Space-Time Geometry of Quark and Strange Quark Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We study quark and strange quark matter in the context of general relativity. For this purpose, we solve Einstein's field equations for quark and strange quark matter in spherical symmetric space-times. We analyze strange quark matter for the different equations of state (EOS) in the spherical symmetric space-times, thus we are able to obtain the space-time geometries of quark and strange quark matter. Also, we discuss die features of the obtained solutions. The obtained solutions are consistent with the results of Brookhaven Laboratory, i.e. the quark-gluon plasma has a vanishing shear (i.e. quark-gluon plasma is perfect).
Equation of state for neutron matter in the Quark Compound Bag model
Krivoruchenko, M. I.
2017-11-01
The equation of state for neutron matter is derived in the framework of the Quark Compound Bag model, in which the nucleon-nucleon interaction is generated by the s-channel exchange of six-quark Jaffe-Low primitives.
Phase transition from nuclear matter to color superconducting quark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bentz, W. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Horikawa, T.; Ishii, N.; Thomas, A.W
2003-06-02
We construct the nuclear and quark matter equations of state at zero temperature in an effective quark theory (the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model), and discuss the phase transition between them. The nuclear matter equation of state is based on the quark-diquark description of the single nucleon, while the quark matter equation of state includes the effects of scalar diquark condensation (color superconductivity). The effect of diquark condensation on the phase transition is discussed in detail.
Cold quark matter in compact stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Horvath, J. E. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 1226, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-03-25
We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niels-Uwe F. Bastian
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We outline an approach to a unified equation of state for quark-hadron matter on the basis of a Φ − derivable approach to the generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck equation of state for a cluster decomposition of thermodynamic quantities like the density. To this end we summarize the cluster virial expansion for nuclear matter and demonstrate the equivalence of the Green’s function approach and the Φ − derivable formulation. As an example, the formation and dissociation of deuterons in nuclear matter is discussed. We formulate the cluster Φ − derivable approach to quark-hadron matter which allows to take into account the specifics of chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement in triggering the Mott-dissociation of hadrons. This approach unifies the description of a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma with that of a medium-modified hadron resonance gas description which are contained as limiting cases. The developed formalism shall replace the common two-phase approach to the description of the deconfinement and chiral phase transition that requires a phase transition construction between separately developed equations of state for hadronic and quark matter phases. Applications to the phenomenology of heavy-ion collisions and astrophysics are outlined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, Mannque.
1980-04-01
The present status of our understanding of the physics of hadronic (nuclear or neutron) matter under extreme conditions, in particular at high densities is discussed. This is a problem which challenges three disciplines of physics: nuclear physics, astrophysics and particle physics. It is generally believed that we now have a correct and perhaps ultimate theory of the strong interactions, namely quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The constituents of this theory are quarks and gluons, so highly dense matters should be describable in terms of these constituents alone. This is a question that addresses directly to the phenomenon of quark confinement, one of the least understood aspects in particle physics. For nuclear physics, the possibility of a phase change between nuclear matter and quark matter introduces entirely new degrees of freedom in the description of nuclei and will bring perhaps a deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics. In astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars will be properly understood only when the equation of state of 'neutron' matter at densities exceeding that of nuclear matter can be realiably calculated. Most fascinating is the possibility of quark stars existing in nature, not entirely an absurd idea. Finally the quark matter - nuclear matter phase transition must have occured in the early stage of universe when matter expanded from high temperature and density; this could be an essential ingredient in the big-bang cosmology
Quark matter inside neutron stars in an effective chiral model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotlorz, A.; Kutschera, M.
1994-02-01
An effective chiral model which describes properties of a single baryon predicts that the quark matter relevant to neutron stars, close to the deconfinement density, is in a chirally broken phase. We find the SU(2) model that pion-condensed up and down quark matter is preferred energetically at neutron star densities. It exhibits spin ordering and can posses a permanent magnetization. The equation of state of quark matter with chiral condensate is very well approximated by bag model equation of the state with suitably chosen parameters. We study quark cores inside neutron stars in this model using realistic nucleon equations of state. The biggest quark core corresponds to the second order phase transition to quark matter. Magnetic moment of the pion-condensed quark core is calculated. (author). 19 refs, 10 refs, 1 tab
Nucleons, Nuclear Matter and Quark Matter: A unified NJL approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S. Lawley; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas
2006-02-10
We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.
Nucleons, nuclear matter and quark matter: a unified NJL approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawley, S [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia); Bentz, W [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Thomas, A W [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)
2006-05-01
We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.
Quark matter in astrophysics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olinto, A.V.
1987-10-01
We dicuss the role of quark matter in astrophysics and cosmology. The implications of the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition in the early universe for the element abundances from big bang nucleosynthesis and the composition of the dark matter in the universe are addressed. We discuss the possibility of deciding on an equation of state for high density matter by observing the cooling of a neutron star remnant of SN1987A. Quark matter models for the Centauros events, Cygnus X-3 cosmic ray events, high energy gamma-ray bursts and the solar neutrino problem are described. 25 refs., 3 figs
Quark matter and quark stars at finite temperature in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Bin; Dong, Yu-Min; Jia, Yu-Yue; Wang, Shu-Mei; Ma, Hong-Yang [Qingdao Technological University, School of Science, Qingdao (China); Li, Xiao-Hua [University of South China, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Hengyang (China); University of South China, Cooperative Innovation Center for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology and Equipment, Hengyang (China)
2017-08-15
We extend the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to include two types of vector interaction. Using these two types of vector interaction in NJL model, we study the quark symmetry free energy in asymmetric quark matter, the constituent quark mass, the quark fraction, the equation of state (EOS) for β-equilibrium quark matter, the maximum mass of QSs at finite temperature, the maximum mass of proto-quark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution, and the effects of the vector interaction on the QCD phase diagram. We find that comparing zero temperature case, the values of quark matter symmetry free energy get larger with temperature increasing, which will reduce the difference between the fraction of u, d and s quarks and stiffen the EoS for β-equilibrium quark matter. In particular, our results indicate that the maximum masses of the quark stars increase with temperature because of the effects of the quark matter symmetry free energy, and we find that the heating(cooling) process for PQSs will increase (decrease) the maximum mass within NJL model. (orig.)
Waves in magnetized quark matter
Fogaça, D. A.; Sanches, S. M.; Navarra, F. S.
2018-05-01
We study wave propagation in a non-relativistic cold quark-gluon plasma immersed in a constant magnetic field. Starting from the Euler equation we derive linear wave equations and investigate their stability and causality. We use a generic form for the equation of state, the EOS derived from the MIT bag model and also a variant of the this model which includes gluon degrees of freedom. The results of this analysis may be relevant for perturbations propagating through the quark matter phase in the core of compact stars and also for perturbations propagating in the low temperature quark-gluon plasma formed in low energy heavy ion collisions, to be carried out at FAIR and NICA.
Observational Constraints on Quark Matter in Neutron Stars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We study the observational constraints of mass and redshift on the properties of the equation of state (EOS) for quark matter in compact stars based on the quasi-particle description. We discuss two scenarios: strange stars and hybrid stars. We construct the equations of state utilizing an extended MIT bag model taking the medium effect into account for quark matter and the relativistic mean field theory for hadron matter. We show that quark matter may exist in strange stars and in the interior of neutron stars. The bag constant is a key parameter that affects strongly the mass of strange stars. The medium effect can lead to the stiffer hybrid-star EOS approaching the pure hadronic EOS, due to the reduction of quark matter, and hence the existence of heavy hybrid stars. We find that a middle range coupling constant may be the best choice for the hybrid stars being compatible with the observational constraints.
Quark-nuclear hybrid star equation of state with excluded volume effects
Kaltenborn, Mark Alexander Randolph; Bastian, Niels-Uwe Friedrich; Blaschke, David Bernhard
2017-09-01
A two-phase description of the quark-nuclear matter hybrid equation of state that takes into account the effect of excluded volume in both the hadronic and the quark-matter phases is introduced. The nuclear phase manifests a reduction of the available volume as density increases, leading to a stiffening of the matter. The quark-matter phase displays a reduction of the effective string tension in the confining density functional from available volume contributions. The nuclear equation of state is based upon the relativistic density-functional model DD2 with excluded volume. The quark-matter equation of state is based upon a quasiparticle model derived from a relativistic density-functional approach and will be discussed in greater detail. The interactions are decomposed into mean scalar and vector components. The scalar interaction is motivated by a string potential between quarks, whereas the vector interaction potential is motivated by higher-order interactions of quarks leading to an increased stiffening at high densities. As an application, we consider matter under compact star constraints of electric neutrality and β equilibrium. We obtain mass-radius relations for hybrid stars that form a third family, disconnected from the purely hadronic star branch, and fulfill the 2 M⊙ constraint.
A new parametric equation of state and quark stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na Xuesen; Xu Renxin
2011-01-01
It is still a matter of debate to understand the equation of state of cold matter with supra-nuclear density in compact stars because of unknown non-perturbative strong interaction between quarks. Nevertheless, it is speculated from an astrophysical view point that quark clusters could form in cold quark matter due to strong coupling at realistic baryon densities. Although it is hard to calculate this conjectured matter from first principles, one can expect that the inter-cluster interaction will share some general features with the nucleon- nucleon interaction successfully depicted by various models. We adopt a two-Gaussian component soft-core potential with these general features and show that quark clusters can form stable simple cubic crystal structure if we assume that the wave function of quark clusters have a Gaussian form. With this parametrization, the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation is solved with reasonably constrained parameter space to give mass-radius relations of crystalline solid quark stars. With baryon number densities truncated at 2n 0 at surface and the range of the interaction fixed at 2 fm we can reproduce similar mass-radius relations to that obtained with bag model equations of state. The maximum mass ranges from ∼ 0.5 solar mass to approx.> 3 solar mass . The recently measured high pulsar mass (approx.> 2 solar mass ) is then used to constrain the parameters of this simple interaction potential. (authors)
Dark matter admixed strange quark stars in the Starobinsky model
Lopes, Ilídio; Panotopoulos, Grigoris
2018-01-01
We compute the mass-to-radius profiles for dark matter admixed strange quark stars in the Starobinsky model of modified gravity. For quark matter, we assume the MIT bag model, while self-interacting dark matter inside the star is modeled as a Bose-Einstein condensate with a polytropic equation of state. We numerically integrate the structure equations in the Einstein frame, adopting the two-fluid formalism, and we treat the curvature correction term nonperturbatively. The effects on the properties of the stars of the amount of dark matter as well as the higher curvature term are investigated. We find that strange quark stars (in agreement with current observational constraints) with the highest masses are equally affected by dark matter and modified gravity.
Nucleation of Quark Matter in Neutron Stars:. Role of Color Superconductivity
Bombaci, Ignazio; Lugones, Germán; Vidaña, Isaac
2008-02-01
Pure hadronic compact stars ("neutron stars") above a critical mass Mcr are metastable1,2 for the conversion to quark stars (hybrid or strange stars). This conversion process liberates an enormous amount of energy (Econv ~ 1053 ergs), which could power some of the observed gamma ray bursts.1-3 In cold deleptonized hadronic stars, the conversion process is triggered by the quantum nucleation of a quark matter drop in the stellar center. These drops can be made up of normal (i.e. unpaired) quark matter, or color superconducting quark matter, depending on the details of the equation of state of quark and hadronic matter.4 In this talk, we present the results of recent calculations5 of the effects of color superconductivity on the conversion of hadronic stars to quark stars. In particular, we study the dependence of the critical mass Mcr and conversion energy Econv on the quark-quark pairing gap Δ, the bag constant B, and the surface tension σ of the quark-hadron interface.
Equation of state of strange quark matter in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.
2012-01-01
Thermodynamic properties of strange quark matter (SQM) in strong magnetic fields H up to 10 20 G are considered at zero temperature within the MIT bag model. The effects of the pressure anisotropy, exhibiting in the difference between the pressures along and perpendicular to the field direction, become essential at H>H t h , with the estimate 10 17 t h 18 G. The longitudinal pressure vanishes in the critical field H c , which can be somewhat less or larger than 10 18 G, depending on the total baryon number density and bag pressure. As a result, the longitudinal instability occurs in strongly magnetized SQM. The appearance of such instability sets the upper bound on the magnetic field strength which can be reached in the interior of a neutron star with the quark core. The longitudinal and transverse pressures as well as the anisotropic equation of state of SQM are determined under the conditions relevant for the cores of magnetars
Mesonic and Quark Degrees of Freedom in the Neutron Star Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubis, S.; Kutschera, M.; Niemiec, J.; Stachniewicz, S.
1999-01-01
Full text: It is expected that mesonic and quark degrees of freedom may play an important role in the physics of dense matter in neutron stars. Any conclusions, however, as to the presence of e.g. meson condensates and/or quark matter inside neutron stars are subject to uncertainties which reflect incompatible model predictions at a purely nucleon level. In our project, as far as mesonic contributions to the equation of state of dense matter are concerned, we focus on the role of kaons and the isovector scalar meson a 0 (980). We find that a threshold density for the kaon condensate to form is very sensitive to a high density behaviour of the electron chemical potential, which is not well known due to uncertainties of nucleon-nucleon interactions. An important effect of the inclusion of the a 0 meson is a splitting of proton and neutron masses in the neutron star matter. A proper construction of the nucleon-quark phase transition in dense neutron star matter predicts that nucleons and quarks coexist over a finite range of pressure, with quarks (nucleons) filling gradually larger (smaller) fraction of space. We find, using a simple bag-model equation of state for the quark matter, that properties of such a mixed quark-nucleon phase are determined by the behaviour of nucleon matter isobars which is sensitive to the nuclear symmetry energy at high densities. We study also implications of the presence of a mixed phase for the structure of neutron stars. (author)
Thermodynamics and equations of state of matter from ideal gas to quark-gluon plasma
Fortov, Vladimir E
2016-01-01
The monograph presents a comparative analysis of different thermodynamic models of the equations of state. The basic ideological premises of the theoretical methods and the experiment are considered. The principal attention is on the description of states that are of greatest interest for the physics of high energy concentrations which are either already attained or can be reached in the near future in controlled terrestrial conditions, or are realized in astrophysical objects at different stages of their evolution. Ultra-extreme astrophysical and nuclear-physical applications are also analyzed where the thermodynamics of matter is affected substantially by relativism, high-power gravitational and magnetic fields, thermal radiation, transformation of nuclear particles, nucleon neutronization, and quark deconfinement. The book is intended for a wide range of specialists engaged in the study of the equations of state of matter and high energy density physics, as well as for senior students and postgraduates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacob, Maurice
1988-01-01
The 'Quark Matter' Conference caters for physicists studying nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The hope is that relativistic (high energy) heavy ion collisions allow formation of the long-awaited quark-gluon plasma, where the inter-quark 'colour' force is no longer confined inside nucleon-like dimensions
Phenomenological neutron star equations of state. 3-window modeling of QCD matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kojo, Toru [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Physics, Urbana, Illinois (United States)
2016-03-15
We discuss the 3-window modeling of cold, dense QCD matter equations of state at density relevant to neutron star properties. At low baryon density, n{sub B}
Quark distributions in nuclear matter and the EMC effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mineo, H.; Bentz, W. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Ishii, N.; Thomas, A.W.; Yazaki, K
2004-05-03
Quark light cone momentum distributions in nuclear matter and the structure function of a bound nucleon are investigated in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This framework describes the nucleon as a relativistic quark-diquark state, and the nuclear matter equation of state by using the mean field approximation. The scalar and vector mean fields in the nuclear medium couple to the quarks in the nucleon and their effect on the spin independent nuclear structure function is investigated in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the important effect of the vector mean field and on a formulation which guarantees the validity of the number and momentum sum rules from the outset.
Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassi, F.
1988-01-01
A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs
Kurkela, Aleksi
2016-07-20
We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative Equation of State of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to order g^5 in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated using a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft non-zero modes are resummed using the Hard Thermal Loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.
Hot and dense matter in compact stars - from nuclei to quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hempel, Matthias
2010-01-01
This dissertation deals with the equation of state of hot and dense matter in compact stars, with special focus on first order phase transitions. A general classification of first order phase transitions is given and the properties of mixed phases are discussed. Aspects of nucleation and the role of local constraints are investigated. The derived theoretical concepts are applied to matter in neutron stars and supernovae, in the hadron-quark and the liquid-gas phase transition. For the detailed description of the liquid-gas phase transition a new nuclear statistical equilibrium model is developed. It is based on a thermodynamic consistent implementation of relativistic mean-field interactions and excluded volume effects. With this model different equation of state tables are calculated and the composition and thermodynamic properties of supernova matter are analyzed. As a first application numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae are presented. For the hadron-quark phase transition two possible scenarios are studied in more detail. First the appearance of a new mixed phase in a proto neutron star and the implications on its evolution. In the second scenario the consequences of the hadron-quark transition in corecollapse supernovae are investigated. Simulations show that the appearance of quark matter has clear observable signatures and can even lead to the generation of an explosion. (orig.)
Hot and dense matter in compact stars - from nuclei to quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hempel, Matthias
2010-10-19
This dissertation deals with the equation of state of hot and dense matter in compact stars, with special focus on first order phase transitions. A general classification of first order phase transitions is given and the properties of mixed phases are discussed. Aspects of nucleation and the role of local constraints are investigated. The derived theoretical concepts are applied to matter in neutron stars and supernovae, in the hadron-quark and the liquid-gas phase transition. For the detailed description of the liquid-gas phase transition a new nuclear statistical equilibrium model is developed. It is based on a thermodynamic consistent implementation of relativistic mean-field interactions and excluded volume effects. With this model different equation of state tables are calculated and the composition and thermodynamic properties of supernova matter are analyzed. As a first application numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae are presented. For the hadron-quark phase transition two possible scenarios are studied in more detail. First the appearance of a new mixed phase in a proto neutron star and the implications on its evolution. In the second scenario the consequences of the hadron-quark transition in corecollapse supernovae are investigated. Simulations show that the appearance of quark matter has clear observable signatures and can even lead to the generation of an explosion. (orig.)
Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.
Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K
2014-12-12
We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.
Fukushima, Kenji; Hidaka, Yoshimasa
2018-04-01
We compute the electric conductivity of quark matter at finite temperature T and a quark chemical potential μ under a magnetic field B beyond the lowest Landau level approximation. The electric conductivity transverse to B is dominated by the Hall conductivity σH. For the longitudinal conductivity σ∥, we need to solve kinetic equations. Then, we numerically find that σ∥ has only a mild dependence on μ and the quark mass mq. Moreover, σ∥ first decreases and then linearly increases as a function of B , leading to an intermediate B region that looks consistent with the experimental signature for the chiral magnetic effect. We also point out that σ∥ at a nonzero B remains within the range of the lattice-QCD estimate at B =0 .
Quark matter or new particles?
Michel, F. Curtis
1988-01-01
It has been argued that compression of nuclear matter to somewhat higher densities may lead to the formation of stable quark matter. A plausible alternative, which leads to radically new astrophysical scenarios, is that the stability of quark matter simply represents the stability of new particles compounded of quarks. A specific example is the SU(3)-symmetric version of the alpha particle, composed of spin-zero pairs of each of the baryon octet (an 'octet' particle).
Quark Matter May Not Be Strange.
Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Chen
2018-06-01
If quark matter is energetically favored over nuclear matter at zero temperature and pressure, then it has long been expected to take the form of strange quark matter (SQM), with comparable amounts of u, d, and s quarks. The possibility of quark matter with only u and d quarks (udQM) is usually dismissed because of the observed stability of ordinary nuclei. However, we find that udQM generally has lower bulk energy per baryon than normal nuclei and SQM. This emerges in a phenomenological model that describes the spectra of the lightest pseudoscalar and scalar meson nonets. Taking into account the finite size effects, udQM can be the ground state of baryonic matter only for baryon number A>A_{min} with A_{min}≳300. This ensures the stability of ordinary nuclei and points to a new form of stable matter just beyond the periodic table.
The effect of dynamical quark mass on the calculation of a strange quark star's structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Babak Ziaei
2012-01-01
We discuss the dynamical behavior of strange quark matter components,in particular the effects of density dependent quark mass on the equation of state of strange quark matter.The dynamical masses of quarks are computed within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model,then we perform strange quark matter calculations employing the MIT bag model with these dynamical masses.For the sake of comparing dynamical mass interaction with QCD quark-quark interaction,we consider the one-gluon-exchange term as the effective interaction between quarks for the MIT bag model.Our dynamical approach illustrates an improvement in the obtained equation of state values.We also investigate the structure of the strange quark star using TolmanOppenheimer-Volkoff equations for all applied models.Our results show that dynamical mass interaction leads to lower values for gravitational mass.
Phase transition in dense nuclear matter with quark and gluon condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.; Kapusta, J.I.; Olive, K.A.
1991-01-01
Nuclear matter is expected to modify the expectation values of the quark and gluon condensates. We utilize the chiral and scale symmetries of QCD to describe the interaction between these condensates and hadrons. We solve the resulting equations self-consistently in the relativistic mean field approximation. In order that these QCD condensates be driven towards zero at high density their coupling to sigma and vector mesons must be such that the masses of these mesons do not decrease with density. In this case a physically sensible phase transition to quark matter ensures. (orig.)
The weak conversion rate in quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heiselberg, H.
1992-01-01
The weak conversion rate of strange to down quarks, s + u ↔ u + d, is calculated analytically for degenerate u, d and s quark matter to leading orders in temperature and deviations from chemical equilibrium. The rate is applied to burning of neutron matter into quark matter, to evaporation from quark nuggets in the early universe, for estimating the lifetime of strangelets, and to pulsar glitches
Confinement and deconfinement of quarks in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baym, G.
1982-01-01
Nuclear matter at high baryon density or excitation energy is expected to undergo a transition to deconfined quark matter, a new state of matter, whose production and detection would be an exciting and basic advance in nuclear physics. These lectures summarize current understanding of quark matter and the deconfinement transition. Beginning with a review of elementary models of confinement, the basic properties of quark matter are described, estimates of the transition from hadronic to quark matter are made, and various ways one might see quark matter experimentally by production in nuclear collisions or in the form of metastable exotic nuclear objects are discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1987-01-01
Quarks are understood to interact through the 'colour' force, carried by gluons. Under normal conditions these quarks are confined - frozen together in 'colourless' states such as protons, neutrons and other strongly interacting particles. However if the quarks are compressed tightly together and/or are 'heated' by increasing their energy, they should eventually break loose from their colour bonds to form a new kind of matter – the so-called quark-gluon plasma. Although QGP has not yet been synthesized in the Laboratory, it was most likely the stuff of the Universe 10 -5 second after the Big Bang. Thus the search for this 'new' matter is attracting a growing number of physicists, theorists and experimenters from both the particle physics and nuclear physics fields
Effects of Density-Dependent Quark Mass on Phase Diagram of Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Considering the density dependence of quark mass, we investigate the phase transition between the (unpaired) strange quark matter and the color-flavor-locked matter, which are supposed to be two candidates for the ground state of strongly interacting matter. We find that if the current mass of strange quark ms is small, the strange quark matter remains stable unless the baryon density is very high. If ms is large, the phase transition from the strange quark matter to the color-flavor-locked matter in particular to its gapless phase is found to be different from the results predicted by previous works. A complicated phase diagram of three-flavor quark matter is presented, in which the color-flavor-locked phase region is suppressed for moderate densities.
Spinodal instability of baryon-rich quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Feng; Ko, Che Ming
2017-01-01
The spinodal instabilities of both confined and expanding baryon-rich quark matters are studied in a transport model derived from the Nambu-Jona-Lasino model. Appreciable higher-order density moments are seen as a result of the first-order phase transition in both cases. The skewness of the quark number event-by-event distribution in a small subvolume of the system becomes appreciable for the confined quark matter. For the expanding quark matter, the density fluctuations lead to enhanced anisotropic flows and dilepton yield. (paper)
Quark matter in a chiral chromodielectric model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broniowski, W.; Kutschera, M.; Cibej, M.; Rosina, M.
1989-03-01
Zero and finite temperature quark matter is studied in a chiral chromodielectric model with quark, meson and chromodielectric degrees of freedom. Mean field approximation is used. Two cases are considered: two-flavor and three-flavor quark matter. It is found that at sufficiently low densities and temperatures the system is in a chirally broken phase, with quarks acquiring effective masses of the order of 100 MeV. At higher densities and temperatures a chiral phase transition occurs and the quarks become massless. A comparison to traditional nuclear physics suggests that the chirally broken phase with massive quark gas may be the ground state of matter at densities of the order of a few nuclear saturation densities. 24 refs., 5 figs. (author)
Bulk viscosity in 2SC quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, Mark G; Schmitt, Andreas
2007-01-01
The bulk viscosity of three-flavour colour-superconducting quark matter originating from the nonleptonic process u + s ↔ u + d is computed. It is assumed that up and down quarks form Cooper pairs while the strange quark remains unpaired (2SC phase). A general derivation of the rate of strangeness production is presented, involving contributions from a multitude of different subprocesses, including subprocesses that involve different numbers of gapped quarks as well as creation and annihilation of particles in the condensate. The rate is then used to compute the bulk viscosity as a function of the temperature, for an external oscillation frequency typical of a compact star r-mode. We find that, for temperatures far below the critical temperature T c for 2SC pairing, the bulk viscosity of colour-superconducting quark matter is suppressed relative to that of unpaired quark matter, but for T ∼> T c /30 the colour-superconducting quark matter has a higher bulk viscosity. This is potentially relevant for the suppression of r-mode instabilities early in the life of a compact star
Single top quarks and dark matter
Pinna, Deborah; Zucchetta, Alberto; Buckley, Matthew R.; Canelli, Florencia
2017-08-01
Processes with dark matter interacting with the standard model fermions through new scalars or pseudoscalars with flavor-diagonal couplings proportional to fermion mass are well motivated theoretically, and provide a useful phenomenological model with which to interpret experimental results. Two modes of dark matter production from these models have been considered in the existing literature: pairs of dark matter produced through top quark loops with an associated monojet in the event, and pair production of dark matter with pairs of heavy flavored quarks (tops or bottoms). In this paper, we demonstrate that a third, previously overlooked channel yields a non-negligible contribution to LHC dark matter searches in these models. In spite of a generally lower production cross section at LHC when compared to the associated top-pair channel, non-flavor violating single top quark processes are kinematically favored and can significantly increase the sensitivity to these models. Including dark matter production in association with a single top quark through scalar or pseudoscalar mediators, the exclusion limit set by the LHC searches for dark matter can be improved by 30% up to a factor of two, depending on the mass assumed for the mediator particle.
Medium effects in strange quark matter and strange stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schertler, K.; Greiner, C.; Thoma, M.H.
1997-01-01
We investigate the properties of strange quark matter at zero temperature including medium effects. The quarks are considered as quasiparticles which acquire an effective mass generated by the interaction with the other quarks of the dense system. The effective quark masses are derived from the zero momentum limit of the dispersion relations following from an effective quark propagator obtained from resumming one-loop self-energy diagrams in the hard dense loop approximation. This leads to a thermodynamic self-consistent description of strange quark matter as an ideal Fermi gas of quasiparticles. Within this approach we find that medium effects reduce the overall binding energy with respect to 56 Fe of strange quark matter. For typical values of the strong coupling constant (α s >or∼1) strange quark matter is not absolutely stable. The application to pure strange quark matter stars shows that medium effects have, nevertheless, no impact on the mass-radius relation of the stars. However, a phase transition to hadronic matter at the surface of the stars becomes more likely. (orig.)
Asymmetric nuclear matter in a modified quark meson coupling model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, R.N.; Sahoo, H.S.; Panda, P.K.; Barik, N.
2014-01-01
In an earlier attempt we have successfully used this model in developing the nuclear equation of state and analysed various other bulk properties of symmetric nuclear matter with the dependence of quark masses. In the present work we want to apply the model to analyze asymmetric nuclear matter with the variation of the asymmetry parameter y p as well as analyze the effects of symmetry energy and the slope of the symmetry energy L
Some Recent Progress on Quark Pairings in Dense Quark and Nuclear Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pang Jinyi; Wang Jincheng; Wang Qun
2012-01-01
In this review article we give a brief overview on some recent progress in quark pairings in dense quark/nuclear matter mostly developed in the past five years. We focus on following aspects in particular: the BCS-BEC crossover in the CSC phase, the baryon formation and dissociation in dense quark/nuclear matter, the Ginzburg-Landau theory for three-flavor dense matter with U A (1) anomaly, and the collective and Nambu-Goldstone modes for the spin-one CSC. (physics of elementary particles and fields)
Quark matter droplets in neutron stars
Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.
1993-01-01
We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glendenning, N.K.
1989-11-01
We investigate the implications of rapid rotation corresponding to the frequency of the new pulsar reported in the supernovae remnant SN1987A. It places very stringent conditions on the equation of state if the star is assumed to be bound by gravity alone. We find that the central energy density of the star must be greater than 13 times that of nuclear density to be stable against the most optimistic estimate of general relativistic instabilities. This is too high for the matter to consist of individual hadrons. We conclude that it is implausible that the newly discovered pulsar, if its half-millisecond signals are attributable to rotation, is a neutron star. We show that it can be a strange quark star, and that the entire family of strange stars can sustain high rotation if strange matter is stable at an energy density exceeding about 5.4 times that of nuclear matter. We discuss the conversion of a neutron star to strange star, the possible existence of a crust of heavy ions held in suspension by centrifugal and electric forces, the cooling and other features. 34 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab
Seismic Search for Strange Quark Matter
Teplitz, Vigdor
2004-01-01
Two decades ago, Witten suggested that the ground state of matter might be material of nuclear density made from up, down and strange quarks. Since then, much effort has gone into exploring astrophysical and other implications of this possibility. For example, neutron stars would almost certainly be strange quark stars; dark matter might be strange quark matter. Searches for stable strange quark matter have been made in various mass ranges, with negative, but not conclusive results. Recently, we [D. Anderson, E. Herrin, V. Teplitz, and I. Tibuleac, Bull. Seis. Soc. of Am. 93, 2363 (2003)] reported a positive result for passage through the Earth of a multi-ton "nugget" of nuclear density in a search of about a million seismic reports, to the U.S. Geological Survey for the years 1990-93, not associated with known Earthquakes. I will present the evidence (timing of first signals to the 9 stations involved, first signal directions, and unique waveform characteristics) for our conclusion and discuss potential improvements that could be obtained from exploiting the seismologically quieter environments of the moon and Mars.
Unlocking color and flavor in superconducting strange quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, Mark; Berges, Juergen; Rajagopal, Krishna
1999-01-01
We explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter with massless u and d quarks as a function of the strange quark mass m s and the chemical potential μ for baryon number. Neglecting electromagnetism, we describe the different baryonic and quark matter phases at zero temperature. For quark matter, we support our model-independent arguments with a quantitative analysis of a model which uses a four-fermion interaction abstracted from single-gluon exchange. For any finite m s , at sufficiently large μ we find quark matter in a color-flavor-locked state which leaves a global vector-like SU(2) color+L+R symmetry unbroken. As a consequence, chiral symmetry is always broken in sufficiently dense quark matter. As the density is reduced, for sufficiently large m s we observe a first-order transition from the color-flavor-locked phase to color superconducting phase analogous to that in two-flavor QCD. At this unlocking transition chiral symmetry is restored. For realistic values of m s our analysis indicates that chiral symmetry breaking may be present for all densities down to those characteristic of baryonic matter. This supports the idea that quark matter and baryonic matter may be continuously connected in nature. We map the gaps at the quark Fermi surfaces in the high density color-flavor-locked phase onto gaps at the baryon Fermi surfaces at low densities
Making quark matter at brook haven's new collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, P.
2002-01-01
Quarks are believed to come in 6 flavours, only the lightest of which, the up and down quarks, are found in protons and neutrons. Isolated quarks have never been observed. As quarks are brought closer together, the force between them decreases dramatically, vanishing as the separation becomes very small. This suggests that quarks may become unbound if the density of quarks could be increased by squeezing a nucleus. The nucleus would have melted their constituent quarks, now free to roam the extended volume of the compressed nucleus. This situation would make a significant change in the structure of matter corresponding to a change of phase, rather like the transition from solid to liquid, but in this case from quark confined matter, to a quark gluon plasma (QGP). This new state of matter is thought to have been the natural phase of matter until 10 micro-seconds after the big-bang, and also to exist today in the core of neutron stars. Calculations show that the energy density needed to observe the phase transition is around 1 GeV/fm 3 , approximately 8 times that of normal nuclear matter. Attempts to recreate QGP have been underway at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and at the CERN by colliding heavy-ion beams at the maximal energy possible. Between 4000 and 5000 charged particles are produced in the most violent events. The experimental challenge is to establish the existence of QGP from all this wealth of data. (A.C.)
Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects
Sandweiss, J.
2004-01-01
The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otterlund, Ingvar; Ruuskanen, Vesa
1993-12-15
In his welcome address to the 10th International Conference on Ultra- Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter '93), held in Borlange, Sweden, from 20-24 June, Hans-Ake Gustafsson was puzzled why this year's conference was billed as the tenth in the series. He had tried to count but could only find eight forerunners - Bielefeld (1982), Brookhaven (1983), Helsinki (1984), Asilomar (1986), Nordkirchen (1987), Lenox (1988), Menton (1990), Gatlinburg (1991), making this year's meeting at Borlange the ninth. The answer was given by Helmut Satz in his introductory talk, pointing out that at the time of the Bielefeld meeting, a few conferences dealing with similar topics had already been held. The Bielefeld organizers thus did not consider their conference the first. Whatever its pedigree, the Borlange meeting covered particle production in highly excited and compressed nuclear matter, fluctuations and correlations, quark phenomena (quantum chromodynamics - QCD) in nuclear collisions, probes and signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), future collider experiments and instrumentation. The theoretical talks were split between the fundamental properties of the hot and dense matter at or near equilibrium, and the interface between theory and experiment. The phenomenological modelling of heavy ion collisions seems to reproduce at least all the main features of the data with hadrons, resonances and strings as the degrees of freedom. However secondary interactions among the produced hadrons or strings need to be added. Hydrodynamic calculations lead to results which reproduce the main features of the collisions. With increasing collision energy, the parton degrees of freedom become more important. Klaus Geiger described an ambitious scheme treating the whole nucleus-nucleus collision in terms of a kinetic parton (quark/gluon) cascade. The initial parton distribution at the beginning of the collision is determined from the quark-gluon nuclear structure and the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otterlund, Ingvar; Ruuskanen, Vesa
1993-01-01
In his welcome address to the 10th International Conference on Ultra- Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter '93), held in Borlange, Sweden, from 20-24 June, Hans-Ake Gustafsson was puzzled why this year's conference was billed as the tenth in the series. He had tried to count but could only find eight forerunners - Bielefeld (1982), Brookhaven (1983), Helsinki (1984), Asilomar (1986), Nordkirchen (1987), Lenox (1988), Menton (1990), Gatlinburg (1991), making this year's meeting at Borlange the ninth. The answer was given by Helmut Satz in his introductory talk, pointing out that at the time of the Bielefeld meeting, a few conferences dealing with similar topics had already been held. The Bielefeld organizers thus did not consider their conference the first. Whatever its pedigree, the Borlange meeting covered particle production in highly excited and compressed nuclear matter, fluctuations and correlations, quark phenomena (quantum chromodynamics - QCD) in nuclear collisions, probes and signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), future collider experiments and instrumentation. The theoretical talks were split between the fundamental properties of the hot and dense matter at or near equilibrium, and the interface between theory and experiment. The phenomenological modelling of heavy ion collisions seems to reproduce at least all the main features of the data with hadrons, resonances and strings as the degrees of freedom. However secondary interactions among the produced hadrons or strings need to be added. Hydrodynamic calculations lead to results which reproduce the main features of the collisions. With increasing collision energy, the parton degrees of freedom become more important. Klaus Geiger described an ambitious scheme treating the whole nucleus-nucleus collision in terms of a kinetic parton (quark/gluon) cascade. The initial parton distribution at the beginning of the collision is determined from the quark-gluon nuclear structure
From hadrons to quarks in neutron stars: a review
Baym, Gordon; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Kojo, Toru; Powell, Philip D.; Song, Yifan; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki
2018-05-01
In recent years our understanding of neutron stars has advanced remarkably, thanks to research converging from many directions. The importance of understanding neutron star behavior and structure has been underlined by the recent direct detection of gravitational radiation from merging neutron stars. The clean identification of several heavy neutron stars, of order two solar masses, challenges our current understanding of how dense matter can be sufficiently stiff to support such a mass against gravitational collapse. Programs underway to determine simultaneously the mass and radius of neutron stars will continue to constrain and inform theories of neutron star interiors. At the same time, an emerging understanding in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) of how nuclear matter can evolve into deconfined quark matter at high baryon densities is leading to advances in understanding the equation of state of the matter under the extreme conditions in neutron star interiors. We review here the equation of state of matter in neutron stars from the solid crust through the liquid nuclear matter interior to the quark regime at higher densities. We focus in detail on the question of how quark matter appears in neutron stars, and how it affects the equation of state. After discussing the crust and liquid nuclear matter in the core we briefly review aspects of microscopic quark physics relevant to neutron stars, and quark models of dense matter based on the Nambu–Jona–Lasinio framework, in which gluonic processes are replaced by effective quark interactions. We turn then to describing equations of state useful for interpretation of both electromagnetic and gravitational observations, reviewing the emerging picture of hadron-quark continuity in which hadronic matter turns relatively smoothly, with at most only a weak first order transition, into quark matter with increasing density. We review construction of unified equations of state that interpolate between the reasonably well
Hot nuclear matter in the modified quark-meson coupling model with quark-quark correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakout, I.; Jaqaman, H.R.
2000-01-01
Short-range quark-quark correlations in hot nuclear matter are examined within the modified quark-meson coupling (MQMC) model by adding repulsive scalar and vector quark-quark interactions. Without these correlations, the bag radius increases with the baryon density. However, when the correlations are introduced the bag size shrinks as the bags overlap. Also as the strength of the scalar quark-quark correlation is increased, the decrease of the effective nucleon mass M* N with the baryonic density is slowed down and tends to saturate at high densities. Within this model we study the phase transition from the baryon-meson phase to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase with the latter modelled as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons inside a bag. Two models for the QGP bag parameter are considered. In one case, the bag is taken to be medium-independent and the phase transition from the hadron phase to QGP is found to occur at five to eight times ordinary nuclear matter density for temperatures less than 60 MeV. For lower densities, the transition takes place at a higher temperature, reaching up to 130 MeV at zero density. In the second case, the QGP bag parameter is considered to be medium-dependent as in the MQMC model for the hadronic phase. In this case, it is found that the phase transition occurs at much lower densities. (author)
The quark-cluster phase of superdense matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo-Chen Yang
1983-01-01
Full Text Available A quark-cluster phase of superdense matter is suggested. The 3-quark cluster is defined by γ3 = 0andγ8 = 0 but it is not necessarily a color-singlet. The new phase would lead to a long distance order of spin in superdense matter.
Quark Matter 2017: Young Scientist Support
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evdokimov, Olga [University of Illinois at Chicago
2017-07-31
Quark Matter conference series are amongst the major scientific events for the Relativistic Heavy Ion community. With over 30 year long history, the meetings are held about every 1½ years to showcase the progress made in theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The 26th International Conference on Ultra-relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter 2017) was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Chicago from Sunday, February 5th through Saturday, February 11th, 2017. The conference featured about 180 plenary and parallel presentations of the most significant recent results in the field, a poster session for additional presentations, and an evening public lecture. Following the tradition of previous Quark Matter meetings, the first day of the conference was dedicated entirely to a special program for young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral researchers). This grant will provided financial support for 235 young physicists facilitating their attendance of the conference.
Study of stellar objects with strange quark matter crust
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hothi, N.; Bisht, S.
2012-01-01
The absolute stability of strange quark matter is a viable possibility and immensely effects physics at the astrophysical scale. Relativistic heavy-ion reactions offer a stage to produce this exotic state of matter and the enhanced production of strange particles during these reactions can be studied within the framework of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We have tried to investigate the role of strangeness under the compact star phenomenology. Emphasis is laid upon the possibility of existence of a third family of strange quark stars and its study help in revealing a number of unexplored features of the cosmos. Bag model parameters have been used to determine some integral parameters for a sequence of strange stars with crust and strange dwarfs constructed out of strange quark matter crust. A comparative analysis is performed between the strange and neutron stars and the strange and white dwarfs based upon these intrinsic parameters and paramount differences are observed. The intimacy between astrophysics and strange quarks depends strongly upon the strange quark matter hypothesis. It states that for a collection of more than a few hundred u, d and s quarks, the energy per baryon E/A of strange quark matter (SQM) can be well below the energy per baryon of the most stable atomic nuclei
Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca
2015-01-01
It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous magnet...
Non-Spherical Gravitational Collapse of Strange Quark Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zade S S; Patil K D; Mulkalwar P N
2008-01-01
We study the non-spherical gravitational collapse of the strange quark null fluid.The interesting feature which emerges is that the non-spherical collapse of charged strange quark matter leads to a naked singularity whereas the gravitational collapse of neutral quark matter proceeds to form a black hole.We extend the earlier work of Harko and Cheng[Phys.Lett.A 266 (2000) 249]to the non-spherical case.
Hadron structure in a simple model of quark/nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, C.J.; Moniz, E.J.; Negele, J.W.
1985-01-01
We study a simple model for one-dimensional hadron matter with many of the essential features needed for examining the transition from nuclear to quark matter and the limitations of models based upon hadron rather than quark degrees of freedom. The dynamics are generated entirely by the quark confining force and exchange symmetry. Using Monte Carlo techniques, the ground-state energy, single-quark momentum distribution, and quark correlation function are calculated for uniform matter as a function of density. The quark confinement scale in the medium increases substantially with increasing density. This change is evident in the correlation function and momentum distribution, in qualitative agreement with the changes observed in deep-inelastic lepton scattering. Nevertheless, the ground-state energy is smooth throughout the transition to quark matter and is described remarkably well by an effective hadron theory based on a phenomenological hadron-hadron potential
Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the context of general relativity are explored. To obtain deterministic solution of the Einstein's field equations, various techniques are adopted. The features of the obtained solution are discussed.
Ouyed, Amir; Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth
2018-02-01
We simulate and study the microphysics of combustion (flame burning) of two flavored quark matter (u,d) to three flavored quark matter (u,d,s) in a trapped neutrino regime applicable to conditions prevailing in a hot proto-neutron star. The reaction-diffusion-advection equations for (u,d) to (u,d,s) combustion are coupled with neutrino transport, which is modeled through a flux-limited diffusion scheme. The flame speed is proportional to initial lepton fraction because of the release of electron chemical potential as heat, and reaches a steady-state burning speed of (0.001-0.008)c. We find that the burning speed is ultimately driven by the neutrino pressure gradient, given that the pressure gradient induced by quarks is opposed by the pressure gradients induced by electrons. This suggests, somewhat counter-intuitively, that the pressure gradients that drive the interface are controlled primarily by leptonic weak decays rather than by the quark Equation of State (EOS). In other words, the effects of the leptonic weak interaction, including the corresponding weak decay rates and the EOS of electrons and neutrinos, are at least as important as the uncertainties related to the EOS of high density matter. We find that for baryon number densities nB ≤ 0.35 fm-3, strong pressure gradients induced by leptonic weak decays drastically slow down the burning speed, which is thereafter controlled by the much slower burning process driven by backflowing downstream matter. We discuss the implications of our findings to proto-neutron stars.
Dual chiral density wave in quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tatsumi, Toshitaka
2002-01-01
We prove that quark matter is unstable for forming a dual chiral density wave above a critical density, within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Presence of a dual chiral density wave leads to a uniform ferromagnetism in quark matter. A similarity with the spin density wave theory in electron gas and the pion condensation theory is also pointed out. (author)
Quark matter brings heavy ions to Oakland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, Spencer; Nystrand, Joakim
2004-01-01
The Quark Matter 2004 conference, held in Oakland, California, in January, provided participants with evidence for the elusive quark-gluon plasma. Spencer Klein and Joakim Nystrand describe the highlights of the meeting
Quark mean field theory and consistency with nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, J.; Tomio, L.; Dey, M.; Frederico, T.
1989-01-01
1/N c expansion in QCD (with N c the number of colours) suggests using a potential from meson sector (e.g. Richardson) for baryons. For light quarks a σ field has to be introduced to ensure chiral symmetry breaking ( χ SB). It is found that nuclear matter properties can be used to pin down the χ SB-modelling. All masses, M Ν , m σ , m ω are found to scale with density. The equations are solved self consistently. (author)
Effect of soft mode on shear viscosity of quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukutome, Takahiko; Iwasaki, Masaharu
2008-01-01
We calculate the shear viscosity of quark matter at finite temperature and density. If we assume that the quark interacts with the soft mode, which is a collective mode of a quark-antiquark pair, the self-energy of the quark is calculated by quasi-particle random phase approximation. It is shown that its imaginary part is large and its mean free path is short. With the use of the Kubo formula, the shear viscosity of quark matter decreases. The Reynolds number of quark matter is estimated to be about 10. As temperature increases, shear viscosity increases gradually for T>200 MeV. Moreover it is shown that the shear viscosity also increases with the chemical potential for μ>200 MeV. (author)
Detection of magnetized quark-nuggets, a candidate for dark matter.
VanDevender, J Pace; VanDevender, Aaron P; Sloan, T; Swaim, Criss; Wilson, Peter; Schmitt, Robert G; Zakirov, Rinat; Blum, Josh; Cross, James L; McGinley, Niall
2017-08-18
Quark nuggets are theoretical objects composed of approximately equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks and are also called strangelets and nuclearites. They have been proposed as a candidate for dark matter, which constitutes ~85% of the universe's mass and which has been a mystery for decades. Previous efforts to detect quark nuggets assumed that the nuclear-density core interacts directly with the surrounding matter so the stopping power is minimal. Tatsumi found that quark nuggets could well exist as a ferromagnetic liquid with a ~10 12 -T magnetic field. We find that the magnetic field produces a magnetopause with surrounding plasma, as the earth's magnetic field produces a magnetopause with the solar wind, and substantially increases their energy deposition rate in matter. We use the magnetopause model to compute the energy deposition as a function of quark-nugget mass and to analyze testing the quark-nugget hypothesis for dark matter by observations in air, water, and land. We conclude the water option is most promising.
Quark Matter '87: Concluding remarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyulassy, M.
1988-03-01
This year marked the beginning of the experimental program at BNL and CERN to probe the properties of ultra dense hadronic matter and to search for the quark-gluon plasma phase of matter. Possible implications of the preliminary findings are discussed. Problems needing further theoretical and experimental study are pointed out. 50 refs
Quark mean field theory and consistency with nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, J.; Dey, M.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, L.
1990-09-01
1/N c expansion in QCD (with N c the number of colours) suggests using a potential from meson sector (e.g. Richardson) for baryons. For light quarks a σ field has to be introduced to ensure chiral symmetry breaking ( χ SB). It is found that nuclear matter properties can be used to pin down the χ SB-modelling. All masses, M N , m σ , m ω are found to scale with density. The equations are solved self consistently. (author). 29 refs, 2 tabs
Equation of State of Dense Matter and Consequences for Neutron Stars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas A. W.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available There is currently tremendous interest in the role of hyperons and other exotic forms of matter in neutron stars. This is particularly so following the measurement by Demorest et al. of a star with a mass almost 2 solar masses. Given that we know of no physical mechanism to stop the occurrence of hyperons at matter in beta–equilibrium above roughly 3 times nuclear matter density, we discuss the constraints on the possible maximum mass when hyperons are included in the equation of state. The discussion includes a careful assessment of the constraints from low energy nuclear properties as well as the properties of hypernuclei. The model within which these calculations are carried out is the quark-meson coupling (QMC model, which is derived starting at the quark level.
Instanton vacuum at finite density of quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molodtsov, S.V.; Zinovjev, G.M.
2002-01-01
We study light quark interactions in the instanton liquid at finite quark/baryon number density analyzing chiral and diquark condensates and investigate the behaviors of quark dynamical mass and both condensates together with instanton liquid density as a function of quark chemical potential. We conclude the quark impact (estimated in the tadpole approximation) on the instanton liquid could shift color superconducting phase transition to higher values of the chemical potential bringing critical quark matter density to the values essentially higher than conventional nuclear one
Thermodynamics of strange quark matter with the density-dependent bag constant
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The thermodynamics of strange quark matter with density dependent bag constant are studied self-consistently in the framework of the general ensemble theory and the MIT bag model.In our treatment,an additional term is found in the expression of pressure.With the additional term,the zero pressure locates exactly at the lowest energy state,indicating that our treatment is a self-consistently thermodynamic treatment.The self-consistent equations of state of strange quark matter in both the normal and color-flavor-locked phase are derived.They are both softer than the inconsistent ones.Strange stars in both the normal and color-flavor locked phase have smaller masses and radii in our treatment.It is also interesting to find that the energy density at a star surface in our treatment is much higher than that in the inconsistent treatment for both phases.Consequently,the surface properties and the corresponding observational properties of strange stars in our treatment are different from those in the inconsistent treatment.
Thermodynamics of strange quark matter with the density-dependent bag constant
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU MingFeng; LIU GuangZhou; YU Zi; XU Yan; SONG WenTao
2009-01-01
The thermodynamics of strange quark matter with density dependent bag constant are studied selfconsistently in the framework of the general ensemble theory and the MIT bag model.In our treatment,an additional term Is found in the expression of pressure.With the additional term,the zero pressure locates exactly at the lowest energy state,Indicating that our treatment is a self-consistently thermodynamic treatment.The self-consistent equations of state of strange quark matter in both the normal and color-flavor-locked phase are derived.They are both softer than the inconsistent ones.Strange stars in both the normal and color-flavor locked phase have smaller masses and radii in our treatment.It is also interesting to find that the energy density at a star surface in our treatment is much higher than that In the inconsistent treatment for both phases.Consequently,the surface properties and the corresponding observational properties of strange stars in our treatment are different from those in the inconsistent treatment.
Relativistic simulations of compact object mergers for nucleonic matter and strange quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauswein, Andreas Ottmar
2010-01-01
Under the assumption that the energy of the ground state of 3-flavor quark matter is lower than the one of nucleonic matter, the compact stellar remnants of supernova explosions are composed of this quark matter. Because of the appearance of strange quarks, such objects are called strange stars. Considering their observational features, strange stars are very similar to neutron stars made of nucleonic matter, and therefore observations cannot exclude the existence of strange stars. This thesis introduces a new method for simulating mergers of compact stars and black holes within a general relativistic framework. The main goal of the present work is the investigation of the question, whether the coalescence of two strange stars in a binary system yields observational signatures that allow one to distinguish them from colliding neutron stars. In this context the gravitational-wave signals are analyzed. It is found that in general the characteristic frequencies in the gravitational-wave spectra are higher for strange stars. Moreover, the amount of matter that becomes gravitationally unbound during the merging is determined. The detection of ejecta of strange star mergers as potential component of cosmic ray flux could serve as a proof of the existence of strange quark matter. (orig.)
Relativistic simulations of compact object mergers for nucleonic matter and strange quark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauswein, Andreas Ottmar
2010-01-29
Under the assumption that the energy of the ground state of 3-flavor quark matter is lower than the one of nucleonic matter, the compact stellar remnants of supernova explosions are composed of this quark matter. Because of the appearance of strange quarks, such objects are called strange stars. Considering their observational features, strange stars are very similar to neutron stars made of nucleonic matter, and therefore observations cannot exclude the existence of strange stars. This thesis introduces a new method for simulating mergers of compact stars and black holes within a general relativistic framework. The main goal of the present work is the investigation of the question, whether the coalescence of two strange stars in a binary system yields observational signatures that allow one to distinguish them from colliding neutron stars. In this context the gravitational-wave signals are analyzed. It is found that in general the characteristic frequencies in the gravitational-wave spectra are higher for strange stars. Moreover, the amount of matter that becomes gravitationally unbound during the merging is determined. The detection of ejecta of strange star mergers as potential component of cosmic ray flux could serve as a proof of the existence of strange quark matter. (orig.)
Where and how the quark-gluon matter should be searched for?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strugalski, Z.
1997-01-01
The experimentally based answers are presented to the questions: 1) Where and how the quark-gluon matter should be searched for? 2) How to create objects of highly excited quark-gluon matter? 3) How to study the phase transitions in excited quark-gluon matter? In the argumentation, experimental information has been used about hadron passages through layers of intranuclear matter, about mechanisms of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, and about energy transfer from hadronic projectiles to target nuclei
Bianchi type-I universe in f(R, T) modified gravity with quark matter and Λ
Ćaǧlar, Halife; Aygün, Sezgin
2017-02-01
In this study, we investigate homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type I universe in the presence of quark matter source in f(R, T) gravity (Harko et al. in Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011) with cosmological constant Λ (where R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the energy momentum tensor). For this aim we have used the anisotropy feature of Bianchi type I universe and equation of states (EoS) of quark matter. We explore the exact solution f(R,T)=R+2f(T) model for Bianchi type I universe model. When t→∞, we get very small cosmological constant value, this result agrees with recent observations.
Instability of quark matter core in a compact newborn neutron star ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
with moderately strong magnetic field strength, which populates only the electron's Landau levels, then in the β-equilibrium condition, the quark core is energetically much more unstable than the neutron matter of identical physical condition. Keywords. Landau diamagnetism; quark matter; quark star. PACS Nos 26.60.
Jan-e~Alam; Subhasis~Chattopadhyay; Tapan~Nayak
2008-10-01
Quark Matter 2008—the 20th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions was held in Jaipur, the Pink City of India, from 4-10 February, 2008. Organizing Quark Matter 2008 in India itself indicates the international recognition of the Indian contribution to the field of heavy-ion physics, which was initiated and nurtured by Bikash Sinha, Chair of the conference. The conference was inaugurated by the Honourable Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Smt. Vasundhara Raje followed by the key note address by Professor Carlo Rubbia. The scientific programme started with the theoretical overview, `SPS to RHIC and onwards to LHC' by Larry McLerran followed by several theoretical and experimental overview talks on the ongoing experiments at SPS and RHIC. The future experiments at the LHC, FAIR and J-PARC, along with the theoretical predictions, were discussed in great depth. Lattice QCD predictions on the nature of the phase transition and critical point were vigorously debated during several plenary and parallel session presentations. The conference was enriched by the presence of an unprecedented number of participants; about 600 participants representing 31 countries across the globe. This issue contains papers based on plenary talks and oral presentations presented at the conference. Besides invited and contributed talks, there were also a large number of poster presentations. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role in the selection of speakers, both for plenary and parallel session talks. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from helping to prepare the academic programme down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both the committees for making Quark Matter 2008 a very effective and interesting platform for scientific deliberations. Quark Matter 2008 was financially supported by: Air Liquide (New Delhi) Board of Research Nuclear Sciences (Mumbai) Bose
Overview of ALICE results at Quark Matter 2014
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete
2014-11-15
The results released by the ALICE Collaboration at Quark Matter 2014 address topics from identified-particle jet fragmentation functions in pp collisions, to the search for collective signatures in p–Pb collisions to precision measurements of jet quenching with D mesons in Pb–Pb collisions. This paper gives an overview of the contributions (31 parallel talks, 2 flash talks and 80 posters) by the ALICE Collaboration at Quark Matter 2014.
Neutrino emission in inhomogeneous pion condensed quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Xuguang; Wang, Qun; Zhuang, Pengfei
2008-01-01
It is believed that quark matter can exist in neutron star interior if the baryon density is high enough. When there is a large isospin density, quark matter could be in a pion condensed phase. We compute neutrino emission from direct Urca processes in such a phase, particularly in the inhomogeneous Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) states. The neutrino emissivity and specific heat are obtained, from which the cooling rate is estimated. (author)
Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna
2004-01-01
In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... potential mu or increasing M_s, there is a quantum phase transition from the CFL phase to a new ``gapless CFL phase'' in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap. The transition occurs where M_s^2/mu is approximately equal to 2*Delta, with Delta the gap parameter. Gapless CFL, like CFL, leaves unbroken...... a linear combination Qtilde of electric and color charges, but it is a Qtilde-conductor with a nonzero electron density. These electrons and the gapless quark quasiparticles make the low energy effective theory of the gapless CFL phase and, consequently, its astrophysical properties are qualitatively...
Exploring the Quark-Gluon Content of Hadrons: From Mesons to Nuclear Matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrayr Matevosyan
2007-01-01
Even though Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) was formulated over three decades ago, it poses enormous challenges for describing the properties of hadrons from the underlying quark-gluon degrees of freedom. Moreover, the problem of describing the nuclear force from its quark-gluon origin is still open. While a direct solution of QCD to describe the hadrons and nuclear force is not possible at this time, we explore a variety of developed approaches ranging from phenomenology to first principle calculations at one or other level of approximation in linking the nuclear force to QCD. The Dyson Schwinger formulation (DSE) of coupled integral equations for the QCD Green's functions allows a non-perturbative approach to describe hadronic properties, starting from the level of QCD n-point functions. A significant approximation in this method is the employment of a finite truncation of the system of DSEs, that might distort the physical picture. In this work we explore the effects of including a more complete truncation of the quark-gluon vertex function on the resulting solutions for the quark 2-point functions as well as the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The exploration showed strong indications of possibly large contributions from the explicit inclusion of the gluon 3- and 4-point functions that are omitted in this and previous analyses. We then explore the possibility of extrapolating state of the art lattice QCD calculations of nucleon form factors to the physical regime using phenomenological models of nucleon structure. Finally, we further developed the Quark Meson Coupling model for describing atomic nuclei and nuclear matter, where the quark-gluon structure of nucleons is modeled by the MIT bag model and the nucleon many body interaction is mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. This approach allows us to formulate a fully relativistic theory, which can be expanded in the nonrelativistic limit to reproduce the well known phenomenological Skyrme
Heating (Gapless) Color-Flavor Locked Quark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fukushima, Kenji; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna
2005-01-01
We explore the phase diagram of neutral quark matter at high baryon density as a function of the temperature T and the strange quark mass Ms. At T=0, there is a sharp distinction between the insulating color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, which occurs where Ms^2/mu 0 and Delta_2->0) cross. Because we...
Heavy hybrid stars from multi-quark interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benic, Sanjin
2014-01-01
We explore the possibility of obtaining heavy hybrid stars within the framework of the two flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that includes 8-quark interactions in the scalar and in the vector channel. The main impact of the 8-quark scalar channel is to reduce the onset of quark matter, while the 8-quark vector channel acts to stiffen the equation of state at high densities. Within the parameter space where the 4-quark vector channel is small, and the 8-quark vector channel sizeable, stable stars with masses of 2 M âŠ™ and above are found to hold quark matter in their cores. (orig.)
Mott mechanism and the hadronic to quark matter phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaschke, D.; Reinholz, F.
1984-01-01
A unified description of both the hadronic and quark matter can be found using the technique of thermodynamic Green functions. The destruction of bound states (quark deconfinement) is related microscopically to the Mott mechanism which leads to a different behaviour of free particle energies and bound state energies if the particle density is increasing. A simple model calculation is performed to obtain a rough estimate for the critical temperature of the hadronic-quark matter phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hemmick, Thomas K
2004-01-01
The Quark Matter conference is the 'meeting of record' for the field of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Each such conference is filled with exciting new data frequently presented to the world for the first time. However, the field also makes significant progress during the 18 months between Quark Matter conferences. Such progress is summarized in a single talk near the beginning of the conference and sets the stage for the newest data and discoveries. This paper is the experimental summary of selected results published in journals and presented at conferences between the end of QM2002 and the beginning of QM2004
PREFACE: Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009) Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009)
Fraga, Eduardo; Kodama, Takeshi; Padula, Sandra; Takahashi, Jun
2010-09-01
The 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2009) was held in Brazil from 27 September to 2 October 2009 at Hotel Atlântico, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro. The conference was jointly organized by Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade Estadual Paulista and Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Over 120 scientists from Argentina, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Switzerland, the UK and the USA gathered at the meeting to discuss the physics of hot and dense matter through the signals of strangeness and also the behavior of heavy quarks. Group photograph The topics covered were strange and heavy quark production in nuclear collisions, strange and heavy quark production in elementary processes, bulk matter phenomena associated with strange and heavy quarks, and strangeness in astrophysics. In view of the LHC era and many other upcoming new machines, together with recent theoretical developments, sessions focused on `New developments and new facilities' and 'Open questions' were also included. A stimulating round-table discussion on 'Physics opportunities in the next decade in the view of strangeness and heavy flavor in matter' was chaired in a relaxed atmosphere by Grazyna Odyniec and conducted by P Braun-Munzinger, W Florkowski, K Redlich, K Šafařík and H Stöcker, We thank these colleagues for pointing out to young participants new physics directions to be pursued. We also thank J Dunlop and K Redlich for excellent introductory lectures given on the Sunday evening pre-conference session. In spite of the not-so-helpful weather, the beauty and charm of the town of Búzios helped to make the meeting successful. Nevertheless, the most important contributions were the excellent talks, whose contents are part of these proceedings, given
Quark condensates in nuclear matter in the global color symmetry model of QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yuxin; Gao Dongfeng; Guo Hua
2003-01-01
With the global color symmetry model being extended to finite chemical potential, we study the density dependence of the local and nonlocal scalar quark condensates in nuclear matter. The calculated results indicate that the quark condensates increase smoothly with the increasing of nuclear matter density before the critical value (about 12ρ 0 ) is reached. It also manifests that the chiral symmetry is restored suddenly as the density of nuclear matter reaches its critical value. Meanwhile, the nonlocal quark condensate in nuclear matter changes nonmonotonously against the space-time distance among the quarks
On the properties of strange quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Leming; Peng Guangxiong; Ning Pingzhi
1999-01-01
According to authors' recent studies, the authors derive a new mass formula for strange quarks at zero temperature. The authors apply it to investigating the properties of strange quark matter and obtain similar results to those in the MIT bag model. A different point in authors' results is that the variation of sound velocity with energy density becomes a little slower
Searching for Strange Quark Matter Objects in Exoplanets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Y. F.; Yu, Y. B., E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)
2017-10-20
The true ground state of hadronic matter may be strange quark matter (SQM). Consequently, observed pulsars may actually be strange quark stars, but not neutron stars. However, proving or disproving the SQM hypothesis still remains a difficult problem to solve due to the similarity between the macroscopical characteristics of strange quark stars and neutron stars. Here, we propose a hopeful method to probe the existence of SQM. In the framework of the SQM hypothesis, strange quark dwarfs and even strange quark planets can also stably exist. Noting that SQM planets will not be tidally disrupted even when they get very close to their host stars due to their extreme compactness, we argue that we could identify SQM planets by searching for very close-in planets among extrasolar planetary systems. Especially, we should keep our eyes on possible pulsar planets with orbital radius less than ∼5.6 × 10{sup 10} cm and period less than ∼6100 s. A thorough search in the currently detected ∼2950 exoplanets around normal main-sequence stars has failed to identify any stable close-in objects that meet the SQM criteria, i.e., lying in the tidal disruption region for normal matter planets. However, the pulsar planet PSR J1719-1438B, with an orbital radius of ∼6 × 10{sup 10} cm and orbital period of 7837 s, is, encouragingly, found to be a good candidate.
Bulk viscosity of hot dense Quark matter in the PNJL model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao Shisong; Guo Panpan; Zhang Le; Hou Defu
2014-01-01
Starting from the Kubo formula and the QCD low energy theorem, we study the the bulk viscosity of hot dense quark matter in the PNJL model from the equation of state. We show that the bulk viscosity has a sharp peak near the chiral phase transition, and that the ratio of bulk viscosity over entropy rises dramatically in the vicinity of the phase transition. These results agree with those from the lattice and other model calculations. In addition, we show that the increase of chemical potential raises the bulk viscosity. (authors)
Quark Condensate in the Strange Matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Chang-Fang; LU" Xiao-Fu
2003-01-01
In a nonlinear chiral SU(3) framework, we investigate the quark condensate in the strange matter including N, Σ, Ξ, and Λ, making use of chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking Lagrangian and mean-field approximation. The results show that the chiral symmetry is restored partially when the strange matter density increases and that 〈π→2〉 plays a very important role in the strange matter which may approach the constituents of the neutron stars. In addition, we can find that the strange matter density where the π-condensate emerges leads to the ratio of the nucleon number to baryon number.
Quark matter revisited with non-extensive MIT bag model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardoso, Pedro H.G.; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Menezes, Debora P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Deppman, Airton [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2017-10-15
In this work we revisit the MIT bag model to describe quark matter within both the usual Fermi-Dirac and the Tsallis statistics. We verify the effects of the non-additivity of the latter by analysing two different pictures: the first order phase transition of the QCD phase diagram and stellar matter properties. While the QCD phase diagram is visually affected by the Tsallis statistics, the resulting effects on quark star macroscopic properties are barely noticed. (orig.)
Quark mobility in extended nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivers, D.
1988-01-01
The propagation of an energetic quark through extended nuclear matter is analyzed in terms of a simple model in which localization of color is imposed through chromoelectric flux tubes. A mobile quark in the nuclear medium creates a disturbance which affects neighboring nucleons. The model suggests that the spatial properties of the disturbance involve a competition among different dynamical mechanisms. Experimental measurements involving the target fragmentation region in deep-inelastic leptoproduction on large nuclei may help specify some of the important features of nuclear dynamics. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc
Quark matter formation in dense stellar objects
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Although not much is known about the density at which the phase transition takes place at small temperatures, it is expected to occur around the nuclear densities of few times nuclear matter density. Also, there is a strong reason to believe that the quark matter formed after the phase transition is in colour superconducting ...
PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference
Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan
2007-07-01
The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The
Dark matter, neutron stars, and strange quark matter.
Perez-Garcia, M Angeles; Silk, Joseph; Stone, Jirina R
2010-10-01
We show that self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter accreted onto neutron stars may provide a mechanism to seed compact objects with long-lived lumps of strange quark matter, or strangelets, for WIMP masses above a few GeV. This effect may trigger a conversion of most of the star into a strange star. We use an energy estimate for the long-lived strangelet based on the Fermi-gas model combined with the MIT bag model to set a new limit on the possible values of the WIMP mass that can be especially relevant for subdominant species of massive neutralinos.
Nuclear matter descriptions including quark structure of the hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huguet, R.
2008-07-01
It is nowadays well established that nucleons are composite objects made of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by Quantum chromodynamics (QCD). However, because of the non-perturbative character of QCD at the energies of nuclear physics, a description of atomic nuclei starting from quarks and gluons is still not available. A possible alternative is to construct effective field theories based on hadronic degrees of freedom, in which the interaction is constrained by QCD. In this framework, we have constructed descriptions of infinite nuclear matter in relativistic mean field theories taking into account the quark structure of hadrons. In a first approach, the in medium modifications of mesons properties is dynamically obtained in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) quark model. This modification is taken into account in a relativistic mean field theory based on a meson exchange interaction between nucleons. The in-medium modification of mesons masses and the properties of infinite nuclear matter have been studied. In a second approach, the long and short range contributions to the in-medium modification of the nucleon are determined. The short range part is obtained in a NJL quark model of the nucleon. The long range part, related to pions exchanges between nucleons, has been determined in the framework of Chiral Perturbation theory. These modifications have been used to constrain the couplings of a point coupling relativistic mean field model. A realistic description of the saturation properties of nuclear matter is obtained. (author)
Ultra-dense neutron star matter, strange quark stars, and the nuclear equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, F.; Meixner, M.; Negreiros, R.P.; Malheiro, M.
2007-01-01
With central densities way above the density of atomic nuclei, neutron stars contain matter in one of the densest forms found in the universe. Depending of the density reached in the cores of neutron stars, they may contain stable phases of exotic matter found nowhere else in space. This article gives a brief overview of the phases of ultra-dense matter predicted to exist deep inside neutron stars and discusses the equation of state (EoS) associated with such matter. (author)
Final Report for Project. Quark matter under extreme conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Incera, Vivian [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Ferrer, Efrain [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)
2015-12-31
The results obtained in the two years of the grant have served to shine new light on several important questions about the phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme conditions that include quark matter at high density, as well quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures, both in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The interest in including an external magnetic field on these studies is motivated by the generation of large magnetic fields in off-central heavy-ion collisions and by their common presence in astrophysical compact objects, the two scenarios where the physics of quark matter becomes relevant. The tasks carried out in this DOE project led us, among other things, to discover the first connection between the physics of very dense quark matter and novel materials as for instance topological insulators and Weyl semimetals; they allowed us to find a physical explanation for and a solution to a standing puzzle in the apparent effect of a magnetic field on the critical temperature of the QCD chiral transition; and they led us to establish by the first time that the core of the observed two-solar-mass neutron stars could be made up of quark matter in certain inhomogeneous chiral phases in a magnetic field and that this was consistent with current astrophysical observations. A major goal established by the Nuclear Science Advisory committee in its most recent report “Reaching for the Horizon” has been “to truly understand how nuclei and strongly interacting matter in all its forms behave and can predict their behavior in new settings.” The results found in this DOE project have all contributed to address this goal, and thus they are important for advancing fundamental knowledge in the area of nuclear physics and for enhancing our understanding of the role of strong magnetic fields in the two settings where they are most relevant, neutron stars and heavy-ion collisions.
Final Report for Project. Quark matter under extreme conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Incera, Vivian; Ferrer, Efrain
2015-01-01
The results obtained in the two years of the grant have served to shine new light on several important questions about the phases of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under extreme conditions that include quark matter at high density, as well quark-gluon plasma at high temperatures, both in the presence of strong magnetic fields. The interest in including an external magnetic field on these studies is motivated by the generation of large magnetic fields in off-central heavy-ion collisions and by their common presence in astrophysical compact objects, the two scenarios where the physics of quark matter becomes relevant. The tasks carried out in this DOE project led us, among other things, to discover the first connection between the physics of very dense quark matter and novel materials as for instance topological insulators and Weyl semimetals; they allowed us to find a physical explanation for and a solution to a standing puzzle in the apparent effect of a magnetic field on the critical temperature of the QCD chiral transition; and they led us to establish by the first time that the core of the observed two-solar-mass neutron stars could be made up of quark matter in certain inhomogeneous chiral phases in a magnetic field and that this was consistent with current astrophysical observations. A major goal established by the Nuclear Science Advisory committee in its most recent report 'Reaching for the Horizon' has been 'to truly understand how nuclei and strongly interacting matter in all its forms behave and can predict their behavior in new settings.' The results found in this DOE project have all contributed to address this goal, and thus they are important for advancing fundamental knowledge in the area of nuclear physics and for enhancing our understanding of the role of strong magnetic fields in the two settings where they are most relevant, neutron stars and heavy-ion collisions.
A quark matter contribution to the cosmic ray spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, K.
2013-01-01
I will describe a possible dark matter model in which the dark matter is composed of heavy nuggets of standard model quarks and antiquarks bound in a high density phase of QCD. If objects of this type are formed early in the universe's history they may provide the observed dark matter content. In this scenario the nuggets are dark not because of their fundamentally weak interactions but because of the incredibly small number density required to explain the observed mass density of the dark matter. The correspondingly small flux of these objects through the earth renders them invisible to conventional high sensitivity dark matter searches intended to detect weakly interacting particles with a flux many orders of magnitude larger. Instead the greatest search potential for dark matter models of this form may come from the largest scale cosmic ray detectors. I will briefly describe the properties of quark nugget dark matter and then use these properties in order to predict the signal they would produce in a variety of cosmic ray detectors. (authors)
Higher dimensional strange quark matter solutions in self creation cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Şen, R., E-mail: ramazansen-1991@hotmail.com [Institute for Natural and Applied Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17020, Çanakkale (Turkey); Aygün, S., E-mail: saygun@comu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Art and Science Faculty, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale 17020 (Turkey)
2016-03-25
In this study, we have generalized the higher dimensional flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe solutions for a cloud of string with perfect fluid attached strange quark matter (SQM) in Self Creation Cosmology (SCC). We have obtained that the cloud of string with perfect fluid does not survive and the string tension density vanishes for this model. However, we get dark energy model for strange quark matter with positive density and negative pressure in self creation cosmology.
Space station as quark matter factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyulassy, M.
1984-11-01
We review the theoretical arguments indicating that hadronic matter dissolves into a quark gluon plasma at energy densities only one order of magnitude above the energy density in nuclei and point out that such energy densities can be achieved in nuclear collisions at 10 to 1000 AGeV. 17 references
Strange particle production from quark matter droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werner, K.; Hladik, M.
1995-01-01
We recently introduced new methods to study ultrarelativistic nuclear scattering by providing a link between the string model approach and a thermal description. The string model is used to provide information about fluctuations in energy density. Regions of high energy density are considered to be quark matter droplets and treated macroscopically. At SPS energies, we find mainly medium size droplets---with energies up to few tens of Gev. A key issue is the microcanonical treatment of individual quark matter droplets. Each droplet hadronizes instantaneously according to the available n-body phase space. Due to the huge number of possible hadron configurations, special Monte Carlo techniques have been developed to calculate this disintegration. We present results concerning the production of strange particles from such a hadronization as compared to string decay. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Neutrino emissivity in the quark-hadron mixed phase of neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spinella, William M. [Computational Science Research Center San Diego State University, San Diego, CA (United States); San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Weber, Fridolin [San Diego State University, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, La Jolla, CA (United States); Contrera, Gustavo A. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET - Dept. de Fisica, UNLP, IFLP, La Plata (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina); Orsaria, Milva G. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Grupo de Gravitacion, Astrofisica y Cosmologia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, La Plata (Argentina)
2016-03-15
Numerous theoretical studies using various equation of state models have shown that quark matter may exist at the extreme densities in the cores of high-mass neutron stars. It has also been shown that a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter would result in an extended mixed phase region that would segregate phases by net charge to minimize the total energy of the phase, leading to the formation of a crystalline lattice. The existence of quark matter in the core of a neutron star may have significant consequences for its thermal evolution, which for thousands of years is facilitated primarily by neutrino emission. In this work we investigate the effect a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase can have on the neutrino emissivity from the core. To this end we calculate the equation of state using the relativistic mean-field approximation to model hadronic matter and a nonlocal extension of the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for quark matter. Next we determine the extent of the quark-hadron mixed phase and its crystalline structure using the Glendenning construction, allowing for the formation of spherical blob, rod, and slab rare phase geometries. Finally we calculate the neutrino emissivity due to electron-lattice interactions utilizing the formalism developed for the analogous process in neutron star crusts. We find that the contribution to the neutrino emissivity due to the presence of a crystalline quark-hadron mixed phase is substantial compared to other mechanisms at fairly low temperatures (
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.; Fields, B.; Thomas, D.
1992-01-01
The possible implications of the quark-hadron transition for cosmology are explored. Possible surviving signatures are discussed. In particular, the possibility of generating a dark matter candidate such as strange nuggets or planetary mass black holes is noted. Much discussion is devoted to the possible role of the transition for cosmological nucleosynthesis. It is emphasized that even an optimized first order phase transition will not significantly alter the nucleosynthesis constraints on the cosmological baryon density nor on neutrino counting. However, it is noted that Be and B observations in old stars may eventually be able to be a signature of a cosmologically significant quark-hadron transition. It is pointed out that the critical point in this regard is whether the observed B/Be ratio can be produced by spallation processes or requires cosmological input. Spallation cannot produce a B/Be ratio below 7.6. A supporting signature would be Be and B ratios to oxygen that greatly exceed galactic values. At present, all data is still consistent with a spallagenic origin
Search for Dark Matter produced in association with bottom quarks
CMS Collaboration
2016-01-01
This note describes a search for Dark Matter (DM) produced in association with b quarks, using a dataset of $2.17~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the CMS experiment in $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ proton-proton collisions at LHC. This analysis is sensitive also to DM production processes in association with top quarks. Results are reported as upper limits on the cross section for the b quark and top quark associated production independently, and interpreted within simplified models in terms of the coupling between the mediator and the DM candidate, for different mediator and DM candidate masses.
Properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔帅帅; 彭光雄; 陆振烟; 彭程; 徐建峰
2015-01-01
The properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field are investigated in a quark model with density-dependent quark masses. Parameters are determined by stability arguments. It is found that the minimum energy per baryon of the color-flavor locked (MCFL) matter decreases with increasing magnetic-field strength in a certain range, which makes MCFL matter more stable than other phases within a proper magnitude of the external magnetic field. However, if the energy of the field itself is added, the total energy per baryon will increase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savron, V.I.; Skachkov, N.B.; Tyumenkov, G.Yu.
1982-01-01
A covariant three dimensional equation is derived for a wave function of a pseudoscalar particle, compoused of two equal mass quarks (quark and antiquark) with spins 1/2. This equation describes a relative motion of two quarks in π meson. An asymptotics of the solution of this equation is found in the momentum representation in the case of quarks interaction chosen in a form of a one gluon exchange amplitude [ru
Shock wave produced by hadron-quark phase transition in neutron star
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gustavo de Almeida, Luis, E-mail: lgalmeida@cbpf.br [Universidade Federal do Acre – Campus Floresta, Estrada do Canela Fina, km 12, CEP 69980-000, Cruzeiro do Sul, AC (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, Sérgio José Barbosa, E-mail: sbd@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, Hilário, E-mail: harg.astrophys@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca Av. Maracanã, 229, CEP 20271-110, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2015-12-17
In this work we present a schematic description of the detonation wave in hadronic matter inside a neutron star core. We have used a simplified two shells model where the inner shell medium is initially composed of a small lump of strange quark matter surrounded by a large outer shell composed of hadronic matter. We have utilized an equation of state (EOS) based on Relativistic Mean Field Theory with the parameter set NL3 to describe the nuclear and subnuclear phases. We use the MIT bag model to describe the strange quark matter. The hadron-quark phase transition actually induces highly non equilibrium modes, which may become a detonation process (faster) or a burning process (slower). The main purpose of the work is to study the formation of a remnant quark star and the possibility of mass ejection caused by the hadron-quark phase transition. We have found that the total amount of ejected mass is dependant of the bag constant utilized in the strange matter description.
Broken superfluid in dense quark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parganlija, Denis; Schmitt, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Alford, Mark [Department of Physics, Washington University St Louis, MO, 63130 (United States)
2014-07-01
Quark matter at high densities is a superfluid. Properties of the superfluid become highly non-trivial if the effects of strange-quark mass and the weak interactions are considered. These properties are relevant for a microscopic description of compact stars. We discuss the effect of a (small) explicitly symmetry-breaking term on the properties of a zero-temperature superfluid in a relativistic φ{sup 4} theory. If the U(1) symmetry is exact, chemical potential and superflow can be equivalently introduced either via (1) a background gauge field or (2) a topologically nontrivial mode. However, in the case of the explicitly broken symmetry, we demonstrate that the scenarios (1) and (2) lead to quantitatively different results for the mass of the pseudo-Goldstone mode and the critical velocity for superfluidity.
Evolution of newborn neutron stars: role of quark matter nucleation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico; Providencia, Constança; Vidaña, Isaac
2011-01-01
A phase of strong interacting matter with deconfined quarks is expected in the core of massive neutron stars. We study the quark deconfinement phase transition in cold (T = 0) and hot β-stable hadronic matter. Assuming a first order phase transition, we calculate and compare the nucleation rate and the nucleation time due to thermal and quantum nucleation mechanisms. We show that above a threshold value of the central pressure a pure hadronic star (HS) is metastable to the conversion to a quark star (QS) (i.e. hybrid star or strange star). We introduce the concept of critical mass M cr for cold HSs and proto-hadronic stars (PHSs), and the concept of limiting conversion temperature for PHSs. We show that PHSs with a mass M cr could survive the early stages of their evolution without decaying to QSs. Finally, we discuss the possible evolutionary paths of proto-hadronic stars.
Nucleon Mass from a Covariant Three-Quark Faddeev Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichmann, G.; Alkofer, R.; Krassnigg, A.; Nicmorus, D.
2010-01-01
We report the first study of the nucleon where the full Poincare-covariant structure of the three-quark amplitude is implemented in the Faddeev equation. We employ an interaction kernel which is consistent with contemporary studies of meson properties and aspects of chiral symmetry and its dynamical breaking, thus yielding a comprehensive approach to hadron physics. The resulting current-mass evolution of the nucleon mass compares well with lattice data and deviates only by ∼5% from the quark-diquark result obtained in previous studies.
Searching for Quark Matter at the CERN SPS
Lourenço, C
2002-01-01
This article gives a brief overview of some recent advances in our understanding of the physics of dense strongly interacting matter, from measurements done at the CERN SPS. The presently available results are very interesting, and are likely to reflect the production of a new state of matter in central Pb-Pb collisions, at the highest SPS energies. However, important questions require further work. Particular emphasis is given to developments made since the Quark Matter 1999 conference, and to issues that justify the continuation of the SPS heavy ion physics program beyond year 2000.
Quark matter formation in dense stellar objects
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
On the other hand, the strangeness fraction is expected to be close to zero in the hadronic phase [4a]. Thus, the chemical equilibration of the quark matter will be associated with the generation of strangeness. In addition to the production of strangeness the equilibration process will liberate con- siderable amount of energy ...
New color-magnetic defects in dense quark matter
Haber, Alexander; Schmitt, Andreas
2018-06-01
Color-flavor locked (CFL) quark matter expels color-magnetic fields due to the Meissner effect. One of these fields carries an admixture of the ordinary abelian magnetic field and therefore flux tubes may form if CFL matter is exposed to a magnetic field, possibly in the interior of neutron stars or in quark stars. We employ a Ginzburg–Landau approach for three massless quark flavors, which takes into account the multi-component nature of color superconductivity. Based on the weak-coupling expressions for the Ginzburg–Landau parameters, we identify the regime where CFL is a type-II color superconductor and compute the radial profiles of different color-magnetic flux tubes. Among the configurations without baryon circulation we find a new solution that is energetically preferred over the flux tubes previously discussed in the literature in the parameter regime relevant for compact stars. Within the same setup, we also find a new defect in the 2SC phase, namely magnetic domain walls, which emerge naturally from the previously studied flux tubes if a more general ansatz for the order parameter is used. Color-magnetic defects in the interior of compact stars allow for sustained deformations of the star, potentially strong enough to produce detectable gravitational waves.
Nuclear and quark matter at high temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biro, Tamas S. [H.A.S. Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Jakovac, Antal [Roland Eotvos University, Budapest (Hungary); Schram, Zsolt [University of Debrecen, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Debrecen (Hungary)
2017-03-15
We review important ideas on nuclear and quark matter description on the basis of high-temperature field theory concepts, like resummation, dimensional reduction, interaction scale separation and spectral function modification in media. Statistical and thermodynamical concepts are spotted in the light of these methods concentrating on the -partially still open- problems of the hadronization process. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfratz, P.; Kuti, J.
1978-01-01
The quark bag model is reviewed here with particular emphasis on spectroscopic applications and the discussion of exotic objects as baryonium, gluonium, and the quark phase of matter. The physical vacuum is pictured in the model as a two-phase medium. In normal phase of the vacuum, outside hadrons, the propagation of quark and gluon fields is forbidden. When small bubbles in a second phase are created in the medium of the normal phase with a characteristic size of one fermi, the hadron constituent fields may propagate inside the bubbles in normal manner. The bubble (bag) is stabilized against the pressure of the confined hadron constituent fields by vacuum pressure and surface tension. Inside the bag the colored quarks and gluons are governed by the equations of quantum chromodynamics. (Auth.)
Effects of delta degrees of freedom on quark condensate in hot and dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Lei; Ning Pingzhi
1996-01-01
The relativistic mean-field theory is applied to study the quark condensate systematically in nuclear matter at zero and finite temperature in terms of the relative importance of delta degrees of freedom. Calculations have included the high-order contributions to quark condensate in nuclear medium due to the baryon-baryon interactions. Numerical results are presented for the nuclear density up to five times larger than the normal density and temperature up to 120 MeV. It is found that the delta resonance in nuclear matter can cause substantial decreases to in-medium quark condensate
Molecular dynamics simulation for the baryon-quark phase transition at finite baryon density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akimura, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Chiba, S.; Yoshinaga, N.
2005-01-01
We study the baryon-quark phase transition in the molecular dynamics (MD) of the quark degrees of freedom at finite baryon density. The baryon state at low baryon density, and the deconfined quark state at high baryon density are reproduced. We investigate the equations of state of matters with different u-d-s compositions. It is found that the baryon-quark transition is sensitive to the quark width. (orig.)
Short-range correlations in quark and nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Froemel, Frank
2007-06-15
In the first part of this thesis, the role of short-range correlations in quark matter is explored within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Starting from a next-to-leading order expansion in the inverse number of the quark colors, a fully self-consistent model constructed that employs the close relations between spectral functions and self-energies. In contrast to the usual quasiparticle approximations, this approach allows the investigation of the collisional broadening of the quark spectral function. Numerical calculations at various chemical potentials and zero temperature show that the short-range correlations do not only induce a finite width of the spectral function but also have some influence on the structure of the chiral phase transition. In the second part of this thesis, the temperature and density dependence of the nucleon spectral function in symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The short-range correlations can be well described by a simple, self-consistent model on the one-particle-two-hole and two-particle-one-hole level (1p2h, 2p1h). The thermodynamically consistent description of the mean-field properties of the nucleons is ensured by incorporating a Skyrme-type potential. Calculations at temperatures and densities that can also be found in heavy-ion collisions or supernova explosions and the formation of neutron stars show that the correlations saturate at high temperatures and densities. (orig.)
Color-flavor locked strange quark matter in a mass density-dependent model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yuede; Wen Xinjian
2007-01-01
Properties of color-flavor locked (CFL) strange quark matter have been studied in a mass-density-dependent model, and compared with the results in the conventional bag model. In both models, the CFL phase is more stable than the normal nuclear matter for reasonable parameters. However, the lower density behavior of the sound velocity in this model is completely opposite to that in the bag model, which makes the maximum mass of CFL quark stars in the mass-density-dependent model larger than that in the bag model. (authors)
Baryons and baryonic matter in the large Nc and heavy quark limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, Thomas D.; Kumar, Nilay; Ndousse, Kamal K.
2011-01-01
This paper explores properties of baryons and finite density baryonic matter in an artificial world in which N c , the number of colors, is large and the quarks of all species are degenerate and much larger than Λ QCD . It has long been known that in large N c quantum chromodynamics (QCD), baryons composed entirely of heavy quarks are accurately described in the mean-field approximation. However, the detailed properties of baryons in the combined large N c and heavy-quark limits have not been fully explored. Here some basic properties of baryons are computed using a variational approach. At leading order in both the large N c and heavy-quark expansions the baryon mass is shown to be M baryon ≅N c M Q (1-0.054 26α-tilde s 2 ), where α-tilde s ≡N c α s . The baryon form factor is also computed. Baryonic matter, the analog of nuclear matter in this artificial world, should also be well described in the mean-field approximation. In the special case where all baryons have an identical spin-flavor structure, it is shown that in the formal heavy-quark and large N c limit interactions between baryons are strictly repulsive at low densities. The energy per baryon is computed in this limit and found to be exponentially small. It is shown that when the restriction to baryons with an identical spin-flavor structure is dropped, a phase of baryonic matter exists with a density of 2N f times that for the restricted case but with the same energy (where N f is the number of degenerate flavors). It is shown that this phase is at least metastable.
Isotropic radio background from quark nugget dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R., E-mail: arz@physics.ubc.ca
2013-07-09
Recent measurements by the ARCADE2 experiment unambiguously show an excess in the isotropic radio background at frequencies below the GHz scale. We argue that this excess may be a natural consequence of the interaction of visible and dark matter in the early universe if the dark matter consists of heavy nuggets of quark matter. Explanation of the observed radio band excess requires the introduction of no new parameters, rather we exploit the same dark matter model and identical normalization parameters to those previously used to explain other excesses of diffuse emission from the centre of our galaxy. These previously observed excesses include the WMAP Haze of GHz radiation, keV X-ray emission and MeV gamma-ray radiation.
Isotropic radio background from quark nugget dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.
2013-01-01
Recent measurements by the ARCADE2 experiment unambiguously show an excess in the isotropic radio background at frequencies below the GHz scale. We argue that this excess may be a natural consequence of the interaction of visible and dark matter in the early universe if the dark matter consists of heavy nuggets of quark matter. Explanation of the observed radio band excess requires the introduction of no new parameters, rather we exploit the same dark matter model and identical normalization parameters to those previously used to explain other excesses of diffuse emission from the centre of our galaxy. These previously observed excesses include the WMAP Haze of GHz radiation, keV X-ray emission and MeV gamma-ray radiation
Quark Synthesis String Theory From Dark Matter to Light Emitting Atoms
Webb, William
2012-10-01
Forefather physicists formulated fusion based on nucleosynthesis. They directed that whole nucleons synthesize. Quark Synthesis String Theory now shows that it's the string-like quarks that do the synthesizing: not whole nucleons. In a dark region, string-like quarks synthesize with other string-like quarks to make rope-like quarks. Quarks structure into threesomes bound only by electrostatic and gravitational forces. Quarks not structuring as threesomes remain dark. Balanced threesomes of string-like quarks become neutrons. Balanced threesomes of rope-like quarks become more massive neutroniumA nuclei. After their formation, neutrons and neutroniumAs quickly begin emitting electrons. This paper develops equations that correctly describe nuclear structures and their electron emissions. Electron emission beta decay is calculated for the 30 least massive neutroniumA nuclei and their subsequent transmutation thru 203 intermediate nuclei on their way to becoming well known nuclei centering the 30 least massive light emitting atoms. This is a perfect 233 for 233 match between calculations of Quark Synthesis String Theory and factual nuclear data. This perfect match provides affirmation that nuclei have no need for the unknown strong or week forces and mediating particles. Nuclear physics succeeds using a string theory that has the quarks doing the synthesizing.
Strange quark matter in the Universe and accelerator nuclear beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okonov, Eh.
1995-01-01
An almost symmetric mixture of u, d and s-quarks - Strange Quark Matter (SQM) is strongly argued to be the ground and absolutely stable of the matter. Astrophysical objects, supposed to be the SQM states, could be formed as the result of the Big Bang (in the early Universe) and the conversion of neutron stars into strange ones. Such objects are considered to be favourable candidates as black holes. The unique possibility to produce the SQM under terrestrial conditions (at accelerator laboratories) are violent relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions so called 'little big bang'. The expected singulares of SQM are reviewed which could be revealed from astrophysical observations of peculiarities of large SQM objects as well as from accelerator experiments with searching smaller SQM states including the simplest one - metastable six-quark H dihyperon. The first results of the Dubna search experiments, with considerable heating of matter and formation a dense strangeness abundant fireball (mixed phase?) in central nuclear collisions, is presented. Under these favourable conditions a candidate for H dihyperon is observed and an upper limit of production cross sections of this SQM state is estimated. Some prospects and advantages of further searches for light SQM states, using the JINR new superconducting accelerator - Nuclotron with energy 5-6 GeV per nucleon, are briefly outlined. 19 refs., 7 figs
The quark-hadron transition in cosmology and astrophysics.
Olive, K A
1991-03-08
A transition from normal hadronic matter (such as protons and neutrons) to quark-gluon matter is expected at both high temperatures and densities. In physical situations, this transition may occur in heavy ion collisions, the early universe, and in the cores of neutron stars. Astrophysics and cosmology can be greatly affected by such a phase transition. With regard to the early universe, big bang nucleosynthesis, the theory describing the primordial origin of the light elements, can be affected by inhomogeneities produced during the transition. A transition to quark matter in the interior by neutron stars further enhances our uncertainties regarding the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star properties such as the maximum mass and rotation frequencies.
Bandyopadhyay, Debades; Bhat, Sajad A.; Char, Prasanta; Chatterjee, Debarati
2018-02-01
We investigate the impact of strange-matter equations of state involving Λ hyperons, Bose-Einstein condensate of K- mesons and first-order hadron-quark phase transition on moment of inertia, quadrupole moment and tidal deformability parameter of slowly rotating neutron stars. All these equations of state are compatible with the 2 M_{solar} constraint. The main findings of this investigation are the universality of the I- Q and I -Love number relations, which are preserved by the EoSs including Λ hyperons and antikaon condensates, but broken in the presence of a first-order hadron-quark phase transition. Furthermore, it is also noted that the quadrupole moment approaches the Kerr value of a black hole for maximum-mass neutron stars.
Sahoo, P. K.; Sahoo, Parbati; Bishi, Binaya K.; Aygün, Sezgin
2018-04-01
In this paper, we have studied homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I model with magnetized strange quark matter (MSQM) distribution and cosmological constant Λ in f(R, T) gravity where R is the Ricci scalar and T the trace of matter source. The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained under bilinear and special form of time varying deceleration parameter (DP). Firstly, we have considered two specific forms of bilinear DP with a single parameter of the form: q = α(1-t)/1+t and q = -αt/1+t, which leads to the constant or linear nature of the function based on the constant α. Second one is the special form of the DP as q = - 1 + β/1+aβ. From the results obtained here, one can observe that in the early universe magnetic flux has more effects and it reduces gradually in the later stage. For t → ∞, we get p → -Bc and ρ → Bc. The behaviour of strange quark matter along with magnetic epoch gives an idea of accelerated expansion of the universe as per the observations of the type Ia Supernovae.
QCD equation of state of hot deconfined matter at finite baryon density. A quasiparticle perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluhm, Marcus
2008-01-01
The quasiparticle model, based on quark and gluon degrees of freedom, has been developed for the description of the thermodynamics of a hot plasma of strongly interacting matter which is of enormous relevance in astrophysics, cosmology and for relativistic heavy-ion collisions as well. In the present work, this phenomenological model is extended into the realm of imaginary chemical potential and towards including, in general, different and independent quark flavour chemical potentials. In this way, nonzero net baryon-density effects in the equation of state are selfconsistently attainable. Furthermore, a chain of approximations based on formal mathematical manipulations is presented which outlines the connection of the quasiparticle model with the underlying gauge field theory of strong interactions, QCD, putting the model on firmer ground. The applicability of the model to extrapolate the equation of state known from lattice QCD at zero baryon density to nonzero baryon densities is shown. In addition, the ability of the model to extrapolate results to the chiral limit and to asymptotically large temperatures is illustrated by confrontation with available first-principle lattice QCD results. Basing on these successful comparisons supporting the idea that the hot deconfined phase can be described in a consistent picture by dressed quark and gluon degrees of freedom, a reliable QCD equation of state is constructed and baryon-density effects are examined, also along isentropic evolutionary paths. Scaling properties of the equation of state with fundamental QCD parameters such as the number of active quark flavour degrees of freedom, the entering quark mass parameters or the numerical value of the deconfinement transition temperature are discussed, and the robustness of the equation of state in the regions of small and large energy densities is shown. Uncertainties arising in the transition region are taken into account by constructing a family of equations of state
Interplay of mesonic and baryonic degrees of freedom in quark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Naseemuddin
2015-11-03
In this work we study the influence of mesonic and baryonic fluctuations on the phase diagram of quark matter with two flavors. By examining the hadronization process and related techniques, we derive effective low-energy models, where the gluons are integrated out. To be able to compare our model calculations with lattice results at finite chemical potential, we investigate a QCD-like theory with two colors, where the sign-problem is absent. To this end we introduce a quark-meson-diquark model, where the bosonic diquarks play the role of colorless, baryonic degrees of freedom competing with the mesons. To access the phase diagram and determine the phases of chiral and diquark condensation, we employ a functional renormalization group approach allowing for a systematic non-perturbative truncation scheme. Interesting phenomena arise that are known from condensed matter physics, as the BEC-BSC crossover and a phase of condensation within domains. We explore the impact of running wave function renormalizations and Yukawa couplings for the quarks and the boson fields on top of the scale dependence of the effective potential. In the course of this we discuss the Silver Blaze property and its realization within a functional approach. In parallel, we formulate a quark-meson-diquark-baryon model for physical QCD as a low-energy effective theory for baryonic matter at high density, and discuss the relevance of the diquark and baryon degrees of freedom. In this sense, we compute a phase diagram for QCD from functional methods, including a color superconducting phase.
Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança
2016-01-01
In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor-type interact...
Color superconductivity from the chiral quark-meson model
Sedrakian, Armen; Tripolt, Ralf-Arno; Wambach, Jochen
2018-05-01
We study the two-flavor color superconductivity of low-temperature quark matter in the vicinity of chiral phase transition in the quark-meson model where the interactions between quarks are generated by pion and sigma exchanges. Starting from the Nambu-Gorkov propagator in real-time formulation we obtain finite temperature (real axis) Eliashberg-type equations for the quark self-energies (gap functions) in terms of the in-medium spectral function of mesons. Exact numerical solutions of the coupled nonlinear integral equations for the real and imaginary parts of the gap function are obtained in the zero temperature limit using a model input spectral function. We find that these components of the gap display a complicated structure with the real part being strongly suppressed above 2Δ0, where Δ0 is its on-shell value. We find Δ0 ≃ 40MeV close to the chiral phase transition.
Dilepton as a signature for the baryon-rich quark-gluon matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zejun He; Jiaju Zhang
1995-01-01
From the full stopping scenario, we study dilepton production in a baryon rich quark-gluon fireball on the basis of a relativistic hydrodynamic model, and find that with increasing initial baryon density a characteristic valley and a subsequent peak, which more uniquely signal the formation of the baryon-rich quark-gluon matter, appear in the total dilepton yield. Such characteristics can be tested in future experiments at CERN and Brookhaven. (author). Letter-to-the-editor
Plane Symmetric Cosmological Model with Quark and Strange ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
theories of gravity have been evolved to explain such issues of current cosmic .... quark matter attached to the string cloud in general relativity. Yılmaz et al. (2012) have ... Einstein's field equations we considered power-law relation between ...
Search for Dark Matter in Association with Top Quarks with the CMS Detector
Pinna, Deborah
2017-01-01
The evidence of the existence of dark matter is provided by astrophysical observationsat different scales. Nevertheless, information about its nature or non gravitationalinteractions is not yet available. Assuming interactions between dark matter and stan-dard model particles, dark matter can be produced in high energy collisions and theinteraction studied in detail.In this thesis, a search for dark matter produced in association with a top quark pairis performed using the data recorded by the CMS detector at two different center-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. The datasets correspond to integrated luminositiesof19.7fb−1and2.2fb−1, respectively. The analysis performed at8TeV considersonly the single-lepton decay of top quark pairs. It represented the first search of itskind in CMS and the results provide important insight on possible scalar interactionsbetween dark matter and standard model particles. The results are interpreted using adedicated effective field theory. Similar search is performed usin...
Constraining neutron star matter with Quantum Chromodynamics
Kurkela, Aleksi; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2014-01-01
In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount --- or even presence --- of quark matter inside the stars.
Quark nugget dark matter: Comparison with radio observations of nearby galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawson, K., E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca; Zhitnitsky, A.R.
2016-06-10
It has been recently claimed that radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies essentially rule out a dark matter source for the galactic haze [1]. Here we consider the low energy thermal emission from a quark nugget dark matter model in the context of microwave emission from the galactic centre and radio observations of nearby Milky Way like galaxies. We demonstrate that observed emission levels do not strongly constrain this specific dark matter candidate across a broad range of the allowed parameter space in drastic contrast with conventional dark matter models based on the WIMP paradigm.
Two-Quark Condensate Changes with Quark Current Mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Changfang; Lue Xiaofu; Wu Xiaohua; Zhan Yongxin
2009-01-01
Using the Schwinger-Dyson equation and perturbation theory, we calculate the two-quark condensates for the light quarks u, d, strange quark s and a heavy quark c with their current masses respectively. The results show that the two-quark condensate will decrease when the quark mass increases, which hints the chiral symmetry may be restored for the heavy quarks.
Single-flavour and two-flavour pairing in three-flavour quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, Mark G; Cowan, Greig A
2006-01-01
We study single-flavour quark pairing ('self-pairing') in colour-superconducting phases of quark matter, paying particular attention to the difference between scenarios where all three flavours undergo single-flavour pairing, and scenarios where two flavours pair with each other ('2SC' pairing) and the remaining flavour self-pairs. We perform our calculations in the mean-field approximation using a pointlike four-fermion interaction based on single gluon exchange. We confirm the result from previous weakly-coupled-QCD calculations that when all three flavours self-pair the favoured channel for each is colour-spin-locked (CSL) pseudoisotropic pairing. However, we find that when the up and down quarks undergo 2SC pairing, they induce a colour chemical potential that disfavours the CSL phase. The strange quarks then self-pair in a 'polar' channel that breaks rotational invariance, although the CSL phase may survive in a narrow range of densities
[Search for strange quark matter and antimatter produced in high energy heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
This document describes the development and progress of our group's research program in high energy heavy ion physics. We are a subset of the Yale experimental high energy physics effort (YAUG group) who became interested in the physics of high energy heavy ions in 1988. Our interest began with the possibility of performing significant searches for strange quark matter. As we learned more about the subject and as we gained experimental experience through our participation in AGS experiment 814, our interests have broadened. Our program has focused on the study of new particles, including (but not exclusively) strange quark matter, and the high sensitivity measurement of other composite nuclear systems such as antinuclei and various light nuclei. The importance of measurements of the known, but rare, nuclear systems lies in the study of production mechanisms. A good understanding of the physics and phenomenology of rare composite particle production in essential for the interpretation of limits to strange quark matter searches. We believe that such studies will also be useful in probing the mechanisms involved in the collision process itself. We have been involved in the running and data analysis for AGS E814. We have also worked on the R ampersand D for AGS E864, which is an approved experiment designed to reach sensitivities where there will be a good chance of discovering strangelets or of setting significant limits on the parameters of strange quark matter
Chemical Evolution of Strongly Interacting Quark-Gluon Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning
2014-01-01
At very initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions a wave of quark-gluon matter is produced from the break-up of the strong color electric field and then thermalizes at a short time scale (~1 fm/c). However, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) system is far out of chemical equilibrium, especially for the heavy quarks which are supposed to reach chemical equilibrium much late. In this paper a continuing quark production picture for strongly interacting QGP system is derived, using the quark number susceptibilities and the equation of state; both of them are from the results calculated by the Wuppertal-Budapest lattice QCD collaboration. We find that the densities of light quarks increase by 75% from the temperature T=400 MeV to T=150 MeV, while the density of strange quark annihilates by 18% in the temperature region. We also offer a discussion on how this late production of quarks affects the final charge-charge correlations
Gravitational closure of matter field equations
Düll, Maximilian; Schuller, Frederic P.; Stritzelberger, Nadine; Wolz, Florian
2018-04-01
The requirement that both the matter and the geometry of a spacetime canonically evolve together, starting and ending on shared Cauchy surfaces and independently of the intermediate foliation, leaves one with little choice for diffeomorphism-invariant gravitational dynamics that can equip the coefficients of a given system of matter field equations with causally compatible canonical dynamics. Concretely, we show how starting from any linear local matter field equations whose principal polynomial satisfies three physicality conditions, one may calculate coefficient functions which then enter an otherwise immutable set of countably many linear homogeneous partial differential equations. Any solution of these so-called gravitational closure equations then provides a Lagrangian density for any type of tensorial geometry that features ultralocally in the initially specified matter Lagrangian density. Thus the given system of matter field equations is indeed closed by the so obtained gravitational equations. In contrast to previous work, we build the theory on a suitable associated bundle encoding the canonical configuration degrees of freedom, which allows one to include necessary constraints on the geometry in practically tractable fashion. By virtue of the presented mechanism, one thus can practically calculate, rather than having to postulate, the gravitational theory that is required by specific matter field dynamics. For the special case of standard model matter one obtains general relativity.
Dark matter search and the scalar quark contents of the nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dinter, Simon; Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl
2011-09-01
We present lattice QCD simulation results from the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC) for the light, strange and charm quark contents of the nucleon. These quantities are important ingredients to estimate the cross-section for the detection of WIMPs as Dark Matter candidates. By employing a particular lattice QCD formulation, i.e. twisted mass fermions, accurate results of the light and strange scalar contents of the nucleon can be obtained. In addition, we provide a bound for the charm quark content of the nucleon. (orig.)
Dark matter search and the scalar quark contents of the nucleon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dinter, Simon; Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2011-09-15
We present lattice QCD simulation results from the European Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC) for the light, strange and charm quark contents of the nucleon. These quantities are important ingredients to estimate the cross-section for the detection of WIMPs as Dark Matter candidates. By employing a particular lattice QCD formulation, i.e. twisted mass fermions, accurate results of the light and strange scalar contents of the nucleon can be obtained. In addition, we provide a bound for the charm quark content of the nucleon. (orig.)
LHC experiments present new results at Quark Matter 2011 Conference
CERN Press Office
2011-01-01
The three LHC experiments that study lead ion collisions all presented their latest results today at the annual Quark Matter conference, held this year in Annecy, France. The results are based on analysis of data collected during the last two weeks of the 2010 LHC run, when the LHC switched from protons to lead-ions. All experiments report highly subtle measurements, bringing heavy-ion physics into a new era of high precision studies. Events recorded by the ALICE experiment from the first lead ion collisions (Nov-Dec 2010). “These results from the LHC lead ion programme are already starting bring new understanding of the primordial universe,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “The subtleties they are already seeing are very impressive.” In its infancy, just microseconds after the Big Bang, the universe consisted of a plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP), the fundamental building blocks of matter. By colliding heavy ions, physicists can turn back time an...
Neutrino and Gravitational-Wave Signatures of Quark Stars
Chu, Ming-chung; Leung, Shing Chi; Lin, Lap Ming; Zha, Shuai
We study two types of supernovae — Type IA (SNIa) and Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), particularly how they may help to probe new physics. First, using a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code with a fifth-order shock capturing scheme, we simulate the explosions of dark matter admixed SNIa and find that the explosion energy and abundance of 56Ni produced are sensitive to the mass of admixed dark matter. A small admixture of dark matter may account for some sub-luminous SNIa observed. Second, by incorporating a hybrid equation of state (EOS) that includes a hadron-to-quark phase transition, we study possible formation of quark stars in CCSNe. We calculate the gravitational-wave and neutrino emissions from such a system, and we study the effects of the parameters in the EOS on such signals.
Bottom quark contribution to spin-dependent dark matter detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinmian Li
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate a previously overlooked bottom quark contribution to the spin-dependent cross section for Dark Matter (DM scattering from the nucleon. While the mechanism is relevant to any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, for illustrative purposes we explore the consequences within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM. We study two cases, namely those where the DM is predominantly Gaugino or Higgsino. In both cases, there is a substantial, viable region in parameter space (mb˜−mχ≲O(100 GeV in which the bottom contribution becomes important. We show that a relatively large contribution from the bottom quark is consistent with constraints from spin-independent DM searches, as well as some incidental model dependent constraints.
Quark-Meson-Coupling (QMC) model for finite nuclei, nuclear matter and beyond
Guichon, P. A. M.; Stone, J. R.; Thomas, A. W.
2018-05-01
The Quark-Meson-Coupling model, which self-consistently relates the dynamics of the internal quark structure of a hadron to the relativistic mean fields arising in nuclear matter, provides a natural explanation to many open questions in low energy nuclear physics, including the origin of many-body nuclear forces and their saturation, the spin-orbit interaction and properties of hadronic matter at a wide range of densities up to those occurring in the cores of neutron stars. Here we focus on four aspects of the model (i) a full comprehensive survey of the theory, including the latest developments, (ii) extensive application of the model to ground state properties of finite nuclei and hypernuclei, with a discussion of similarities and differences between the QMC and Skyrme energy density functionals, (iii) equilibrium conditions and composition of hadronic matter in cold and warm neutron stars and their comparison with the outcome of relativistic mean-field theories and, (iv) tests of the fundamental idea that hadron structure changes in-medium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Das, M.
1983-01-01
The effect of confinement on the magnetic moment of a quark has been studied in a simple independent-quark model based on the Dirac equation with a power-law potential. The magnetic moments so obtained for the constituent quarks, which are found to be significantly different from their corresponding Dirac moments, are used in predicting the magnetic moments of baryons in the nucleon octet as well as those in the charmed and b-flavored sectors. We not only get an improved result for the proton magnetic moment, but the calculation for the rest of the nucleon octet also turns out to be in reasonable agreement with experiment. The overall predictions for the charmed and b-flavored baryons are also comparable with other model predictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
High energy heavy ion collisions have become one of the major growth areas of modern physics. Providing common ground between particle and nuclear physics, it has produced a wave of new interest and a series of major projects to provide beams of higher energies and increasing nuclear complexity. Reflecting this interest, and despite record rainstorms, over 450 enthusiastic high energy heavy ion followers met in Monterey, California, at the 11th International Conference on Ultra-relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions. Named Quark Matter '95, the meeting was characterized by its own flood of new results from experiments studying collisions of gold nuclei at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and with silicon beams at the CERN SPS synchrotron, as well as preliminary results from the first run with lead beams at CERN late last year (December 1994, page 15). A striking aspect of the Conference was the growth in attendance and, in particular, the large number of young physicists who attended the meeting, underlining the vitality and appeal of this important field. The new preliminary data from CERN experiments NA44, NA49, NA52, WA97, and WA98, made available with remarkable speed following the initial lead beam run in November and December 1994, represent a significant step in the study of heavy ion collisions. Physicists have finally come close to conditions where it is possible to consider event-by-event analysis of these very complex final states. The importance of this emerging approach to relativistic heavy ion collisions was emphasized by Reinhard Stock (Frankfurt) and other speakers in a pre-conference workshop devoted to physics with the collider detectors at big new projects now in the pipeline - RHIC at Brookhaven and LHC at CERN. The study of collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies is dominated by the search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma, the 'soup' of free quarks and gluons expected to have played an important role
Quark-anti-quark potential in N=4 SYM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gromov, Nikolay [Mathematics Department, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); St. Petersburg INP,Gatchina, 188 300, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor [Mathematics Department, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2016-12-22
We construct a closed system of equations describing the quark-anti-quark potential at any coupling in planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. It is based on the Quantum Spectral Curve method supplemented with a novel type of asymptotics. We present a high precision numerical solution reproducing the classical and one-loop string predictions very accurately. We also analytically compute the first 7 nontrivial orders of the weak coupling expansion. Moreover, we study analytically the generalized quark-anti-quark potential in the limit of large imaginary twist to all orders in perturbation theory. We demonstrate how the QSC reduces in this case to a one-dimensional Schrodinger equation. In the process we establish a link between the Q-functions and the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation.
Leksin, G A
2002-01-01
Features of deep inelastic nuclear reactions proceeding on dense fluctuations of nuclear matter (fluctons) are briefly considered. Fluctons, which can be many-quark bags or drops of quark-gluon plasma, are studied. Their properties are discussed, viz., characteristic parameters of nuclear matter inside a flucton - temperature and density close to the critical values for a phase transition. These values can be reached or exceeded if the flucton-flucton collision events are separated. The separation method is discussed
Search for Dark Matter in final states with top quarks in CMS data
Kevin Kai Hong Sung
2018-01-01
Searches for dark matter (DM) produced in association with a single top quark or a top quark pair in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV are presented. The data corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $35.9~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ recorded by the CMS detector at the CERN LHC in 2016. For the search with a single top quark, events with large missing transverse momentum and a hadronically decaying, Lorentz-boosted top quark are selected. Novel substructure techniques are utilized to identify the decay products of the top quark. No significant deviation from standard model (SM) expectation is observed. Limits are placed on the production of new heavy bosons coupling to DM particles. For a scenario with purely vector-like or purely axial-vector-like flavor changing neutral currents, mediator masses between 0.20 and 1.75 TeV are excluded at 95\\pct confidence level, given a sufficiently small DM mass. Scalar resonances decaying into a top quark and a DM fermion are excluded for masses below 3.4 TeV, assumi...
The phases of isospin-asymmetric matter in the two-flavor NJL model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawley, S. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia) and Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: slawley@jlab.org; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)
2006-01-19
We investigate the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetric matter at T=0 in the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Our approach describes the single nucleon as a confined quark-diquark state, the saturation properties of nuclear matter at normal densities, and the phase transition to normal or color superconducting quark matter at higher densities. The resulting equation of state of charge-neutral matter and the structure of compact stars are discussed.
SU(2 color NJL model and EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weise Wolfram
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We study the NJL model with the Polyakov loop in the SU(2-color case for the EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density. We consider the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and the diquark condensation together with the behavior of the Polyakov loop for the phase diagram of quark-hadron matter. We discuss the spectrum of mesons and diquark baryons (boson at finite temperature and density.We derive also the linear sigma model Lagrangian for diquark baryon and mesons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waldhauser, B.M.; Rischke, D.H.; Maruhn, J.A.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.
1989-01-01
We consider the influence of the bulk properties of nuclear matter, namely the ground state incompressibility and the effective nucleon mass, and of the MIT bag constant on the phase transition from hadron matter to quark gluon plasma. It is mainly the effective nucleon mass which determines the stiffness of the equation of state and therefore also the behaviour of the phase transition curves. The energy densities in the coexistence region are found to increase for finite chemical potentials and softer equations of state up to 10 GeV/fm 3 . For small bag constants and for softer nuclear equations of state the phase boundary exhibits unusual deformations, due to the fact that the phase transition sets in already at pressures not too far from the saturation value. Although this would increase the experimental possibility to create the QGP, it is more likely that one must regard bag constants in the range of the original MIT value as not producing a realistic behaviour of the quark-hadron matter phase transition in the context of an MIT bag equation of state for the quark side. (orig.)
Spin polarization versus color–flavor locking in high-density quark matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança
2015-01-01
It is shown that spin polarization with respect to each flavor in three-flavor quark matter occurs instead of color–flavor locking at high baryon density by using the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with four-point tensor-type interaction. Also, it is indicated that the order of phase transition between...
Meson production in nuclear collisions and the equation of state of hadronic matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, E.
1993-01-01
Whereas nuclear matter at saturation, i.e. at its ground state density [ρ o ≅ 1 nucleon per 6 fm 3 ] is realized in the center of nuclei, it is compressed to much higher density in neutron stars and during explosive stellar processes like novae and supernovae. The hard core repulsion in the nucleon-nucleon potential and also the Pauli principle counteract such a compression and the stiffness of the equation of state of this matter is determined by these two effects - at least up to a certain density. For very high density and temperature it is believed that the nucleons dissociate into a plasma of quarks and gluons. On the other hand there are detailed theoretical arguments and also experimental evidence shown here, that in the intermediate density range the equation of state is influenced by a different scenario. The conversion of nucleons into heavier baryons leads directly to an additional mass density and at the same time their different quantum numbers allow a higher particle number in a given volume of phase space. The heavy baryons in question are nucleon resonances (Δ,N*) and to smaller extent also hyperons; to conserve strangeness the formation of the latter is associated with the production of kaons whereas Δ's and N*'s are strongly coupled to the pions in the hadronic matter in the collision zone. (author)
From hot lattice QCD to cold quark stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze, Robert
2011-01-01
A thermodynamic model of the quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle degrees of freedom based on the hard thermal loop self-energies is introduced. It provides a connection between an established phenomenological quasiparticle model - following from the former using a series of approximations - and QCD - from which the former is derived using the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism and a special parametrization of the running coupling. Both models allow for an extrapolation of first-principle QCD results available at small chemical potentials using Monte-Carlo methods on the lattice to large net baryon densities with remarkably similar results. They are used to construct equations of state for heavy-ion collider experiments at SPS and FAIR as well as quark and neutron star interiors. A mixed-phase construction allows for a connection of the SPS equation of state to the hadron resonance gas. An extension to the weak sector is presented as well as general stability and binding arguments for compact stellar objects are developed. From the extrapolation of the most recent lattice results the existence of bound pure quark stars is not suggested. However, quark matter might exist in a hybrid phase in cores of neutron stars. (orig.)
From hot lattice QCD to cold quark stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulze, Robert
2011-02-22
A thermodynamic model of the quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle degrees of freedom based on the hard thermal loop self-energies is introduced. It provides a connection between an established phenomenological quasiparticle model - following from the former using a series of approximations - and QCD - from which the former is derived using the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism and a special parametrization of the running coupling. Both models allow for an extrapolation of first-principle QCD results available at small chemical potentials using Monte-Carlo methods on the lattice to large net baryon densities with remarkably similar results. They are used to construct equations of state for heavy-ion collider experiments at SPS and FAIR as well as quark and neutron star interiors. A mixed-phase construction allows for a connection of the SPS equation of state to the hadron resonance gas. An extension to the weak sector is presented as well as general stability and binding arguments for compact stellar objects are developed. From the extrapolation of the most recent lattice results the existence of bound pure quark stars is not suggested. However, quark matter might exist in a hybrid phase in cores of neutron stars. (orig.)
A systematic approach to sketch Bethe-Salpeter equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qin Si-xue
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To study meson properties, one needs to solve the gap equation for the quark propagator and the Bethe-Salpeter (BS equation for the meson wavefunction, self-consistently. The gluon propagator, the quark-gluon vertex, and the quark–anti-quark scattering kernel are key pieces to solve those equations. Predicted by lattice-QCD and Dyson-Schwinger analyses of QCD’s gauge sector, gluons are non-perturbatively massive. In the matter sector, the modeled gluon propagator which can produce a veracious description of meson properties needs to possess a mass scale, accordingly. Solving the well-known longitudinal Ward-Green-Takahashi identities (WGTIs and the less-known transverse counterparts together, one obtains a nontrivial solution which can shed light on the structure of the quark-gluon vertex. It is highlighted that the phenomenologically proposed anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM vertex originates from the QCD Lagrangian symmetries and its strength is proportional to the magnitude of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB. The color-singlet vector and axial-vector WGTIs can relate the BS kernel and the dressed quark-gluon vertex to each other. Using the relation, one can truncate the gap equation and the BS equation, systematically, without violating crucial symmetries, e.g., gauge symmetry and chiral symmetry.
Bulk viscosity of spin-one color superconducting strange quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xinyang; Shovkovy, Igor A.
2010-01-01
The bulk viscosity in spin-one color superconducting strange quark matter is calculated by taking into account the interplay between the nonleptonic and semileptonic week processes. In agreement with previous studies, it is found that the inclusion of the semileptonic processes may result in non-negligible corrections to the bulk viscosity in a narrow window of temperatures. The effect is generally more pronounced for pulsars with longer periods. Compared to the normal phase, however, this effect due to the semileptonic processes is less pronounced in spin-one color superconductors. Assuming that the critical temperature of the phase transition is much larger than 40 keV, the main effect of spin-one color superconductivity in a wide range of temperatures is an overall increase of the bulk viscosity with respect to the normal phase. The corresponding enhancement factor reaches up to about 9 in the polar and A phases, about 25 in the planar phase, and about 29 in the color-spin-locked (CSL) phase. This factor is determined by the suppression of the nonleptonic rate in color superconducting matter and, therefore, may be even larger if all quark quasiparticles happen to be gapped.
Solar Extreme UV radiation and quark nugget dark matter model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhitnitsky, Ariel, E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada)
2017-10-01
We advocate the idea that the surprising emission of extreme ultra violet (EUV) radiation and soft x-rays from the Sun are powered externally by incident dark matter (DM) particles. The energy and the spectral shape of this otherwise unexpected solar irradiation is estimated within the quark nugget dark matter model. This model was originally invented as a natural explanation of the observed ratio Ω{sub dark} ∼ Ω{sub visible} when the DM and visible matter densities assume the same order of magnitude values. This generic consequence of the model is a result of the common origin of both types of matter which are formed during the same QCD transition and both proportional to the same fundamental dimensional parameter Λ{sub QCD}. We also present arguments suggesting that the transient brightening-like 'nanoflares' in the Sun may be related to the annihilation events which inevitably occur in the solar atmosphere within this dark matter scenario.
Solar Extreme UV radiation and quark nugget dark matter model
Zhitnitsky, Ariel
2017-10-01
We advocate the idea that the surprising emission of extreme ultra violet (EUV) radiation and soft x-rays from the Sun are powered externally by incident dark matter (DM) particles. The energy and the spectral shape of this otherwise unexpected solar irradiation is estimated within the quark nugget dark matter model. This model was originally invented as a natural explanation of the observed ratio Ωdark ~ Ωvisible when the DM and visible matter densities assume the same order of magnitude values. This generic consequence of the model is a result of the common origin of both types of matter which are formed during the same QCD transition and both proportional to the same fundamental dimensional parameter ΛQCD. We also present arguments suggesting that the transient brightening-like "nanoflares" in the Sun may be related to the annihilation events which inevitably occur in the solar atmosphere within this dark matter scenario.
Quark confinement in a constituent quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.
1995-01-01
On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model's phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density
Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Po-Ju [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2017-01-01
Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.
Does dark matter consist of baryons of new stable family quarks?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bregar, G.; Mankoc Borstnik, N. S.
2009-01-01
We investigate the possibility that the dark matter consists of clusters of the heavy family quarks and leptons with zero Yukawa couplings to the lower families. Such a family is predicted by the approach unifying spin and charges as the fifth family. We make a rough estimation of properties of baryons of these new family members, of their behavior during the evolution of the Universe and when scattering on the ordinary matter, and study possible limitations on the family properties due to the cosmological and direct experimental evidences.
Modified quark-meson coupling model for nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, X.; Jennings, B.K.
1996-01-01
The quark-meson coupling model for nuclear matter, which describes nuclear matter as nonoverlapping MIT bags bound by the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons, is modified by introducing medium modification of the bag constant. We model the density dependence of the bag constant in two different ways: One invokes a direct coupling of the bag constant to the scalar meson field, and the other relates the bag constant to the in-medium nucleon mass. Both models feature a decreasing bag constant with increasing density. We find that when the bag constant is significantly reduced in nuclear medium with respect to its free-space value, large canceling isoscalar Lorentz scalar and vector potentials for the nucleon in nuclear matter emerge naturally. Such potentials are comparable to those suggested by relativistic nuclear phenomenology and finite-density QCD sum rules. This suggests that the reduction of bag constant in nuclear medium may play an important role in low- and medium-energy nuclear physics. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Production of extra quarks decaying to dark matter beyond the narrow width approximation at the LHC
Moretti, Stefano; O'Brien, Dermot; Panizzi, Luca; Prager, Hugo
2017-08-01
This paper explores the effects of finite width in processes of pair production of an extra heavy quark with charge 2 /3 (top partner) and its subsequent decay into a bosonic dark matter (DM) candidate—either scalar or vector—and SM up-type quarks at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This dynamics has been ignored so far in standard experimental searches of heavy quarks decaying to DM and we assess herein the regions of validity of current approaches, based on the assumption that the extra quarks have a narrow width. Further, we discuss the configurations of masses, widths and couplings where the latter breaks down.
Interplay between spin polarization and color superconductivity in high density quark matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança
2013-01-01
Here, it is suggested that a four-point interaction of the tensor type may lead to spin polarization in quark matter at high density. It is found that the two-flavor superconducting phase and the spin polarized phase correspond to distinct local minima of a certain generalized thermodynamical pot...
Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the ... The self-bound state appears to be at ρ ... The observations suggest that the Hubble expansion of the Universe ... Taking motivation from.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Abdallah, J. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (China). Inst. of Physics; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others
2015-02-01
This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom or top quarks in 20.3 fb{sup -1} of pp collisions collected at √(s) = 8 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with large missing transverse momentum are selected when produced in association with high-momentum jets of which one or more are identified as jets containing b-quarks. Final states with top quarks are selected by requiring a high jet multiplicity and in some cases a single lepton. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the mass scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter-nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a coloured mediator suitable to explain a possible signal of annihilating dark matter. (orig.)
Diquark condensation and the quark-quark interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloch, J. C. R.; Roberts, C. D.; Schmidt, S. M.
1999-01-01
We employ a bispinor gap equation to study superfluidity at nonzero chemical potential, μ≠0, in two- and three-color QCD, exploring the gap's sensitivity to the nature of the quark-quark interaction. The two-color theory, QC 2 D, is an excellent exemplar; the order of truncation of the quark-quark scattering kernel K has no qualitative impact, which allows a straightforward elucidation of the effects of μ when the coupling is strong. In the three-color theory the rainbow-ladder truncation admits diquark bound states, a defect that is eliminated by an improvement of K. The corrected gap equation describes a superfluid phase that is semiquantitatively similar to that obtained using the rainbow truncation. A model study suggests that the width of the superfluid gap and the transition point in QC 2 D provide reliable quantitative estimates of those quantities in QCD. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society
Andrei Sakharov quarks and the structure of matter
Lipkin, Harry J
2013-01-01
In 1980, the Cold War was in full bloom. The Soviet father of the hydrogen bomb and Nobel Peace Laureate turned dissident physicist, Andrei Sakharov, had been exiled to Gorki by the Soviet authorities. Called senile and under heavy Soviet censorship, Sakharov had a hard time communicating with the outside world. Around this time, the author, Harry Lipkin, came into contact with Sakharov's scientific work. What followed was a remarkable adventure in which both scientists fought the Soviet censors, smuggling postcards and manuscripts into and out of the Soviet Union while trying to further scientific progress. Against a backdrop of politics, suppression, and genius, Andrei Sakharov, Quarks and the Structure of Matter details the search for the basic building blocks of matter, the path to understanding the forces that bind them together, and how scientific knowledge is learned, communicated and passed from one group of investigators to another.
The average kinetic energy of the heavy quark in Λb in the Bethe-Salpeter equation approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, X.-H.; Wu, H.-K.
2007-01-01
In the previous paper, based on the SU(2) f xSU(2) s heavy quark symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian in the heavy quark limit, the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the heavy baryon Λ b was established with the picture that Λ b is composed of a heavy quark and a scalar light diquark. In the present work, we apply this model to calculate μ π 2 for Λ b , the average kinetic energy of the heavy quark inside Λ b . This quantity is particularly interesting since it can be measured in experiments and since it contributes to the inclusive semileptonic decays of Λ b when contributions from higher order terms in 1/M b expansions are taken into account and consequently influences the determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements V ub and V cb . We find that μ π 2 for Λ b is 0.25GeV 2 ∼0.95GeV 2 , depending on the parameters in the model including the light diquark mass and the interaction strength between the heavy quark and the light diquark in the kernel of the BS equation. We also find that this result is consistent with the value of μ π 2 for Λ b which is derived from the experimental value of μ π 2 for the B meson with the aid of the heavy quark effective theory
From quarks to nucleons in dark matter direct detection
Bishara, Fady; Brod, Joachim; Grinstein, Benjamin; Zupan, Jure
2017-11-01
We provide expressions for the nonperturbative matching of the effective field theory describing dark matter interactions with quarks and gluons to the effective theory of nonrelativistic dark matter interacting with nonrelativistic nucleons. We give expressions of leading and subleading order in chiral counting. In general, a single partonic operator matches onto several nonrelativistic operators already at leading order in chiral counting. Keeping only one operator at the time in the nonrelativistic effective theory thus does not properly describe the scattering in direct detection. The matching of the axial-axial partonic level operator, as well as the matching of the operators coupling DM to the QCD anomaly term, include naively momentum suppressed terms. However, these are still of leading chiral order due to pion poles and can be numerically important.
How neutron stars constrain the nuclear equation of state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hell Thomas
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Recent neutron star observations set new constraints for the equation of state of baryonic matter. A chiral effective field theory approach is used for the description of neutron-dominated nuclear matter present in the outer core of neutron stars. Possible hybrid stars with quark matter in the inner core are discussed using a three-flavor Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model.
Shock discontinuities around the confinement-deconfinement transition in baryon-rich dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rischke, D.H.; Waldhauser, B.M.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.; Friman, B.L.
1989-05-01
We investigate shock discontinuities that involve a conversion of hadronic matter into quark-gluon matter and vice versa. Such discontinuities may develop when nuclear matter is compressed to energy densities beyond the deconfinement transition and in the hadronization of an expanding quark-gluon plasma. In these investigations we study the influence of various phenomenological equations of state. Consequences for entropy production in heavy-ion collisions are discussed and estimates of inclusive particle ratios at freeze-out are given. We find that antiparticle-to-particle ratios may be enhanced by an order of magnitude if a quark-gluon plasma is created during the collision compared to a purely hadronic collision scenario. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen A; Huang, Yajing; Qin, Guang-You
2015-01-01
We study the effects of initial state fluctuations on the dynamical evolution of heavy quarks inside a quark–gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The evolution of heavy quarks in QGP matter is described utilizing a modified Langevin equation that incorporates the contributions from both collisional and radiative energy loss. The spacetime evolution of the fireball medium is simulated with a (2 + 1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic model. We find that when the medium traversed by the heavy quark contains a fixed amount of energy, heavy quarks tend to lose more energy for greater fluctuations of the medium density. This may result in a larger suppression of heavy flavor observables in a fluctuating QGP matter than in a smooth one. The possibility of using hard probes to infer the information of initial states of heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (paper)
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Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2015-02-24
This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom or top quarks in $20.3 fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions collected at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with large missing transverse momentum are selected when produced in association with high-momentum jets of which one or more are identified as jets containing $b$-quarks. Final states with top quarks are selected by requiring a high jet multiplicity and in some cases a single lepton. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the mass scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter--nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a coloured mediator s...
Radial oscillations of strange quark stars admixed with condensed dark matter
Panotopoulos, G.; Lopes, Ilídio
2017-10-01
We compute the 20 lowest frequency radial oscillation modes of strange stars admixed with condensed dark matter. We assume a self-interacting bosonic dark matter, and we model dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this case the equation of state is a polytropic one with index 1 +1 /n =2 and a constant K that is computed in terms of the mass of the dark matter particle and the scattering length. Assuming a mass and a scattering length compatible with current observational bounds for self-interacting dark matter, we have integrated numerically first the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for the hydrostatic equilibrium, and then the equations for the perturbations ξ =Δ r /r and η =Δ P /P . For a compact object with certain mass and radius we have considered here three cases, namely no dark matter at all and two different dark matter scenarios. Our results show that (i) the separation between consecutive modes increases with the amount of dark matter, and (ii) the effect is more pronounced for higher order modes. These effects are relevant even for a strange star made of 5% dark matter.
Bound states of quarks calculated with stochastic integration of the Bethe-Salpeter equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salomon, M.
1992-07-01
We have computed the masses, wave functions and sea quark content of mesons in their ground state by integrating the Bethe-Salpeter equation with a stochastic algorithm. This method allows the inclusion of a large set of diagrams. Inspection of the kernel of the equation shows that q-q-bar pairs with similar constituent masses in a singlet spin state exhibit a high bound state which is not present in other pairs. The pion, kaon and eta belongs to this category. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs
Top quark and Higgs boson masses from wormhole physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, B.A.; Joshi, G.C.
1994-01-01
We bring together quantum field theory on S 4 with the Coleman wormhole hypothesis, which imposes constraints on terms in the gravitational Lagrangian. In particular, we investigate the effect of matter fields on the trace anomaly, which is related to the (curvature) 2 terms, by the use of the renormalization group equations. We consider a toy model of a nonconformally coupled Higgs boson to a single ''top'' quark. By numerically solving the renormalization group equations for the couplings of the model, we can find preferred values of the particle masses for various values of the bare nonconformal coupling. By making the ad hoc assumption that the tree-level, Higgs boson treace anomaly vanishes on shell, a unique prediction can be made within this model for the masses of both the Higgs boson and the top quark
Quark diquark symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, M.M. de
1980-01-01
Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt
Information theoretical methods as discerning quantifiers of the equations of state of neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avellar, M.G.B. de, E-mail: mgb.avellar@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas – Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, R.A. de, E-mail: rodrigo.souza@usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas – Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Horvath, J.E., E-mail: foton@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas – Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Paret, D.M., E-mail: dmanreza@fisica.uh.cu [Facultad de Física, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, Vedado La Habana, 10400 (Cuba)
2014-11-07
In this work we use the statistical measures of information entropy, disequilibrium and complexity to discriminate different approaches and parametrizations for different equations of state for quark stars. We confirm the usefulness of such quantities to quantify the role of interactions in such stars. We find that within this approach, a quark matter equation of state such as SU(2) NJL with vectorial coupling and phase transition is slightly favoured and deserves deeper studies. - Highlights: • We used information theory tools to discern different compositions for compact stars. • Hadronic and quark stars analogues behave differently when analyzed with these tools. • The effects of different equations of state are singled out in this work.
Srivastava, D K; Kvasnikova, I; Gale, C; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar; Sinha, Bikash; Kvasnikova, Ioulia; Gale, Charles
2002-01-01
The production of single photons in $Pb+Pb$ collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A very good description of the data is obtained if a quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the interacting system is taken into account. The recent estimates of photon production in quark-matter (at two loop level) along with the dominant reactions in the hadronic matter leading to photons are used. Most of the radiation of the photons is seen to arise from the quark-matter, which contributes dominantly through the mechanism of annihilation of quarks with scattering, and which in turn is possible only in a hot and dense plasma of quarks and gluons. The same treatment provides a very good description to hadronic spectra measured by several groups and the intermediate mass dileptons measured by the NA50 experiment, lending a strong support to the ...
The Quark-Gluon Plasma Equation of State and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. I. Abou-Salem
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The quark-gluon plasma (QGP equation of state within a minimal length scenario or Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP is studied. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle is implemented on deriving the thermodynamics of ideal QGP at a vanishing chemical potential. We find a significant effect for the GUP term. The main features of QCD lattice results were quantitatively achieved in case of nf=0, nf=2, and nf=2+1 flavors for the energy density, the pressure, and the interaction measure. The exciting point is the large value of bag pressure especially in case of nf=2+1 flavor which reflects the strong correlation between quarks in this bag which is already expected. One can notice that the asymptotic behavior which is characterized by Stephan-Boltzmann limit would be satisfied.
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-01-01
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-10-23
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Highlights from the Quark Matter 2012 conference: a theorist's perspective
CERN. Geneva
2012-01-01
The series of Quark Matter conferences is traditionally the most important venue for showing new results in the field of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. This year's edition was held in August in Washington DC and it attracted almost 700 participants. It featured the newest results from experiments at the LHC and at RHIC, as well as a broad range of new theoretical developments. This talk will provide - from a theorist's perspective - a selective review of results presented at this conference.
Quarks and gluons in the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welzbacher, Christian Andreas
2016-07-14
In this dissertation we study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter by approaching the theory of quantum chromodynamics in the functional approach of Dyson-Schwinger equations. With these quantum (field) equations of motions we calculate the non-perturbative quark propagator within the Matsubara formalism. We built up on previous works and extend the so-called truncation scheme, which is necessary to render the infinite tower of Dyson-Schwinger equations finite and study phase transitions of chiral symmetry and the confinement/deconfinement transition. In the first part of this thesis we discuss general aspects of quantum chromodynamics and introduce the Dyson-Schwinger equations in general and present the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation together with its counterpart for the gluon. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is introduced which is necessary to perform two-body bound state calculations. A view on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics is given, including the discussion of order parameter for chiral symmetry and confinement. Here we also discuss the dependence of the phase structure on the masses of the quarks. In the following we present the truncation and our results for an unquenched N{sub f} = 2+1 calculation and compare it to previous studies. We highlight some complementary details for the quark and gluon propagator and discus the resulting phase diagram, which is in agreement with previous work. Results for an equivalent of the Columbia plot and the critical surface are discussed. A systematically improved truncation, where the charm quark as a dynamical quark flavour is added, will be presented in Ch. 4. An important aspect in this investigation is the proper adjustment of the scales. This is done by matching vacuum properties of the relevant pseudoscalar mesons separately for N{sub f} = 2+1 and N f = 2+1+1 via a solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. A comparison of the resulting N{sub f} = 2+1 and N{sub f} = 2+1+1 phase diagram indicates
Search for dark matter produced in association with a top quark pair at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV
CMS Collaboration
2018-01-01
A search is performed for dark matter produced in association with a top quark pair in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of $35.9~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. Combined results of final states involving zero, one, or two leptons (electrons or muons) are presented. No significant excess is observed, and the results are interpreted in the context of simplified models of dark matter production via spin-0 mediators. Scalar (pseudoscalar) mediators with masses below 165 (223) GeV are excluded at $95\\%$ confidence level. These are the most stringent limits at the LHC on dark matter models involving a scalar mediator. Constraints on the coupling strength between dark matter and standard model quarks are also presented.
Bottom-quark forward-backward asymmetry, dark matter, and the LHC
Liu, Da; Liu, Jia; Wagner, Carlos E. M.; Wang, Xiao-Ping
2018-03-01
The LEP experiment at CERN provided accurate measurements of the Z neutral gauge boson properties. Although all measurements agree well with the standard model (SM) predictions, the forward backward asymmetry of the bottom-quark remains almost 3 σ away from the SM value. We proposed that this anomaly may be explained by the existence of a new U (1 )D gauge boson, which couples with opposite charges to the right-handed components of the bottom and charm quarks. Cancellation of gauge anomalies demands the presence of a vector-like singlet charged lepton as well as a neutral Dirac (or Majorana) particle that provides a dark matter candidate. Constraints from precision measurements imply that the mass of the new gauge boson should be around 115 GeV. We discuss the experimental constraints on this scenario, including the existence of a di-jet resonance excess at an invariant mass similar to the mass of this new gauge boson, observed in boosted topologies at the CMS experiment.
Zero Sound in Neutron Stars with Dense Quark Matter under Strong Magnetic Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouvaris, Christoforos
2009-01-01
We study a neutron star with a quark matter core under extremely strong magnetic fields. We investigate the possibility of an Urca process as a mechanism for the cooling of such a star. We found that apart from very particular cases, the Urca process cannot occur. We also study the stability...
Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao
2016-01-01
It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low-energy ef...
Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas
Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.
1993-01-01
The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montiel, Ariadna; Salzano, Vincenzo; Lazkoz, Ruth
2014-01-01
In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in [1], is characterized by two main parameters: β, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and γ, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, β cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) γ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with ≈78% to the energy–matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montiel, Ariadna, E-mail: amontiel@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 México DF (Mexico); Salzano, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.salzano@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Lazkoz, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.lazkoz@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)
2014-06-02
In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in [1], is characterized by two main parameters: β, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and γ, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, β cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) γ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with ≈78% to the energy–matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.
Exactly solvable model of phase transition between hadron and quark-gluon-matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenstein, M.I.; Petrov, V.K.; Shelest, V.P.; Zinovjev, G.M.
1982-01-01
An exactly solvable model of phase transition between hadron and quark-gluon matter is proposed. The hadron phase of this model is considered as a gas of bags filled by point massless constituents. The mass and volume spectrum of the bag is found. The thermodynamical characteristics of a bag gas in the neighbourhood of a phase transition point are ascertained in analytical form
Quark degrees of freedom in compact stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marranghello, G.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica; Hadjimichef, D. [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Fisica
2001-07-01
Nuclear matter may show a phase transition at high densities, where quarks and gluons are set free, forming a so called quark-gluon plasma. At the same range of densities, neutron stars are formed. In this work we have grouped both ideas in the study of the quark-gluon plasma formation inside compact stars, here treated as pure neutron star, hybrid star and pure quark matter star. (author)
Quark degrees of freedom in compact stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marranghello, G.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.; Hadjimichef, D.
2001-01-01
Nuclear matter may show a phase transition at high densities, where quarks and gluons are set free, forming a so called quark-gluon plasma. At the same range of densities, neutron stars are formed. In this work we have grouped both ideas in the study of the quark-gluon plasma formation inside compact stars, here treated as pure neutron star, hybrid star and pure quark matter star. (author)
Thermo-magnetic effects in quark matter: Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model constrained by lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farias, Ricardo L.S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kent State University, Physics Department, Kent, OH (United States); Timoteo, Varese S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Grupo de Optica e Modelagem Numerica (GOMNI), Faculdade de Tecnologia, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Avancini, Sidney S.; Pinto, Marcus B. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Krein, Gastao [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-05-15
The phenomenon of inverse magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry in QCD predicted by lattice simulations can be reproduced within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model if the coupling G of the model decreases with the strength B of the magnetic field and temperature T. The thermo-magnetic dependence of G(B, T) is obtained by fitting recent lattice QCD predictions for the chiral transition order parameter. Different thermodynamic quantities of magnetized quark matter evaluated with G(B, T) are compared with the ones obtained at constant coupling, G. The model with G(B, T) predicts a more dramatic chiral transition as the field intensity increases. In addition, the pressure and magnetization always increase with B for a given temperature. Being parametrized by four magnetic-field-dependent coefficients and having a rather simple exponential thermal dependence our accurate ansatz for the coupling constant can be easily implemented to improve typical model applications to magnetized quark matter. (orig.)
Looking into the Matter of Light-Quark Hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, C.D.
2012-01-01
In tackling QCD, a constructive feedback between theory and extant and forthcoming experiments is necessary in order to place constraints on the infrared behaviour of QCD's β-function, a key nonperturbative quantity in hadron physics. The Dyson-Schwinger equations provide a tool with which to work toward this goal. They connect confinement with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, both with the observable properties of hadrons, and hence can plausibly provide a means of elucidating the material content of real-world QCD. This contribution illustrates these points via comments on: in-hadron condensates; dressed-quark anomalous chromo- and electro-magnetic moments; the spectra of mesons and baryons, and the critical role played by hadron-hadron interactions in producing these spectra. (author)
Neutron stars, fast pulsars, supernovae and the equation of state of dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glendening, N.K.
1989-01-01
We discuss the prospects for obtaining constraints on the equation of state from astrophysical sources. Neutron star masses although few are known at present, provide a very direct constraint in as much as the connection to the equation of state involves only the assumption that Einstein's general theory of relativity is correct at the macroscopic scale. If the millisecond pulses briefly observed in the remnant of SN1987A can be attributed to uniform rotation of a pulsar, then a very severe constraint is placed on the equation of state. The theory again is very secure. The precise nature of the constraint is not yet understood, but it appears that the equation of state must be neither too soft nor stiff, and it may be that there is information not only on the stiffness of the equation of state but on its shape. Supernovae simulations involve such a plethora of physical processes including those involved in the evolution of the precollapse configuration, not all of them known or understood, that they provide no constraint at the present time. Not even the broad category of mechanism for the explosion is agreed upon (prompt shock, delayed shock, or nuclear explosion). In connection with very fast pulsars, we include some speculations on pure quark matter stars, and on possible scenarios for understanding the disappearance of the fast pulsar in SN1987A. 47 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab
Neutron stars, fast pulsars, supernovae and the equation of state of dense matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glendening, N.K.
1989-06-01
We discuss the prospects for obtaining constraints on the equation of state from astrophysical sources. Neutron star masses although few are known at present, provide a very direct constraint in as much as the connection to the equation of state involves only the assumption that Einstein's general theory of relativity is correct at the macroscopic scale. If the millisecond pulses briefly observed in the remnant of SN1987A can be attributed to uniform rotation of a pulsar, then a very severe constraint is placed on the equation of state. The theory again is very secure. The precise nature of the constraint is not yet understood, but it appears that the equation of state must be neither too soft nor stiff, and it may be that there is information not only on the stiffness of the equation of state but on its shape. Supernovae simulations involve such a plethora of physical processes including those involved in the evolution of the precollapse configuration, not all of them known or understood, that they provide no constraint at the present time. Not even the broad category of mechanism for the explosion is agreed upon (prompt shock, delayed shock, or nuclear explosion). In connection with very fast pulsars, we include some speculations on pure quark matter stars, and on possible scenarios for understanding the disappearance of the fast pulsar in SN1987A. 47 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.
Temperature anomalies of shock and isentropic waves of quark-hadron phase transition
Konyukhov, A. V.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.; Levashov, P. R.; Likhachev, A. P.
2018-01-01
In this work, we consider a phenomenological equation of state, which combinesstatistical description for hadron gas and a bag-model-based approach for the quark-gluon plasma. The equation of state is based on the excluded volume method in its thermodynamically consistent variant from Satarov et al [2009 Phys. At. Nucl. 72 1390]. The characteristic shape of the Taub adiabats and isentropes in the phase diagram is affected by the anomalous pressure-temperature dependence along the curve of phase equilibrium. The adiabats have kink points at the boundary of the two-phase region, inside which the temperature decreases with compression. Thermodynamic properties of matter observed in the quark-hadron phase transition region lead to hydrodynamic anomalies (in particular, to the appearance of composite compression and rarefaction waves). On the basis of relativistic hydrodynamics equations we investigate and discuss the structure and anomalous temperature behavior in these waves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.
2018-01-25
A search for dark matter is conducted in events with large missing transverse momentum and a hadronically decaying, Lorentz-boosted top quark. This study is performed using proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, in data recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 fb$^{-1}$. New substructure techniques, including the novel use of energy correlation functions, are utilized to identify the decay products of the top quark. With no significant deviations observed from predictions of the standard model, limits are placed on the production of new heavy bosons coupling to dark matter particles. For a scenario with purely vector-like or purely axial-vector-like flavor changing neutral currents, mediator masses between 0.20 and 1.75 TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level, given a sufficiently small dark matter mass. Scalar resonances decaying into a top quark and a dark matter fermion are excluded for masses below 3.4 TeV, assuming a dark matter mass of 100 GeV.
An effective equation of state for dense matter with strangeness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balberg, S.; Gal, A.
1997-01-01
An effective equation of state which generalizes the Lattimer-Swesty equation for nuclear matter is presented for matter at supernuclear densities including strange baryons. It contains an adjustable baryon potential energy density, based on models of local potentials for the baryon-baryon interactions. The features of the equation rely on the properties of nuclei for the nucleon-nucleon interactions, and mainly on experimental data from hypernuclei for the hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions. The equation is used to calculate equilibrium compositions and thermodynamic properties of high density matter with strangeness in two astrophysical contexts: neutron star matter (transparent to neutrinos) and proto-neutron star matter (opaque to neutrinos). The effective equation of state reproduces typical properties of high density matter found in theoretical microscopic models. Of these, the main result is that hyperons appear in both types of matter at about twice the nuclear saturation density, and that their appearance significantly softens the equation of state. The range of maximal masses of neutron stars found in a comprehensive parameter survey is 1.4-1.7 M s un. Another typical result is that the maximal mass of a proto-neutron star with strange baryons is higher than that of an evolved neutron star (opposite to the case of nuclear matter), setting the stage for a ''delayed collapse'' scenario. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others
2018-01-15
A search for weakly interacting massive dark-matter particles produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and missing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at √(s) = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are interpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour-neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross-section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour-charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aaboud, M.; Abbott, B.
2018-01-01
A search for weakly interacting massive dark-matter particles produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and missing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb -1 of proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at √(s) = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are interpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour-neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross-section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour-charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements. (orig.)
Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Abidi, S. H.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adelman, J.; Adersberger, M.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Afik, Y.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agheorghiesei, C.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akatsuka, S.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akilli, E.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albicocco, P.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Alderweireldt, S. C.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M. I.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amoroso, S.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antrim, D. J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Araujo Ferraz, V.; Arce, A. T. H.; Ardell, R. E.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahmani, M.; Bahrasemani, H.; Baines, J. T.; Bajic, M.; Baker, O. K.; Bakker, P. J.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barkeloo, J. T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beck, H. C.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beermann, T. A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Bergsten, L. J.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Betti, A.; Bevan, A. J.; Beyer, J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bittrich, C.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blue, A.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolz, A. E.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozson, A. J.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Braren, F.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Briglin, D. L.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Bruno, S.; Brunt, B. H.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burch, T. J.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burger, A. M.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Changqiao, C.-Q.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cai, H.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carlson, B. T.; Carminati, L.; Carney, R. M. D.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrá, S.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casha, A. F.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castelijn, R.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Celebi, E.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, W. S.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, K.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chiu, Y. H.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, Y. S.; Christodoulou, V.; Chu, M. C.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, F.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. 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2018-01-01
A search for weakly interacting massive dark-matter particles produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and missing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at √{s}=13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are interpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour-neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross-section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour-charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements.
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Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shcherbakova, A; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Shoaleh Saadi, D; Shochet, M J; Short, D; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Shushkevich, S; Sicho, P; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silver, Y; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simon, D; Simoniello, R; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Siragusa, G; Sircar, A; Sisakyan, A N; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skottowe, H P; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Slawinska, M; Sliwa, K; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, K M; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snidero, G; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Solans, C A; Solar, M; Solc, J; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Song, H Y; Soni, N; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soualah, R; Soueid, P; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Spagnolo, S; Spanò, F; Spearman, W R; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Denis, R D St; Staerz, S; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Stavina, P; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Subramaniam, R; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tannenwald, B B; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, R J; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Turvey, A J; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Velz, T; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; 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Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, A; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wright, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L
This article reports on a search for dark matter pair production in association with bottom or top quarks in [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] collisions collected at [Formula: see text] TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with large missing transverse momentum are selected when produced in association with high-momentum jets of which one or more are identified as jets containing [Formula: see text]-quarks. Final states with top quarks are selected by requiring a high jet multiplicity and in some cases a single lepton. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the mass scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter-nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a coloured mediator suitable to explain a possible signal of annihilating dark matter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.
2009-08-01
The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wicke, Daniel
2009-01-01
The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the
Maximum Mass of Hybrid Stars in the Quark Bag Model
Alaverdyan, G. B.; Vartanyan, Yu. L.
2017-12-01
The effect of model parameters in the equation of state for quark matter on the magnitude of the maximum mass of hybrid stars is examined. Quark matter is described in terms of the extended MIT bag model including corrections for one-gluon exchange. For nucleon matter in the range of densities corresponding to the phase transition, a relativistic equation of state is used that is calculated with two-particle correlations taken into account based on using the Bonn meson-exchange potential. The Maxwell construction is used to calculate the characteristics of the first order phase transition and it is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the baryon concentrations of the coexisting phases grow monotonically as the bag constant B increases. It is shown that for a fixed value of the strong interaction constant αs, the maximum mass of a hybrid star increases as the bag constant B decreases. For a given value of the bag parameter B, the maximum mass rises as the strong interaction constant αs increases. It is shown that the configurations of hybrid stars with maximum masses equal to or exceeding the mass of the currently known most massive pulsar are possible for values of the strong interaction constant αs > 0.6 and sufficiently low values of the bag constant.
Transversity quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cloet, I.C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4843 (United States)], E-mail: icloet@anl.gov; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)], E-mail: awthomas@jlab.org
2008-01-17
Transversity quark light-cone momentum distributions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the relativistic Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquark channels are included. Particular attention is paid to comparing our results with the recent experimental extraction of the transversity distributions by Anselmino et al. We also compare our transversity results with earlier spin-independent and helicity quark distributions calculated in the same approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasiorowicz, S.; Rosner, J.L.
1982-01-01
The quark model began as little more than a quantum-number counting device. After a brief period during which quarks only played a symmetry role, serious interest in quark dynamics developed. The marriage of the principle of local gauge invariance and quarks has been astonishingly productive. Although many questions still need to be be answered, there is little doubt that the strong, weak and electroweak interactions of matter are described by gauge theories of interactions of the quarks. This review is focussed on the successes
Nucleon quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cloet, I.C. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia) and Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: icloet@physics.adelaide.edu.au; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: awthomas@jlab.org
2005-08-18
Spin-dependent and spin-independent quark light-cone momentum distributions and structure functions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquark channels are included. We find excellent agreement between our model results and empirical data.
Probing nuclear matter with dileptons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, L.S.
1986-06-01
Dileptons are shown to be of interest in helping probe extreme conditions of temperature and density in nuclear matter. The current state of experimental knowledge about dileptons is briefly described, and their use in upcoming experiments with light ions at CERN SPS are reviewed, including possible signatures of quark matter formation. Use of dileptons in an upcoming experiment with a new spectrometer at Berkeley is also discussed. This experiment will probe the nuclear matter equation of state at high temperature and density. 16 refs., 8 figs
Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav
2014-01-01
At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.
Hanauske, Matthias; Steinheimer, Jan; Bovard, Luke; Mukherjee, Ayon; Schramm, Stefan; Takami, Kentaro; Papenfort, Jens; Wechselberger, Natascha; Rezzolla, Luciano; Stöcker, Horst
2017-07-01
The underlying open questions in the fields of general relativistic astrophysics and elementary particle and nuclear physics are strongly connected and their results are interdependent. Although the physical systems are quite different, the 4D-simulation of a merger of a binary system of two neutron stars and the properties of the hot and dense matter created in high energy heavy ion collisions, strongly depend on the equation of state of fundamental elementary matter. Neutron star mergers represent optimal astrophysical laboratories to investigate the QCD phase structure using a spectrogram of the post-merger phase of the emitted gravitational waves. These studies can be supplemented by observations from heavy ion collisions to possibly reach a conclusive picture on the QCD phase structure at high density and temperature. As gravitational waves (GWs) emitted from merging neutron star binaries are on the verge of their first detection, it is important to understand the main characteristics of the underlying merging system in order to predict the expected GW signal. Based on numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries, the emitted GW and the interior structure of the generated hypermassive neutron stars (HMNS) have been analyzed in detail. This article will focus on the internal and rotational HMNS properties and their connection with the emitted GW signal. Especially, the appearance of the hadon-quark phase transition in the interior region of the HMNS and its conjunction with the spectral properties of the emitted GW will be addressed and confronted with the simulation results of high energy heavy ion collisions.
Mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars
Martinez, A Perez; Paret, D Manreza
2010-01-01
We review the stability of magnetized strange quark matter (MSQM) within the phenomenological MIT bag model, taking into account the variation of the relevant input parameters, namely, the strange quark mass, baryon density, magnetic field and bag parameter. A comparison with magnetized asymmetric quark matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium as well as with strange quark matter (SQM) is presented. We obtain that the energy per baryon for MSQM decreases as the magnetic field increases, and its minimum value at vanishing pressure is lower than the value found for SQM, which implies that MSQM is more stable than non-magnetized SQM. The mass-radius relation for magnetized strange quark stars is also obtained in this framework.
How the physicists nailed the quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1985-01-01
The paper reviews quarks, from its prediction in 1962, to the experiments confirming its existence in the 1970's and 1980's. The elementary particles of matter; building particles from quarks; why quarks can never be isolated; and the six quarks; are all discussed. (U.K.)
Testa, Massimo
1990-01-01
In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.
Neutron star matter equation of state: current status and challenges
Ohnishi, Akira
2014-09-01
Neutron star matter has a variety of constituents and structures depending on the density; neutron-rich nuclei surounded by electrons and drip neutrons in the crust, pasta nuclei at the bottom of inner crust, and uniform isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter in a superfluid state in the outer core. In the inner core, the neutron Fermi energy becomes so large that exotic constituents such as hyperons, mesons and quarks may emerge. Radioactive beam and hypernuclear experiments provide information on the symmetry energy and superfluidity in the crust and outer core and on the hyperon potentials in the inner core, respectively. Cold atom experiments are also helpful to understand pure neutron matter, which may be simulated by the unitary gas. An equation of state (EOS) constructed based on these laboratory experiments has to be verified by the astronomical observations such as the mass, radius, and oscillations of neutron stars. One of the key but missing ingredients is the three-baryon interactions such as the hyperon-hyperon-nucleon (YYN) interaction. YYN interaction is important in order to explain the recently discovered massive neutron stars consistently with laboratory experiments. We have recently found that the ΛΛ interaction extracted from the ΛΛ correlation at RHIC is somewhat stronger than that from double Λ hypernuclei. Since these two interactions corresponds to the vacuum and in-medium ΛΛ interactions, respectively, the difference may tell us a possible way to access the YYN interaction based on experimental data. In the presentation, after a review on the current status of neutron star matter EOS studies, we discuss the necessary tasks to pin down the EOS. We also present our recent study of ΛΛ interaction from correlation data at RHIC.
Results on top-quark physics and top-quark-like signatures by CMS
Chabert, Eric; CMS Collaboration
2017-07-01
This report reviews the results obtained by the CMS Collaboration on top quark physics, focusing on the latest ones based on p-p collisions provided by the LHC at \\sqrt{s}=13{{TeV}} during Run II. It covers measurements of single-top, top quark pairs and associated productions as well as measurements of top quark properties. Finally several beyond the standard model searches involving top quark in the final states are presented, such as searches for supersymmetry in the third generation, heavy resonances decaying into a top quark pair, or dark matter produced in association to a single-top or a top quark pair.
Neutron Star masses from the Field Correlator Method Equation of State
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zappalà D.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We analyse the hadron-quark phase transition in neutron stars by confronting the hadronic Equation of State (EoS obtained according to the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many body theory, with the quark matter EoS derived within the Field Correlator Method. In particular, the latter EoS is only parametrized in terms of the gluon condensate and the large distance quark-antiquark potential, so that the comparison of the results of this analysis with the most recent measurements of heavy neutron star masses provides some physical constraints on these two parameters.
The quark revolution and the ZGS - new quarks physics since the ZGS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1994-01-01
Overwhelming experimental evidence for quarks as real physical constituents of hadrons along with the QCD analogs of the Balmer Formula, Bohr Atom and Schroedinger Equation already existed in 1966 but was dismissed as heresy. ZGS experiments played an important role in the quark revolution. This role is briefly reviewed and subsequent progress in quark physics is described
Nucleon structure and properties of dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutschera, M.; Pethick, C.J.; Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL
1988-01-01
We consider the properties of dense matter in a framework of the Skyrme soliton model and the chiral bag model. The influence of the nucleon structure on the equation of state of dense matter is emphasized. We find that in both models the energy per unit volume is proportional to n 4/3 , n being the baryon number density. We discuss the properties of neutron stars with a derived equation of state. The role of many-body effects is investigated. The effect of including higher order terms in the chiral lagrangian is examined. The phase transition to quark matter is studied. 29 refs., 6 figs. (author)
Color superconductivity in dense quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, Mark G.; Schmitt, Andreas; Rajagopal, Krishna; Schaefer, Thomas
2008-01-01
Matter at high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, which is a degenerate Fermi gas of quarks with a condensate of Cooper pairs near the Fermi surface that induces color Meissner effects. At the highest densities, where the QCD coupling is weak, rigorous calculations are possible, and the ground state is a particularly symmetric state, the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase. The CFL phase is a superfluid, an electromagnetic insulator, and breaks chiral symmetry. The effective theory of the low-energy excitations in the CFL phase is known and can be used, even at more moderate densities, to describe its physical properties. At lower densities the CFL phase may be disfavored by stresses that seek to separate the Fermi surfaces of the different flavors, and comparison with the competing alternative phases, which may break translation and/or rotation invariance, is done using phenomenological models. We review the calculations that underlie these results and then discuss transport properties of several color-superconducting phases and their consequences for signatures of color superconductivity in neutron stars.
Chala, Mikael; Gröber, Ramona; Spannowsky, Michael
2018-03-01
Many composite Higgs models predict the existence of vector-like quarks with masses outside the reach of the LHC, e.g. m Q ≳ 2 TeV, in particular if these models contain a dark matter candidate. In such models the mass of the new resonances is bounded from above to satisfy the constraint from the observed relic density. We therefore develop new strategies to search for vector-like quarks at a future 100 TeV collider and evaluate what masses and interactions can be probed. We find that masses as large as ˜ 6.4 (˜9) TeV can be tested if the fermionic resonances decay into Standard Model (dark matter) particles. We also discuss the complementarity of dark matter searches, showing that most of the parameter space can be closed. On balance, this study motivates further the consideration of a higher-energy hadron collider for a next generation of facilities.
MadAnalysis Recast Code for Dark Matter Production in Association with Bottom Quarks
Biswas, Diptaparna
The CMS-B2G-15-007 analysis was carried out to investigate the $pp\\rightarrow bb+DM$ process, which is a candidate process of direct Dark Matter production. In this particular work, this process is simulated and analyzed for 13 TeV LHC experiment using MadGraph, Pythia 8 and MadAnalysis C++ API. The recast code is written to reproduce the results obtained by the experimentalists in CMS-B2G-15-007 analysis. The result is interpreted within simplified scalar model in terms of the coupling between the mediator and the DM candidate and evaluated based on the MET distribution. CMS-B2G-15-007 uses a dataset of $2.17fb^{-1}$ of data collected by the CMS experiment in $\\sqrt{s}=13TeV$ proton-proton collisions at LHC. This analysis is sensitive also to DM production processes in association with top quarks. Results are reported as upper limits on the cross section for the b quark and top quark associated production independently, and interpreted within simplified models in terms of the coupling between the mediator an...
Diquark condensate and quark interaction with instanton liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinov'ev, G.M.; Molodtsov, S.V.
2003-01-01
The interaction of light quarks and instanton liquid is analyzed at finite density of quark/baryon matter and in the phase of nonzero values of diquark (color) condensate. It is shown that instanton liquid perturbation produced by such an interaction results in an essential increase of the critical value of quark chemical potential μ c which provokes the perceptible increase of quark matter density around the expected onset of the color superconductivity phase [ru
Quark seesaw mechanism, dark U (1 ) symmetry, and the baryon-dark matter coincidence
Gu, Pei-Hong; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.
2017-09-01
We attempt to understand the baryon-dark matter coincidence problem within the quark seesaw extension of the standard model where parity invariance is used to solve the strong C P problem. The S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )B -L gauge symmetry of this model is extended by a dark U (1 )X group plus inclusion of a heavy neutral vector-like fermion χL ,R charged under the dark group which plays the role of dark matter. All fermions are Dirac type in this model. Decay of heavy scalars charged under U (1 )X leads to simultaneous asymmetry generation of the dark matter and baryons after sphaleron effects are included. The U (1 )X group not only helps to stabilize the dark matter but also helps in the elimination of the symmetric part of the dark matter via χ -χ ¯ annihilation. For dark matter mass near the proton mass, it explains why the baryon and dark matter abundances are of similar magnitude (the baryon-dark matter coincidence problem). This model is testable in low threshold (sub-keV) direct dark matter search experiments.
Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Kasmaei, Babak S.; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael
2016-12-01
We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse-momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.
Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masuda, Kota [The University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan); Hatsuda, Tetsuo [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan); The University of Tokyo, Kavli IPMU (WPI), Chiba (Japan); Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki [Nishina Center, RIKEN, Theoretical Research Division, Wako (Japan)
2016-03-15
Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) ''CRover'', which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ{sub 0}), it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M {sub CircleDot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ{sub 0} and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M {sub CircleDot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated. (orig.)
Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki
2016-01-01
Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) ''CRover'', which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ 0 ), it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M CircleDot can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ 0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M CircleDot . The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated. (orig.)
Srivastava, D K
2001-01-01
The production of single photons in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS as measured by the WA98 experiment is analysed. A quark gluon plasma is assumed to be formed initially, which expands, cools, hadronizes, and undergoes freeze-out. A rich hadronic equation of state is used and the transverse expansion of the interacting system is taken into account. The recent estimates of photon production in quark-matter (at two loop level) along with the dominant reactions in the hadronic matter leading to photons are used. About half of the radiated photons are seen to have a thermal origin. The same treatment and the initial conditions provide a very good description to hadronic spectra measured by several groups and the intermediate mass dileptons measured by the NA50 experiment, lending a strong support to the conclusion that quark gluon plasma has been formed in these collisions. Predictions for RHIC and LHC energies are also given. (37 refs).
Constraints from jet calculus on quark recombination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, L.M.; Lassila, K.E.; Willen, D.
1979-01-01
Within the QCD jet calculus formalism, we deduce an equation describing recombination of quarks and antiquarks into mesons within a quark or gluon jet. This equation relates the recombination function R(x 1 ,x 2 ,x) used in current literature to the fragmentation function for producing that same meson out of the parton initiating the jet. We submit currently used recombination functions to our consistency test, taking as input mainly the u-quark fragmentation data into π + mesons, but also s-quark fragmentation into K - mesons. The constraint is well satisfied at large Q 2 for large moments. Our results depend on one parameter, Q 0 2 , the constraint equation being satisfied for small values of this parameter
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00291862
2017-01-01
This thesis presents a search for dark matter production in association with a Higgs boson decaying to a pair of bottom quarks, using data from 20.3\\,fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $8$ TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dark matter particles are assumed to be Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, and can be produced in pairs at collider experiments. Events with large $E_T^{miss}$ are selected when produced in association with high momentum jets, of which at least two are identified as jets containing $b$-quarks consistent with those from a Higgs boson decay. To maintain good detector acceptance and selection efficiency of the signal across a wide kinematic range, two methods of Higgs boson reconstruction are used. The Higgs boson is reconstructed either as a pair of small-radius jets both containing $b$-quarks, called the ``resolved'' analysis, or as a single large-radius jet with substructure consistent with a high momentum $b\\bar{b}$ system, called ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Hajar Bahri; Fatemeh Kayanikhoo
2012-01-01
We have calculated the structural properties of a strange quark star with a static model in the presence of a strong magnetic field.To this end,we use the MITbag model with a density dependent bag constant.To parameterize the density dependence of the bag constant,we have used our results for the lowest order constrained variational calculation of the asymmetric nuclear matter.By calculating the equation of state of strange quark matter,we have shown that the pressure of this system increases by increasing both density and magnetic field.Finally,we have investigated the effect of density dependence of the bag constant on the structural properties of a strange quark star.
Properties of quark matter governed by quantum chromodynamics. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soni, V.
1983-01-01
Renormalization schemes are examined (in the Coulomb gauge) for quantum chromodynamics in the presence of quark matter. We demand that the effective coupling constant for all schemes become congruent with the vacuum QCD running coupling constant as the matter chemical potential, μ, goes to zero. Also, to enable us to standardize with the vacuum QCD running coupling constant at some asymptotic momentum transfer, vertical strokep 0 vertical stroke, we keep μ 0 vertical stroke, to ensure that the matter contribution is negligible at this point. This means all schemes merge with vacuum QCD at vertical strokep 0 vertical stroke and beyond. Two renormalization group invariants are shown to emerge: (I) the effective or invariant charge, gsub(inv) 2 , which is, however, scheme dependent and (II) g 2 (M)/S(M), where S(M) - 1 is the Coulomb propagator, which is scheme independent. The only scheme in which gsub(inv) 2 is scheme independent and identical to g 2 (M)/S(M) is the screened charged scheme (previous paper) characterised by the normalization of the entire Green function, S - 1 , to unity. We conclude that this is the scheme to be used if one wants to identify with the experimental effective coupling in perturbation theory. However, if we do not restrict to perturbation theory all schemes should be allowed. Although we discuss matter QCD in the Coulomb gauge, the above considerations are quite general to gauge theories in the presence of matter. (orig.)
Cosmological axion and a quark nugget dark matter model
Ge, Shuailiang; Liang, Xunyu; Zhitnitsky, Ariel
2018-02-01
We study a dark matter (DM) model offering a very natural explanation of two (naively unrelated) problems in cosmology: the observed relation ΩDM˜Ωvisible and the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the Universe, known as the "baryogenesis" problem. In this framework, both types of matter (dark and visible) have the same QCD origin, form at the same QCD epoch, and are proportional to one and the same dimensional parameter of the system, ΛQCD, which explains how these two naively distinct problems could be intimately related, and could be solved simultaneously within the same framework. More specifically, the DM in this model is composed by two different ingredients: the (well-studied) DM axions and the (less-studied) quark nuggets made of matter or antimatter. We focus on the quantitative analysis of the relation between these two distinct components contributing to the dark sector of the theory determined by ΩDM≡[ΩDM(nuggets)+ΩDM(axion)] . We argue that the nuggets' DM component always traces the visible matter density, i.e., ΩDM(nuggets)˜Ωvisible , and this feature is not sensitive to the parameters of the system such as the axion mass ma or the misalignment angle θ0. It should be contrasted with conventional axion production mechanisms due to the misalignment when ΩDM(axion) is highly sensitive to the axion mass ma and the initial misalignment angle θ0. We also discuss the constraints on this model related to the inflationary scale HI, nonobservation of the isocurvature perturbations and the tensor modes. We also comment on some constraints related to various axion search experiments.
Simulating Hadronic-to-Quark-Matter with Burn-UD: Recent work and astrophysical applications
Welbanks, Luis; Ouyed, Amir; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid
2017-06-01
We present the new developments in Burn-UD, our in-house hydrodynamic combustion code used to model the phase transition of hadronic-to-quark matter. Our two new modules add neutrino transport and the time evolution of a (u, d, s) quark star (QS). Preliminary simulations show that the inclusion of neutrino transport points towards new hydrodynamic instabilities that increase the burning speed. A higher burning speed could elicit the deflagration to detonation of a neutron star (NS) into a QS. We propose that a Quark-Nova (QN: the explosive transition of a NS to a QS) could help us explain the most energetic astronomical events to this day: superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Our models consider a QN occurring in a massive binary, experiencing two common envelope stages and a QN occurring after the supernova explosion of a Wolf-Rayet (WO) star. Both models have been successful in explaining the double humped light curves of over half a dozen SLSNe. We also introduce SiRop our r-process simulation code and propose that a QN site has the hot temperatures and neutron densities required to make it an ideal site for the r-process.
Simulating Hadronic-to-Quark-Matter with Burn-UD: Recent work and astrophysical applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welbanks, Luis; Ouyed, Amir; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid
2017-01-01
We present the new developments in Burn-UD, our in-house hydrodynamic combustion code used to model the phase transition of hadronic-to-quark matter. Our two new modules add neutrino transport and the time evolution of a (u, d, s) quark star (QS). Preliminary simulations show that the inclusion of neutrino transport points towards new hydrodynamic instabilities that increase the burning speed. A higher burning speed could elicit the deflagration to detonation of a neutron star (NS) into a QS. We propose that a Quark-Nova (QN: the explosive transition of a NS to a QS) could help us explain the most energetic astronomical events to this day: superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Our models consider a QN occurring in a massive binary, experiencing two common envelope stages and a QN occurring after the supernova explosion of a Wolf-Rayet (WO) star. Both models have been successful in explaining the double humped light curves of over half a dozen SLSNe. We also introduce SiRop our r-process simulation code and propose that a QN site has the hot temperatures and neutron densities required to make it an ideal site for the r-process. (paper)
Radiative origin of all quark and lepton masses through dark matter with flavor symmetry.
Ma, Ernest
2014-03-07
The fundamental issue of the origin of mass for all quarks and leptons (including Majorana neutrinos) is linked to dark matter, odd under an exactly conserved Z2 symmetry which may or may not be derivable from an U(1)D gauge symmetry. The observable sector interacts with a proposed dark sector which consists of heavy neutral singlet Dirac fermions and suitably chosen new scalars. Flavor symmetry is implemented in a renormalizable context with just the one Higgs doublet (ϕ(+), ϕ(0)) of the standard model in such a way that all observed fermions obtain their masses radiatively through dark matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deligeorges, S.
1985-01-01
After a brief recall on the classification of subatomic particles, this paper deals with quark nuggets, particle with more than three quarks, a big bag, which is called ''nuclearite''. Neutron stars, in fact, are big sacks of quarks, gigantic nuggets. Now, physicists try to calculate which type of nuggets of strange quark matter is stable, what has been the influence of quark nuggets on the primordial nucleosynthesis. At the present time, one says that if these ''nuggets'' exist, and in a large proportion, they may be candidates for the missing mass [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biswas, S. N.
1980-07-01
The application of quantum statistical mechanics to a system of particles consisting of quarks is considered. Realistic theoretical investigations have been underway to understand highly dense objects such as white dwarfs and neutron stars. The various possibilities in the case of very high densities such as 10/sup 15/ or 10/sup 16/ g/cm/sup 3/ are enumerated. The thermodynamics of a phase transition from neutron matter phase to quark matter phase is analysed. Preliminary results based on quantum chromodynamics and other phenomenological models are reported.
The role of gauge fields in cold and dense quark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noronha, J
2007-07-01
In this thesis we investigate the role played by gauge fields in providing new observable signatures that can attest to the presence of color superconductivity in neutron stars. We show that thermal gluon fluctuations in color-flavor locked superconductors can substantially increase their critical temperature and also change the order of the transition, which becomes a strong first-order phase transition. Moreover, we explore the effects of strong magnetic fields on the properties of color-flavor locked superconducting matter. We find that both the energy gaps as well as the magnetization are oscillating functions of the magnetic field. Also, it is shown that the magnetization can be so strong that homogeneous quark matter becomes metastable for a range of parameters. This points towards the existence of magnetic domains or other types of magnetic inhomogeneities in the hypothesized quark cores of magnetars. Obviously, our results only apply if the strong magnetic fields observed on the surface of magnetars can be transmitted to their inner core. This can occur if the superconducting protons expected to exist in the outer core form a type-II superconductor. However, it has been argued that the observed long periodic oscillations in isolated pulsars can only be explained if the outer core is a type-I superconductor rather than type-II. We show that this is not the only solution for the precession puzzle by demonstrating that the long-term variation in the spin of PSR 1828-11 can be explained in terms of Tkachenko oscillations within superfluid shells. (orig.)
The role of gauge fields in cold and dense quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noronha, J.
2007-01-01
In this thesis we investigate the role played by gauge fields in providing new observable signatures that can attest to the presence of color superconductivity in neutron stars. We show that thermal gluon fluctuations in color-flavor locked superconductors can substantially increase their critical temperature and also change the order of the transition, which becomes a strong first-order phase transition. Moreover, we explore the effects of strong magnetic fields on the properties of color-flavor locked superconducting matter. We find that both the energy gaps as well as the magnetization are oscillating functions of the magnetic field. Also, it is shown that the magnetization can be so strong that homogeneous quark matter becomes metastable for a range of parameters. This points towards the existence of magnetic domains or other types of magnetic inhomogeneities in the hypothesized quark cores of magnetars. Obviously, our results only apply if the strong magnetic fields observed on the surface of magnetars can be transmitted to their inner core. This can occur if the superconducting protons expected to exist in the outer core form a type-II superconductor. However, it has been argued that the observed long periodic oscillations in isolated pulsars can only be explained if the outer core is a type-I superconductor rather than type-II. We show that this is not the only solution for the precession puzzle by demonstrating that the long-term variation in the spin of PSR 1828-11 can be explained in terms of Tkachenko oscillations within superfluid shells. (orig.)
Ultimate energy density of observable cold baryonic matter.
Lattimer, James M; Prakash, Madappa
2005-03-25
We demonstrate that the largest measured mass of a neutron star establishes an upper bound to the energy density of observable cold baryonic matter. An equation of state-independent expression satisfied by both normal neutron stars and self-bound quark matter stars is derived for the largest energy density of matter inside stars as a function of their masses. The largest observed mass sets the lowest upper limit to the density. Implications from existing and future neutron star mass measurements are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, M.
1981-01-01
Quantum chromodynamics is believed to be candidate theory for the strong interactions and contains as its ingredients spinor quark fields and vector gluons, none of which can perhaps be ever liberated and detected in laboratories. A nucleus consists of nucleons bound by nuclear force which are however separately observable and which seem to preserve their identities even under extreme conditions. An intriguing question is: when compressed to high densities or heated to high temperature, at what point does a nuclear matter cease to be describable in terms of nucleon and meson degrees of freedom, but become a plasma of quarks and gluons; and how does this transition occur. This is not an idle question. If quarks and gluons are never to be observed isolated, then it may be that at low energies (or at low densities) they are not the right variables to do physics with. Instead hadrons must be. On the other hand, asymptotic freedom - the unique property of non-abelian gauge theories to which QCD belongs that quark-gluon and gluon-gluon interactions get weaker at short distances - tells us that at some large matter density the matter must necessarily be in the form of quark gas interacting only weakly. This means that a change in degrees of freedom must take place. We would like to know where this occurs and how. In this talk, I would like to address to this question by discussing first the large success we have had in understanding the role that mesons play in finite nuclei and nuclear matter and then attempting to correlate nucleon and meson degrees of freedom to quark-gluon degrees of freedom. In my opinion we are now at a stage where we feel fairly confident in our understanding of nucleon-meson structure of nuclei and nuclear matter and any further progress in deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics - and strong interactions - must come from QCD or its effective version, bags or strings. (orig.)
Hadron-quark phase transition in dense stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassi, F.
1987-10-01
An equation of state is computed for a plasma of one flavor quarks interacting through some phenomenological potential, at zero temperature. Assuming that the confining potential is scalar and color-independent, it is shown that the quarks undergo a first-order mass phase transition. In addition, due to the way screening is introduced, all the thermodynamic quantities computed are independent of the actual shape of the interquark potential. This equation of state is then generalized to a several quark flavor plasma and applied to the study of the hadron-quark phase transition inside a neutron star. 45 refs., 4 figs
Heavy baryon clusters and search for signals of quark matter formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagarin, Yu.F.; Kalinkin, B.N.
2000-01-01
New experimental data are discussed on the distribution of protons over transverse momentum of p perpendicular to in the Fe+Em process at energies 2-200 GeV/n and of α-particles in the Au + Em process at incident energy 10.7 GeV/n. A possible interpretation of the experiment within the framework of the gluon dominance and the thermodynamic approximation can be achieved with a minor additional assumption only. This assumption is that at an early stage of evolution of the heavy baryon cluster matter the quark matter transforms into baryons at a temperature T ∼ 0.22 GeV and its global decay into nucleons is completed at T ∼ 0.14 GeV. The results are also of interest in connection with the problem of abundance of helium and hydrogen in the universe which has been considered in cosmology and astrophysics for a long time. (orig.)
Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Seva, Tomislav; Starling, Elizabeth; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; Caudron, Adrien; David, Pieter; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Sijing; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elgammal, Sherif; Mohamed, Amr; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Alexakhin, Vadim; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golunov, Alexander; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Volkov, Petr; Blinov, Vladimir; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Curras, Esteban; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Elwood, Adam; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Zahid, Sema; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Hiltbrand, Joshua; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel
2018-06-05
A search for dark matter is conducted in events with large missing transverse momentum and a hadronically decaying, Lorentz-boosted top quark. This study is performed using proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, in data recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 fb$^{-1}$. New substructure techniques, including the novel use of energy correlation functions, are utilized to identify the decay products of the top quark. With no significant deviations observed from predictions of the standard model, limits are placed on the production of new heavy bosons coupling to dark matter particles. For a scenario with purely vector-like or purely axial-vector-like flavor changing neutral currents, mediator masses between 0.20 and 1.75 TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level, given a sufficiently small dark matter mass. Scalar resonances decaying into a top quark and a dark matter fermion are excluded for masses below 3.4 TeV, assuming a dark ma...
The quark gluon plasma equation of state and the expansion of the early Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanches, S.M.; Navarra, F.S.; Fogaça, D.A.
2015-01-01
Our knowledge of the equation of state of the quark gluon plasma has been continuously growing due to the experimental results from heavy ion collisions, due to recent astrophysical measurements and also due to the advances in lattice QCD calculations. The new findings about this state may have consequences on the time evolution of the early Universe, which can be estimated by solving the Friedmann equations. The solutions of these equations give the time evolution of the energy density and also of the temperature in the beginning of the Universe. In this work we compute the time evolution of the QGP in the early Universe, comparing several equations of state, some of them based on the MIT bag model (and on its variants) and some of them based on lattice QCD calculations. Among other things, we investigate the effects of a finite baryon chemical potential in the evolution of the early Universe
Possibility of stable quark stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.
1976-08-01
A recent zero temperature equation of state which contains quark-partons separated from conventional baryons by a phase transition is used to investigate the stability of quark stars. The sensitivity to the input physics is also considered. The conclusions, which are found to be relatively model independent, indicate that a separately identifiable class of stable objects called quark stars does not exist
Quark virtuality and QCD vacuum condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing
2004-01-01
Based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in the 'rainbow' approximation, the authors investigate the quark virtuality in the vacuum state and quantum-chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum condensates. In particular, authors calculate the local quark vacuum condensate and quark-gluon mixed condensates, and then the virtuality of quark. The calculated quark virtualities are λ u,d 2 =0.7 GeV 2 for u, d quarks, and λ s 2 =1.6 GeV 2 for s quark. The theoretical predictions are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules, and also fit to lattice QCD predictions
Evidences for a new state of the nuclear matter: quark gluon plasma in liquid phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jipa, Alexandru
2005-01-01
The experimental results obtained in the last years at the RHIC BNL (USA) allowed to obtain an important experimental result, namely the observation of the quark gluon plasma formation in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 A GeV in CMS. Evidences for this new state of nuclear matter are presented in this work. The results of the BRAHMS Experiment are detailed. (author)
Far-from-equilibrium heavy quark energy loss at strong coupling
Chesler, Paul; Rajagopal, Krishna
2013-01-01
We study the energy loss of a heavy quark propagating through the matter produced in the collision of two sheets of energy [1]. Even though this matter is initially far-from-equilibrium we find that, when written in terms of the energy density, the equilibrium expression for heavy quark energy loss describes most qualitative features of our results well. At later times, once a plasma described by viscous hydrodynamics has formed, the equilibrium expression describes the heavy quark energy loss quantitatively. In addition to the drag force that makes it lose energy, a quark moving through the out-of-equilibrium matter feels a force perpendicular to its velocity.
Critical point in the phase diagram of primordial quark-gluon matter from black hole physics
Critelli, Renato; Noronha, Jorge; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Portillo, Israel; Ratti, Claudia; Rougemont, Romulo
2017-11-01
Strongly interacting matter undergoes a crossover phase transition at high temperatures T ˜1012 K and zero net-baryon density. A fundamental question in the theory of strong interactions, QCD, is whether a hot and dense system of quarks and gluons displays critical phenomena when doped with more quarks than antiquarks, where net-baryon number fluctuations diverge. Recent lattice QCD work indicates that such a critical point can only occur in the baryon dense regime of the theory, which defies a description from first principles calculations. Here we use the holographic gauge/gravity correspondence to map the fluctuations of baryon charge in the dense quark-gluon liquid onto a numerically tractable gravitational problem involving the charge fluctuations of holographic black holes. This approach quantitatively reproduces ab initio results for the lowest order moments of the baryon fluctuations and makes predictions for the higher-order baryon susceptibilities and also for the location of the critical point, which is found to be within the reach of heavy-ion collision experiments.
Infrared slavery and quark confinement
Alabiso, C
1976-01-01
The question is considered of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks. Making a specific ansatz for the long- range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (20 refs).
Infrared slavery and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alabiso, C.; Schierholz, G.
1976-01-01
The question of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks is posed. Making a specific ansatz for the long-range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (Auth.)
Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2015-07-01
We compute dilepton production from the deconfined phase of the quark-gluon plasma using leading-order (3 +1 )-dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. The anisotropic hydrodynamics equations employed describe the full spatiotemporal evolution of the transverse temperature, spheroidal momentum-space anisotropy parameter, and the associated three-dimensional collective flow of the matter. The momentum-space anisotropy is also taken into account in the computation of the dilepton production rate, allowing for a self-consistent description of dilepton production from the quark-gluon plasma. For our final results, we present predictions for high-energy dilepton yields as a function of invariant mass, transverse momentum, and pair rapidity. We demonstrate that high-energy dilepton production is extremely sensitive to the assumed level of initial momentum-space anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma. As a result, it may be possible to experimentally constrain the early-time momentum-space anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using high-energy dilepton yields.
Critical parameters of Quark-Hadron phase transition with interacting and massive quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, C.P.; Patra, B.K.
1994-06-01
Current techniques to simulate the dynamical behaviour of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) reveal that the order of the phase transition as well as the values of the critical parameters depend on the number of quark flavours as well as on the quark-masses included in the simulation. We attempt to show here the effects of the number of quark flavours and quark-masses on critical parameters by using the perturbative, finite temperature field theory to g 3 s order in the strong coupling g s . We treat the hadrons as particles with finite size and its implications on the equation of state for hadron gas are studied. We find that the critical temperature T c is lowered by 9 MeV as we move from two to three quark flavours. The nature of the phase transition always remains as first order. However, the inclusion of quark-masses in our calculation does not affect the result much. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs
Free-quark phases in dense stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keister, B D; Kisslinger, L S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics
1976-08-30
The possibility is examined that superdense matter can undergo a transition to a phase of free quarks within models which assume that the quark confinement potential is screened at high densities. The results imply that a phase of pure quarks of this type is unlikely to be found in stable stellar systems although they do not preclude the possible existence of a transition region which contains quarks and neutrons in equilibrium at the center of neutron stars.
The bound state problem and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichian, M.; Demichev, A.P.; Nelipa, N.F.
1980-01-01
A quantum field-theoretic model in which quark is confined is considered. System of equations for the Green functions of colour singlet and octet bound states is obtained. The method is based on the nonperturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations with the use of Slavnov-Taylor identities. It is shown that in the framework of the model if there exist singlet, then also exist octet bound states of the quark-antiquark system. Thus in general, confinement of free quarks does not mean absence of their coloured bound states. (author)
Vortex structure in superfluid color-flavor locked quark matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alford Mark G.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The core region of a neutron star may feature quark matter in the color-flavor-locked (CFL phase. The CFL condensate breaks the baryon number symmetry, such that the phenomenon of superfluidity arises. If the core of the star is rotating, vortices will form in the superfluid, carrying the quanta of angular momentum. In a previous study we have solved the question of stability of these vortices, where we found numerical proof of a conjectured instability, according to which superfluid vortices will decay into an arrangement of so-called semi-superfluid fluxtubes. Here we report first results of an extension of our framework that allows us to study multi-vortex dynamics. This will in turn enable us to investigate the structure of semi-superfluid string lattices, which could be relevant to study pinning phenomena at the boundary of the core.
Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian
2004-08-20
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state.
Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian
2004-01-01
We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at √s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artru, X.; Fayolle, D.
2001-01-01
For a monopole, the analogue of the Lorentz equation in matter is shown to be f = g (H-v centre dot D). Dual-symmetric Maxwell equations, for matter containing hidden magnetic charge in addition to electric ones, are given. They apply as well to ordinary matter if the particles possess T-violating electric dipole moments. Two schemes of experiments for the detection of such moments in macroscopic pieces of matter are proposed
Effective Field Theories for Hot and Dense Matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blaschke D.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The lecture is divided in two parts. The ﬁrst one deals with an introduction to the physics of hot, dense many-particle systems in quantum ﬁeld theory [1, 2]. The basics of the path integral approach to the partition function are explained for the example of chiral quark models. The QCD phase diagram is discussed in the meanﬁeld approximation while QCD bound states in the medium are treated in the rainbow-ladder approximation (Gaussian ﬂuctuations. Special emphasis is devoted to the discussion of the Mott eﬀect, i.e. the transition of bound states to unbound, but resonant scattering states in the continnum under the inﬂuence of compression and heating of the system. Three examples are given: (1 the QCD model phase diagram with chiral symmetry ¨ restoration and color superconductivity [3], (2 the Schrodinger equation for heavy-quarkonia [4], and (2 Pions [5] as well as Kaons and D-mesons in the ﬁnite-temperature Bethe-Salpeter equation [6]. We discuss recent applications of this quantum ﬁeld theoretical approach to hot and dense quark matter for a description of anomalous J/ψ supression in heavy-ion collisions [7] and for the structure and cooling of compact stars with quark matter interiors [8]. The second part provides a detailed introduction to the Polyakov-loop Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model [9] for thermodynamics and mesonic correlations [10] in the phase diagram of quark matter. Important relationships of low-energy QCD like the Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner relation are generalized to ﬁnite temperatures. The eﬀect of including the coupling to the Polyakov-loop potential on the phase diagram and mesonic correlations is discussed. An outlook is given to eﬀects of nonlocality of the interactions [11] and of mesonic correlations in the medium [12] which go beyond the meanﬁeld description.
On parametrised cold dense matter equation of state inference
Riley, Thomas E.; Raaijmakers, Geert; Watts, Anna L.
2018-04-01
Constraining the equation of state of cold dense matter in compact stars is a major science goal for observing programmes being conducted using X-ray, radio, and gravitational wave telescopes. We discuss Bayesian hierarchical inference of parametrised dense matter equations of state. In particular we generalise and examine two inference paradigms from the literature: (i) direct posterior equation of state parameter estimation, conditioned on observations of a set of rotating compact stars; and (ii) indirect parameter estimation, via transformation of an intermediary joint posterior distribution of exterior spacetime parameters (such as gravitational masses and coordinate equatorial radii). We conclude that the former paradigm is not only tractable for large-scale analyses, but is principled and flexible from a Bayesian perspective whilst the latter paradigm is not. The thematic problem of Bayesian prior definition emerges as the crux of the difference between these paradigms. The second paradigm should in general only be considered as an ill-defined approach to the problem of utilising archival posterior constraints on exterior spacetime parameters; we advocate for an alternative approach whereby such information is repurposed as an approximative likelihood function. We also discuss why conditioning on a piecewise-polytropic equation of state model - currently standard in the field of dense matter study - can easily violate conditions required for transformation of a probability density distribution between spaces of exterior (spacetime) and interior (source matter) parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro
2010-01-01
The B-meson distribution amplitude (DA) is defined as the matrix element of a quark-antiquark bilocal light-cone operator in the heavy-quark effective theory, corresponding to a long-distance component in the factorization formula for exclusive B-meson decays. The evolution equation for the B-meson DA is governed by the cusp anomalous dimension as well as the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi-type anomalous dimension, and these anomalous dimensions give the ''quasilocal'' kernel in the coordinate-space representation. We show that this evolution equation can be solved analytically in the coordinate space, accomplishing the relevant Sudakov resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The quasilocal nature leads to a quite simple form of our solution which determines the B-meson DA with a quark-antiquark light-cone separation t in terms of the DA at a lower renormalization scale μ with smaller interquark separations zt (z≤1). This formula allows us to present rigorous calculation of the B-meson DA at the factorization scale ∼√(m b Λ QCD ) for t less than ∼1 GeV -1 , using the recently obtained operator product expansion of the DA as the input at μ∼1 GeV. We also derive the master formula, which reexpresses the integrals of the DA at μ∼√(m b Λ QCD ) for the factorization formula by the compact integrals of the DA at μ∼1 GeV.
Quark nugget dark matter: no contradiction with 511 keV line emission from dwarf galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel, E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada)
2017-02-01
The observed galactic 511 keV line has been interpreted in a number of papers as a possible signal of dark matter annihilation within the galactic bulge. If this is the case then it is possible that a similar spectral feature may be observed in association with nearby dwarf galaxies. These objects are believed to be strongly dark matter dominated and present a relatively clean observational target. Recently INTEGRAL observations have provided new constraints on the 511 keV flux from nearby dwarf galaxies [1] motivating further investigation into the mechanism by which this radiation may arise. In the model presented here dark matter in the form of heavy quark nuggets produces the galactic 511 keV emission line through interactions with the visible matter. It is argued that this type of interaction is not strongly constrained by the flux limits reported in [2].
AUTHOR|(CDS)2256247
Dark matter is hypothesized to constitute about 80% of the total matter in the universe. While existence and effects of dark matter are quite evident in astrophysical observations, it has not yet been experimentally observed. Besides direct and indirect searches for dark matter, collider experiments also present us with a possibility to produce and detect dark matter in the laboratory. A search for dark matter produced in association with bottom quarks in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV is presented in this thesis. The data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN in 2016 is used for the analysis. We look at a final state containing high missing transverse energy and one or two jets produced from bottom quarks. Several control regions are defined to model the major backgrounds present in the signal regions. Hence, the signal is extracted through simultaneous fits on the signal and control regions. The results are interpreted by finding Asimov l...
Quark Deconfinement in Rotating Neutron Stars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard D. Mellinger
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we use a three flavor non-local Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL model, an improved effective model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD at low energies, to investigate the existence of deconfined quarks in the cores of neutron stars. Particular emphasis is put on the possible existence of quark matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars (pulsars. In contrast to non-rotating neutron stars, whose particle compositions do not change with time (are frozen in, the type and structure of the matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars depends on the spin frequencies of these stars, which opens up a possible new window on the nature of matter deep in the cores of neutron stars. Our study shows that, depending on mass and rotational frequency, up to around 8% of the mass of a massive neutron star may be in the mixed quark-hadron phase, if the phase transition is treated as a Gibbs transition. We also find that the gravitational mass at which quark deconfinement occurs in rotating neutron stars varies quadratically with spin frequency, which can be fitted by a simple formula.
Equation of state of nuclear matter of nucleons and dibaryons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mrowczynski, St.
1985-01-01
The nuclear matter is considered consisting of nucleons and dibaryons, i.e. elementary particles of double baryon charge. The equation of state of such matter at zero temperature is found. The ideal gas approximation is considered and then the role of interaction is discussed which is included by means of delta-like potential. The peculiarities and possible phisical consequences of the equation of state are considered
On the Coulomb gauge quark propagator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kloker, M.; Alkofer, R.; Krassnigg, A.; Krenn, R.
2006-01-01
Full text: A solution of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation including transverse gluons is presented. The corresponding retardation effects in the quark propagator are discussed. Especially, their effects on confinement properties and dynamical mass generation are described. (author)
Equation of state of dense baryonic matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, F.; Weigel, M.K.
1989-01-01
In a previous investigation we treated nuclear matter as well as neutron matter at zero and finite temperatures in the frame of different relativistic field theoretical models, but with the restriction to nucleons as the only present baryons. This approach is extended by including a larger fraction of baryons and mesons, necessary for a description of baryon matter under extreme conditions. The equation of state (EOS) is calculated in both the Hartree and Hartree-Fock (HF) approximations for dense nuclear as well as neutron matter. Self-interactions of the σ field up to fourth order have been taken into account. For the treatment of many-baryon matter in the HF approach the parameters of the theory had to be readjusted. A phase transition of both many-baryon systems (neutron as well as nuclear matter) in the high-pressure and high-energy-density region has been found. (author)
Search for vector-like quarks and excited quarks at CMS
Rauco, Giorgia
2017-01-01
We present the results of the latest searches for new hypothetical heavy quarks using proton-proton collisions data collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Vector-like quarks are postulated to solve the hierarchy problem and stabilize the Higgs mass and they are not constrained by the Higgs discovery and electroweak measurements, as for the case of a fourth generation of fermions. They can either be produced singly or pair-wise and their decays result in a variety of final states, containing massive standard model quarks and bosons (Z, W, H). Being these new particles expected to be appearing at the TeV scale, they give rise to boosted topologies, in which jet substructures techniques play a fundamental role. An alternative type of heavy quark resonance are the excited quarks, which are predicted by the compositeness model, being their evidence a clear signature of the composite structure of the ordinary matter. Their decay leads to the corresponding ordinary qua...
Quantum chromodynamics as effective theory of quarks and composite gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuss, T.
2004-01-01
The dynamics of quarks is described by a nonperturbatively regularized NJL model which is canonically quantized and fulfil a probability interpretation. The quantum field theory of this model is formulated in a functional space. The wave functions of the quarks and gluons are calculated as eigenstates of Hard-Core equations and the gluons are considered as relativistic bound states of colored quark-antiquark pairs. The effective dynamics of the quarks and gluons is derived from weak mapping in functional space. This leads to the functional formulation of the phenomenological SU(3) local gauge invariant quark-gluon equations in temporal gauge. This means that the local gauge symmetry is a dynamical effect resulting from the quark model
Equations of state for neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae
Oertel, Micaela; Providência, Constança
2018-04-01
Modelling compact stars is a complex task which depends on many ingredients, among others the properties of dense matter. In this contribution models for the equation of state (EoS) of dense matter will be discussed, relevant for the description of core-collapse supernovae, compact stars and compact star mergers. Such EoS models have to cover large ranges in baryon number density, temperature and isospin asymmetry. The characteristics of matter change dramatically within these ranges, from a mixture of nucleons, nuclei, and electrons to uniform, strongly interacting matter containing nucleons, and possibly other particles such as hyperons or quarks. Some implications for compact star astrophysics will be highlighted, too.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.
1994-10-15
Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.
1994-01-01
Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June
Afik, Yoav; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
A wide search program is being carried at the LHC under the hypothesis that Dark Matter (DM) consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Final states with heavy flavour quarks and large momentum imbalance represent an interesting discovery signature which allows to probe models with scalar or pseudo-scalar interactions between the Standard Model and the dark sector under the assumption of Minimal Flavour Violation. We present the most recent results of searches for DM produced in association with a pair of heavy flavour quarks (DM+HF) in ATLAS [1-2] based on 36.1 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV.
Using the Moon As A Low-Noise Seismic Detector For Strange Quark Nuggets
Banerdt, W. Bruce; Chui, Talso; Griggs, Cornelius E.; Herrin, Eugene T.; Nakamura, Yosio; Paik, Ho Jung; Penanen, Konstantin; Rosenbaum, Doris; Teplitz, Vigdor L.; Young, Joseph
2006-01-01
Strange quark matter made of up, down and strange quarks has been postulated by Witten [1]. Strange quark matter would be nearly charge neutral and would have density of nuclear matter (10(exp 14) gm/cu cm). Witten also suggested that nuggets of strange quark matter, or strange quark nuggets (SQNs), could have formed shortly after the Big Bang, and that they would be viable candidates for cold dark matter. As suggested by de Rujula and Glashow [2], an SQN may pass through a celestial body releasing detectable seismic energy along a straight line. The Moon, being much quieter seismically than the Earth, would be a favorable place to search for such events. We review previous searches for SQNs to illustrate the parameter space explored by using the Moon as a low-noise detector of SQNs. We also discuss possible detection schemes using a single seismometer, and using an International Lunar Seismic Network.
Dark Matter searches using gravitational wave bar detectors: quark nuggets and newtorites
Bassan, M; D'Antonio, S.; Fafone, V.; Giordano, G.; Marini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G.V.; Pizzella, G.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Visco, M.
2016-01-01
Many experiments have searched for supersymmetric WIMP dark matter, with null results. This may suggest to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets, widely discussed in literature with several different names. Nuclearites are an example of candidate compact objects with atomic size cross section. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors Nautilus and Explorer is reported. The geometrical acceptance of the bar detectors is 19.5 $\\rm m^2$ sr, that is smaller than that of other detectors used for similar searches. However, the detection mechanism is completely different and is more straightforward than in other detectors. The experimental limits we obtain are of interest because, for nuclearites of mass less than $10^{-5}$ g, we find a flux smaller than that one predicted considering nuclearites as dark matter candidates. Particles with gravitational only interactions (newtorites) are another examp...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinz, U.
1988-11-01
I give an overview of the processes determining the shape of energy spectra of hadrons emitted in relativistic nuclear collisions, and discuss how one can extract from them information on the presence of collective transverse flow and on the transition to quark-gluon matter in such collisions. 6 refs., 3 figs
2003-01-01
Fitted with new state-of-the-art silicon detectors, NA60 is prepared to study the phase transition from confined hadronic matter to a deconfined (free) quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter which probably existed an instant after the Big Bang.
Models of quark bags and their consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogolubov, P.N.
1977-01-01
The development of the first Dubna Quark Bag and the results obtained in this way are considered. The idea of the first Dubna Quark Bag is as follows: baryons are constructed of three quarks measons are constructed of two quarks, and each quark is interpreted as the Dirac particle which moves in a scalar square well. The so-called quasiindependent quark model is considered too. It is a simple quark model based on an analogy with the shell model for nuclei. The quarks are considered as moving in an arbitrary radially-symmetric field, and their one-particle wave function satisfies the usual Dirac equation. Such quark model can give at least the same results as the relativistic bag model. A possibility exists to improve the results of the relativistic quark model with the oscillator interaction between quarks. The results of the MIT-Bag model and the quasiindependent quark model coincide
Description of a nucleon in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunatian, G.G.
1992-01-01
The nonlinear cloudy bag model, CBM, is generalized to describe a nucleon in nuclear matter at various densities ρ and temperatures T. The influence of the nuclear medium on the bag-nucleon in the framework of CBM is due to the modification of the equation describing the CBM pion field π. These changes are accounted for in the CBM by including in the CBM lagrangian the pion polarization operator π(ρ,T). The free pion propagator D is replaced in a nuclear medium by D(ρ,T). The changing of the pion field π and propagator D leads via the CBM equations to the modification of the bag size R and quark momentum p, determined simultaneously from these equations, and then to modifications of other bag-nucleon characteristics: the total energy E, r.m.s. radii, magnetic moment μ, polarizability α and so on, which all are expressed as the expectation values of the corresponding operators in the bag-nucleon state. The quantity π(ρ,T) was studied in the works whose results are used in this investigation. The nucleon size R in the nuclear matter at normal density ρ o and zero temperature decreases by 5% and the quarks momentum p also decreases, however, insignificantly, by 1-2%. On the other hand, the values of the r.m.s. radii increases by 15% for a proton and by 100% for a neutron. The author has also found that the polarizability of a nucleon in nuclear matter is roughly two times as much as in free space
A tail of a quark in N = 4 SYM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernicoff, Mariano; Garcia, J. Antonio; Gueijosa, Alberto
2009-01-01
We study the dynamics of a 'composite' or 'dressed' quark in strongly-coupled large-N c N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, making use of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We show that the standard string dynamics nicely captures the physics of the quark and its surrounding non-Abelian field configuration, making it possible to derive a relativistic equation of motion that incorporates the effects of radiation damping. From this equation one can deduce a non-standard dispersion relation for the composite quark, as well as a Lorentz covariant formula for its rate of radiation. We explore the consequences of the equation in a few simple examples.
Electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Successive equilibration of quark degrees of freedom and its effects on electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma are discussed. The effects of the variation of vector meson masses and decay widths on photon production from hot strongly interacting matter formed after Pb + Pb and S + Au collisions at CERN SPS ...
Chernicoff, Mariano; Garcia, J. Antonio; Guijosa, Alberto
2009-01-01
We study the dynamics of a `composite' or `dressed' quark in strongly-coupled large-N_c N=4 super-Yang-Mills, making use of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We show that the standard string dynamics nicely captures the physics of the quark and its surrounding non-Abelian field configuration, making it possible to derive a relativistic equation of motion that incorporates the effects of radiation damping. From this equation one can deduce a non-standard dispersion relation for the composite quark, ...
Crystallography of three-flavor quark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajagopal, Krishna; Sharma, Rishi
2006-01-01
We analyze and compare candidate crystal structures for the crystalline color superconducting phase that may arise in cold, dense but not asymptotically dense, three-flavor quark matter. We determine the gap parameter Δ and free energy Ω(Δ) for many possible crystal structures within a Ginzburg-Landau approximation, evaluating Ω(Δ) to order Δ 6 . In contrast to the two-flavor case, we find a positive Δ 6 term and hence an Ω(Δ) that is bounded from below for all the structures that we analyze. This means that we are able to evaluate Δ and Ω as a function of the splitting between Fermi surfaces for all the structures we consider. We find two structures with particularly robust values of Δ and the condensation energy, within a factor of 2 of those for the CFL phase which is known to characterize QCD at asymptotically large densities. The robustness of these phases results in their being favored over wide ranges of density. However, it also implies that the Ginzburg-Landau approximation is not quantitatively reliable. We develop qualitative insights into what makes a crystal structure favorable, and use these to winnow the possibilities. The two structures that we find to be most favorable are both built from condensates with face-centered cubic symmetry: in one case, the and condensates are separately face-centered cubic; in the other case and combined make up a face-centered cube
The Skyrmions and quarks in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, M.
1984-08-01
It is proposed that the quark-bag description and the Skyrmion description of baryons are related to each other by quantized parameters. Topology (through a chiral anomaly) plays an important role in bridging the fundamental theory of the strong interactions (QCD) to effective theories. Some consequences on the efforts to see quark degrees of freedom in nuclear matter are discussed. It is suggested that at low energies there will be no ''smoking gun'' evidences for quark presence in nuclei
Strange matter in compact stars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klähn Thomas
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.
Strange matter in compact stars
Klähn, Thomas; Blaschke, David B.
2018-02-01
We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations) remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.
Charmonia enhancement in quark-gluon plasma with improved description of c-quarks phase distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Guiho, Vincent; Aichelin, Joerg
2005-01-01
We present a dynamical model of heavy quark evolution in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) based on the Fokker-Planck equation. We then apply this model to the case of central ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions performed at RHIC and estimate the component of J/ψ production (integrated and differential) stemming from c-c-bar pairs that are initially uncorrelated
Model of the Phase Transition Mimicking the Pasta Phase in Cold and Dense Quark-Hadron Matter
Ayriyan, Alexander; Grigorian, Hovik
2018-02-01
A simple mixed phase model mimicking so-called "pasta" phases in the quarkhadron phase transition is developed and applied to static neutron stars for the case of DD2 type hadronic and NJL type quark matter models. The influence of the mixed phase on the mass-radius relation of the compact stars is investigated. Model parameters are chosen such that the results are in agreement with the mass-radius constraints.
Heavy ion collisions, the quark-gluon plasma and antinucleon annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarma, Nataraja
1985-01-01
Studies in high energy physics have indicated that nucleon and mesons are composed of quarks confined in bags by the strong colours mediated by gluons. It is reasonably expected that at suitably high baryon density and temperature of the nucleus, these bags of nucleon and mesons fuse into a big bag of quarks or gluons i.e. hadronic matter undergoes transition to a quark-gluon phase. Two techniques to achieve this transition in a laboratory are: (1) collision of two heavy nuclei, and (2) annihilation of antinucleons and antinuclei in nuclear matter. Theoretical studies as well as experimental studies associated with the transition to quark-gluon phase are reviewed. (author)
Cheng, Yangyang
This thesis presents a search for dark matter production in association with a Higgs boson decaying to a pair of bottom quarks, using data from 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The dark matter particles are assumed to be Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, and can be produced in pairs at collider experiments. Events with large missing transverse energy are selected when produced in association with high momentum jets, of which at least two are identified as jets containing b-quarks consistent with those from a Higgs boson decay. To maintain good detector acceptance and selection efficiency of the signal across a wide kinematic range, two methods of Higgs boson reconstruction are used. The Higgs boson is reconstructed either as a pair of small-radius jets both containing b-quarks, called the "resolved'' analysis, or as a single large-radius jet with substructure consistent with a high momentum b b system, called the "boosted'' analysis. The resolved analysis is the focus of this thesis. The observed data are found to be consistent with the expected Standard Model backgrounds. The result from the resolved analysis is interpreted using a simplified model with a Z' gauge boson decaying into different Higgs bosons predicted in a two-Higgs-doublet model, of which the heavy pseudoscalar Higgs decays into a pair of dark matter particles. Exclusion limits are set in regions of parameter space for this model. Model-independent upper limits are also placed on the visible cross-sections for events with a Higgs boson decaying into bb and large missing transverse momentum with thresholds ranging from 150 GeV to 400 GeV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toki, H.
2000-01-01
We discuss the research fields to be studied by the Japan Hadron Facility being planned in the site of JAERI as a joint project with Neutron Science Project. We would expect to reveal the most microscopic structure of matter using the intensity frontier proton machine. In particular, we would like to develop Quark Nuclear Physics to describe hadrons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons. (author)
Kinetic coefficients for quark-antiquark plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czyz, W.; Florkowski, W.
1986-03-01
The quark-antiquark plasma near equilibrium is studied. The results are based on the Heinz kinetic equations with the Boltzmann collision operator approximated by a relaxation term with the relaxation time, τ, treated as a small parameter. Linear in τ solutions of these equations are used to calculate the transport coefficients: the non-abelian version of Ohm's law, and the shear and volume viscosities. We introduce new chemical potentials which determine the color density matrix of quarks (antiquarks). Gradients of these potentials generate color currents. 12 refs. (author)
q-bar q condensate for light quarks beyond the chiral limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, R.; Fischer, C.S.; Pennington, M.R.
2007-01-01
We determine the q-bar q condensate for quark masses from zero up to that of the strange quark within a phenomenologically successful modelling of continuum QCD by solving the quark Schwinger-Dyson equation. The existence of multiple solutions to this equation is the key to an accurate and reliable extraction of this condensate using the operator product expansion. We explain why alternative definitions fail to give the physical condensate
Rao, Kanury Kanishka
Searches for new physics are presented in the lepton + jets channel at the CDF and ATLAS experiments. At CDF, we search for exotic quarks that couple to dark matter, new particle resonances in top-quark pairs, a Z' boson decaying quarks, and a two-Higgs doublet model. At ATLAS, we search for fourth generation down-type quarks, new particle resonances in top-quark pairs, and a multi-Higgs boson cascade. A novel methodology, Basis-limits, which allows for re-interpretation of experimental limits is presented. Basis-limits is used to extend ATLAS limits on fourth generation quarks to set limits on a new vector-like quark for all its decay modes. Finally, a spatial analysis of the gamma-ray excess, seen by the Fermi-LAT experiment, is performed. We find the location of the excess to be consistent with a dark matter halo at the Galactic center as the source.
Dynamical equilibration in strongly-interacting parton-hadron matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gorenstein M.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton-hadron matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach, which is based on a dynamical quasiparticle model for partons matched to reproduce lattice-QCD results – including the partonic equation of state – in thermodynamic equilibrium. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different baryon density (or chemical potential and energy density. The transition from initially pure partonic matter to hadronic degrees of freedom (or vice versa occurs dynamically by interactions. Different thermody-namical distributions of the strongly-interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP are addressed and discussed.
A tail of a quark in Script N = 4 SYM
Chernicoff, Mariano; García, J. Antonio; Güijosa, Alberto
2009-09-01
We study the dynamics of a `composite' or `dressed' quark in strongly-coupled large-Nc Script N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, making use of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We show that the standard string dynamics nicely captures the physics of the quark and its surrounding non-Abelian field configuration, making it possible to derive a relativistic equation of motion that incorporates the effects of radiation damping. From this equation one can deduce a non-standard dispersion relation for the composite quark, as well as a Lorentz covariant formula for its rate of radiation. We explore the consequences of the equation in a few simple examples.
Thermal evolution of massive compact objects with dense quark cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hess, Daniel; Sedrakian, Armen
2011-01-01
We examine the thermal evolution of a sequence of compact objects containing low-mass hadronic and high-mass quark-hadronic stars constructed from a microscopically motivated equation of state. The dependence of the cooling tracks in the temperature versus age plane is studied on the variations of the gaplessness parameter (the ratio of the pairing gap for red-green quarks to the electron chemical potential) and the magnitude of blue quark gap. The pairing in the red-green channel is modeled assuming an inhomogeneous superconducting phase to avoid tachionic instabilities and anomalies in the specific heat; the blue colored condensate is modeled as a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type color superconductor. We find that massive stars containing quark matter cool faster in the neutrino-cooling era if one of the colors (blue) is unpaired and/or the remaining colors (red-green) are paired in a inhomogeneous gapless superconducting state. The cooling curves show significant variations along the sequence, as the mass (or the central density) of the models is varied. This feature provides a handle for fine-tuning the models to fit the data on the surface temperatures of same-age neutron stars. In the late-time photon cooling era we observe inversion in the temperature arrangement of models, i.e., stars experiencing fast neutrino cooling are asymptotically hotter than their slowly cooling counterparts.
Nuclear matter and its equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stock, R.
1985-11-01
We can estimate the nuclear bulk compressibility from the excitation energy of the monopole vibration mode, which represents a density oscillation about rho 0 , of extremely small magnitude (a few percent) only. A description of the monopole excitation energy systematics has been obtained by assuming a parabolic shape about rho 0 for the energy-density relation of cold nuclear matter. This implies a linear pressure response to small density changes inside nuclear matter. It enables one to define a nuclear 'sound' mode and the sound velocity turns out to be vsub(s)proportional0.2 c. All of this could be known only for small excursions from rho 0 as long as we were unable to subject nuclei to extreme stresses. The study of head-on collisions of heavy nuclei at high energy has removed this limitation. In these reactions we are reproducing under laboratory conditions the extremely violent transformations of matter occuring in the cosmic and stellar evolution. From the quark-gluon stage of the Big Bang, prior to hadronic freeze-out, to the supernova these cosmic events require an understanding of matter bulk properties over an enormous range of density, from about 10 times rho 0 down to about 10 -3 rho 0 . We will approach them through the compression-expansion-freeze-out cycle of central nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range from 50 MeV per projectile nucleon, corresponding to the compression barrier, upwards to 225 GeV/A (the top energy of the CERN SPS), and further into the TeV/A range by observation of events induced by cosmic ray nuclei. In this article I describe some of the results recently obtained at the BEVALAC, i.e. in the GeV/A domain. (orig./HSI)
Double logarithmic asymptotics of quark scattering amplitudes with flavour exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirschner , R.; Lipatov, L.N.
1982-02-01
We propose simple equations in terms of the definite signature partial waves of the quark scattering and annihilation amplitudes with quark-quark and quark-antiquark states in the exchange channel. We discuss the singularities in the complex angular momentum plane generated by the double logarithmic contributions and point out their relation to the particle Regge trajectories. (author)
Aaltonen, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Anzá, F; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fuks, B; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S
2012-05-18
We report a new search for dark matter in a data sample of an integrated luminosity of 7.7 fb-1 of Tevatron pp[over ¯] collisions at √[s]=1.96 TeV, collected by the CDF II detector. We search for production of a dark-matter candidate, D, in association with a single top quark. We consider the hadronic decay mode of the top quark exclusively, yielding a final state of three jets with missing transverse energy. The data are consistent with the standard model; we thus set 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section of the process pp[over ¯]→t+D as a function of the mass of the dark-matter candidate. The limits are approximately 0.5 pb for a dark-matter particle with mass in the range of 0-150 GeV/c2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette
1983-01-01
Some features of quark degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed in the light of recent developments in QCD. The principal aim of this talk is to propose, and give a tentative support to, the motion that one can study through nuclear matter different facets of the vacuum structure implied by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This will be done using the recent (exciting) results obtained in particle physics, in particular lattice gauge calculations. Relevance of this aspect of problem to quark degrees of freedom as well as meson degrees of freedom in nuclei will be discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1981-01-01
In spite of (or perhaps because of) the present doctrine of total quark confinement held by the majority of particle theorists, experimental searches for free fractional charge and other anomalous stable particles in ordinary matter have been increasing in number during recent years, using a range of techniques of increasing sophistication and sensitivity. As a result, researchers in this area had a conference to themselves in June. About 40 participants and 150 observers gathered at San Francisco State University to report progress and discuss future plans, with representatives present from almost every group involved in quark searches
From quantum to semiclassical kinetic equations: Nuclear matter estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galetti, D.; Mizrahi, S.S.; Nemes, M.C.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de
1985-01-01
Starting from the exact microscopic time evolution of the quantum one body density associated with a many fermion system semiclassical approximations are derived to it. In the limit where small momentum transfer two body collisions are dominant we get a Fokker-Planck equation and work out friction and diffusion tensors explicitly for nuclear matter. If arbitrary momentum transfers are considered a Boltzmann equation is derived and used to calculate the viscosity coefficient of nuclear matter. A derivation is given of the collision term used by Landau to describe the damping of zero sound waves at low temperature in Plasmas. Memory effects are essential for this. The damping of zero sound waves in nuclear matter is also calculated and the value so obtained associated with the bulk value of the damping of giant resonances in finite nuclei. The bulk value is estimated to be quite small indicating the importance of the nuclear surface for the damping. (Author) [pt
Nonperturbative aspects of the quark-photon vertex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, M.R.
1994-01-01
The electromagnetic interaction with quarks is investigated through a relativistic, electromagnetic gauge-invariant treatment. Gluon dressing of the quark-photon vertex and the quark self-energy functions is described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger-Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation respectively. Results for the calculation of the quark-photon vertex are presented in both the time-like and space-like regions of photon momentum squared, however emphasis is placed on the space-like region relevant to electron scattering. The treatment presented here simultaneously addresses the role of dynamically generated q bar q vector bound states and the approach to asymptotic behavior. The resulting description is therefore applicable over the entire range of momentum transfers available in electron scattering experiments. Input parameters are limited to the model gluon two-point function which is chosen to reflect confinement and asymptotic freedom and are largely constrained by the obtained bound-state spectrum
Heavy-quark free energies, internal-energy and entropy contributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaczmarek, O.
2009-01-01
We present lattice QCD results on heavy-quark free energies, extract from its temperature dependence the entropy and internal-energy contributions, and discuss the onset of medium effects that lead to screening of static quark-antiquark sources in a thermal medium. The detailed analysis of the temperature and distance dependence of the different contributions indicate the complex non-perturbative nature of strongly interacting matter. We shall discuss the necessity to include those effects in studies on the behavior of heavy quarks, heavy-quark bound states and their dissociation in the quark-gluon plasma phase. (orig.)
Equation of state of warm condensed matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbee, T.W., III; Young, D.A.; Rogers, F.J.
1998-03-01
Recent advances in computational condensed matter theory have yielded accurate calculations of properties of materials. These calculations have, for the most part, focused on the low temperature (T=0) limit. An accurate determination of the equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature also requires knowledge of the behavior of the electron and ion thermal pressure as a function of T. Current approaches often interpolate between calculated T=0 results and approximations valid in the high T limit. Plasma physics-based approaches are accurate in the high temperature limit, but lose accuracy below T{approximately}T{sub Fermi}. We seek to ``connect up`` these two regimes by using ab initio finite temperature methods (including linear-response[1] based phonon calculations) to derive an equation of state of condensed matter for T{<=}T{sub Fermi}. We will present theoretical results for the principal Hugoniot of shocked materials, including carbon and aluminum, up to pressures P>100 GPa and temperatures T>10{sup 4}K, and compare our results with available experimental data.
Critical parameters for degenerate quark stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, Divyesh J.; Vinodkumar, P.C.; Ray, Asim K.
1999-01-01
The possibility of a phase transition between nuclear matter and quark matter has been of recent interest from the point of view of experimental as well as theoretical consideration. Astrophysical implications of such stars in the evolution of heavy neutron stars to black holes are also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drago, Alessandro; Pagliara, Giuseppe [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra; INFN, Ferrara (Italy)
2016-02-15
We will follow the two-families scenario described in the accompanying paper, in which compact stars having a very small radius and masses not exceeding about 1.5M {sub CircleDot} are made of hadrons, while more massive compact stars are quark stars. In the present paper we discuss the dynamics of the transition of a hadronic star into a quark star. We will show that the transition takes place in two phases: a very rapid one, lasting a few milliseconds, during which the central region of the star converts into quark matter and the process of conversion is accelerated by the existence of strong hydrodynamical instabilities, and a second phase, lasting about ten seconds, during which the process of conversion proceeds as far as the surface of the star via production and diffusion of strangeness. We will show that these two steps play a crucial role in the phenomenological implications of the model. We will discuss the possible implications of this scenario both for long and for short Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), using the proto-magnetar model as the reference frame of our discussion. We will show that the process of quark deconfinement can be connected to specific observed features of the GRBs. In the case of long GRBs we will discuss the possibility that quark deconfinement is at the origin of the second peak present in quite a large fraction of bursts. Also we will discuss the possibility that long GRBs can take place in binary systems without being associated with a SN explosion. Concerning short GRBs, quark deconfinement can play the crucial role in limiting their duration. Finally we will shortly revisit the possible relevance of quark deconfinement in some specific type of Supernova explosions, in particular in the case of very massive progenitors. (orig.)
Comparison of the Schrodinger and Salpeter equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobs, S.; Olsson, M.G.
1985-01-01
A unified approach to the solution of the Schrodinger and spinless Salpeter equations is presented. Fits to heavy quark bound state energies using various potential models are employed to determine whether the Salpeter equation provides a better description of heavy quark systems than the Schrodinger equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles, E-mail: mperezga@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)
2012-12-05
We discuss the coupled variations of the gravitational, strong and electroweak coupling constants and the current knowledge of the nuclear equation of state based on heavy ion collision experiments and neutron star mass-radius relationship. In particular we focus in our description on phenomenological parameters, R, relating variations in the quantum chromodynamics scale {Lambda}{sub QCD} and the fine structure constant {alpha}, and S, relating variations of v, the Higgs vacuum expectation value and the Yukawa couplings, h, in the quark sector. This parametrization is valid for any model where gauge coupling unification occurs at some (unspecified) high energy scale. From a physically motivated set of equations of state for dense matter we obtain the constrained parameter phase space (R,S) in high density nuclear environments. This procedure is complementary to (although currently less powerful than) those used in low-density conditions. For variations of {Delta}{alpha}/{alpha}=0.005 we find that the obtained constrained parameter lies on a strip region in the (R,S) plane that partially overlaps some of the allowed values of parameters derived from primordial abundances. This may be of interest in the context of unification scenarios where a dense phase of the universe may have existed at early times.
Quark spin-flavor layered structure with condensed π/sup 0/ field in Chiral bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamagaki, R.; Tatsumi, T.
1984-01-01
In order to understand predispositions of high density matter, a new phase possibly arising from the neutron matter under π/sup 0/ condensation is studied in chiral bag model, as a facet in which both quark and pion degrees of freedom are incorporated in a well-developed situation of π/sup 0/ condensation. The aspects of this phase are characterized by the periodic layered structure of the two-dimensional quark matter with a specific spin-flavor order the π/sup 0/ field existent as the Nambu-Goldstone mode between the adjacent layers. Such quark configuration is caused due to the pion-quark coupling at the layer (bag) surface which drastically lowers quark energy. Energy properties of the system are examined, and it is shown that the one-gluon-exchange contribution provides the repulsive effect to prevent the layered structure from collapsing. This model provides an example which can be solved nonperturbatively in the chiral bag model and suggests the possibility of an intermediate stage which may appear prior to the phase transition to uniform quark matter
The Model of Complex Structure of Quark
Liu, Rongwu
2017-09-01
In Quantum Chromodynamics, quark is known as a kind of point-like fundamental particle which carries mass, charge, color, and flavor, strong interaction takes place between quarks by means of exchanging intermediate particles-gluons. An important consequence of this theory is that, strong interaction is a kind of short-range force, and it has the features of ``asymptotic freedom'' and ``quark confinement''. In order to reveal the nature of strong interaction, the ``bag'' model of vacuum and the ``string'' model of string theory were proposed in the context of quantum mechanics, but neither of them can provide a clear interaction mechanism. This article formulates a new mechanism by proposing a model of complex structure of quark, it can be outlined as follows: (1) Quark (as well as electron, etc) is a kind of complex structure, it is composed of fundamental particle (fundamental matter mass and electricity) and fundamental volume field (fundamental matter flavor and color) which exists in the form of limited volume; fundamental particle lies in the center of fundamental volume field, forms the ``nucleus'' of quark. (2) As static electric force, the color field force between quarks has classical form, it is proportional to the square of the color quantity carried by each color field, and inversely proportional to the area of cross section of overlapping color fields which is along force direction, it has the properties of overlap, saturation, non-central, and constant. (3) Any volume field undergoes deformation when interacting with other volume field, the deformation force follows Hooke's law. (4) The phenomena of ``asymptotic freedom'' and ``quark confinement'' are the result of color field force and deformation force.
Baryons in and beyond the quark-diquark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichmann, G.; Alkofer, R.; Krassnigg, A.; Fischer, C. S.; Nicmorus, D.
2011-01-01
We examine the nucleon's electromagnetic form factors in a Poincare-covariant Faddeev framework. The three-quark core contributions to the form factors are obtained by employing a quark-diquark approximation. We implement the self-consistent solution for the quark-photon vertex from its inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation. We find that the resulting transverse parts which add to the Ball-Chiu vertex have no significant impact on nucleon magnetic moments. The current-quark mass evolution of the form factors agrees with results from lattice QCD.
Rotating Quark Stars in General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enping Zhou
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We have built quasi-equilibrium models for uniformly rotating quark stars in general relativity. The conformal flatness approximation is employed and the Compact Object CALculator (cocal code is extended to treat rotating stars with surface density discontinuity. In addition to the widely used MIT bag model, we have considered a strangeon star equation of state (EoS, suggested by Lai and Xu, that is based on quark clustering and results in a stiff EoS. We have investigated the maximum mass of uniformly rotating axisymmetric quark stars. We have also built triaxially deformed solutions for extremely fast rotating quark stars and studied the possible gravitational wave emission from such configurations.
A new nonlinear mean-field model of neutron star matter
Miyazaki, K
2005-01-01
A new relativistic mean-field model of neutron star matter is developed. It is a generalization of the Zimanyi-Moszkowski (ZM) model based on the constituent quark picture of baryons. The renormalized meson-hyperon coupling constants in medium are uniquely determined in contrast to the naive extention of ZM model and so the application of the model to high-density neutron star (NS) matter is possible. Our results of the particle composition and the mass-radius relation of NSs agree well with those obtained from the phenomenologically-determined realistic equation-of-state.
The half-skyrmion phase in a chiral-quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mantovani Sarti, Valentina; Vento, Vicente
2014-01-01
The Chiral Dilaton Model, where baryons arise as non-topological solitons built from the interaction of quarks and chiral mesons, shows in the high density low temperature regime a two phase scenario in the nuclear matter phase diagram. Dense soliton matter described by the Wigner–Seitz approximation generates a periodic potential in terms of the sigma and pion fields that leads to the formation of a band structure. The analysis up to three times nuclear matter density shows that soliton matter undergoes two separate phase transitions: a delocalization of the baryon number density leading to B=1/2 structures, as in skyrmion matter, at moderate densities, and quark deconfinement at larger densities. This description fits well into the so-called quarkyonic phase where, before deconfinement, nuclear matter should undergo structural changes involving the restoration of fundamental symmetries of QCD
Measurement of the helicity of W bosons in top quark decays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winn, David Jerome [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2000-01-01
This thesis describes a measurement o f the decay properties of the top quark. The six quarks are fundamental building blocks matter in the universe. The most common quarks, named up and down, combine to form the protons and neutrons which exist at the nucleus of all atoms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, G.
2006-12-01
In the last 20 years, heavy ion collisions have been an unique way to study the hadronic matter in the laboratory. The phase diagram of hadronic matter remains unknown, although many experimental and theoretical studies have been done in the last decade, aiming at studying its phase transitions. After a general introduction, two phases transition of the hadronic matter, liquid-gas and the transition to the Quark Gluon Plasma, are addressed. A general view about the experimental methods to study these phase transitions is presented in chapter three. The most important results of the heavy ion program in the RHIC collider at BNL (Upton, N.Y., Usa) are presented in chapter four. The last three chapters are devoted to the heavy ion program in the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). In particular, the unique LHC experiment specially designed for heavy ion physics, ALICE and its muon spectrometer are presented. (author)
Neutron matter within QCD sum rules
Cai, Bao-Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen
2018-05-01
The equation of state (EOS) of pure neutron matter (PNM) is studied in QCD sum rules (QCDSRs ). It is found that the QCDSR results on the EOS of PNM are in good agreement with predictions by current advanced microscopic many-body theories. Moreover, the higher-order density terms in quark condensates are shown to be important to describe the empirical EOS of PNM in the density region around and above nuclear saturation density although they play a minor role at subsaturation densities. The chiral condensates in PNM are also studied, and our results indicate that the higher-order density terms in quark condensates, which are introduced to reasonably describe the empirical EOS of PNM at suprasaturation densities, tend to hinder the appearance of chiral symmetry restoration in PNM at high densities.
Transverse spin of the quarks inside the baryon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artru, X.; Mekhfi, M.
1990-04-01
We give a brief apercu of transverse polarisation of quarks at short distance. We first show on a simple model that the quark a priori remembers transverse polarisation of its parent hadron. Then we show how to measure the transversely polarized quark density at leading order in 1/Q 2 and α s . Using a t-channel approach, we are led to the following subprocesses: qantiq annihilation, qq scattering of identical quarks (with polarized beam and target) and lepton-quark scattering (with polarized target and analysis of the final quark polarisation by its fragmentation into a Λ). We list some feasible experiments. The transversely polarized quark distibution Δ 1q (x, Q 2 ) evolves according to a Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation, with no coupling to the gluonic distributions; all its moments are decreasing
Quasi-particle description of strongly interacting matter: Towards a foundation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluhm, M.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulze, R.; Seipt, D.
2007-01-01
We confront our quasi-particle model for the equation of state of strongly interacting matter with recent first-principle QCD calculations. In particular, we test its applicability at finite baryon densities by comparing with Taylor expansion coefficients of the pressure for two quark flavours. We outline a chain of approximations starting from the Φ-functional approach to QCD which motivates the quasi-particle picture. (orig.)
Physics and astrophysics of quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1993-06-15
The quark gluon plasma - matter too hot or dense for quarks to crystallize into particles - played a vital role in the formation of the Universe. Efforts to recreate and understand this type of matter are forefront physics and astrophysics, and progress was highlighted in the Second International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPA-QGP 93), held in Calcutta from 19-23 January. (The first conference in the series was held in Bombay in February 1988). Although primarily motivated towards enlightening the Indian physics community in this new and rapidly evolving area, in which India now plays an important role, the conference also catered for an international audience. Particular emphasis was placed on the role of quark gluon plasma in astrophysics and cosmology. While Charles Alcock of Lawrence Livermore looked at a less conventional picture giving inhomogeneous ('clumpy') nucleosynthesis, David Schramm (Chicago) covered standard big bang nucleosynthesis. The abundances of very light elements do not differ appreciably for these contrasting scenarios; the crucial difference between them shows up for heavier elements like lithium-7 and -8 and boron-11. Richard Boyd (Ohio State) highlighted the importance of accurate measurements of the primordial abundances of these elements for clues to the cosmic quark hadron phase transition. B. Banerjee (Bombay) argued, on the basis of lattice calculations, for only slight supercooling in the cosmic quark phase transition - an assertion which runs counter to the inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis scenario.
Physics and astrophysics of quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1993-01-01
The quark gluon plasma - matter too hot or dense for quarks to crystallize into particles - played a vital role in the formation of the Universe. Efforts to recreate and understand this type of matter are forefront physics and astrophysics, and progress was highlighted in the Second International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPA-QGP 93), held in Calcutta from 19-23 January. (The first conference in the series was held in Bombay in February 1988). Although primarily motivated towards enlightening the Indian physics community in this new and rapidly evolving area, in which India now plays an important role, the conference also catered for an international audience. Particular emphasis was placed on the role of quark gluon plasma in astrophysics and cosmology. While Charles Alcock of Lawrence Livermore looked at a less conventional picture giving inhomogeneous ('clumpy') nucleosynthesis, David Schramm (Chicago) covered standard big bang nucleosynthesis. The abundances of very light elements do not differ appreciably for these contrasting scenarios; the crucial difference between them shows up for heavier elements like lithium-7 and -8 and boron-11. Richard Boyd (Ohio State) highlighted the importance of accurate measurements of the primordial abundances of these elements for clues to the cosmic quark hadron phase transition. B. Banerjee (Bombay) argued, on the basis of lattice calculations, for only slight supercooling in the cosmic quark phase transition - an assertion which runs counter to the inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis scenario
Equation of state for isospin asymmetric matter of nucleons and deltas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Xiaohua; Zhang Yingxun; Li Zhuxia; Zhao Zhixiang
2008-01-01
An investigation on the equation of state of the isospin asymmetric, hot, dense matter of nucleons and deltas is performed based on the relativistic mean field theory. The QHD-II-type effective Lagrangian extending to the delta degree of freedom is adopted. Our results show that the equation of state is softened due to the inclusion of the delta degree of freedom. The baryon resonance isomer may occur depending on the delta-meson coupling. The results show that the densities for appearing the baryon resonance isomer, the densities for starting softening the equation of state and the extent of the softening depend not only on the temperature, the coupling strengths but also the isospin asymmetry of the baryon matter. (authors)
Quantum Simulations of Strongly Coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filinov, V.S.; Bonitz, M.; Ivanov, Yu.B.
2013-01-01
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in dynamics and thermodynamics of non-Abelian plasmas at both very high temperature and density. It is expected that a specific state of matter with unconfined quarks and gluons - the so called quark - gluon plasma (QGP) - can exist. The most fundamental way to compute properties of the strongly interacting matter is provided by the lattice QCD. Interpretation of these very complicated computations requires application of various QCD motivated, albeit schematic, models simulating various aspects of the full theory. Moreover, such models are needed in cases when the lattice QCD fails, e.g. at large baryon chemical potentials and out of equilibrium. A semi-classical approximation, based on a point like quasi-particle picture has been recently introduced in literature. It is expected that it allows to treat soft processes in the QGP which are not accessible by the perturbative means and the main features of non-Abelian plasmas can be understood in simple semi-classical terms without the difficulties inherent to a full quantum field theoretical analysis. Here we propose stochastic simulation of thermodynamics and kinetic properties for QGP in semi-classical approximation in the wide region of temperature, density and quasi-particles masses. We extend previous classical nonrelativistic simulations based on a color Coulomb interaction to the quantum regime and take into account the Fermi (Bose) statistics of quarks (gluons) and quantum degeneracy self-consistently. In grand canonical ensemble for finite and zero baryon chemical potential we use the direct quantum path integral Monte Carlo method (PIMC) developed for finite temperature within Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics to do calculations of internal energy, pressure and pair correlation functions. The QGP quasi-particles representing dressed quarks, antiquarks and gluons interact via color quantum Kelbg pseudopotential rigorously derived in for Coulomb
Prospects of detecting baryon and quark superfluidity from cooling neutron stars
Page; Prakash; Lattimer; Steiner
2000-09-04
Baryon and quark superfluidity in the cooling of neutron stars are investigated. Future observations will allow us to constrain combinations of the neutron or Lambda-hyperon pairing gaps and the star's mass. However, in a hybrid star with a mixed phase of hadrons and quarks, quark gaps larger than a few tenths of an MeV render quark matter virtually invisible for cooling. If the quark gap is smaller, quark superfluidity could be important, but its effects will be nearly impossible to distinguish from those of other baryonic constituents.
Searching for the quarks and gluons plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerschel, C.; Kluberg, L.
1989-01-01
Some investigations involving quark matter, at CERN, are discussed. The CERN available oxygen and sulfur beams, with energy about 200 GeV/nuclei, allow the obtention of high energy densities, never reached before. The possibilities of investigating (at CERN) the quarks and gluons plasma are considered. The first and unexpected results obtained from the NA38 experiment are overviewed [fr
Current status of properties and signals of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, C.P.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors report on heavy ion experiments at the AGS machine of Brookhaven National Laboratory and SPS of CERN are aimed at producing and diagnosing a new state of matter, the quark---gluon plasma. Some important and relevant issues involving the nature and the detection aspects of the phase transition from hadron to quark matter are reviewed in an introductory and pedagogical way
Integrability in heavy quark effective theory
Braun, Vladimir M.; Ji, Yao; Manashov, Alexander N.
2018-06-01
It was found that renormalization group equations in the heavy-quark effective theory (HQET) for the operators involving one effective heavy quark and light degrees of freedom are completely integrable in some cases and are related to spin chain models with the Hamiltonian commuting with the nondiagonal entry C( u) of the monodromy matrix. In this work we provide a more complete mathematical treatment of such spin chains in the QISM framework. We also discuss the relation of integrable models that appear in the HQET context with the large-spin limit of integrable models in QCD with light quarks. We find that the conserved charges and the "ground state" wave functions in HQET models can be obtained from the light-quark counterparts in a certain scaling limit.
Charmonium suppression in a quark exchange model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, K.
1995-01-01
A diagrammatic approach to quark exchange processes in meson-meson scattering is applied to the case of inelastic reactions of the type (Q anti Q)+(q anti q)→(Q anti q)+(q anti Q), where Q and q refer to heavy and light quarks, respectively. This string-flip process is discussed as a microscopic mechanism for charmonium dissociation (absorption) in hadronic matter. The cross section for the reaction J/ψ+π→D+ anti D is calculated using a potential model. The behavior of a formed charmonium state in hadronic matter are discussed and consequences for ultrarelativistic hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. (orig.)
Chiral symmetry breaking and the pion quark structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, V.
1986-01-01
The mechanism of dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in hadronic matter is first studied in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model on one hand and its generalisation to finite hadron size on the other hand. The analysis uses a variational procedure modelled after the BCS superconductor. Our study indicates for example, a great sensitivity of various quantities characterizing the breaking of symmetry to the shape of the interaction. Also the mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry is essentially related to the mechanism of confinement. When a symmetry is spontaneously broken, there exists a Goldstone particle of zero mass. This is true in our model. This particle, the pion, is obtained as solution of a Bethe Salpeter equation for a qantiq bound state. This enables us to establish a connection between the pion as a Goldstone boson related to spontaneous symmetry breaking and the quark-antiquark structure of the pion. The finite mass of the physical pion is obtained with non zero current quark mass. Various properties of this particle are then studied in the RPA formalism. One important point of our model is the highly collective character of the pion. 85 refs [fr
Physics of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polonyi, J.; Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules; Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest
1995-01-01
Some features of the high temperature gluonic matter, such as the breakdown of the fundamental group symmetry by the kinetic energy, the screening of test quarks by some unusual gluon states and the explanation of the absence of isolated quarks in the vacuum without the help of infinities are presented in this talk. Special attention is paid to separate the dynamical input inferred from the numerical results of lattice gauge theory from the kinematics. (author)
Heavy quark energy loss far from equilibrium in a strongly coupled collision
Chesler, Paul M; Rajagopal, Krishna
2013-01-01
We compute and study the drag force acting on a heavy quark propagating through the matter produced in the collision of two sheets of energy in a strongly coupled gauge theory that can be analyzed holographically. Although this matter is initially far from equilibrium, we find that the equilibrium expression for heavy quark energy loss in a homogeneous strongly coupled plasma with the same instantaneous energy density or pressure as that at the location of the quark describes many qualitative features of our results. One interesting exception is that there is a time delay after the initial collision before the heavy quark energy loss becomes significant. At later times, once a liquid plasma described by viscous hydrodynamics has formed, expressions based upon assuming instantaneous homogeneity and equilibrium provide a semi-quantitative description of our results - as long as the rapidity of the heavy quark is not too large. For a heavy quark with large rapidity, the gradients in the velocity of the hydrodyna...
Soliton matter as a model of dense nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glendenning, N.K.
1985-01-01
We employ the hybrid soliton model of the nucleon consisting of a topological meson field and deeply bound quarks to investigate the behavior of the quarks in soliton matter as a function of density. To organize the calculation, we place the solitons on a spatial lattice. The model suggests the transition of matter from a color insulator to a color conductor above a critical density of a few times normal nuclear density. 9 references, 5 figures
Heavy quark condensates from dynamically borken flavour symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, T.; King, S.F.
1992-01-01
We study the dynamics of top quark condensation induced by gauge interactions resulting from a broken flavour symmetry. The gap equation in dressed ladder approximation is solved numerically to obtain directly the top quark mass. The new high energy dynamics reduces the prediction of m t somewhat, but the usual problems of m t being too large and fine tuning remain. In order to solve these problems we extend our discussion to include fourth generation quark condensates. (orig.)
Small-x Asymptotics of the Quark Helicity Distribution.
Kovchegov, Yuri V; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D
2017-02-03
We construct a numerical solution of the small-x evolution equations derived in our recent work [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 072.JHEPFG1029-847910.1007/JHEP01(2016)072] for the (anti)quark transverse momentum dependent helicity TMDs and parton distribution functions (PDFs) as well as the g_{1} structure function. We focus on the case of large N_{c}, where one finds a closed set of equations. Employing the extracted intercept, we are able to predict directly from theory the behavior of the quark helicity PDFs at small x, which should have important phenomenological consequences. We also give an estimate of how much of the proton's spin carried by the quarks may be at small x and what impact this has on the spin puzzle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.; Cooperstein, J.
1987-01-01
We investigate suggestions that quark matter with strangeness per baryon of order unity may be stable. We model this matter at nuclear matter densities as a gas of close packed Λ-particles. From the known mass of the Λ-particle we obtain an estimate of the energy and chemical potential of strange matter at nuclear densities. These are sufficiently high to preclude any phase transition from neutron matter to strange matter in the region near nucleon matter density. Including effects from gluon exchange phenomenologically, we investigate higher densities, consistently making approximations which underestimate the density of transition. In this way we find a transition density ρ tr > or approx.7ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is nuclear matter density. This is not far from the maximum density in the center of the most massive neutron stars that can be constructed. Since we have underestimated ρ tr and still find it to be ∝7ρ 0 , we do not believe that the transition from neutron to quark matter is likely in neutron stars. Moreover, measured masses of observed neutron stars are ≅1.4 M sun , where M sun is the solar mass. For such masses, the central (maximum) density is ρ c 0 . Transition to quark matter is certainly excluded for these densities. (orig.)
Wiener, Gerfried J.; Schmeling, Sascha M.; Hopf, Martin
2017-01-01
This paper describes the second in a series of studies exploring the acceptance of the subatomic structure of matter by 12-year-olds. The studies focus on a novel learning unit introducing an atomic model from electrons down to quarks, which is aimed to be used at an early stage in the physics curriculum. Three features are fundamental to the…
Using the Moon and Mars as Giant Detectors for Strange Quark Nuggets
Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin; Strayer, Don; Banerdt, Bruce; Tepliz, Vigdor; Herrin, Eugene
2004-01-01
On the Earth, the detectability of small seismic signals is limited by pervasive seismic background noise, caused primarily by interactions of the atmosphere and oceans with the solid surface. Mars, with a very thin atmosphere and no ocean is expected to have a noise level at least an order of magnitude lower than the Earth, and the airless Moon is even quieter still. These pristine low-vibration environments are ideal for searching for nuggets of "strange quark matter." Strange quark matter was postulated by Edward Witten [Phys. Rev. D30, 272, 1984] as the lowest possible energy state of matter. It would be made of up, down, and strange quarks, instead of protons and neutrons made only of up and down quarks. It would have nuclear densities, and hence be difficult to detect. Micron-sized nuggets would weigh in the ton range. As suggested by de Rujula and Glashow [Nature 312 (5996): 734, 1984], a massive strange quark nugget can generate a trail of seismic waves, as it traverses a celestial body. We discuss the mission concept for deploying a network of sensitive seismometers on Mars and on the Moon for such a search.
Quark phases in neutron stars and a third family of compact stars as signature for phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schertler, K.; Greiner, C.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Thoma, M.H.
2000-01-01
The appearance of quark phases in the dense interior of neutron stars provides one possibility to soften the equation of state (EOS) of neutron star matter at high densities. This softening leads to more compact equilibrium configurations of neutron stars compared to pure hadronic stars of the same mass. We investigate the question to which amount the compactness of a neutron star can be attributed to the presence of a quark phase. For this purpose we employ several hadronic EOS in the framework of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model and an extended MIT bag model to describe the quark phase. We find that -- almost independent of the model parameters -- the radius of a pure hadronic neutron star gets typically reduced by 20-30% if a pure quark phase in the center of the star does exist. For some EOS we furthermore find the possibility of a third family of compact stars which may exist besides the two known families of white dwarfs and neutron stars. We show how an experimental proof of the existence of a third family by mass and radius measurements may provide a unique signature for a phase transition inside neutron stars
Towards a generalized Landau theory of quasi-particles for hot dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leermakers, R.
1985-01-01
In this thesis it is tried to construct a Landau quasi-particle theory for relativistic systems, using field-theoretical methods. It includes a perturbative calculation of the pressure of a quark-gluon plasma. It reports the existence of a hitherto unnoticed plasmon contribution of the order g 3 due to transverse quasi-gluons. A new and Lorentz covariant formulation of the Landau theory is being developed, for a general relativistic system. A detailed calculation is presented of the observables of a quantum electrodynamical (QED) plasma, in lowest orders of perturbation theory. A transverse plasmon effect is discovered, both analytically and numerically. In addition, the analysis shows quasi-electrons and positrons to be stable excitations at any temperature. This is proven in all orders of perturbation theory. Along with a Landau theory for quark-gluon matter, a linearized kinetic equation is derived for the singlet quark distribution function, with a collision term for soft encounters between quasi-quarks. (Auth.)
Quark-lepton unification and proton decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pati, J.C.; Salam, A.
1980-05-01
Complexions for proton decay arising within a maximal symmetry for quark-lepton unification, which leads to spontaneous rather than intrinsic violations of B, L and F are considered. Four major modes satisfying δB=-1 and δF=0, -2, -4 and -6 are noted. It is stressed that some of these modes can coexist in accord with allowed solutions for renormalization group equations for coupling constants for a class of unifying symmetries. None of these remarks is dependent on the nature of quark charges. It is noted that if quarks and leptons are made of constituent preons, the preon binding is likely to be magnetic. (author)
Introduction to quantum chromo transport theory for quark-gluon plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyulassy, M.; Elze, H.Th.; Iwazaki, A.; Vasak, D.
1986-08-01
Upcoming heavy ion experiments at the AGS and SPS are aimed at producing and diagnosing a primordial form of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. In these lectures some recent developments on formulating a quantum transport theory for quark-gluon plasmas are introduced. 46 refs
Sea quark contribution to the dynamical mass and light quark content of a nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, J.P.
1995-01-01
We calculate the flavor mixing in the wave function of a light valence quark. For this, we use the idea of dynamical symmetry breaking. A sea quark of a different flavor may appear through the vacuum polarization of a gluon propagator which appears in the gap equation for the dynamical mass. We have also used the fact that any one of these quark lines may undergo condensation. The dependence of the dynamical mass, generated in this way, on the sea quark mass up to quadratic terms has been retained. The momentum dependence is like 1/p 4 , in contrast with the 1/p 2 kind of dependence which occurs for the leading term of the dynamical mass in the subasymptotic region. The extension of the result to the ''mass shell'' yields σ πN =53--54 MeV for the pion-nucleon σ term and m s left-angle p|bar ss|p right-angle=122--264 meV for the strange quark contribution to the proton mass, for different values of parameters. These are in reasonable agreement with current phenomenological estimates of these quantities
Flipped neutrino emissivity from strange matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goyal, A.; Dutta, S.
1994-01-01
Energy loss due to wrong helicity sterile neutrinos through spin flip processes leads to rapid cooling of nascent neutron stars. The observed cooling of neutron stars associated with SN 1987A seems to preclude the existence of Dirac neutrinos with a mass in excess of 20 keV. Assuming that nuclear matter in the core of the neutron star undergoes a phase transition to quark matter leading to a strange star or a neutron star with a strange matter core, we examine the emission of flipped Dirac neutrinos for two dominant processes: quark-neutrino scattering [q+ν - (bar ν + )→q+ν + (bar ν - )] and the quark neutrino pair bremsstrahlung process [q+q→q+q+ν - bar ν - (ν+bar ν + )]. We determine the composition of quark matter just after core bounce and examine the effect of neutrino degeneracy on the emission rate and mean free path of the wrong helicity neutrinos
The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spier Moreira Alves, Daniele; Behbahani, Siavosh R.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Schuster, Philip; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC
2011-08-19
Composite dark matter is a natural setting for implementing inelastic dark matter - the O(100 keV) mass splitting arises from spin-spin interactions of constituent fermions. In models where the constituents are charged under an axial U(1) gauge symmetry that also couples to the Standard Model quarks, dark matter scatters inelastically off Standard Model nuclei and can explain the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal. This article describes the early Universe cosmology of a minimal implementation of a composite inelastic dark matter model where the dark matter is a meson composed of a light and a heavy quark. The synthesis of the constituent quarks into dark hadrons results in several qualitatively different configurations of the resulting dark matter composition depending on the relative mass scales in the system.
In search of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, Y.; Delagrange, H.
2002-01-01
This article describes in a very pedagogical manner the ultimate state of matter when quarks are no longer confined in hadrons. This state is called quark and gluon plasma, its existence is suspected through 4 facts: 1) a quark and gluon plasma that has just been created from a high energy ion-collision is mainly made up of light quarks (up and down), then this plasma should evolve towards other quarks (particularly strange quarks) because of the Pauli exclusion principle. This fact has been experimentally confirmed: at the CERN accelerator physicists have detected a higher production of strange hadrons when the energy of the collision increases; 2) some particles like ρ 0 mesons, that are made up of 2 quarks, are massively produced in ion collisions, their mass has been measured at the moment of the collision and later in the quark and gluon plasma, 2 different values have been found so it confirms the theory that predicts that free quarks have a mass that decreases as energy increases; 3) J/Ψ mesons are made up of a charmed quark combined with its anti-quark, physicists have noticed that less J/Ψ mesons are detected when the energy of the collision rises, this result agrees with the fact that in quark gluon plasma where quarks are free and of different colours and flavors, it is highly unlikely that a charmed quark combines with its anti-quark to form a J/Ψ meson; and 4) the theory of the formation of quark gluon plasma predicts that its electromagnetic radiation has a thermal radiation specificity, physicists have studied the radiation spectra emitted in the core of a ion collision, they have shown that it is a thermal radiation and that the temperature of the emitter corresponds to the temperature of a quark gluon plasma. (A.C.)
A (1+1)-dimensional example of Quarkyonic matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kojo, Toru
2012-01-01
We analyze the (1+1)-dimensional QCD (QCD 2 ) at finite density to consider a number of qualitative issues: confinement in dense quark matter, the chiral symmetry breaking near the Fermi surface, the relation between chiral spirals and quark number density, and a possibility of the spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. We argue that while the free energy is dominated by perturbative quarks, confined excitations at zero density can persist up to high density. So quark matter in QCD 2 is an example of Quarkyonic matter. The non-Abelian bosonization and associated charge–flavor–color separation are mainly used in order to clarify basic structures of QCD 2 at finite density.
Constituent quarks in nuclear matter and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, M.; Lee, H.K.; Weise, W.
1991-01-01
We investigate the density dependence of the neutron-proton mass difference using the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model in combination with the Isgur-Karl constituent quark model. The decrease of the constituent quark masses with increasing density reduces the n-p mass difference in the proper way to help resolving the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly. We point out however, that in the presence of vector interactions, this effect is less pronounced than previously suggested. (orig.)
A quark-antiquark potential from a superconducting model of confinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.W. Alcock
1983-10-01
Full Text Available The Landau-Ginzburg phenomenological theory of superconductivity is used as a model of flux confinement. A monopole pair of sources is included to simulate a quark-antiquark system. The interaction energy is found in the static approximation appropriate for heavy quark systems, and equated with the interquark potential. This potential is compared with other suggested phenomenological potentials and succeeds in reproducing heavy quark spectra.
Nuclear matter equation of state and σ-meson parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We try to determine phenomenologically the extent of in-medium modification of -meson parameters so that the saturation observables of the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) are reproduced. To calculate the EOS we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Goldstone formalism with Bonn potential as two-body interaction.
High energy cosmic ray signature of quark nuggets
Audouze, J.; Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.
1985-01-01
It has been recently proposed that dark matter in the Universe might consist of nuggets of quarks which populate the nuclear desert between nucleons and neutron star matter. It is further suggested that the Centauro events which could be the signature of particles with atomic mass A approx. 100 and energy E approx. 10 to 15th power eV might also be related to debris produced in the encounter of two neutron stars. A further consequence of the former proposal is examined, and it is shown that the production of relativistic quark nuggets is accompanied by a substantial flux of potentially observable high energy neutrinos.
Nambu mechanism of dynamical symmetry breaking by the top quark
Pham, Xuan-Yem
1990-05-01
It may be possible that the gauge symmetry breaking of the standard electroweak interactions is not due to the elementary scalar Higgs fields but has a dynamic origin intimately involving the top quark. A prototype of this dynamical scenario is the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model in which both the top quark and the gauge bosons become massive by some strong attractive nonlinear interactions similar to the gap energy produced in BCS superconductivity. Self-consistent equations for the charged Goldstone boson and for the vector meson are used to get an upper bound for the top quark mass. In the bubble approximation of keeping only fermion loops, we obtain an equation relating the top quark mass to the W boson one; from the top mass is found to be around 84 GeV. Its typical dominant decay mode t→W+s then follows. Also discussed are distinctive signatures of the scalar overlinett bound state identified as the physical Higgs particle whose mass is twice that of the top quark.
Quark fragmentation into 3PJ quarkonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, J.P.
1996-01-01
The functions of parton fragmentation into 3 P J quarkonium at order α 2 s are calculated, where the parton can be a heavy or a light quark. The obtained functions explicitly satisfy the Altarelli-Parisi equation and they are divergent, behaving as z -1 near z = O. However, if one choses the renormalization scale as twice of the heavy quark mass, the fragmentation functions are regular over the whole range of z. 15 refs., 2 figs
Two-color quark matter: U(1)A restoration, superfluidity, and quarkyonic phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brauner, Tomas; Fukushima, Kenji; Hidaka, Yoshimasa
2009-01-01
We discuss the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with two colors and two flavors of light quarks. This is motivated by the increasing interest in the QCD phase diagram as follows: (1) The QCD critical point search has been under intensive dispute and its location and existence suffer from uncertainty of effective U(1) A symmetry restoration. (2) A new phase called quarkyonic matter is drawing theoretical and experimental attention but it is not clear whether it can coexist with diquark condensation. We point out that two-color QCD is nontrivial enough to contain essential ingredients for (1) and (2) both, and most importantly, is a system without the sign problem in numerical simulations on the lattice. We adopt the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model extended with the two-color Polyakov loop and make quantitative predictions that can be tested by lattice simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Jinsong; Meng Chengju; Pan Jihuan; Yuan Tongquan; Zhou Lijuan; Ma Weixing
2013-01-01
Based on the fully dressed quark propagator and chiral perturbation theory, we study the ratio of the strange quark mass m s to up or down quark mass m u,d . The ratio is related to the determination of quark masses which are fundamental input parameters of QCD Lagrangian in the Standard Model of particle physics and can not be directly measured since the quark is confined within a hadron. An accurate determination of these QCD free parameters is extremely important for both phenomenological and theoretical applications. We begin with a brief introduction to the non-perturbation QCD theory, and then study the mass ratio in the framework of the chiral perturbation theory (χPT) with a parameterized fully dressed quark propagator which describes confining fully dressed quark propagation and is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p 2 -plane and has no Lehmann representation so there are no quark production thresholds in any theoretical calculations of observable data. Our prediction for the ratio m s /m u,d is consistent with other model predictions such as Lattice QCD, instanton model, QCD sum rules and the empirical values used widely in the literature. As a by-product of this study, our theoretical results, together with other predictions of physical quantities that used this quark propagator in our previous publications, clearly show that the parameterized form of the fully dressed quark propagator is an applicable and reliable approximation to the solution of the Dyson-Schwinger Equation of quark propagator in the QCD. (authors)
Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheffler, David
2015-07-20
The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking
''Follow that quark!'' (and other exclusive stories)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, A.S.
1987-01-01
Quarks are considered to be the basic constituents of matter. In a series of recent experiments, Carroll studied exclusive reactions as a means of determining the interactions between quarks. Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) is the modern theory of the interaction of quarks. This theory explains how quarks are held together via the strong interaction in particles known as hadrons. Hadrons consisting of three quarks are called baryons. Hadrons made up of a quark and an antiquark are called mesons. In his lecture, Carroll describes what happens when two hadrons collide and scatter to large angles. The violence of the collision causes the gluons that bind the quarks in a particular hadron to temporarily lose their grip on particular quarks. Quarks scramble toward renewed unity with other quarks, and they undergo rearrangement, which generally results in additional new particles. A two-body exclusive reaction has occurred when the same number of particles exist before and after the collisions. At large angles these exclusive reactions are very rare. The labels on the quarks known as flavor enable the experimenter to follow the history of individual quarks in detail during these exclusive reactions. Carroll describes the equipment used in the experiment to measure short distance, hard collisions at large angles. The collisions he discusses occur when a known beam of mesons or protons collide with a stationary proton target. Finally, Carroll summarizes what the experiments have shown from the study of exclusive reactions and what light some of their results shed on the theory of QCD
X(3872): an exotic combination of quarks?
Antonella Del Rosso
2013-01-01
According to the Standard Model of particles, quarks are the smallest building blocks of matter. So far, only quark-antiquark pairs (mesons) and quark triplets (baryons) have been observed. However, over the last few decades, some not-yet-understood states have started to appear in the particle zoo. Their nature is still unclear but the LHCb experiment has now made a big step towards understanding one of them: the X(3872). A proton-lead ion collision, as observed by the LHCb detector during the 2013 data-taking period. The X(3872) has not yet made headlines, but its existence is an intriguing mystery that scientists have been trying to elucidate over the past ten years since the particle was first observed by the Belle experiment. So far, its inner nature has remained unknown because of theoretical difficulties in cataloguing it as a quark-antiquark state in the so-called "charmonium" spectrum (as charm quarks are involved) and because of the experimental difficulties inv...
Fragmentation of quarks and gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soeding, P.
1983-10-01
The author presents a review about quark and gluon jets. He describes the particle contents of the different types of jets. Finally he considers the hadronization mechanism with special regards to three-jet events in e + e - annihilation and hadronization in nuclear matter. (HSI)
Schwinger Dyson equations: Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, C.D.
1992-01-01
A representative but not exhaustive review of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) approach to the nonperturbative study of QCD is presented. The main focus is the SDE for the quark self energy but studies of the gluon propagator and quark-gluon vertex are also discussed insofar as they are important to the quark SDE. The scope of this article is the application of these equations to the study of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, quark confinement and the phenomenology of the spectrum and dynamics of QCD
Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
1994-04-01
Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Yudong
1995-07-01
This report is a compilation of papers reflecting current trends in non-accelerator particle physics, corresponding to talks that its author was invited to present at the Workshop on Tibet Cosmic Ray Experiment and Related Physics Topics held in Beijing, China, April 4--13, 1995. The papers are entitled 'Neutrino Mass and Oscillation', 'High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics', 'Detection of Dark Matter', 'Search for Strange Quark Matter', and 'Magnetic Monopole Searches'. The report is introduced by a survey of the field and a brief description of each of the author's papers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
Nine months after a careful announcement of tentative evidence for the long-awaited sixth 'top' quark, physicists from the CDF and DO experiments at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider declared on 2 March that they had finally discovered the top quark. Last year (June 1994, page 1), the CDF experiment at the Tevatron reported a dozen candidate top events. These, said CDF, had all the characteristics expected of top, but the difficulties of extracting the tiny signal from a trillion proton-antiproton collisions made them shy of claiming a discovery. For its part, the companion DO Tevatron experiment reported a few similar events but were even more guarded about their interpretation as top quarks. Just after these hesitant announcements, performance at the Tevatron improved dramatically last summer. After the commissioning of a new linear accelerator and a magnet realignment, the machine reached a new world record proton-antiproton collision luminosity of 1.28 x 10 31 per sq cm per s, ten times that originally planned. Data began to pour in at an unprecedented rate and the data sample grew to six trillion collisions. Luminosity has subsequently climbed to 1.7 x 10 31 . The top quark is the final letter in the alphabet of Standard Model particles. According to this picture, all matter is composed of six stronglyinteracting subnuclear particles, the quarks, and six weakly interacting particles, the leptons. Both sextets are neatly arranged as three pairs in order of increasing mass. The fifth quark, the 'beauty' or 'b' quark, was also discovered at Fermilab, back in 1977. Since then physicists have been eagerly waiting for the top to turn up, but have been frustrated by its heaviness - the top is some 40 times the mass of its 'beautiful' partner. Not only is the top quark the heaviest by far, but it is the only quark which has been actively hunted. After the quarry was glimpsed last year, the net has now been
Quark contribution to the small-x evolution of color dipole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ian Balitsky
2006-09-11
The small-x deep inelastic scattering in the saturation region is governed by the non-linear evolution of Wilson-lines operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In the NLO the nonlinear equation gets contributions from quark and gluon loops. In this paper I calculate the quark-loop contribution to small-x evolution of Wilson lines in the NLO. It turns out that there are no new operators at the one-loop level--just as at the tree level, the high-energy scattering can be described in terms of Wilson lines. In addition, from the analysis of quark loops I find that the argument of coupling constant in the BK equation is determined by the size of the parent dipole rather than by the size of produced dipoles. These results are to be supported by future calculation of gluon loops.
Generalized Lorentz-Dirac Equation for a Strongly Coupled Gauge Theory
Chernicoff, Mariano; García, J. Antonio; Güijosa, Alberto
2009-06-01
We derive a semiclassical equation of motion for a “composite” quark in strongly coupled large-Nc N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, making use of the anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory correspondence. The resulting nonlinear equation incorporates radiation damping, and reduces to the standard Lorentz-Dirac equation for external forces that are small on the scale of the quark Compton wavelength, but has no self-accelerating or preaccelerating solutions. From this equation one can read off a nonstandard dispersion relation for the quark, as well as a Lorentz-covariant formula for its radiation rate.
Generalized Lorentz-Dirac Equation for a Strongly Coupled Gauge Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernicoff, Mariano; Garcia, J. Antonio; Gueijosa, Alberto
2009-01-01
We derive a semiclassical equation of motion for a 'composite' quark in strongly coupled large-N c N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, making use of the anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory correspondence. The resulting nonlinear equation incorporates radiation damping, and reduces to the standard Lorentz-Dirac equation for external forces that are small on the scale of the quark Compton wavelength, but has no self-accelerating or preaccelerating solutions. From this equation one can read off a nonstandard dispersion relation for the quark, as well as a Lorentz-covariant formula for its radiation rate.
On the Q2-dependence of quark and diquark fragmentation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartl, A.
1988-01-01
The Q 2 -dependence of quark and diquark fragmentation functions is studied by means of evolution equations and compared with the experimental data. Some comments on the evolution of charm quark fragmentation are also presented. 20 refs., 4 figs. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, B.F.
1985-01-01
Nuclear physics has dealt with nuclei and their interactions at interparticle distances which correspond to conditions that might be described as two bags of quarks barely overlapping. Here, where the asymptotically free theories of QCD have yet to provide a calculable picture of observed phenomena, the nuclear physicist has found a modicum of success and simplification in terms of a picture based upon the physically observable baryons and mesons. However, our understanding is far from complete. Because of this and our desire to learn where the transition to the quark-gluon matter picture occurs, we seek measurable effects due to the quark substructure. To that end, we must first define the limits of validity for describing nuclear phenomena in terms of the observed hadrons before evidence for quark-gluon degrees of freedom can be critically evaluated
Final state dipole showers and the DGLAP equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.
2009-01-01
We study a parton shower description, based on a dipole picture, of the final state in electron-positron annihilation. In such a shower, the distribution function describing the inclusive probability to find a quark with a given energy depends on the shower evolution time. Starting from the exclusive evolution equation for the shower, we derive an equation for the evolution of the inclusive quark energy distribution in the limit of strong ordering in shower evolution time of the successive parton splittings. We find that, as expected, this is the DGLAP equation. This paper is a response to a recent paper of Dokshitzer and Marchesini that raised troubling issues about whether a dipole based shower could give the DGLAP equation for the quark energy distribution.
A potential model for quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thaler, J.; Iqbal, M.J.
1985-02-01
A static quark potential model obtained from a relativistic wave-equation is considered. The long-part of the quadratic terms is suppressed by a glueball exchange mechanism and compatibility with the meson spectra is shown
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00245767
The overwhelming astrophysical evidence for Dark Matter is an important motivation to search for new physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the Standard Model of particle physics is able to predict measurements and observations to an astounding precision, it does not provide a candidate particle for Dark Matter. If possibly produced in high-energy proton-proton collisions, such particles would traverse the detectors without leaving a signal. Hence, searches rely on the resulting momentum imbalance in the transverse plane. One particular extension of the Standard Model that allows for a Dark Matter candidate is Supersymmetry. Since the supersymmetric partner of the top quark is expected to be relatively light it could be in reach of LHC experiments and possibly detected. This thesis presents a study of the validity of commonly-used effective field theory models of Dark Matter production at the LHC. It shows that in a significant fraction of events the assumptions of an effective field theory...
Two different formulations of the heavy quark effective theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balk, S.; Ilakovac, A.; Koerner, J.G.; Pirjol, D.
1994-01-01
We point out that there exist two different formulations of the Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET). The one formulation of HQET was mostly developed at Harvard and involves the use of the equation of motion to eliminate the small components of the heavy quark field. The second formulation, developed in Mainz, involves a series of Foldy-Wouthuysen-type field transformations which diagonalizes the heavy quark Lagrangian in terms of an effective quark and antiquark sector. Starting at O(1/m Q 2 ) the two formulations are different in that their effective Lagrangians, their effective currents, and their effective wave functions differ. However, when these three differences are properly taken into account, the two alternative formulations lead to identical transition or S-matrix elements. This is demonstrated in an explicit example at O(1/m Q 2 ). We point to an essential difficulty of the Harvard HQET in that the Harvard effective fields are not properly normalized starting at order O(1/m Q 2 ). We provide explicit higher order expressions for the effective fields and the Lagrangian in the Mainz approach, and write down an O(1/m Q 2 ) nonabelian version of the Pauli equation for the heavy quark effective field. (orig.)
Study the Structure of Hadrons and Quark-hadron duality with electrons up to 6 GeV energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mkrtchyan, Hamlet
2008-01-01
The fundamental nature of matter in terms of elementary particles and their interactions is the central topic in subatomic physics. From the nuclear physics perspective, the atom consists of a cloud of electrons surrounding a positively charged nucleus, which contain protons and neutrons. Our understanding of the substructure of the matter has evolved considerably over the last hundred years. Scattering experiments beginning with Reserford, have provided invaluable insight into the fundamental building block of matter. Hadrons, i.e., nucleons or pions, are not elementary particles themselves but instead exhibit a substructure based on more fundamental particles. The incremental improvements in experimental design, coupled with progressively more sophisticated theoretical formalisms have led to our present-day understanding that all matter is constructed from combination of six quarks and six leptons. The familiar protons and neutrons which compose most matter are referred to as baryons and contain three quarks. Mesons are those particles containing a combination of a quark and anti-quark. Quark are bound together by gluons, the gauge-bosons of the strong interaction described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The electromagnetic interaction has proved very successful in probing the structure of the nucleon in a quest to understand the strong interactions between quarks and the gluons that bind them. In general, electron scattering experiments can be classified into elastic, inelastic and deep-inelastic scattering. Elastic scattering is characterized by the absorption of the transfered energy and three-momentum by the target without excitation.
The quark-hadron transition in systems with net baryon number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, K.A.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA
1982-01-01
The transition from quark matter to hadronic matter is examined in systems with arbitrary chemical potentials corresponding to net baryon number. In the hardron phase, both a Reid-type potential for nucleons and the ππ potential derived from Weinberg's effective lagrangian have been included. In the quark phase, a linear confining potential has been considered. Results are most sensitive to the slope of the confining potential, although qualitatively the behavior of the thermodynamic properties remain unchanged. The critical baryon density is found to remain roughly constant for all temperatures below the critical temperature, Tsub(c), then falls rapidly to zero as T → Tsub(c). Below Tsub(c) this density is about 30n 0 for K = 0.18 GeV 2 (the slope of the quark potential) and 23n 0 for K = 0.10 GeV 2 . (orig.)
RX J1856.5-3754: A Strange Star with Solid Quark Surface?
Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Renxin; Zhang, Shuangnan
2003-01-01
The featureless spectra of isolated 'neutron stars' may indicate that they are actually bare strange stars but a definitive conclusion on the nature of the compact objects cannot be reached until accurate and theoretically calculated spectra of the bare quark surface are known. However due to the complex nonlinearity of quantum chromodynamics it is almost impossible to present a definitive and accurate calculation of the density-dominated quark-gluon plasma from the first principles. Nevertheless it was suggested that cold quark matter with extremely high baryon density could be in a solid state. Within the realms of this possibility we have fitted the 500ks Chandra LETG/HRC data for the brightest isolated neutron star RX 51856.5-3754 with a phenomenological spectral model and found that electric conductivity of quark matter on the stellar surface is about 1.5 x 10(exp 16)/s.
Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation
Agrawal, Prateek; Gemmler, Katrin
2014-10-13
We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a $U(3)_\\chi$ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter $\\chi$ which transforms as triplet under $U(3)_\\chi$, and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator $\\phi$ with a coupling $\\lambda$. We identify a number of "flavor-safe" scenarios for the structure of $\\lambda$ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of $b$-...
Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark
Franck Close
2008-01-01
Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.
Search for leptoquarks and dark matter in final states with top quarks at the CMS experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Mareike
2017-07-12
This thesis presents two searches for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). A search for pair production of third-generation leptoquarks decaying into a top quark and a tau lepton using pp collision data recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS experiment is presented. The search is based on an event selection requiring an isolated muon or electron candidate, one hadronically decaying tau lepton candidate and at least three jets. The main reducible background originates from processes, where a jet is misidentified as a tau lepton candidate. A measurement of the tau lepton misidentification rate is performed in a sideband enriched in W+jets events. The transverse momentum distribution of the leading tau lepton candidate is used for the statistical interpretation of the result. No excess over the SM expectation is observed. Upper cross section limits on the pair production cross section of leptoquarks decaying into a top quark and a tau lepton are set. By combining the presented search with an analysis requiring same-sign muon-tau lepton-pairs, leptoquarks with masses below 685 GeV (695 GeV expected) are excluded at 95% C.L., assuming a branching ratio of 100% into a top quark and a tau lepton. The second analysis presented in this thesis is a search for Dark Matter (DM) produced in association with a top quark pair using data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV by the CMS experiment. The analysis targets final states in which the top quarks receive large transverse momenta by recoiling against the DM particles. Therefore, the applied event selection allows for non-isolated leptons and uses top tagging techniques to identify merged top quark decays. The normalizations of the main background processes, t anti t+jets and W+jets, are determined in data using control regions enriched in the respective process. For the final statistical interpretation the spectra of the missing transverse momentum in two signal regions are studied. Data and
Search for leptoquarks and dark matter in final states with top quarks at the CMS experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, Mareike
2017-01-01
This thesis presents two searches for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). A search for pair production of third-generation leptoquarks decaying into a top quark and a tau lepton using pp collision data recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS experiment is presented. The search is based on an event selection requiring an isolated muon or electron candidate, one hadronically decaying tau lepton candidate and at least three jets. The main reducible background originates from processes, where a jet is misidentified as a tau lepton candidate. A measurement of the tau lepton misidentification rate is performed in a sideband enriched in W+jets events. The transverse momentum distribution of the leading tau lepton candidate is used for the statistical interpretation of the result. No excess over the SM expectation is observed. Upper cross section limits on the pair production cross section of leptoquarks decaying into a top quark and a tau lepton are set. By combining the presented search with an analysis requiring same-sign muon-tau lepton-pairs, leptoquarks with masses below 685 GeV (695 GeV expected) are excluded at 95% C.L., assuming a branching ratio of 100% into a top quark and a tau lepton. The second analysis presented in this thesis is a search for Dark Matter (DM) produced in association with a top quark pair using data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV by the CMS experiment. The analysis targets final states in which the top quarks receive large transverse momenta by recoiling against the DM particles. Therefore, the applied event selection allows for non-isolated leptons and uses top tagging techniques to identify merged top quark decays. The normalizations of the main background processes, t anti t+jets and W+jets, are determined in data using control regions enriched in the respective process. For the final statistical interpretation the spectra of the missing transverse momentum in two signal regions are studied. Data and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacob, M.
1982-01-01
This chapter discusses interactions only at the constituent level, as observed in hadron-hadron collisions. It defines quarks and gluons as constituents of the colliding hadrons, reviews some applications of perturbative OCD, discussing in turn lepton pair production, which in lowest order approximation corresponds to the Drell-Yan process. It investigates whether quark-quark interactions could not lead to some new color structure different from those prevalent for known baryons and mesons, which could be created in hadron interactions, and whether color objects (not specifically quarks or gluons) could not appear as free particles. Discussed is perturbative QCD in hadron collisions; the quark approach to soft processes; and new color structures. It points out that perturbative QCD has been at the origin of much progress in the understanding of hadron interactions at the constituent level
Fukushima, Kenji
2014-01-01
We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.
PSR1987A: the case for strange-quark stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glendenning, N.K.
1989-01-01
The new fast pulsar observed in the remnant of SN1987A, together with other considerations, provide evidence that there are two types of collapsed stars: neutron stars, having moderate central densities and subject to the usual mass constraint, and strange-quark-matter stars. We show that (i) all known pulsar masses and frequencies, with the exception of the new one, can be accounted for by plausible neutron star models; (ii) no known neutron star model can withstand the fast rotation of the new pulsar unless the central energy density is ∼ 15 that of normal nuclei, at which densities hadrons cannot plausibly exist as constituents; and (iii) if strange-quark matter is the true ground state of the strong interactions, strange-quark stars can sustain the high rotation imputed to the new pulsar. In the absence of another plausible structure that can withstand the fast rotation, we provisionally infer that the new pulsar is such a star. (author)
Nuclear matter as an MIT bag crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Q.; Derreth, C.; Schaefer, A.; Greiner, W.
1986-01-01
An MIT bag crystal model of nuclear matter is formulated. The energy bands of the quarks are calculated as a function of the overlap between adjacent bags. A clear indication of substantial overlap is found. Accordingly, infinite nuclear matter is more similar to a quark gas than to a nucleonic structure. (author)
Quark and gluon propagators in the spherical bag model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulish, Yu V [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Kharkov
1983-12-01
The quark and gluon propagators in a spherical cavity have been obtained by summation of the quark field modes (J-1/2, J is the total moment) and gluon field modes (J=1). The requirements for the spatial components of the gluon propagator Gsub(ik)(x, x') and the quark propagator S(x, x') to be Green functions of the wave equations result in the coincidence of directions for anti x and anti x' vectors. Relations have been derived which allow verification of the self-consistency of approximations used to calculate dynamic values.
Quark and gluon propagators in the spherical bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulish, Yu.V.
1983-01-01
The quark and gluon propagators in a spherical cavity have been obtained by summation of the quark field modes (J-1/2, J is the total moment) and gluon field modes (J=1). The requirements for the spatial components of the gluon propagator Gsub(ik)(x, x') and the quark propagator S(x, x') to be Green functions of the wave equations result in the coincidence of directions for anti x and anti x' vectors. Relations have been derived which allow verification of the self-consistency of approximations used to calculate dynamic values
Faddeev approach in three-quark systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuperin, Yu.A.; Kvintsinskij, A.A.; Merkur'ev, S.P.; Novozhilov, V.Yu.
1985-01-01
Calculations of baryon static properties represent a noval field where the Faddeev differential equations are applied. The mass spectra and were functions of baryons from multiplets of spin-partity Jsup(P)=1/2 + , 3/2 + are investigated in non-relativistic quark model. The structure parameters characterizing the ''quality'' of the baryon wave functions, i.e. charge radii, electromagnetic form factors quark distribution functions, are calculated. It is shown that the majority of the popular qq-potentials do not give ''high quality'' wave functions in spite of the good fit for the hadron masses
Phase transitions in nuclear matter and consequences for neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaempfer, B.
1983-04-01
Estimates of the minimal bombarding energy necessary to reach the quark gluon phase in heavy ion collisions are presented within a hydrodynamical scenario. Further, the consequences of first-order phase transitions from nuclear/neutron matter to pion-condensed matter or quark matter are discussed for neutron stars. (author)
The quark gluon plasma; Le plasma de quarks et de gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granier de Cassagnac, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. Leprince-Ringuet, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
2010-05-15
The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is a state of matter in which the universe was expected to be a few micro-seconds after the big-bang. Violent collisions of heavy ions are supposed to re-create this state in particle accelerators. Numerous signatures of this fugacious state have already been observed at the RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider). The first evidence of the violence of collisions is the number of generated particles: about 6000 per collision, mostly hadrons. This figure seems high but in fact is less than theoretically expected and is the first sign of the formation of a QGP that saturates the density of gluons. Another sign, observed at the RHIC is the damping of the particle jets that are produced in the collision. This damping is consistent with the crossing of a medium whose density is so high that it can not be made of hadrons but of partons. In the RHIC experiments the collective behaviour of quarks and gluons shows that they are strongly interacting with one another. This fact supports the idea that the QGP is more a perfect liquid rather than an ideal gas in which quarks and gluons move freely. (A.C.)
Heavy-quark physics in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1991-04-01
Heavy quarks can expose new symmetries and novel phenomena in QCD not apparent in ordinary hadronic systems. In these lectures I discuss the use of effective-Lagrangian and light-cone Fock methods to analyze exclusive heavy hadron decays such as Υ → p bar p and B → ππ, and also to derive effective Schroedinger and Dirac equations for heavy quark systems. Two contributions to the heavy quark structure functions of the proton and other light hadrons are identified: an ''extrinsic'' contribution associated with leading twist QCD evolution of the gluon distribution, and a higher twist ''intrinsic'' contribution due to the hardness of high-mass fluctuations of multi-gluon correlations in hadronic wavefunctions. A non-perturbative calculation of the heavy quark distribution of a meson in QCD in one space and one time is presented. The intrinsic higher twist contributions to the pion and proton structure functions can dominate the hadronic production of heavy quark systems at large longitudinal momentum fraction x F and give anomalous contributions to the quark structure functions of ordinary hadrons at large x bj . I also discuss a number of ways in which heavy quark production in nuclear targets can test fundamental QCD phenomena and provide constraints on hadronic wavefunctions. The topics include color transparency, finite formation time, and predictions for charm production at threshold, including nuclear-bound quarkonium. I also discuss a number of QCD mechanisms for the suppression of J/ψ and Υ production in nuclear collisions, including gluon shadowing, the peripheral excitation of intrinsic heavy quark components at large x F , and the coalescence of heavy quarks with co-moving spectators at low x F
and density-dependent quark mass model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Since a fair proportion of such dense proto stars are likely to be ... the temperature- and density-dependent quark mass (TDDQM) model which we had em- ployed in .... instead of Tc ~170 MeV which is a favoured value for the ud matter [26].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KARSCH, F.
2006-01-01
At high temperatures or densities matter formed by strongly interacting elementary particles (hadronic matter) is expected to undergo a transition to a new form of matter--the quark gluon plasma--in which elementary particles (quarks and gluons) are no longer confined inside hadrons but are free to propagate in a thermal medium much larger in extent than the typical size of a hadron. The transition to this new form of matter as well as properties of the plasma phase are studied in large scale numerical calculations based on the theory of strong interactions--Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). Experimentally properties of hot and dense elementary particle matter are studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions such as those currently performed at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL. We review here recent results from studies of thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting elementary particle matter performed on Teraflops-Computer. We present results on the QCD equation of state and discuss the status of studies of the phase diagram at non-vanishing baryon number density
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suresh Kumar
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study a cosmological model in general relativity within the framework of spatially flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker space–time filled with ordinary matter (baryonic, radiation, dark matter and dark energy, where the latter two components are described by Chevallier–Polarski–Linder equation of state parameters. We utilize the observational data sets from SNLS3, BAO and Planck + WMAP9 + WiggleZ measurements of matter power spectrum to constrain the model parameters. We find that the current observational data offer tight constraints on the equation of state parameter of dark matter. We consider the perturbations and study the behavior of dark matter by observing its effects on CMB and matter power spectra. We find that the current observational data favor the cold dark matter scenario with the cosmological constant type dark energy at the present epoch.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Suresh; Xu, Lixin
2014-01-01
In this paper, we study a cosmological model in general relativity within the framework of spatially flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker space–time filled with ordinary matter (baryonic), radiation, dark matter and dark energy, where the latter two components are described by Chevallier–Polarski–Linder equation of state parameters. We utilize the observational data sets from SNLS3, BAO and Planck + WMAP9 + WiggleZ measurements of matter power spectrum to constrain the model parameters. We find that the current observational data offer tight constraints on the equation of state parameter of dark matter. We consider the perturbations and study the behavior of dark matter by observing its effects on CMB and matter power spectra. We find that the current observational data favor the cold dark matter scenario with the cosmological constant type dark energy at the present epoch
Quarkonia from charmonium and renormalization group equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ditsas, P.; McDougall, N.A.; Moorhouse, R.G.
1978-01-01
A prediction of the upsilon and strangeonium spectra is made from the charmonium spectrum by solving the Salpeter equation using an identical potential to that used in charmonium. Effective quark masses and coupling parameters αsub(s) are functions of the inter-quark distance according to the renormalization group equations. The use of the Fermi-Breit Hamiltonian for obtaining the charmonium hyperfine splitting is criticized. (Auth.)
The constituent quark model the spectrum of mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shojaei, M.R.; Rajabi, A.A.; Hasanabadi, H.
2007-01-01
Full text: We calculate exact solution of the Schroedinger equation analytically for a meson consisting of a quark and antiquark, considering the interaction potential between the particles as a combination of two potentials, a potential due to color charge and an oscillatory potential as confining potential. in this paper, first consider potential between quarks as a function of radios x, thus we assume this potential as a central potential. This potential is derived from that the central potential. This potential is derived from that the quark see itself under influence of another quark, in this case central potential is considered as: V(x)=ax 2 -c/x. Potential is obtained from interaction between a quark and an antiquary. The source of it is color charge and ax 2 potential plays confining potential. Because this potential shows oscillations of one quark to another quark in the distance x from it.. In addition to the above potentials we consider the spin-spin, spin - isospin and isospin - isospin interactions as perturbing potentials, and calculate the mass of the mesons for each potential separately finally using the equivalence of mass-energy we calculate the mass of the mesons
Constraints on particle dark matter from cosmic-ray antiprotons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fornengo, N.; Vittino, A.; Maccione, L.
2014-01-01
Cosmic-ray antiprotons represent an important channel for dark matter indirect-detection studies. Current measurements of the antiproton flux at the top of the atmosphere and theoretical determinations of the secondary antiproton production in the Galaxy are in good agreement, with no manifest deviation which could point to an exotic contribution in this channel. Therefore, antiprotons can be used as a powerful tool for constraining particle dark matter properties. By using the spectrum of PAMELA data from 50 MV to 180 GV in rigidity, we derive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross section (or decay rate, for decaying dark matter) for the whole spectrum of dark matter annihilation (decay) channels and under different hypotheses of cosmic-rays transport in the Galaxy and in the heliosphere. For typical models of galactic propagation, the constraints are strong, setting a lower bound on the dark matter mass of a ''thermal'' relic at about 40–80 GeV for hadronic annihilation channels. These bounds are enhanced to about 150 GeV on the dark matter mass, when large cosmic-rays confinement volumes in the Galaxy are considered, and are reduced to 3–4 GeV for annihilation to light quarks (no bound for heavy-quark production) when the confinement volume is small. Bounds for dark matter lighter than few tens of GeV are due to the low energy part of the PAMELA spectrum, an energy region where solar modulation is relevant: to this aim, we have implemented a detailed solution of the transport equation in the heliosphere, which allowed us not only to extend bounds to light dark matter, but also to determine the uncertainty on the constraints arising from solar modulation modelling. Finally, we estimate the impact of soon-to-come AMS-02 data on the antiproton constraints
Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Kai [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dai, Wei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Nu [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhuang, Pengfei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China)
2016-12-15
The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.
Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Kai; Dai, Wei; Xu, Nu; Zhuang, Pengfei
2016-01-01
The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.
Dual Ginzburg-Landau theory and quark nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toki, Hiroshi
1999-01-01
The elementary building blocks of matter are quarks. Hence, it is fundamental to describe hadrons and nuclei in terms of quarks and gluons, the subject of which is called Quark Nuclear Physics. The quark-dynamics is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Our interest is the non-perturbative aspect of QCD as confinement, chiral symmetry breaking, hadronization etc. We introduce the dual Ginzburg-Landau theory (DGL), where the color monopole fields and their condensation is the QCD vacuum, play essential roles in describing these non-perturbative phenomena. We emphasize its connection to QCD through the use of the Abelian gauge. We apply the DGL theory to various observables. We discuss then the connection of the monopole fields with instantons, which are the classical solutions of the non-Abelian gauge theory and connect through the tunneling process QCD vacuum with different winding numbers. (author)
Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-04-15
One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.
Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-04-01
One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.
Aurongzeb, Deeder
2010-11-01
Anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters reveal that existence of very strong magnetic field(> 10e15G) from neutron stars. It has been estimated that at the core the magnitude can be even higher at the center. Apart from dynamo mechanism it has been shown that color locked ferromagnetic phase [ Phys. Rev. D. 72,114003(2005)] can be a possible origin of magnetic field. In this study, we explore electric charge of strange quark matter and its effect on forming chirality in the quark-gluon plasma. We show that electromagnetic current induced by chiral magnetic effect [(Phys. Rev. D. 78.07033(2008)] can induce differential rotation in super fluid quark-gluon plasma giving additional boost to the magnetic field. The internal phase and current has no effect from external magnetic field originating from active galactic nuclei due to superconducting phase formation which screens the fields due to Meissner effect. We show that differential motion can create high radial electric field at the surface making all radiation highly polarized and directional including thermal radiation. As the electric field strength can be even stronger for a collapsing neutron star, the implication of this study to detect radiation from black holes will also be discussed. The work was partly completed at the University of Texas at austin
Renormalization-group equations of neutrino masses and flavor mixing parameters in matter
Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Ye-Ling
2018-05-01
We borrow the general idea of renormalization-group equations (RGEs) to understand how neutrino masses and flavor mixing parameters evolve when neutrinos propagate in a medium, highlighting a meaningful possibility that the genuine flavor quantities in vacuum can be extrapolated from their matter-corrected counterparts to be measured in some realistic neutrino oscillation experiments. Taking the matter parameter a≡ 2√{2}{G}F{N}_eE to be an arbitrary scale-like variable with N e being the net electron number density and E being the neutrino beam energy, we derive a complete set of differential equations for the effective neutrino mixing matrix V and the effective neutrino masses {\\tilde{m}}_i (for i = 1 , 2 , 3). Given the standard parametrization of V , the RGEs for {{\\tilde{θ}}_{12}, {\\tilde{θ}}_{13}, {\\tilde{θ}}_{23}, \\tilde{δ}} in matter are formulated for the first time. We demonstrate some useful differential invariants which retain the same form from vacuum to matter, including the well-known Naumov and Toshev relations. The RGEs of the partial μ- τ asymmetries, the off-diagonal asymmetries and the sides of unitarity triangles of V are also obtained as a by-product.
Structure of Nonlocal quark vacuum condensate in non-perturbative QCD vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiang Qianfei; Ma Weixing; Zhou Lijuan; Jiang Weizhou
2014-01-01
Based on the Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSEs) with the rainbow truncation, and Operator Product Expansion, the structure of nonlocal quark vacuum condensate in QCD, described by quark self-energy functions A_f and B_f given usually by the solutions of the DSEs of quark propagator, is predicted numerically. We also calculate the local quark vacuum condensate, quark-gluon mixed local vacuum condensate, and quark virtuality. The self-energy functions A_f and B_f are given by the parameterized quark propagator functions σ_v"f (p"2) and σ_s"f (p"2) of Roberts and Williams, instead of the numerical solutions of the DSEs. Our calculated results are in reasonable agreement with those of QCD sum rules, Lattice QCD calculations, and instanton model predictions, although the resulting local quark vacuum condensate for light quarks, u, d, s, are a little bit larger than those of the above theoretical predictions. We think the differences are caused by model dependence. The larger of strange quark vacuum condensate than u, d quark is due to the s quark mass which is more larger than u, d quark masses. Of course, the Roberts-Williams parameterized quark propagator is an empirical formulism, which approximately describes quark propagation. (authors)
Phases of strongly-interacting matter with functional methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitter, M.
2012-01-01
Non-perturbative aspects of strongly-interacting matter, in particular at non-vanishing temperatures, are investigated with functional methods. The consequences of confinement in terms of a linearly rising static quark potential arising from an infrared singular quark 4-point function are studied. Such a singularity is only consistent for a specific color structure and implies the existence of similar singularities in special color structures of n-point functions with n>3. A simple explanation for Casimir scaling is found within this mechanism of confinement.The deconfinement transition of fundamentally charged scalar and quark matter is investigated in terms of center symmetry. Novel dual order parameters are introduced that can be obtained from the corresponding matter propagators. In the case of quark matter the new order parameter compares well with the dual chiral condensate, with the advantage that no regularization is necessary even at non-vanishing quark masses.The influence of the axial anomaly on the chiral transition is studied in terms of a 't Hooft determinant with quarks and mesons as effective degrees of freedom in the functional renormalization group. In the case of two quark flavors, the calculated temperature dependent determinant results in a decrease of the anomalous eta'-mass close to the chiral transition temperature. This is connected to a partial Z(2) restoration at the chiral transition instead of the restoration of full axial U(1). With 2+1 quark flavors and a temperature independent 't Hooft term, the chiral transition is found to be of second order with three dimensional O(4) critical exponents in the limit of vanishing up and down quark mass, whereas a first-order transition is seen without U(1) violation. (author) [de
String description of quarks degrees of freedom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadasz, L.
1994-01-01
This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author)
Neutrino propagation in neutron matter and the nuclear equation of state
Margueron, J; Nguyen Van Giai; Jiang, W
2001-01-01
We study the propagation of neutrinos inside dense matter under the conditions prevailing in a proto-neutron star. Equations of state obtained with different nuclear effective interactions (Skyrme type and Gogny type) are first discussed. It is found that for many interactions, spin and/or isospin instabilities occur at densities larger than the saturation density of nuclear matter. From this study we select two representative interactions, SLy230b and D1P. We calculate the response functions in pure neutron matter where nuclear correlations are described at the Hartree-Fock plus RPA level. These response functions allow us to evaluate neutrino mean free paths corresponding to neutral current processes.
Leptons and quarks: the end of the road
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakrzewski, J.
1980-01-01
The notion of the division of matter is traced throughout the history of the philosophy and science. A belief is expressed that even if the confinement of quarks and gluons (at least in the presently available region of energies) constitutes the end of the division of hadrons, it is by no means the end of the studies of the properties of matter. (author)
Color molecular dynamics for dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Toshiki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo
2000-01-01
We propose a microscopic approach for quark many-body system based on molecular dynamics. Using color confinement and one-gluon exchange potentials together with meson exchange potentials between quarks, we construct nucleons and nuclear/quark matter. Dynamical transition between confinement and deconfinement phases are studied at high baryon density with this molecular dynamics simulation. (author)
Constituent quarks and multi-strange baryon production in heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, Raghunath; Behera, Nirbhay K.; Nandi, Basanta K.; Varma, Raghava
2009-01-01
Relativistic heavy-ion collisions aim at creating matter at extreme conditions of energy density and temperature which is governed by the partonic degrees of freedom called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). In the early phase of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, when a hot and dense region is formed in the core of the reaction zone, different quark flavors are produced copiously. The produced matter then undergoes transverse expansion and the produced particles suffer multiple scattering among themselves. The formation of the hadrons from the partonic phase is accomplished through further expansion and cooling of the system
A semiclassical model for quark jet fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.; Peterson, C.
1979-01-01
A semiclassical model is presented for the way the energy of a fast quark is transformed into observable hadrons. It reproduces the features of 1+1 dimensional QED (the Schwinger model) concerning a flat rapidity distribution in the central region. It also reproduces results from phenomenological considerations, which, based upon scaling, predict that meson formation in the fragmentation region can be described by an iterative scheme, implying a set of coupled integral equations. In particular the model predicts that the probability to find a meson containing the leading quark is independent of the Feynman scaling variable z. The iterative structure corresponds to a Brownian motion with relevance both to the cofinement problems and to the distribution of mass in the quark jet. (orig.) [de
AUTHOR|(CDS)2088829; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Bin
Dark Matter is a hypothetical particle proposed to explain the missing matter discovered from the cosmological observation. The motivation of Dark Matter is overwhelming, however those studies mainly deduced from gravitational interaction which does little to understand the underlying structure of the particle. On the other hand, the WIMP Miracle motivating dark matter production at weak scale, implying the possibility of detecting dark matter in LHC. Assuming Dark Matter is the only new particle accessible in LHC, it is expected to be pair produced in association with a Standard Model particles which can be inferred from the Transverse Missing Energy. Search for dark matter in monojet final state is a dominant channel in placing model-independent constrains on a set of effective operators coupling Dark Matter to Standard Model particle. However in the case of effective operators generated by the exchange of heavy scalar mediator, the inclusive Monojet channel is weakened due to the light quark suppression. A...
Relics of the cosmological quark-hadron phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, Bikash
2001-01-01
In this talk I will not dwell further on the nature of the Q -> H transition, Instead, I will simply assume that it is a phase transition, and further, a first-order phase transition, in which case, there is a possibility that a particular kind of relics called quark nuggets (QNs) containing a large fraction of the net baryon number of the universe may have been formed at the end of such a phase transition. The QNs would have tremendous implications for cosmology and astrophysics. In particular, they can be a good candidate for the baryonic dark matter in the universe provided they can survive up to the present epoch. The QNs which survived and floating around the universe, is there any connection with the recently discovered MACHOs between the earth and the Large Magellanic clouds. The QNs are hypothesized to be made of 'strange matter' which is composed of a roughly equal mixture of u, d, and s quarks at a density ≥ nuclear density. It has been hypothesized that at zero temperature and zero pressure the true ground state of hadronic matter could be SM rather than 56 Fe, the energy per baryon in SM could be lower that in ordinary nuclear matter. The latter would, however, still be effectively stable against decay would require high order simultaneous weak interaction process with a life-time much greater than the age of the universe. For certain ranges of values of parameters involved, namely, the QCD fine structure constant (α c ), mass of the strange quark (m s ), the vacuum bag energy (B), the hypothesis of SM being the absolutely stable of hadronic matter has been found to be quite plausible. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cline, J.
2004-01-01
The author presents the issue of how matter triumphed over anti-matter in the formation of the universe. Theories focus on the nature of asymmetry that might have created an excess of matter over anti-matter. Sakharov and Kuzmin listed 3 conditions that must be met for baryogenesis to take place. First the baryon number must not be conserved: there must be some interactions that change the number of baryons, baryon-number violation can rise from an interaction between quarks and leptons. Secondly, 2 symmetries that relate particles to antiparticles must be violated. The CP violation in Kaon decay is too weak to create enough baryon asymmetry, so physicists believe that larger sources of CP violation await discovery. Thirdly, there must be the loss of thermal equilibrium of the universe. In thermal equilibrium, baryons are decaying but inverse processes are also taking place, quarks are fusing to form baryons, rates being equal no baryon asymmetry is generated. But if thermal equilibrium is broken, to say temperature is decreasing, at a certain temperature a pair of quarks will no longer have enough energy to produce a heavy particle which generates baryon asymmetry. (A.C.)
A thermodynamic description of quarks at the subquark level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzpatrick, G.L.
1985-01-01
A thermodynamic basis for the description of quarks at the subquark level is proposed. It is suggested that subquarks are ultrarelativistic objects confined to the quark radius R. Thus they experience accelerations of the order a≅c/sup 2//R. But this means that information excluding horizons (iota) comparable to quark radii R, namely iota≅c/sup 2//a≅R, are present. Such horizons force us to describe quarks, at the subquark level, via thermodynamics. This thermodynamic description must involve unconventional negative energy Rindler vacua, rather than the conventional zero energy Minkowski vacuum. In an average thermodynamic sense, these Rindler vacua cancel excess kinetic energy of the subquarks, thereby removing an objection to theories involving subquarks. In any such theory it is necessary to assign an Unruh temperature T, where kT≅(h/2πc)a≅(hc/2πR), to the subquark matter. The author argues that T must be the temperature of the early universe phase transition (probably first order) at which quarks condensed into hadrons. Thus quarks have a temperature T independent of hadron mass. He shows how quark properties may be derived in the foregoing thermodynamic context
Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: heavy quark energy loss and modified fragmentation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Benwei; Wang, Enke; Wang Xinnian
2005-01-01
Multiple scattering, induced radiative energy loss and modified fragmentation functions of a heavy quark in nuclear matter are studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD. Modified heavy quark fragmentation functions and energy loss are derived in detail with illustration of the mass dependencies of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal interference effects and heavy quark energy loss. Due to the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the nuclear size dependencies of nuclear modification of the heavy quark fragmentation function and heavy quark energy loss are found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss of the heavy quark is also significantly suppressed due to limited cone of gluon radiation imposed by the mass. Medium modification of the heavy quark fragmentation functions is found to be limited to the large z region due to the form of heavy quark fragmentation functions in vacuum
String description of quarks degrees of freedom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadasz, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1994-10-01
This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author). 7 refs.
Heavy quarks thermalization in heavy-ion ultrarelativistic collisions: elastic or radiative?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Guiho, Vincent; Aichelin, Joerg
2006-01-01
We present a dynamical model of heavy quark evolution in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) based on the Fokker-Planck equation. We then apply this model to the case of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions performed at RHIC in order to investigate which experimental observables might help to discriminate the fundamental process leading to thermalization
Quark confinement potential and color Van der Waals force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yuming; Hua Daping; Liu Zuhua
1985-01-01
The color-analog Van der Waals force between two hadrons is studied by use of the coupling channel resonating group method in the framework of the Gaussian-type quark confinement potential. The problem of the boundary values for the two channel coupling differential equations is changed to the problem of the initial values. The equations are solved numerically by use of the Gear mehtod. The calculated results show that there is no color Van der Waals force between hadrons in the confinement potential model. This indicates that the confinement potential model not only can describe the internal structure of hadrons but also can be used to calculate the hadron-hadron interactions if the quark confinement potential is chosen properly
Sonoluminescence test for equation of state in warm dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, Siu-Fai; Barnard, J.J.; Leung, P.T.; Yu, S.S.
2008-01-01
In experiments of Single-bubble Sonoluminescence (SBSL), the bubble is heated to temperatures of a few eV in the collapse phase of the oscillation. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the density inside the bubble can go up to the order of 1 g/cm3, and the electron density due to ionization is 1021; cm3. So the plasma coupling constant is found to be around 1 and the gas inside the bubble is in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We simulate the light emission of SL with an optical model for thermal radiation which takes the finite opacity of the bubble into consideration. The numerical results obtained are compared to the experimental data and found to be very sensitive to the equation of state used. As theories for the equation of state, as well as the opacity data, in the WDM regime are still very uncertain, we propose that SL may be a good low-cost experimental check for the EOS and the opacity data for matter in the WDM regime
Search for pair-produced vector-like quarks with the ATLAS detector
Succurro, A
2013-01-01
The high energy frontier opened by the LHC is allowing us to explore physics scenarios where new physics might lay. The need to go beyond the Standard Model (SM) comes from var\\ ious unanswered questions, like where does the matter-antimatter asymmetry comes from? What is the nature of Dark Matter? How can the hierarchy problem be solved? The recent di\\ scovery of an Higgs-like boson tends to disfavour the existence of a heavy 4th generation of quarks which would change the Higgs SM cross section and branching ratio in a way i\\ t is not experimentally observed. At the same time, vector-like quarks become a more compelling possibility due to their important role stabilizing the Higgs boson mass against\\ radiative corrections. The purpose of this poster is to review the latest results in the searches for pair production of vector-like quarks at the ATLAS experiment.
Search for pair-produced vector-like quarks with the ATLAS detector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Succurro Antonella
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The high energy frontier opened by the LHC is allowing us to explore physics scenarios where new physics might lay. The need to go beyond the Standard Model (SM comes from various unanswered questions such as where does the matter-antimatter asymmetry comes from? What is the nature of Dark Matter? How can the hierarchy problem be solved? The recent discovery of an Higgs-like boson tends to disfavour the existence of a heavy 4th generation of quarks which would change the Higgs SM cross section and branching ratio in a way that is not experimentally observed. At the same time, vector-like quarks become a more compelling possibility due to their important role stabilizing the Higgs boson mass against radiative corrections. The purpose of this poster is to review the latest results in the searches for pair production of vector-like quarks at the ATLAS experiment.
Strange quark condensate in the nucleon in 2 + 1 flavor QCD.
Toussaint, D; Freeman, W
2009-09-18
We calculate the "strange quark content of the nucleon," , which is important for interpreting the results of some dark matter detection experiments. The method is to evaluate quark-line disconnected correlations on the MILC lattice ensembles, which include the effects of dynamical light and strange quarks. After continuum and chiral extrapolations, the result is = 0.69(7)_{stat}(9)_{syst}, in the modified minimal subtraction scheme (2 GeV) regularization, or for the renormalization scheme invariant form, m_{s} partial differentialM_{N}/ partial differentialm_{s} = 59(6)(8) MeV.
Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai
2010-01-01
Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granier de Cassagnac, R.
2010-01-01
The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is a state of matter in which the universe was expected to be a few micro-seconds after the big-bang. Violent collisions of heavy ions are supposed to re-create this state in particle accelerators. Numerous signatures of this fugacious state have already been observed at the RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider). The first evidence of the violence of collisions is the number of generated particles: about 6000 per collision, mostly hadrons. This figure seems high but in fact is less than theoretically expected and is the first sign of the formation of a QGP that saturates the density of gluons. Another sign, observed at the RHIC is the damping of the particle jets that are produced in the collision. This damping is consistent with the crossing of a medium whose density is so high that it can not be made of hadrons but of partons. In the RHIC experiments the collective behaviour of quarks and gluons shows that they are strongly interacting with one another. This fact supports the idea that the QGP is more a perfect liquid rather than an ideal gas in which quarks and gluons move freely. (A.C.)
Fundamental quark, lepton correspondence and dynamics with weak decay interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van der Spuy, E.
1977-10-01
A nonlinear fermion-field equation of motion and its (in principle) exact solutions, making use of the previously developed technique of infinite component free spinor fields, are discussed. It is shown to be essential for the existence of the solutions to introduce the isosymmetry breaking mechanism by coupling the isospin polarization of the domain of the universe of such particle fields to the field isospin. The essential trigger for the isosymmetry breaking mechanism is the existence of the electromagnetic interaction and the photon fields, carrying an infinite range isospin polarization change in the domain. A quartet of proton, neutron, lambda and charmed quark field solutions, with their respective characteristic Regge trajectories and primary isospin quantum numbers, and a quartet of lepton fields electron neutrino, electron, muon, muon nutrino, are shown to emerge naturally. The equations of motion of the quark and lepton propagators are deduced. The complicated charge nature of the quarks and the need for quark confinement is discussed and a correspondence principle is established between the quark and lepton field solutions. The correspondence is such that the dynamics of the leptons on their own appears to be compatible with quantum electrodynamics on the one hand, and on the other hand permits a natural GIM-Cabibbo weak decay interaction with a Cibibbo angle equal to the domain isospin polarization-change phase angle
Determination of quark-antiquark potentials and meson spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semay, C.; Silvestre-Brac, B.
1999-01-01
We determine two different sets of quark-antiquark potential to be used in a Schroedinger or a Salpeter type of equation. The central part contains QCD inspired components: the Coulomb like interaction, the confinement potential and an instanton interaction. It is supplemented with phenomenological relativistic corrections. The constituent quarks are characterized by a colour charge density. The parameters are determined by a minimization procedure on representative samples of mesons and the full spectra are calculated. Refs. 6, tabs. 2 (author)
Weak mixing below the weak scale in dark-matter direct detection
Brod, Joachim; Grinstein, Benjamin; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure
2018-02-01
If dark matter couples predominantly to the axial-vector currents with heavy quarks, the leading contribution to dark-matter scattering on nuclei is either due to one-loop weak corrections or due to the heavy-quark axial charges of the nucleons. We calculate the effects of Higgs and weak gauge-boson exchanges for dark matter coupling to heavy-quark axial-vector currents in an effective theory below the weak scale. By explicit computation, we show that the leading-logarithmic QCD corrections are important, and thus resum them to all orders using the renormalization group.
1/Nc expansion of the quark condensate at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaschke, D.; Kalinovsky, Y.L.; Roepke, G.; Schmidt, S.; Volkov, M.K.
1996-01-01
Previously the quark and meson properties in a many quark system at finite temperature have been studied within effective QCD approaches in the Hartree approximation. In the present paper we consider the influence of the mesonic correlations on the quark self-energy and on the quark propagator within a systematic 1/N c expansion. Using a general separable ansatz for the nonlocal interaction, we derive a self-consistent equation for the 1/N c correction to the quark propagator. For a separable model with cutoff form factor, we obtain a decrease of the condensate of the order of 20% at zero temperature. A lowering of the critical temperature for the onset of the chiral restoration transition due to the inclusion of mesonic correlations is obtained with results that seem to be closer to those from lattice calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Analytic solutions for neutrino momenta in decay of top quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betchart, Burton A., E-mail: bbetchar@pas.rochester.edu; Demina, Regina, E-mail: regina@pas.rochester.edu; Harel, Amnon, E-mail: amnon.harel@cern.ch
2014-02-01
We employ a geometric approach to analytically solve equations of constraint on the decay of top quarks involving leptons. The neutrino momentum is found as a function of the 4-vectors of the associated bottom quark and charged lepton, the masses of the top quark and W boson, and a single parameter, which constrains it to an ellipse. We show how the measured imbalance of momenta in the event reduces the solutions for neutrino momenta to a discrete set, in the cases of one or two top quarks decaying to leptons. The algorithms can be implemented concisely with common linear algebra routines. -- Highlights: • Neutrino momentum from top quark decay is constrained to an ellipse. • We find analytically the best neutrino momenta given the momentum imbalance. • A reference implementation of the algorithms is included.
HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.
2005-04-11
The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear
HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.
2005-01-01
The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely high
Numerical estimates of the evolution of quark and gluon populations inside QCD jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garetto, M.
1980-01-01
The system of first order differential equations for the probabilities of producing nsub(g) gluons and nsub(q) quarks in a single gluon or quark jet are solved numerically for a convenient choice of the parameters A, A-tilde, B. Relevant branching ratios as the evolution parameter Y increases are shown. The different behaviour of the distributions in the quark- and in the gluon-jet is discussed. (author)
Exact solutions to a schematic nuclear quark model and colorless superconductivity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; da Providencia, Joao
2008-01-01
Exact solutions are found to the equations of a standard nuclear quark model exemplified by the Bonn model which is defined in terms of an effective pairing force. We show, by symmetry arguments, that, in general, the ground state of this model is not color neutral. In particular, color-neutral s......Exact solutions are found to the equations of a standard nuclear quark model exemplified by the Bonn model which is defined in terms of an effective pairing force. We show, by symmetry arguments, that, in general, the ground state of this model is not color neutral. In particular, color...
Inflating metastable quark-gluon plasma universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kaempfer, B.; Sysoev, V.M.
1990-01-01
We show within the Friedmann model with the equation of state p(T)=aT 4 -AT that our universe has expanded exponentially when it was in a metastable quark-gluon plasma state. The scale factor during that epoch increased by many orders of magnitude. 13 refs.; 5 figs
Effects of Δ baryon in hyperon stars in a modified quark meson coupling model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, H.S.; Mishra, R.N.; Panda, P.K.; Barik, N.
2016-01-01
Recent studies on the appearance of the Δ (1232) isobars in neutron stars has ignited much debate on the possibility of its existence in neutron stars satisfying the observational limit of 2 M_⊙. Given the fact that the presence of the Δ tends to soften the equation of state (EoS) and reduce the maximum mass, theoretical and observational contradictions have given rise to the so called Δ puzzle, similar to the hyperon puzzle. In the present work we develop the EoS for dense matter with the inclusion of the nucleons, hyperons and the Delta isobars and study the effects of such inclusion on stellar properties using a Modified Quark-Meson coupling model (MQMC)
S-matrix approach to the equation of state of dilute nuclear matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-04-01
matrix framework, a method is presented to calculate the equation of state of dilute warm nuclear matter. The result is a model-independent virial series for the pressure and density that systematically includes contributions from ...
Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin
2014-01-01
We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator with a coupling. We identify a number of ''flavor-safe'' scenarios for the structure of which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed
Flipped neutrino emissivity from strange matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goyal, A.; Dutta, S. (Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India))
1994-04-15
Energy loss due to wrong helicity sterile neutrinos through spin flip processes leads to rapid cooling of nascent neutron stars. The observed cooling of neutron stars associated with SN 1987A seems to preclude the existence of Dirac neutrinos with a mass in excess of 20 keV. Assuming that nuclear matter in the core of the neutron star undergoes a phase transition to quark matter leading to a strange star or a neutron star with a strange matter core, we examine the emission of flipped Dirac neutrinos for two dominant processes: quark-neutrino scattering [[ital q]+[nu][sub [minus
Perspectives in hadron and quark dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amsler, C.; Bressani, T.; Close, F.E.; De Sanctis, E.; Frois, B.; Kunne, F.; Laget, J.M.; von Harrach, D.; Metag, V.; Mulders, P.J.; Riska, D.O.
1997-01-01
In the past two decades, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has emerged as the theory for the strong force with quarks and gluons as the building blocks of nuclear matter at large densities and high temperatures. One of the most exciting challenges for nuclear physics is the study of the non-perturbative regime of QCD. It is this regime which is relevant for understanding how the elementary fields of QCD - quarks and gluons - build up particles such as protons and neutrons. A basic theoretical difficulty is the non-existence of asymptotic, isolated, colored objects. This is a feature of the richness of the vacuum structure of QCD. Understanding the different QCD phases and the transitions among them is the challenge of the modern study of strong interactions. At low energy, chiral symmetry can be used to build aneffective theory of hadron interactions. At higher energies, the parton model uses non-perturbative quark and gluon distributions to describe hadronic scattering processes. (orig)
The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis
Hogan, Craig J.
1987-01-01
After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.
Shining LUX on isospin-violating dark matter beyond leading order
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cirigliano, V.; Graesser, M. L.; Ovanesyan, G.
2014-01-01
Isospin-violating dark matter (IVDM) has been proposed as a viable scenario to reconcile conflicting positive and null results from direct detection dark matter experiments. We show that the lowest-order dark matter-nucleus scattering rate can receive large and nucleus-dependent corrections at next......-to-leading order (NLO) in the chiral expansion. The size of these corrections depends on the specific couplings of dark matter to quark flavors and gluons. In general the full NLO dark-matter-nucleus cross-section is not adequately described by just the zero-energy proton and neutron couplings. These statements...... are concretely illustrated in a scenario where the dark matter couples to quarks through scalar operators. We find the canonical IVDM scenario can reconcile the null XENON and LUX results and the recent CDMS-Si findings provided its couplings to second and third generation quarks either lie on a special line...
PREFACE: SQM2007 International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter
Šafařík, Karel; Šándor, Ladislav; Tomášik, Boris
2008-04-01
The International Conference on `Strangeness in Quark Matter' (SQM) was held from 24-29 June 2007 at the Congress Hall of the city cultural centre in the charming mediaeval town of Levoča in north-eastern Slovakia. The Institute of Experimental Physics of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Faculty of Science of the P J Šafárik University in Košice shared the duties of main organizers of the conference. SQM2007 was attended by more than 100 participants from about 20 countries. The natural beauty and the rich cultural and historical monuments of the surrounding Spiš (Scepusium) region created an inspiring setting for the scientific, social and cultural framework of the conference. Continuing the trend started at the SQM2006 conference, heavy flavour physics in heavy-ion collisions was a topic given equal importance in the SQM2007 programme alongside strange quark physics. The Symposium for Students, from Students, organized by Christian Klein-Boesing and Boris Tomášik on the basis of the contributed abstracts, was again an integral and successful part of the conference. The jury, drawn from the organizers, awarded William A Horowitz (Columbia University) the title of best student contribution. The good news is that many students and younger researchers attended the conference. This could not have happened without generous support from our sponsors whom we would like to thank for valuable financial support: CERN, Journal of Physics G, the Prešov self-governing region authorities and the Slovak Physical Society. The kind assistance of the mayor of the town of Levoča is also warmly acknowledged. We would like to extend our gratitude to our colleagues and students from the organizing institutions for their diligent work prior to and during the conference, which ensured that everything worked smoothly. Our special thanks go to our secretaries, Adri Chomičová and Mery Šemš'aková, as well as to the management of the SATEL Hotel in Levoča for their highly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shekhter, V [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki
1981-04-01
The history is described of the concept of quarks, ie., hypothetical particles of which,hadrons (strongly interacting particles) are believed to consist. The quark properties differ from those of known elementary particles. The electric charge of quarks is 1/3 and 2/3 of the electron charge and they obviously only exist inside hadrons. Quark existence is generally recognized because it has been confirmed by experimental verification of predictions made using a quark model.
Light quarks and small X physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A.R.
1992-01-01
The significance of the low k perpendicular part of the Lipatov equation for the QCD soft Pomeron is discussed. It is then argued that light quarks are essential for the emergence of confinement and a Pomeron with the right physical properties. The implications for small x parton distributions are considered
Probing sea quarks and gluons: the electron-ion collider project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horn, T.
2014-01-01
A future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would be the world's first polarized electron-proton collider, and the world's first e-A collider, and would seek the QCD foundation of nucleons and nuclei in terms of the sea quarks and gluons, matching to these valence quark studies. The EIC will provide a versatile range of kinematics and beam polarization, as well as beam species, to allow for mapping the spin and spatial structure of the quark sea and gluons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in atomic nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadronic matter from color charge. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, T.L.
1976-01-01
The infrared limit in asymptotically free non-abelian gauge theories using recently developed non-perturbative methods which allow derivation of zero momentum theorems for Green's functions and vertices is described. These low-energy theorems are compared to the infrared behavior predicted from the renormalization group equation when the existence of an infrared fixed point is assumed. A set of objects is exhibited whose low energy theorems violate the scaling behavior predicted by the renormalization group. This shows that the assumed fixed point cannot exist and that in the Landau gauge the effective charge becomes infinite in the infrared. Qualitatively this implies that as an attempt is made to separate elementary quanta the interaction between the quanta becomes arbitrarily strong. This indicates at least that the theories studied are capable of color confinement. Results are true only for theories with large numbers of quarks. This opens the possibility that large numbers of quarks are actually necessary for confinement
Influence of quark nuggets on primordial nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaeffer, R.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Audouze, J.
1985-03-01
There are many indications that the baryonic content of the universe is rather low. This has been suggested that small droplets, ''nuggets'', of quark matter could exist and be stable or at least metastable with respect to their decay into ordinary nucleons or nuclei. This hypothesis is discussed here
Chiral gravitational waves and baryon superfluid dark matter
Alexander, Stephon; McDonough, Evan; Spergel, David N.
2018-05-01
We develop a unified model of darkgenesis and baryogenesis involving strongly interacting dark quarks, utilizing the gravitational anomaly of chiral gauge theories. In these models, both the visible and dark baryon asymmetries are generated by the gravitational anomaly induced by the presence of chiral primordial gravitational waves. We provide a concrete model of an SU(2) gauge theory with two massless quarks. In this model, the dark quarks condense and form a dark baryon charge superfluid (DBS), in which the Higgs-mode acts as cold dark matter. We elucidate the essential features of this dark matter scenario and discuss its phenomenological prospects.
Backreaction effects on the matter side of Einstein's field equations
Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2015-01-01
Recently, we have derived a novel and compact expression for how perturbations in the matter fields of the cosmological fluid can lead to deviations from the standard Friedmann equations. Remarkably, the dissipative damping of velocity perturbations by bulk and shear viscosity in the dark sector can modify the expansion history of the universe on arbitrarily large scales. In universes in which this effect is sufficiently sizeable, it could account for the acceleration of the cosmological expansion. But even if dark matter should be less viscous and if the effect would be correspondingly smaller, it may have observable consequences in the era of precision cosmology. Here, we review the origin of this backreaction effect and possibilities to constrain it further.
Prediction of new Quarks, Generations and Quark Masses
Lach, Thedore
2002-04-01
The Standard model currently suggests no relationship between the quark and lepton masses. The CBM (model) of the nucleus has resulted in the prediction of two new quarks, an up quark mass of 237.31 MeV/c2 and a dn quark mass of 42.392 MeV/c2. These two new quarks help explain the numerical relationship between all the quark and lepton masses in a single function. The mass of each SNU-P (quark or lepton) is just the geometric mean of two related SNU-Ps, either in the same generation or in the same family. This numerology predicts the following masses for the electron family: 0.511000 (electron), 7.743828 (predicted), 117.3520, 1778.38, 26950.08 MeV. The resulting slope of these masses when plotted on semi log paper is "e" to 5 significant figures using the currently accepted mass for Tau. This theory suggests that all the "dn like" quarks have a mass of just 10X multiples of 4.24 MeV (the mass of the "d" quark). The first 3 "up like" quark masses are 38, 237 and 1500 MeV. This theory also predicts a new heavy generation with a lepton mass of 27 GeV, a "dn like" quark of 42.4 GeV, and an "up like" quark of 65 GeV. Significant evidence already exists for the existence of these quarks, and lepton.
Quarked!--Adventures in Particle Physics Education
MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice
2009-01-01
Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike--with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not…
Transport coefficients of Quark-Gluon plasma with full QCD potential
J. P., Prasanth; Bannur, Vishnu M.
2018-05-01
The shear viscosity η, bulk viscosity ζ and their ratio with the entropy density, η / s, ζ / s have been studied in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) within the cluster expansion method. The cluster expansion method allows us to include the interaction between the partons in the deconfined phase and to calculate the equation of state of quark-gluon plasma. It has been argued that the interactions present in the equation of state, the modified Cornell potential significantly contributes to the viscosity. The results obtained within our approaches agree with lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) equation of state. We obtained η / s ≈ 0 . 128 within the temperature range T /Tc ∈ [ 0 . 9 , 1 . 5 ] which is very close to the theoretical lower bound η / s ≥ 1 /(4 π) in Yang-Mills theory. We also demonstrate that the effects of ζ / s at freezeout are possibly large.
Has matter's mother paid a call?
Weiss, P
2003-01-01
"..Stunning results .. are prompting a growing chorus of physicists to say that it's time to declare success in a decades-long quest to make quark-gluon plasma - an extremely hot, dense soup of matter that contains loose fundamental particles known as quarks and gluons" (1 page).
Chiral superfluidity of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2012-08-01
In this paper we argue that the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma can be considered as a chiral superfluid. The ''normal'' component of the fluid is the thermalized matter in common sense, while the ''superfluid'' part consists of long wavelength (chiral) fermionic states moving independently. We use several nonperturbative techniques to demonstrate that. First, we analyze the fermionic spectrum in the deconfinement phase (T c c ) using lattice (overlap) fermions and observe a gap between near-zero modes and the bulk of the spectrum. Second, we use the bosonization procedure with a finite cut-off and obtain a dynamical axion-like field out of the chiral fermionic modes. Third, we use relativistic hydrodynamics for macroscopic description of the effective theory obtained after the bosonization. Finally, solving the hydrodynamic equations in gradient expansion, we find that in the presence of external electromagnetic fields the motion of the ''superfluid'' component gives rise to the chiral magnetic, chiral electric and dipole wave effects. Latter two effects are specific for a two-component fluid, which provides us with crucial experimental tests of the model.
Interquark potential with finite quark mass from lattice QCD.
Kawanai, Taichi; Sasaki, Shoichi
2011-08-26
We present an investigation of the interquark potential determined from the q ̄q Bethe-Salpeter (BS) amplitude for heavy quarkonia in lattice QCD. The q ̄q potential at finite quark mass m(q) can be calculated from the equal-time and Coulomb gauge BS amplitude through the effective Schrödinger equation. The definition of the potential itself requires information about a kinetic mass of the quark. We then propose a self-consistent determination of the quark kinetic mass on the same footing. To verify the proposed method, we perform quenched lattice QCD simulations with a relativistic heavy-quark action at a lattice cutoff of 1/a≈2.1 GeV in a range 1.0≤m(q)≤3.6 GeV. Our numerical results show that the q ̄q potential in the m(q)→∞ limit is fairly consistent with the conventional one obtained from Wilson loops. The quark-mass dependence of the q ̄q potential and the spin-spin potential are also examined. © 2011 American Physical Society
Walsh, Karen McNulty
2011-03-28
Near-light-speed collisions of gold ions provide a recipe for in-depth explorations of matter and fundamental forces. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has produced the most massive antimatter nucleus ever discovered?and the first containing an anti-strange quark. The presence of strange antimatter makes this antinucleus the first to be entered below the plane of the classic Periodic Table of Elements, marking a new frontier in physics.
Heavy meson observables and Dyson-Schwinger equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, M. A.
1998-01-01
Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) studies show that the b-quark mass-function is approximately constant, and that this is true to a lesser extent for the c-quark. This observation provides the basis for a study of the leptonic and semileptonic decays of heavy pseudoscalar mesons using a ''heavy-quark'' limit of the DSES, which, when exact, reduces the number of independent form factors. Semileptonic decays with light mesons in the final state are also accessible because the DSES provide a description of light-quark propagation characteristics and light-meson structure. A description of B-meson decays is straightforward, however, the study of decays involving the D-meson indicates that c-quark mass-corrections are quantitatively important
Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas
2018-01-01
We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T -parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T -parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling [Formula: see text], thus evading direct detection.
Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas
2018-02-01
We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T-parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T-parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling λ _{ {DM}}˜ O(1%), thus evading direct detection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balkin, Reuven; Weiler, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, First Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Perez, Gilad [W