET) and de-excitation effect induced by codopant. Specially, by codoping CeO2 in a controlled manner, it leads to not only much improved optical quality of the glasses, enhanced NIR emission, but also significantly suppressed energy transfer up-conversion (ETU) luminescence which is detrimental to the NIR emission. Cerium incorporated in the glasses exists overwhelmingly as the trivalent oxidation state Ce3+ and its effects on the luminescence properties of Er3+ are discussed. Judd-Ofelt analysis is used to evaluate gain amplification of the glasses. The result indicates that Ce3+/Yb3+/Er3+ triply doped BBS glasses are promising candidate for erbium doped fiber amplifiers. The strategy described here can be readily extended to other rare-earth ions (REs) to improve the performance of REs doped fiber lasers and amplifiers. PMID:27646191

  5. Grafting Carbon Nanotubes on Glass Fiber by Dip Coating Technique to Enhance Tensile and Interfacial Shear Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Dastorian Jamnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of noncovalent bonding and mechanical interlocking of carbon nanotubes (CNT coating on tensile and interfacial strength of glass fiber were investigated. CNT were coated over glass fiber by a simple dip coating method. Acid treated CNT were suspended in isopropanol solution containing Nafion as binding agent. To achieve uniform distribution of CNT over the glass fiber, an optimized dispersion process was developed by two parameters: CNT concentration and soaking time. CNT concentration was varied from 0.4 to 2 mg/mL and soaking time was varied from 1 to 180 min. The provided micrographs demonstrated appropriate coating of CNT on glass fiber by use of CNT-Nafion mixture. The effects of CNT concentration and soaking time on coating layer were studied by performing single fiber tensile test and pull-out test. The obtained results showed that the optimum CNT concentration and soaking time were 1 mg/mL and 60 min, respectively, which led to significant improvement of tensile strength and interfacial shear stress. It was found that, at other concentrations and soaking times, CNT agglomeration or acutely curly tubes appeared over the fiber surface which caused a reduction of nanotubes interaction on the glass fiber.

  6. Pyrolysis of arylglycol-[beta]-propylphenyl ether lignin model in the presence of borosilicate glass fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Ken-ichi (Institute of Agricultural and Forest Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1994-12-01

    Two [beta]-aryl ether type model compounds, guaiacylglycol- and veratrylglycol-[beta]-propyl-phenyl ethers, were copyrolyzed with borosilicate glass fibers. The results provided a better understanding of the effect of copyrolysis with the fibers on the yields of lignin-derived products from lignocellulosics.The observed products indicated the following reactions occurring in the models; (1) cleavage of the C[alpha]-aromatic ring bond, (2) cleavage of the [beta]-ether bond, (3) cleavage of the C[alpha]-C[beta] bond, (4) [alpha],[beta]-dehydration, and (5) demethylation, and others. Of these reactions, reactions (1), (2) and (4) were the main pyrolysis reactions and fully explained the increase in the total yield of lignin-derived pyrolysis products from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) in the presence of borosilicate glass fibers. Reaction (1) was a particularly characteristic reaction in copyrolysis with the fibers. Important reactions relating to the increase in the total yield of lignin-derived pyrolysis products were reproduced on the models used

  7. Effects of glass fiber modified with calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H(I)) reinforced cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, M.; Zhang, L.; Ge, S.; Cheng, X.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H(I)) and glass fiber modified with C-S-H(I) (SiF) at ambient temperature were synthesized. SiF and untreated fiber (OF) were incorporated into cement paste. Phase composition of C-S-H(I), SiF and OF was characterized by XRD. The surface morphologies were characterized by SEM. Flexural performance of fiber reinforced cement (FRC) at different curing ages was investigated. Results indicated that both SiF and OF could reinforce cement paste. SiF had a more positive effect on improving the flexural performance of FRC than OF. The strength of SiF reinforced cement was 11.48MPa after 28 days curing when fiber volume was 1.0%, 12.55% higher than that of OF reinforced cement. The flexural strength increased with the addition of fiber volume. However, the large dosage of fiber might cause a decrease in flexural strength of FRC.

  8. Novel systems for tailored neurotrophic factor release based on hydrogel and resorbable glass hollow fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novajra, G; Tonda-Turo, C; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Ciardelli, G; Geuna, S; Raimondo, S

    2014-03-01

    A novel system for the release of neurotrophic factor into a nerve guidance channel (NGC) based on resorbable phosphate glass hollow fibers (50P2O5-30CaO-9Na2O-3SiO2-3MgO-2.5K2O-2.5TiO2 mol%) in combination with a genipin-crosslinked agar/gelatin hydrogel (A/G_GP) is proposed. No negative effect on the growth of neonatal olfactory bulb ensheathing cell line (NOBEC) as well as on the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was measured in vitro in the presence of fiber dissolution products in the culture medium. For the release studies, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-20), taken as growth factor model molecule, was solubilized in different media and introduced into the fiber lumen exploiting the capillary action. The fibers were filled with i) FD-20/phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, ii) FD-20/hydrogel solution before gelation and iii) hydrogel before gelation, subsequently lyophilized and then filled with the FD-20/PBS solution. The different strategies used for the loading of the FD-20 into the fibers resulted in different release kinetics. A slower release was observed with the use of A/G_GP hydrogel. At last, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nerve guides containing the hollow fibers and the hydrogel have been fabricated.

  9. Fluoride glass fiber for reliable Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser power delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, François; Saad, Mohammed; Orsini, Patrick; Baierl, Dieter

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other transparent infrared fiber materials, ZBLAN fluoride glasses promise to be best suited for laser power delivery in the 3μm wavelength region due to their high transmission and excellent mechanical flexibility. These claims were demonstrated in a series of power handling tests of both straight and coiled fibers using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser emitting a train of pulses of 150 μs duration at a repetition frequency of 20 Hz producing 7.5 W average power. Large core fibers (450/510μm 0,2NA) are characterized by an attenuation of 0.02dB/m at 3μm and stay within 0.5°C from ambient temperature when carrying full laser power. A 2-m fiber length prepared with bare cleaves has been tested for over 23 hours, cumulating 1,140,000 shots of 1530 J/cm2 fluence while maintaining 90% transmission without any measurable degradation. Coiling the fiber to 11 cm radius did not have an impact on power handling reliability. These results show the potential of these highly transparent fibers in surgical laser delivery applications.

  10. Shape Memory and Huge Superelasticity in Ni–Mn–Ga Glass-Coated Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni–Mn–Ga polycrystalline alloy fibers with diameters of 33 μm are reported to exhibit significantly improved ductility and huge superelastic and shape memory strains in comparison to conventional brittle bulk polycrystalline alloys. Particularly, the recoverable strain of the Ni54.9–Mn23.5–Ga21.6 fiber can be as high as 10% at 40 °C. Such optimized behavior has been achieved by a suitable fabrication process via a glass-coating melt spinning method. The superelastic properties at different temperatures and the shape memory effect of Ni54.9–Mn23.5–Ga21.6 fibers were investigated.

  11. Bandgaps of the Chalcogenide Glass Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Guang; Zhou, Hong-Song; Yin, Guo-Bing

    2011-11-01

    Bandgaps of chalcogenide glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (GLS HC-PCFs) are analyzed by using the plane-wave expansion method. A mid-infrared laser can propagate in these low confinement loss fibers when the wavelength falls into the bandgaps. For enlarging the bandgap width, an improved GLS HC-PCF is put forward, the normalized frequency kΛ of the improved fiber is from 7.2 to 8.5 in its first bandgap. The improved GLS HC-PCF with pitch of 4.2 μm can transmit the lights with wavelengths ranging from 3.1 μm to 3.7 μm.

  12. Fabrication of Rare Earth-Doped Transparent Glass Ceramic Optical Fibers by Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Wilfried; Nguyen, Luan; Bhaktha, S N B; Sebbah, Patrick; Pal, Bishnu P; Dussardier, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped silica-based optical fibers with transparent glass ceramic (TGC) core was fabricated through the well-known modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process without going through the commonly used stage of post-ceramming. The main characteristics of the RE-doped oxyde nanoparticles namely, their density and mean diameter in the fibers are dictated by the concentration of alkaline earth element used as phase separating agent. Magnesium and erbium co-doped fibers were fabricated. Optical transmission in term of loss due to scattering as well as some spectroscopic characteristics of the erbium ions was studied. For low Mg content, nano-scale particles could be grown with and relatively low scattering losses were obtained, whereas large Mg-content causes the growth of larger particles resulting in much higher loss. However in the latter case, certain interesting alteration of the spectroscopic properties of the erbium ions were observed. These initial studies should be useful in incorporati...

  13. A glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti, Jussi P; Piitulainen, Jaakko M; Hupa, Leena; Fagerlund, Susanne; Frantzén, Janek; Aitasalo, Kalle M J; Vuorinen, Ville; Serlo, Willy; Syrjänen, Stina; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-03-01

    This case study describes the properties of an early development stage bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite calvarial implant with histology that has been in function for two years and three months. The patient is a 33-year old woman with a history of substance abuse, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury later unsuccessfully treated with an autologous bone flap and a custom-made porous polyethylene implant. She was thereafter treated with developmental stage glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass implant. After two years and three months, the implant was removed due to an implant site infection. The implant was analyzed histologically, mechanically, and in terms of chemistry and dissolution of bioactive glass. Mechanical integrity of the load bearing fiber-reinforced composite part of the implant was not affected by the in vivo period. Bioactive glass particles demonstrated surface layers of hydroxyapatite like mineral and dissolution, and related increase of pH was considerably less after two and three months period than that for fresh bioactive glass. There was a difference in the histology of the tissues inside the implant areas near to the margin of the implant that absorbed blood during implant installation surgery, showed fibrous tissue with blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagenous fibers with osteoid formation, and tiny clusters of more mature hard tissue. In the center of the implant, where there was less absorbed blood, only fibrous tissue was observed. This finding is in line with the combined positron emission tomography - computed tomography examination with (18F)-fluoride marker, which demonstrated activity of the mineralizing bone by osteoblasts especially at the area near to the margin of the implant 10 months after implantation. Based on these promising reactions found in the bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite implant that has been implanted for two years and three months, calvarial

  14. Bond strength of resin cement to dentin and to surface-treated posts of titanium alloy, glass fiber, and zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik;

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of two resin cements (ParaPost Cement and Panavia F) to posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (ParaPost Fiber White), and zirconia (Cerapost), and to dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After embedding, planar surface...

  15. Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol-gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelii, Inna; El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Bigot, Laurent; Bouwmans, Géraud; Fsaifes, Ihsan; Capoen, Bruno; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    To extend the use of erbium- (Er-)/aluminum- (Al-) codoped optical fibers in hostile environments, the reduction of the Al amount has been identified as a serious way to harden them against harsh radiation. In this work, sol-gel monolithic Er3+-doped and Er3+/Al3+-codoped silica glasses were prepared from nanoporous silica xerogels soaked in a solution containing an Er salt together or not with an Al salt. After sintering, these glasses were used as the core material of microstructured optical fibers made by the stack-and-draw method. The influence of Al incorporation on the optical properties of Er3+-doped silica glasses and fibers is investigated. This approach enabled the preparation of silica glasses containing dispersed Er3+ ions with low Al content. The obtained fibers have been tested in an all-fibered cavity laser architecture. The Er3+/Al3+-codoped fiber laser presents a maximum efficiency of 27% at 1530 nm. We show that without Al doping, the laser exhibits lower performances that depend on Er content inside the doped fiber core. The effect of Er pair-induced quenching also has been investigated through nonsaturable absorption experiments, which clearly indicate that the fraction of Er ion pairs is significantly reduced in the Al-codoped fiber.

  16. Study of the Effect of Reinforced Glass Fibers on Fatigue Properties for Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Hamad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This  research  included  the  study of  the effect  of  reinforced  glass fibers  on  fatigue  properties  for composite materials. Polyester  resin  is used  as  connective  material(matrix in two types  of  glass  fibers  for reinforced. The  first  type  is regular  glass fibers  (woven  roving with the  directional(0-90, the second  is  glass  fibers  with  the  random  direction. The first type is the panels with regular reinforced (0-90, and with number of layer (1,2.The  second  type  is  the  panels with random  reinforced  and  with  number  of  layers (1,2. The  results  and  the  laboratory  examinations  for  the samples  reinforce  with  fibers  have  manifested (0-90  that there  is  a decrease  in the number  of  cycles  to the  fatigue  limit  when  the  number  of  reinforce  layers  have  increased . And  an elasticity of this  type  of  samples  are decreased  by  increasing  the number  of  reinforced  layers  with  fiber  .We  find  the  random  reinforced  number  of  fatigue  cycles  for the samples  with  two  layers  of  random  reinforced  are  decreased  more  than the samples  with  one  layer of random  reinforced .

  17. Spectroscopic properties of Nd, Er codoped glasses for solar pumped fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Nasu, Hiroyuki; Hughes, Mark A.; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2011-03-01

    The absorption and fluorescence characteristics of Er doped and Nd, Er codoped fluoride glasses were investigated under illumination of the simulated sunlight, laser or a monochromatic light filtered from a Xe lamp. Er was used as a sensitizing agent enhancing the energy conversion and the emission efficiency of Nd ions in fluoride glass intended for the sunlight excitation. Er doped fluoride glasses showed four emission peaks under simulated sunlight illumination at the wavelengths of 550, 848, 980, and 1530 nm attributed to the electronic transitions of Er3+ ions. The quantum efficiency of the emission from all of the bands had a peak at x = 0.5 mol. % Er and with the maximum of 73 %. The intensity of each emission band showed different ratios for various ErF3 contents. It is expected that concentration quenching of 4S3/2 state is easy to occur with high concentration of ErF3 compared to the other states. The energy transfer from Er to Nd was studied using a monochromatic light illumination which is absorbed by Er3+ ions only. Strong contribution of Er absorption to the 1.05 μm emission of Nd, Er co-doped fluoride glass was observed. Er was confirmed as a suitable sensitizer for the enhanced energy conversion and emission efficiency of Nd ions in ZBLAN glasses which are proposed for highly efficient solar pumped fiber lasers.

  18. 石英玻璃金属化的蒙特卡洛模拟%Monte-Carlo Simulation of Quartz Glass Metallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔新强; 陈佳; 李海兵

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过 SRIM 程序模拟,对石英玻璃金属化工艺进行优化。方法对不同情况界面进行对比分析,配合 SRIM 程序模拟,得出理想的金属化界面,提出通过增加阻挡层的方法来得到这种界面。分析 SRIM 程序模拟结果,选取阻挡层分别为5,10,15,20 nm 四种厚度,模拟能量20 keV 的 Ti 离子注入不同厚度阻挡层样品中的射程分布,获取合适的阻挡层厚度,并利用高低温冲击方法进行验证。结果合适的阻挡层厚度范围为10~15 nm,在此范围内,注入的 Ti 离子最大浓度位置集中在金属化层与石英玻璃之间的界面附近。结论利用 SRIM 程序模拟可以得出最佳的阻挡层厚度范围,提高金属化层的性能。%Objective To optimize the process of quartz metallization through SRIM simulation. Methods Though comparative analysis of different interfaces combined with SRIM simulation, the ideal metallization interface was obtained. The approach of adding the blocking layer was put forward to get the interface. The SRIM simulation results were analyzed, and four kinds of thick-ness (5, 10, 15, 20 nm) were selected. The range distribution of Ti ion with the energy of 20 keV implanted into specimens of blocking layer with different thicknesses was simulated to select the appropriate thickness and the metallization layer was tested with the method of high and low temperature shock. Results The range for the appropriate thickness of the blocking layer was 10 ~ 15 nm. Within this range, the site for the maximum concentration of implanted Ti was near the interface between the metallization lay-er and the quartz glass. Conclusion For the different ion implantation energy, the simulation could obtain the optimum thickness of blocking layer using SRIM program, and then improve the performance of the metallization layer.

  19. High modulus rare earth and beryllium containing silicate glass compositions. [for glass reinforcing fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 16 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of approximately, by weight, 20 to 43% SiO2, 8 to 21% Al2O3, 4 to 10% BeO, 27 to 58% of at least one oxide selected from a first group consisting of Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Ce2O3, Ce2O3, and the mixed rare earth oxides, and 3 to 12% of at least one oxide selected from a second group consisting of MgO, ZrO2, ZnO and CaO are described. The molar ratio of BeO to the total content of the first group oxides is from 1.0 to 3.0.

  20. Relining effects on the push-out shear bond strength of glass fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rosado Valente ANDRIOLI

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The correct use of glass fiber posts in endodontically treated teeth is essential for the clinical success of restorative treatment. Objective This study evaluated the push-out shear bond strength of relined (R or non-relined (NR glass fiber posts, cemented with self-adhesive resin cement [RelyXTM U100 (U100] and conventional resin cement [RelyXTM ARC (ARC]. Material and method Sixty human single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and divided into ARC-NR; U100-NR; ARC-R; U100-R groups. The teeth were sectioned into cervical, middle and apical thirds, and subjected to the push-out test. Bond strength was analyzed by the Friedman test; cement and post types were compared by the Mann Whitney test. The pattern of failures was evaluated with digital camera through images at 200x magnification, and was classified as adhesive (at the cement/dentin or cement/post interface, cohesive (cement or post, and mixed failures. Result In ARC-NR, bond strength values were higher in the cervical third; in U100-NR and ARC-R they were similar between the thirds. In U100-R, in the cervical and middle thirds the bond strength values were similar, and there was lower value in the apical third. For non-relined glass fiber posts, the highest mean bond strength values were observed with self-adhesive resin cement. Whereas, relined posts cemented with conventional resin cement had stronger cement layer in comparison with non-relined fiber posts. Conclusion The post relining technique was efficient in ARC-R. ARC-NR and U100-R showed improved bond strength in the cervical region of canal walls. The main failures were adhesive at the cement-post interface.

  1. Bandgaps of the Chalcogenide Glass Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-Guang; ZHOU Hong-Song; YIN Guo-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Bandgaps of chalcogenide glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (GLS HC-PCFs) are analyzed by using the plane-wave expansion method. A mid-infrared laser can propagate in these low confinement loss fibers when the wavelength falls into the bandgaps. For enlarging the bandgap width, an improved GLS HC-PCF is put forward, the normalized frequency kA of the improved fiber is from 7.2 to 8.5 in its first bandgap. The improved GLS HC-PCF with pitch of 4.2μm can transmit the lights with wavelengths ranging from 3.1μm to 3.7μm.%Bandgaps of chalcogenide glass hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (GLS HC-PCFs) are analyzed by using the plane-wave expansion method.A mid-infrared laser can propagate in these low confinement loss fibers when the wavelength falls into the bandgaps.For enlarging the bandgap width,an improved GLS HC-PCF is put forward,the normalized frequency κA of the improved fiber is from 7.2 to 8.5 in its first bandgap.The improved GLS HC-PCF with pitch of 4.2μm can transmit the lights with wavelengths ranging from 3.1 μm to 3.7 μm.Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) can be classified into total internal reflection PCFs and photonic bandgap (PBG) PCFs[1] Solid core PCFs are one kind of the total internal reflection PCFs;hollow-core PCFs (HC-PCFs) are a kind of typical PBG fibers.The conception of HC-PCFs was first proposed by Russel in 1991.[2] Later,it was theoretically demonstrated by Birks et al.[3] in 1995.A bandgap photonic crystal fiber was mde by Knight et al.[4] for the first time in 1998.On the basis of these works,the first HC-PCF was designed and made by Cregan et al.[5] in 1999.

  2. Demonstration of CO2-laser power delivery through chalcogenide-glass fiber with negative-curvature hollow core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosolapov, Alexey F; Pryamikov, Andrey D; Biriukov, Alexander S; Shiryaev, Vladimir S; Astapovich, Maxim S; Snopatin, Gennady E; Plotnichenko, Victor G; Churbanov, Mikhail F; Dianov, Evgeny M

    2011-12-05

    A technologically simple optical fiber cross-section structure with a negative-curvature hollow-core has been proposed for the delivery of the CO2 laser radiation. The structure was optimized numerically and then realized using Te20As30Se50 (TAS) chalcogenide glass. Guidance of the 10.6 µm СО2-laser radiation through this TAS-glass hollow-core fiber has been demonstrated. The loss at λ=10.6 μm was amounted ~11 dB/m. A resonance behavior of the fiber bend loss as a function of the bend radius has been revealed.

  3. Thermally controlled mid-IR band-gap engineering in all-glass chalcogenide microstructured fibers: a numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Varshney, Ravi K.; Pal, Bishnu P.

    2017-01-01

    Presence of photonic band-gap (PBG) in an all-glass low refractive index (RI) contrast chalcogenide (Ch) microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) is investigated numerically. The effect of external temperature on the position of band-gap is explored to realize potential fiber-based wavelength filters....../sensors at functional mid-IR spectral range. The cross-sectional geometry of the MOF is formed by considering a Ch glass to form the overall background cross-section as well as the central fiber core. The core region is surrounded by periodically arranged (hexagonal pattern) smaller holes, which are assumed...

  4. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Brow, Richard K; Liu, Kun; Brow, Katherine A; Ma, Yinfa; Shi, Honglan

    2017-04-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by glass fibers on human alveolar epithelial cell line A549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla; Ledda, Caterina; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Renis, Marcella; Ferrante, Margherita; Cardile, Venera

    2015-04-01

    Man-made vitreous fibers have been widely used as insulation material as asbestos substitutes; however their morphology and composition raises concerns. In 1988 the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified fiberglass, rock wool, slag wool, and ceramic fibers as Group 2B, i.e. possibly carcinogenic to humans. In 2002 it reassigned fiberglass, rock and slag wool, and continuous glass filaments to Group 3, not classifiable as carcinogenic to humans. The aim of this study was to verify the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects and oxidative stress production induced by in vitro exposure of human alveolar epithelial cells A549 to glass fibers with a predominant diameter 5 μm (93%). A549 cells were incubated with 5, 50, or 100 μg/ml (2.1, 21, and 42 μg/cm(2), respectively) of glass fibers for 72 h. Cytotoxicity and DNA damage were tested by the MTT and the Comet assay, respectively. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by Western blotting, production of nitric oxide (NO) with Griess reagent, and concentration of reactive oxygen species by fluorescent quantitative analysis with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The results showed that glass fiber exposure significantly reduced cell viability and increased DNA damage and oxidative stress production in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that glass fibers exert cytotoxic and genotoxic effects related to increased oxidative stress on the human alveolar cell line A549.

  6. Effect of cyclic loading on fracture strength and microleakage of a quartz fiber dowel with different adhesive, cement and resin core material combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissara, P; Ozcan, M; Melilli, D; Valandro, L F

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of different adhesive-cement-core combinations coupled with quartz fiber dowels after cyclic loading and fracture strength tests and assessed the microleakage using dye penetration method. Forty maxillary canines (N=10 per group) were restored with fiber dowels (Quartz fiber DT Light Post) and four adhesive-cement-core material combinations (Group 1: All-Bond 2+C&B [root]/All-Bond 2+Biscore [core]; Group 2: All-Bond 2+Bisfil 2B [root]/All-Bond 2+Bisfil 2B [core]; Group 3: Scotchbond 1+RelyX ARC [root]/Scotchbond 1+Supreme [core]; Group 4: RelyX Unicem [root]/Scotchbond 1+Filtek Supreme [core]). The specimens were initially cyclic loaded (x2,000,000, 8 Hz, 3 to 100 N at 45 °C under 37±3 °C water irrigation) and then immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine at 37 °C for 24 hours for dye penetration and interface failure detection. The failure surfaces were observed under the stereomicroscope (x100 magnification). Circumferential and centripetal dye penetration was scored at the buccal and lingual sites. Only three specimens failed macroscopically during cyclic loading. No significant difference was found among the groups for the number of resisted cycles (P=0.9). Mean fracture strength between the groups were also not statistically significant (213±63-245±71 N) (P=0.740) (ANOVA). All four groups showed high values of dye penetration along the restoration interfaces being not significant from each other (P=0.224) (Kruskal-Wallis). The lingual sides of the teeth where the load applied, showed significantly higher incidence of detachment between the core and the dentin (100%, 90%, 100%, 90% for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively) compared to the buccal side (30%, 30%, 60%, 40%) (P=0.032, c2 test). In 13 specimens (32.5%) crack lines at the coronal area were observed. Fracture strength was not significantly correlated with dye penetration (P=0.1803, r=-0.2162, Linear Regression and Correlation test). Different combinations of adhesive

  7. Evaluation Study of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester and Kevlar Reinforced Polyester by Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Sultan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation two different types of fiber reinforced polymer composites were prepared by hand lay-up method using three different parameters (curing temperature, pressing load and fiber volume fraction. These composites were prepared from the polyester resin as the matrix material reinforced with glass fibers as first group of samples and mat Kevlar fibers as the second group, both with different volume fractions (4%, 8%, and 12% of fibers. They were then tested by tensile strength and impact strength. The main objective in this study is to use Taguchi method for predicting the better parameters that give the better tensile and impact strength to the composites, and then preparing composites at these parameters and comparing them with the randomly used once. The experimental and analytical results showed that the Taguchi method was successful in optimizing the parameters that give the highest properties and it can find the most influential parameter regardless of the material used. Also it showed that the volume fraction was the most influential parameter on the tensile and impact strength. The difference between these composites was in the properties values and that the Kevlar composites have higher tensile and impact strength.

  8. Optimized process for recovery of glass- and carbon fibers with retained mechanical properties by means of near- and supercritical fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoli, Hülya U.; Beauson, Justine; Simonsen, Morten E.

    2017-01-01

    on the resin degradation efficiency and the quality of the recovered glass and carbon fibers. Supercritical acetone at 260 ºC, 60 bar and a c/s ratio up to 2.1 g/mL could achieve nearly complete degradation of the resin. The glass fibers were recovered with up to 89% retained tensile strength compared...... to the virgin glass fibers. The use of near-critical water reduced the tensile strength of the glass fibers by up to 65%, whereas the carbon fibers were recovered with retained tensile strength compared to the virgin carbon fibers using water or acetone.......Degradation of hybrid fiber composites using near-critical water or supercritical acetone has been investigated in this study. Process parameters such as temperature (T= 260-300 ºC), pressure (p = 60-300 bar) and composite/solvent (c/s = 0.29-2.1 g/mL) ratio were varied to determine the effect...

  9. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals. Technical Digest Series, Volume 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-26

    integrated photonics, A.J. Bruce, Lucent Technologies. (P. 86) JSuE30 ■ Preparation and nonlinear optical proper- ties of Au/glass composite thin films, I...crystalline arrangements alike. For example, the local clusters of cristobalite and quartz are compared in Figure 2. The first contains 29 tetrahedra and only...6-rings; the second contains 63 tetrahedra and is dominated by 8- rings. Figure 2: Local clusters of a) cristobalite (29 tetrahedra, 6 12 -rings

  10. Flexural Properties of E Glass and TR50S Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chensong; Sudarisman; Davies, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    A study on the flexural properties of E glass and TR50S carbon fiber reinforced hybrid composites is presented in this paper. Specimens were made by the hand lay-up process in an intra-ply configuration with varying degrees of glass fibers added to the surface of a carbon laminate. These specimens were then tested in the three-point bend configuration in accordance with ASTM D790-07 at three span-to-depth ratios: 16, 32, and 64. The failure modes were examined under an optical microscope. The flexural behavior was also simulated by finite element analysis, and the flexural modulus, flexural strength, and strain to failure were calculated. It is shown that although span-to-depth ratio shows an influence on the stress-strain relationship, it has no effect on the failure mode. The majority of specimens failed by either in-plane or out-of-plane local buckling followed by kinking and splitting at the compressive GFRP side and matrix cracking combined with fiber breakage at the CFRP tensile face. It is shown that positive hybrid effects exist for the flexural strengths of most of the hybrid configurations. The hybrid effect is noted to be more obvious when the hybrid ratio is small, which may be attributed to the relative position of the GFRP layer(s) with respect to the neutral plane. In contrast to this, flexural modulus seems to obey the rule of mixtures equation.

  11. Refractive index dispersion of chalcogenide glasses for ultra-high numerical-aperture fiber for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantanarayana, Harshana G.; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil; Tang, Zhuoqi

    2014-01-01

    We select a chalcogenide core glass, AsSe, and cladding glass, GeAsSe, for their disparate refractive indices yet sufficient thermal-compatibility for fabricating step index fiber (SIF) for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation (MIR-SCG). The refractive index dispersion of both bulk glasses...... is measured over the 0.4 μm–33 μm wavelength-range, probing the electronic and vibrational behavior of these glasses. We verify that a two-term Sellmeier model is unique and sufficient to describe the refractive index dispersion over the wavelength range for which the experimentally determined extinction...

  12. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of metallic glass fiber-reinforced Al alloy matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Georgarakis, K; Nakayama, K S; Li, Y; Tsarkov, A A; Xie, G; Dudina, D; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Yavari, A R

    2016-04-12

    Metallic glass-reinforced metal matrix composites are an emerging class of composite materials. The metallic nature and the high mechanical strength of the reinforcing phase offers unique possibilities for improving the engineering performance of composites. Understanding the structure at the amorphous/crystalline interfaces and the deformation behavior of these composites is of vital importance for their further development and potential application. In the present work, Zr-based metallic glass fibers have been introduced in Al7075 alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) matrices using spark plasma sintering (SPS) producing composites with low porosity. The addition of metallic glass reinforcements in the Al-based matrix significantly improves the mechanical behavior of the composites in compression. High-resolution TEM observations at the interface reveal the formation of a thin interdiffusion layer able to provide good bonding between the reinforcing phase and the Al-based matrix. The deformation behavior of the composites was studied, indicating that local plastic deformation occurred in the matrix near the glassy reinforcements followed by the initiation and propagation of cracks mainly through the matrix. The reinforcing phase is seen to inhibit the plastic deformation and retard the crack propagation. The findings offer new insights into the mechanical behavior of metal matrix composites reinforced with metallic glasses.

  13. Change energy photons of radiation, stimulating a photoluminescence in glasses and optical fiber, activated by bismuth

    CERN Document Server

    Ogluzdin, Valeriy E

    2011-01-01

    In the offered review ordering received and published by domestic and foreign researchers of the experimental results showing the phenomenon of a photoluminescence in glasses and optical fiber, activated by bismuth is executed, and from uniform positions representations about the process responsible for a photoluminescence in case of use for excitation of this environment of various laser sources are considered. At interpretation of process of a photoluminescence the known model considering mirror symmetry of features of frequency spectra of a photoluminescence (in this case the maximum values is used: humps or peaks of spectra of a photoluminescence) and the spectra characterising optical losses (absorption) of glass, activated by (atomic) bismuth. For the analysis values of lines of the bismuth, published in reference media are used. This model is added by earlier published specification of the author, according to which to a point of mirror symmetry of such spectra there corresponds frequency of radiation ...

  14. In vitro study of improved wound-healing effect of bioactive borate-based glass nano-/micro-fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qingbo [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering (CBSE), Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell and Single Molecule Monitoring (CS3M), Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Chen, Sisi [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering (CBSE), Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Shi, Honglan [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering (CBSE), Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell and Single Molecule Monitoring (CS3M), Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Xiao, Hai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Ma, Yinfa, E-mail: yinfa@mst.edu [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering (CBSE), Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell and Single Molecule Monitoring (CS3M), Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Because of the promising wound-healing capability, bioactive glasses have been considered as one of the next generation hard- and soft-tissue regeneration materials. The lack of understanding of the substantial mechanisms, however, indicates the need for further study on cell–glass interactions to better interpret the rehabilitation capability. In the present work, three bioactive glass nano-/micro-fibers, silicate-based 45S5, borate-based 13-93B3 and 1605 (additionally doped with copper oxide and zinc oxide), were firstly compared for their in vitro soaking/conversion rate. The results of elemental monitoring and electron microscopic characterization demonstrated that quicker ion releasing and glass conversion occurred in borate-based fibers than that of silicate-based one. This result was also reflected by the formation speed of hydroxyapatite (HA). This process was further correlated with original boron content and surrounding rheological condition. We showed that an optimal fiber pre-soaking time (or an ideal dynamic flow rate) should exist to stimulate the best cell proliferation and migration ability. Moreover, 13-93B3 and 1605 fibers showed different glass conversion and biocompatibility properties as well, indicating that trace amount variation in composition can also influence fiber's bioactivity. In sum, our in vitro rheological module closely simulated in vivo niche environment and proved a potentially improved wound-healing effect by borate-based glass fibers, and the results shall cast light on future improvement in bioactive glass fabrication. - Highlights: • Bioactive glass nano-/micro-materials were effectively used for tissue wound healing. • The wound-healing effects of silicate-based 45S5, borate-based 13-93B3 and 1605 fibers were investigated. • Glass conversion rates were compared under either static or dynamic-flow modes. • Glass compositions and flow rates greatly influenced bioactivity and cell migration. • These results can

  15. The effect of environmental pressure and resin cements on the push-out bond strength of a quartz fiber post to teeth root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramipanah, F; Sadighpour, L; Assadollahi, R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of environmental pressure changes on the bond strength between a fiber post and one of three resin cements using different mixing methods and modes of application. Sixty single-canal human teeth were divided into three groups (n = 20) and endodontically treated. Post spaces were prepared, and a quartz fiber post was secured with either a self-adhesive machine-mixed cement (RelyX Unicem, Aplicap), a self-adhesive hand-mixed cement (RelyX Unicem), or a self-etching dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F2). Half of each group was subjected to 24 pressure cycles from 0 to 5 atmospheres. The mean push-out bond strength of the posts was calculated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). Regardless of the pressure, Unicem Aplicap achieved the highest bond strength (P pressure cycles (P environmental pressure while the type of resin cements, their mixing methods and modes of application incorporated lower porosity, achieving higher bond strength.

  16. Tribological Behavior of MC Nylon6 Composites Filled with Glass Fiber and Fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shihua; CUI Chong; CHEN Guang

    2012-01-01

    To improve tribological property of MC Nylon6,the glass fiber and fly ash reinforced monomer casting nylon composites (GFFAPA) were prepared by anionic polymerization of ε-caprolactam.The friction and wear behaviors of composites under dry condition,water lubrication and oil lubrication were investigated through a ring-black wear tester.Worn surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope.The experimental results show that the tensile strength and hardness of nylon composites are obviously improved with reinforcement increasing.Compared to MC nylon,the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate of glass fiber reinforced nylon composites (GFPA) with GF30% respectively decrease by 33.1% and 65.3%,of fly ash reinforced nylon composites (FAPA) with FA20% decrease by 5.2% and 68.9% and of GFFAPA composites with GF30% and FA10% decrease by 57.8% and 89.9%.The main wear mechanisms of FAPA composites are adhesive and abrasive wear and of GFPA composites with high proportion are abrasive and fatigue wear.The worn surfaces of GFFAPA composites are much multiplex and the optional distributing glass fiber and fly ash have a synergetic effect on the wear resistance for GFFAPA composites.Compared with dry friction,the friction coefficient and wear rate under oil lubricated conditions decrease sharply while the latter reversely increase under water lubricated conditions.The wear mechanisms under water lubricated condition are principally chemical corrosion wear and abrasive wear and they become boundary friction under oil lubricated condition.

  17. Abrasive Wear Performance of Aluminium Modified Epoxy-Glass Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Vikram G.; Mishra, Punyapriya; Al Dabbas, Hassan A.; Panda, H. S.; Fernandez, Johnathan Bruce

    2015-07-01

    For a long time, Aluminum filled epoxies molds have been used in rapid tooling process. These molds are very economical when applied in manufacturing of low volume of plastic parts. To improve the thermal conductivity of the material, the metallic filler material is added to it and the glass fiber improves the wear resistance of the material. These two important parameters establish the life of composites. The present work reports on abrasive wear behavior of Aluminum modified epoxy and glass fiber composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of aluminum particles. Through pin on disc wear testing machine, we studied the wear behaviors of composites, and all these samples were fabricated by using hand layup process. Epoxy resin was used as matrix material which was reinforced with Glass fiber and Aluminum as filler. The composite with 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of Al was cast with dimensions 100 × 100 × 6 mm. The specimens were machined to a size of 6 × 6 × 4 mm for abrasive testing. Abrasive tests were carried out for different grit paper sizes, i.e., 150, 320, 600 at different sliding distance, i.e., 20, 40, 60 m at different loads of 5, 10 and 15 N and at constant speed. The weight loss due to wear was calculated along with coefficient of friction. Hardness was found using Rockwell hardness machine. The SEM morphology of the worn out surface wear was analyzed to understand the wear mechanism. Results showed that the addition of Aluminum particles was beneficial for low abrasive conditions.

  18. EFFECT OF NANOCLAY DISPERSION ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD FLOUR/ POLYPROPYLENE/GLASS FIBER HYBRID COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene/wood flour composites having different nanoclay and glass fiber contents were fabricated by melt compounding and then injection molding. The physical and mechanical properties were evaluated. The results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength of the PP/wood flour composites increased with increasing glass fiber content. However, the impact strength of the PP/wood flour composites progressively decreased with increasing glass fiber content. Dimensional stability of the composites could be improved by increasing the glass fiber content. Also, results indicated that the tensile modulus and tensile strength of composites increased with increase of nanoclay up to 4phc and then decreased. However the impact strength and water absorption of the composites decreased with increasing the nanoclay loading. The morphology of the nanocomposites was examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD. Morphological findings revealed an intercalated form in the sample with 4 per hundred compounds (phc concentration of nanoclay, which implies the formation of an intercalated morphology and better dispersion than 6phc, and the d-spacing of clay layers were improved in the composite in the presence of compatibilizer. This project has shown that the composites treated with glass fiber and nanoclay will be desirable as building materials due to their improved stability and strength properties.

  19. The influence of glass fibers on the morphology of β-nucleated isotactic polypropylene evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevski Aco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fillers/fibers can significantly affect the polymorphic behavior of semi-crystalline polymers. The influence of glass fibers on morphology of β-nucleated iPP during isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization was analyzed in detail by DSC, and the kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were determined for the systems containing 10-60 % glass fibers. The presence of glass fibers in model composites with β-iPP has insignificant effect on the morphology of the polymer. Thermodynamic and kinetics parameters of crystallization of iPP in model composites are close to those obtained for the nucleated polymer. The relative content of β-crystalline phase is slightly affected by increasing glass fiber’s content from 10 % mas to 60 % mas, due to appearance of α-crystallites. However, the stability of β-crystalline phase is decreased by the increasing glass fibers content and there appeared certain amount of β1 and β2 phases which are known as disposed to recrystallization.

  20. Resorbable composites with bioresorbable glass fibers for load-bearing applications. In vitro degradation and degradation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Timo J; Tuominen, Jukka U; Hiekkanen, Elina

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro degradation study of three bioresorbable glass fiber-reinforced poly(l-lactide-co-dl-lactide) (PLDLA) composites was carried out in simulated body fluid (SBF), to simulate body conditions, and deionized water, to evaluate the nature of the degradation products. The changes in mechanical and chemical properties were systematically characterized over 52 weeks dissolution time to determine the degradation mechanism and investigate strength retention by the bioresorbable glass fiber-reinforced PLDLA composite. The degradation mechanism was found to be a combination of surface and bulk erosion and does not follow the typical core-accelerated degradation mechanism of poly(α-hydroxyacids). Strength retention by bioresorbable glass fiber-reinforced PLDLA composites can be tailored by changing the oxide composition of the glass fibers, but the structure-property relationship of the glass fibers has to be understood and controlled so that the phenomenon of ion leaching can be utilized to control the degradation rate. Therefore, these high performance composites are likely to open up several new possibilities for utilizing resorbable materials in clinical applications which could not be realized in the past.

  1. Preparation and characterization of PVDF-glass fiber composite membrane reinforced by interfacial UV-grafting copolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nan; Xu, Rongle; Yang, Min; Yuan, Xing; Zhong, Hui; Fan, Yaobo

    2015-12-01

    A novel inorganic-organic composite membrane, namely poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF-glass fiber (PGF) composite membrane, was prepared and reinforced by interfacial ultraviolet (UV)-grafting copolymerization to improve the interfacial bonding strength between the membrane layer and the glass fiber. The interfacial polymerization between inorganic-organic interfaces is a chemical cross-linking reaction that depends on the functionalized glass fiber with silane coupling (KH570) as the initiator and the polymer solution with acrylamide monomer (AM) as the grafting block. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectra and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) pictures of the interface between the glass fiber and polymer matrix confirmed that the AM was grafted to the surface of the glass fiber fabric and that the grafting polymer was successfully embedded in the membrane matrix. The formation mechanisms, permeation, and anti-fouling performance of the PGF composite membrane were measured with different amounts of AM in the doping solutions. The results showed that the grafting composite membrane improved the interfacial bonding strength and permeability, and the peeling strength was improved by 32.6% for PGF composite membranes with an AM concentration at 2wt.%.

  2. Spectroscopic properties of 2.7 μm emission in Er{sup 3+} doped telluride glasses and fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xiaokang [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Kefeng, E-mail: kfli@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Xia; Kuan, Peiwen; Wang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Hu, Lili [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Telluride glasses with high Er{sup 3+} doping concentration and good thermal property are prepared. • Energy transfer processes for 1.5 μm, 2.7 μm and visible emission are fully discussed. • Enhanced 2.7 μm emission is achieved from the bulk glasses. • An Er{sup 3+} doped fiber is successfully drawn and strong upconversion emission is observed in the fiber. - Abstract: Emissions at 2.7 μm from telluride glasses with various Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping concentrations are investigated. The prepared glasses have excellent thermostability and high rare-earth solubility. Judd–Ofelt parameters are calculated based on the absorption spectra. A large emission cross section (1.12 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) and a high spontaneous radiative coefficient (57.8 s{sup −1}) are obtained at 2.7 μm. The fluorescence properties of glasses with different concentrations are analyzed and presented. An Er{sup 3+}-doped fiber is fabricated via a rod-in-tube technique, and the loss at 1310 nm is ∼2.1 dB/m measured by using the cut-back method. Strong upconversion emission caused by intense pump absorption is observed from the Er{sup 3+}doped fiber under excitation by a 980 nm laser diode (LD). Telluride glasses with high Er{sup 3+} doping concentration and good thermal property are prepared. Energy transfer processes for 1.5 μm, and 2.7 μm, as well as visible emission are fully discussed. Enhanced 2.7 μm emission is achieved from the bulk glass. An Er{sup 3+} doped fiber is successfully drawn, and strong upconversion emission is observed in the fiber.

  3. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, M; Shanthraj, Srinivas L; Savitha, K C; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment.

  4. Glass fiber-reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam P; Babu GKL; Sunny R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR) as a space maintainer and to compare it with a conventional band-and-loop space maintainer. A total of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) aged 6-8 years were selected for the study. Each of these children required maintenance of space due to premature loss of primary first molars in at least two quadrants. In one quadrant, a GFRCR space maintainer was applied and in the other quadrant a band-and-loop...

  5. Radiation-assisted PET recycling using glass fiber reinforcement and reactive additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, K.; Czvikovszky, T.; Abd-Elhamid, M.

    2004-02-01

    Post-consumer poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) material has been recycled in an upgrading procedure. Radiation treatment of modest dose (10 kGy) has been applied to activate a reactive additive (epoxy-acrylate, 2% to the PET) to bond together the matrix (recycled PET) and the reinforcement (chopped glass fiber, 10-20% to the PET). Tensile-, bending- and impact-resistance of the treated, recycled PET has been improved significantly. A new composite engineering material has been manufactured this way of reactive reinforcing recycling, surpassing the original, virgin PET especially in impact properties. The new thermoplastic is well suitable for injection molding of technical parts.

  6. Recommended Minimum Test Requirements and Test Methods for Assessing Durability of Random-Glass-Fiber Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides recommended minimum test requirements are suggested test methods for establishing the durability properties and characteristics of candidate random-glass-fiber polymeric composites for automotive structural applications. The recommendations and suggestions are based on experience and results developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a US Department of Energy Advanced Automotive Materials project entitled ''Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures,'' which is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium. The report is intended as an aid to suppliers offering new structural composites for automotive applications and to testing organizations that are called on to characterize the composites.

  7. Ultrasound enhanced 50 Hz plasma treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50Hz dielectric barrier discharge at a peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency...... approximately from 20 up to 80 mJm2 with ultrasonic irradiation. The plasma treatment with ultrasonic irradiation also introduced oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups at the GFRP surface. These changes would improve the adhesion properties of the GFRP plates....

  8. Absorption and Permeability of Air-jet Textured Glass Fiber Yarn and Its Fabric for Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马会英; 隋全侠; 邹祖伟

    2003-01-01

    The Absorption and permeability of air-jet textured glass fiber yarn and its fabric and bonded tenacity of the fabric have been studied in relation to the main parameters, air supplied pressure and overfeed ratio.It has been observed that increasing the level of main parameters improves the coated ratio of the textured yarn and its fabric as well as the bonded tenacity of the fabric made of textured yarn. Comparison of absorption or permeability between textured and supplied yarns, and comparison of absorption or permeability and bonded tenacity between the two kinds of fabrics have been elucidated.

  9. Preparation and Performance of Continuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composite Honeycomb Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the light-weight and high-strength thermoplastic composites, novel honeycomb sandwich panels were discussed in this paper: continuous glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GF/PP laminated sheets were used as the surface and polypropylene (PP honeycomb was used as the core. The effects of honeycomb core’s height, thickness and aperture on the mechanical properties were analyzed in this paper. The composite honeycomb sandwich panels exhibited excellent bending strength at 37.6MPa and lateral pressure strength at 25.8MPa.

  10. Low-loss waveguides fabricated in BK7 glass by high repetition rate femtosecond fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Shane M; Ng, Mi Li; Bonse, Jörn; Mermillod-Blondin, Alexandre; Zhang, Haibin; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Herman, Peter R

    2008-04-20

    For the first time femtosecond-laser writing has inscribed low-loss optical waveguides in Schott BK7 glass, a commercially important type of borosilicate widely used in optical applications. The use of a variable repetition rate laser enabled the identification of a narrow processing window at 1 MHz repetition rate with optimal waveguides exhibiting propagation losses of 0.3 dB/cm and efficient mode matching to standard optical fibers at a 1550 nm wavelength. The waveguides were characterized by complementary phase contrast and optical transmission microscopy, identifying a micrometer-sized guiding region within a larger complex structure of both positive and negative refractive index variations.

  11. Determination of mechanical properties of some glass fiber reinforced plastics suitable to Wind Turbine Blade construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigmann, R.; Savin, A.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Leitoiu, B.; Iftimie, N.; Stanciu, M. D.; Curtu, I.

    2016-08-01

    The control of wind turbine's components is very rigorous, while the tower and gearbox have more possibility for revision and repairing, the rotor blades, once they are deteriorated, the defects can rapidly propagate, producing failure, and the damages can affect large regions around the wind turbine. This paper presents the test results, performed on glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) suitable to construction of wind turbine blades (WTB). The Young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, ultimate stress have been determined using tensile and shear tests. Using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA), the activation energy for transitions that appear in polyester matrix as well as the complex elastic modulus can be determined, function of temperature.

  12. Esthetic rehabilitation of severely decayed primary incisors using glass fiber reinforced composite: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metha, Deepak; Gulati, Akanksha; Basappa, N; Raju, O S

    2012-01-01

    Restoration of primary maxillary incisors severely damaged by caries or trauma is a clinical challenge in pediatric dental clinics. Early childhood caries is observed in approximately half the child population. In the past, the only treatment option would have been to extract the affected teeth and replace them with prosthetic substitutes. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, alternative approaches in treating these teeth have been proposed. The purpose of this paper was to describe the rehabilitation of primary anterior teeth in a 5-year-old patient using glass fiber reinforced composite resin as an intracanal post.

  13. Room-temperature fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the violet (412 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, D S; Carlson, J W; Eden, J G

    1995-07-01

    Continuous oscillation on the (2)P(3/2) ? (4)I(11/2) transition of Nd(3+) in a f luorozirconate glass (ZBLAN) fiber at room temperature has been observed. When pumped at ~590 nm, a Nd:ZBLAN f iber 39 cm in length lases in the violet at 412 nm and produces ~0.5 mW of power for 320 mW of pump power and a cavity output coupling of 0.4%. The breadth of the laser's excitation spectrum is ~12 nm (581-593 nm).

  14. Evolution of the health of concrete structures by electrically conductive GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastic) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soon-Gi

    2002-02-01

    The function and performance of self-diagnostic composites embedded in concrete blocks and piles were investigated by bending tests and electrical resistance measurement. Carbon powder (CP) and carbon fiber (CF) were introduced into glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites to provide electrical conductivity. The CPGFRP composite displays generally good performance in various bending tests of concrete block and piles compared to the CFGFRP composite. The electrical resistance of the CPGFRP composite increases remarkably at small strains in response to microcrack formation at about 200 μm strain, and can be used to detect smaller deformations before crack formation. The CPGFRP composite shows continuous change in resistance up to a large strain level just before the final fracture for concrete structures reinforced by steel bars. It is concluded that self-diagnostic composites can be used to predict damage and fracture in concrete blocks and piles.

  15. Effect of Fillers on E-Glass/Jute Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Deshpande

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an investigation was carried out on E-glass fiber/jute fiber reinforced epoxy composites filled with varying concentrations of bone and coconut shell powder. The composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique and the mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength, inter laminar shear strength (ILSS, tensile modulus, impact strength and hardness of the fabricated composites were tested. The test results of these were compared with unfilled HFRP composites. From the results it was found that the mechanical properties of the composites increased with the increase in filler content. Composites filled with 15% volume coconut shell powder exhibited maximum flexural strength, inter laminar shear strength (ILSS, tensile modulus and hardness. Maximum impact strength was achieved by addition of filler (15% Vol. of bone powder.

  16. Modeling of the fringe shift in multiple beam interference for glass fibers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Hamed

    2008-04-01

    A quadratic model is suggested to describe the fringe shift occurred due to the phase variations of uncladded glass fiber introduced between the two plates of the liquid wedge interferometer. The fringe shift of the phase object is represented in the harmonic term which appears in the denominator of the Airy distribution formula of Fabry-Perot's interferometer. A computer program is written to plot the computed fringe shifts of the described model. An experiment is conducted using liquid wedge interferometer where the fiber of a nearly quadratic thickness variation is introduced between the two plates of the interferometer. The obtained fringe shift shows a good agreement with the proposed quadratic model. Also, it is compared with the previous theoretical shift based on ray optics of semi-circular shape.

  17. The nature of the structural gradient in epoxy curing at a glass fiber/epoxy matrix interface using FTIR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Benito, J

    2003-11-15

    The curing process of an epoxide system was studied at the interface formed between a silane-coated glass fiber and an epoxy matrix. The gradient in the structure of the epoxy resin as a result of the cure process at the fiber/matrix interfacial region was monitored by FTIR imaging. For comparison, the epoxy curing at the interface formed between the epoxy resin and (a) an uncoated glass fiber and (b) a polyorganosiloxane (obtained from the silane used for the glass-fiber coating) were also monitored. Chemically specific images of the OH and the H-N-H groups near the interface region were obtained. These images suggest that there is a chemical gradient in the structure of the matrix from the fiber surface to the polymer bulk due to different conversions. The basis of the different kinetics of the curing reactions is a result of amino group inactivation at the interface. This deactivation translates into an off-stoichiometry of the reaction mixture, which is a function of the distance from the surface of the glass fiber.

  18. Investigation of Fiber Waviness in a Thick Glass Composite Beam Using THz NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Fiber waviness in laminated composite material is introduced during manufacture because of uneven curing, resin shrinkage, or ply buckling caused by bending the composite lay-up into its final shape prior to curing. The resulting waviness has a detrimental effect on mechanical properties, therefore this condition is important to detect and characterize. Ultrasonic characterization methods are difficult to interpret because elastic wave propagation is highly dependent on ply orientation and material stresses. By comparison, the pulsed terahertz response of the composite is shown to provide clear indications of the fiber waviness. Pulsed Terahertz NDE is an electromagnetic inspection method that operates in the frequency range between 300 GHz and 3 THz. Its propagation is influenced by refractive index variations and interfaces. This work applies pulsed Terahertz NDE to the inspection of a thick composite beam with fiber waviness. The sample is a laminated glass composite material approximately 15mm thick with a 90-degree bend. Terahertz response from the planar section, away from the bend, is indicative of a homogeneous material with no major reflections from internal plies, while the multiple reflections at the bend area correspond to the fiber waviness. Results of these measurements are presented for the planar and bend areas.

  19. Glue-free assembly of glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics using laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetruy, C.; Clement, S.; Deleglise, M.; Franz, C.; Knapp, W.; Oumarou, M.; Renard, J.; Roesner, A.

    2011-05-01

    The use of laser light for bonding of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFTPC) offers new possibilities to overcome the constraints of conventional joining technologies. Laser bonding is environmentally friendly as no chemical additive or glue is necessary. Accuracy and flexibility of the laser process as well as the quality of the weld seams provide benefits which are already used in many industrial applications. Laser transmission welding has already been introduced in manufacturing of short fiber thermoplastic composites. The laser replaces hot air in tapelaying systems for pre-preg carbon fiber placement. The paper provides an overview concerning the technical basics of the joining process and outline some material inherent characteristics to be considered when using continuous glass fiber reinforced composites The technical feasibility and the mechanical characterization of laser bonded CFTPC are demonstrated. The influence of the different layer configurations on the laser interaction with the material is investigated and the dependency on the mechanical strength of the weld seem is analyzed. The results show that the laser provides an alternative joining technique and offers new perspectives to assemble structural components emerging in automotive or aeronautical manufacturing. It overcomes the environmental and technical difficulties related to existing gluing processes.

  20. Effects of Glass Fiber on the Liquidity of the Ceramic Slurry and its Strength%玻璃纤维对陶瓷浆料的流动性及铸型强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钊; 卢德宏; 蒋业华; 周荣

    2012-01-01

    研究了在陶瓷浆料中加入玻璃纤维对浆料粘度及陶瓷坯体抗拉强度的影响.选择的陶瓷坯体以石英砂、硅溶胶为主要原料,玻璃纤维的直径为16 μm,长度为1~3 mm.结果表明,在陶瓷型中加入一定量的玻璃纤维后,陶瓷型的抗拉强度会升高;在焙烧温度为400℃时,在一定范围内,随着玻璃纤维增加,陶瓷型抗拉强度呈线性增加,从0.175 MPa增加至0.221MPa,陶瓷浆料的粘度也会呈指数形式增大.%Effects of glass fiber addition on the viscosity of the ceramic slurry and the tensile strength of ceramic green body for investment casting were investigated. Ceramic green body is mainly made from quartz sand and silica sol, and glass fiber is approximately 16 fzm in diameter and 1~3 mm in length. The results indicate that, with a certain amount of glass fiber addition, tensile strength of the samples is increased with the temperature increases. Within a certain range, the tensile strength of the ceramic mold is increased linearly from 0. 175 MPa to 0. 221 MPa with increasing in glass fiber sintered at 400 ℃ , and the viscosity of ceramic slurry is increased in an exponential form.

  1. Constructing Novel Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Composites through a Biomimetic Approach: Connecting Glass Fiber with Nanosized Boron Nitride by Polydopamine Coating

    OpenAIRE

    XueMei Wen; ZaoZao Xiao; Tao Jiang; Jian Li; Wei Zhang; Lei Zhang; Huaiqi Shao

    2013-01-01

    A biomimetic method was developed to construct novel fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composites. By mimicking mussel adhesive proteins, a monolayer of polydopamine was coated on glass fiber (GF) surface. The polydopamine-treated GF (D-GF) adsorbed boron nitride (BN) nanoparticles, while obtaining micronano multiscale hybrid fillers BN-D-GF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the strong interfacial interaction brought by the polydopamine benefits the loading amount as well ...

  2. Enhanced upconversion emission in crystallization-controllable glass-ceramic fiber containing Yb3+-Er3+ codoped CaF2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wencai; Fang, Zaijin; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-10-01

    Functional nanocrystal-containing materials have been a hot topic in recent years. However, few researches have focused on functional nanocrystals contained in optical glass fibers. In this research, transparent CaF2 glass-ceramic was prepared by a melt-quenching method. Greatly enhanced upconversion luminescence was observed after heat treatment. By applying a novel method called melt-in-tube, precursor fiber free of crystals was fabricated at the drawing temperature where the clad was softened while the core was melted. Glass-ceramic fiber with fiber core containing Yb3+-Er3+ codoped CaF2 nanocrystals was obtained after heat treatment at a relatively low temperature. Electron probe micro-analyzer measurement shows no obvious element diffusion between the core and clad. Greatly enhanced upconversion emission was detected in the glass-ceramic fiber excited by a 980 nm laser, suggesting the developed glass-ceramic fiber is a promising material for upconversion laser.

  3. Enhanced upconversion emission in crystallization-controllable glass-ceramic fiber containing Yb(3+)-Er(3+) codoped CaF2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wencai; Fang, Zaijin; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-10-07

    Functional nanocrystal-containing materials have been a hot topic in recent years. However, few researches have focused on functional nanocrystals contained in optical glass fibers. In this research, transparent CaF2 glass-ceramic was prepared by a melt-quenching method. Greatly enhanced upconversion luminescence was observed after heat treatment. By applying a novel method called melt-in-tube, precursor fiber free of crystals was fabricated at the drawing temperature where the clad was softened while the core was melted. Glass-ceramic fiber with fiber core containing Yb(3+)-Er(3+) codoped CaF2 nanocrystals was obtained after heat treatment at a relatively low temperature. Electron probe micro-analyzer measurement shows no obvious element diffusion between the core and clad. Greatly enhanced upconversion emission was detected in the glass-ceramic fiber excited by a 980 nm laser, suggesting the developed glass-ceramic fiber is a promising material for upconversion laser.

  4. Glass fiber-reinforced polymer packaged fiber Bragg grating sensors for low-speed weigh-in-motion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarawneh, Mu'ath; Huang, Ying

    2016-08-01

    The weight of rolling trucks on roads is one of the critical factors for the management of road networks due to the continuous increase in truck weight. Weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors have been widely used for weight enforcement. A three-dimensional glass fiber-reinforced polymer packaged fiber Bragg grating sensor (3-D GFRP-FBG) is introduced for in-pavement WIM measurement at low vehicle passing speed. A sensitivity study shows that the developed sensor is very sensitive to the sensor installation depth and the longitudinal and transverse locations of the wheel loading position. The developed 3-D GFRP-FBG sensor is applicable for most practical pavements with a panel length larger than 6 ft, and it also shows a very good long-term durability. For the three components in 3-D of the developed sensor, the longitudinal component has the highest sensitivity for WIM measurements, followed by the transverse and vertical components. Field testing validated the sensitivity and repeatability of the developed 3-D GFRP-FBG sensor. The developed sensor provides the transportation agency one alternative solution for WIM measurement, which could significantly improve the measurement efficiency and long-term durability.

  5. Effect of Rare Earths-Treated Glass Fiber on Impact Wear-Resistance of Metal-Plastic Multilayer Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程先华; 薛玉君; 谢超英

    2002-01-01

    The friction and wear properties under impact load and dry friction conditions of metal-plastic multilayer composites filled with glass fiber, treated with rare earth elements, were investigated. The worn surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It shows that applying rare earth elements surface modifier to treat the glass fiber surface can enhance the interfacial adhesion between the glass fiber and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), as well as promote the interface properties of the composites. This helps to form a uniformly distributed and high adhesive transfer film on the counterface and abate the friction between the composite and the counterface. As a result, the wear of composite is greatly reduced. The composite exhibits excellent friction properties and impact wear-resistance.

  6. Effect of Rare Earths—Treated Glass Fiber on Impact Wear—Resistance of Metal—Plastic Multilayer Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程先华; 谢超英

    2002-01-01

    The friction and wear properties under impact load and dry friction conditions of metal-plastic multilayer composites fillde with glass fiber,treated with rare earth elements,were investigated,The worn surfaces were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).It shows that applying rare earth elements surface modifier to treat the glass fiber surface can enhance the interfacial adhesion between the glass fiber and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE),as well as promote the interface properties of the composites,This helps to form a uniflrmly distributed and high adhesive trandfer film on the counterface and abate the friction between the composite and the counterface,As a result,the wear of compostite is greatly reduced.The composite exhibits execllent friciton properties and impact wear-resistance.

  7. Quantification of defects depth in glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by infrared lock-in thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The increasing use of composite materials in various industries has evidenced the need for development of more effective nondestructive evaluation methodologies in order to reduce rejected parts and to optimize production cost. Infrared thermography is a noncontact, fast and reliable non-destructive evaluation technique that has received vast and growing attention for diagnostic and monitoring in the recent years. This paper describes the quantitative analysis of artificial defects in Glass fiber reinforced plastic plate by using Lockin infrared thermography. The experimental analysis was performed at several excitation frequencies to investigate the sample ranging from 2.946 Hz down to 0.019 Hz and the effects of each excitation frequency on defect detachability. The four point method was used in post processing of every pixel of thermal images using the MATLAB programming language. The relationship between the phase contrast with defects depth and area was examined. Finally, phase contrast method was used to calculate the defects depth considering the thermal diffusivity of the material being inspected and the excitation frequency for which the defect becomes visible. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of Lock-in infrared thermography as a powerful measurement technique for the inspection of Glass fiber reinforced plastic structures.

  8. Thermal performance of glass fiber reinforced intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Ullah, Sami; Aziz, Hammad, E-mail: engr.hammad.aziz03@gmail.com; Omar, Nor Sharifah [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The results of influence of glass fiber addition into the basic intumescent coating formulation towards the enhancement of its thermal insulation properties are presented. The intumescent coatings were formulated from expandable graphite, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine, boric acid, bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188, polyamide amine H-2310 hardener and fiberglass (FG) of length 3.0 mm. Eight intumescent formulations were developed and the samples were tested for their fire performance by burning them at 450°C, 650°C and 850°C in the furnace for two hours. The effects of each fire test at different temperatures; low and high temperature were evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffraction technique and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis were conducted on the samples to study the morphology, the chemical components of char and the residual weight of the coatings. The formulation, FG08 containing 7.0 wt% glass fiber provided better results with enhanced thermal insulation properties of the coatings.

  9. Thermal performance of glass fiber reinforced intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz; Ullah, Sami; Aziz, Hammad; Omar, Nor Sharifah

    2015-07-01

    The results of influence of glass fiber addition into the basic intumescent coating formulation towards the enhancement of its thermal insulation properties are presented. The intumescent coatings were formulated from expandable graphite, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine, boric acid, bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188, polyamide amine H-2310 hardener and fiberglass (FG) of length 3.0 mm. Eight intumescent formulations were developed and the samples were tested for their fire performance by burning them at 450°C, 650°C and 850°C in the furnace for two hours. The effects of each fire test at different temperatures; low and high temperature were evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffraction technique and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis were conducted on the samples to study the morphology, the chemical components of char and the residual weight of the coatings. The formulation, FG08 containing 7.0 wt% glass fiber provided better results with enhanced thermal insulation properties of the coatings.

  10. An update on glass fiber dental restorative composites: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Samad; Azam, Maria Tahir; Khan, Maria; Mian, Salman Aziz; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham

    2015-02-01

    Dentistry is a much developed field in the last few decades. New techniques have changed the conventional treatment methods as applications of new dental materials give better outcomes. The current century has suddenly forced on dentistry, a new paradigm regarding expected standards for state-of-the-art patient care. Within the field of restorative dentistry, the incredible advances in dental materials research have led to the current availability of esthetic adhesive restorations. The chemistry and structure of the resins and the nature of the glass fiber reinforced systems in dental composites are reviewed in relation to their influence and properties including mechanical, physical, thermal, biocompatibility, technique sensitivity, mode and rate of failure of restorations on clinical application. It is clear that a deeper understanding of the structure of the polymeric matrix and resin-based dental composite is required. As a result of ongoing research in the area of glass fiber reinforced composites and with the development and advancement of these composites, the future prospects of resin-based composite are encouraging. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Iqbal, A. K. M. Asif; Oumer, A. N.; Ismail, N. M.; Basri, S.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the influence of different weight percentages of glass fiber (GF) reinforcement on the mechanical properties of nylon (PA6) composite is investigated. Test specimens of pure nylon, 95% nylon + 5% GF, 90% nylon + 10% GF, 85% nylon + 15% GF and 80% nylon + 20% GF are prepared using an injection molding machine. In the experiments, tensile tests and impact tests are carried out. The obtained results reveal that mechanical properties of the nylon composites are significantly influenced by the weight percentage of glass fiber. From the tensile test results, it is observed that pure nylon has the lowest elastic modulus and yield strength whereas 80% nylon + 20% GF composite shows the highest elastic modulus and yield strength. Moreover, pure nylon shows the lowest tensile strength while 80% nylon + 20% GF shows significantly improved tensile strength. Results show that elongation at break is remarkably high for pure nylon whereas it is very low for 80% nylon + 20% GF. Izod impact test results reveal that, 85% nylon + 15% GF composite has the highest impact strength or toughness whereas 95% nylon + 5% GF composite shows the lowest impact strength. Furthermore, 80% nylon + 20% GF composite shows somewhat less impact strength or toughness than 85% nylon + 15% GF composite.

  12. Amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on glass fiber textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentz, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.plentz@leibniz-ipht.de; Andrä, Gudrun; Pliewischkies, Torsten; Brückner, Uwe; Eisenhawer, Björn; Falk, Fritz

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous silicon solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics are demonstrated. • Open circuit voltages of 883 mV show shunt-free contacting on non-planar fabrics. • Short-circuit current densities of 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses. • Fill factors of 43.1% and pseudo fill factors of 70.2% show high series resistance. • Efficiencies of 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies of 2.1% realized on textile fabrics. - Abstract: In this contribution, amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells on textile glass fiber fabrics for smart textiles are prepared and the photovoltaic performance is characterized. These solar cells on fabrics delivered open circuit voltages up to 883 mV. This shows that shunt-free contacting of the solar cells was successful, even in case of non-planar fabrics. The short-circuit current densities up to 3.7 mA/cm{sup 2} are limited by transmission losses in a 10 nm thin titanium layer, which was used as a semi-transparent contact. The low conductivity of this layer limits the fill factor to 43.1%. Pseudo fill factors, neglecting the series resistance, up to 70.2% were measured. Efficiencies up to 1.4% and pseudo efficiencies up to 2.1% were realized on textile fabrics. A transparent conductive oxide could further improve the efficiency to above 5%.

  13. Flexural Behavior of RC Members Using Externally Bonded Aluminum-Glass Fiber Composite Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns improvement of flexural stiffness/strength of concrete members reinforced with externally bonded, aluminum-glass fiber composite (AGC beams. An experimental program, consisting of seven reinforced concrete slabs and seven reinforced concrete beams strengthened in flexure with AGC beams, was initiated under four-point bending in order to evaluate three parameters: the cross-sectional shape of the AGC beam, the glass fiber fabric array, and the installation of fasteners. The load-deflection response, strain distribution along the longitudinal axis of the beam, and associated failure modes of the tested specimens were recorded. It was observed that the AGC beam led to an increase of the initial cracking load, yielding load of the tension steels and peak load. On the other hand, the ductility of some specimens strengthened was reduced by more than 50%. The A-type AGC beam was more efficient in slab specimens than in beam specimens and the B-type was more suitable for beam specimens than for slabs.

  14. Strengthening reinforced concrete beams using prestressed glass fiber-reinforced polymer-Part Ⅱ: Analytical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yue-lin; HUNG Chien-hsing; YEN Tsong; WU Jong-hwei; LIN Yiching

    2005-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (R. C.) beams using prestressed glass fiber-reinforced polymer (PGFRP) was studied experimentally as described in Part Ⅰ of this paper (Huang et al., 2005). In that paper, R. C. beams, R. C. beams with GFRP(glass fiber-reinforced polymer) sheets, and R. C. beams with PGFRP sheets were tested in both under-strengthened and over-strengthened cases. The test results showed that the load-carrying capacities (ultimate loads) of the beams with GFRP sheets were greater than those of the beams without polymer sheets. The load-carrying capacities of beams with PGFRP sheets were greater than those of beams with GFRP sheets. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical method to compute all of these load-carrying capacities. This analytical method is independent of the experiments and based only on the traditional R. C.and P. C. (prestressed concrete) theory. The analytical results accorded with the test results. It is suggested that this analytical method be used for analyzing and designing R. C. beams strengthened using GFRP or PGFRP sheets.

  15. Comparison of Resilon and Gutta-Percha Filling Materials on Root Canal Fracture Resistance Following Restoring with Quartz Fiber Posts

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrvarzfar, P.; Rezvani, Y.; Jalalian, E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Bacterial leakage and root fractures are the most important reasons of root canal treatment failure. Due to the lack of adhesion of gutta percha to the canal walls, Resilon has been introduced as a root-filling material able to bond to the root walls. Metal posts may predispose the tooth walls to oblique and vertical fracture which usually leads to tooth loss; whereas, fiber posts may reinforce the remaining tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Re...

  16. Case Report: Analytical Electron Microscopy of Lung Granulomas Associated with Exposure to Coating Materials Carried by Glass Wool Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Angela S.; Moreira, Valéria B.; Castro, Marcos César S.; Soares, Porfírio J.; Algranti, Eduardo; Andrade, Leonardo R.

    2010-01-01

    Context Man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) are noncrystalline inorganic fibrous material used for thermal and acoustical insulation (e.g., rock wool, glass wool, glass microfibers, and refractory ceramic fibers). Neither epidemiologic studies of human exposure nor animal studies have shown a noticeable hazardous effect of glass wools on health. However, MMVFs have been anecdotally associated with granulomatous lung disease in several case reports. Case presentation Here, we describe the case of a patient with multiple bilateral nodular opacities who was exposed to glass wool fibers and coating materials for 7 years. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed an increased total cell count (predominantly macrophages) with numerous cytoplasmic particles. Lung biopsy showed peribronchiolar infiltration of lymphoid cells and many foreign-body–type granulomas. Alveolar macrophages had numerous round and elongated platelike particles inside the cytoplasm. X-ray microanalysis of these particles detected mainly oxygen/aluminum/silicon and oxygen/magnesium/silicon, compatible with kaolinite and talc, respectively. No elemental evidence for glass fibers was found in lung biopsy. Discussion The contribution of analytical electron microscopy applied in the lung biopsy was imperative to confirm the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis associated with a complex occupational exposure that included both MMVFs and coating materials. Relevance to clinical or professional practice This case study points out the possible participation of other components (coating materials), beyond MMVFs, in the etiology of pneumoconiosis. PMID:20123612

  17. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Gomes, M. E.; Chiellini, F.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomäki, M.; Chiellini, E.; Reis, R. L.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ɛ-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 °C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 °C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 °C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  18. Strengthening reinforced concrete beams using prestressed glass fiber-reinforced polymer-Part Ⅰ: Experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yue-lin; WU Jong-hwei; YEN Tsong; HUNG Chien-hsing; LIN Yiching

    2005-01-01

    This work is aimed at studying the strengthening of reinforced concrete (R. C.) beams using prestressed glass fiber-reinforced polymer (PGFRP). Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) has recently become popular for use as repair or rehabilitation material for deteriorated R. C. structures, but because CFRP material is very stiff, the difference in CFRP sheet and concrete material properties is not favorable for transferring the prestress from CFRP sheets to R. C. members. Glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets with Modulus of Elasticity quite close to that of concrete was chosen in this study. The load-carrying capacities (ultimate loads) and the deflections of strengthened R. C. beams using GFRP and PGFRP sheets were tested and compared. T- and ⊥-shaped beams were used as the under-strengthened and over-strengthened beams. The GFRP sheets were prestressed to one-half their tensile capacities before being bonded to the T- and l-shaped R. C. beams. The prestressed tension in the PGFRP sheets caused cambers in the R. C. beams without cracks on the tensile faces. The PGFRP sheets also enhanced the load-carrying capacity. The test results indicated that T-shaped beams with GFRP sheets increased in load-carrying capacity by 55% while the same beams with PGFRP sheets could increase load-carrying capacity by 100%. The ⊥-shaped beams with GFRP sheets could increase load-carrying capacity by 97% while the same beams with PGFRP sheets could increase the loading-carrying capacity by 117%. Under the same external loads, beams with GFRP sheets underwent larger deflections than beams with PGFRP sheets. While GFRP sheets strengthen R. C. beams, PGFRP sheets decrease the beams' ductility, especially for the over-strengthened beams (⊥-shaped beams).

  19. The effect of short polyethylene fiber with different weight percentages on diametral tensile strength of conventional and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Ghaboos, Seyed-Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyethylene fiber on diametral tensile strength of conventional and resin modified glass ionomer cements. Material and Methods 60 specimens in 6 groups (n=10) were prepared. In group 1 conventional glass ionomer (Fuji GC) and in group 2 resin modified glass ionomer (Fuji LC) were as control groups. In group 3 and 4 conventional glass ionomers mixed with short polyethylene fibers in proportion of 1 wt% and 3 wt%, respectively. In fifth and sixth groups, resin modified glass ionomer and short polyethylene fibers were mixed in 1 and 3% wt, respectively. Samples were prepared in a round brass mold (6.5×2.5 mm). After thermo-cycling, the diametral tensile strength of the specimens were tested and data were analyzed with ANOVA and post-hoc tests (p<0.05). Results Diametral tensile strength of both conventional and resin modified glass ionomer cements increased after mixing with polyethylene fiber (p<0.001). Also, reinforcement occurred as the mixing percentage increased from 1% wt to 3% wt in either conventional and resin modified glass ionomer (p<0.001). Conclusions The polyethylene fiber was shown to have a significant positive influence on diametral tensile strength of two types of glass ionomers. Key words:Conventional glass ionomer, diametral tensile strength, polyethylene fiber, resin modified glass ionomer. PMID:28298993

  20. Formation mechanism of a silane-PVA/PVAc complex film on a glass fiber surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovsky, Daniel; Jane, Eduard; Palszegi, Tibor; Slobodnik, Marek; Velic, Dusan

    2013-10-21

    Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced composite materials are affected by fiber sizing. A complex film formation, based on a silane film and PVA/PVAc (polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl acetate) microspheres on a glass fiber surface is determined at 1) the nanoscale by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and 2) the macroscale by using the zeta potential. Silane groups strongly bind through the Si-O-Si bond to the glass surface, which provides the attachment mechanism as a coupling agent. The silane groups form islands, a homogeneous film, as well as empty sites. The average roughness of the silanized surface is 6.5 nm, whereas it is only 0.6 nm for the non-silanized surface. The silane film vertically penetrates in a honeycomb fashion from the glass surface through the deposited PVA/PVAc microspheres to form a hexagonal close pack structure. The silane film not only penetrates, but also deforms the PVA/PVAc microspheres from the spherical shape in a dispersion to a ellipsoidal shape on the surface with average dimensions of 300/600 nm. The surface area value Sa represents an area of PVA/PVAc microspheres that are not affected by the silane penetration. The areas are found to be 0.2, 0.08, and 0.03 μm(2) if the ellipsoid sizes are 320/570, 300/610, and 270/620 nm for silane concentrations of 0, 3.8, and 7.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. The silane film also moves PVA/PVAc microspheres in the process of complex film formation, from the low silane concentration areas to the complex film area providing enough silane groups to stabilize the structure. The values for the residual silane honeycomb structure heights (Ha ) are 6.5, 7, and 12 nm for silane concentrations of 3.8, 7.2, and 14.3 μg mL(-1), respectively. The pH-dependent zeta-potential results suggest a specific role of the silane groups with effects on the glass fiber surface and also on the PVA/PVAc microspheres. The non-silanized glass fiber surface and the silane film have similar zeta potentials ranging

  1. Evaluation of polyurethane foam, polypropylene, quartz fiber, and cellulose substrates for multi-element analysis of atmospheric particulate matter by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Nabin; Majestic, Brian J; Prapaipong, Panjai; Herckes, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    Traditional methods for the analysis of trace metals require particulate matter (PM) collected on specific filter substrates. In this paper, methods for elemental analysis of PM collected on substrates commonly used for organic analysis in air quality studies are developed. Polyurethane foam (PUF), polypropylene (PP), and quartz fiber (QF) substrates were first digested in a mixture of HNO(3)/HCl/HF/H(2)O(2) using a microwave digestion system and then analyzed for elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Filter blanks and recoveries for standard reference materials (SRMs) on these substrates were compared with a cellulose (CL) substrate, more commonly used for trace metal analysis in PM. The results show concentrations of filter blanks in the order of QF > PUF > PP > CL with a high variability in PUF and PP blanks relative to QF. Percent recovery of most elements from the SRMs on all substrates are within +/-20% of certified or reference values. QF substrates showed consistent blanks with a reproducibility better than +/-10% for the majority of elements. Therefore, QF substrates were applied to ambient PM collected in a variety of environments from pristine to polluted. Concentrations of field blanks for > or = 18 of 31 elements analyzed on a small section of QF substrate are < or = 25% of the amounts present in samples for urban atmospheres. Results suggest that QF used in a high-volume sampler can be a suitable substrate to quantify trace elements, in addition to organic species and hence reduce logistics and costs in air pollution studies.

  2. Initial adhesion of glass-fiber-reinforced composite to the surface of porcine calvarial bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuusa, S M R; Lassila, L V J; Matinlinna, J P; Peltola, M J; Vallittu, P K

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the initial bond strength of the glass-fiber-reinforced composite veil to the surface of the porcine calvarial compact bone using different adhesives. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) made of E-glass fiber veil with the BisGMA-PMMA resin system was used in the study. For the shear bond strength test, porcine calvarial bone cubes were mounted into resin matrix. FRC-veil discs were bonded to compact bone with different types of adhesives: (A) BisGMA-HEMA based (3M-ESPE Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive), (B) 4-META/UDMA/BisGMA based (Unifil Bond Bonding Agent) and MDP based (Clearfil Se Bond adhesive), (C) UDMA/BisGMA/PMMA-based experimental adhesive, and (D) silane-based (APS, ICS, MPS) experimental adhesives. The surface of the bone was mechanically roughened and was either used as such, treated with dental primers (Unifil Bond Self-etching Primer, Clearfil Se Bond Primer), or treated with an experimental silane mixture (APS, ICS, MPS), or with a mixture of the experimental silane liquid and Clearfil Se Bond Primer. The 3M-ESPE Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive and UDMA/BisGMA/PMMA experimental adhesive gave poor results in the shear bond test (0.58 and 0.40 MPa, respectively). Unifil Bond Bonding Agent and Clearfil Se Bond adhesive with respective primers markedly improved the shear bond strength; with Unifil the result was 3.40 MPa, and with Clearfil it was 6.19 MPa. When the bone surface was primed with a mixture of Clearfil Se Bond Primer and Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, the Clearfil Se Bond adhesive-impregnated FRC veil gave the best adhesion to the bone surface in this test: 9.50 MPa. The addition of bioactive glass granules between the veil and the bone lowered the shear bond strength in the test system described above to 6.72 MPa. The test systems with the silane mixture were also promising. In the SEM study, it was found that the mechanical treatment reveals the pores of the bone surface. Chemical

  3. Comment on the reported fiber attenuations in the visible regime in "Fabrication of glass photonic crystal fibers with a die-cast process".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xian; Loh, Wei H; Richardson, David J

    2008-10-01

    We comment on the recent paper by Zhou et al. [Appl. Opt.45, 4433 (2006)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.45.004433], in which transmission losses of 0.2-0.3 dB/m were claimed across the wavelength range 420-900 nm in a high-index (n(d)=1.80518 at 587.6 nm) SF6 glass-based photonic crystal fiber fabricated by novel die-cast technique. If confirmed, these losses are at least 1 order of magnitude lower than previous reported losses of SF6 photonic crystal fibers from other fabrication approaches. Here we present a statistic survey on the relationship between the refractive index and the bulk material attenuation, based on a large number of commercial Schott optical glasses with the n(d) ranging between 1.40 and 2.05. It shows that the loss of a high-index (n(d)=1.80) glass optical fiber should be at the levels of 10-50 dB/m at 420 nm and 1-10 dB/m at 500 nm, respectively. Moreover, the material attenuation of such a high-index glass fiber should intrinsically show a large decay, from 10-50 dB/m at 420 nm to the level of 1 dB/m at 700 nm, which arises from the tail on the UV absorption edge of the high-index glass extending to the visible region. Therefore, we conclude that: (1) the low loss of 0.2-0.3 dB/m reported in the cited paper is abnormally one or two magnitudes lower than the material attenuation that a high-index (n(d)=1.80) glass optical fiber should have in the range between 420 and 500 nm and that (2) the flat loss curve between 420 and 700 nm in the cited paper deviates greatly from the intrinsic behavior of a high-index (n(d)=1.80) glass fiber.

  4. Nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with a structured multi-component glass core for four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombelaine, Vincent; Labruyère, Alexis; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Reichel, Volker; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Jamier, Raphaël; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2009-08-31

    We report about a new type of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers allowing broadband four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. The microstructured optical fiber has a structured core consisting of a rod of highly nonlinear glass material inserted in a silica tube. This particular structure enables four wave mixing processes with very large frequency detuning (>135 THz), which permitted the generation of a wide supercontinuum spectrum extending over 1650 nm after 2.15 m of propagation length. The comparison with results obtained from germanium-doped holey fibers confirms the important role of the rod material properties regarding nonlinear process and dispersion.

  5. Design of photonic crystal fibers with highly nonlinear glasses for four-wave-mixing based telecom applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanka, Jiri

    2008-12-08

    A fully-vectorial mode solver based on the finite element method is employed in a combination with the downhill simplex method the dispersion optimization of photonic crystal fibers made from highly nonlinear glasses. The nonlinear fibers are designed for telecom applications such as parametric amplification, wavelength conversion, ultra-fast switching and regeneration of optical signals. The optimization is carried in terms of the zero dispersion wavelength, dispersion magnitude and nonlinear coefficient and confinement loss in the wavelength range around 1.55 microm. We restrict our work to the index-guiding fiber structures a small number of hexagonally arrayed air holes.

  6. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  7. Light-weight sandwich panel honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin for electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Widodo, Angit; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, A.; Kaleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is relative high cost material in current manufacturing process of electric vehicle body structure. Sandwich panels consisting polypropylene (PP) honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin were investigated. The aim of present paper was evaluate the flexural properties and bending rigidity of various volume fraction carbon-glass fiber composite skins with the honeycomb core. The flexural properties and cost of panels were compared to the reported values of solid hybrid Carbon/Glass FRP used for the frame body structure of electric vehicle. The finite element model of represented sandwich panel was established to characterize the flexural properties of material using homogenization technique. Finally, simplified model was employed to crashworthiness analysis for engine hood of the body electric vehicle structure. The good cost-electiveness of honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber skin has the potential to be used as a light-weight alternative material in body electric vehicle fabricated.

  8. Thermo-mechanical characterization of siliconized E-glass fiber/hematite particles reinforced epoxy resin hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. R., Arun prakash; Rajadurai, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this present work hybrid polymer (epoxy) matrix composite has been strengthened with surface modified E-glass fiber and iron(III) oxide particles with varying size. The particle sizes of 200 nm and surface modification process has been done on both fiber and filler by an amino functional silane 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Crystalline and functional groups of siliconized iron(III) oxide particles were characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Fixed quantity of surface treated 15 vol% E-glass fiber was laid along with 0.5 and 1.0 vol% of iron(III) oxide particles into the matrix to fabricate hybrid composites. The composites were cured by an aliphatic hardener Triethylenetetramine (TETA). Effectiveness of surface modified particles and fibers addition into the resin matrix were revealed by mechanical testing like tensile testing, flexural testing, impact testing, inter laminar shear strength and hardness. Thermal behavior of composites was evaluated by TGA, DSC and thermal conductivity (Lee's disc). The scanning electron microscopy was employed to found shape and size of iron(III) oxide particles adhesion quality of fiber with epoxy matrix. Good dispersion of fillers in matrix was achieved with surface modifier APTMS. Tensile, flexural, impact and inter laminar shear strength of composites was improved by reinforcing surface modified fiber and filler. Thermal stability of epoxy resin was improved when surface modified fiber was reinforced along with hard hematite particles. Thermal conductivity of epoxy increased with increase of hematite content in epoxy matrix.

  9. Low Velocity Impact Behavior of Glass Filled Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Engine Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mouti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns automotive parts located underneath the engine and in particular the engine oil pan. Classically made of stamped steel or cast aluminum, new developments have allowed the manufacture oil pans with polyamide 66 reinforced by 35% weight of short glass fiber. However, polyamides have some limitations and the most significant is their response to localized impact loading. The nature of the impact considered here is of a typical stone collected from the road and projected into the oil pan. Low velocity impact investigations were carried out using a gas gun and drop weight tower. The study shows that the design of the oil pan has a significant contribution in the shock absorption. In addition to the material properties, the geometry and the ribbing both cleverly combined, increase the impact resistance of the component significantly. Areas of oil pan design improvement have been identified and conclusions drawn.

  10. Glass fiber-reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR as a space maintainer and to compare it with a conventional band-and-loop space maintainer. A total of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls aged 6-8 years were selected for the study. Each of these children required maintenance of space due to premature loss of primary first molars in at least two quadrants. In one quadrant, a GFRCR space maintainer was applied and in the other quadrant a band-and-loop space maintainer was cemented. Patients were recalled at regular intervals over 12 months and retention of both the types of space maintainers was evaluated. The retention of the GFRCR space maintainer was found to be superior to that of the band-and-loop space maintainer, but this difference was not statistically significant.

  11. Glass fiber-reinforced composite resin as a space maintainer: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, P; Babu, Gkl; Sunny, R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin (GFRCR) as a space maintainer and to compare it with a conventional band-and-loop space maintainer. A total of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) aged 6-8 years were selected for the study. Each of these children required maintenance of space due to premature loss of primary first molars in at least two quadrants. In one quadrant, a GFRCR space maintainer was applied and in the other quadrant a band-and-loop space maintainer was cemented. Patients were recalled at regular intervals over 12 months and retention of both the types of space maintainers was evaluated. The retention of the GFRCR space maintainer was found to be superior to that of the band-and-loop space maintainer, but this difference was not statistically significant.

  12. Safer DNA extraction from plant tissues using sucrose buffer and glass fiber filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Koh-Ichi; Nishio, Takayuki

    2012-11-01

    For some plant species, DNA extraction and downstream experiments are inhibited by various chemicals such as polysaccharides and polyphenols. This short communication proposed an organic-solvent free (except for ethanol) extraction method. This method consists of an initial washing step with STE buffer (0.25 M sucrose, 0.03 M Tris, 0.05 M EDTA), followed by DNA extraction using a piece of glass fiber filter. The advantages of this method are its safety and low cost. The purity of the DNA solution obtained using this method is not necessarily as high as that obtained using the STE/CTAB method, but it is sufficient for PCR experiments. These points were demonstrated empirically with two species, Japanese speedwell and common dandelion, for which DNA has proven difficult to amplify via PCR in past studies.

  13. Gliding arc surface treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Drews, Joanna Maria

    2011-01-01

    A gliding arc is a plasma generated between diverging electrodes and extended by a high speed gas flow. It can be operated in air at atmospheric pressure. It potentially enables selective chemical processing with high productivity, and is useful for adhesion improvement of material surfaces....... The efficiency of such a plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can be further improved by ultrasonic irradiation onto the surface during the treatment. In the present work glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc with and without ultrasonic...... that ultrasonic irradiation reduced the OH rotational temperature of the gliding arc. The wettability of the GFRP surface was significantly improved by the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, and tended to improve furthermore at higher power to the plasma. Ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma...

  14. Low Temperature Coating of Anatase Thin Films on Silica Glass Fibers by Liquid Phase Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shun; LIU Jiachen; FENG Tiecheng

    2007-01-01

    Uniform crystalline TiO2 thin films were coated on silica glass fibers by liquid phase deposition from aqueous solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate at low temperature. TiO2 thin films and nanopowders were prepared by adding H3BO3 into (NH4)2TiF6 solution supersaturated with anatase nano-crystalline TiO2 at 40 ℃. The effects of the deposition conditions on the surface morphology, section morphology, thickness of the deposited TiO2 thin films were investigated. The results indicate that the growth rate and particle size of the thin films were controlled by both the deposition conditions and the amount of anatase nano-crystalline TiO2.

  15. Formaldehyde degradation by photocatalytic Ag-doped TiO2 film of glass fiber roving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubolchonlakate, Kornkanok; Sikong, Lek; Tontai, Tienchai

    2010-11-01

    The photocatalytic Ag doped TiO2 porous films were prepared by sol-gel method and dip coated on glass fiber roving. The sol composed of titanium (IV) isopropoxide, triethanolamine, ethanol and nitric acid followed by calcination of the film at 500 degrees C for 1 hour with a heating rate of 3 degrees C/min. The surface morphology and properties of synthesized TiO2 films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic forced microscope and scanning electron microscope. A laboratory photocatalytic reactor was set up to carry out photoactivity of the prepared catalysts. The results show that TiO2-Ag and TiO2-Ag-TEA porous films give highest rate of formaldehyde gas degradation. It can be noted that triethanolamine exhibits two effects on TiO2 composite films; one is its effect on porous film structure and second is a reverse effect of hindrance of anatase growth.

  16. Calibration of a hysteretic model for glass fiber reinforced gypsum wall panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhana, Maganti; Robin Davis, P.; Ravichandran, S. S.; Prasad, A. M.; Menon, D.

    2014-06-01

    Glass fiber reinforced gypsum (GFRG) wall panels are prefabricated panels with hollow cores, originally developed in Australia and subsequently adopted by India and China for use in buildings. This paper discusses identification and calibration of a suitable hysteretic model for GFRG wall panels filled with reinforced concrete. As considerable pinching was observed in the experimental results, a suitable hysteretic model with pinched hysteretic rule is used to conduct a series of quasi-static as inelastic hysteretic response analyses of GFRG panels with two different widths. The calibration of the pinching model parameters was carried out to approximately match the simulated and experimental responses up to 80% of the peak load in the post peak region. Interestingly, the same values of various parameters (energy dissipation and pinching related parameters) were obtained for all five test specimens.

  17. Glass fiber reinforced polyester in the works of Tous and Fargas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hernández Falagán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The architects Enric Tous (1925; t 1952 and Josep Maria Fargas (1926-2011, t 1952 achieved remarkable success during the 1960s and 1970s thanks to their commitment to technical experimentation and exploration of new construction systems. Among their most significant contributions is the incorporation of polyester reinforced with glass fiber as a material applied to solutions of light facades. This article tracks the origin, context, and results they obtained with this material. We propose an approach to the GRC material through the experience developed by the architects, analyzing the characteristics and specific implications of the systems proposed in their projects. Through this reading, the industrial initiative implemented by Tous and Fargas is put into value, and the key aspects that limited the progression of the construction system are detected.

  18. Interlaminar Shear Property of Modified Glass Fiber reinforced Polymer with Different MWCNTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lili; Zhao Yan; Duan Yuexin; Zhang Zuoguang

    2008-01-01

    The intcrlaminar shear property of composites remains a serious concern in application. In this article, five different multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are tried to improve the interlaminar shear property of composites, including two MWCNTs (MWCNTs-A and MWCNTs-B) different with diameters and lengths, an orientated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-C), a film-shaped MWCNTs-A (MWCNTs-D), and a surface-treated MWCNTs-B (MWCNTs-E). The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composites, filled with one of the above-mentioned materials as a constituent is investigated. The best ILSS increases by 8.16% from 24.5 MPa to 26.5 MPa with MWCNTs-E. In addition, the dispersion of MWCNTs in a glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) is researched by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with the ILSS results.

  19. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  20. High-cycle Fatigue Life Extension of Glass Fiber/Polymer Composites with Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher S Grimmer; C K H Dharan

    2009-01-01

    The present work shows that the addition of small volume fractions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the matrix results in a significant increase in the high-cycle fatigue life. It is proposed that carbon nanotubes tend to inhibit the formation of large cracks by nucleating nano-scale damage zones. In addition, the contribution to energy absorption from the fracture of nanotubes bridging across nano-scale cracks and from nanotube pull-out from the matrix are mechanisms that can improve the fatigue life. An energy-based model was proposed to estimate the additional strain energy absorbed in fatigue. The distributed nanotubes in the matrix appear to both distribute damage as well as inhibit damage propagation resulting in an overall improvement in the fatigue strength of glass fiber composites.

  1. Improved Pr{sup 3+}-doped heavy metal fluoride glasses and fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, J.; Sigel, G.H. Jr. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Praseodymium doped heavy metal fluoride glass preforms were fabricated via a modified suction casting method. A subsequent redraw process was employed to obtain high quality single mode fluoride fiber. Modifications of the ZBLAN composition, including the incorporation of In{sup 3+}, Y{sup 3+} and Cs{sup +}, were undertaken in an attempt to improve optical properties while maintaining the inherent drawability of ZBLAN. Thermal analysis to determine the various draw parameters was conducted using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, while optical characterization included spectral absorption, fluorescence, and fluorescent lifetime measurements for all specimens. The modifications in composition resulted in an increase in the fluorescent lifetime of Pr{sup 3+} at 1.3{mu}m.

  2. Non-destructive evaluation of delamination growth in glass fiber composites using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Groves, Roger M.; Benedictus, Rinze

    2014-03-01

    Based on low coherence interferometry, a robust optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has been built. The system was used to monitor the growth of a delamination between the middle layers of a glass fiber composite under a static loading. Firstly specimens of the material used for the spar webs in wind turbines were prepared with an interlaminar crack from free edges. Then they were statically loaded by a customized tensile test stage to extend the delamination length and simultaneously scanned by the OCT system. To process the acquired data, an optimized signal processing algorithm was developed. The cross-sectional images clearly show the microstructure and the crack within the specimen. The 3D crack profiles show the application of OCT to determine the evolution of the crack structure inside the composite material during the propagation of the delamination, for the first time to the best of our knowledge.

  3. Guiding and concentrating hard x-rays by using a flexible hollow-core tapered glass fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, D J; Bilderback, D H; Lewis, A; Stern, E A; Rich, T

    1992-03-01

    A 1.6-m-long, flexible, hollow glass fiber with a gradually diminishing bore diameter has been used efficiently to compress the size of an x-ray beam as it reflects from the inside walls of the fiber by total external reflection. The transmission characteristics of the fiber are reported for monochromatic synchrotron radiation of 8.04, 13, and 20 keV, as well as for CuKalpha radiation from a conventional x-ray tube. Intensity enhancements as large as 10 that correspond to a transmission efficiency of 54% were observed. The high efficiency of this prototype fiber supports the idea that this confinement technique should yield intensity gains of many orders of magnitude as the optimal fiber design is achieved.

  4. Mechanical properties of As-cast and heat-treated ZA-27 alloy/short glass fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. C.; Girish, B. M.; Satish, B. M.; Kamath, R.

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports on the mechanical properties of as-cast and heat-treated ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with glass fibers from 1 to 5 wt%. The composites were fabricated using the Compocasting method, in which short glass fibers were introduced into the vortex created in the molten alloy through an impeller rotated at 500 rpm. The molten mass was thoroughly stirred and poured into permanent molds and squeezed under pressure. The specimens were heat treated at 320 °C for 1, 2,3, and 4 h. The tests on the as-cast composites revealed that as the glass content in the composites was increased, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), compressive strength, and hardness of the composite increased, while the ductility and impact strength were decreased. Heat treatment was found to improve significantly the ductility, compressive strength, and impact strength, while the hardness and UTS were reduced. This paper discusses the behavior of these composites.

  5. Spectral transformation of femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a flint-glass photonic-crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A B; Serebryannikov, E E; Ivanov, A A; Zheltikov, A M

    2006-09-10

    Nonlinear-optical performance of photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) made of highly nonlinear TF10 glass is studied and compared with the general tendencies of nonlinear-optical interactions in fused-silica PCFs. The loss of TF10 glass PCFs prevents the generation of supercontinuum emission with a broad and flat spectrum, which typically requires propagation lengths comparable with or exceeding the attenuation length of the fiber. However, dispersive-wave emission of solitons, induced by high-order dispersion, phase-matched four-wave-mixing processes, and self-phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening are substantially enhanced in TF10 glass PCFs due to the high material nonlinearity, providing a high efficiency of frequency conversion of Cr:forsterite laser pulses.

  6. The development of a potassium-sulfide glass fiber cell and studies on impurities in alkali metal-sulfur cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Potassium sulfur rechargeable cells, having as the electrolyte the thin walls of hollow glass fibers made from permeable glass, were developed. The cells had short lives, probably due to the construction materials and impurities in the potassium. The effect of the impurities in the analogous NA-S system was studied. Calcium, potassium, and NaOH/oxide impurities caused increased resistance or corrosion of the glass fibers. For long lived cell operation, the Na must contain less than 1 ppm Ca and less than a few ppm of hydroxide/oxide. Up to 150 ppm K can be tolerated. After purification of the Na anolyte, cell lifetimes in excess of 1000 deep charge-discharge cycles or over 8 months on continuous cycling at 10-30 percent depth of discharge were obtained.

  7. Dissolution of glass wool, rock wool and alkaline earth silicate wool: morphological and chemical changes in fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campopiano, Antonella; Cannizzaro, Annapaola; Angelosanto, Federica; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Ramires, Deborah; Olori, Angelo; Canepari, Silvia; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wool and of other biosoluble wools in saline solution simulating physiological fluids was compared with that of a traditional wool belonging to synthetic vitreous fibers. Morphological and size changes of fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elements extracted from fibers were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SEM analysis showed a larger reduction of length-weighted geometric mean fiber diameter at 4.5 pH than at 7.4 pH. At the 7.4 pH, AES wool showed a higher dissolution rate and a dissolution time less than a few days. Their dissolution was highly non-congruent with rapid leaching of calcium. Unlike rock wool, glass wool dissolved more rapidly at physiological pH than at acid pH. Dissolution of AES and biosoluble rock wool is accompanied by a noticeable change in morphology while by no change for glass wool. Biosoluble rock wool developed a leached surface with porous honeycomb structure. SEM analysis showed the dissolution for glass wool is mainly due to breakage transverse of fiber at pH 7.4. AES dissolution constant (Kdis) was the highest at pH 7.4, while at pH 4.5 only biosoluble rockwool 1 showed a higher Kdis.

  8. A systematic review of factors associated with the retention of glass fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovito Adiel SKUPIEN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify factors that can affect the retention of glass fiber posts to intra-radicular dentin based on in vitro studies that compared the bond strength (BS of GFPs cemented with resin cements. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scopus until December 2013. Bond strength values and variables as type of tooth, presence of endodontic treatment, pretreatment of the post, type of bonding agent (if present, type of cement and mode of cement application were extracted from the 34 included studies. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the influence of these parameters on BS. The presence of endodontic treatment decreased the BS values in 22.7% considering the pooled data (p = 0.013. For regular cement, cleaning the post increased BS when compared to silane application without cleaning (p = 0.032, considering cleaning as ethanol, air abrasion, or phosphoric acid application. Applying the cement around the post and into root canal decreased the resistance compared to only around the post (p = 0.02 or only into root canal (p = 0.041, on the other hand, no difference was found for self-adhesive resin cement for the same comparisons (p = 0.858 and p = 0.067. Endodontic treatment, method of cement application, and post pretreatment are factors that might significantly affect the retention of glass-fiber posts into root canals mainly when cemented with regular resin cement. Self-adhesive resin cements were found to be less technique-sensitive to luting procedures as compared with regular resin cements.

  9. Thermo-mechanical characterization of siliconized E-glass fiber/hematite particles reinforced epoxy resin hybrid composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun Prakash, V.R., E-mail: vinprakash101@gmail.com; Rajadurai, A., E-mail: rajadurai@annauniv.edu.in

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Particles dimension have reduced using Ball milling process. • Importance of surface modification was explored. • Surface modification has been done to improve adhesion of fiber/particles with epoxy. • Mechanical properties has been increased by adding modified fiber and particles. • Thermal properties have been increased. - Abstract: In this present work hybrid polymer (epoxy) matrix composite has been strengthened with surface modified E-glass fiber and iron(III) oxide particles with varying size. The particle sizes of 200 nm and <100 nm has been prepared by high energy ball milling and sol-gel methods respectively. To enhance better dispersion of particles and improve adhesion of fibers and fillers with epoxy matrix surface modification process has been done on both fiber and filler by an amino functional silane 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Crystalline and functional groups of siliconized iron(III) oxide particles were characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Fixed quantity of surface treated 15 vol% E-glass fiber was laid along with 0.5 and 1.0 vol% of iron(III) oxide particles into the matrix to fabricate hybrid composites. The composites were cured by an aliphatic hardener Triethylenetetramine (TETA). Effectiveness of surface modified particles and fibers addition into the resin matrix were revealed by mechanical testing like tensile testing, flexural testing, impact testing, inter laminar shear strength and hardness. Thermal behavior of composites was evaluated by TGA, DSC and thermal conductivity (Lee’s disc). The scanning electron microscopy was employed to found shape and size of iron(III) oxide particles adhesion quality of fiber with epoxy matrix. Good dispersion of fillers in matrix was achieved with surface modifier APTMS. Tensile, flexural, impact and inter laminar shear strength of composites was improved by reinforcing surface modified fiber and filler. Thermal stability of epoxy resin was improved

  10. Application of sandwich honeycomb carbon/glass fiber-honeycomb composite in the floor component of electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmaji, I. C.; Wijang, W. R.; Andri, S.; Bambang, K.; Teguh, T.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays composite is a superior material used in automotive component due to its outstanding mechanical behavior. The sandwich polypropylene honeycomb core with carbon/glass fiber composite skin (SHCG) as based material in a floor component of electric car application is investigated in the present research. In sandwich structure form, it can absorb noise better compare with the conventional material [1]. Also in present paper, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of SHCG as based material for floor component of the electric car is analyzed. The composite sandwich is contained with a layer uniform carbon fiber and mixing non-uniform carbon-glass fiber in upper and lower skin. Between skins of SHCG are core polypropylene honeycomb that it have good flexibility to form following dies profile. The variables of volume fraction ratio of carbon/glass fiber in SHCG skin are 20/80%, 30/70%, and 50/50%. The specimen of SHCG is tested using the universal testing machine by three points bending method refers to ASTM C393 and ASTM C365. The cross point between tensile strength to the volume fraction the mixing carbon/glass line and ratio cost line are the searched material with good mechanical performance and reasonable cost. The point is 30/70 volume fraction of carbon/glass fiber. The result of the testing experiment is become input properties of model structure sandwich in FEA simulation. FEA simulation approach is conducted to find critical strength and factor of complex safety geometry against varied distributed passenger loads of a floor component the electric car. The passenger loads variable are 80, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg.

  11. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  12. Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of most glassforming liquids is known to depart significantly from the classical Arrhenius behaviour of simple fluids. The discovery of an unexpected correlation between the extent of this departure and the Poisson ratio of the resulting glass could lead...... to new understanding of glass ageing and viscous liquid dynamics....

  13. Tapered Glass-Fiber Microspike: High-Q Flexural Wave Resonator and Optically Driven Knudsen Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennetta, Riccardo; Xie, Shangran; Russell, Philip St. J.

    2016-12-01

    Appropriately designed optomechanical devices are ideal for making ultra-sensitive measurements. Here we report a fused-silica microspike that supports a flexural resonance with a quality factor greater than 100 000 at room temperature in vacuum. Fashioned by tapering single-mode fiber (SMF), it is designed so that the core-guided optical mode in the SMF evolves adiabatically into the fundamental mode of the air-glass waveguide at the tip. The very narrow mechanical linewidth (20 mHz) makes it possible to measure extremely small changes in resonant frequency. In a vacuum chamber at low pressure, the weak optical absorption of the glass is sufficient to create a temperature gradient along the microspike, which causes it to act as a microscopic Knudsen pump, driving a flow of gas molecules towards the tip where the temperature is highest. The result is a circulating molecular flow within the chamber. Momentum exchange between the vibrating microspike and the flowing molecules causes an additional restoring force that can be measured as a tiny shift in the resonant frequency. The effect is strongest when the mean free path of the gas molecules is comparable with the dimensions of the vacuum chamber. The system offers a novel means of monitoring the behavior of weakly absorbing optomechanical sensors operating in vacuum.

  14. Process monitoring of glass reinforced polypropylene laminates using fiber Bragg gratings

    KAUST Repository

    Mulle, Matthieu

    2015-12-29

    Hot-press molding of glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) laminates was monitored using longitudinally and transversely embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) at different locations in unidirectional laminates. The optical sensors proved to efficiently characterize some material properties; for example, strain variations could be related physical change of the laminate, revealing key transition points such as the onset of melt or solidification. These results were confirmed through some comparison with traditional techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry. After the GFPP plate was released from the mold, residual strains were estimated. Because cooling rate is an important process parameter in thermoplastics, affecting crystallinity and ultimately residual strain, two different conditions (22 and 3 °C/min) were investigated. In the longitudinal direction, results were nearly identical while in the transverse direction results showed a 20% discrepancy. Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) were also identified during a post-process heating procedure using the embedded FBGs and compared to the results of a thermo-mechanical analysis. Again, dissimilarities were observed for the transverse direction. With regards to through the thickness properties, no differences were observed for residual strains or for CTEs.

  15. Irradiation conditions for fiber laser bonding of HAp-glass ceramics with bovine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, Shigeru; Yamada, Satoshi; Kanaoka, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Orthopedic implants are widely used to repair bones and to replace articulating joint surfaces. It is important to develop an instantaneous technique for the direct bonding of bone and implant materials. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the laser bonding of bone with an implant material like ceramics. Ceramic specimens (10 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness) were sintered with hydroxyapatite and MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 glass powders mixed in 40:60 wt% proportions. A small hole was bored at the center of a ceramic specimen. The ceramic specimen was positioned onto a bovine bone specimen and a 5 mm diameter area of the ceramic specimen was irradiated using a fiber laser beam (1070-1080 nm wavelength). As a result, the bone and the ceramic specimens bonded strongly under the irradiation conditions of a 400 W laser power and a 1.0 s exposure time. The maximum shear strength was 5.3 ± 2.3 N. A bonding substance that penetrated deeply into the bone specimen was generated around the hole in the ceramic specimen. On using the fiber laser, the ceramic specimen instantaneously bonded to the bone specimen. Further, the irradiation conditions required for the bonding were investigated.

  16. Experimental Test of Stainless Steel Wire Mesh and Aluminium Alloy With Glass Fiber Reinforcement Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga Raj R.,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, composite materials are mostly used in aircraft structural components, because of their excellent properties like lightweight, high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness, and corrosion resistance and less expensive. In this experimental work, the mechanical properties of laminate, this is reinforced with stainless steel wire mesh, aluminum sheet metal, perforated aluminum sheet metal and glass fibers to be laminate and investigated. The stainless steel wire mesh and perforated aluminum metal were sequentially stacked to fabricate, hybrid composites. The aluminum metal sheet is also employed with that sequence to get maximum strength and less weight. The tensile, compressive and flexure tests carried out on the hybrid composite. To investigate the mechanical properties and elastic properties of the metal matrix composite laminate of a material we are using experimental test and theoretical calculation. The experimental work consists of Tensile, compressive and flexural test. The expectation of this project results in the tensile and compressive properties of this hybrid composite it is slightly lesser than carbon fibers but it could facilitate a weight reduction compared with CFRP panels. So this hybrid laminates composite material offering significant weight savings and maximum strength over some other GFRP conventional panels.

  17. Microtensile Bond Strength of Translucent Glass Fiber Posts to Intra-radicular Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohammadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare microtensile bond strengths (μTBS of glass fiber posts to different parts of intra-radicular dentin using conventional method and one-shot technique under different light intensities.Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight single-rooted teeth were prepared to receive fiber posts: Group 1: Conventional method at light intensity of 600 mW/cm2; Groups 2, 3 and 4:One-shot technique at light intensities of 600, 800 and 1000 mW/cm2 respectively. Dumbbell-shaped slices were obtained from the samples and submitted to micro-tensile testing.The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and paired-samples t-test.Results: There were no significant differences in μTBS values of the cervical and middle thirds between the groups (P>0.05. μTBS values in the cervical thirds in groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher than those in the middle thirds (P>0.05. However, there were nosuch differences in groups 1 and 4 (P>0.05.Conclusion: It is proper to simultaneously cure the resin cement and the adhesive agent (one-shot technique; however, in that case, high light intensities (1000 mW/cm2 are recommended to achieve identical bond strength values in the cervical and middle thirds.

  18. Fiber glass and rock/slag wool exposure of professional and do-it-yourself installers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Eastes, Walter; Hadley, John G; Carter, Charles M; Reynolds, Janis W; Niebo, Ron

    2003-02-01

    The fiber glass (FG) and rock/slag wool (RSW) manufacturers have developed a Health and Safety Partnership Program (HSPP) with the participation and oversight of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Among its many provisions the HSPP includes the continuing study of FG and RSW workplace concentrations in manufacturing facilities operated by FG/RSW producers and among their customers and end users. This analysis estimates the probable cumulative lifetime exposure (fiber-months/cubic centimeter [f-months/cc]) to those who install FG and RSW insulation in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings in Canada and the United States. Both professional and do-it-yourself (DIY) cohorts are studied and the estimated working lifetime exposures are compared with benchmark values derived from an analysis of the epidemiological studies of FG and RSW manufacturing cohorts. The key finding of this analysis is that both of these end-user cohorts are likely to have substantially lower cumulative lifetime exposures than the manufacturing cohorts. As the most recent updates of the epidemiological studies concluded that there was no significant increase in respiratory system cancer among the manufacturing cohorts, there is likely to be even less risk for the installer cohorts. This analysis also underscores the wisdom of stewardship activities in the HSPP, particularly those directed at measuring and controlling exposure.

  19. Effects of Fiber Content on Mechanical Properties of CVD SiC Fiber-Reinforced Strontium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1996-01-01

    Unidirectional CVD SiC(f)(SCS-6) fiber-reinforced strontium aluminosilicate (SAS) glass-ceramic matrix composites containing various volume fractions, approximately 16 to 40 volume %, of fibers were fabricated by hot pressing at 1400 C for 2 h under 27.6 MPa. Monoclinic celsian, SrAl2Si2O8, was the only crystalline phase formed, with complete absence of the undesired hexacelsian phase, in the matrix. Room temperature mechanical properties were measured in 3-point flexure. The matrix microcracking stress and the ultimate strength increased with increase in fiber volume fraction, reached maximum values for V(sub f) approximately equal to 0.35, and degraded at higher fiber loadings. This degradation in mechanical properties is related to the change in failure mode, from tensile at lower V(sub f) to interlaminar shear at higher fiber contents. The extent of fiber loading did not have noticeable effect on either fiber-matrix debonding stress, or frictional sliding stress at the interface. The applicability of micromechanical models in predicting the mechanical properties of the composites was also examined. The currently available theoretical models do not appear to be useful in predicting the values of the first matrix cracking stress, and the ultimate strength of the SCS-6/SAS composites.

  20. A Comparative Investigation of the Tribological Behavior of Short Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites Under Dry Sliding and Water-Lubricated Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun-hong; CHEN Jian-min; ZHOU Hui-di; CHEN Jian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of high performance polyimide (PI) and its composites reinforced with short cut fibers such as carbon fiber, glass fiber and quartz fiber was comparatively evaluated under dry sliding and water-lubricated condition, aiming at selecting matching materials for the pumps of pure water power transmission. The wear mechanisms of the composites under the two different sliding conditions were also comparatively discussed, based on scanning electron microscopic examination of the worn composite and steel counterpart surfaces. As the results, the PI composites reinforced with carbon fiber have the best mechanical and tribological properties compared with glass fiber and quartz fiber. PI composites sliding against stainless steel register lower friction coefficients and wear rates under water-lubricated condition than under dry sliding though the transfer of PI and its composites was considerably hindered in this case. PI and its composites are characterized by plastic deformation, micro cracking, and spalling under both dry-and water-lubricated sliding. Such plastic deformation, micro cracking, and spalling is significantly abated under water-lubricated condition. The glass and quart2 fibers were easily abraded and broken when sliding against steel in water environment, the broken fibers transferred to the mating metal surface and increase the surface roughness of mating stainless steel. This is probably the cause of the increased wear rate of glass fiber and quartz fiber PI composites in this case.

  1. Measurement of thermal conductivity of PbTe nanocrystal coated glass fibers by the 3ω method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finefrock, Scott W; Wang, Yan; Ferguson, John B; Ward, James V; Fang, Haiyu; Pfluger, Jonathan E; Dudis, Douglas S; Ruan, Xiulin; Wu, Yue

    2013-11-13

    Fiber-based thermoelectric materials can conform to curved surfaces to form energy harvesting devices for waste heat recovery. Here we investigate the thermal conductivity in the axial direction of glass fibers coated with lead telluride (PbTe) nanocrystals using the self-heated 3ω method particularly at low frequency. While prior 3ω measurements on wire-like structures have only been demonstrated for high thermal conductivity materials, the present work demonstrates the suitability of the 3ω method for PbTe nanocrystal coated glass fibers where the low thermal conductivity and high aspect ratio result in a significant thermal radiation effect. We simulate the experiment using a finite-difference method that corrects the thermal radiation effect and extract the thermal conductivity of glass fibers coated by PbTe nanocrystals. The simulation method for radiation correction is shown to be generally much more accurate than analytical methods. We explore the effect of nanocrystal volume fraction on thermal conductivity and obtain results in the range of 0.50-0.93 W/mK near room temperature.

  2. Enhanced osteoprogenitor elongated collagen fiber matrix formation by bioactive glass ionic silicon dependent on Sp7 (osterix) transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Venu G; Odatsu, Tetsurou; Bishop, Timothy; Chang, Joyce; Owyoung, Jeremy; Loomer, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Bioactive glasses release ions, those enhance osteoblast collagen matrix synthesis and osteogenic marker expression during bone healing. Collagen matrix density and osteogenic marker expression depend on osteogenic transcription factors, (e.g., Osterix (OSX)). We hypothesize that enhanced expression and formation of collagen by Si(4+) depends on enhanced expression of OSX transcription. Experimental bioactive glass (6P53-b) and commercial Bioglass(TM) (45S5) were dissolved in basal medium to make glass conditioned medium (GCM). ICP-MS analysis was used to measure bioactive glass ion release rates. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured for 20 days, and gene expression and extracellular matrix collagen formation was analyzed. In a separate study, siRNA was used to determine the effect of OSX knockdown on impacting the effect of Si(4+) on osteogenic markers and matrix collagen formation. Each bioactive glass exhibited similar ion release rates for all ions, except Mg(2+) released by 6P53-b. Gene expression results showed that GCM markedly enhanced many osteogenic markers, and 45S5 GCM showed higher levels of expression and collagen matrix fiber bundle density than 6P53-b GCM. Upon knockdown of OSX transcription, collagen type 5, alkaline phosphatase, and matrix density were not enhanced as compared to wild type cells. This study illustrates that the enhancement of elongated collagen fiber matrix formation by Si(±) depends on OSX transcription. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2604-2615, 2016.

  3. Nanostructured Al-ZnO/CdSe/Cu2O ETA solar cells on Al-ZnO film/quartz glass templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianghu; Li, Rongbin; Fan, Donghua

    2011-12-01

    The quartz/Al-ZnO film/nanostructured Al-ZnO/CdSe/Cu2O extremely thin absorber solar cell has been successfully realized. The Al-doped ZnO one-dimensional nanostructures on quartz templates covered by a sputtering Al-doped ZnO film was used as the n-type electrode. A 19- to 35-nm-thin layer of CdSe absorber was deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, coating the ZnO nanostructures. The voids between the Al-ZnO/CdSe nanostructures were filled with p-type Cu2O, and therefore, the entire assembly formed a p-i-n junction. The cell shows the energy conversion efficiency as high as 3.16%, which is an interesting option for developing new solar cell devices. PACS: 88.40.jp; 73.40.Lq; 73.50.Pz.

  4. Analysis of the strengthenings of mixed glass fibers E and fibers AR in plaster, as an alternative to monofiber (homogeneous strengthenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Río Merino, M.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The company Vetrotex in collaboration with the Department of Architectural Constructions and their control (E.U.A.T of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, have deeply researched on plaster strengthened with glass fiber E. The conclusions of the influence of the dispersibility of glass fiber in the compound mechanical behavior and in its workability have been published in an earlier article. Here now are the results and conclusions of a study on mixed strengthenings of glass fibers E and AR combined at a 50%, as an alternative to the homogenous strengthening.

    La empresa Vetrotex, a través de sus técnicos y en colaboración con el Departamento de Construcciones Arquitectónicas y su control (E.U.A.T de la UPM, decide acometer un estudio en profundidad de la escayola reforzada con fibra de vidrio E. En un primer artículo se presentaron las conclusiones sobre la influencia del grado de dispersabilidad de las fibras de vidrio en el comportamiento mecánico del compuesto y en su trabajabilidad. En este segundo artículo se presentan los resultados y conclusiones del estudio de los refuerzos mixtos de fibras de vidrio E en combinación al 50% con fibras de vidrio AR, como alteruativa a los refuerzos actuales homogéneos.

  5. Mechanical and Impact Characterization of Poly-Dicyclopentadiene (p-DCPD) Matrix Composites Using Novel Glass Fibers and Sizings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    tested according to ASTM D303914 with strains measured using digital -image correlation (DIC) with a single-camera, 2-D setup. Flexural testing was...the 8-harness satin weave architecture under short span, 3-point bending. Both the PPG X1-glass and Bi-axial E-glass composites had single- digit ...74 sizing on the X2-fibers was still not able to compete in mechanical and impact tests with the SC-15 epoxy-resin composites. Most of the

  6. Effect of Zn addition on non-resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of the Cu-doped germano-silicate optical glass fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seongmin; Watekar, Pramod R; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Han, Won-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was manufactured by using the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process and solution doping process. To investigate the reduction effect of Zn addition on Cu metal formation in the core of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber, the optical absorption property and the non-resonant third-order optical nonlinearity were measured. Absorption peaks at 435 nm and 469 nm in the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber were contributed to Cu metal particles and ZnO semiconductor particles, respectively. The effective non-resonant optical nonlinearity, gamma, of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was measured to be 1.5097 W(-1) x km(-1) by using the continuous-wave self-phase modulation method. The gamma of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber was about four times larger than that of the reference germano-silicate optical glass fiber without any dopants. The increase of the effective non-resonant optical nonlinearity, gamma, of the Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber, can be attributed to the enhanced nonlinear polarization due to incorporated ZnO semiconductor particles and Cu metal ions in the glass network. The Cu/Zn-codoped germano-silicate optical glass fiber showed high nonlinearity and low transmission loss at the optical communication wavelength, which makes it suitable for high-speed-high-capacity optical communication systems.

  7. Flexible nanocrystal-coated glass fibers for high-performance thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Daxin; Yang, Haoran; Finefrock, Scott W; Wu, Yue

    2012-04-11

    Recent efforts on the development of nanostructured thermoelectric materials from nanowires (Boukai, A. I.; et al. Nature 2008, 451, (7175), 168-171; Hochbaum, A. I.; et al. Nature 2008, 451, (7175), 163-167) and nanocrystals (Kim, W.; et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 96, (4), 045901; Poudel, B.; et al. Science 2008, 320, (5876), 634-638; Scheele, M.; et al. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2009, 19, (21), 3476-3483; Wang, R. Y.; et al. Nano Lett. 2008, 8, (8), 2283-2288) show the comparable or superior performance to the bulk crystals possessing the same chemical compositions because of the dramatically reduced thermal conductivity due to phonon scattering at nanoscale surface and interface. Up to date, the majority of the thermoelectric devices made from these inorganic nanostructures are fabricated into rigid configuration. The explorations of truly flexible composite-based flexible thermoelectric devices (See, K. C.; et al. Nano Lett. 2010, 10, (11), 4664-4667) have thus far achieved much less progress, which in principle could significantly benefit the conversion of waste heat into electricity or the solid-state cooling by applying the devices to any kind of objects with any kind of shapes. Here we report an example using a scalable solution-phase deposition method to coat thermoelectric nanocrystals onto the surface of flexible glass fibers. Our investigation of the thermoelectric properties yields high performance comparable to the state of the art from the bulk crystals and proof-of-concept demonstration also suggests the potential of wrapping the thermoelectric fibers on the industrial pipes to improve the energy efficiency.

  8. Clinical evaluation of carbon fiber reinforced carbon endodontic post, glass fiber reinforced post with cast post and core: A one year comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Restoring endodontically treated teeth is one of the major treatments provided by the dental practitioner. Selection and proper use of restorative materials continues to be a source of frustration for many clinicians. There is controversy surrounding the most suitable choice of restorative material and the placement method that will result in the highest probability of successful treatment. This clinical study compares two different varieties of fiber posts and one cast post and core in terms of mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and periodontal pathology requiring crown removal over the period of 12months as evaluated by clinical and radiographical examination. Materials and Methods: 30 root canal treated, single rooted maxillary anterior teeth of 25 patients in the age range of 18-60 years where a post retained crown was indicated were selected for the study between January 2007 and August 2007; and prepared in a standard clinical manner. It was divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth in each group. After post space preparation, the Carbon fiber and Glass fiber reinforced posts were cemented with Scotch bond multipurpose plus bonding agent and RelyX adhesive resin cement in the first and second groups respectively. The Cast post and cores were cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement in the third group. Following post- cementation, the preparation was further refined and a rubber base impression was taken for metal-ceramic crowns which was cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement. A baseline periapical radiograph was taken once each crown was cemented. All patients were evaluated after one week (baseline, 3 months, 6 months and one year for following characteristics mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and

  9. 575 nm laser oscillation in Dy3+-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fiber pumped by violet GaN laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki

    2011-02-01

    We successfully drew a low-loss Dy-doped optical fiber (0.3dB/m at 532nm) of a waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass system and demonstrated yellow laser oscillation in the Dy3+-doped fluoride fiber pumped by a 398.8-nm GaN laser diode. The maximum output power was 10.3 mW and the slope efficiency was 17.1% at 575 nm. Since the fluoro-aluminate- glass system has a remarkable water resistance advantage compared to ZBLAN glass, Dy-doped fluoro-aluminate glass fiber is expected to contribute to making a solid-state yellow fiber laser with high chemical durability without a frequency doubling technique.

  10. A More Uniform Electric Field Distribution on Surge Arresters through the Optimal Design of Spacer and Fiber Glass Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Aghaebrahimi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimal design of spacers and fiber glass layer of a metal oxide surge arrester is presented in order to achieve a more uniform electric field distribution, inside and outside the arrester. This is done by using intelligent algorithms and numerical analysis, i.e., Finite Element Method (FEM. The introduced method can be used in order to determine the optimal dimensions of spacers and fiber glass layer so that the electric field distribution is optimized and the lifetime of highly stressed ZnO blocks in the vicinity of HV electrode is increased. In order to verify the results, Differential Evolution (DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithms are used.

  11. PHYSICAL BASIS OF ISOTOPE-ENRICHED LAYERS FORMATION IN FIBER OPTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myshkin V. F.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that transmission coefficient of quartz glass containing the same amount of 28Si and 30Si in the silicon optical fiber is lesser than in commercial LEDs for telecommunications. Therefore it is topical to develop the method of optical glass formation with specified isotope composition in the core and in the shell. The article provides an analysis of physical and chemical processes occurring at the formation of quartz optical fiber blanks by vapor deposition from the gas phase. It is shown that the part of the silicon tetrachloride oxidation stages passes through the radical processes. Therefore for quartz glass formation with specified isotope composition it is possible to use the paramagnetic phenomena caused by the external magnetic field in a high-temperature flow at the quartz glass chemical deposition from the vapor phase. In this case alloy additive using is not necessary. Alloy additives can form density inhomogeneities in the glass. Simultaneous silicon glass formation and silicon isotope separation process bring to significant reduction of the fiber cost in comparison with isotope-enriched materials using. The permanent magnets can be used for magnetic field formation at existing process units

  12. Particulate emissions in the flue gas of flat glass production after electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, A.; Carduck, E.; Manges, M.; Stadelmann, H.; Klinkers, J. [Saint-Gobain Glass Deutschland GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    As a contribution to the current discussion about fine dust and fine quartz and cristobalite particulate emissions and immissions, the authors point out the role the flat glass industry plays in this context. The main part of the raw material used in this industry is quartz sand (about 60%), but the latter's granulometry is such that it contains practically no fine particles. This fact is inherent in undisturbed glass production because quartz sand particles with grain size below 80 {mu}m would cause bad glass quality. Also other possible sources for silicon dioxide in the flue gas are discussed. In order to show the composition of the dust escaped to the electrostatic precipitators (EPs), the filters exclusively used in flat glass production, a number of quartz glass fiber filters used to measure the dust content in various plants were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Only in one case a quartz or cristobalite grain was identified, but with 30 {mu}m it was bigger than the respiratory fraction (<10 {mu}m) under discussion. In summary, it can be said that the findings are not at all alarming. In order to finally prove that there is no need to worry about emissions of carcinogenic dust for the whole glass industry future cooperative research will be necessary. (orig.)

  13. Time-Dependent Deformation Modelling for a Chopped-Glass Fiber Composite for Automotive Durability Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, W

    2001-08-24

    Time-dependent deformation behavior of a polymeric composite with chopped-glass-fiber reinforcement was investigated for automotive applications, The material under stress was exposed to representative automobile service environments. Results show that environment has substantial effects on time-dependent deformation behavior of the material. The data were analyzed and experimentally-based models developed for the time-dependent deformation behavior as a basis for automotive structural durability design criteria.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of chromium-doped nanophase separated yttria-alumina-silica glass-based optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Debjit; Dhar, Anirban; Das, Shyamal; Paul, Mukul C. [Fiber Optics and Photonics Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Kir' yanov, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Guanajuato (Mexico); Bysakh, Sandip [Electron Microscopic Section, Material Characterization Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-08-15

    The basic material and optical properties of chromium-doped nanophase-separated yttria-alumina-silica (YAS) glass based optical preforms and fibers, fabricated through the modified chemical vapor deposition process in conjunction with solution doping technique under suitable thermal annealing conditions are reported. The size of the phase-separated particles within the core of the annealed preform is around 20-30 nm which is significantly reduced to around 5.0 nm in the drawn fiber. The absorption spectra of fibers drawn from the annealed and non-annealed preform samples revealed the presence of Cr{sup 4+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 6+} specie. Numerically, extinction of absorption drops ∝3-3.5 times for the annealed sample as a result of nano-phase restructuration during annealing process. Intense broadband emission (within 500-800 nm) in case of the annealed preform sample is observed as compared to the non-annealed one and is associated with the presence of Cr{sup 3+} ions in nanostructured environment inside the YAS core glass. The final fibers show broadband emission ranging from 900 to 1400 nm under pumping at 1064 nm which is attributed mainly to the presence of Cr{sup 3+}/Cr{sup 4+} ions. The fabricated fibers seem to be a potential candidate for the development of fiber laser sources for the visible and near-infra ranges and for effective Q-switching units for ∝1-1.1 μm all-fiber ytterbium lasers. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Effect of the Volume Fraction of Jute Fiber on the Interlaminar Shear Stress and Tensile Behavior Characteristics of Hybrid Glass/Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Bar for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Gi Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid glass/jute fiber reinforced polymer (HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured for concrete structures, and their interlaminar shear stress and tensile performance were evaluated. HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured using a combination of pultrusion and braiding processes. Jute fiber was surface-treated with a silane coupling agent. The mixing ratio of the fiber to the vinyl ester used in the HGJFRP composite bars was 7 : 3. Jute fiber was used to replace glass fiber in proportions of 0, 30, 50, 70, and 100%. The interlaminar shear stress decreased as the proportion of jute fiber increased. Fractures appeared due to delamination between the surface-treated component and the main part of the HGJFRP composite bar. Tensile load-strain curves with 50% jute fiber exhibited linear behavior. With a jute fiber volume fraction of 70%, some plastic deformation occurred. A jute fiber mixing ratio of 100% resulted in a display of linear elastic brittle behavior from the fiber; however, when the surface of the fiber was coated with poly(vinyl acetate, following failure, the jute fiber exhibited partial load resistance. The tensile strength decreased as the jute fiber content increased; however, the tensile strength did not vary linearly with jute fiber content.

  16. The Use of Glass-fibers Ribbon and Composite for Prosthetic Restoration of Missing Primary Teeth-Laboratory and Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberman, Uri; Lasilla, Lippo

    2014-01-01

    Very few modalities can be used for restoring missing primary anterior teeth, although the impact of missing anterior teeth during early childhood can be harmful. In the permanent dentition the use of glass-fibers ribbon and composite materials are frequently used for restoring missing teeth with no or minimal preparation. The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility to use the glass-fibers ribbon (ever-Stick from GC Corporation, Japan) together with esthetic composite materials (...

  17. Influence of Copper Layer Content in the Elastic and Damping Behavior of Glass-Fiber/Epoxy-Resin Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, V. H.; Capela, P.; Teixeira, J. C.; Teixeira, S.; Cerqueira, F.; Macedo, F.; Ribas, L.; Soares, D.

    2016-12-01

    The impact in the elastic behavior and internal friction, caused by the introduction of Copper layers in Glass-Fiber/Epoxy Resin composites and temperature effects, were studied and evaluated recurring to Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. It is shown that the introduction of Copper layers increases the storage modulus of the composites and delays their glass transition temperature, however, it allows a faster transformation. Additionally, it is concluded that the introduction of Copper layers elevates the internal friction during the glass transition phase by the inversion of the deformation mechanism due to thermal expansion and increase in the Poisson's ratio of the epoxy resin to a value near 0.5 where its deformation is approximately isochoric. This increase in damping capacity is relevant in application with cyclic fatigue and mechanical vibration.

  18. A method for direct thalamic stimulation in fMRI studies using a glass-coated carbon fiber electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Bai-Chuang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Chang, Chen

    2004-08-15

    Recent fMRI studies are of interest in exploring long-range interactions between different brain structures and the functional activation of specific brain regions by known neuroanatomical pathways. One of the experimental approaches requires the invasive implantation of an intracranial electrode to excite specific brain structures. In the present report, we describe a procedure for the production of a glass-coated carbon fiber electrode and the use of this electrode for direct activation of the brain in fMRI studies. The glass-coated carbon fiber microelectrode was implanted in the medial thalamus of anaesthetized rats and T2*-weighted gradient echo images in the sagittal plane obtained on a 4.7 T system (Biospec BMT 47/40) during electrical stimulation of the medial thalamus. The image quality obtained using this electrode was acceptable without reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio and image distortion. Cross-correlation analysis showed that the signal intensities of activated areas in the ipsilateral anterior cingulate cortex were significantly increased by about 4-5% during medial thalamus stimulation. The present study shows that glass-coated carbon fiber electrodes are suitable for fMRI studies and can be used to investigate functional thalamocingulate activation.

  19. Angle-independent VO2 Thin Film on Glass Fiber Cloth as a Soft-Smart-Mirror (SSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nianjin; Zhang, Wang; Wang, Wanlin; Zhu, Yuchen; Zada, Imran; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Su, Huilan; Guo, Cuiping; Zhang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wu, Liping; Zhang, Di

    2016-11-01

    Designing materials with a negative feedback function is beneficial for achieving temperature regulation inside a greenhouse. VO2 has been studied extensively because of its low insulator-to-metal transition temperature (IMT). In this study, reflection changes during a VO2 phase transition were investigated. Glass fiber cloth was used as a substrate, as it is stable and soft. A VO2 thin film on a glass fiber cloth whose surface contained 96% V4+ and 4% V5+ was prepared using an inorganic sol-gels method. The insulator-to-metal transition temperature was decreased by 38 °C, which was observed from the reflection curve detected using an angle-resolved spectrometer. This decrease in IMT occurred mainly because of the presence of V5+, which causes destabilization of the monoclinic phase of VO2. When the greenhouse temperature was increased from 30 °C to 40 °C, the reflected intensity of VO2 on glass fiber cloth decreased by 22% for the wavelength range of 400 nm to 800 nm. In addition, the angle-independent property of the VO2 thin film was observed using an angle-resolved spectrometer. Owing to its thermo-reflective properties, the thin film can serve as a soft-smart-mirror (SSM) inside a greenhouse to stabilize the temperature, playing a negative feedback role.

  20. Study of the strength and erosive behavior of CaCO3/glass fiber reinforced polyester composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the strength and erosive characteristics of CaCO3 filled unsaturated polyester/glass fiber (UPR/GFR composite are evaluated. Samples of UPR with 40, 50 and 60 wt% content of CaCO3 and different CaCO3 particle sizes of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 micron were prepared and tested under tensile loading, indentation and erosion conditions. The tensile strength, hardness and erosion wear rate of unsaturated polyester/glass fiber (UPR composite/CaCO3 composite were obtained and evaluated. The results showed that the higher is the percentage of CaCO3 in the composite and the smaller is the CaCO3 particle size, the higher is the strength and the erosive resistance of the glass fiber reinforced/unsaturated polyester composite (UPR-GFR. Furthermore, the highest erosion wear rate is at 90° impingement angle. Finally the results show that the erosive wear of CaCO3 content UPR/GFR composite in a brittle manner.

  1. Miscible blends of biobased poly(lactide) with poly(methyl methacrylate): Effects of chopped glass fiber incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Dylan S. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Lowe, Corinne [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Swan, Dana [Arkema, King of Prussia Pennsylvania; Barsotti, Robert [Arkema, King of Prussia Pennsylvania; Zhang, Mingfu [Johns Manville, Littleton Colorado; Gleich, Klaus [Johns Manville, Littleton Colorado; Berry, Derek [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado; Snowberg, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado; Dorgan, John R. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401

    2017-02-22

    Poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are melt compounded with chopped glass fiber using laboratory scale twin-screw extrusion. Physical properties are examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing, impact testing, X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Molecular weight is determined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Miscibility of the blends is implied by the presence of a single glass transition temperature and homogeneous morphology. PLA/PMMA blends tend to show positive deviations from a simple linear mixing rule in their mechanical properties (e.g., tensile toughness, modulus, and stress at break). The addition of 40 wt % glass fiber to the system dramatically increases physical properties. Across all blend compositions, the tensile modulus increases from roughly 3 GPa to roughly 10 GPa. Estimated heat distortion temperatures (HDTs) are also greatly enhanced; the pure PLA sample HDT increases from 75 degrees C to 135 degrees C. Fiber filled polymer blends represent a sustainable class of earth abundant materials which should prove useful across a range of applications.

  2. Notched behavior of hybrid glass/aluminum/titanium fiber metal laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jipeng; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Jiazhen; Zhou, Zhengong

    2017-05-01

    A hybrid glass/aluminum/titanium fiber metal laminate (FML) based on the standard GLARE concept was proposed in present paper, and its notched behavior was investigated experimentally and numerically. Experimental results revealed that a special three-stage stress-stain curve was obtained by this reinforced GLARE, which was related to the transition of load bearing mechanism. As well as, improvements of notched strength and normalized notched strength were achieved benefiting from the high strength and ductile nature of titanium, where their maximum increments obtained at D/W=0.2 were 11.88% and 15.40%, respectively. In addition, numerical results indicated that the finite element model (FEM) predicted well the notched behavior of GLARE with incorporating the thermal residual stress effect. Moreover, the comparisons of internal energy and damage dissipation energy between standard GLARE and reinforced GLARE have facilitated in the understanding of reinforced effect of titanium. It is believed that the present investigation can provide some useful information for damage tolerance design of FMLs.

  3. Response of fiber Bragg gratings bonded on a glass/epoxy laminate subjected to static loadings

    KAUST Repository

    Mulle, Matthieu

    2015-04-22

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) may be used to monitor strain over the surface of a structure as an alternative technology to conventional strain gauges. However, FBG bonding techniques have still not been established to yield satisfactory surface measurements. Here, two adhesives were investigated, one with low viscosity and the other with high viscosity for bonding FBGs on glass/epoxy sandwich skins. First, instrumented elementary specimens were tested under tension. FBG strain results were analyzed together with digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. The influence of the bonding layer on the measured strain and on the integrity of the sensor was investigated by considering different regions of interest. Next, an instrumented structural sandwich beam was tested under four-point bending. FBG rosettes were compared to conventional strain gauge rosettes. The high viscosity adhesive demonstrated behaviors that affected FBG accuracy. Brittleness of the bonding layer and poor interface adhesion were observed using DIC and X-ray tomography. By contrast, the low viscosity adhesive demonstrated satisfactory results. The FBG strain measurements appeared to be consistent with those of DIC. The accuracy is also adequate as the FBGs and the conventional strain gauges had similar results in three directions, under tension and under compression.

  4. Tribological and Mechanical Behaviors of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber Composite Filled with Various Solid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duxin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  5. Preparation and characterization of glass fibers - polymers (epoxy) bars (GFRP) reinforced concrete for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkjk, Saeed; Jabra, Rafee; Alkhater, Salem

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents some of the results from a large experimental program undertaken at the Department of Civil Engineering of Damascus University. The project aims to study the ability to reinforce and strengthen the concrete by bars from Epoxy polymer reinforced with glass fibers (GFRP) and compared with reinforce concrete by steel bars in terms of mechanical properties. Five diameters of GFRP bars, and steel bars (4mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm) tested on tensile strength tests. The test shown that GFRP bars need tensile strength more than steel bars. The concrete beams measuring (15cm wide × 15cm deep × and 70cm long) reinforced by GFRP with 0.5 vol.% ratio, then the concrete beams reinforced by steel with 0.89 vol.% ratio. The concrete beams tested on deflection test. The test shown that beams which reinforced by GFRP has higher deflection resistance, than beams which reinforced by steel. Which give more advantage to reinforced concrete by GFRP.

  6. Tribological and mechanical behaviors of polyamide 6/glass fiber composite filled with various solid lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duxin; Xie, Ying; Li, Wenjuan; You, Yilan; Deng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and their compounds on mechanical and tribological properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6/GF) were studied. The polymeric materials were blended using twin-screw extruder and subsequently injection molded for test samples. Mechanical properties were investigated in terms of hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength. Friction and wear experiments were run under ambient conditions at a rotating speed of 200 rpm and load of 100 N. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were also observed with scanning electron microscope. The results showed that graphite could increase the tensile strength of PA6/GF-15 composite, but the material became soft. Graphite/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were effective in increasing the already high impact strength of PA6/GF-15 composite. 5% PTFE gave the maximum reduction in the coefficient of friction. However, PTFE/UHMWPE complex solid lubricants were the best choice for improving both friction and wear behaviors due to the lower friction coefficient and mass wear rate. Moreover, the worn surface of PA6 composites revealed that adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and fatigue wear occurred in this study.

  7. The Effect of Thermooxidative Aging on the Durability of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Khajeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin-skinned organic matrix composites within aeronautical structures are subjected to thermooxidative aging during their service life, leading to reductions in their durability. In this paper, a durability evaluation of fiberglass epoxy prepreg is performed on the original composite thickness before and after 800 h isothermal aging at 82°C. The characterization of both aged and unaged composites comprised tensile tests, DMA, FTIR, weight loss measurements, SEM, and DSC. The tensile strength and modulus of the composites increased after being exposed to pronounced aging conditions, whereas a decrease was observed in the toughness. DMA results revealed that the glass transition temperature and rubbery state modulus increased as a result of the thermooxidative aging. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated the formation of carbonyl compounds due to oxidation of the chemical structure of the resin. SEM observations indicated the existence of minor superficial cracking and poor fiber-matrix adhesion after aging. In addition, a minor mass change was observed from mass loss monitoring methods. The overall findings suggest that postcuring and physical aging enhanced the brittleness of the resin, leading to a significant decline in the useful structural life of the thin-skinned composite.

  8. Shear Strengthening of RC Beams Using Sprayed Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohamad Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of externally bonded sprayed glass fiber reinforced polymer (Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening of RC beams under quasi-static loading is investigated. Different techniques were utilized to enhance the bond between concrete and Sprayed GFRP, involving the use of through bolts and nuts paired with concrete surface preparation through sandblasting and through the use of a pneumatic chisel prior to Sprayed GFRP application. It was found that roughening the concrete surface using a pneumatic chisel and using through bolts and nuts were the most effective techniques. Also, Sprayed GFRP applied on 3 sides (U-shaped was found to be more effective than 2-sided Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening. Sprayed GFRP increased the shear load-carrying capacity and energy absorption capacities of RC beams. It was found that the load-carrying capacity of strengthened RC beams was related to an effective strain of applied Sprayed GFRP. This strain was related to Sprayed GFRP configuration and the technique used to enhance the concrete-FRP bond. Finally, an equation was proposed to calculate the contribution of Sprayed GFRP in the shear strength of an RC beam.

  9. THE PHYSICAL SIMULATION ON EXTRUSION PROCESS OF GLASS FIBER COMPOSITE WIRE COATED BY LEAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.F. Sun; W.B. Fang; F. Han; W.X. He; E.D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    The method of manufacturing the composite wire by extruding lead to coated glass fiber is described. The different composite wire that diameter is from 0.5 to 1.0mm has been produced by two kinds of different extruding technology (getting wire along horizontal direction and getting wire along perpendicular direction). The optimal extruding technological parameter has been given in different extruding technology by the physical simulation (H: 300℃, 550kN, 0.16mm. P: 300℃, 215kN, 0.16mm). The effect on the coating speed by other extruding technological parameters in the different extruding technology has been discussed. The extruding temperature and extruding force is higher, the coating speed is faster. It has been pointed, that the affection on the extruding technology by the extruding temperature has also behaved as the extruding temperature rising up spontaneously. The reason for exiting the minimum extruding force and maximum extruding force also has been discussion in this paper. It is also important to the extruding process and coating speed that is the coating clearance.

  10. Glass fiber reinforced plastics within the fringe and flexure tracker of LINC-NIRVANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajic, Semir; Eckart, A.; Horrobin, M.; Lindhorst, B.; Pott, J.-U.; Rauch, C.; Rost, S.; Straubmeier, C.; Tremou, E.; Wank, I.; Zuther, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is meant to monitor and correct atmospheric piston varia­ tion and instrumental vibrations and flexure during near-infrared interferometric image acquisition of LING­ NIRVANA. In close work with the adaptive optics system the FFTS enables homothetic imaging for the Large Binocular Telescope. One of the main problems we had to face is the connection between the cryogenic upper part of the instrument, e.g. detector head, and the lower ambient temperature part. In this ambient temperature part the moving stages are situated that move the detector head in the given field of view (FOV). We show how we solved this problem using the versatile material glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP's) and report in what way this material can be worked. We discuss in detail the exquisite characteristics of this material which we use to combine the cryogenic and ambient environments to a fully working system. The main characteristics that we focus on are the low temperature conduction and the tensile strength of the GFRP's. The low temperature conduction is needed to allow for a low heat-exchange between the cryogenic and ambient part whereas the tensile strength is needed to support heavy structures like the baffle motor and to allow for a minimum of flexure for the detector head. Additionally, we discuss the way we attached the GFRP to the remaining parts of the FFTS using a two component encapsulant.

  11. Cheap glass fiber mats as a matrix of gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yusong; Wang, Faxing; Liu, Lili; Xiao, Shiyin; Yang, Yaqiong; Wu, Yuping

    2013-11-12

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are going to play more important roles in electric vehicles and smart grids. The safety of the current LIBs of large capacity has been remaining a challenge due to the existence of large amounts of organic liquid electrolytes. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been tried to replace the organic electrolyte to improve their safety. However, the application of GPEs is handicapped by their poor mechanical strength and high cost. Here, we report an economic gel-type composite membrane with high safety and good mechanical strength based on glass fiber mats, which are separator for lead-acid batteries. The gelled membrane exhibits high ionic conductivity (1.13 mS cm(-1)), high Li(+) ion transference number (0.56) and wide electrochemical window. Its electrochemical performance is evaluated by LiFePO4 cathode with good cycling. The results show this gel-type composite membrane has great attraction to the large-capacity LIBs requiring high safety with low cost.

  12. Fabrication of Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites Based on Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was added by the mass of phenol to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF resins, which were used to fabricate glass fiber (GF reinforced BPF resin (GF/BPF composites. The properties of the BPF resin and the GF/BPF composites prepared were tested. The functional groups and thermal property of BPF resin were thoroughly investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra and dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA. Results indicated that the addition of 20% bio-oil exhibited favorable adaptability for enhancing the stiffness and heat resistance of phenol formaldehyde (PF resin. Besides, high-performance GF/BPF composites could be successfully prepared with the BPF resin based on hand lay-up process. The interface characteristics of GF/BPF composites were determined by the analysis of dynamic wettability (DW and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It exhibited that GF could be well wetted and embedded in the BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20%.

  13. Research on the mechanical properties of a glass fiber reinforced polymer-steel combined truss structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zhao, Qilin; Li, Fei; Liu, Jinchun; Chen, Haosen

    2014-01-01

    An assembled plane truss structure used for vehicle loading is designed and manufactured. In the truss, the glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) tube and the steel joint are connected by a new technology featuring a pretightened tooth connection. The detailed description for the rod and node design is introduced in this paper, and a typical truss panel is fabricated. Under natural conditions, the short-term load test and long-term mechanical performance test for one year are performed to analyze its performance and conduct a comparative analysis for a reasonable FEM model. The study shows that the design and fabrication for the node of an assembled truss panel are convenient, safe, and reliable; because of the creep control design of the rods, not only does the short-term structural stiffness meet the design requirement but also the long-term creep deformation tends towards stability. In addition, no significant change is found in the elastic modules, so this structure can be applied in actual engineering. Although the safety factor for the strength of the composite rods is very large, it has a lightweight advantage over the steel truss for the low density of GFRP. In the FEM model, simplifying the node as a hinge connection relatively conforms to the actual status.

  14. Research on the Mechanical Properties of a Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Combined Truss Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An assembled plane truss structure used for vehicle loading is designed and manufactured. In the truss, the glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP tube and the steel joint are connected by a new technology featuring a pretightened tooth connection. The detailed description for the rod and node design is introduced in this paper, and a typical truss panel is fabricated. Under natural conditions, the short-term load test and long-term mechanical performance test for one year are performed to analyze its performance and conduct a comparative analysis for a reasonable FEM model. The study shows that the design and fabrication for the node of an assembled truss panel are convenient, safe, and reliable; because of the creep control design of the rods, not only does the short-term structural stiffness meet the design requirement but also the long-term creep deformation tends towards stability. In addition, no significant change is found in the elastic modules, so this structure can be applied in actual engineering. Although the safety factor for the strength of the composite rods is very large, it has a lightweight advantage over the steel truss for the low density of GFRP. In the FEM model, simplifying the node as a hinge connection relatively conforms to the actual status.

  15. Preparation and radar absorptive properties of BaFe12O19 -coated glass fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, F.; Xu, M.; Bao, H. Q.; Cui, K.; Zhang, F.

    2016-07-01

    Traditional passive jamming materials such as chaff and foil showed some limitations in use because they can only reflect the electromagnetic wave. Therefore, to develop a kind of absorptive passive jamming material to make up for deficiencies of traditional passive jamming materials and improve the jamming efficiency is of great significance. In this paper, the BaFe12O19-coated glass fiber, used as a kind of radar absorptive chaff, was prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method. The effects of heat treatment temperature, heat treatment time and coating times on film quality, tensile strength and attenuation efficiency of the samples were discussed. The study shows that an increase of the heat treatment temperature and an extension of the heat treatment time is conducive to the growth of barium ferrite grain, while they would introduce the loss of chaff strength at the same time. In addition, multi-coating process can improve the film quality and attenuation efficiency of the sample. Data show that the 10 times coated samples have a best reflectivity of (15GHz, -6.65dB) and the bandwidth of reflectivity lower than -5dB is11.8 GHz. According to the test results, the prepared material has certain attenuation efficiency in the range of 2GHz-18GHz, having a high practical value.

  16. Cheap glass fiber mats as a matrix of gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yusong; Wang, Faxing; Liu, Lili; Xiao, Shiyin; Yang, Yaqiong; Wu, Yuping

    2013-11-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are going to play more important roles in electric vehicles and smart grids. The safety of the current LIBs of large capacity has been remaining a challenge due to the existence of large amounts of organic liquid electrolytes. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been tried to replace the organic electrolyte to improve their safety. However, the application of GPEs is handicapped by their poor mechanical strength and high cost. Here, we report an economic gel-type composite membrane with high safety and good mechanical strength based on glass fiber mats, which are separator for lead-acid batteries. The gelled membrane exhibits high ionic conductivity (1.13 mS cm-1), high Li+ ion transference number (0.56) and wide electrochemical window. Its electrochemical performance is evaluated by LiFePO4 cathode with good cycling. The results show this gel-type composite membrane has great attraction to the large-capacity LIBs requiring high safety with low cost.

  17. Strengthening of Corrosion-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Rose

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study showed the results of an experimental investigation on the strengthening of corrosion damaged reinforced concrete beams with unidirectional cloth glass fiber reinforced polymer (UDCGFRP laminates. Approach: All the beam specimens 150×250×3000 mm were cast and tested for the present investigation. One beam specimen was neither corroded nor strengthened to serve as a reference. Two beams were corroded to serve as a corroded control. A reinforcement mass loss of approximately 10 and 25% were used to define medium and severe degrees of corrosion. The remaining two beams corroded and strengthened with GFRP. Results: The test parameters included first crack load, first crack deflection, yield load, yield deflection, service load, service deflection, ultimate load and ultimate deflection. Based on the results it was found that GFRP Laminates had beneficial effects even at the corrosion-damaged stage. Conclusion/Recommendations: The UDCGFRP laminated beams showed distinct enhancement in ultimate strength and ductility by 72.37 and 49.49% respectively.

  18. Behavior of Fiber Glass Bolts, Rock Bolts and Cable Bolts in Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuwei; Aziz, Naj; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This paper experimentally compares the shear behavior of fiber glass (FG) bolt, rock bolt (steel rebar bolt) and cable bolt for the bolt contribution to bolted concrete surface shear strength, and bolt failure mode. Two double shear apparatuses of different size were used for the study. The tensile strength, the shear strength and the deformation modulus of bolt control the shear behavior of a sheared bolted joint. Since the strength and deformation modulus of FG bolt, rock bolt and cable bolt obtained from uniaxial tensile tests are different, their shear behavior in reinforcing joints is accordingly different. Test results showed that the shear stiffness of FG bolted joints decreased gradually from the beginning to end, while the shear stiffness of joints reinforced by rock bolt and cable bolt decreased bi-linearly, which is clearly consistent with their tensile deformation modulus. The bolted joint shear stiffness was highly influenced by bolt pretension in the high stiffness stage for both rock bolt and cable bolt, but not in the low stiffness stage. The rock bolt contribution to joint shear strength standardised by the bolt tensile strength was the largest, followed by cable bolts, then FG bolts. Both the rock bolts and cable bolts tended to fail in tension, while FG bolts in shear due to their low shear strength and constant deformation modulus.

  19. Study on novel and promising NH3-SCR catalysts on glass fiber cloth for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junlin; Li, Fengxiang; Hu, Hua; Qi, Kai; He, Feng; Fang, De

    2017-05-01

    MnO x , Mn/TiO2 and Fe-Mn/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by precipitation-impregnation method. The MnO x catalyst shows the highest activity for the reduction of NO with NH3 at the temperature range of 80 °C to 140 °C, and achieves more than 98% of NO conversion at 140 °C. The MnO x catalyst loaded on glass fiber cloth (GFC) was prepared by impregnation method, and the effects of preparation conditions were studied. It turns out that the catalyst particle size, loading capacity and catalyst varieties make a great difference to catalytic performance. In addition, the catalyst with aluminum sol as a binder has the higher catalytic activity but poor ability of anti-sulfur and anti-water poisoning, compared with the catalyst using silica sol binder. Further, MnO x , Mn/TiO2 and Fe-Mn/TiO2 powders were loaded onto GFC using XRD, HRTEM, TGA, SEM, BET, H2-TPR and NH3-TPD to systematically characterize the various physico-chemical properties and denitrition activity. The results indicate that the changes of active components, specific surface area, microstructure, reducibility and suface acidity of the three kinds of catalysts lead to different catalytic activities.

  20. Preparation and characterization of glass fibers – polymers (epoxy bars (GFRP reinforced concrete for structural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkjk Saeed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some of the results from a large experimental program undertaken at the Department of Civil Engineering of Damascus University. The project aims to study the ability to reinforce and strengthen the concrete by bars from Epoxy polymer reinforced with glass fibers (GFRP and compared with reinforce concrete by steel bars in terms of mechanical properties. Five diameters of GFRP bars, and steel bars (4mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm tested on tensile strength tests. The test shown that GFRP bars need tensile strength more than steel bars. The concrete beams measuring (15cm wide × 15cm deep × and 70cm long reinforced by GFRP with 0.5 vol.% ratio, then the concrete beams reinforced by steel with 0.89 vol.% ratio. The concrete beams tested on deflection test. The test shown that beams which reinforced by GFRP has higher deflection resistance, than beams which reinforced by steel. Which give more advantage to reinforced concrete by GFRP.

  1. Double-Sided Terahertz Imaging of Multilayered Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Lopato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymer matrix composites (PMC play important roles in modern industry. Increasing the number of such structures in aerospace, construction, and automotive applications enforces continuous monitoring of their condition. Nondestructive inspection of layered composite materials is much more complicated process than evaluation of homogenous, (mostly metallic structures. Several nondestructive methods are utilized in this case (ultrasonics, shearography, tap testing, acoustic emission, digital radiography, infrared imaging but none of them gives full description of evaluated structures. Thus, further development of NDT techniques should be studied. A pulsed terahertz method seems to be a good candidate for layered PMC inspection. It is based on picosecond electromagnetic pulses interacting with the evaluated structure. Differences of dielectric parameters enables detection of a particular layer in a layered material. In the case of multilayered structures, only layers close to surface can be detected. The response of deeper ones is averaged because of multiple reflections. In this paper a novel inspection procedure with a data processing algorithm is introduced. It is based on a double-sided measurement, acquired signal deconvolution, and data combining. In order to verify the application of the algorithm stress-subjected glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP was evaluated. The obtained results enabled detection and detailed analysis of delaminations introduced by stress treatment and proved the applicability of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pediatric Urology Research Center, Section of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Therapy, Department of Pediatric Urology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran (IRI) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moztarzadeh, Fatollah [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi-Majidi, Reza [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  3. Aluminum-coated hollow glass fibers for ArF-excimer laser light fabricated by metallorganic chemical-vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Y; Miyagi, M

    1999-04-20

    A hollow fiber composed of a glass capillary tube and a metal thin film upon the inside of the tube is proposed for the delivery of ArF-excimer laser light. From theoretical analysis, aluminum is chosen as the metal layer. A thin aluminum film is deposited by metallorganic chemical-vapor deposition, with dimethylethylamine alane employed as the source material. Measured loss spectra in vacuum-ultraviolet and ultraviolet regions and losses for ArF-excimer laser light show the low-loss property of the aluminum-coated fiber at the 193-nm wavelength of ArF-excimer laser light. The straight loss of the 1-m long, 1-mm-bore fiber is 1.0 dB.

  4. Nonlinear switching in a two-concentric-core chalcogenide glass optical fiber for passively mode-locking a fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemosadat, Elham; Mafi, Arash

    2014-08-15

    We propose an all-fiber mode-locking device, which operates based on nonlinear switching in a novel two-concentric-core fiber structure. The design is particularly attractive given the ease of fabrication and coupling to other components in a mode-locked fiber laser cavity. The nonlinear switching in this coupler is studied, and the relative power transmission is obtained. The analysis shows that this nonlinear switch is practical for mode-locking fiber lasers and is forgiving to fabrication errors.

  5. Thulium pumped mid-infrared 0.9–9μm supercontinuum generation in concatenated fluoride and chalcogenide glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe Visbech;

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate a novel approach for generating Mid-InfraRed SuperContinuum (MIR SC) by using concatenated fluoride and chalcogenide glass fibers pumped with a standard pulsed Thulium (Tm) laser (TFWHM=3.5ps, P0=20kW, νR=30MHz, and Pavg=2W). The fluoride fiber SC is generated in 10m ...

  6. Role of hydrogen loading and glass composition on the defects generated by the femtosecond laser writing process of fiber Bragg gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troy, N.; Smelser, C.W.; Krol, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The creation of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in optical fibers by laser irradiation causes the formation of defects in the modified glass. We have used confocal fluorescence spectroscopy to identify the location and types of defects formed after writing FBGs with the femtosecond laser phase mask tech

  7. Contribution to the improved ultrasonic testing of glass fiber-reinforced polymers based on analytic modeling; Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Ultraschallpruefung glasfaserverstaerkter Polymere auf der Grundlage analytischer Modellierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripp, S.

    2001-04-01

    The non-destructive testing of acoustic anisotropic materials like fiber composites has been evaluated. Modelling enabled predictions about wave deflection, direction of wave propagation, and refractive angle of ultrasonic waves in these media. Thus, measurements could be carried out using unidirectional glass-fiber composites.

  8. Comparison of the fracture resistances of glass fiber mesh- and metal mesh-reinforced maxillary complete denture under dynamic fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reinforcing materials on the fracture resistances of glass fiber mesh- and Cr–Co metal mesh-reinforced maxillary complete dentures under fatigue loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS Glass fiber mesh- and Cr–Co mesh-reinforced maxillary complete dentures were fabricated using silicone molds and acrylic resin. A control group was prepared with no reinforcement (n = 15 per group). After fatigue loading was applied using a chewing simulator, fracture resistance was measured by a universal testing machine. The fracture patterns were analyzed and the fractured surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS After cyclic loading, none of the dentures showed cracks or fractures. During fracture resistance testing, all unreinforced dentures experienced complete fracture. The mesh-reinforced dentures primarily showed posterior framework fracture. Deformation of the all-metal framework caused the metal mesh-reinforced denture to exhibit the highest fracture resistance, followed by the glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture (P<.05) and the control group (P<.05). The glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture primarily maintained its original shape with unbroken fibers. River line pattern of the control group, dimples and interdendritic fractures of the metal mesh group, and radial fracture lines of the glass fiber group were observed on the fractured surfaces. CONCLUSION The glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture exhibits a fracture resistance higher than that of the unreinforced denture, but lower than that of the metal mesh-reinforced denture because of the deformation of the metal mesh. The glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture maintains its shape even after fracture, indicating the possibility of easier repair. PMID:28243388

  9. The influence of glass fibers on elongational viscosity studied by means of optical coherence tomography and X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, M., E-mail: michael.aigner@jku.at; Köpplmayr, T., E-mail: thomas.koepplmayr@jku.at, E-mail: Christian.lang@jku.at; Lang, C., E-mail: thomas.koepplmayr@jku.at, E-mail: Christian.lang@jku.at; Burzic, I., E-mail: ivana.burzic@jku.at, E-mail: juergen.miethlinger@jku.at; Miethlinger, J., E-mail: ivana.burzic@jku.at, E-mail: juergen.miethlinger@jku.at [Institute of Polymer Extrusion and Compounding, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Salaberger, D., E-mail: dietmar.salaberger@fh-wels.at [University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria (Austria); Buchsbaum, A., E-mail: andreas.buchsbaum@recendt.at; Leitner, M. [Research Center for Non Destructive Testing GmbH (Austria); Heise, B., E-mail: bettina.heise@jku.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, ZONA, Austria and Institute for Knowledge-based Mathematical Systems, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Schausberger, S. E., E-mail: stefan.schausberger@jku.at; Stifter, D. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, ZONA (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    We report on the flow characteristics of glass-fiber-reinforced polymers in elongational rheometry. Unlike polymers with geometrically isotropic fillers, glass-fiber-reinforced polymers exhibit flow behavior and rheology that depend heavily on the orientation, the length distribution and the content of the fibers. One of the primary objectives of this study was to determine the effect of fiber orientation, concentration and distribution on the entrance pressure drop by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM), and X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Both pressure drop and melt flow were analyzed using a special elongation die (Thermo Scientific X-Die [3]) for inline measurements. Samples with a variety of fiber volume fractions, fiber lengths and processing temperatures were measured.

  10. Far-infrared Optical Glasses and Fibers Based on Ge-Te-Se Glass System%远红外Ge-Te-Se硫系玻璃与光纤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰; 王训四; 聂秋华; 戴世勋; 章向华; Bruno BUREAU; Catherine BOUSSARD; Clement CONSEIL

    2012-01-01

    GexTe65Se(35-x (x = 20, 22, 23, 24, in mole fraction, x%) Te-based chalcogenide glasses were prepared by a conventional melt-qluenching method in a silica tube under vacuum. The performance of these glasses was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), visible/near-infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and infrared transmission spectroscopy. These glasses appeared to have excellent thermal stability and transmission properties. There was no crystallization peak on the DSC curve for the two glass compositions, namely, Ge23Te65Se12 and Ge24Te6sSe11, indicating a notably enhanced resistance to crystallization and a maximum value of Tg at 188℃ for the glass composition Ge24Te65Sell. The optical transmission window was from 1.8 μm in the bandgap region to 18 pan in the phonon region. A distillation process that could effectively eliminate the absorption bands in the IR region was used for these glasses. The fabrication (rod-in-tube method) and fiber drawing were both conducted with glass compositions of Ge23Te65Se12 and Ge24Te65Sen as cladding and core, respectively. The Ge-Te-Se infrared optical fiber with core-cladding structure exhibited good fiber drawing properties.%采用传统的熔融–淬冷法制备了系列GexTe65Se(35–x)(x=20,22,23,24;摩尔分数,x%)Te基硫系玻璃。利用X射线衍射、差示扫描量热分析、分光光度计、红外光谱仪等设备研究了玻璃的性能。这些玻璃具有良好的热稳定性和红外透过性能。组分为Ge23Te65Se12,Ge24Te65Se11的玻璃的差示扫描量热曲线中没有出现析晶峰,表明玻璃具有良好的抗析晶性能。组分为Ge24Te65Se11的玻璃的转变温度Tg最高,达到了188℃。这些玻璃样品的红外透过范围都很宽,从近红外的1.8μm到远红外的18μm。通过在玻璃的制备工艺中引入蒸馏提纯工艺可以有效减弱杂质吸收峰对玻璃红外透过性能的影响。最后,选用Ge23Te65Se

  11. Influence of instrumentation techniques and irrigating solutions on bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Eduardo Fernandes; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Veloso, Heloisa Helena Pinho; Almeida, Gustavo; Pinheiro, Sergio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how instrumentation techniques and irrigating solutions affected the bond strength of glass fiber posts. For this study, 80 human maxillary central incisors were selected. Endodontic access was obtained, root canal length was measured, and the coronal third was prepared using Gates-Glidden drills. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 10): manual instrumentation only (Group 1), rotary instrumentation only (Group 2), irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group 3), irrigation with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) (Group 4), manual instrumentation and irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 5), manual instrumentation and irrigation with 2% CHX (Group 6), rotary instrumentation and irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 7), and rotary instrumentation and irrigation with 2% CHX (Group 8). Specimens in Groups 5-8 also received a 1 minute final rinse with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Canals were filled and the specimens stored for 30 days in distilled water. The restoration material was removed down to the apical 4 mm of the root canal. The glass fiber posts were luted with resin cement and stored for 24 hours at 37°C. Specimens were subjected to a tensile strength test at a constant speed of 1.0 mm/minute and a load of 2,000 kgf. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl reduced the bond strength of fiber posts significantly (P 0.05). It was concluded that irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl has a negative effect on micromechanical retention of glass fiber posts, whether manual or rotary instrumentation is used.

  12. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber reinforced Post to Core Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, Jn; Saha, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effect of different chemical solvents on glass fiber reinforced posts and to study the effect of these solvents on the shear bond strength of glass fiber reinforced post to core material. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three chemical solvents, i.e. silane coupling agent, 6% H2O2 and 37% phosphoric acid on the shear bond strength of glass fiber post to a composite resin restorative material. The changes in post surface characteristics after different treatments were also observed, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and shear bond strength was analyzed using universal testing machine (UTM). Surface treatment with hydrogen peroxide had greatest impact on the post surface followed by 37% phosphoric acid and silane. On evaluation of the shear bond strength, 6% H2O2 exhibited the maximum shear bond strength followed in descending order by 37% phosphoric acid and silane respectively. The surface treatment of glass fiber post enhances the adhesion between the post and composite resin which is used as core material. Failure of a fiber post and composite resin core often occurs at the junction between the two materials. This failure process requires better characterization. How to cite this article: Sharma A, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Saha S. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Post to Core Material. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):192-196.

  13. Investigation of reagent distributions on glass fiber membrane filters used in air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Samuel P

    2007-10-01

    This project has arisen from the need to produce GFFs (glass fiber filters) bearing a thin and evenly distributed coating of a selected reagent in the equatorial plane for breakthrough studies. However, it has been discovered that today's two general techniques for coating GFFs (total immersion and application of reagent solution to GFFs) have usually produced unevenly distributed coatings of reagent in the equatorial plane. In addition, quantities of reagent on GFFs from commercial sources may vary widely in the same lot of coated GFFs. Consequences are variability in capacity of coated filters at the point of breakthrough and, perhaps, wasted reagent. Although today's reagent-coated filters may be satisfactory for routine air sampling, such filters may be unacceptable for precise breakthrough studies. Research has been conducted successfully to produce nearly evenly distributed coatings of reagents in the equatorial plane of GFFs by application of reagent solutions to the centers of GFFs which are resting on crisscrossing, fine, stainless-steel wire. Distributions of coatings have been determined by punching out twenty-one 5-mm circles from each GFF and analyzing each circle by flow-injection with a UV detector. Lowest achievable relative standard deviations of measurement (RSDs) for reagents in 5-mm circles have been 5 to 7%. Reagents studied have included 1-(2-pyridyl)piperazine (1-2PP), 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), and 1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine (MAP). Factors affecting the distribution of such coatings include choice of reagent and choice of solvent for the reagent solution.

  14. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Posts Subjected to Laser Surface Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Siqueira, Carolina; Spadini de Faria, Natália; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Colucci, Vivian; Alves Gomes, Erica

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laser irradiation on flexural strength, elastic modulus, and surface roughness and morphology of glass fiber posts (GFPs). Laser treatment of GFPs has been introduced to improve its adhesion properties. A total of 40 GFPs were divided into 4 groups according to the irradiation protocol: GC-no irradiation, GYAG-irradiation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Er:YAG], GCR-irradiation with erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG), and GDI-irradiation with diode laser. The GFP roughness and morphology were evaluated through laser confocal microscopy before and after surface treatment. Three-point bending flexural test measured flexural strength and elastic modulus. Data about elastic modulus and flexural strength were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test (p Laser treatment changed surface roughness in the groups GCR (p = 0.000) and GDI (p = 0.007). The mean flexural strength in GYAG (995.22 MPa) was similar to that in GC (980.48 MPa) (p = 1.000) but different from that in GCR (746.83 MPa) and that in GDI (691.34 MPa) (p = 0.000). No difference was found between the groups GCR and GDI (p = 0.86). For elastic modulus: GYAG (24.47 GPa) was similar to GC (25.92 GPa) (p = 1.000) but different from GCR (19.88 GPa) (p = 0.002) and GDI (17.20 GPa) (p = 0.000). The different types of lasers, especially Er,Cr:YSGG and 980 ηm diode, influenced the mechanical properties of GFPs.

  15. An Investigation into Reducing Time Dependent Creep of a Polyethylene Geotextile using Glass Fiber Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun

    An investigation has been carried out to reduce the deformation behavior of polyethylene (PE) woven geotextile fabric by making PE fabric-glass yarn composite structure using stitching and laminating. The results showed that reinforcement significantly reduced the creep and IED as long as the tensile stress is lower than the total load bearing capacity of the glass yarns in the composite structure. However, the strength of PE-glass composite fabric was solely dependent on the strength of the glass yarns. The strength from PE yarns only contributes when all glass yarns are broken. Cast result of concrete columns using the glass yarn reinforced PE fabric by stitching method suggested that the glass yarn must face outside of the fabric formwork to avoid damage of both fabric surface and column surface.

  16. Crash worthy capacity of a hybridized epoxy-glass fiber aluminum columnar tube using repeated axial resistive force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paruka, Perowansa [Jalan Politeknik, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia); Siswanto, Waluyo Adi [Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja (Malaysia); Maleque, Md Abdul [Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Shah, Mohd Kamal Mohd [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A combination of aluminum columnar member with composite laminate to form a hybrid structure can be used as collapsible energy absorbers especially in automotive vehicular structures to protect occupants and cargo. A key advantage of aluminum member in composite is that it provides ductile and stable plastic collapse mechanisms with progressive deformation in a stable manner by increasing energy absorption during collision. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the influence of the number of hybrid epoxy glass layers in overwrap composite columnar tubes. Three columnar tube specimens were used and fabricated by hand lay-up method. Aluminum square hollow shape was combined with externally wrapped by using an isophthalic epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber skin with an orientation angle of 0 .deg. /90 .deg. The aluminum columnar tube was used as reference material. Crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes were prepared using one, two, and three layers to determine the crash worthy capacity. Quasi-static crush test was conducted using INSTRON machine with an axial loading. Results showed that crush force and the number of layers were related to the enhancement of energy absorption before the collapse of columnar tubes. The energy absorption properties of the crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes improved significantly with the addition of layers in the overwrap. Microscopic analysis on the modes of epoxy-glass fiber laminate failure was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Ge-Sb-Se glass fiber-optics for in-vivo mid-infrared optical biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, H.; Butterworth, J. H.; Sakr, H.; Tang, Z.; Furniss, D.; Benson, T. M.; Scotchford, C.; Seddon, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    In the UK, it is now recognised that 1 in 2 people born after 1960 will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime. Diagnosing patients whilst in the early stages drastically improves their chances of survival but up until now the gold standard for cancer detection is via a lengthy excision biopsy procedure, which relies on the skill of a histopathologist. Evidently, the need for a faster solution is paramount. The mid-infrared (MIR) spectral region covers the wavelengths 3-25 μm and characteristic vibrational spectra unique to each molecular type. Subtle changes in the specific spectral response within this region are indicative of changes within the cells relative to normal cells, signifying the presence or absence of a disease. Our goal is to carry out disease diagnosis in vivo. Reaching these wavelengths has previously presented difficulties as conventional MIR blackbody light sources are weak and optical fibers for transmitting MIR light to/from tissue in vivo can be limited by strong material absorption such as silica glass >2.4 μm and tellurite, and heavy metal fluoride, >4.75 μm. However, chalcogenide glasses have been shown to transmit MIR light out to 25 μm. This paper reports on a glass composition in the Ge-Sb-Se system and its suitability as an optical fiber for the transmission of MIR to and from tissue samples, enabling in vivo mapping for an immediate diagnostic response- a technique termed `optical biopsy'.

  18. Radiological results for samples collected on paired glass- and cellulose-fiber filters at the Sandia complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Airborne particulates are collected at U.S. Department of Energy sites that exhibit radiological contamination on the soil surface to help assess the potential for wind to transport radionuclides from the contamination sites. Collecting these samples was originally accomplished by drawing air through a cellulose-fiber filter. These filters were replaced with glass-fiber filters in March 2011. Airborne particulates were collected side by side on the two filter materials between May 2013 and May 2014. Comparisons of the sample mass and the radioactivity determinations for the side-by-side samples were undertaken to determine if the change in the filter medium produced significant results. The differences in the results obtained using the two filter types were assessed visually by evaluating the time series and correlation plots and statistically by conducting a nonparametric matched-pair sign test. Generally, the glass-fiber filters collect larger samples of particulates and produce higher radioactivity values for the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy analyses. However, the correlation between the radioanalytical results for the glass-fiber filters and the cellulose-fiber filters was not strong enough to generate a linear regression function to estimate the glass-fiber filter sample results from the cellulose-fiber filter sample results.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ALKALI RESISTANT GLASS FIBER FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT AND CHEMICAL DURABILITY COMPARISON WITH SrO-Mn2O3-Fe2O3-MgO-ZrO2-SiO2 (SMFMZS SYSTEM GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göktuğ GÜNKAYA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the relevant literature, the utilization of different kind of glass fibers in concrete introduces positive effect on the mechanical behavior, especially toughness. There are many glassfibers available to reinforce concretes. Glass fiber composition is so important because it may change the properties such as strength, elastic modulus and alkali resistance. Its most important property to be used in concrete is the alkali resistance. Some glasses of SrO–MgO–ZrO2–SiO2 (SMZS quaternary system, such as 26SrO, 20MgO, 14ZrO2, 40SiO2 (Zrn glass, have been found to be highly alkali resistant thanks to their high ZrO2 and MgO contents. Previous researches on these glasses with MnO and/or Fe2O3 partially replacing SrO have been made with the aim of improving the chemical resistance and decreasing the production cost.The main target of the present study, first of all, was to characterize commercially available alkali resistant glass fiber for concrete reinforcement and then to compare its alkali durability with those of the SrO-Mn2O3-Fe2O3-MgO-ZrO2-SiO2 (SMFMZS system glasses. For such purposes, XRF, Tg-DTA, alkali resistance tests and SEM analysis conducted with EDX were employed. According tothe alkali endurance test results it was revealed that some of the SMFMZS system glass powders are 10 times resistant to alkali environments than the commercial glass fibers used in this study.Therefore, they can be considered as alternative filling materials on the evolution of chemically resistant concrete structures.

  20. Microscopic study of surface degradation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer rods embedded in concrete castings subjected to environmental conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, L.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Puterman, M. [Technion, Haifa (Israel). National Building Research Inst.

    1997-12-31

    The surface degradation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) pultruded rods when embedded in concrete castings and subjected to environmental conditioning is discussed in this paper. Investigation of the degradation of the GFRP rods were performed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unidirectionally reinforced pultruded rods (6.3- and 12.7-mm diameters) containing E-glass fibers in polyester and vinylester matrices were conditioned at standard laboratory conditions (21 C, 65% relative humidity) or submerged in aqueous solutions (tap water) at 80 C for durations of 14 and 84 days. Observations of the surfaces and cross-sections of the rods by optical microscopy and SEM revealed a variety of degradation phenomena. Embedded hygrothermally conditioned rods were found to have developed surface blisters of different sizes and depths. SEM studies of the surface revealed degradation of the polymer matrix material and exposure and degradation of the fibers close to the surface of the rods. The rods with the vinylester resin matrix showed less extensive degradation than those with the polyester resin matrix; however, the degradation characteristics of the two types of rods appear to be similar.

  1. Effect of water storage on the flexural strength of heat-cured denture base resin reinforced with stick (s glass fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Galav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexural strength (FS of denture base resins (DBRs had been improved by reinforcing it with different glass fibers. However, a limited data are available on the effect of glass fiber reinforcement with conventional heat-cured resin after prolonged water storage. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the reinforcing effect of novel S-glass and nylon fibers on the FS of acrylic DBRs. It also aimed to evaluate the effect of glass fiber reinforcement on the FS of acrylic DBRs after a prolonged storage in water. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty identical specimens were fabricated in specially designed molds according to the manufacturer's instructions. The three experimental groups were prepared consisting of conventional (unreinforced acrylic resin, novel S-glass fiber-reinforced and nylon fiber-reinforced acrylic resin. The specimens were fabricated in a standardized fashion for each experimental group. Each group was further subdivided into two groups on the basis of storage conditions (dry and wet. FS was tested using a three-point universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Glass fiber-reinforced group was further tested after prolonged storage in distilled water. Entered data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and least significant difference post hoc test. Results: In this study, statistically significant differences were noted in the FS of all the groups. S-glass fiber-reinforced group had highest FS compared to the other two groups (P < 0.001. Nylon fiber-reinforced group had lowest FS. All the groups stored in distilled water revealed a decrease in strength compared to those stored in dry atmosphere. Among wet specimens, those stored for 3 weeks had a significantly higher FS than those stored at one and 2 weeks (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this investigation, the FS of heat-cured acrylic DBR was improved after reinforcement with glass fibers. It can be

  2. Effect of Reinforcement Using Stainless Steel Mesh, Glass Fibers, and Polyethylene on the Impact Strength of Heat Cure Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, H B Mallikarjuna; Shaik, Sharaz; Sachdeva, Harleen; Khare, Sumit; Haralur, Satheesh B; Roopa, K T

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact strength of denture base resin is of great concern and many approaches have been made to strengthen acrylic resin dentures. The objective of this study was to compare the impact strength of the denture base resin with and without reinforcement and to evaluate the impact strength of denture base resin when reinforced with stainless steel mesh, glass fiber, and polyethylene fibers in the woven form. Materials and Methods: The specimens (maxillary denture bases) were fabricated using a standard polyvinylsiloxane mold with conventional heat cured polymethyl methacrylate resin. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group I specimens or control group were not reinforced. Group II specimens were reinforced with stainless steel mesh and Group III and Group IV specimens were reinforced with three percent by weight of glass fibers and polyethylene fibers in weave form respectively. All the specimens were immersed in water for 1-week before testing. The impact strength was measured with falling weight impact testing machine. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Highest impact strength values were exhibited by the specimens reinforced with polyethylene fibers followed by glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and control group. Conclusions: Reinforcement of maxillary complete dentures showed a significant increase in impact strength when compared to unreinforced dentures. Polyethylene fibers exhibit better impact strength followed by glass fibers and stainless steel mesh. By using pre-impregnated glass and polyethylene fibers in woven form (prepregs) the impact strength of the denture bases can be increased effectively. PMID:26124604

  3. The high-birefringence asymmetric SF57 glass microstructured optical fiber at 1060.0 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ting-Hang; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yilei

    2017-07-01

    Many high-birefringence asymmetric microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) have been numerically designed and analyzed, but the fabrication of asymmetric MOF is challenging, especially those with elliptical structures. In this work, we designed, fabricated and modelled an asymmetric glass MOF in which the structure is asymmetric and the air holes are elliptical. SF57 glass was selected due to the high refraction index and low absorption in the Terahertz region. From simulations based on the finite difference (FD) method at 1060.0 μm, the polarizations of the first two modes are perpendicular to each other and the effective refraction indices are different, which lead to the birefringence of this MOF as high as 0.090. The plane-wave expansion method was used to verify the FD calculations, where both results are consistent and the difference is about 0.1%.

  4. Comparison of different dentin pretreatment protocols on the bond strength of glass fiber post using self-etching adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Frederico C; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Oliveira, Luciane D; de Lacerda, Ana Júlia Farias; Xavier, Ana Cláudia Carvalho; Augusto, Marina Gullo; Zanatta, Rayssa Ferreira; Pucci, Cesar Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the influence of different irrigants with and without ultrasound or laser irradiation on the bond strength of glass fiber posts using a self-etching adhesive in a supplementary dentin pretreatment. Ninety bovine incisor roots were divided into 3 groups according to the irrigant tested: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) (n = 30); 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 30), and saline solution (control) (n = 30). Each group was randomly divided into 3 subgroups according to the supplementary dentin pretreatment: ultrasound, Nd:YAG laser, and nonsupplemented (control). A self-etching adhesive system (Futurabond DC; VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) was used, and the glass fiber posts were cemented with dual-cure epoxy-based luting agent (Bifix QM, VOCO GmbH). All roots were sectioned transversely, and the push-out test was performed. Failure mode analysis was also evaluated. Bond strength decreased significantly after the use of 2.5% NaOCl in all root thirds (P .05). The supplementary dentin pretreatment using the Nd:YAG laser or ultrasound did not improve the bond strength values for both NaOCl and CHX (P > .05). Moreover, the apical third exhibited the lowest mean bond strength values (P irrigant used, the supplementary dentin pretreatment with ultrasound or laser irradiation showed no improvement in bond strength. Also, the use of NaOCl decreased the bond strength of glass fiber posts using a self-etching adhesive system, whereas CHX preserved it. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 石英纤维增强陶瓷基复合材料制孔工艺研究%Research on drilling technology of quartz fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉冲; 卢守相; 王东坡; 赵桐; 高航

    2016-01-01

    本试验针对目前硬质合金刀具加工石英纤维增强陶瓷基复合材料时存在的刀具磨损严重、加工质量差、效率低下等问题,对比了硬质合金刀具钻孔、PCD 刀具钻孔和电镀金刚石套料钻螺旋铣磨制孔的效果,分析了切削力对制孔质量的影响。研究结果表明:纬纱纤维对 X 向和Y 向切削力的影响明显大于经纱纤维,垂直于纬纱纤维方向的切削力较小,平行于纬纱纤维方向的切削力较大;PCD 刀具钻孔质量相对较好,刀具磨损不明显,适用于石英纤维增强陶瓷基复合材料的制孔加工。%For the existing troubles of carbide tool (serious tool wear,poor machining quality,low efficiency) when processing quartz fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites,cutting force effect on the hole quality is analyzed in this paper by comparing the machining effects of carbide tool,PCD tool and electroplated diamond core drilling tool.The results show that the influence of weft fiber on the cutting force of X and Y direction is more obvious than that of warp fiber. The cutting force perpendicular to the weft fiber is smaller while the cutting force in parallel with the weft fiber direction is bigger.Moreover,the hole quality drilled by PCD tool is relatively better and the tool wear is not obvious,so PCD tool is suitable for processing the quartz fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites.

  6. Direct Observation on the Evolution of Shear Banding and Buckling in Tungsten Fiber Reinforced Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. H.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, M. Q.; Chen, X. W.; Fu, H. M.; Zhang, H. F.; Dai, L. H.

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of micro-damage and deformation of each phase in the composite plays a pivotal role in the clarification of deformation mechanism of composite. However, limited model and mechanical experiments were conducted to reveal the evolution of the deformation of the two phases in the tungsten fiber reinforced Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite. In this study, quasi-static compressive tests were performed on this composite. For the first time, the evolution of micro-damage and deformation of the two phases in this composite, i.e., shear banding of the metallic glass matrix and buckling deformation of the tungsten fiber, were investigated systematically by controlling the loading process at different degrees of deformation. It is found that under uniaxial compression, buckling of the tungsten fiber occurs first, while the metallic glass matrix deforms homogeneously. Upon further loading, shear bands initiate from the fiber/matrix interface and propagate in the metallic glass matrix. Finally, the composite fractures in a mixed mode, with splitting in the tungsten fiber, along with shear fracture in the metallic glass matrix. Through the analysis on the stress state in the composite and resistance to shear banding of the two phases during compressive deformation, the possible deformation mechanism of the composite is unveiled. The deformation map of the composite, which covers from elastic deformation to final fracture, is obtained as well.

  7. Estimation of Relative Permittivity of Printed Circuit Board with Fiber Glass Epoxy as Dielectric for UHF Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronal D. Montoya-Montoya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measuring relative permittivity of fiber glass printed circuit board (PCB’s, using a rectangular resonant cavity. The relative permittivity is presented as function of frequency. To obtain resonant frequencies, the return loss was measured using a network analyzer. Relative permittivity was calculated by finding frequencies of resonant cavity modes. The results are presented in a frequency span of 1 to 3.5GHz. It was clearly shown the nonlinear behavior of the relative permittivity for the dielectric laminate evaluated, even what happens respect to the frequency of the resonant modes below and above to frequency of 2 GHz.

  8. Cloth catalysts in water denitrification. II. Removal of nitrates using Pd-Cu supported on glass fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Matatov-Meytal, Yu.; Barelko, V.; Yuranov, I.; Kiwi-Minsker, L.; Renken, A.; Sheintuch, M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of glass fibers in the form of woven cloth (GFC), as a new type of catalytic support, was studied for the reduction of aqueous nitrate solutions using a Pd/Cu–GFC catalyst. The activity (per gram Pd) and selectivity to nitrogen were found to be comparable with those found for Pd–Cu catalysts supported on the other carriers. The maximal initial removal activity was found for a catalyst with a Pd/(Pd+Cu) ratio of 0.81. The corresponding activity was 0.7 mmol min-1 (gPd)-1, and the selec...

  9. Comparison of the fracture resistances of glass fiber mesh- and metal mesh-reinforced maxillary complete denture under dynamic fatigue loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, So-Min; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cho, Lee-Ra; Park, Chan-Jin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reinforcing materials on the fracture resistances of glass fiber mesh- and Cr-Co metal mesh-reinforced maxillary complete dentures under fatigue loading. Glass fiber mesh- and Cr-Co mesh-reinforced maxillary complete dentures were fabricated using silicone molds and acrylic resin. A control group was prepared with no reinforcement (n = 15 per group). After fatigue loading was applied using a chewing simulator, fracture resistance was measured by a universal testing machine. The fracture patterns were analyzed and the fractured surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. After cyclic loading, none of the dentures showed cracks or fractures. During fracture resistance testing, all unreinforced dentures experienced complete fracture. The mesh-reinforced dentures primarily showed posterior framework fracture. Deformation of the all-metal framework caused the metal mesh-reinforced denture to exhibit the highest fracture resistance, followed by the glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture (Pdenture primarily maintained its original shape with unbroken fibers. River line pattern of the control group, dimples and interdendritic fractures of the metal mesh group, and radial fracture lines of the glass fiber group were observed on the fractured surfaces. The glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture exhibits a fracture resistance higher than that of the unreinforced denture, but lower than that of the metal mesh-reinforced denture because of the deformation of the metal mesh. The glass fiber mesh-reinforced denture maintains its shape even after fracture, indicating the possibility of easier repair.

  10. Effect of endodontic sealer and resin luting strategies on pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo J; Bueno, Vanessa C P S; Dias, Carlos T S; Paulillo, Luís A M S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of eugenol-containing endodontic sealers and luting strategy on the pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin. Sixty-four bovine incisors were randomly assigned into two groups of 32 specimens each for obturation procedure with gutta-percha only, or with Pulp Canal Sealer EWT Subsequently, the roots were prepared for the fiber post Reforpost and all specimens of each endodontic sealing procedure were allocated to four groups (n = 8), according to the strategies for post cementation: A) Single Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; B) All Bond 2 and C&B cement; C) All Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; D) Single Bond 2 and C&B Cement. The posts were cemented immediately after the endodontic treatment. The pull-out test was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine (EMIC). Data (Kgf) were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p < or = 0.05). The eugenol-based sealer did not influence the pull-out bond strength of fiber posts regardless of the luting strategy. RelyX ARC showed higher bond strength than C&B Cement when used with Single Bond 2 adhesive system, when the eugenol-based sealer was present. All Bond 2, when associated to all cements studied, promoted similar bond strength, regardless of the eugenol-containing endodontic sealer In conclusion, eugenol-containing sealer did not influence the pull-out bond strength values of the resin luting systems for glass fiber post cementation. The bond system and resin cement association from the same manufacturer had similar bond strength values for dentin.

  11. UV-Assisted 3D Printing of Glass and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Dual-Cure Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Invernizzi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glass (GFR and carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR dual-cure polymer composites fabricated by UV-assisted three-dimensional (UV-3D printing are presented. The resin material combines an acrylic-based photocurable resin with a low temperature (140 °C thermally-curable resin system based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether as base component, an aliphatic anhydride (hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride as hardener and (2,4,6,-tris(dimethylaminomethylphenol as catalyst. A thorough rheological characterization of these formulations allowed us to define their 3D printability window. UV-3D printed macrostructures were successfully demonstrated, giving a clear indication of their potential use in real-life structural applications. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis highlighted the good thermal stability and mechanical properties of the printed parts. In addition, uniaxial tensile tests were used to assess the fiber reinforcing effect on the UV-3D printed objects. Finally, an initial study was conducted on the use of a sizing treatment on carbon fibers to improve the fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion, giving preliminary indications on the potential of this approach to improve the mechanical properties of the 3D printed CFR components.

  12. Fabrication of a multi-walled carbon nanotube-deposited glass fiber air filter for the enhancement of nano and submicron aerosol particle filtration and additional antibacterial efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hong; Yoon, Ki Young; Na, Hyungjoo; Kim, Yang Seon; Hwang, Jungho; Kim, Jongbaeg; Yoon, Young Hun

    2011-09-01

    We grew multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on a glass fiber air filter using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) after the filter was catalytically activated with a spark discharge. After the CNT deposition, filtration and antibacterial tests were performed with the filters. Potassium chloride (KCl) particles (pressure drop across the filter. When a pristine glass fiber filter that had no CNTs was used, the particle filtration efficiencies at particle sizes under 30 nm and near 500 nm were 48.5% and 46.8%, respectively. However, the efficiencies increased to 64.3% and 60.2%, respectively, when the CNT-deposited filter was used. The reduction in the number of viable cells was determined by counting the colony forming units (CFU) of each test filter after contact with the cells. The pristine glass fiber filter was used as a control, and 83.7% of the E. coli were inactivated on the CNT-deposited filter.

  13. High precision optical fiber Fabry-Perot sensor for gas pressure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yan; Tong, Xing-lin

    2013-09-01

    An optical fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) sensor with quartz diaphragm for gas pressure testing was designed and fabricated. It consisted of single-mode fiber, hollow glass tube and quartz diaphragm. It uses the double peak demodulation to obtain the initialized cavity length. The variety of cavity length can be calcultated by the single peak demodulation after changing the gas pressure. The results show that the sensor is small in size, whose sensitivity is 19 pm/kPa in the range of the 10 ~ 260 kPa gas pressure. And it has good linearity and repeatability.

  14. Monotonic and cyclic responses of impact polypropylene and continuous glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene composites at different strain rates

    KAUST Repository

    Yudhanto, Arief

    2016-03-08

    Impact copolymer polypropylene (IPP), a blend of isotactic polypropylene and ethylene-propylene rubber, and its continuous glass fiber composite form (glass fiber-reinforced impact polypropylene, GFIPP) are promising materials for impact-prone automotive structures. However, basic mechanical properties and corresponding damage of IPP and GFIPP at different rates, which are of keen interest in the material development stage and numerical tool validation, have not been reported. Here, we applied monotonic and cyclic tensile loads to IPP and GFIPP at different strain rates (0.001/s, 0.01/s and 0.1/s) to study the mechanical properties, failure modes and the damage parameters. We used monotonic and cyclic tests to obtain mechanical properties and define damage parameters, respectively. We also used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images to visualize the failure mode. We found that IPP generally exhibits brittle fracture (with relatively low failure strain of 2.69-3.74%) and viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior. GFIPP [90]8 is generally insensitive to strain rate due to localized damage initiation mostly in the matrix phase leading to catastrophic transverse failure. In contrast, GFIPP [±45]s is sensitive to the strain rate as indicated by the change in shear modulus, shear strength and failure mode.

  15. Influence of ferrule preparation with or without glass fiber post on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Furtado de Lima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of ferrule preparation (Fp on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth, restored with composite resin cores with or without glass fiber posts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-four bovine teeth were sectioned 19 or 17 mm (2 mm ferrule from the apex, endodontically treated and assigned to four groups (n = 11: Group 1: Fp and post; Group 2: Fp and without post; Group 3: without Fp and with post; Group 4: without Fp and without post. All specimens were restored with composite resin core and metal crown. Specimens were subjected to fracture resistance testing in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05. RESULTS: The mean fracture resistance values were as follows: Group 1: 573.3 N; Group 2: 552.5 N; Group 3: 275.3 N; Group 4: 258.6 N. Significantly higher fracture resistance was found for the groups with Fp (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant interaction between the "Fp" and "post" factors (p = 0.954. The ferrule preparation increased the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. However, the use of glass fiber post showed no significant influence on the fracture resistance.

  16. Influence of Coating with Some Natural Based Materials on the Erosion Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Basim Abdul Hussein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as a matrix, 6% volume fractions of glass fibers (G.F as reinforcement and 3%, 6% volume fractions of preparation natural material (Rice Husk Ash, Carrot Powder, and Sawdust as filler. Studied the erosion wear behavior and coating by natural wastes (Rice Husk Ash with epoxy resin after erosion. The results showed the non – reinforced epoxy have lower resistance erosion than natural based material composites and the specimen (Epoxy+6%glass fiber+6%RHA has higher resistance erosion than composites reinforced with carrot powder and sawdust at 30cm , angle 60°, grin size of sand 425µm , temperature 30Ċ , 300 gm salt content in 2liter of water and 15 hour. Coating specimen with mixed epoxy resin -RHA with particles size in the range (1.4-4.2 µm improves erosion wear resistance characteristics of the coated specimen, coating thickness was (16 ± 1 μm and after erosion at (15 hour the thickness was (10 μm .

  17. Photocatalytic oxidation of H2S in the gas phase over TiO2-coated glass fiber filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancher, Marlon; Franco, Davide; de Melo Lisboa, Henrique

    2016-11-01

    To promote the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the gas phase, TiO2-coated glass fiber filters were packed in an annular photoreactor. Glass fibers coated with TiO2 thin films were characterized structurally and morphologically by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Flow rate and H2S inlet concentration were evaluated to determine the performance of the reactor. Removal efficiencies up to 99% were achieved for flow rate of 25 L h(-1) (residence time of 121 s) and H2S inlet concentration from 12 to 14 ppmv. The long-term experiment presented H2S removal of 89% for 16 h. After 28 h of continuous use, H2S degradation was observed at 64%, which suggests that the photocatalyst was losing activity due to deactivation. Moreover, the kinetics of the PCO of H2S according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) approach along with the mass balance of a plug-flow reactor was modeled. The reaction constant (k) was calculated at approximately 10.5 μmol m(-3) s(-1) and the adsorption constant (K) of approximately 5263 m(-3) mol with linearity (R2) of 0.98.

  18. Thermal energy harvesting for large-scale applications using MWCNT-grafted glass fibers and polycarbonate-MWCNT nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzounis, L.; Liebscher, M.; Mäder, E.; Pötschke, P.; Stamm, M.; Logothetidis, S.

    2015-02-01

    The thermoelectric properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) -grafted glass fiber yarns (GF-CNT) and their epoxy model composites, as well as of polymer nanocomposites consisting of a polycarbonate (PC) matrix filled with differently functionalized MWCNTs have been examined. The GF-CNT hierarchical multi-scale structures were prepared by dip coating glass fiber yarns in a solution of carbonyl chloride modified MWCNTs; MWCNT-COCl (at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml) under Ar atmosphere. The resulting GF-CNT exhibited high electrical conductivity (σ= 2.1×103 S/m) due to the dense MWCNT deposited networks. The fiber surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The GF-CNT showed Seebeck coefficient (S); S = 16.8 μV/K, and power factor (P.F); P.F = 0.59 μW/mK-2. The high electrical conductivity of the GF-CNT is a key parameter for an optimum thermoelectric performance, since it can facilitate the flow of the thermally induced charge carriers upon being exposed to a temperature gradient. Polycarbonate/MWCNT nanocomposites were prepared by small-scale melt-mixing process using a microcompounder. Unfunctionalized, carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-OH) modified MWCNTs were incorporated in PC at a constant amount of 2.5 wt.%, concentration above the electrical percolation threshold. The amount of MWCNTs was kept low to understand the fundamental aspects of their physical properties and their correlation to the composite morphology, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that different functional groups can affect the thermoelectric performance and the conductivity of the nanocomposites. Namely, the highest Seebeck coefficient (S) was found for the composite containing carboxyl functionalized MWCNTs (11.3 μV/K), due to the highest oxygen content of MWCNTs proven by X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is believed that MWCNT-grafted glass fibers as reinforcements in composite structural materials and PC

  19. Thermal energy harvesting for large-scale applications using MWCNT-grafted glass fibers and polycarbonate-MWCNT nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzounis, L., E-mail: ltzounis@physics.auth.gr [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., IPF, Hohe Str. 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtzstraße 10, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrolo (Greece); Liebscher, M.; Stamm, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., IPF, Hohe Str. 6, D-01069 Dresden, Germany and Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtzstraße 10, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Mäder, E.; Pötschke, P. [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., IPF, Hohe Str. 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Logothetidis, S., E-mail: logot@auth.gr [Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN), Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-02-17

    The thermoelectric properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) -grafted glass fiber yarns (GF-CNT) and their epoxy model composites, as well as of polymer nanocomposites consisting of a polycarbonate (PC) matrix filled with differently functionalized MWCNTs have been examined. The GF-CNT hierarchical multi-scale structures were prepared by dip coating glass fiber yarns in a solution of carbonyl chloride modified MWCNTs; MWCNT-COCl (at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml) under Ar atmosphere. The resulting GF-CNT exhibited high electrical conductivity (σ = 2.1×10{sup 3} S/m) due to the dense MWCNT deposited networks. The fiber surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The GF-CNT showed Seebeck coefficient (S); S = 16.8 μV/K, and power factor (P.F); P.F = 0.59 μW/mK−2. The high electrical conductivity of the GF-CNT is a key parameter for an optimum thermoelectric performance, since it can facilitate the flow of the thermally induced charge carriers upon being exposed to a temperature gradient. Polycarbonate/MWCNT nanocomposites were prepared by small-scale melt-mixing process using a microcompounder. Unfunctionalized, carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-OH) modified MWCNTs were incorporated in PC at a constant amount of 2.5 wt.%, concentration above the electrical percolation threshold. The amount of MWCNTs was kept low to understand the fundamental aspects of their physical properties and their correlation to the composite morphology, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that different functional groups can affect the thermoelectric performance and the conductivity of the nanocomposites. Namely, the highest Seebeck coefficient (S) was found for the composite containing carboxyl functionalized MWCNTs (11.3 μV/K), due to the highest oxygen content of MWCNTs proven by X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is believed that MWCNT-grafted glass fibers as reinforcements in composite structural

  20. Increasing the blue-shift of a supercontinuum by modifying the fiber glass composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Moselund, Peter Morten; Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    which the PCF is made. We then make simulations of supercontinuum generation in PCFs made of alternative glass materials. It is found that it is possible to increase the blue-shift of the generated supercontinuum by about 20 nm through a careful choice of glass composition, provided that the alternative...... glass composition does not have a significantly higher loss than silica in the near-infrared....... the structure of the PCF, but this mostly modifies the group-velocity in the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. In this work, we first consider how the group-velocity profile can be engineered more directly in the short-wavelength part of the spectrum through alternative choices of the glass material from...

  1. Preparation and thermal shock resistance of high emissivity molybdenum disilicide- aluminoborosilicate glass hybrid coating on fiber reinforced aerogel composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Gaofeng; Lu, Yucao; Wu, Xiaodong; Wu, Jun; Cui, Sheng; Jiao, Jian; Shen, Xiaodong

    2017-09-01

    To develop a flexible reusable surface insulation for thermal protection system, MoSi2-aluminoborosilicate glass hybrid coatings have been prepared on Al2O3 fiber reinforced Al2O3-SiO2 aerogel composite by slurry dipping and rapid sintering method. The effect of MoSi2 content on radiative property and thermal shock behavior was investigated. The total emissivity values of all the coatings exceeded 0.85 in the wavelength of 0.8-2.5 μm. The M10 and M50 coatings were up to 0.9, which was due to the highest amorphous glass content of the M10 coating and the largest surface roughness of the M50 coating. The M30 coated composite showed the best thermal shock resistance with only 0.023% weight loss after 20 thermal shock cycles between 1473 K and room temperature, which was attributed to the similar thermal expansion coefficients between the coating and the substrate and the appropriate viscosity of aluminoborosilicate glass at 1473 K. The cracks resulted from CTE mismatch stress with different sizes formed and grew on the surface of M10, M40 and M50 coated samples, leading to the failure of the composites.

  2. Optical properties of bismuth-doped SiO2- or GeO2-based glass core optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Firstova, Elena G

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of optical properties of bismuth-doped fibers based on SiO2 and GeO2 glasses containing no other dopants has been carried out. To provide important information about spectroscopic properties of IR bismuth-related active centers (BAC) the excitation-emission fluorescence spectra for a spectral region of 220-2000 nm have been measured. The obtained three-dimensional spectra have been presented for different host glass compositions: silicate, germanate, aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate. Energy-level configuration and main radiative transitions associated with BACs in GeO2 and SiO2 glasses have been revealed. Fluorescence lifetime analysis of the basic radiative transitions of BAC have been carried out. It has been shown that the energy-level schemes of BAC-Si and BAC-Ge (BAC associated with silicon and germanium, respectively) are similar, corresponding BAC-Ge energy levels lying 10-16% lower than those of BAC-Si. It has been determined that BAC-Si, BAC-Ge and BAC-Si, BAC-P can exist simultan...

  3. Recovery of phosphonate surface contaminants from glass using a simple vacuum extractor with a solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Gary S; Scott, Jill R; Rae, Catherine

    2011-07-04

    Recovery of chemical contaminants from fixed surfaces for analysis can be challenging, particularly if it is not possible to acquire a solid sample to be taken to the laboratory. A simple device is described that collects semi-volatile organic compounds from fixed surfaces by creating an enclosed volume over the surface, then generating a modest vacuum. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber is then inserted into the evacuated volume where it functions to sorb volatilized organic contaminants. The device is based on a syringe modified with a seal that is used to create the vacuum, with a perforable plunger through which the SPME fiber is inserted. The reduced pressure speeds partitioning of the semi-volatile compounds into the gas phase and reduces the boundary layer around the SPME fiber, which enables a fraction of the volatilized organics to partition into the SPME fiber. After sample collection, the SPME fiber is analyzed using conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The methodology has been used to collect organophosphorus compounds from glass surfaces, to provide a simple test for the functionality of the devices. Thirty minute sampling times (ΔT(vac)) resulted in fractional recovery efficiencies that ranged from 10(-3) to >10(-2), and in absolute terms, collection of low nanograms was demonstrated. Fractional recovery values were positively correlated to the vapor pressure of the compounds being sampled. Fractional recovery also increased with increasing ΔT(vac) and displayed a roughly logarithmic profile, indicating that an operational equilibrium is being approached. Fractional recovery decreased with increasing time between exposure and sampling; however, recordable quantities of the phosphonates could be collected three weeks after exposure.

  4. Application of Quartz SphinTM high Strength Quartz Fiber and Nursing in Young Permanent Teeth after Dental Trauma%Quartz SphinTM高强度石英纤维应用于年轻恒牙外伤固定的护理配合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨璐; 刘映伶; 王丹; 徐庆鸿

    2016-01-01

    年轻恒牙外伤是造成儿童牙齿缺损或缺失的一大原因,年轻恒牙由于牙根尚未发育完成,外伤时容易发生移位,正确有效的固定是治疗成功的关键。现目前常用的固定方法分为:树脂夹板固定、钢丝+树脂夹板固定、钛链夹板固定、正畸托槽+钢丝固定、高强度石英纤维+树脂固定。Quartz SphinTM高强度石英纤维夹板具有固位力强、操作方便、舒适美观、对口腔软硬组织无不良刺激等优势,相较于其他固定方式,易于被医生和患者接受,本文就2015年以来我科应用高强度石英固位纤维条进行年轻恒牙外伤固定的护理配合的情况作以论述。%Falls during play account for most injuries to young permanent teeth. Complex injuries to immature permanent teeth and their periodontium require immediate repositioning and stabilization. Different types of splints have been used to stabilized traumatized teeth in children including composite and wire splints, composite and ifshing line splints, orthodontic wire and bracket splints, titanium trauma splints and arch bar splints.Quartz SphinTM high strength quartz ifber is identiifed as fuliflling the requirements of an ideal splinting adhesive material because of its ease of application, ability to stand physical forces during the splinting period, and most importantly beneift to the healing. In this article, the use of Quartz SphinTM high strength quartz ifber and nursing for traumatized immature permanent teeth is described.

  5. Influence of mold temperature associated with glass fiber on the mechanical and thermal properties of a (PA6/GF/MMT) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Renato Adriano, E-mail: eng.damiani@hotmail.com [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais; Duarte, Glaucea Warmeling; Riella, Humberto Gracher, E-mail: gwduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: huberto.riella@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Silva, Luciano Luiz; Mello, Josiane Maria Muneron de; Fiori, Marcio Antonio; Batiston, Eduardo Roberto, E-mail: marciofiori@gmail.com, E-mail: lucianols@unochapeco.edu.br, E-mail: josimello@unochapeco.edu.br, E-mail: erbatiston@unochapeco.edu.br [Universidade Comunitaria da Regiao de Chapeco (UNOCHAPECO), Chapeco, SC (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    This work describes the second of a series of studies of the effects of injection molding conditions on the mechanical and thermal properties of Polyamide 6/Glass Fiber/Montmorillonite (PA6/GF/MMT) composites and was motivated by the lack of information about how the processing variables influence on the properties of three-phase composites containing fiber glass. By this time, the effects of the injection molding temperature associated with the fiber glass percentage on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite are investigated. Some samples were processed, following a statistical experimental factorial planning, varying the mold temperature and the fiber glass percentage and maintaining 5 wt % of the MMT. The samples were submitted to tensile and flexural tests, XRD, SEM and DSC. The studies showed that an increase in the mold temperature and the fiber percentage improves the maximum tensile and flexural stresses. The increased mold temperature slows the cooling rate, which, over time, decreases the degree of crystallinity. However, there is an increase in the intercalation of the polymeric chains and the nanoclay lamellae, and the structure forms with fewer defects. (author)

  6. 石英纤维桩与二氧化锆全瓷冠修复前牙缺损的临床研究%Clinical research of quartz fiber post and zirconia crown on restoration of anterior tooth defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽华; 何赐丁; 陈蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of quartz fiber post and zirconia crown on restoration of anterior tooth defect. Methods 63 anterior teeth from 52 patients after root canal therapy were restored with quartz fiber posts and zirconia crowns. The effect was evaluated after 1 year, 2 years and 3 years respectively. Results There was no difference after 3 years.One post core got lossen, one crown was lost. The other tooth reached at a rank A in all six aspects among 3 years.Their color matches with the nature teeth excellently The success rate was 96.8%. Conclusion The effect of on restoration of anterior tooth defect is ideal.%目的:探讨石英纤维桩及二氧化锆全瓷冠在前牙缺损修复中的应用.方法:选择52例患者的63颗缺损前牙,用石英纤维桩及二氧化锆全瓷冠修复,分别于1、2、3年复查.结果:修复后3年,1例出现桩核松动,1例出现冠脱落,其余患者6项评价指标均达到A级,颜色匹配无差异,成功率达96.8%.结论:石英纤维桩结合二氧化锆全瓷冠在前牙缺损修复中的临床效果较为理想.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of the Endodontically-treated Maxillary Premolars restored with Composite Resin along with Glass Fiber Insertion in Various Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navimipour, Elmira Jafari; Firouzmandi, Maryam; Mirhashemi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of three methods of glass fiber insertion on stress distribution pattern and cusp movement of the root-filled maxillary premolars using finite element method (FEM) analysis. A three-dimensional (3 D) FEM model of a sound upper premolar tooth and four models of root-filled upper premolars with mesiocclusodistal (MOD) cavities were molded and restored with: (1) Composite resin only (NF); (2) Composite resin along with a ribbon of glass fiber placed in the occlusal third (OF); (3) Composite resin along with a ribbon of glass fiber placed circumferentially in the cervical third (CF), and (4) Composite resin along with occlusal and circumferential fibers (OCF). A static vertical load was applied to calculate the stress distributions. Structural analysis program by Solidworks were used for FEM analysis. Von-Mises stress values and cusp movements induced by occlusal loading were evaluated. Maximum Von-Mises stress of enamel occurred in sound tooth, followed by NF, CF, OF and OCF. Maximum Von-Mises stress of dentin occurred in sound tooth, followed by OF, OCF, CF and NF. Stress distribution patterns of OF and OCF were similar. Maximum overall stress values were concentrated in NF. Although stress distribution patterns of NF and CF were found as similar, CF showed lower stress values. Palatal cusp movement was more than buccal cusp in all of the models. The results of our study indicated that while the circumferential fiber had little effect on overall stress concentration, it provided a more favorable stress distribution pattern in cervical region. The occlusal fiber reduced the average stress in the entire structure but did not reduce cuspal movement. Incorporating glass fiber in composite restorations may alter the stress state within the structure depending on fiber position.

  8. The characteristic of unsaturated polyester resin wettability toward glass fiber orientation, density and surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saputra Asep H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wettability of composite is one of key to increase mechanical properties of composite that affected by structure of reinforcement and type of resin used. Therefore, this research focused on the effect of orientation, density and surface treatment on fiber to the characteristic of composite’s wettability, which is observed by contact angle and wetting time. The fiber used in this research is fiberglass, and the method for contact angle measurement is direct observation from the camera recorder and the data record will be processed and analyzed by using image processing method. The result for those variations can be obtained from the relation of variations toward contact angle and wetting time. According to result of research, fiber with orientation 45°/45° gives lower contact angle but longer wetting time than fiber with orientation 0°/90°. For orientation 45°/45°, the differences in wetting time is 15 second longer than orientation 0°/90°. In case of fiber density, the sheet with fiber density of 900 has 7 second faster for wetting time than sheet with fiber density of 1250. The surface treatment with NaOH 5% can accelerate the wetting time until 10 second.

  9. Effects of the cooling rate on the shear behavior of continuous glass fiber/impact polypropylene composites (GF-IPP)

    KAUST Repository

    Wafai, Husam

    2016-09-20

    Fiber-reinforced composites with improved dissipation of energy during impact loading have recently been developed based on a polypropylene copolymer commonly called impact polypropylene (IPP). Composites made of IPP reinforced with glass fibers (GF) are particularly attractive to the automotive industry due to their low cost and good impact resistance. In such composites, the cooling rate varies depending on processing techniques and manufacturing choices. Here, we study the effects of the cooling rate of GF-IPP composites on shear behavior, which is critical in impact applications, using [±45]s monotonic and cyclic (load/unload) tensile specimens. The specimens were manufactured under a wide range of cooling rates (3 °C/min, 22 °C/min, 500–1000 °C/min). Mainly dominated by the properties of the matrix, the global shear behavior of GF-IPP composites differed considerably with respect to the cooling rate. However, the performance of the fiber-matrix interface (chemically modified) appeared to be unaffected by the range of cooling rates used in this study. We found that the cooling rate has a minor effect on the rate of damage accumulation, while it strongly modifies the shear-activated rate-dependant viscoelastic behavior. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements and retention of glass-fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Faria-e-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs on the retention of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals. Bovine incisors were endodontically treated, and post holes of 9 mm in depth were prepared. Fiber posts were luted using one of two SARCs, BisCem(r (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, USA or RelyX Unicem clicker (3M ESPE, Saint Paul, USA, or a regular (etch-and-rinse resin cement (AllCem; FGM, Joinvile, Brazil. Photoactivation was performed immediately, or at 5 or 10 min after cementation. Root/post specimens were transversely sectioned 7 days after luting into 1-mm-thick slices, which were submitted to push-out testing in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' method (α = 0.05. Immediate photoactivation resulted in the highest bond strength for Unicem. BisCem(r demonstrated higher bond strength values when photoactivated after a 10-min delay. Immediate photoactivation yielded the lowest bond strengths for AllCem, although no differences in bond strength were observed between photoactivation delayed by 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, the moment of resin cement photoactivation may affect the intraradicular retention of fiber posts, depending upon the resin cement used for luting.

  11. Investigation of high tension chalcogenide glass micro-structure optical fibers%高强度硫系玻璃微结构光纤研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何钰钜; 王训四; 聂秋华; 张培全; 徐会娟; 徐铁峰; 戴世勋; 张培晴

    2013-01-01

    Chalcogenide glass micro-structure optical fibers (CGMOFs) have wide potential applications in the field of infrared laser energy transmission and infrared optical fiber sensing for their unique optical properties. The problem is that there is no good method to prepare chalcogenide glass micro-structure optical fibers up to now. In this paper,we attempt to fabricate chalcogenide glass micro-structure optical fibers by using the press forming method. A glass extruder is designed to extrude Ge20 Sb15 Se65 chalcogenide glass into a multi-hole fiber preforms. Then,the extruder preform is drawn into fiber using an improved fiber drawing machine. The infrared transmitting property is measured by using infrared thermal imager and infrared spectrometer. The optical loss of extruded glass is calculated based on the infrared transmission spectra of glass disks with different thicknesses. We also measure fiber cross-section and its diameter by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that the infrared transmission spectra of the extruded glass have not decreased obviously. The optical losses of the glasses before and after extruding at 10 μm are 0. 25 dB/cm and 0. 27 dB/cm. respectively. The strength of chalcogenide glass fiber protected by a thin layer of plastic polymer is 1.45 times of that of a standard silica fiber,promoting the development of chalcogenide glass micro-structure optical fibers.%针对硫系玻璃微结构光纤缺少有效制备方法的问题,本文选用可塑性较好的Ge20Sb15Se65硫系玻璃,利用自制的硫系玻璃挤压机制备了多孔硫系玻璃微结构光纤(CGMOF).利用红外热像仪以及傅里叶红外光谱仪测试了挤压前后玻璃的红外透过性能、根据不同厚度玻璃片的透过谱,计算了挤压后玻璃的光学损耗特性.利用扫描电子显微镜观察拉制光纤的横截面,测试了光纤的直径.分析结果表明,挤压后的硫系玻璃的红外透过率和损耗较挤压前没有显著

  12. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Patimisco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis.

  13. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimisco, Pietro; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-03-28

    A detailed review on the development of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensors (QEPAS) for the sensitive and selective quantification of molecular trace gas species with resolved spectroscopic features is reported. The basis of the QEPAS technique, the technology available to support this field in terms of key components, such as light sources and quartz-tuning forks and the recent developments in detection methods and performance limitations will be discussed. Furthermore, different experimental QEPAS methods such as: on-beam and off-beam QEPAS, quartz-enhanced evanescent wave photoacoustic detection, modulation-cancellation approach and mid-IR single mode fiber-coupled sensor systems will be reviewed and analysed. A QEPAS sensor operating in the THz range, employing a custom-made quartz-tuning fork and a THz quantum cascade laser will be also described. Finally, we evaluated data reported during the past decade and draw relevant and useful conclusions from this analysis.

  14. 石英光纤表面化学镀镍磷合金工艺%Electroless nickel-phosphor plating process on surface of quartz optical fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小甫; 姜德生; 余海湖; 余丁山; 杨恩宇; 李鸿辉

    2005-01-01

    Quartz optical fibers are of great significance in many fields. For example, they can be used to fabricate strain sensors and temperature sensors. If the surface of optical fibers is metal-coated by the electroless plating method, the measuring precision and stability of the optical fiber sensors can be improved remarkably, additionally the life-span of sensors can be prolonged. In this work, an electroles snickel-phosphor plating process for optical fibers was presented. The influences of the content of NaH2PO2·H2O, bath pH value and temperature and the plating deposition rate on the quality of the plating coatings were studied with orthogonal testing. The results indicated that the content of NaH2PO2·H2O was the key factor, which influenced the adhesion force of the plating coatings. The nickel-phosphor plating bath presented in this work possessed excellent stability and the plating deposition rate could be accelerated. Using the process described in this work, nickel-phosphor coatings with great brightness and high adhesion force can be prepared successfully. Optimum conditions were: NiSO4 30g·L-1, NaH2PO2 ·H2O 20g·L-1, C3H6O3 4 ml·L-1, Na2CO3 3g·L-1 , NH4Cl 4g·L-1 , saccharin 1mg·L-1, temperature 84℃, pH 4.6.

  15. Hybrid Fiber Sizings for Enhanced Energy Absorption in Glass-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    diameter of 22 nm was added to the fiber-sizing package. In all cases, a water-dispersible diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy ( DGEBA ) was...roughening agent. Fiber Sizing Silanes Film Former Roughening Agent Hybrid GPS PTMO DGEBA epoxy dispersion Water dispersible colloidal silica...Compatible GPS DGEBA epoxy dispersion None Mixed GPS PTMO DGEBA epoxy dispersion None Incompatible PTMO DGEBA epoxy dispersion None 2.2 Roving Strength

  16. The influence of fiber orientation angle on the impact characteristic of circular aluminum tube reinforced by fiber glass/polyester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiatipong Komlungkang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to increase the impact resistance of circular tubes reinforced by fiber reinforced plastic (FRP.The tube made of aluminum 6063-T5 with the D/t ratio of 25.40, 29.63, and 42.33. Outside surface of aluminum tube was reinforced by wrapping fiberglass/polyester. The fiber orientation angle were [0]3 , [45]3 , [90]3 , [0/902 ], [45/-452 ], and [90/02 ]. Then, they were tested under impact with cross head of 45 kg and speed of 6.26 m/s in axial direction. The result revealed that the impact resistance of the hybrid tube and aluminum tube trend to increase as the D/t ratio increases and The hybrid tube with wrapped angle of [0/902 ] was maximum mean load and higher than aluminum tube by 50.02, 45.14, and 52.03 % at D/t = 25.40, 29.63, and 42.33 receptively. Failure mode and crush behavior of hybrid tube were also presented and disused in this paper.

  17. Constructing Novel Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP Composites through a Biomimetic Approach: Connecting Glass Fiber with Nanosized Boron Nitride by Polydopamine Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XueMei Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A biomimetic method was developed to construct novel fiber reinforced plastic (FRP composites. By mimicking mussel adhesive proteins, a monolayer of polydopamine was coated on glass fiber (GF surface. The polydopamine-treated GF (D-GF adsorbed boron nitride (BN nanoparticles, while obtaining micronano multiscale hybrid fillers BN-D-GF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM results showed that the strong interfacial interaction brought by the polydopamine benefits the loading amount as well as dispersion of the nano-BN on GF’s surface. The BN-D-GF was incorporated into epoxy resin to construct “FRP nanocomposites.” The morphology, dynamic mechanical and thermal characteristics of the FRP nanocomposites were analyzed. SEM morphology revealed that BN-D-GF heterogeneous dispersed in epoxy matrix. There was good adhesion between the polymer matrix and the BN-D-GF filler. The dynamic modulus and mechanical loss were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. Compared with neat epoxy and untreated GF reinforced composites, BN-D-GF/epoxy and D-GF/epoxy systems showed improved mechanical properties. The thermal conductivity, Shore D hardness, and insulation properties were also enhanced.

  18. Hybrid carbon-glass fiber/toughened epoxy thick composites subject to drop-weight and ballistic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevkat, Ercan

    The goals of this study are to investigate the low velocity and ballistic impact response of thick-section hybrid fiber composites at room temperature. Plain-woven S2-Glass and IM7 Graphite fabrics are chosen as fiber materials reinforcing the SC-79 epoxy. Four different types of composites consisting of alternating layers of glass and graphite woven fabric sheets are considered. Tensile tests are conducted using 98 KN (22 kip) MTS testing machine equipped with environmental chamber. Low-velocity impact tests are conducted using an Instron-Dynatup 8250 impact test machine equipped with an environmental chamber. Ballistic impact tests are performed using helium pressured high-speed gas-gun. Tensile tests results were used to define the material behavior of the hybrid and non-hybrid composites in Finite Element modeling. The low velocity and ballistic impact tests showed that hybrid composites performance was somewhere between non-hybrid woven composites. Using woven glass fabrics as outer skin improved the impact performance of woven graphite composite. However hybrid composites are prone to delamination especially between dissimilar layers. The ballistic limit velocity V50 hybrid composites were higher that of woven graphite composite and lower than that of woven glass composite. Both destructive cross-sectional micrographs and nondestructive ultrasonic techniques are used to evaluate the damage created by impact. The Finite Element code LS-DYNA is chosen to perform numerical simulations of low velocity and ballistic impact on thick-section hybrid composites. The damage progression in these composites shows anisotropic nonlinearity. The material model to describe this behavior is not available in LS-DYNA material library. Initially, linear orthotropic material with damage (Chan-Chan Model) is employed to simulate some of the experimental results. Then, user-defined material subroutine is incorporated into LS-DYNA to simulate the nonlinear behavior. The

  19. Spectroscopic determination of the in-situ composition of epoxy matrices in glass fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoon, M. K.; Zehner, B. E.; Koenig, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Computerized infrared analysis is applied to the characterization of a glass-reinforced crosslinked polyester. The method of factor analysis determines the number of independent components which constitute the polymeric matrix. Subsequently, the spectra of those components are fitted by a least-squares criterion to spectra of the multicomponent matrix, or, if the glass spectrum is included as an additional component, to the spectra of composites. The least-squares coefficients yield the matrix composition in terms of the initial reactant composition and the extent of crosslinking.

  20. Dynamic mechanical analysis and high strain-rate energy absorption characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube reinforced woven fiber-glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamic mechanical behavior and energy absorption characteristics of nano-enhanced functionally graded composites, consisting of 3 layers of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests grown on woven fiber-glass (FG) layer and embedded within 10 layers of woven FG, with polyester (PE) and...