WorldWideScience

Sample records for quark fragmentation functions

  1. The NJL Model for Quark Fragmentation Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Ito, W. Bentz, I. Cloet, A W Thomas, K. Yazaki

    2009-10-01

    A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective quark theory. Concentrating on the pion fragmentation function, we first explain the reason why the elementary (lowest order) fragmentation process q → qπ is completely inadequate to describe the empirical data, although the “crossed” process π → qq describes the quark distribution functions in the pion reasonably well. Then, taking into account cascade-like processes in a modified jet-model approach, we show that the momentum and isospin sum rules can be satisfied naturally without introducing any ad-hoc parameters. We present numerical results for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the invariant mass regularization scheme, and compare the results with the empirical parametrizations. We argue that this NJL-jet model provides a very useful framework to calculate the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory.

  2. The NJL Model for Quark Fragmentation Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Ito, W. Bentz, I. Cloet, A W Thomas, K. Yazaki

    2009-10-01

    A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective quark theory. Concentrating on the pion fragmentation function, we first explain the reason why the elementary (lowest order) fragmentation process q → qπ is completely inadequate to describe the empirical data, although the “crossed” process π → qq describes the quark distribution functions in the pion reasonably well. Then, taking into account cascade-like processes in a modified jet-model approach, we show that the momentum and isospin sum rules can be satisfied naturally without introducing any ad-hoc parameters. We present numerical results for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the invariant mass regularization scheme, and compare the results with the empirical parametrizations. We argue that this NJL-jet model provides a very useful framework to calculate the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory.

  3. Measurement of the Quark and Gluon Fragmentation Functions in $Z^0$ Hadronic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Ortuno, S; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Skatchkov, N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Wlodek, T; Yi, J; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    The fragmentation functions and multiplicities in $b\\overline{b}$ and light quark events are compared. The measured transverse and longitudinal components of the fragmentation function allow the gluon fragmentation function to be evaluated.

  4. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c-quark to split into S-wave D{sup 0} -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO. (orig.)

  5. Excited State Contributions to the Heavy Baryon Fragmentation Functions in a Quark-Diquark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Adamov, A D; Goldstein, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. The resulting $\\Lambda_b$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are in agreement with experiment. The $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ functions are also obtained. The spin independent $f_1(z)$ is compared to data. The integrated values for production rates agree with the data.

  6. Perturbative heavy quark fragmentation function through O(α2s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Kirill; Mitov, Alexander

    2004-08-01

    We derive the initial condition for the perturbative fragmentation function of a heavy quark through order O(α2s) in the MS¯ scheme. This initial condition is useful for computing heavy quark (or lepton, in case of QED) energy distributions from calculations with massless partons. In addition, the initial condition at O(α2s) can be used to resum collinear logarithms ln(Q2/m2) in heavy quark energy spectrum with next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy by solving the DGLAP equation.

  7. Fragmentation functions of pions and kaons in the nonlocal chiral quark model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Chung Wen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the unpolarized pion and kaon fragmentation functions using the nonlocal chiral-quark model. In this model the interactions between the quarks and pseudoscalar mesons is manifested nonlocally. In addition, the explicit flavor SU(3 symmetry breaking effect is taken into account in terms of the current quark masses. The results of our model are evaluated to higher Q2 value Q2 = 4 GeV2 by the DGLAP evolution. Then we compare them with the empirical parametrizations. We find that our results are in relatively good agreement with the empirical parametrizations and the other theoretical estimations.

  8. Heavy quark fragmentation functions at next-to-leading perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nejad, S M Moosavi

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that the dominant mechanism to produce hadronic bound states with large transverse momentum is fragmentation. This mechanism is described by the fragmentation functions (FFs) which are the universal and process-independent functions. Here, we review the perturbative FFs formalism as an appropriate tool for studying these hadronization processes and detail the extension of this formalism at next-to-leading order (NLO). Using the Suzuki's model, we calculate the perturbative QCD FF for a heavy quark to fragment into a S-wave heavy meson at NLO. As an example, we study the LO and NLO FFs for a charm quark to split into the S-wave $D$-meson and compare our analytic results both with experimental data and well-known phenomenological models.

  9. Heavy-quark fragmentation functions at next-to-leading perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sartipi Yarahmadi, P. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is well known that the dominant mechanism to produce hadronic bound states with large transverse momentum is fragmentation. This mechanism is described by the fragmentation functions (FFs) which are the universal and process-independent functions. Here, we review the perturbative FFs formalism as an appropriate tool for studying these hadronization processes and detail the extension of this formalism at next-to-leading order (NLO). Using Suzuki's model, we calculate the perturbative QCD FF for a heavy quark to fragment into a S-wave heavy meson at NLO. As an example, we study the LO and NLO FFs for a charm quark to split into the S-wave D-meson and compare our analytic results both with experimental data and well-known phenomenological models. (orig.)

  10. A preliminary measurement of the b quark fragmentation function in hadronic Z{sup 0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The SLD Collaboration

    1996-06-01

    We present a measurement of the {ital b} quark fragmentation function from a sample of semi-leptonic {bold B} decays collected between 1993 and 1995 in the SLD experiment at SLAC. The energy of each tagged {bold B} hadron was reconstructed using information from the lepton and a partially reconstructed charm decay vertex. A comparison of the scaled energy distribution with several phenomenological models of heavy quark fragmentation was made, using the same model in each case to correct the data. The average scaled energy was found to be {l_angle}{chi}{sub E}{r_angle} = 0.697{+-}0.012({ital stat}){sup +0. 028}{sub -0.024} ({ital syst})(preliminary).

  11. Measurement of the b quark fragmentation function in $Z^{0}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, D

    1999-01-01

    We present results of a new measurement of the inclusive b quark fragmentation function in Z0 decays using a novel kinematic B hadron energy reconstruction technique. The measurement is performed using 150,000 hadronic Z 0 events recorded in the SLD experiment at SLAC between 1996 and 1997. The small and stable SLC beam spot and the CCD- based vertex detector are used to reconstruct topological B-decay vertices with high efficiency and purity, and to provide precise measurements of the kinematic quantities used in this technique. We measure the B energy with good efficiency and resolution over the full kinematic range. While comparing the scaled B energy distribution with predictions of several models of b quark fragmentation, we also test several functional forms of the B energy distribution. Several fragmentation models and functional forms are excluded by the data. The mean of the scaled energy distribution of the weakly decaying B hadron is measured to be xB = 0.714 ± 0.005 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst) �...

  12. Measurement of the b quark fragmentation function in Z{sup 0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, D.

    1999-12-01

    The authors present results of a new measurement of the inclusive b quark fragmentation function in Z decays using a novel kinematic B hadron energy reconstruction technique. The measurement is performed using 150,000 hadronic Z events recorded in the SLD experiment at SLAC between 1996 and 1997. The small and stable SLC beam spot and the CCD-based vertex detector are used to reconstruct topological B-decay vertices with high efficiency and purity, and to provide precise measurements of the kinematic quantities used in this technique. The authors measure the B energy with good efficiency and resolution over the full kinematic range. While comparing the scaled B energy distribution with predictions of several models of b quark fragmentation, the authors also test several functional forms of the B energy distribution. Several fragmentation models and functional forms are excluded by the data. The mean of the scaled energy distribution of the weakly decaying B hadron is measured to be x{sub B} = 0.714{+-}0.00(stat){+-}0.007(syst){+-}0.002 (model).

  13. An Improved Measurement of the b Quark Fragmentation Function in $Z^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, D; Abe, T; Adam, I; Akagi, T; Allen, N J; Arodzero, A; Ash, William W; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barakat, M B; Bardon, O; Barklow, Timothy L; Bauer, J M; Bellodi, G; Ben-David, R; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bolen, B D; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Calcaterra, A; Caldwell, D O; Calloway, D H; Camanzi, B; Carpinelli, M; Cassell, R; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Chou, A; Church, E; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Convery, M R; Cook, V; Cotton, R; Cowan, R F; Coyne, D G; Crawford, G; Damerell, C J S; Danielson, M N; Daoudi, M; De Groot, N; Dell'Orso, R; Dervan, P J; De Sangro, R; Dima, M; de Oliveira, A; Dong, D N; Du, P Y C; Dubois, R; Eisenstein, B I; Eschenburg, V; Etzion, E; Fahey, S; Falciai, D; Fan, C; Fernández, J P; Fero, M J; Flood, K; Frey, R; Gillman, T; Gladding, G E; González, S; Hart, E L; Harton, J L; Hasan, A; Hasuko, K; Hedges, S J; Hertzbach, S S; Hildreth, M D; Huber, J; Huffer, M E; Hughes, E W; Huynh, X; Hwang, H; Iwasaki, M; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Jiang, Z Y; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Johnson, R A; Junk, T R; Kajikawa, R; Kalelkar, M S; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kang, H J; Karliner, I; Kawahara, H; Kim, Y D; King, R; King, M E; Kofler, R R; Krishna, N M; Kroeger, R S; Langston, M; Lath, A; Leith, D W G S; Lia, V; Lin, C J S; Liu, X; Liu, M X; Loreti, M; Lu, A; Lynch, H L; Ma, J; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S L; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; Masuda, H; Mazzucato, E; McKemey, A K; Meadows, B T; Menegatti, G; Messner, R; Mockett, P M; Moffeit, K C; Moore, T B; Morii, M; Müller, D; Murzin, V S; Nagamine, T; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H A; Nussbaum, M; Oishi, N; Onoprienko, D V; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, H; Park, C H; Pavel, T J; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pieroni, E; Pitts, K T; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Punkar, G D; Quigley, J; Ratcliff, B N; Reeves, T W; Reidy, J; Reinertsen, P L; Rensing, P E; Rochester, L S; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T L; Schindler, R H; Schumm, B A; Schwiening, J; Sen, S; Serbo, V V; Shaevitz, M H; Shank, J T; Shapiro, G; Sherden, D J; Shmakov, K D; Simopoulos, C; Sinev, N B; Smith, S R; Smy, M B; Snyder, J A; Stängle, H; Stahl, A; Stamer, P E; Steiner, R; Steiner, H; Strauss, M G; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Swartz, M; Szumilo, A; Takahashi, T; Taylor, F E; Thom, J; Torrence, E; Toumbas, N K; Trandafir, A I; Turk, J; Usher, T; Vannini, C; Vavra, J; Vella, E N; Venuti, J P; Verdier, R; Verdini, P G; Wagner, S R; Wagner, D L; Waite, A P; Walston S; Wang, J; Ward, C; Watts, S J; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; White, S L; Wickens, F J; Williams, B; Williams, D C; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittlin, J L; Woods, M; Word, G B; Wright, T R; Wyss, J; Yamamoto, R K; Yamartino, J M; Yang, X; Yashima, J; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Dong, Danning

    2001-01-01

    We present a new preliminary measurement of the b quark fragmentation function in Z0 decays using a novel kinematic B hadron energy reconstruction technique. The measurement is performed using 150,000 hadronic Z0 events recorded in the SLD experiment at SLAC between 1996 and 1997. The small and stable SLC beam spot and the CCD-based vertex detector are used to reconstruct topological B-decay vertices with high efficiency and purity, and to provide precise measurements of the kinematic quantities used in this technique. We measure the B energy with good efficiency and resolution over the full kinematic range. We compare the scaled B hadron energy distribution with several functional forms of the B hadron energy distribution and models of b quark fragmentation. Several functions including JETSET + Peterson are excluded by the data. The average scaled energy of the weakly decaying B hadron is measured to be XB = 0.719 +/- 0.005 (stat) +/- 0.007 (syst) +/- 0.001 (model) (preliminary).

  14. The b Quark Fragmentation Function, From LEP to TeVatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-haim, Eli [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2004-12-01

    production at CDF is ongoing. It makes use of ~ 6000 B± candidates, from 333 pb-1 of data registered by the CDF experiment, fully reconstructed in the decay channel B± → J/ΨK±. Characteristics of B mesons and for accompanying tracks have been examined, in the perspective of understanding the effect of fragmentation. These studies, done in the framework of the PYTHIA event generator, also involve the contributions from different b$\\bar{b}$ production mechanisms. Distributions from a fully reconstructed Monte Carlo sample have been compared to data, and the agreement has been found to be reasonable. The analysis is ongoing, and the goal is to fit the fragmentation function parameters and/or the relative contributions from different production mechanisms to improve the agreement between data and Monte Carlo. A measurement of the b quark production cross section has been obtained using the same data. The analysis is still under way, and therefore the result is preliminary.

  15. The b Quark Fragmentation Function, From LEP to TeVatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-haim, Eli

    2004-12-01

    ongoing. It makes use of {approx} 6000 B{sup {+-}} candidates, from 333 pb{sup -1} of data registered by the CDF experiment, fully reconstructed in the decay channel B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sup {+-}}. Characteristics of B mesons and for accompanying tracks have been examined, in the perspective of understanding the effect of fragmentation. These studies, done in the framework of the PYTHIA event generator, also involve the contributions from different b{bar b} production mechanisms. Distributions from a fully reconstructed Monte Carlo sample have been compared to data, and the agreement has been found to be reasonable. The analysis is ongoing, and the goal is to fit the fragmentation function parameters and/or the relative contributions from different production mechanisms to improve the agreement between data and Monte Carlo. A measurement of the b quark production cross section has been obtained using the same data. The analysis is still under way, and therefore the result is preliminary.

  16. Measurement of the quark to photon fragmentation function through the inclusive production of prompt photons in hadronic $Z^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J R; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, S; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, I J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, F; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Homer, R J; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, M; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D; Kartvelishvili, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, M J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, A; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Plinks, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, o B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, a N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1998-01-01

    The inclusive production of prompt photons with energy above 10 GeV is measured using the OPAL detector in hadronic Z^0 decays at LEP. In contrast to previous measurements, the prompt photons were not required to be isolated. The production rate and energy spectrum are found to be in agreement with QCD predictions for the quark-to-photon fragmentation function.

  17. The b Quark Fragmentation Function, From LEP to TeVatron

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Haim, Eli; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore

    2004-01-01

    The b quark fragmentation distribution has been measured, using data registered by the DELPHI experiment at the Z pole, in the years 1994-1995. The measurement made use of 176000 inclusively reconstructed B meson candidates. The uncertainties of this measurement are dominated by systematic effects, the principal ones being related to the energy calibration. The distribution has been established in a nine bin histogram. Its mean value has been found to be = 0.704±0.001(stat.)±0.008(syst.) Using this measurement, and other available analyses of the b-quark fragmentation distribution in e +e − collisions, the non-perturbative QCD component of the distribution has been extracted independently of any hadronic physics modeling. This distribution depends only on the way the perturbative QCD component has been defined. When the perturbative QCD component is taken from a parton shower Monte-Carlo, the non-perturbative QCD component is rather similar with those obtained from the Lund or Bowler models. When the pert...

  18. SCALING AND 4-QUARK FRAGMENTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLTEN, O; BOSVELD, GD

    1991-01-01

    The conditions for a scaling behaviour from the fragmentation process leading to slow protons are discussed- The scaling referred to implies that the fragmentation functions depend on the light-cone momentum fraction only. It is shown that differences in the fragmentation functions for valence- and

  19. Spin dependence of heavy quark fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornet, Fernando [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Anadaluz de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: cornet@ugr.es; Garcia Canal, Carlos A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, La Plata (1900) (Argentina)

    2008-05-01

    We propose that the non-perturbative part of the fragmentation function describing the transition from a heavy quark to a heavy meson is proportional to the square of the produced meson wave function at the origin, taking into account hyperfine interactions. We analyze the effects of this proposal on the number of pseudoscalar mesons compared to the number of vector mesons produced and find a good agreement with experimental data. Finally, we discuss further experimental checks for our hypothesis.

  20. Recursive fragmentation model with quark spin. Application to quark polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Artru, X

    2010-01-01

    An elementary recursive model accounting for the quark spin in the fragmentation of a quark into mesons is presented. The quark spin degree of freedom is represented by a two-components spinor. Spin one meson can be included. The model produces Collins effect and jet handedness. The influence of the initial quark polarisation decays exponentially with the rank of the meson, at dierent rates for longitudinal and transverse polarisations

  1. Modelling distribution functions and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, J; Mulders, P J

    1995-01-01

    We present examples for the calculation of the distribution and fragmentation functions using the representation in terms of non-local matrix elements of quark field operators. As specific examples, we use a simple spectator model to estimate the leading twist quark distribution functions and the fragmentation functions for a quark into a nucleon or a pion.

  2. A measurement of the b quark fragmentation function at {radical}Q{sup 2} = 45.6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, E.D.

    1996-06-01

    Presented here is a measurement of the b quark fragmentation function D{sub b}(X), taken from a sample of 504 semi-leptonic B decays which were selected from the 150,000 Z{sup 0} decays collected between 1993 and 1995 at the SLD at SLAC. The energy of each tagged B hadron is reconstructed using missing jet energy, based on the information from the lepton and a partially-reconstructed charm-decay vertex. Account is taken of the effect of primary orbitally excited mesons (B**s). An iterative unfolding procedure is used which serves to effectively extract the true fragmentation function from the reconstructed B energy spectrum. The final result is shown to be compatible with many theoretical models. A comparison is made with other b fragmentation function measurements at 45.6 GeV, and this measurement is shown to be consistent with those results. The average scaled energy is found to be (x{sub E}) = 0.697{+-} 0.017(stat) {+-} 0.034(sys).

  3. Helicity probabilities for heavy quark fragmentation into excited mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, T C

    1995-01-01

    Abstract: In the fragmentation of a heavy quark into a heavy meson whose light degrees of freedom have angular momentum 3/2, all the helicity probabilities are completely determined in the heavy quark limit up to a single probability w_{3/2}. We point out that this probability depends on the longitudinal momentum fraction z of the meson and on its transverse momentum p_\\bot relative to the jet axis. We calculate w_{3/2} as a function of scaling variables corresponding to z and p_\\bot for the heavy quark limit of the perturbative QCD fragmentation functions for b quark to fragment into (b \\bar c) mesons. In this model, the light degrees of freedom prefer to have their angular momentum aligned transverse to, rather than along, the jet axis. Implications for the production of excited heavy mesons, like D^{**} and B^{**}, are discussed.

  4. Quark to $\\Lambda$-hyperon spin transfers in the current-fragmentation region

    CERN Document Server

    Chi, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    We perform a study on the struck quark to the $\\Lambda$-hyperon fragmentation processes by taking into account the anti-quark fragmentations and intermediate decays from other hyperons. We concentrate on how the longitudinally polarized quark fragments to the longitudinally polarized $\\Lambda$, how unpolarized quark and anti-quark fragment to the unpolarized $\\Lambda$, and how quark and anti-quark fragment to the $\\Lambda$ through the intermediate decay processes. We calculate the effective fragmentation functions in the light-cone SU(6) quark-spectator-diquark model via the Gribov-Lipatov relation, with the Melosh-Wigner rotation effect also included. The calculated results are in reasonable agreement with the HERMES semi-inclusive $ep$ experimental data and the OPAL and ALEPH $e^{+}e^{-}$ annihilation experimental data.

  5. Role of heavy quarks in light hadron fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Manuel; García Canal, Carlos; Sassot, R.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the role of heavy quarks in the production of light flavored hadrons and in the determination of the corresponding nonperturbative hadronization probabilities. We define a general mass variable flavor number scheme for fragmentation functions that accounts for heavy quark mass effects, and perform a global QCD analysis to an up-to-date data set including very precise Belle and BABAR results. We show that the mass dependent picture provides a much more accurate and consistent description of the data.

  6. Effective Field Theory approach to heavy quark fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickinger, Michael [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 9, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Fleming, Sean [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. Fourth Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kim, Chul [Institute of Convergence Fundamental Studies and School of Liberal Arts,Seoul National University of Science and Technology,232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Mereghetti, Emanuele [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-17

    Using an approach based on Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) we determine the b-quark fragmentation function from electron-positron annihilation data at the Z-boson peak at next-to-next-to leading order with next-to-next-to leading log resummation of DGLAP logarithms, and next-to-next-to-next-to leading log resummation of endpoint logarithms. This analysis improves, by one order, the previous extraction of the b-quark fragmentation function. We find that while the addition of the next order in the calculation does not much shift the extracted form of the fragmentation function, it does reduce theoretical errors indicating that the expansion is converging. Using an approach based on effective field theory allows us to systematically control theoretical errors. While the fits of theory to data are generally good, the fits seem to be hinting that higher order correction from HQET may be needed to explain the b-quark fragmentation function at smaller values of momentum fraction.

  7. Effective field theory approach to heavy quark fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fickinger, Michael; Kim, Chul; Mereghetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Using an approach based on Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) we determine the $b$-quark fragmentation function from electron-positron annihilation data at the $Z$-boson peak at next-to-next-to leading order, with next-to-next-to leading log resummation of DGLAP logarithms, and next-to-next-to-next-to leading log resummation of endpoint logarithms. This analysis improves, by one order, the previous extraction of the $b$-quark fragmentation function. We find that while the addition of the next order in the calculation does not much shift the extracted form of the fragmentation function, it does reduce theoretical errors indicating that the expansion is converging. Using an approach based on effective field theory allows us to systematically control theoretical errors. While the fits of theory to data are generally good, the fits seem to be hinting that higher order correction from HQET may be needed to explain the $b$-quark fragmentation function at smaller values of...

  8. Scaling violations of quark and gluon jet fragmentation functions in $e^{+}e^{-}$ annihilations at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 91.2 and 183-209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Bock, P; Boeriu, O; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Büsser, K; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, F L; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, D; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krieger, P; Krüger, K; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, H; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, M; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Vollmer, C F; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L; Von Krogh, J

    2004-01-01

    Flavour inclusive, udsc and b fragmentation functions in unbiased jets, and flavour inclusive, udsc, b and gluon fragmentation functions in biased jets are measured in e^{+}e^{-} annihilations from data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 91.2, and 183-209 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The unbiased jets are defined by hemispheres of inclusive hadronic events, while the biased jet measurements are based on three-jet events selected with jet algorithms. Several methods are employed to extract the fragmentation functions over a wide range of scales. Possible biases are studied in the results obtained. The fragmentation functions are compared to results from lower energy e^{+}e^{-} experiments and with earlier LEP measurements and are found to be consistent. Scaling violations are observed and are found to be stronger for the fragmentation functions of gluon jets than for those of quarks. The measured fragmentation functions are compared to three recent theoretical next-to-leading order calculations and ...

  9. Scaling violations of quark and gluon jet fragmentation functions in $e^{+}e{-}$ annihilations at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 91.2 and 183-209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2004-01-01

    Flavour inclusive, udsc and b fragmentation functions in unbiased jets, and flavour inclusive, udsc, b and gluon fragmentation functions in biased jets are measured in e+e- annihilations from data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 91.2, and 183-209 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The unbiased jets are defined by hemispheres of inclusive hadronic events, while the biased jet measurements are based on three-jet events selected with jet algorithms. Several methods are employed to extract the fragmentation functions over a wide range of scales. Possible biases are studied in the results are obtained. The fragmentation functions are compared to results from lower energy e+e- experiments and with earlier LEP measurements and are found to be consistent. Scaling violations are observed and are found to be stronger for the fragmentation functions of gluon jets than for those of quarks. The measured fragmentation functions are compared to three recent theoretical next-to-leading order calculations and to the p...

  10. Scaling and four-quark fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Bosveld, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    The conditions for a scaling behaviour from the fragmentation process leading to slow protons are discussed. The scaling referred to implies that the fragmentation functions depend on the light-cone momentum fraction only. It is shown that differences in the fragmentation functions for valence- and

  11. Transversity and dihadron fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, A; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Radici, Marco

    2005-01-01

    The observation of the quark transversity distribution requires another soft object sensitive to the quark's transverse spin. Dihadron fragmentation functions represent a convenient tool to analyze partonic spin, which can influence the angular distribution of the two hadrons. In particular, the so-called interference fragmentation functions can be used to probe transversity both in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering as well as proton-proton collisions. We discuss two single-spin asymmetries sensitive to transversity in the these two processes, at leading twist and leading order in alpha_S.

  12. Using heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons to determine QCD parameters and test heavy quark symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the use of heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons for testing the heavy quark effective theory through comparison of the measured fragmentation parameters of the c and b quarks. Our analysis is entirely model independent. We interpret the known perturbative evolution in a way useful for exploiting heavy quark symmetry at low energy. We first show consistency with perturbative QCD scaling for measurements done solely with c quarks. We then apply the perturbative analysis and the heavy quark expansion to relate measurements from ARGUS and LEP. We place bounds on a nonperturbative quark mass suppressed parameter, and compare the values for the b and c quarks. We find consistency with the heavy quark expansion but fairly sizable QCD uncertainties. We also suggest that one might reduce the systematic uncertainty in the result by not extrapolating to low z.

  13. A phenomenological study of bottom-quark fragmentation in top-quark decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcella, Gennaro [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Rome (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Mescia, Federico [Universitat de Barcelona, Departamento d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia (ECM) and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Top-quark physics is one of the main fields of investigation at the Tevatron accelerator and, ultimately, at the LHC. We perform a phenomenological analysis of t anti t events at hadron colliders, with a focus on observables relying on bottom-quark fragmentation in top-quark decay. In particular, we investigate the B-lepton invariant-mass distribution in the dilepton channel and give an estimate of the contribution of bottom fragmentation to the Monte Carlo uncertainty on the top-quark mass reconstruction. (orig.)

  14. Quark cluster contribution to cumulative proton emission in fragmentation of carbon ions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, B M; Borodin, Yu A; Bulychjov, S A; Dukhovskoy, I A; Khanov, A I; Krutenkova, A P; Kulikov, V V; Martemyanov, M A; Matsyuk, M A; Turdakina, E N

    2013-01-01

    In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5$^\\circ$ have been measured at fragmentation of carbon ions at $T_0 = $ 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable $x$ in the range 0.9 < $x$ < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quark-gluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8--12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2--0.6% for nine-quark clusters.

  15. New information on photon fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, M

    2014-01-01

    Thermal photons radiated in heavy-ion collisions represent an important signal for a recently discovered new state of matter, the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. However, a clean identification of this signal requires precise knowledge of the prompt photons produced simultaneously in hard collisions of quarks and gluons, mostly through their fragmentation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that PHENIX data on photons produced in proton-proton collisions with low transverse momenta allow to extract new information on this fragmentation process. In particular, these data favor one parameterization (BFG II) over the two other frequently used photon fragmentation functions (BFG I and GRV NLO).

  16. Fragmentation Functions for Heavy Baryons in the Recombination Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭茹

    2011-01-01

    Using the shower parton distributions determined by the recombination model, we predict the fragmentation functions for heavy baryons. Then we obtain the completed fragmentation functions of heavy quarks (c and b) splitting into their hadrons (mesons and baryons containing one heavy valence quark). The calculated process shows that the fragmentation functions for mesons and baryons are not independent if the hadronization of the shower partons is taken into account.%Using the shower parton distributions determined by the recombination model,we predict the fragmentation functions for heavy baryons.Then we obtain the completed fragmentation functions of heavy quarks(c and b)splitting into their hadrons(mesons and baryons containing one heavy valence quark).The calculated process shows that the fragmentation functions for mesons and baryons are not independent if the hadronization of the shower partons is taken into account.

  17. A study of the b-quark fragmentation function with the DELPHI detector at LEP I and an averaged distribution obtained at the Z Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, U; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W-D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Asman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, P; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K-H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A; Berat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besancon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Bruckman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, Ph; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D; Cuevas, J; D’Hondt, J; da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; De Boer, W; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; de Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelof, T; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Foeth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; Garcia, C; Gavillet, Ph; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S-O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouznetsov, O; Krumstein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; H Lopes, J; Lopez, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Marechal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J-C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martinez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W; Mjoernmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Moenig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Mueller, U; Muenich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Nemecek, S; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Olshevski, A; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, Th D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdniakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Radojicic, D; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Richard, F; Ridky, J; Rivero, M; Rodriguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovsky, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassov, T; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tome, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M-L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O; Zalewska, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2011-01-01

    The nature of b-quark jet hadronisation has been investigated using data taken at the Z peak by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Two complementary methods are used to reconstruct the energy of weakly decaying b-hadrons, E^weak_B. The average value of x^weak_B = E^weak_B/E_beam is measured to be 0.699 +/- 0.011. The resulting x^weak_B distribution is then analysed in the framework of two choices for the perturbative contribution (parton shower and Next to Leading Log QCD calculation) in order to extract measurements of the non-perturbative contribution to be used in studies of b-hadron production in other experimental environments than LEP. In the parton shower framework, data favour the Lund model ansatz and corresponding values of its parameters have been determined within PYTHIA~6.156 from DELPHI data: a= 1.84^{+0.23}_{-0.21} and b=0.642^{+0.073}_{-0.063} GeV^-2, with a correlation factor rho = 92.2%. Combining the data on the b-quark fragmentation distributions with those obtained at the Z peak by ALEPH, OPAL a...

  18. A study of the b-quark fragmentation function with the DELPHI detector at LEP I and an averaged distribution obtained at the Z pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J.; Antilogus, P.; Augustin, J.E.; Battaglia, M.; Behrmann, A.; Berat, C.; Silva, T. da; Jungermann, L.; Sander, C. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Univ. Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Carena, F.; Elsing, M.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Moraes, D.; Olshevski, A.; Passon, O.; Pierre, F.; Todorovova, S.; Vegni, G. [FCUL, LIP, IST, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Adam, W.; Brunet, J.M.; Lamsa, J.; Liebig, W.; Lyons, L.; Maltezos, S.; Migliore, E.; Stocchi, A. [Oesterr. Akad. d. Wissensch., Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Vienna (Austria); Adzic, P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Kluit, P.; Lopez, J.M.; Mariotti, C.; Masik, J.; Myklebust, T.; Tyapkin, P.; Zintchenko, A. [N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Institute of Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Albrecht, T.; Allmendinger, T.; Apel, W.D.; Angelis, A. de; Fassouliotis, D.; Guy, J.; Haug, S.; Hedberg, V.; Joram, C.; Kersevan, B.P.; Moa, T.; Rebecchi, P.; Salt, J.; Spassov, T.; Washbrook, A.J. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Postfach 6980, Karlsruhe (Germany); Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Ask, S.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Baroncelli, A.; Calvi, M.; Canale, V.; Chapkin, M.; Checchia, P.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Ellert, M.; Flagmeyer, U.; Garcia, C.; Holmgren, S.O.; Jonsson, P.; King, B.T.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Moch, M.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Parodi, F.; Pimenta, M.; Podobnik, T.; Radojicic, D.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Travnicek, P.; Dam, P. van; Remortel, N. van; Weiser, C. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Allport, P.P.; Boonekamp, M.; Bouquet, B.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Kerzel, U.; Mazzucato, M.; Paiano, S.; Tkatchev, L.; Wahlen, H. [Univ. of Liverpool, Dept. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Amaldi, U.; Bluj, M.; Buschmann, P.; Matorras, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Pukhaeva, N.; Szumlak, T.; Tome, B. [Univ. di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); INFN-MILANO, Dipt. di Fisica, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    2011-02-15

    The nature of b-quark jet hadronisation has been investigated using data taken at the Z peak by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Two complementary methods are used to reconstruct the energy of weakly decaying b-hadrons, E{sub B}{sup weak}. The average value of x{sub B}{sup weak}=E{sub B}{sup weak}/E{sub beam} is measured to be 0.699{+-}0.011. The resulting x{sub B}{sup weak} distribution is then analysed in the framework of two choices for the perturbative contribution (parton shower and Next to Leading Log QCD calculation) in order to extract measurements of the non-perturbative contribution to be used in studies of b-hadron production in other experimental environments than LEP. In the parton shower framework, data favour the Lund model ansatz and corresponding values of its parameters have been determined within PYTHIA 6.156 from DELPHI data: a= 1.84{sup +0.23}{sub -0.21} and b=0.642{sup +0.073}{sub -0.063}{proportional_to} GeV{sup -2}, with a correlation factor {rho}=92.2%. Combining the data on the b-quark fragmentation distributions with those obtained at the Z peak by ALEPH, OPAL and SLD, the average value of x{sub B}{sup weak} is found to be 0.7092{+-}0.0025 and the non-perturbative fragmentation component is extracted. Using the combined distribution, a better determination of the Lund parameters is also obtained: a= 1.48{sup +0.11}{sub -0.10} and b=0.509{sup +0.024}{sub -0.023}{proportional_to} GeV{sup -2}, with a correlation factor {rho}=92.6%. (orig.)

  19. A study of the fragmentation of quarks in e$^{-}$p collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aid, S; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Babaev, A; Bähr, J; Bán, J; Ban, Y; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Barschke, R; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C; Buchholz, R; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Buniatian, A; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Charlet, M; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; Delcourt, B; Del Buono, L; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Duhm, H; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Ehrlichmann, H; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, E; Gabathuler, K; Gamerdinger, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Goerlach, U; Görlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I; Goritchev, P; Grab, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Greenshaw, T; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Haack, J; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hanlon, E M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Hoppner, M; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, P; Hütte, M; Hufnagel, H; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, I R; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Köhler, T; Kohne, J H; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Kramerkamper, T; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krücker, D; Kruger, U; Kruner-Marquis, U; Kubenka, J P; Küster, H; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhofer, J; Kuznik, B; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindner, A; Lindström, G; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lomas, J; López, G C; Lubimov, V; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, R; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, T; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Müller, G; Müller, K; Murín, P; Nagovizin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C; Niedzballa, C; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Pérez, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pieuchot, A; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Rabbertz, K; Rädel, G; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, H; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Ruter, K; Rusakov, S; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Sahlmann, N; Sánchez, E; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleper, P; von Schlippe, W; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schöning, A; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schwind, A; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A; Shekelian, V; Shevyakov, I; Shooshtari, H; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, I O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stösslein, U; Stolze, K; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Sutton, J P; Tapprogge, S; Chernyshov, V; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walker, I W; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wright, A E; Wünsch, E; Wulff, N; Yiou, T P; Zácek, J; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K

    1995-01-01

    Deep inelastic scattering (DIS) events, selected from 1993 data taken by the H1 experiment at HERA, are studied in the Breit frame of reference. The fragmentation function of the quark is compared with those of \\ee data. It is shown that certain aspects of the quarks emerging from within the proton in \\ep interactions are essentially the same as those of quarks pair-created from the vacuum in \\ee annihilation. The measured area, peak position and widthof the fragmentation function show that the kinematic evolution variable, equivalent to the \\ee squared centre of mass energy, is in the Breit frame the invariant square of the four-momentum transfer. We comment on the extent to which we have evidence for coherence effects in parton showers.

  20. Generalized fragmentation functions for fractal jet observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Benjamin T.; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a broad class of fractal jet observables that recursively probe the collective properties of hadrons produced in jet fragmentation. To describe these collinear-unsafe observables, we generalize the formalism of fragmentation functions, which are important objects in QCD for calculating cross sections involving identified final-state hadrons. Fragmentation functions are fundamentally nonperturbative, but have a calculable renormalization group evolution. Unlike ordinary fragmentation functions, generalized fragmentation functions exhibit nonlinear evolution, since fractal observables involve correlated subsets of hadrons within a jet. Some special cases of generalized fragmentation functions are reviewed, including jet charge and track functions. We then consider fractal jet observables that are based on hierarchical clustering trees, where the nonlinear evolution equations also exhibit tree-like structure at leading order. We develop a numeric code for performing this evolution and study its phenomenological implications. As an application, we present examples of fractal jet observables that are useful in discriminating quark jets from gluon jets.

  1. Evolution of chirality-odd twist-3 fragmentation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. P.; Zhang, G. P.

    2017-09-01

    We derive the complete set of evolutions of chirality-odd twist-3 fragmentation functions at one-loop level. There are totally nine real twist-3 fragmentation functions, among which seven are independent. The renormalization-scale dependence of the nine functions has an important implication for studies of single transverse-spin asymmetries. We find that the evolutions of the three complex fragmentation functions defined by quark-gluon-quark operator are mixed with themselves. There is no mixing with the fragmentation functions defined only with bilinear quark field operators. In the large-Nc limit the evolutions of the three complex fragmentation functions are simplified and reduced to six homogeneous equations.

  2. Study of Leading Hadrons in Gluon and Quark Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brunet, J M; Brückman, P; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Bérat, C; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Dalmau, J; De Angelis, A; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Föth, H; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Kuznetsov, O; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; López, J M; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Maréchal, B; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Mönig, K; Müller, U; Münich, K; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Rídky, J; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R L; Shlyapnikov, P; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Van Eldik, J; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M; de Boer, Wim; van Dam, P; Åsman, B; Österberg, K

    2006-01-01

    The study of quark jets in e+e- reactions at LEP has demonstrated that the hadronisation process is reproduced well by the Lund string model. However, our understanding of gluon fragmentation is less complete. In this study enriched quark and gluon jet samples of different purities are selected in three-jet events from hadronic decays of the Z collected by the DELPHI experiment in the LEP runs during 1994 and 1995. The leading systems of the two kinds of jets are defined by requiring a rapidity gap and their sum of charges is studied. An excess of leading systems with total charge zero is found for gluon jets in all cases, when compared to Monte Carlo Simulations with JETSET (with and without Bose-Einstein correlations included) and ARIADNE. The corresponding leading systems of quark jets do not exhibit such an excess. The influence of the gap size and of the gluon purity on the effect is studied and a concentration of the excess of neutral leading systems at low invariant masses (<~ 2 GeV/c^2) is observed...

  3. New information on photon fragmentation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Michael; König, Florian

    2014-08-01

    Thermal photons radiated in heavy-ion collisions represent an important signal for a recently discovered new state of matter, the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. However, a clean identification of this signal requires precise knowledge of the prompt photons produced simultaneously in hard collisions of quarks and gluons, mostly through their fragmentation. In this paper, we demonstrate that PHENIX data on photons produced in proton-proton collisions with low transverse momenta allow to extract new information on this fragmentation process. While existing data do not yet convincingly favor one parameterization (BFG II) over the two other frequently used photon fragmentation functions (BFG I and GRV NLO), the data sets recorded by PHENIX and STAR at BNL RHIC in 2013 with tenfold higher statistics should allow for such an analysis.

  4. New information on photon fragmentation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, Michael; Koenig, Florian [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Muenster (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Thermal photons radiated in heavy-ion collisions represent an important signal for a recently discovered new state of matter, the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. However, a clean identification of this signal requires precise knowledge of the prompt photons produced simultaneously in hard collisions of quarks and gluons, mostly through their fragmentation. In this paper, we demonstrate that PHENIX data on photons produced in proton-proton collisions with low transverse momenta allow one to extract new information on this fragmentation process. While existing data do not yet convincingly favor one parameterization (BFG II) over the two other frequently used photon fragmentation functions (BFG I and GRV NLO), the data sets recorded by PHENIX and STAR at BNL RHIC in 2013 with tenfold higher statistics should allow for such an analysis. (orig.)

  5. Gluon fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Dong-Jing

    2016-01-01

    We derive gluon fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model by treating a gluon as a pair of color lines formed by fictitious quark and anti-quark ($q\\bar q$). Gluon elementary fragmentation functions are obtained from the quark and anti-quark elementary fragmentation functions for emitting specific mesons in the NJL model under the requirement that the $q\\bar q$ pair maintains in the flavor-singlet state after meson emissions. An integral equation, which iterates the gluon elementary fragmentation functions to all orders, is then solved to yield the gluon fragmentation functions at a model scale. It is observed that these solutions are stable with respect to variation of relevant model parameters, especially after QCD evolution to a higher scale is implemented. We show that the inclusion of the gluon fragmentation functions into the theoretical predictions from only the quark fragmentation functions greatly improves the agreement with the SLD data for the pion and kaon productions in $e^+e^...

  6. NLO corrections to c - and b -quark fragmentation into j /ψ and γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, R.; Dadfar, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present the next-to-leading-order (NLO) corrections to the fragmentation process of a heavy quark to a 3S1 wave heavy quarkonium. The virtual and real corrections are calculated by using the dimensional regularization method. The divergences due to virtual NLO corrections are analytically extracted then we explain how the poles from phase-space integrals and from loop integrals are canceled by renormalization. We use the eikonal scheme to evaluate the soft real corrections in 4 -2 ɛ dimensions. Our numerical calculations show the fragmentation function (FF) at NLO is dependent on both the μ scale and the initial quark energy. These corrections have a significant effect on the shape and probability of the FF.

  7. Nuclear Structure Functions from Constituent Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Arash, F; Arash, Firooz; Atashbar-Tehrani, Shahin

    1999-01-01

    We have used the notion of the constituent quark model of nucleon, where a constituent quark carries its own internal structure, and applied it to determine nuclear structure functions ratios. It is found that the description of experimental data require the inclusion of strong shadowing effect for $x<0.01$. Using the idea of vector meson dominance model and other ingredients this effect is calculated in the context of the constituent quark model. It is rather striking that the constituent quark model, used here, gives a good account of the data for a wide range of atomic mass number from A=4 to A=204.

  8. The Perfect Quark-Gluon Vertex Function

    CERN Document Server

    Orginos, K; Brower, Richard C; Chandrasekharan, S; Wiese, U J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate a perfect quark-gluon vertex function for QCD in coordinate space and truncate it to a short range. We present preliminary results for the charmonium spectrum using this quasi-perfect action.

  9. Twist-3 T-odd fragmentation functions G⊥ and G˜⊥ in a spectator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongliang; Lu, Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    We present a calculation of the twist-3 T-odd chiral-even fragmentation functions G⊥ and G˜⊥ using a spectator model. We consider the effect gluon exchange to calculate all necessary one-loop diagrams for the quark-quark and quark-gluon-quark correlation functions. We find that the gluon loops corrections generate non-zero contribution to these two fragmentation function. We numerically calculate their half-kT moments by integrating over the transverse momentum and also verify the equation of motion relation among G⊥, G˜⊥ and the Collins function.

  10. Extraction of Fragmentation Functions from Charged Kaon and Pion Production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Panknin, Regine Antje

    Quark helicity distributions can be accessed by measuring spin asymmetries in polarised deep-inelastic scattering, but for a full flavour separation the precise knowledge of quark fragmentation functions is essential. Those can only be inf erred from experimental data, and are still poorly determined today. The few existing para metrisations of fragmentation functions are derived from world data (mainly on electron-positron annihilation), and often differ considerably, most notably for strange quarks. This thesis presents an independent evaluation of fragmentation functions from deep- inelastic scattering data recorded at the COMPASS experiment. A method of extraction was developed, based on the relation between hadron multiplicities, r h ( x, z ), unpolarised parton distribution functions, q ( x ), and quark fragmentation functions into hadrons, D h d ( z ). (In this work x stands for the Bjorken scaling variable, and z for the fraction of the quark momentum that is transferred to the pro duced hadron.) Mult...

  11. Helicity probabilities for heavy quark fragmentation into heavy-light excited mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, T C

    1995-01-01

    After a brief review on how heavy quark symmetry constraints the helicity fragmentation probabilities for a heavy quark hadronizes into heavy-light hadrons, we present a heavy quark fragmentation model to extract the value for the Falk-Peskin probability w_{3/2} describing the fragmentation of a heavy quark into a heavy-light meson whose light degrees of freedom have angular momentum {3 \\over 2}. We point out that this probability depends on the longitudinal momentum fraction z of the meson and on its transverse momentum p_\\bot relative to the jet axis. In this model, the light degrees of freedom prefer to have their angular momentum aligned transverse to, rather than along, the jet axis. Implications for the production of excited heavy mesons, like D^{**} and B^{**}, are briefly discussed.

  12. Measurements of flavour dependent fragmentation functions in $Z^{0} \\to q\\overline{q}$ events

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    Fragmentation functions for charged particles in Z -> qq(bar) events have been measured for bottom (b), charm (c) and light (uds) quarks as well as for all flavours together. The results are based on data recorded between 1990 and 1995 using the OPAL detector at LEP. Event samples with different flavour compositions were formed using reconstructed D* mesons and secondary vertices. The \\xi_p = ln(1/x_E) distributions and the position of their maxima \\xi_max are also presented separately for uds, c and b quark events. The fragmentation function for b quarks is significantly softer than for uds quarks.

  13. Fragmentation and Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data, theoretical ideas and models concerning jet fragmentation and the hadronization process are reviewed, concentrating on the following topics: factorization and small-x resummation of fragmentation functions, hadronization models, single-particle yields and spectra in Z decay, comparisons between quark and gluon jets, current and target fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering, heavy quark fragmentation, Bose-Einstein correlations and WW fragmentation.

  14. Study of semi-leptonic decay of B meson, in the ways lvD{sup *} and lvD with ALEPH detector at LEP: measurement of the fragmentation function of b quark and search for D{sup **} states; Etude des desintegrations semi-leptoniques du meson B, dans les canaux D*lv et Dlv, aupres du detecteur ALEPH au LEP: mesure de la fonction de fragmentation du quark b et recherche d`etats D**

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonis, I. de

    1994-06-01

    This work is dedicated to the measurement of the fragmentation function of the quark b, with the ALEPH detector, at LEP. The main aspects of this measure is to be as independent as possible from any model. For this, we reconstruct the semi-leptonic decay modes of the B meson, in the ways lvD deg., lvD{sup *+} and lvD{sup +}. In a first step, we describe the criteria used to select those modes. Then, we determine the fragmentation function by measuring the ratio X{sub B} = 2 E{sub B} / {radical} S, where E{sub B} is the B meson energy and {radical} s/2 the useful energy in the center of mass. The measure of E{sub B} needs a precise reconstruction of the neutrino energy, which is not detected. We present here the method that we used for this reconstruction. Once the acceptance correction is applied, we obtain, for the variable X{sub B}, a distribution with mean value: < X{sub B} > = 0.711 {+-} 0.009 (stat). To be as independent as possible of the model (Peterson function) used n the Monte-Carlo determination of the acceptance, we do an iterative calculation of the acceptance. We obtain < X{sub B}> = 0.712 {+-} 0.009(stat) {+-} 0.017 (syst). Furthermore, this measure depends of the D** contribution, badly known for now. Therefore, we search this contribution, using the events selected before, on the one hand by a direct observation, on the other hand by reconstructing the mass of the B meson. (author). 64 refs.

  15. Transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution/fragmentation functions at an electron-ion collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Boer, Daniël; Bradamante, F.; Burkardt, M.; Chen, J.P.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Dutta, D.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, H.; Hasch, D.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Kang, Z.; Keppel, C.; Laskaris, G.; Liang, Z.-T.; Liu, M.X.; Makins, N.; McKeown, R.D.; Metz, A.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Musch, B.; Peng, J.-C.; Prokudin, A.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, J.W.; Rossi, P.; SCHWEITZER, C.; Soffer, J.; Sulkosky, V.; Wang, Ying; Xiao, B.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q.-J.; Yuan, F.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of a recent workshop held at Duke University on Partonic Transverse Momentum in Hadrons: Quark Spin-Orbit Correlations and Quark-Gluon Interactions. The transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs), parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, and multi-parton

  16. Quark distribution functions in the chiral quark-soliton model cancellation of quantum anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Göke, K; Polyakov, M V; Schweitzer, P; Urbano, D

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the chiral quark-soliton model of the nucleon we investigate the properties of the polarized quark distribution. In particular we analyse the so called anomalous difference between the representations of the quark distribution functions in terms of occupied and non-occupied quark states. By an explicit analytical calculation it is shown that this anomaly is absent in the polarized isoscalar distribution \\Delta u + \\Delta d, which is ultaviolet finite. In the case of the polarized isovector quark distribution which is also needed for the regularization of the ultraviolet divergence.

  17. Phenomenology of Dihadron Fragmentation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Courtoy, A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the phenomenological results obtained through Dihadron Fragmentation Functions related processes. In 2015, an update on the fitting techniques for the Dihadron Fragmentation Functions has led to an improved extraction of the transversity PDF and, as a consequence, the nucleon tensor charge. We discuss the impact of the determination of the latter on search for physics Beyond the Standard Model, focusing on the error treatment. We also comment on the future of the extraction of the subleading-twist PDF $e(x)$ from JLab soon-to-be-released Beam Spin Asymmetry data.

  18. Pion valence-quark parton distribution function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the Dyson–Schwinger equation formulation of QCD, a rainbow ladder truncation is used to calculate the pion valence-quark distribution function (PDF. The gap equation is renormalized at a typical hadronic scale, of order 0.5 GeV, which is also set as the default initial scale for the pion PDF. We implement a corrected leading-order expression for the PDF which ensures that the valence-quarks carry all of the pion's light-front momentum at the initial scale. The scaling behavior of the pion PDF at a typical partonic scale of order 5.2 GeV is found to be (1−xν, with ν≃1.6, as x approaches one.

  19. Meson cloud effects on the pion quark distribution function in the chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Akira; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the valence quark distribution function of the pion $v^{\\pi}(x,Q^2)$ in the framework of the chiral constituent quark model and evaluate the meson cloud effects on $v^{\\pi}(x,Q^2)$. We explicitly demonstrate how the meson cloud effects affect $v^{\\pi}(x,Q^2)$ in detail. We find that the meson cloud correction causes an overall 32\\% reduction of the valence quark distribution and an enhancement at the small Bjorken $x$ regime. Besides, we also find that the dressing effect of the meson cloud will make the valence quark distribution to be softer in the large $x$ region.

  20. Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor baryons and single heavy hyperon polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, G R

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. $\\Lambda_b$ , $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are calculated and, where possible, compared with experiment. A different approach, also relying on a heavy quark-diquark model, is proposed for the small momentum transfer inclusive production of polarized heavy flavor hyperons. The predicted $\\Lambda_c$ polarization is roughly in agreement with experiment.

  1. First Monte Carlo analysis of fragmentation functions from single-inclusive $e^+ e^-$ annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, N; Melnitchouk, W; Hirai, M; Kumano, S; Accardi, A

    2016-01-01

    We perform the first iterative Monte Carlo (IMC) analysis of fragmentation functions constrained by all available data from single-inclusive $e^+ e^-$ annihilation into pions and kaons. The IMC method eliminates potential bias in traditional analyses based on single fits introduced by fixing parameters not well contrained by the data and provides a statistically rigorous determination of uncertainties. Our analysis reveals specific features of fragmentation functions using the new IMC methodology and those obtained from previous analyses, especially for light quarks and for strange quark fragmentation to kaons.

  2. First Monte Carlo analysis of fragmentation functions from single-inclusive e+e- annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuo; Ethier, J. J.; Melnitchouk, W.; Hirai, M.; Kumano, S.; Accardi, A.; Jefferson Lab Angular Momentum Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We perform the first iterative Monte Carlo (IMC) analysis of fragmentation functions constrained by all available data from single-inclusive e+e- annihilation into pions and kaons. The IMC method eliminates potential bias in traditional analyses based on single fits introduced by fixing parameters not well constrained by the data and provides a statistically rigorous determination of uncertainties. Our analysis reveals specific features of fragmentation functions using the new IMC methodology and those obtained from previous analyses, especially for light quarks and for strange quark fragmentation to kaons.

  3. A Study of Quark Fragmentation Using Kaons Produced in Association with Prompt $D_s^±/D^±$ Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Niharika Ranjan [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Quarks are considered to be the fundamental constituents of hadronic matter, but they have never been observed as free particles. When quarks are produced at high energy colliders, they quickly form bound colorless states, which then decay to produce the particles observed in experiments. The process by which an initially free quark combines with other quarks to form a hadronic particle is called quark fragmentation and has been described using phenomenological models since quarks were first proposed. Since then, several models have been developed to describe the quark fragmentation phenomenon, and these have been tuned to reproduce many average properties of hadrons produced in high energy collisions. In this dissertation, we describe an analysis that probes the properties of particles produced in association with a hadron containing a charm quark that provides a way, for the first time, to study what is thought of as the second particle produced in the process of heavy quar k fragmentation. Data from proton anti-proton collisions was used to carry out this research, which were collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron and corresponds to 360/pb-1 of integrated luminosity. We reconstruct $D_s^±$ and $D^±$ mesons, which contain charm quarks, and identify the kaons produced in association with them. The kinematic properties of these kaons are compared with predictions of the fragmentation models implemented in the PYTHIA and HERWIG event generators. We find that kaon production in association with $D_s^±$ mesons is enhanced at levels that are in agreement with the fragmentation models but observe differences in production rates of kaons that are produced later in the fragmentation process.

  4. Heavy-quark parton distribution functions and their uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Sullivan and P.M. Nadolsky

    2001-12-07

    We investigate the uncertainties of the heavy-quark parton distribution functions in the variable avor number scheme. Because the charm- and bottom-quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) are constructed predominantly from the gluon PDF, it is a common practice to assume that the heavy-quark and gluon uncertainties are the same. We show that this approximation is a reasonable first guess, but it is better for bottom quarks than charm quarks. We calculate the PDF uncertainty for t-channel single-top-quark production using the Hessian matrix method, and predict a cross section of 2.12{sub -0.29}{sup +0.32} pb at run II of the Tevatron.

  5. Numerical solution of $Q^2$ evolution equations for fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, M

    2011-01-01

    Semi-inclusive hadron-production processes are becoming important in high-energy hadron reactions. They are used for investigating properties of quark-hadron matters in heavy-ion collisions, for finding the origin of nucleon spin in polarized lepton-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon reactions, and possibly for finding exotic hadrons. In describing the hadron-production cross sections in high-energy reactions, fragmentation functions are essential quantities. A fragmentation function indicates the probability of producing a hadron from a parton. Its $Q^2$ dependence is described by the standard DGLAP (Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi) evolution equations, which are often used in theoretical and experimental analyses of the fragmentation functions and in calculating semi-inclusive cross sections. The DGLAP equations are complicated integro-differential equations, which cannot be solved in an analytical method. In this work, a simple method is employed for solving the evolution equations by using Gauss-Legen...

  6. Proton Spin Structure Functions and Quark-Hadron Duality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-Bing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Quark-hadron duality of three proton spin structure functions g1, g2 and gT are discussed simultaneously. It is found that the onsets of the quark-hadron dualities of g1p, g2p and g3p are similar and they are expected to be at about Q2 ~ 2 GeV2. In addition, our results show that the elastic peak remarkably breaks local quark-hadron duality.

  7. Dihadron Fragmentation Functions and Transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results for an updated extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. Data for proton and deuteron targets by HERMES and COMPASS allow for a flavor separation of the valence components of transversity, while di-hadron fragmentation functions are taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation. The latter data from Belle have been reanalyzed using the replica method and a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function has been obtained. After encoding this piece of information into the deep-inelastic scattering cross section, the transversity has been re-extracted by using the most recent and more precise COMPASS data for proton target. This picture represents the current most realistic estimate of the uncertainties on our knowledge of tran...

  8. Dihadron Fragmentation Functions and Transversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radici Marco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results for an updated extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. Data for proton and deuteron targets by HERMES and COMPASS allow for a flavor separation of the valence components of transversity, while di-hadron fragmentation functions are taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in e+e− annihilation. The latter data from Belle have been reanalyzed using the replica method and a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function has been obtained. After encoding this piece of information into the deep-inelastic scattering cross section, the transversity has been re-extracted by using the most recent and more precise COMPASS data for proton target. This picture represents the current most realistic estimate of the uncertainties on our knowledge of transversity. The preliminary results indicate that the valence up component seems smaller and with a narrower error band than in previous extraction.

  9. Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Asmita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs. We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.

  10. Study of charm quark fragmentation into D{sup *} mesons with the H1 detector at HERA II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liptaj, Andrej

    2008-12-15

    In this work charm quark fragmentation into D{sup *} mesons is investigated in deep-inelastic electron proton collisions. This work is based on data collected in the years 2004 - 2007 by the H1 detector at HERA, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 354.1 pb{sup -1}. Three observables denoted z{sub jet},z{sub hem} and z{sub hem}{sup (jet)} are measured, each of them meant to approximate the momentum fraction of the charm quark transferred to the D{sup *} meson. In case of z{sub jet} the quark momentum is estimated as the momentum of the D{sup *} jet, for the two other observables it is approximated by the momentum of an appropriately chosen D{sup *} hemisphere. The visible range is defined by the phase space requirements on the DIS events: Q{sup 2} > 5 GeV{sup 2}, 0.05 < y < 0.6 and by the cuts applied on the reconstructed D{sup *{+-}} particles: 1.5 GeV < p{sub T}(D{sup *}) < 15.0 GeV and vertical stroke {eta}(D{sup *}) vertical stroke < 1.5. An additional constraint E{sub T}(D{sup *}jet) > 3.0 GeV enters the phase space definition in case of z{sub jet} and z{sub hem}{sup (jet)}, where a reconstructed jet containing the D{sup *} meson is required. Within this phase space the normalized single differential cross sections are measured in bins of the three observables. Two Monte Carlo models, RAPGAP and CASCADE, both interfaced with the PYTHIA program for the Lund string fragmentation, are used to make predictions of the respective cross sections for different parametrizations (Peterson and Kartvelishvili) of the charm fragmentation function. The difference in cross sections between data and Monte Carlo model predictions for different values of the fragmentation parameter is quantified by calculating values of {chi}{sup 2} in order to extract optimal parameters for the Peterson and Kartvelishvili parametrization. Using predictions from PYTHIA for e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation optimal parameters are extracted also from the published BELLE and ALEPH data

  11. Collins fragmentation function for pions and kaons in a spectator model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchetta, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gamberg, L.P. [Penn State Univ., Berks, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Goldstein, G.R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mukherjee, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Physics Dept.

    2007-07-15

    We calculate the Collins fragmentation function in the framework of a spectator model with pseudoscalar pion-quark coupling and a Gaussian form factor at the vertex. We determine the model parameters by fitting the unpolarized fragmentation function for pions and kaons. We show that the Collins function for the pions in this model is in reasonable agreement with recent parametrizations obtained by fits of the available data. In addition, we compute for the first time the Collins function for the kaons. (orig.)

  12. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chen; Roberts, Craig D; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed-quarks carry all a meson's momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanishing as $(1-x)^2$ when Bjorken-$x\\to 1$. Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of SU(3)-flavour symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavour dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulae may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison...

  13. $\\pi+X$ Production via $p^{\\uparrow}+p$ Collisions and the Collins Fragmentation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Kisslinger, Leonard S; McGaughey, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article is motivated by a Letter of Intent for a Drell-Yan experiment to measure the sea quark Sivers function. We estimate pion+X production via proton collisions with a polarized proton target using the Collins fragmentation function derived using the parton distribution functions for polarized p-p collisions at E=$\\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV.

  14. Study of the fragmentation of /b quarks into /B mesons at the /Z peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Heister, A.; Schael, S.; Barate, R.; De Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Graugés, E.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L. M.; Pacheco, A.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Azzurri, P.; Boix, G.; Buchmüller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Clerbaux, B.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Greening, T. C.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tournefier, E.; Ward, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.-C.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Swynghedauw, M.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Thompson, A. S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Marinelli, N.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Thompson, J. C.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C. K.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Pearson, M. R.; Robertson, N. A.; Giehl, I.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Leroy, O.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Hüttmann, K.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Settles, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Yuan, C.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Calderini, G.; Foà, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Cowan, G.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Misiejuk, A.; Strong, J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Norton, P. R.; Tomalin, I. R.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Ngac, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Giannini, G.; Rothberg, J.; Armstrong, S. R.; Cranmer, K.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P. A.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    2001-07-01

    The fragmentation of /b quarks into /B mesons is studied with four million hadronic /Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment during the years 1991-1995. A semi-exclusive reconstruction of B-->lνD(*) decays is performed, by combining lepton candidates with fully reconstructed D(*) mesons while the neutrino energy is estimated from the missing energy of the event. The mean value of xBwd, the energy of the weakly-decaying /B meson normalised to the beam energy, is found to be =0.716+/-0.006(stat)+/-0.006(syst), using a model-independent method; the corresponding value for the energy of the leading /B meson is =0.736+/-0.006(stat)+/-0.006(syst). The reconstructed spectra are compared with different fragmentation models.

  15. Study of the fragmentation of $b$ quarks into $B$ mesons at the $Z$ peak

    CERN Document Server

    Heister, A; Barate, R; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Boix, G; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Clerbaux, B; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Greening, T C; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Mato, P; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tournefier, E; Ward, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Thompson, A S; Wasserbaech, S R; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Giehl, I; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Leroy, O; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, Ronald; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Lefrançois, J; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Yuan, C; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Calderini, G; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Giannini, G; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Cranmer, K; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G

    2001-01-01

    The fragmentation of b quarks into B mesons is studied with four million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment during the years 1991-1995. A semi-exclusive reconstruction of B->l nu D(*) decays is performed, by combining lepton candidates with fully reconstructed D(*) mesons while the neutrino energy is estimated from the missing energy of the event. The mean value of xewd, the energy of the weakly-decaying B meson normalised to the beam energy, is found to be mxewd = 0.716 +- 0.006 (stat) +- 0.006 \\, (syst) using a model-independent method; the corresponding value for the energy of the leading B meson is mxel = 0.736 +- 0.006 (stat) +- 0.006 (syst). The reconstructed spectra are compared with different fragmentation models.

  16. Quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell-Mann, M.

    In these lectures I want to speak about at least two interpretations of the concept of quarks for hadrons and the possible relations between them. First I want to talk about quarks as "constituent quarks". These were used especially by G. Zweig (1964) who referred to them as aces. One has a sort of a simple model by which one gets elementary results about the low-lying bound and resonant states of mesons and baryons, and certain crude symmetry properties of these states, by saying that the hadrons act as if they were made up of subunits, the constituent quarks q. These quarks are arranged in an isotopic spin doublet u, d and an isotopic spin singlet s, which has the same charge as d and acts as if it had a slightly higher mass…

  17. Signals for transversity and transverse-momentum-dependent quark distribution functions studied at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenthaler, Markus

    2010-08-15

    Intention of the present thesis was the study of transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions. In the focus stood the Fourier analysis of azimutal single-spin asymmetries of pions and charged kaons performed within the HERMES experiment. These asymmetries were reconstructed from deep-inelastic scattering events on a transversely polarized proton target and decomposed in Fourier components. In the framework of quantum chromodynamics such components can be interpreted as folding of quark distribution and fragmentation functions. By the analysis of the transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions the study of spin-orbit correlations in the internal of the nucleon was made possible. By this conclusions on the orbital angular momentum of the quarks can be drawn. The extracted Fourier components extend the hitherto available informations on the transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions remarkably. The presented Fourier analysis made not only a detection of the Collins and Sivers effects possible, but beyond the extraction of the signals of the pretzelosity and worm-gear distributions. The so obtained results will conclusively contribute to the understanding of future measurements in this field and furthermore make possible a test of fundamental predictions of quantum chromodynamics.

  18. Quark mass functions and pion structure in Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Institute Superior Tecnico; Gross, Franz L. [JLAB; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Institute Superior Tecnico; Stadler, Alfred [University of Evora

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the dressed quark mass function and the pion structure in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. We use an interaction kernel in momentum space that is a relativistic generalization of the linear confining q-qbar potential and a constant potential shift that defines the energy scale. The confining interaction has a Lorentz scalar part that is not chirally invariant by itself but decouples from the equations in the chiral limit and therefore allows the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism to work. We adjust the parameters of our quark mass function calculated in Minkowski-space to agree with LQCD data obtained in Euclidean space. Results of a calculation of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the relativistic impulse approximation using the same mass function are presented and compared with experimental data.

  19. Impacts of B-factory measurements on determination of fragmentation functions from electron-positron annihilation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kumano, S.; Saito, K.

    2016-11-01

    Fragmentation functions are determined for the pion and kaon by global analyses of charged-hadron production data in electron-positron annihilation. Accurate measurements were reported by the Belle and BaBar collaborations for the fragmentation functions at the center-of-mass energies of 10.52 and 10.54 GeV, respectively, at the KEK and SLAC B factories, whereas other available ee measurements were mostly done at higher energies, mainly at the Z mass of 91.2 GeV. There is a possibility that gluon fragmentation functions, as well as quark fragmentation functions, are accurately determined by scaling violation. We report our global analysis of the fragmentation functions especially to show impacts of the B-factory measurements on the fragmentation function determination. Our results indicate that the fragmentation functions are determined more accurately not only by the scaling violation but also by the high-statistical nature of the Belle and BaBar data. However, there are some tensions between the Belle and BaBar data in comparison with previous measurements. We also explain how the flavor dependence of quark fragmentation functions and the gluon function are separated by using measurements at different Q values. In particular, the electric and weak charges are different depending on the quark type, so that a light-quark flavor separation also became possible in principle due to the precise data at both √s ≃10.5 and 91.2 GeV.

  20. Baryon Wave Functions in Covariant Relativistic Quark Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dillig, M

    2002-01-01

    We derive covariant baryon wave functions for arbitrary Lorentz boosts. Modeling baryons as quark-diquark systems, we reduce their manifestly covariant Bethe-Salpeter equation to a covariant 3-dimensional form by projecting on the relative quark-diquark energy. Guided by a phenomenological multigluon exchange representation of a covariant confining kernel, we derive for practical applications explicit solutions for harmonic confinement and for the MIT Bag Model. We briefly comment on the interplay of boosts and center-of-mass corrections in relativistic quark models.

  1. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-01

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed quarks carry all the meson's momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanish as (1 -x )2 when Bjorken-x →1 . Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of S U (3 ) -flavor symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavor dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulas may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment which allows us to identify and highlight basic features of measurable pion and kaon valence-quark distributions. We find that whereas roughly two thirds of the pion's light-front momentum is carried by valence dressed quarks at a characteristic hadronic scale; this fraction rises to 95% in the kaon; evolving distributions with these features to a scale typical of available Drell-Yan data produces a kaon-to-pion ratio of u -quark distributions that is in agreement with the single existing data set, and predicts a u -quark distribution within the pion that agrees with a modern reappraisal of π N Drell-Yan data. Precise new data are essential in order to validate this reappraisal and because a single modest-quality measurement of the kaon-to-pion ratio cannot be considered definitive.

  2. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-18

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed quarks carry all the meson’s momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanish as ( 1 - x ) 2 when Bjorken- x → 1 . Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of S U ( 3 ) -flavor symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavor dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulas may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment which allows us to identify and highlight basic features of measurable pion and kaon valence-quark distributions. We find that whereas roughly two thirds of the pion’s light-front momentum is carried by valence dressed quarks at a characteristic hadronic scale; this fraction rises to 95% in the kaon; evolving distributions with these features to a scale typical of available Drell-Yan data produces a kaon-to-pion ratio of u -quark distributions that is in agreement with the single existing data set, and predicts a u -quark distribution within the pion that agrees with a modern reappraisal of π N Drell-Yan data. Precise new data are essential in order to validate this reappraisal and because a single modest-quality measurement of the kaon-to-pion ratio cannot be considered definitive.

  3. Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbow–ladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, qπ(x; namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, qπ(x∼(1−x2 for x≳0.85; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum.

  4. Tensor polarization dependent fragmentation functions and e+e-→V π X at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-bao; Yang, Wei-hua; Wei, Shu-yi; Liang, Zuo-tang

    2016-08-01

    We present the systematic results for three-dimensional fragmentation functions of spin-1 hadrons defined via the quark-quark correlator. There are totally 72 such fragmentation functions, among them 18 are twist-2, 36 are twist-3 and 18 are twist-4. We also present the relationships between the twist-3 parts and those defined via the quark-gluon-quark correlator obtained from the QCD equation of motion. We show that the two particle semi-inclusive hadron production process e+e-→V π X at high energies is one of the best places to study the three-dimensional tensor polarization dependent fragmentation functions. We present the general kinematic analysis of this process and show that the cross section should be expressed in terms of 81 independent structure functions. After that we present parton model results for the hadronic tensor, the structure functions, and the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in terms of these gauge invariant fragmentation functions at the leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics up to twist-3.

  5. Tensor polarization dependent fragmentation functions and e+e-\\to V \\pi X at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai-bao; Wei, Shu-yi; Liang, Zuo-tang

    2016-01-01

    We present the systematic results for three dimensional fragmentation functions of spin one hadrons defined via quark-quark correlator. There are totally 72 such fragmentation functions, among them 18 are twist-2, 36 are twist-3 and 18 are twist-4. We also present the relationships between the twist-3 parts and those defined via quark-gluon-quark correlator obtained from the QCD equation of motion. We show that two particle semi-inclusive hadron production process $e^+e^-\\to V\\pi X$ at high energies is one of the best places to study the three-dimensional tensor polarization dependent fragmentation functions. We present the general kinematic analysis of this process and show that the cross section should be expressed in terms of 81 independent structure functions. After that we present parton model results for the hadronic tensor, the structure functions, the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in terms of these gauge invariant fragmentation functions at the leading order pQCD up to twist-3.

  6. Proton fragmentation functions considering finite-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleymaninia, M. [Payame Noor Universtiy, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maktoubian, A. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We present new sets of proton fragmentation functions (FFs) describing the production of protons from the gluon and each of the quarks, obtained by the NLO QCD fits to all relevant data sets of single-inclusive electron-positron annihilation. Specifically, we determine their uncertainties using the Gaussian method for error estimation. Our analysis is in good agreement with the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data. We also include finite-mass effects of the proton in our calculations, a topic to which very little attention is paid in the literature. Proton mass effects turn out to be appreciable for gluon and light quark FFs. The inclusion of finite-mass effects tends to improve the overall description of the data by reducing the minimized χ{sup 2} values significantly. As an application, we apply the extracted FFs to make predictions for the scaled-energy distribution of protons inclusively produced in top quark decays at next-to-leading order, relying on the universality and scaling violations of FFs. (orig.)

  7. The Effect of Vector Meson Decays on Dihadron Fragmentation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DFF) provide a vast amount of information on the intricate details of the parton hadronization process. Moreover, they provide a unique access to the "clean" extraction of nucleon transversity parton distribution functions in semi inclusive deep inelastic two hadron production process with a transversely polarised target. On the example of the u \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-, we analyse the properties of unpolarised DFFs using their probabilistic interpretation. We use both the NJL-jet hadronization model and PYTHIA 8.1 event generator to explore the effect of the strong decays of the vector mesons produced in the quark hadronization process on the pseudoscalar DFFs. Our study shows that, even though it is less probable to produce vector mesons in the hadronization process than pseudo scalar mesons of the same charge, the products of their strong decays drastically affect the DFFs for pions because of the large combinatorial factors. Thus, an accurate description of both vector meson produ...

  8. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  9. Evolution of heavy quark distribution function on quark-gluon plasma: Using the Iterative Laplace Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Sharareh Mehrabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Laplace Transform Method” is used to solve the Fokker-Plank equation for finding the time evolution of the heavy quarks distribution functions such as charm and bottom in quark gluon plasma. These solutions will lead us to calculation of nuclear suppression factor RAA. The results have good agreement with available experiment data from the PHENIX collaboration.

  10. Relativistic Covariance and Quark-Diquark Wave Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Dillig, M

    2006-01-01

    We derive covariant wave functions for hadrons composed of two constituents for arbitrary Lorentz boosts. Focussing explicitly on baryons as quark-diquark systems, we reduce their manifestly covariant Bethe-Salpeter equation to covariant 3-dimensional forms by projecting on the relative quark-diquark energy. Guided by a phenomenological multi gluon exchange representation of covariant confining kernels, we derive explicit solutions for harmonic confinement and for the MIT Bag Model. We briefly sketch implications of breaking the spherical symmetry of the ground state and the transition from the instant form to the light cone via the infinite momentum frame.

  11. Determination of pion and kaon fragmentation functions including spin asymmetries data in a global analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Soleymaninia, M; Moosavinejad, S M; Arbabifar, F

    2013-01-01

    We present new functional form of pion and kaon fragmentation functions up to next-to-leading order obtained through a global fit to single-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data and also employ, the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering asymmetry data from HERMES and COMPASS to determine FFs. In this analysis we consider the impression of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering asymmetry data on the fragmentation functions, where the produced hadrons of different electric charge are identified. We break symmetry assumption between quark and anti-quark fragmentation functions for favored partons by using the asymmetry data. The results of our analysis are in good agreement with electron-positron annihilation data and also with all the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering asymmetry data. Also we apply the obtained fragmentation functions to predict the scaled-energy distribution of $\\pi^+/K^+$ inclusively produced in top-quark decays at next-to-leading order using the zero-mass variable-flavor-n...

  12. Spin Structure Functions in a Covariant Spectator Quark Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ramalho, Franz Gross and M. T. Peña

    2010-12-01

    We apply the covariant spectator quark–diquark model, already probed in the description of the nucleon elastic form factors, to the calculation of the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) spin-independent and spin-dependent structure functions of the nucleon. The nucleon wave function is given by a combination of quark–diquark orbital states, corresponding to S, D and P-waves. A simple form for the quark distribution function associated to the P and D waves is tested.

  13. Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, P.J. [National Inst. for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levelt, J. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.

  14. The Fully-Differential Quark Beam Function at NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Gaunt, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    We present the first calculation of a fully-unintegrated parton distribution (beam function) at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We obtain the fully-differential beam function for quark-initiated processes by matching it onto standard parton distribution functions (PDFs) at two loops. The fully-differential beam function is a universal ingredient in resummed predictions of observables probing both the virtuality as well as the transverse momentum of the incoming quark in addition to its usual longitudinal momentum fraction. For such double-differential observables our result is an important contribution to the resummation of large logarithms related to collinear initial-state radiation (ISR) through N3LL.

  15. Charged Particles Multiplicity and Scaling Violation of Fragmentation Functions in Electron-Positron Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    In electron positron annihilation, changing quarks into the final hadron states is being described by fragmentation function. Based on the scaling hypothesis, this function will be independent from the center of mass energy. Gluon radiation violates the scaling feature. Transverse momentum distribution plays an important role in scaling violation of fragmentation functions. In this article, by the use of data resulted from the annihilation process of electron positron in AMY detector at 60 GeV center of mass energy, first, charged particles multiplicity distribution will be obtained and it will be fitted with the KNO scaling. Furthermore, momentum spectra of charged particles and momentum distribution respect to the jet axis will be obtained. Then, the results will be compared regarding the different models of QCD; as well, the distribution of fragmentation functions and scaling violations will be studied. It is being expected that the scaling violations of the fragmentation functions of gluon jet are stronge...

  16. On specific QCD properties of heavy quark fragmentation ('dead cone')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokshitzer, Yu.L.; Khoze, V.A.; Troyan, S.I. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theoretical Physics AN SSSR, Leningrad (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-10-01

    It is the restriction on the phase space of emitting gluons connected with the kinematics of a heavy quark Q = c,b, ... which determines the difference of the QCD jet produced by Q from that of ordinary light (practically massless) quarks q = u,d,s. (author).

  17. Transverse parton distribution functions at next-to-next-to-leading order: the quark-to-quark case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Thomas; Lübbert, Thomas; Yang, Li Lin

    2012-12-14

    We present a calculation of the perturbative quark-to-quark transverse parton distribution function at next-to-next-to-leading order based on a gauge invariant operator definition. We demonstrate for the first time that such a definition works beyond the first nontrivial order. We extract from our calculation the coefficient functions relevant for a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic Q(T) resummation in a large class of processes at hadron colliders.

  18. Heavy Quark diffusion from lattice QCD spectral functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, H -T; Kaczmarek, O; Karsch, F; Satz, H; Soeldner, W

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the low frequency part of charmonium spectral functions on large lattices close to the continuum limit in the temperature region $1.5\\lesssim T/T_c\\lesssim 3$ as well as for $T \\simeq 0.75T_c$. We present evidence for the existence of a transport peak above $T_c$ and its absence below $T_c$. The heavy quark diffusion constant is then estimated using the Kubo formula. As part of the calculation we also determine the temperature dependence of the signature for the charmonium bound state in the spectral function and discuss the fate of charmonium states in the hot medium.

  19. Statistical Quark Model for the Nucleon Structure Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirez, Carlos; Tomio, Lauro; Trevisan, Luis A.; Frederico, Tobias

    2009-06-01

    A statistical quark model, with quark energy levels given by a central linear confining potential is used to obtain the light sea-quark asymmetry, d¯/ū, and also for the ratio d/u, inside the nucleon. After adjusting a temperature parameter by the Gottfried sum rule violation, and chemical potentials by the valence up and down quark normalizations, the results are compared with experimental data available.

  20. Polarization, motion, and fragmentation. Exploring the role of quarks in the nucleon through semi-inclusive longitudinal spin asymmetries at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Joshua George

    2009-11-15

    The motivation for this work was to improve upon prior analyses that extracted the quark helicity distributions, {delta}(x), of the proton. Chapter 4 contains several new double-spin asymmetries which are results in their own right. The ph? dependence is plotted for the first time with HERMES data which is uniquely hadron separated. The hadron charge difference asymmetry is presented which, in combination with the quark helicity densities can put limits on fragmentation symmetry breaking in semi-inclusive DIS. Additionally, a novel method of unfolding yields (reducing smearing effects from detector resolution limitations and QED radiation) was developed and presented here for the first time which potentially allows new kinds of asymmetries to be constructed which were unavailable before. Also, this chapter describes the method by which the first ever three dimensionally binned SIDIS double-spin asymmetries were produced. These asymmetries, which will be used as the data inputs for the {delta}(x) extraction, are valuable inputs to world fits being performed by theorists. Chapter 5 further explores this idea of fragmentation symmetry breaking with Monte Carlo studies of fragmentation functions. These studies test assumptions which are frequently made in the interpretation of asymmetries like the hadron charge difference of the prior chapter and suggest that these assumptions should be approached with some caution. Also, a technique for tuning and more importantly propagating systematic uncertainty through non-analytic Monte Carlo models, like the Lund-String model which provides an essential input to the {delta}(x) extraction, is developed (orig.)

  1. The Effect of Vector Meson Decays on Dihadron Fragmentation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevosyan Hrayr H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DFF provide a vast amount of information on the intricate details of the parton hadronization process. Moreover, they provide a unique access to the “clean” extraction of nucleon transversity parton distribution functions in semi inclusive deep inelastic two hadron production process with a transversely polarised target. On the example of the u → π+π−, we analyse the properties of unpolarised DFFs using their probabilistic interpretation. We use both the NJL-jet hadronization model and PYTHIA 8.1 event generator to explore the effect of the strong decays of the vector mesons produced in the quark hadronization process on the pseudoscalar DFFs. Our study shows that, even though it is less probable to produce vector mesons in the hadronization process than pseudo scalar mesons of the same charge, the products of their strong decays drastically affect the DFFs for pions because of the large combinatorial factors. Thus, an accurate description of both vector meson production and decays are crucial for theoretical understanding of DFFs.

  2. Charmed-meson fragmentation functions with finite-mass corrections and their application in various processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneesch, Torben

    2010-12-15

    We have calculated the single-inclusive production cross section of massive quarks in electron-positron-annihilation with next-to-leading order QCD corrections. With these results we have extracted fragmentation functions for the fragmentation from partons into D{sup 0}, D{sup +} and D{sup *} mesons, where we have used experimental data from the B factories Belle and CLEO and from the ALEPH and OPAL experiments at the LEP collider. In our analysis we have included the masses of c and b quarks and of the D mesons and tested the evolution of fragmentation functions with a global fit spanning the B factories' center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=10.5 GeV to LEP's run at the Z boson resonance at M{sub Z}. We have applied this fragmentation functions in deep inelastic scattering for comparisons with HERA data using parton cross sections from the literature available in program form. We have then modified this cross section to calculate predictions for deep inelastic two-photon-scattering. By applying the Weizsaecker-Williams spectrum on the real photon we have calculated predictions for LEP1, LEP2 and the future ILC experiments. For ILC we have also included a beamstrahlung spectrum. Finally we have calculated production cross sections for the planned e{gamma} mode of the ILC with the help of a Compton spectrum. (orig.)

  3. Transverse-momentum-dependent fragmentation functions in e+e- annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzia, Isabella; Giordano, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Fragmentation functions are non-perturbative functions used to describe the formation of colorless, observable hadrons starting from a colored, partonic initial state. The knowledge of these functions are based on the experimental data, and a good parameterization of the fragmentation processes can shed light on the confining aspect of QCD, and are also a key ingredient in accessing nucleon parton distribution functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and proton-proton collisions. In the last decade, a strong interest has risen about the transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) fragmentation functions, which can be used as tools to probe the 3D-structure of nucleons, and to investigate the Q2 evolution of TMD objects. In this review we will summarize the existing light-quarks fragmentation related measurements from the BaBar, Belle, and BESIII e + e - experiments; in particular, we will focus on the polarized TMD Collins fragmentation functions, emerging from correlations between the transverse polarization of the fragmenting parton and the direction of the resulting hadrons.

  4. A Study of the Charge of Leading Hadrons in Gluon and Quark Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Siebel, M

    2005-01-01

    In this study the electric charges of leading systems in quark and gluon jets from hadronic three-jet events in $e^+e^-$-annihilation measured with the DELPHI-experiment are examined. Leading systems are defined by a rapidity gap between the leading system of a jet and the rest of the event. The measured charge distributions are compared with results from Monte-Carlo simulations which do not contain colour-octet neutralisation processes. In the data an enhanced production of neutral leading systems compared to Monte-Carlo predictions is found in gluon jets, which is compatible with the expectations from colour-octet neutralisation. The quark jet sample is found in agreement with the simulation.

  5. Lattice heavy quark effective theory and the isgur-wise function

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, S

    1996-01-01

    We compute the Isgur-Wise function using heavy quark effective theory formulated on the lattice. The non-relativistic kinetic energy term of the heavy quark is included to the action as well as terms remaining in the infinite quark mass limit. The classical velocity of the heavy quark is renormalized on the lattice and we determine the renormalized velocity non-perturbatively using the energy-momentum dispersion relation. The slope parameter of the Isgur-Wise function at zero recoil is obtained at \\beta=6.0 on a 24^3\\times 48 lattice for three values of m_{Q}.

  6. Sum rules for the T-odd fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, A

    2000-01-01

    The conservation of the intrinsic transverse momentum during parton fragmentation imposes non-trivial constraints on T-odd fragmentation functions. These significantly enhance the differences between the favoured and unfavoured fragmentation functions, which could be relevant to understand the azimuthal asymmetries of charged pion production observed recently by the HERMES collaboration.

  7. Confronting fragmentation function universality with single hadron inclusive production at HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Sandoval, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-11-15

    Predictions for light charged hadron production data in the current fragmentation region of deeply inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS experiments are calculated using perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, and using fragmentation functions obtained by fitting to similar data from e{sup +}e{sup -} reactions. General good agreement is found when the magnitude Q{sup 2} of the hard photon's virtuality is sufficiently large. The discrepancy at low Q and small scaled momentum x{sub p} is reduced by incorporating mass effects of the detected hadron. By performing quark tagging, the contributions to the overall fragmentation from the various quark flavours in the ep reactions are studied and compared to the contributions in e{sup +}e{sup -} reactions. The yields of the various hadron species are also calculated. (orig.)

  8. Consequences Of Fully Dressing Quark-Gluon Vertex Function With Two-Point Gluon Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H; Tandy, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    We extend recent studies of the effects of quark-gluon vertex dressing upon the solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation for the quark propagator. A momentum delta function is used to represent the dominant infrared strength of the effective gluon propagator so that the resulting integral equations become algebraic. The quark-gluon vertex is constructed from the complete set of diagrams involving only 2-point gluon lines. The additional diagrams, including those with crossed gluon lines, are shown to make an important contribution to the DSE solutions for the quark propagator, because of their large color factors and the rapid growth in their number.

  9. Comparing Fragmentation Functions in Pb-Pb Collisions using JEWEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Harrison

    2016-09-01

    Collisions between lead nuclei at relativistic speeds create a hot, dense state of deconfined quark matter called the quark gluon plasma (QGP). Due to its extreme density, temperature, and abundance of color charge, the QGP gives us a unique opportunity to study strong interactions and test the limits of QCD. Collisions between nuclei produce jets, clusters of particles hadronized from an energetic parton. Jets produced in heavy ion collisions must travel through the energetic and dense QGP, which changes the structure and momenta of the jets, a phenomenon known as jet quenching. By analyzing the changes in hadron fragmentation and momenta, we probe the properties and structure of the QGP. To analyze the jet fragmentation, we simulated lead-lead collisions with JEWEL, a modification to the Monte-Carlo (MC) generator PYTHIA6, and compared the results with ATLAS data at 2.76 TeV and 5 TeV. These comparisons between the ATLAS data and the MC simulation are important for understanding jet quenching in heavy ion collisions. This poster gives an overview of the results of the simulation and how they compare with ATLAS data on fragmentation.

  10. Nucleon Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Quark-Hadron Duality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-Bing; LI Ming-Fei

    2003-01-01

    Based on a simple nonrelativistic constituent quark model, the nucleon structure function F2 in theresonance region is estimated by taking the contributions from low-lying nucleon resonances into account. Calculatedresults are employed to study quark-hardon duality in the nucleon electron scattering process by comparing them to thescaling behavior from the data in deep inelastic scattering region.

  11. arXiv Generalized Fragmentation Functions for Fractal Jet Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Elder, Benjamin T.; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-06-15

    We introduce a broad class of fractal jet observables that recursively probe the collective properties of hadrons produced in jet fragmentation. To describe these collinear-unsafe observables, we generalize the formalism of fragmentation functions, which are important objects in QCD for calculating cross sections involving identified final-state hadrons. Fragmentation functions are fundamentally nonperturbative, but have a calculable renormalization group evolution. Unlike ordinary fragmentation functions, generalized fragmentation functions exhibit nonlinear evolution, since fractal observables involve correlated subsets of hadrons within a jet. Some special cases of generalized fragmentation functions are reviewed, including jet charge and track functions. We then consider fractal jet observables that are based on hierarchical clustering trees, where the nonlinear evolution equations also exhibit tree-like structure at leading order. We develop a numeric code for performing this evolution and study its phen...

  12. Quark pseudoscalar vertex and quark mass function with clover fermions : spontaneous symmetry breaking, OPE, symmetry restoration at small volume

    CERN Document Server

    Boucaud, Ph; Yaouanc, A Le; Micheli, J; Pene, O; Rodriguez-Quintero, J

    2009-01-01

    We consider the quark mass function which, in spite of the very large Wilson term artefact, can be studied efficiently with clover fermions, by using the quark pseudoscalar vertex and Ward identities. We then study a series of questions about the chiral limit at N_F=0, through the standard chiral extrapolation method. We confirm that the corresponding OPE of the quark mass function, does not work by far at the available momenta ; this seems to be explainable by a recent high order perturbative calculation of the Wilson coefficient which implies very large high order corrections, much larger than in usual QCD perturbative expansions; the gap with the recognized estimate of the condensate remains large, around a factor 2 at the largest momenta available to us (p ~ 6 GeV), showing the need for very high momenta to test OPE in elementary Green functions. We also observe a remarkable property in function of the physical volume: there is a striking discontinuity in the properties of chiral extrapolation around some...

  13. Relativistic correction to gluon fragmentation function into pseudoscalar quarkonium

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xiangrui; Li, LiuJi; Xiong, Xiaonu

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the recent measurements of the $\\eta_c$ meson production at LHC, we investigate the relativistic correction effect for the fragmentation function of the gluon into $\\eta_c$, which constitutes the crucial nonperturbative elements to understand $\\eta_c$ production at high $p_T$. Employing three distinct methods, we calculate the leading relativistic correction to the $g\\to\\eta_c$ fragmentation function in the NRQCD factorization framework, as well as verify the existing NLO result for the $c\\to \\eta_c$ fragmentation function. We also study the evolution behavior of these fragmentation functions with the aid of DGLAP equation.

  14. Production of {omega}{sub bbc} and {omega}{sub bcc} baryons in quark-diquark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomshi Nobary, M.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: mnobary@razi.ac.ir; Nikoobakht, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naji, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-01

    Using perturbative quantum chromodynamics and quark-diquark model of baryons, we have obtained an analytical fragmentation function which describes {omega}{sub bbc} and {omega}{sub bcc} baryons in b and c quarks fragmentation. The universal fragmentation probabilities, the average fragmentation parameters and the production cross sections resulting from this function are in a very good agreement with those obtained using a full perturbative regime. We conclude that the quark-diquark model of baryons works well when a scalar heavy diquark is considered in a heavy quark fragmentation into a triply heavy baryon.

  15. Laplace method for the evolution of the fragmentation function of Bc mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroun, G. R.; Zarrin, S.; Dadfar, S.

    2016-09-01

    In high-energy processes, the predominant mechanism for b bar c bound states is the production of a high-energy b bar or c quark, which fragments into the b bar c state. An approximate approach for the evolution of the fragmentation functions for the production of the S-wave states of Bc and Bc* is presented using Laplace transform technique in the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) analyses. The cross sections, as a function of the transverse momentum for the direct hadro-production b bar (c) →Bc and b bar (c) →Bc* based on the nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (QCD) factorization, are determined and compared with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data at the 1S-wave state.

  16. Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model

    CERN Document Server

    Dahiya, Harleen

    2016-01-01

    We have analysed the phenomenological dependence of the spin independent ($F_1^{p,n}$ and $F_2^{p,n}$) and the spin dependent ($g_1^{p,n}$) structure functions of the nucleon on the the Bjorken scaling variable $x$ using the unpolarized distribution functions of the quarks $q(x)$ and the polarized distribution functions of the quarks $\\Delta q(x)$ respectively. The chiral constituent quark model ($\\chi$CQM), which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin crisis and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, has been used to compute explicitly the valence and sea quark flavor distribution functions of $p$ and $n$. In light of the improved precision of the world data, the $p$ and $n$ longitudinal spin asymmetries ($A_1^p(x)$ and $A_1^n(x)$) have been calculated. The implication of the presence of the sea quarks has been discussed for ratio of polarized to unpolarized quark distribution functions for up and down quarks in the $p$ and $n$ $\\frac{\\Delta u^p(x)}{u^p(x)}$, $\\frac{\\Delta d...

  17. Test of spin dependence in charm-quark fragmentation to D sup *

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Avery, R.E.; Barker, A.R.; Bauer, D.A.; Bay, A.; Belcinski, R.; Bingham, H.H.; Bloom, E.D.; Buchanan, C.D.; Caldwell, D.O.; Chao, H.; Chun, S.; Clark, A.R.; Cowan, G.D.; Crane, D.A.; Dahl, O.I.; Daoudi, M.; Derby, K.A.; Eastman, J.J.; Eberhard, P.H.; Edberg, T.K.; Eisner, A.M.; Erne, F.C.; Fairfield, K.H.; Fridman, A.; Godfrey, G.; Hauptman, J.M.; Ho, C.; Hofmann, W.; Kamae, T.; Kenney, R.W.; Khacheryan, S.; Kofler, R.R.; Lambert, D.J.; Langeveld, W.G.J.; Layter, J.G.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Loken, S.C.; Lu, A.; Lynch, G.R.; Lys, J.E.; Madaras, R.J.; Magnuson, B.D.; Marsiske, H.; Masek, G.E.; Mathis, L.G.; Maxfield, S.J.; Miller, E.S.; Nicol, N.A.; Nygren, D.R.; Oddone, P.J.; Oh, H.; Oyang, Y.; Paar, H.P.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Park, S.K.; Pellett, D.E.; Pripstein, M.; Ronan, M.T.; Ross, R.R.; Rouse, F.R.; Schwitkis, K.A.; Sens, J.C.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.C.; Smith, J.R.; Steinman, J.S.; Stephens, R.W.; Stevenson, M.L.; Stork, D.H.; Strauss, M.G.; Sullivan; (TPC/Two-Gamma Collaboration)

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the polarization of {ital D}{sup *}, the energy dependence of the polarization, and the spin-density matrix of {ital D}{sup *} in {ital e}{sup +}{ital e{minus}} annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV using the Time Projection Chamber detector at the SLAC storage ring PEP. In 147 pb{sup {minus}1} of data we see no strong evidence for polarization, alignment, or final-state interactions in this fragmentation process.

  18. Transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution functions beyond leading twist in quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Lorcé, C; Schweitzer, P

    2014-01-01

    Higher-twist transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) are a valuable probe of the quark-gluon dynamics in the nucleon, and play a vital role for the explanation of sizable azimuthal asymmetries in hadron production from unpolarized and polarized deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering observed in experiments at CERN, DESY and Jefferson Lab. The associated observables are challenging to interpret, and still await a complete theoretical explanation, which makes guidance from models valuable. In this work we establish the formalism to describe unpolarized higher-twist TMDs in the light-front framework based on a Fock-space expansion of the nucleon state in terms of free on-shell parton states. We derive general expressions and present numerical results in a practical realization of this picture provided by the light-front constituent quark model. We review several other popular quark model approaches including free quark ensemble, bag, spectator and chiral quark-soliton model.

  19. Impacts of B-factory measurements on determination of fragmentation functions from electron-positron annihilation data

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, M; Kumano, S; Saito, K

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation functions are determined for the pion and kaon by global analyses of charged-hadron production data in electron-positron annihilation. Accurate measurements were reported by the Belle and BaBar collaborations for the fragmentation functions at the center-of-mass energies of 10.52 GeV and 10.54 GeV, respectively, at the KEK and SLAC B factories, whereas other available $e^+e^-$ measurements were mostly done at higher energies, mainly at the $Z$ mass of 91.2 GeV. There is a possibility that gluon fragmentation functions, as well as quark fragmentation functions, are accurately determined by scaling violation. We report our global analysis of the fragmentation functions especially to show impacts of the B-factory measurements on the fragmentation function determination. Our results indicate that the fragmentation functions are determined more accurately not only by the scaling violation but also by high-statistical nature of the Belle and BaBar data. However, there are some tensions between the Bel...

  20. Heavy-quark QCD vacuum polarisation function. Analytical results at four loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-07-15

    The first two moments of the heavy-quark vacuum polarisation function at four loops in quantum chromo-dynamics are found in fully analytical form by evaluating the missing massive four-loop tadpole master integrals. (orig.)

  1. Pair distribution function of strongly coupled quark gluon plasma in a molecule-like aggregation model

    CERN Document Server

    Meiling, Yu; Lianshou, Liu

    2008-01-01

    Pair distribution function for delocalized quarks in the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma (sQGP) as well as in the states at intermediate stages of crossover from hadronic matter to sQGP are calculated using a molecule-like aggregation model. The shapes of the obtained pair distribution functions exhibit the character of liquid. The increasing correlation length in the process of crossover indicates a diminishing viscosity of the fluid system.

  2. Extraction of the x-dependence of the non-perturbative QCD b-quark fragmentation distribution component

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Haim, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Stocchi, A; Bambade, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Using recent measurements of the b-quark fragmentation distribution obtained in $e^+e^- \\to b \\bar{b}$ events registered at the Z pole, the non-perturbative QCD component of the distribution has been extracted independently of any hadronic physics modelling. This distribution depends only on the way the perturbative QCD component has been defined. When the perturbative QCD component is taken from a parton shower Monte-Carlo, the non-perturbative QCD component is rather similar with those obtained from the Lund or Bowler models. When the perturbative QCD component is the result of an analytic NLL computation, the non-perturbative QCD component has to be extended in a non-physical region and thus cannot be described by any hadronic modelling. In the two examples used to characterize these two situations, which are studied at present, it happens that the extracted non-perturbative QCD distribution has the same shape, being simply translated to higher-x values in the second approach, illustrating the ability of t...

  3. Strangeness content and structure function of the nucleon in a statistical quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Trevisan, L A; Tomio, L

    1999-01-01

    The strangeness content of the nucleon is determined from a statistical model using confined quark levels, and is shown to have a good agreement with the corresponding values extracted from experimental data. The quark levels are generated in a Dirac equation that uses a linear confining potential (scalar plus vector). With the requirement that the result for the Gottfried sum rule violation, given by the new muon collaboration (NMC), is well reproduced, we also obtain the difference between the structure functions of the proton and neutron, and the corresponding sea quark contributions. (27 refs).

  4. Unpolarized structure functions and the parton distributions for nucleon in an independent quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Barik; R N Mishra

    2001-04-01

    Considering the nucleon as consisting entirely of its valence quarks confined independently in a scalar-vector harmonic potential; unpolarized structure functions 1(,2) and 2(x,2) are derived in the Bjorken limit under certain simplifying assumptions; from which valence quark distribution functions (,2) and (,2) are appropriately extracted satisfying the normalization constraints. QCD-evolution of these input distributions from a model scale of 2=0.07 GeV2 to a higher $Q^{2}$ scale of $Q^{2}_{0} = 15$ GeV2 yields (, $Q^{2}_{0}$) and (, $Q^{2}_{0}$) in good agreement with experimental data. The gluon and sea-quark distributions such as (,$Q^{2}_{0}$) and (, $Q^{2}_{0}$) are dynamically generated with a reasonable qualitative agreement with the available data; using the leading order renormalization group equations with appropriate valence-quark distributions as the input.

  5. Consistency check of charged hadron multiplicities and fragmentation functions in SIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jing Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We derived the conditions on certain combinations of integrals of the fragmentation functions of pion using HERMES data for the sum of the charged pion multiplicities from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS off the deuteron target. In our derivation the nucleon parton distribution functions (PDFs are assumed to be isospin SU(2 symmetric. Similar conditions have also been obtained for the fragmentation functions (FFs of kaon by the sum of charged kaon multiplicities as well. We have chosen several FFs to study the impact of those conditions we have derived. Among those FFs, we find that the fragmentation functions produced by the nonlocal chiral-quark model (NLχQM constantly satisfy the conditions. Furthermore, the ratios of the strange PDFs S(x,Q2 and the non-strange PDFs Q(x,Q2 extracted from the charged pion and kaon multiplicities differ from each other significantly. Finally, we demonstrate that the HERMES pion multiplicity data are unlikely to be compatible with two widely-used PDFs, namely CTEQ6L and leading order NNPDF3.0.

  6. Two-point gauge invariant quark Green's functions with polygonal phase factor lines

    CERN Document Server

    Sazdjian, H

    2013-01-01

    Polygonal lines are used for the paths of the gluon field phase factors entering in the definition of gauge invariant quark Green's functions. This allows classification of the Green's functions according to the number of segments the polygonal lines contain. Functional relations are established between Green's functions with polygonal lines with different numbers of segments. An integrodifferential equation is obtained for the quark two-point Green's function with a path along a single straight line segment where the kernels are represented by a series of Wilson loop averages along polygonal contours. The equation is exactly and analytically solved in the case of two-dimensional QCD in the large-$N_c$ limit. The solution displays generation of an infinite number of dynamical quark masses accompanied with branch point singularities that are stronger than simple poles. An approximation scheme, based on the counting of functional derivatives of Wilson loops, is proposed for the resolution of the equation in fou...

  7. A Possible Resolution of the Strange Quark Polarization Puzzle ?

    CERN Document Server

    Leader, Elliot; Stamenov, Dimiter B

    2011-01-01

    We propose a possible resolution of the strange quark polarization puzzle i.e. of the contradiction between the negative polarized strange quark density obtained from analyses of inclusive DIS data and the positive values obtained from combined analyses of inclusive and semi-inclusive SIDIS data using de Florian et. al. (DSS) fragmentation functions. To this end the results of a new combined NLO QCD analysis of the polarized inclusive and semi-inclusive DIS data, using the Hirai et. al. (HKNS) fragmentation functions, are presented. It is demonstrated that the polarized strange quark density is very sensitive to the kaon fragmentation functions, and if the set of HKNS fragmentation functions is used, the polarized strange quark density from the combined analysis turns out to be negative and well consistent with values obtained from the pure DIS analyses.

  8. Hadronization corrections to helicity components of the fragmentation function

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, Ch. Zacharatou

    2001-01-01

    In the hadronic decays of Z, gluon emission leads to the appearance of the longitudinal component of the fragmentation function, F_L. Measurement of F_L and the transverse component, F_T, could thus provide an insight into the gluon fragmentation function. However, hadronization corrections at low x can be significant. Here we present a method of accounting for such corrections, using the JETSET event generator as illustration.

  9. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ying-Hua [Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Heilongjiang (China); Zhang, Wei-Ning [Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Heilongjiang (China); Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Liaoning (China)

    2015-11-15

    We study the charge balance functions of π{sup +}π{sup -} and K{sup +}K{sup -} in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π{sup +}π{sup -} is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K{sup +}K{sup -} has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference. (orig.)

  10. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-11-01

    We study the charge balance functions of π+π- and K+K- in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π+π- is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K+K- has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference.

  11. Evolution of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, AA; Boer, D; Mulders, PJ

    2002-01-01

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading order in a I / Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of

  12. Extracting α{sub s} from scaling violations in light-hadron fragmentation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2015-11-15

    We review the status of extracting the strong-coupling constant α{sub s} from the scaling violations in fragmentation functions by fitting the latter to experimental data of the inclusive production of single light hadrons in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. We also discuss the analogous analysis based on the average hadron multiplicities in gluon and quark jets, which correspond to the first Mellin moments of the respective FFs. We then assess the prospects of such α{sub s} determinations at future high-luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders such as the CERN Future Circular Collider operated in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation mode (FCC-ee).

  13. Evolution of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Henneman, A A; Mulders, P J; Boer, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading order in a 1/Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of known twist two and twist three operators. We present the evolution in the large N_c limit, restricting to non-singlet for the chiral-even functions.

  14. Evolution of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henneman, A.A. E-mail: alex@nat.vu.nl; Boer, Danieel; Mulders, P.J

    2002-01-07

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading order in a 1/Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of known twist two and twist three operators. We present the evolution in the large N{sub c} limit, restricting to non-singlet for the chiral-even functions.

  15. Evolution of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, A. A.; Boer, Daniël; Mulders, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    We use Lorentz invariance and the QCD equations of motion to study the evolution of functions that appear at leading order in a 1/ Q expansion in azimuthal asymmetries. This includes the evolution equation of the Collins fragmentation function. The moments of these functions are matrix elements of known twist two and twist three operators. We present the evolution in the large Nc limit, restricting to non-singlet for the chiral-even functions.

  16. Energy Dependence of String Fragmentation Function and φ Meson Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA Ben-Hao; CAI Xu; Chinorat Kobdaj; WANG Zhong-Qi; YAN Yu-Peng; ZHOU Dai-Mei

    2004-01-01

    The φ meson productions in A u+A u and/or P b+Pb collisions at AGS, SPS, RHIC, and LHC energies have been studied systematically with a hadron and string cascade model LUCIAE.After considering the energy dependence of the model parameter α in string fragmentation function and adjusting it to the experimental data of charged multiplicity to a certain extent, the model predictions for φ meson yield, rapidity, and transverse mass distributions are compatible with the experimental data at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. A calculation for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energy is given as well. The obtained fractional variable in string fragmentation function shows a saturation in energy dependence. It is discussed that the saturation of fractional variable in string fragmentation function might be a qualitative representation of the energy dependence of nuclear transparency.

  17. Transverse Quark Spin Effects and the Flavor Dependence of the Boer-Mulders Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard P. Gamberg; Gary R. Goldstein; Marc Schlegel

    2007-07-30

    The naive time reversal odd (T-odd) parton distribution $h_{1}^{\\perp}$, the so-called Boer-Mulders function, for both $u$- and $d$-quarks is considered in the diquark spectator model. While other approaches give evidence that the signs of the Boer-Mulders function for both flavors $u$ and $d$ are the same and negative, previous caculations in the diquark-spectator model found $h_{1}^{\\perp(u)}$ and $h_{1}^{\\perp(d)}$ have differnet signs. The flavor dependence is of significance for the analysis of the azimuthal $\\cos(2\\phi)$ asymmetries in unpolarized SIDIS and DY-processes, as well as for the overall physical understanding of the distribution of transversely polarized quarks in unpolarized nucleons. We find substantial differences with previous work. In particular we obtain estimates of the zeroth, half and first moments of Boer-Mulders functions that are negative over the full range in Bjorken $x$ for both the up and down quarks. In conjunction with the Collins function we then predict the $\\cos(2\\phi)$ azimuthal asymmetry for $\\pi^{+}$ and $\\pi^{-}$ in this framework. We also find that the Sivers up and down quark are negative and postive respectively. As a by-product of the formalism, we calculate the chiral-odd but T-even function $h_{1L}^{\\perp}$ in the spectator framework, which allows us to present a prediction for the single spin asymmetry $A_{UL}^{\\sin(2\\phi)}$ for a longitudinally polarized target in SIDIS.

  18. Parton distribution functions, αs, and heavy-quark masses for LHC Run II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekhin, S.; Blümlein, J.; Moch, S.; PlačakytÄ--, R.

    2017-07-01

    We determine a new set of parton distribution functions (ABMP16), the strong coupling constant αs and the quark masses mc, mb and mt in a global fit to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD. The analysis uses the MS ¯ scheme for αs and all quark masses and is performed in the fixed-flavor number scheme for nf=3 , 4, 5. Essential new elements of the fit are the combined data from HERA for inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), data from the fixed-target experiments NOMAD and CHORUS for neutrino-induced DIS, data from Tevatron and the LHC for the Drell-Yan process and the hadro-production of single-top and top-quark pairs. The theory predictions include new improved approximations at NNLO for the production of heavy quarks in DIS and for the hadro-production of single-top quarks. The description of higher twist effects relevant beyond the leading twist collinear factorization approximation is refined. At NNLO, we obtain the value αs(nf=5 )(MZ)=0.1147 ±0.0008 .

  19. New Heavy Quark Limit Sum Rules involving Isgur-Wise Functions and Decay Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Yaouanc, A L; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    1996-01-01

    We consider the dominant $c\\bar{c}$ contribution to $\\Delta \\Gamma$ for the $B_s^0$-$\\bar{B}_s^0$ system in the heavy quark limit for both $b$ and $c$ quarks. In analogy with the Bjorken-Isgur-Wise sum rule in semileptonic heavy hadron decay, we impose duality between the parton model calculation of $\\Delta $m_c/m_b$ and assuming factorization and saturation by narrow resonances $(N_c $f^{(n)}_{1/2}$ ($n$ stands for any radial excitation). Alternatively, we deduce the sum rules with another method free of the factorization hypothesis, from the saturation of the expectation value of a product of two currents by heavy hadrons and by the corresponding free quarks. The sum rules read for all $w$. Moreover, we obtain, in the heavy quark limit, $f^{(n)}_{3/2} = 0$. As a consequence, unlike the BIW sum rule, the slope of the elastic function $\\xi (w)$ is related to radial excitations alone. These are generalizations, rigorous for QCD in the heavy quark limit, of results that have an easy understanding in the non-rel...

  20. Transverse momentum dependent splitting functions at work: quark-to-gluon splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschinski, M; Kutak, K

    2016-01-01

    Using the recently obtained Pgq splitting function we extend the low x evolution equation for gluons to account for contributions originating from quark-to-gluon splitting. In order to write down a consistent equation we resum virtual corrections coming from the gluon channel and demonstrate that this implies a suitable regularization of the Pgq singularity, corresponding to a soft emitted quark. We also note that the obtained equation is in a straightforward manner generalized to a nonlinear evolution equation which takes into account effects due to the presence of high gluon densities.

  1. Bounds on Transverse Momentum Dependent Distribution and Fragmentation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, A.; Boglione, M.; Henneman, A.; Mulders, P. J.

    2000-07-01

    We give bounds on the distribution and fragmentation functions that appear at leading order in deep inelastic one-particle inclusive leptoproduction or in Drell-Yan processes. These bounds simply follow from positivity of the defining matrix elements and are an important guidance in estimating the magnitude of the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in these processes.

  2. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, A; Henneman, A A; Mulders, P J

    2000-01-01

    We give bounds on the distribution and fragmentation functions that appear at leading order in deep inelastic 1-particle inclusive leptoproduction or in Drell-Yan processes. These bounds simply follow from positivity of the defining matrix elements and are an important guidance in estimating the magnitude of the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in these processes.

  3. Interference fragmentation functions in electron-positron annihilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D; Jakob, R; Radici, M

    2003-01-01

    We study the process of electron-positron annihilation into back-to-back jets, where in each jet a pair of hadrons is detected. The orientation of these two pairs with respect to each other can be used to extract the interference fragmentation functions in a clean way: for instance, from BELLE or BA

  4. Importance of Fragmentation Functions in Determining Polarized Parton Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Leader, Elliot; Stamenov, Dimiter B

    2012-01-01

    New fragmentation functions (FFs) are extracted from a NLO QCD fit to the preliminary COMPASS data on pion and kaon multiplicities. It is shown that the new kaon FFs are very different from those of De Florian at al. (DSS) and Hirai et al. (HKNS). The sensitivity of the extracted polarized PDFs to the new FFs is discussed.

  5. Sivers and Boer-Mulders functions in Light-Cone Quark Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, Barbara; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-29

    Results for the naive-time-reversal-odd quark distributions in a light-cone quark model are presented. The final-state interaction effects are generated via single-gluon exchange mechanism. The formalism of light-cone wave functions is used to derive general expressions in terms of overlap of wave-function amplitudes describing the different orbital angular momentum components of the nucleon. In particular, the model predictions show a dominant contribution from S- and P-wave interference in the Sivers function and a significant contribution also from the interference of P and D waves in the Boer-Mulders function. The favourable comparison with existing phenomenological parametrizations motivates further applications to describe azimuthal asymmetries in hadronic reactions.

  6. The Transverse Momentum Dependent Fragmentation Function at NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Echevarria, Miguel G; Vladimirov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the unpolarized non-singlet transverse momentum dependent fragmentation function (TMDFF) at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO), evaluating separately TMD soft factor and TMD collinear correlator. For the first time the cancellation of spurious rapidity divergences in a properly defined individual TMD beyond the first non-trivial order is shown. This represents a strong check of the given TMD definition. We extract the matching coefficient necessary to perform the transverse momentum resummation at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy. The universal character of the soft function, which enters the definition of all (un)polarized TMD distribution/fragmentation functions, facilitates the future calculation of all the other TMDs and their coefficients at NNLO, pushing forward the accuracy of theoretical predictions for the current and next generation of high energy colliders.

  7. Access to Photon Fragmentation Functions in Hadronic Jet Production

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Tom; Vogelsang, Werner

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the process $pp \\to (\\text{jet} \\gamma)X$, for which a photon is observed inside a fully reconstructed jet and is treated as part of the jet, offers new probes of the so far little known fragmentation functions for photons. We present a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation of the cross section for this process in the limit that the jet is relatively narrow. We also investigate the background resulting from the two-photon decay of neutral pions. We present numerical results relevant for possible measurements at the LHC and at RHIC. These suggest that $pp \\to (\\text{jet} \\gamma)X$ should provide clean access to the photon fragmentation functions, provided an efficient suppression of the background is available in experiment.

  8. Spectral functions in the quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, Masayuki [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Using the maximum entropy method, spectral functions of the vector mesons are extracted from lattice Monte Carlo data of the zero-temperature imaginary time Green's functions. The resonance and continuum structures as well as the ground state peaks are successfully obtained. In addition, we present a preliminary result for finite temperature spectral functions in the vector channel above the confinement-deconfinement phase transition temperature. (author)

  9. Calculation of the Isgur-Wise function from a light-front constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Simula, S

    1996-01-01

    The space-like elastic form factor of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons is investigated within a light-front constituent quark model in order to evaluate the Isgur-Wise form factor. The relativistic composition of the constituent quark spins is properly taken into account using the Melosh rotations, and various heavy-meson wave function are considered, including the eigenfunctions of an effective light-front mass operator reproducing meson mass spectra. It is shown that in a wide range of values of the recoil the Isgur-Wise form factor exhibits a moderate dependence upon the choice of the heavy-meson wave function and is mainly governed by the effects of the confinement scale.

  10. Study of u and d quark form factors in light front wave function with N{sup 2}LO approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza Shojaei, Mohammad [Shahrood University of Technology, Department of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we have calculated the Dirac and Pauli form factors for u and d quark with light front quark model in N{sup 2}LO approximation for MSTW2008 quark function distributions. By using this approximation we found the parameters of Dirac and Pauli form factors, and then we calculated the form factors function as Q{sup 2}. By comparing with experimental data we concluded that F{sub 1}(Q{sup 2}) and F{sub 2}(Q{sup 2}) are in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  11. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-07-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing

  12. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-07-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing

  13. Correlation functions at small quark masses with overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L. [CNRS Luminy, Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Hernandez, P. [Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Valencia (Spain). Dpto. Fisica Teorica and IFIC; Laine, M. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Pena, C.; Wennekers, J.; Wittig, H.; Weisz, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    We report on recent work on the determination of low-energy constants describing {delta}S = 1 weak transitions, in order to investigate the origins of the {delta}I = 1/2 rule. We focus on numerical techniques designed to enhance the statistical signal in three-point correlation functions computed with overlap fermions near the chiral limit. (orig.)

  14. Correlation functions at small quark masses with overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L. [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS Luminy, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Hernandez, P. [Dpto. Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Laine, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Pena, C. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Weisz, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Wennekers, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Wittig, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-03-15

    We report on recent work on the determination of low-energy constants describing {delta}S=1 weak transitions, in order to investigate the origins of the {delta}I=1/2 rule. We focus on numerical techniques designed to enhance the statistical signal in three-point correlation functions computed with overlap fermions near the chiral limit.

  15. Correlation functions at small quark masses with overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo; Laine, Mikko; Peña, C; Weisz, P; Wennekers, J; Wittig, H

    2005-01-01

    We report on recent work on the determination of low-energy constants describing Delta{S}=1 weak transitions, in order to investigate the origins of the Delta{I}=1/2 rule. We focus on numerical techniques designed to enhance the statistical signal in three-point correlation functions computed with overlap fermions near the chiral limit.

  16. Scaling of the F_2 structure function in nuclei and quark distributions at x>1

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, N; Day, D B; Gaskell, D; Daniel, A; Seely, J; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Boillat, B; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Bukhari, M H S; Christy, M E; Chudakov, E; Clasie, B; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Fassi, L El; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Garrow, K; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, M; Lindgren, R; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Miyoshi, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Okayasu, Y; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Trojer, R; Tvaskis, V; Vulcan, W F; Wasko, C; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Wright, J; Zheng, X

    2010-01-01

    We present new data on electron scattering from a range of nuclei taken in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. For heavy nuclei, we observe a rapid falloff in the cross section for $x>1$, which is sensitive to short range contributions to the nuclear wave-function, and in deep inelastic scattering corresponds to probing extremely high momentum quarks. This result agrees with higher energy muon scattering measurements, but is in sharp contrast to neutrino scattering measurements which suggested a dramatic enhancement in the distribution of the `super-fast' quarks probed at x>1. The falloff at x>1 is noticeably stronger in ^2H and ^3He, but nearly identical for all heavier nuclei.

  17. The polarized structure function of the nucleons with a non-extensive statistical quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the polarized structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution, often used in the statistical models, were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and the chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon and by Δu and Δd of the polarized functions.

  18. Quark-Quark Forces in Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipov, A A

    2014-01-01

    By single-time reduction technique of Bethe-Salpeter formalism for two-fermion systems analytical expressions for the quasipotential of quark-quark interactions in QCD have been obtained in one-gluon exchange approximation. The influence of infrared singularities of gluon Green`s functions on the character of quark-quark forces in QCD has been investigated. The way the asymptotic freedom manifests itself in terms of two-quark interaction quasipotential in quantum chromodynamics is shown. Consistent relativistic consideration of quark interaction problem by single-time reduction technique in QFT allows one to establish a nontrivial energy dependence of the two-quark interaction quasipotential. As a result of the energy dependence of the interaction quasipotential, the character of the forces changes qualitatively during the transition from the discrete spectrum (the region of the negative values of the binding energy) to the continuous spectrum (that of the positive values of the binding energy): the smooth be...

  19. Momentum Fractions carried by quarks and gluons in models of proton structure functions at small $x$

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, D K; Kalita, K

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports analysis of momentum fractions carried by quarks and gluons in models of Proton structure functions at small $x$. First, we analyze the model proposed by Lastovicka based on self-similarity sometime back. We then make a similar analysis for a second model based on the same notion which is also free from singularity in $x$ : $0function at small $x$, suggested by Block, Durand, Ha and McKay. The results are then compared with the corresponding study in perturbative and Lattice QCD.

  20. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Kiet A., E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States); Pachter, Ruth, E-mail: kiet.nguyen@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  1. Fragmentation Of Quark And Gluon Jets In Proton- Antiproton Collisions At Center Of Mass Energies = 1.8 Tev

    CERN Document Server

    Pronko, A P

    2005-01-01

    We report the first model independent measurement of charged particle multiplicities in quark and gluon jets, Nq and Ng, produced at the Tevatron in pp¯ collisions with center-of-mass energy 1.8 TeV and recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermi-lab. The measurements are made for jets with average energies 41 and 53 GeV by counting charged particle tracks in cones with opening angle of &thetas;c = 0.28, 0.36, and 0.47 rad around the jet axis. The corresponding jet hardness Q = Ejet&thetas;c varies in the range from 12 GeV to 25 GeV. At Q = 19.2 GeV, the ratio of multiplicities r = Ng/Nq is found to be 1.64 ± 0.17, where statistical and systematic uncertainties are added in quadrature. The results are in agreement with re-summed perturbative QCD calculations and are consistent with recent e +e− measurements.

  2. The influence of fragmentation models in the production of hadron jets in electron–positron annihilation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasheminia M; Mirjalili A; Zomorrodian M E; Sepehri A

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of electron–positron annihilations to hadrons at high energies shows that apart from two-jet events, there are also signs of three-jet events which are interpreted according to the QCD, as a gluon radiated by a quark. In this paper, we investigate the fragmentation of quarks and gluons to hadron jets. We show that gluon jets have a higher multiplicity compared to quark jets of the same energy. Furthermore, inclusion of different flavours in the distributions shows that quark jets are flavour-dependent, but gluon jets are not. The differences between quark and gluon jets also manifest themselves in the fragmentation functions. We observe that the fragmentation for gluon jet is softer than that for quark jet, because the radiation of soft gluons is larger for gluon jetsand that gluon cannot be present as a valence parton inside a produced hadron. We provide possible explanations for these features in this paper.

  3. Nucleon $g-2$ Structure Function at Large $x$ and Quark-Gluons Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zein-Eddine Meziani

    2009-12-01

    We discuss two recently carried out experiments at Jefferson Lab that measured with precision the spin structure function of the nucleon g2, aiming at the determination of the twist-3 matrix element known as d2 for both the proton and the neutron. This matrix element is related to the average Lorentz color force that a quark experiences just at the instant it is struck. It is also interpreted as a measurement of a linear combination of the electric and magnetic “color polarizability” in the nucleon.

  4. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique

    1995-07-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.

  5. Space-time ambiguity of two- and three-fragment reduced velocity correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasmacher, T.; Phair, L.; Bowman, D.R.; Gelbke, C.K.; Gong, W.G.; Kim, Y.D.; Lisa, M.A.; Lynch, W.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; de Souza, R.T.; Tsang, M.B.; Zhu, F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Reduced-velocity correlation functions between two and three intermediate mass fragments are compared for central {sup 36}Ar+{sup 197}Ar collisions at {ital E}/{ital A}=50 MeV. Previously published {ital N}-body Coulomb-trajectory calculations, capable of reproducing the measured two-fragment reduced velocity-correlation function, describe the measured three-fragment correlation function equally well. Moreover, ambiguities between source size and lifetime observed in the analysis of two-fragment correlations remain unresolved in the three-fragment correlation function.

  6. Measurement of b Quark Fragmentation Fractions in $p\\overline{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=1.8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, T; Akopian, A M; Albrow, Michael G; Amaral, P; Amendolia, S R; Amidei, D; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W J; Atac, Muzaffer; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bailey, M W; Bailey, S; De Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, B A; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Belforte, S; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Bergé, J P; Berryhill, J W; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bevensee, B E; Bhatti, A A; Bigongiari, C; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C A; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, Arie; Bokhari, W; Bölla, G; Bonushkin, Yu; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; van den Brink, S C; Bromberg, C; Bruner, N L; Buckley-Geer, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byon-Wagner, A; Byrum, K L; Campbell, M; Caner, A; Carithers, W C; Carlson, J; Carlsmith, D; Cassada, J A; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F S; Christofek, L S; Chu, M L; Cihangir, S; Ciobanu, C I; Clark, A G; Cobal, M; Cocca, E; Connolly, A; Conway, J; Cooper, J; Cordelli, M; Guimarães da Costa, J; Costanzo, D; Cranshaw, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Cropp, R; Culbertson, R J; Dagenhart, D; De Jongh, F; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M M; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; Done, J; Dorigo, T; Eddy, N; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Elias, J E; Engels, E; Erdmann, W; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fan, Q; Feild, R G; Ferretti, C; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B L; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Fukui, Y; Gadomski, S; Galeotti, S; Gallinaro, M; Gao, T; García-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gay, C; Geer, S; Gerdes, D W; Giannetti, P; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V V; Gold, M; Goldstein, J; Gordon, A; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Yu; Goulianos, K; Grassmann, H; Green, C; Groer, L S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Günther, M; Guillian, G; Guo, R S; Haber, C; Hafen, E S; Hahn, S R; Hall, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Hao, W; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Hinrichsen, B; Hoffman, K D; Holck, C; Hollebeek, R J; Holloway, L E; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J E; Ikeda, H; Incagli, M; Incandela, J R; Introzzi, G; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; James, E; Jensen, H; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Kambara, H; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Karr, K M; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K F; Kelly, M; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R D; Khazins, D M; Kikuchi, T; Kirk, M; Kim, B J; Kim, H S; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knoblauch, D; Koehn, P; Köngeter, A; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A V; Kovács, E; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhlmann, S E; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lamoureux, J I; Lancaster, M; Latino, G; LeCompte, T J; Lee, A M; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Liu, J B; Liu, Y C; Lockyer, N; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lusin, S; Lys, J; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mariotti, M; Martignon, G; Martin, A; Matthews, J A J; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McKigney, E A; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Meschi, E; Mesropian, C; Miao, C; Miao, T; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Moggi, N; Moore, E; Moore, R; Morita, Y; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Musy, M; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakaya, T; Nakano, I; Nelson, C; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C Y P; Nicolaidi, P; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Oh, S H; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Pappas, S P; Parri, A; Partos, D S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Perazzo, A; Pescara, L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pitts, K T; Plunkett, R K; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Prokoshin, F; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Ragan, K; Reher, D; Riegler, W; Ribon, A; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robinson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R M; Rossin, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sato, H; Savard, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A; Scribano, A; Segler, S L; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A A; Semeria, F; Shah, T; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shibayama, T; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M J; Siegrist, J L; Signorelli, G; Sill, A F; Sinervo, P K; Singh, P; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, C; Snider, F D; Solodsky, A; Spalding, J; Speer, T; Sphicas, Paris; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Spiegel, L; Stanco, L; Steele, J; Stefanini, A; Strologas, J; Strumia, F; Stuart, D; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, T; Takashima, R; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Takano, T; Tannenbaum, B; Taylor, W; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Theriot, D; Thurman-Keup, Randy M; Tipton, P; Tkaczyk, S M; Tollefson, K; Tollestrup, Alvin V; Toyoda, H; Trischuk, W; De Trocóniz, J F; Truitt, S; Tseng, J; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Valls, J; Vejcik, S; Velev, G V; Vidal, R; Vilar, R; Volobuev, I P; Vucinic, D; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wahl, J; Wallace, N B; Walsh, A M; Wang, C; Wang, C H; Wang, M J; Watanabe, T; Watts, T; Webb, R; Wenzel, H; Wester, W C; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Winn, D; Wolbers, S; Wolinski, D; Wolinski, J; Worm, S D; Wu, X; Wyss, J; Yagil, A; Yao, W; Yeh, G P; Yeh, P; Yoh, J K; Yosef, C; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Zanetti, A; Zetti, F; Zucchelli, S

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the production of B hadrons in 1.8-TeV p-pbar collisions. We present measurements of the fragmentation fractions, f_u, f_d, f_s and f_baryon, of produced b quarks that yield B^+, B^0, B^0_s and Lambda_b hadrons. Reconstruction of several electron-charm final states yields f_s/(f_u+f_d)=0.213+/-0.068 and f_baryon/(f_u+f_d)=0.118+/-0.042, assuming f_u=f_d. If all B hadrons produced in p-pbar collisions cascade to one of these four hadrons, we determine f_u=f_d=0.375+/-0.023, f_s=0.160+/-0.044 and f_baryon=0.090+/-0.029. If we do not assume f_u=f_d, we find f_d/f_u=0.84+/-0.16.

  7. On threshold resummation of singlet structure and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Grunberg, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The large x behavior of the physical evolution kernels appearing in the second order evolution equation of the F_2 singlet structure function is investigated. The validity of a leading logarithmic threshold resummation, analoguous to the one prevailing for the non-singlet physical kernel, is established, allowing to recover the predictions of Soar et al. for the double-logarithmic contributions (\\ln^i(1-x), i=4,5,6) to the four loop splitting function P^{(3)}_{qg}(x). Threshold resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic level is found however to break down in the three loop kernel, except in the "supersymmetric" case C_A=C_F. Assuming a full threshold resummation does hold in this case also beyond three loop gives some information on the leading and next-to-leading single-logarithmic contributions (\\ln^i(1-x), i=2,3) to P^{(3)}_{qg}(x). Similar results are obtained for singlet fragmentation functions up to two loop, where a large x Gribov-Lipatov relation in the physical kernels is pointed out. Assuming t...

  8. Non-perturbative renormalization of quark mass in Nf=2+1 QCD with the Schroedinger functional scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the quark mass renormalization factor for Nf=2+1 QCD. The Schroedinger functional scheme is employed as the intermediate scheme to carry out non-perturbative running from the low energy to deep in the high energy perturbative region. The regularization independent step scaling function of the quark mass is obtained in the continuum limit. Renormalization factors for the pseudo scalar density and the axial vector current are also evaluated for the same action and the bare couplings as two recent large scale Nf=2+1 simulations; previous work of the CP-PACS/JLQCD collaboration, which covered the up-down quark mass range heavier than m_pi=500 MeV and that of PACS-CS collaboration on the physical point using the reweighting technique.

  9. Mesonic correlation functions from light quarks and their spectral representation in hot quenched lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissel, S.

    2006-10-15

    In this thesis we investigate thermal in-medium modifications of various mesonic correlation functions by lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics for light valence quark masses and vanishing chemical potential. Mesonic properties are typically extracted from spatial correlation functions. The results presented are based on quenched gauge field configurations generated with the standard Wilson plaquette gauge action. Concerning the fermionic part of the action, we use the non-perturbative O(a) improved Sheikholeslami-Wohlert as well as the truncated hypercube perfect action. Furthermore we utilize the maximum entropy method in order to determine physically relevant pole masses and to investigate thermal modifications of physical states and possible lattice artefacts in the interacting case. The analyses of pole and screening masses, dispersion relations, wave functions, decay constants and spectral functions essentially yield no significant modifications of the zero-temperature behavior up to 0.55 T{sub c}. Close to the phase transition in-medium effects seem to appear, which lead inter alia to significant differences between pole and screening masses. The decay constants are in good agreement with the experimental values. We have simulated above T{sub c} at nearly zero quark masses. At 1.24 T{sub c}, the occurrence of topological effects, a sign for the presence of a still broken U(1){sub A} symmetry, prevent a more thorough analyses close to the phase transition. A complete continuum and infinite volume extrapolation of screening masses, guided by free lattice effective masses is done. It shows that the presence of collective phenomena at 1.5 and 3 T{sub c} cannot be explained by pure lattice artefacts. Unlike the vector meson the pion is far from being considered an unbound state. (orig.)

  10. Bottom-hadron production through top quark decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-06-15

    In this thesis we apply perturbative QCD to make precise predictions for some observables in high-energy processes involving bottom-quark. Our first application is a prediction for the energy spectrum of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For that purpose we calculate at NLO the OCD corrections for bottom fragmentation in top decay. The b-quark in the top quark decay is considered once as a massless and once as a massive particle in our calculations. The difference between the differential width calculated in both cases can give us the perturbative fragmentation function of the b-quark. After that using the obtained differential widths and applying ZM-VFNS and GM-VFNS, we make some predictions for the spectrum of B-hadrons produced in top quark decay. The comparison of both approaches shows that the mass effect of the b-quark in the top quark decay is negligible. We also investigate the mass effect of B-hadron in the energy distribution obtained in the previous calculations and we show that this increases the value of the differential width when the energy taken away by the produced parton in top decay is small. Our second application is to obtain the helicity contributions of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For this reason we study the angular decay distribution for the cascade decay of the top-quark (t{yields} b+W{sup +}({yields}e{sup +}+{nu}{sub e})). Using ZM-VFNS we make predictions for the NLO contributions of the longitudinal, the transverse-minus and the transverse-plus helicity of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of B-hadron. (orig.)

  11. A detailed study of nucleon structure function in nuclei in the valence quark region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, N. [INFN-Laboratori, Nazionali di Frascati (Italy)

    1994-04-01

    The so called {open_quotes}EMC effect{close_quotes} discovered during the 1980`s, has caused a big controversy in the community of nuclear and high energy physicists; during the last ten years, five experiments have been performed in different laboratories and several hundreds of papers about the possible interpretation of the modification of the nucleon structure function inside nuclei have been published. However, from the experimental point of view, the main goal of four experiments (EMC, BCDMS, NMC, FNAL) has been to emphasize the region of low x{sub b}, where shadowing effects appear. In the region of valence quarks and nuclear effects (x{sub b} > 0.1 - 0.2) the most reliable data presently available are from the SLAC E139 experiment performed in 1983 with only 80 hours of beam time. New precise data in the valence quark region are necessary to measure separate structure functions F{sub 2}(x{sub b}, Q{sup 2}) and R{sup lt}(x{sub b},Q{sup 2}) = {sigma}{sub l}/{sigma}{sub t}, and to investigate the real A-dependence of the ratio between bound and free-nucleon structure functions which is not completely defined by the SLAC data. Moreover, from the nuclear physics point of view, a measurement on some unexplored nuclei, like {sup 3}He and {sup 48}Ca, would be of great interest. The intermediate scaling region (0.1 < x{sub b} < 0.7) would be accessible at CEBAF if the machine energy will reach 6-8 GeV, as suggested by all the tests performed on the RF cavities. This physics program has been already presented in two letter of intents.

  12. Quark fragmentation to $\\pi^{\\pm}$, $\\pi^{0}$, $K^{\\pm}$, $p$ and $\\bar{p}$ in the nuclear environment

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Ammosov, V V; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Baturin, V; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Borysenko, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V V; Capitani, G P; Chiang, H C; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G M; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Ely, J; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Felawka, L; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Garutti, E; Gaskell, D; Gavrilov, G E; Karibian, V; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Greeniaus, L G; Gregor, I M; Hafidi, K; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Königsmann, K C; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Lindemann, T; Lipka, K; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H O; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Nass, A; Negodaev, M A; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Oganessyan, K; Ohsuga, H; Pickert, N; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Yu I; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shanidze, R G; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V B; Simani, M C; Sinram, K; Stancari, M D; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Tkabladze, A V; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Vetterli, Martin C; Vikhrov, V; Vincter, M G; Vogel, C; Vogt, M; Volmer, J; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Ybeles-Smit, G V; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zohrabyan, H G; Zupranski, P

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the nuclear medium on lepto-production of hadrons was studied in the HERMES experiment at DESY in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of 27.6 GeV positrons off deuterium, nitrogen and krypton targets. The differential multiplicity for krypton relative to that of deuterium has been measured for the first time for various identified hadrons ($\\pi^+$, $\\pi^-$, $\\pi^0$, $K^+$, $K^-$, $p$ and $\\bar{p}$) as a function of the virtual photon energy $\

  13. QCD sum rule calculation of quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the QCD sum rule calculation of the heavy-quark effective theory parameters λE and λH, which represent quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function. We update the sum rules for λE,H calculating the new higher-order contributions to the operator product expansion for the corresponding correlator, i.e., the order αs radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients associated with the dimension-5 quark-gluon mixed condensate, and the power corrections due to the dimension-6 vacuum condensates. We find that the new radiative corrections significantly improve stability of the corresponding Borel sum rules, modifying the values of λE,H.

  14. Empirical Emission Functions for LPM Suppression of Photon Emission from Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Sastry, S

    2003-01-01

    The LPM suppression of photon emission rates from the quark gluon plasma have been studied at different physical conditions of the plasma given by temperature and chemical potentials.The integral equation for the transverse vector function (f(p_t)) consisting of multiple scattering effects is solved for the parameter set {p,k,kappa,T}, for bremsstrahlung and AWS processes. The peak positions of these distributions depend only on the dynamical variable x=(T/kappa)|1/p-1/(p+k)|. Integration over these distributions multiplied by x^2 factor also depends on this variable x,leading to a unique global emission function g(x) for all parameters. Empirical fits to this dimensionless emission function, g(x), are obtained. The photon emission rate calculations with LPM suppression effects reduce to one dimensional integrals involving folding over the empirical g(x) function with appropriate distribution functions and the kinematic factors. Using this approach, the suppression factors for both bremsstrahlung and AWS have...

  15. Synthesis of Functionalized Enynes by Zinc Promoted Tandem Fragmentation-Propargylation of 5-Iodofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of zinc and propargyl bromide methyl 5-iodofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation propargylation to produce functionalized enynes......In the presence of zinc and propargyl bromide methyl 5-iodofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation propargylation to produce functionalized enynes...

  16. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Coe Girão

    Full Text Available Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots. As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated. The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores for pollination systems (-30.3%, floral types (-23.6%, and floral sizes (-20.8% in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and

  17. [Cloning and expression of a promoter function fragment from Thiobacillus thiooxidans in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a recombinant plasmid pSDR12 which is constructed through the substitution of the EcoRI-HindIII fragment of pBR322 by a specific fragment of chromosomal DNA of T. thiooxidans. After it was transformed into C600, the transformants revealed higher levels of Tc resistance. This result shows that a promoter function fragment from autotrophic bacteria is able to express in Escherichia coil.

  18. Investigation of the splitting of quark and gluon jets

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brown, R; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Ghodbane, N; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Silvestre, R; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1998-01-01

    The splitting processes in identified quark and gluon jets are investigated using longitudinal and transverse observables. The jets are selected from symmetric three-jet events measured in Z decays L with the {\\sc Delphi} detector in 1991-1994. Gluon jets are identified using heavy quark anti-tagging. Scaling violations in identified gluon jets are observed for the first time. The scale energy dependence of the gluon fragmentation function is found to be about two times larger than for the corresponding quark jets, consistent with the QCD expectation $C_A/C_F$. The primary splitting of gluons and quarks into subjets agrees with fragmentation models and, for specific regions of the jet resolution $y$, with NLLA calculations. The maximum of the ratio of the primary subjet splittings in quark and gluon jets is $2.77\\pm0.11\\pm0.10$. Due to non-perturbative effects, the data are below the expectation at small $y$. The transition from the perturbative to the non-perturbative domain appears at smaller $y$ for quark ...

  19. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, D

    2004-01-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ``chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ``soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  20. Improved production and function of llama heavy chain antibody fragments by molecular evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der R.H.; Geus, de B.; Frenken, G.J.; Peters, H.; Verrips, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve production level of llama heavy chain antibody fragments (V (HH)) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae while retaining functional characteristics. For this purpose, the DNA shuffling technique was used on llama V (HH) fragments specific for the azo-dye reactive red-6. In

  1. Anthropogenic Matrices Favor Homogenization of Tree Reproductive Functions in a Highly Fragmented Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Species homogenization or floristic differentiation are two possible consequences of the fragmentation process in plant communities. Despite the few studies, it seems clear that fragments with low forest cover inserted in anthropogenic matrices are more likely to experience floristic homogenization. However, the homogenization process has two other components, genetic and functional, which have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to verify whether there was homogenization of tree reproductive functions in a fragmented landscape and, if found, to determine how the process was influenced by landscape composition. The study was conducted in eight fragments in southwest Brazil. The study was conducted in eight fragments in southwestern Brazil. In each fragment, all individual trees were sampled that had a diameter at breast height ≥3 cm, in ten plots (0.2 ha) and, classified within 26 reproductive functional types (RFTs). The process of functional homogenization was evaluated using additive partitioning of diversity. Additionally, the effect of landscape composition on functional diversity and on the number of individuals within each RFT was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. appeared to be in a process of functional homogenization (dominance of RFTs, alpha diversity lower than expected by chance and and low beta diversity). More than 50% of the RFTs and the functional diversity were affected by the landscape parameters. In general, the percentage of forest cover has a positive effect on RFTs while the percentage of coffee matrix has a negative one. The process of functional homogenization has serious consequences for biodiversity conservation because some functions may disappear that, in the long term, would threaten the fragments. This study contributes to a better understanding of how landscape changes affect the functional diversity, abundance of individuals in RFTs and the process of functional homogenization, as well as how to

  2. Tau-decay hadronic spectral functions: probing quark-hadron duality

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, C A; Schilcher, K; Spiesberger, H

    2016-01-01

    The vector and axial-vector ALEPH and OPAL hadronic spectral functions from $\\tau$-decay are used to probe potential quark-hadron duality violations. This is done in the framework of finite energy QCD sum rules (FESR). A combination of dimension $d=2$ and $d=4$ FESR using ALEPH data shows a potential mild agreement with perturbative QCD only very near the kinematical end-point, while the OPAL data exhibits a somewhat better agreement in a slightly wider region. A pinched integration kernel is introduced in the FESR in order to (a) quench potential duality violations on the real axis in the complex squared energy $s$-plane, and (b) effectively extend the analysis well beyond the kinematical $\\tau$-decay end-point where there is no longer data, i.e.\\ in the range $s = 3 - 10 \\,{\\mbox{GeV}}^2$. The latter would be tantamount to the existence of a hypothetical lepton heavier than the $\\tau$. In the vector channel this procedure is supplemented with actual data from $e^+ e^-$-annihilation into hadrons, above the t...

  3. Calcium quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggli, Ernst; Egger, Marcel

    2002-05-01

    Elementary subcellular Ca2+ signals arising from the opening of single ion channels may offer the possibility to examine the stochastic behavior and the microscopic chemical reaction rates of these channel proteins in their natural environment. Such an analysis can yield detailed information about the molecular function that cannot be derived from recordings obtained from an ensemble of channels. In this review, we summarize experimental evidence suggesting that Ca2+ sparks, elementary Ca2+ signaling events of cardiac and skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling, may be comprised of a number of smaller Ca2+ signaling events, the Ca2+ quarks.

  4. Fragmentation functions of neutral mesons π0 and k0 with Laplace transform approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi-Shahri, F.; Tehrani, S. Atashbar; Zarei, M.

    2016-06-01

    With an analytical solutions of DGLAP evolution equations based on the Laplace transform method, we find the fragmentation functions (FFs) of neutral mesons, π0 and k0 at NLO approximation. We also calculated the total fragmentation functions of these mesons and compared them with experimental data and those from global fits. The results show a good agreement between our solutions and other models and they are compatible with experimental data.

  5. Fragmentation Functions of neutral mesons $\\pi^0$ and $k ^0$ with Laplace transform approach

    CERN Document Server

    Taghavi-Shahri, F; Zare, M

    2016-01-01

    With an analytical solutions of DGLAP evolution equations based on the Laplace transform method , we find the fragmentation functions (FFs) of neutral mesons, $\\pi^0$ and $k ^0$ at NLO approximation. We also calculated the total fragmentation functions of these mesons and compared them with experimental data and those from global fits. The results show a good agreements between our solutions and other models and also are compatible with experimental data.

  6. LHC data challenges the contemporary parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David; Helenius, Ilkka; Paukkunen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the inclusive high-pT charged-particle production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The experimental data are compared to the NLO perturbative QCD calculations employing various sets of parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions. Most of the theoretical predictions are found to disastrously overpredict the measured cross sections, even if the scale variations and PDF errors are accounted for. The problem appears to arise from the presently too hard gluon-to-hadron fragmentation functions.

  7. Optimal renormalization and the extraction of strange quark mass from moments of $\\tau$-decay spectral function

    CERN Document Server

    Ananthanarayan, B

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an optimal renormalization group analysis pertinent to the analysis of polarization functions associated with the $s$-quark mass relevant in $\\tau$-decay. The technique is based on the renormalization group invariance constraints which lead to closed form summation of all the leading and next-to-leading logarithms at each order in perturbation theory. The new perturbation series exhibit reduced sensitivity to renormalization scale and improved behavior in the complex plane along the integration contour. Using improved experimental and theory inputs we have extracted the value of strange quark mass $m_s(2{\\rm GeV}) = 106.70 \\pm 9.36~{\\rm MeV}$ and $m_s(2{\\rm GeV}) = 74.47 \\pm 7.77~{\\rm MeV}$ from presently available ALEPH and OPAL data respectively. These determinations are in agreement with the determinations in other phenomenological methods and from the lattice.

  8. A functional fragment of Tau forms fibers without the need for an intermolecular cysteine bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huvent, Isabelle; Kamah, Amina; Cantrelle, François-Xavier [CNRS UMR 8576, University of Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Barois, Nicolas [Plate-forme BICeL-IFR142, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille (France); Slomianny, Christian [Inserm U1003, Laboratoire de physiologie cellulaire, Université Lille 1, 59650 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Smet-Nocca, Caroline; Landrieu, Isabelle [CNRS UMR 8576, University of Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Lippens, Guy, E-mail: Guy.Lippens@univ-lille1.fr [CNRS UMR 8576, University of Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • A functional fragment of Tau forms bundled ribbon-like fibrils. • Nucleation of its fibril formation is faster than for full-length Tau. • In contrast to full-length Tau, without cysteines, the fragment still forms fibers. - Abstract: We study the aggregation of a fragment of the neuronal protein Tau that contains part of the proline rich domain and of the microtubule binding repeats. When incubated at 37 °C with heparin, the fragment readily forms fibers as witnessed by Thioflavin T fluorescence. Electron microscopy and NMR spectroscopy show bundled ribbon like structures with most residues rigidly incorporated in the fibril. Without its cysteines, this fragment still forms fibers of a similar morphology, but with lesser Thioflavin T binding sites and more mobility for the C-terminal residues.

  9. Transverse momentum dependence in gluon distribution and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, P J

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the twist two gluon distribution functions for spin 1/2 hadrons, emphasizing intrinsic transverse momentum of the gluons. These functions are relevant in leading order in the inverse hard scale in scattering processes such as inclusive leptoproduction or Drell-Yan scattering, or more general in hard processes in which at least two hadrons are involved. They show up in azimuthal asymmetries. For future estimates of such observables, we discuss specific bounds on these functions.

  10. Measurement of pi /sup 0/ fragments from jets produced in pp collisions at the CERN ISR

    CERN Document Server

    Kourkoumelis, C; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Fields, T; Filippas-Tassos, A; Fokitis, E; Goldberg, M; Horwitz, N; Iwata, S; Lissauer, D; Mannelli, I; Moneti, G C; Mouzourakis, P; Nappi, A; Palmer, R B; Rahm, David Charles; Rehak, P; Resvanis, L K; Stumer, I; Willis, W J

    1979-01-01

    The jet fragmentation function into pi /sup 0/, f(z) has been measured using the away side high p/sub t/ pi /sup 0/ or eta mesons as a measure of the jet momentum. The fragmentation function is found to have an excess of events near z approximately=1 compared with the exponential fall-off observed at lower z values. The data behaves like 1/z/sup 3/ up to z approximately=1, but deviates sharply from it for z >or=1. Possible explanations of this effect are the single particle fragmentation mode of the quark or gluon jet, or quark fusion. (15 refs).

  11. Distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞典; 蔡勖; 钱婉燕; 杨纯斌

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the quark recombination model, we study the momentum distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets by analyzing the final state hadrons generated by PYTHIA for the hard parton fragmentation processes in vacuum. Parameterizat

  12. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov B.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5° have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T0 = 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quarkgluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8–12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2–0.6% for ninequark clusters.

  13. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF QUARKS IN THE QUARK-GLUON PLASMA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KARSCH,F.; KITAZAWA, M.

    2007-07-30

    We analyze the spectral properties of the quark propagator above the critical temperature for the deconfinement phase transition in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions. The bare quark mass dependence of the quark spectral function is analyzed by varying the hopping parameter {kappa} in Landau gauge. We assume a two-pole structure for the quark spectral function, which is numerically found to work quite well for any value of {kappa}. It is shown that in the chiral limit the quark spectral function has two collective modes that correspond to the normal and plasmino excitations, while it is dominated by a single-pole structure when the bare quark mass becomes large.

  14. Spectral Properties of Quarks in the Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, F

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the spectral properties of the quark propagator above the critical temperature for the deconfinement phase transition in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions. The bare quark mass dependence of the quark spectral function is analyzed by varying the hopping parameter \\kappa in Landau gauge. We assume a two-pole structure for the quark spectral function, which is numerically found to work quite well for any value of \\kappa. It is shown that in the chiral limit the quark spectral function has two collective modes that correspond to the normal and plasmino excitations, while it is dominated by a single-pole structure when the bare quark mass becomes large.

  15. Measurement of fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the multistep heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Jesse H.; Smith, Jared D.; Che, Dung L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2009-03-10

    The competition between the addition of polar, oxygen-containing functional groups (functionalization) and the cleavage of C-C bonds (fragmentation) has a governing influence on the change in volatility of organic species upon atmospheric oxidation, and hence on the loading of tropospheric organic aerosol. However the branching between these two channels is generally poorly constrained for oxidized organics. Here we determine functionalization/fragmentation branching ratios for organics spanning a range of oxidation levels, using the heterogeneous oxidation of squalane (C30H62) as a model system. Squalane particles are exposed to high concentrations of OH in a flow reactor, and measurements of particle mass and elemental ratios enable the determination of absolute elemental composition (number of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen atoms) of the oxidized particles. At low OH exposures, the oxygen content of the organics increases, indicating that functionalization dominates, whereas at higher exposures the amount of carbon in the particles decreases, indicating the increasing importance of fragmentation processes. Once the organics are moderately oxidized (O/C~;;0.4), fragmentation completely dominates, and the increase in O/C ratio upon further oxidation is due to the loss of carbon rather than the addition of oxygen. These results suggest that fragmentation reactions may be key steps in the atmospheric formation and evolution of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA).

  16. Slope of the Isgur-Wise function in the heavy mass limit of quark models à la Bakamjian-Thomas

    CERN Document Server

    Morénas, V; Oliver, L; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    1997-01-01

    The slope of the Isgur-Wise function for ground state mesons is evaluated for the heavy mass limit of quark models à la Bakamjian-Thomas, which has been previously discussed by us in general terms. A full calculation in various spectroscopic models with relativistic kinetic energy gives a rather stable result $\\rho^2 \\approx 1$, much lower than previous estimates. Attention is paid to a careful comparison of this result with the ones of QCD fundamental methods (lattice QCD, QCD sum rules) and with experimental data.

  17. Generalized structure of hadron-quark vertex function in Bethe- Salpeter framework: Applications to leptonic decays of V-mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatnagar, S; Bhatnagar, Shashank; Li, Shi-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    We employ the framework of Bethe-Salpeter equation under Covariant Instantaneous Ansatz (CIA) to study the leptonic decays of vector mesons. The calculations of decay constants f_v for rho, phi and omega mesons have been performed adopting a generalized structure of the hadron-quark vertex function Gamma which is generalized to include various Dirac covariants (other than the leading covariant i gamma cdot epsilon) from the complete set of covariants in accordance with a naive power counting rule, which allows the incorporation of them order by order in powers of the inverse of the meson mass.

  18. How could quark polarization be measured

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A V

    2000-01-01

    The perspectives of two new nonstandard methods of transversal quark polarization measurement are considered: the jet handedness and the so-called "Collins effect" due to a spin dependent T-odd fragmentation function responsible for the left-right asymmetry in fragmenting of transversally polarized quarks. Recent experimental indications in favor of these effects are observed: 1. The correlation of the T-odd one-particle fragmentation functions found by DELPHI in Z to 2-jet decay. Integrated over the fraction of longitudinal and transversal momenta, this correlation is of 1.6% order, which means order of 13% for the analyzing power. 2. A rather large ( approximately=10%) handedness transversal to the production plane observed in the diffractive production of ( pi /sup -/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/) triples from nuclei by the 40 GeV/c pi /sup -/-beam. It shows a clear dynamic origin and resembles the single spin asymmetry behavior. All this makes us hope to use these effects in polarized DIS experiments for transve...

  19. Non-perturbative renormalization of quark mass in Nf=2+1 QCD with the Schroedinger functional scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, S; Ishizuka, N; Izubuchi, T; Kanaya, K; Kuramashi, Y; Murano, K; Namekawa, Y; Okawa, M; Taniguchi, Y; Ukawa, A; Ukita, N; Yoshié, T

    2010-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the quark mass renormalization factor for Nf=2+1 QCD. The Schroedinger functional scheme is employed as the intermediate scheme to carry out non-perturbative running from the low energy region, where renormalization of bare mass is performed on the lattice, to deep in the high energy perturbative region, where the conversion to the renormalization group invariant mass or the MS-bar scheme is safely carried out. For numerical simulations we adopted the Iwasaki gauge action and non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermion action with the clover term. Seven renormalization scales are used to cover from low to high energy regions and three lattice spacings to take the continuum limit at each scale. The regularization independent step scaling function of the quark mass for the Nf=2+1 QCD is obtained in the continuum limit. Renormalization factors for the pseudo scalar density and the axial vector current are also evaluated for the same action and the bare couplings as two recent large sca...

  20. Heavy quark production at an Electron-Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chudakov, E; Hyde, Ch; Furletov, S; Furletova, Yu; Nguyen, D; Stratmann, M; Strikman, M; Weiss, C

    2016-01-01

    An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) with center-of-mass energies sqrt(s_{eN}) ~ 20-100 GeV and luminosity L ~ 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1} would offer new opportunities to study heavy quark production in high-energy electron or photon scattering on protons and nuclei. We report about an R&D project exploring the feasibility of direct measurements of nuclear gluon densities at large x (gluonic EMC effect, antishadowing) using open charm production at EIC. We describe the charm production rates and angle-momentum distributions at large x and discuss methods of charm reconstruction using next-generation detector capabilities (pi/K identification, vertex reconstruction). The results can be used also for other physics applications of heavy quark production at EIC (fragmentation functions, jets, heavy quark propagation in nuclei).

  1. Chiral quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Weigel

    2003-11-01

    In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark flavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully regularizes the effective action but also leads the scaling laws for structure functions. For the nucleon structure functions the present approach serves to determine the regularization prescription for structure functions whose leading moments are not given by matrix elements of local operators. Some numerical results are presented for the spin structure functions.

  2. The full spin structure of quarks in the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, A; Henneman, A A; Mulders, P J

    2000-01-01

    We discuss bounds on the distribution and fragmentation functions that appear at leading order in deep inelastic 1-particle inclusive leptoproduction or in Drell-Yan processes. These bounds simply follow from positivity of the quark-hadron scattering matrix elements and are an important guide in estimating the magnitude of the azimuthal and spin asymmetries in these processes. We focus on an example relevant for deep inelastic scattering at relatively low energies.

  3. Global extraction of the parton-to-pion fragmentation functions at NLO accuracy in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Pinto, R J; de Florian, D; Sassot, R; Stratmann, M

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the results on the parton-to-pion fragmentation functions obtained in a combined NLO fit to data of single-inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation, proton-proton collisions, and lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering. A more complete discussion can be found in Ref. [1].

  4. Measurement of the charm fragmentation function in D{sup *} photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The charm fragmentation function has been measured in D{sup *} photoproduction with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb{sup -1}. The fragmentation function is measured versus z=(E+p {sub parallel}){sup D{sup *}}/2E{sup jet}, where E is the energy of the D{sup *} meson and p {sub parallel} is the longitudinal momentum of the D{sup *} meson relative to the axis of the associated jet of energy E{sup jet}. Jets were reconstructed using the k{sub T} clustering algorithm and required to have transverse energy larger than 9 GeV. The D{sup *} meson associated with the jet was required to have a transverse momentum larger than 2 GeV. The measured function is compared to different fragmentation models incorporated in leading-logarithm Monte Carlo simulations and in a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation. The free parameters in each fragmentation model are fitted to the data. The extracted parameters and the function itself are compared to measurements from e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments. (orig.)

  5. Test of the Universality of Naive-Time-Reversal-Odd Fragmentation Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vogelsang, Werner; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the "spontaneous'' hyperon transverse polarization in e(+)e(-) annihilation and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes as a test of the universality of the naive-time-reversal-odd transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions. We find that universality implies defi

  6. Improved functional immobilization of llama single-domain antibody fragments to polystyrene surfaces using small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Fijten, H.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of different fusion domains on the functional immobilization of three llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) after passive adsorption to polystyrene in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Three VHHs produced without any fusion domain were efficiently adsorbed to

  7. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Measurement of the fragmentation function for photon-tagged jets in 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelitsa, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the charged-particle fragmentation function (FF) for jets azimuthally balanced by a high transverse momentum (pT) prompt, isolated photon is presented. FFs as a function of particle-pT and fraction of the jet pT carried by the particle, z, are measured in 26/pb of pp and 0.49/nb of Pb+Pb collision data at 5.02 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector. In pp collisions, a comparison of the photon-tagged jet FF to that for inclusively selected jets is sensitive to the difference in fragmentation between quark— and gluon--initiated jets in vacuum. The ratio of the FF in Pb+Pb events to those in pp events with the same selection on the photon kinematic variables provides information on the modification of the parton shower for quark-initiated jets as they traverse the hot nuclear medium. In comparison to the modified FF for inclusively-selected jets, photon-tagged jets show a similar modification in particle-pT or z in semi-central and peripheral events, but a stronger one in central events.

  9. Structural fragment clustering reveals novel structural and functional motifs in α-helical transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilev Boris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of an organism's genome encodes for membrane proteins. Membrane proteins are important for many cellular processes, and several diseases can be linked to mutations in them. With the tremendous growth of sequence data, there is an increasing need to reliably identify membrane proteins from sequence, to functionally annotate them, and to correctly predict their topology. Results We introduce a technique called structural fragment clustering, which learns sequential motifs from 3D structural fragments. From over 500,000 fragments, we obtain 213 statistically significant, non-redundant, and novel motifs that are highly specific to α-helical transmembrane proteins. From these 213 motifs, 58 of them were assigned to function and checked in the scientific literature for a biological assessment. Seventy percent of the motifs are found in co-factor, ligand, and ion binding sites, 30% at protein interaction interfaces, and 12% bind specific lipids such as glycerol or cardiolipins. The vast majority of motifs (94% appear across evolutionarily unrelated families, highlighting the modularity of functional design in membrane proteins. We describe three novel motifs in detail: (1 a dimer interface motif found in voltage-gated chloride channels, (2 a proton transfer motif found in heme-copper oxidases, and (3 a convergently evolved interface helix motif found in an aspartate symporter, a serine protease, and cytochrome b. Conclusions Our findings suggest that functional modules exist in membrane proteins, and that they occur in completely different evolutionary contexts and cover different binding sites. Structural fragment clustering allows us to link sequence motifs to function through clusters of structural fragments. The sequence motifs can be applied to identify and characterize membrane proteins in novel genomes.

  10. Hadronic correlation functions with quark-disconnected contributions in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelpers, Vera Magdalena

    2015-09-14

    One of the fundamental interactions in the Standard Model of particle physics is the strong force, which can be formulated as a non-abelian gauge theory called Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In the low-energy regime, where the QCD coupling becomes strong and quarks and gluons are confined to hadrons, a perturbative expansion in the coupling constant is not possible. However, the introduction of a four-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice allows for an ab initio treatment of QCD and provides a powerful tool to study the low-energy dynamics of hadrons. Some hadronic matrix elements of interest receive contributions from diagrams including quark-disconnected loops, i.e. disconnected quark lines from one lattice point back to the same point. The calculation of such quark loops is computationally very demanding, because it requires knowledge of the all-to-all propagator. In this thesis we use stochastic sources and a hopping parameter expansion to estimate such propagators. We apply this technique to study two problems which relay crucially on the calculation of quark-disconnected diagrams, namely the scalar form factor of the pion and the hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the anomalous magnet moment of the muon. The scalar form factor of the pion describes the coupling of a charged pion to a scalar particle. We calculate the connected and the disconnected contribution to the scalar form factor for three different momentum transfers. The scalar radius of the pion is extracted from the momentum dependence of the form factor. The use of several different pion masses and lattice spacings allows for an extrapolation to the physical point. The chiral extrapolation is done using chiral perturbation theory (χPT). We find that our pion mass dependence of the scalar radius is consistent with χPT at next-to-leading order. Additionally, we are able to extract the low energy constant anti l{sub 4} from the extrapolation, and our result is in agreement with results

  11. Vasoinhibins: a family of N-terminal prolactin fragments that inhibit angiogenesis and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Carmen; González, Carmen; Macotela, Yazmín; Aranda, Jorge; Rivera, José C; García, Celina; Guzmán, Jessica; Zamorano, Miriam; Vega, Claudia; Martín, Cecilia; Jeziorski, Michael C; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Antiangiogenic molecules derived from prolactin (PRL) are not a single entity, but rather a family of peptides with different molecular masses, all containing the N-terminal region of PRL. Cleavage of PRL by cathepsin-D or by matrix metalloproteases generates N-terminal fragments that act on endothelial cells to suppress vasodilation and angiogenesis and promote vascular regression. N-terminal PRL fragments have been identified in cartilage and retina, where angiogenesis is highly restricted. In vivo experiments demonstrate that these PRL fragments exert a tonic and essential suppression of retinal blood vessel growth and dilation. Similar PRL fragments have been detected in the pituitary gland, a highly vascularized organ where the control of vascular growth may differ from that in tissues where angiogenesis is highly restricted. We have previously proposed the name vasoinhibins to describe the collection of N-terminal PRL fragments having blood vessel-blocking activity, and here we discuss their promise as factors to control vascular function in health and disease.

  12. Analytical Core Mass Function (CMF) from Filaments: Under Which Circumstances Can Filament Fragmentation Reproduce the CMF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Ning; Hennebelle, Patrick; Chabrier, Gilles

    2017-10-01

    Observations suggest that star formation in filamentary molecular clouds occurs in a two-step process, with the formation of filaments preceding that of prestellar cores and stars. Here, we apply the gravoturbulent fragmentation theory of Hennebelle & Chabrier to a filamentary environment, taking into account magnetic support. We discuss the induced geometrical effect on the cores, with a transition from 3D geometry at small scales to 1D at large ones. The model predicts the fragmentation behavior of a filament for a given mass per unit length (MpL) and level of magnetization. This core mass function (CMF) for individual filaments is then convolved with the distribution of filaments to obtain the final system CMF. The model yields two major results. (i) The filamentary geometry naturally induces a hierarchical fragmentation process, first into groups of cores, separated by a length equal to a few filament Jeans lengths, i.e., a few times the filament width. These groups then fragment into individual cores. (ii) Non-magnetized filaments with high MpL are found to fragment excessively, at odds with observations. This is resolved by taking into account the magnetic field (treated simply as additional pressure support). The present theory suggests two complementary modes of star formation: although small (spherical or filamentary) structures will collapse directly into prestellar cores, according to the standard Hennebelle–Chabrier theory, the large (filamentary) ones, the dominant population according to observations, will follow the aforedescribed two-step process.

  13. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  14. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  15. Hadron energy spectrum in polarized top-quark decays considering the effects of hadron and bottom quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, S.M.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O.Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Balali, Mahboobe [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    We present the analytical expressions for the next-to-leading order corrections to the partial decay width t(↑) → bW{sup +}, followed by b @→ H{sub b}X, for nonzero b-quark mass (m{sub b} ≠ 0) in the fixed-flavor-number scheme (FFNs). To make the predictions for the energy distribution of outgoing hadrons H{sub b}, as a function of the normalized H{sub b}-energy fraction x{sub H}, we apply the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme (GM-VFNs) in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization of top quark is evaluated relative to the b-quark momentum. We also study the effects of gluon fragmentation and finite hadron mass on the hadron energy spectrum so that hadron masses are responsible for the low x{sub H} threshold. In order to describe both the b-quark and the gluon hadronizations in top decays we apply realistic and nonperturbative fragmentation functions extracted through a global fit to the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC by relying on their universality and scaling violations. (orig.)

  16. Quark forces from hadronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos

    2009-04-17

    We consider the implications of the most general two-body quark-quark interaction Hamiltonian for the spin-flavor structure of the negative parity L = 1 excited baryons. Assuming the most general two-body quark interaction Hamiltonian, we derive two correlations among the masses and mixing angles of these states, which constrain the mixing angles, and can be used to test for the presence of three-body quark interactions. We find that the pure gluon-exchange model is disfavored by data, independently of any assumptions about hadronic wave functions.

  17. Structure and Synaptic Function of Metal Binding to the Amyloid Precursor Protein and its Proteolytic Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Klemens; August, Alexander; Pietrzik, Claus U.; Kins, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is ultimately linked to the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, current research reveals an important synaptic function of APP and APP-like proteins (APLP1 and 2). In this context various neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions have been reported for the APP proteolytic fragments sAPPα, sAPPβ and the monomeric amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ). APP is a metalloprotein and binds copper and zinc ions. Synaptic activity correlates with a release of these ions into the synaptic cleft and dysregulation of their homeostasis is linked to different neurodegenerative diseases. Metal binding to APP or its fragments affects its structure and its proteolytic cleavage and therefore its physiological function at the synapse. Here, we summarize the current data supporting this hypothesis and provide a model of how these different mechanisms might be intertwined with each other. PMID:28197076

  18. Transverse Momentum Dependent Fragmenting Jet Functions with Applications to Quarkonium Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bain, Reggie; Mehen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet function (TMDFJF), which appears in factorization theorems for cross sections for jets with an identified hadron. These are functions of $z$, the hadron's longitudinal momentum fraction, and transverse momentum, $\\boldsymbol{\\mathrm{p}}_{\\perp}$, relative to the jet axis. In the framework of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we derive the TMDFJF from both a factorized SCET cross section and the TMD fragmentation function defined in the literature. The TMDFJFs are factorized into distinct collinear and soft-collinear modes by matching onto SCET$_+$. As TMD calculations contain rapidity divergences, both the renormalization group (RG) and rapidity renormalization group (RRG) must be used to provide resummed calculations with next-to-leading-logarithm prime (NLL') accuracy. We apply our formalism to the production of $J/\\psi$ within jets initiated by gluons. In this case the TMDFJF can be calculated in terms of NRQCD (Non-relativistic quantum ch...

  19. The fate of carbon-based life as a function of the light quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Epelbaum, Evgeny; Lähde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2012-01-01

    The Hoyle state plays a crucial role in the helium burning of stars that have reached the red giant stage. The close proximity of this state to the triple-alpha threshold is needed for the production of carbon, oxygen, and other elements necessary for life. We investigate whether this life-essential condition is robust or delicately fine-tuned by measuring its dependence on the fundamental constants of nature, specifically the light quark mass and the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. We show that there exist strong correlations between the alpha-particle binding energy and the various energies relevant to the triple-alpha process. We derive limits on the variation of these fundamental parameters from the requirement that sufficient amounts of carbon and oxygen be generated in stars. We also discuss the implications of these results for an anthropic view of the universe.

  20. Viewing the Chemical Evolution of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with Charge Balance Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Correlations from charge conservation are affected by when charge/anticharge pairs are created during the course of a relativistic heavy ion collision. For charges created early, balancing charges are typically separated by the order of one unit of spatial rapidity by the end of the collision, whereas those charges produced later in the collision are far more correlated. By analyzing correlations from STAR for different species, I show that one can distinguish the two separate waves of charge creation expected in a high-energy collision, one at early times when the QGP is formed and a second at hadronization. Further, I extract the density of up, down and strange quarks at in the QGP and find agreement at the 20% level with expectations for a chemically thermalized plasma.

  1. Branching between fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the oxidation of atmospheric organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J. H.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahmed, M.; Leone, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    Oxidation reactions that affect the volatility of organics are of central importance to the chemistry of the troposphere, as they lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol, and can change the properties or loadings of existing particulate matter via oxidative processing ("aging"). Atmospheric oxidation can decrease the vapor pressure of an organic compound by adding oxygen-containing functional groups (increasing its polarity), or increase vapor pressure by breaking carbon-carbon bonds (decreasing its molecular weight). Despite being a fundamental determinant of the changes to volatilities of atmospheric organics, the functionalization/fragmentation branching ratio is not well-constrained for large atmospheric organics, especially for highly oxidized ones. Here we present laboratory measurements of this branching ratio for the heterogeneous oxidation of particulate organics. Particles of pure squalane (a branched C30 alkane) are sent into a flow reactor and are rapidly oxidized by exposure to high levels of OH; particle size and composition are measured as a function of OH exposure using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Oxidation reactions are found to decrease particle mass, indicating volatilization (from carbon-carbon bond breaking) and also to increase the oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio of the particulate organics, indicating the addition of functional groups. The relative rates of these two processes allows for the determination of the branching ratio between fragmentation and functionalization. Functionalization is found to dominate the oxidation of the pure hydrocarbon, but the importance of fragmentation increases as the organics become increasingly oxidized. Fragmentation pathways appear to dominate for organics with O/C ratios above ~30%.

  2. Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Asymmetries and Spin-dependent Structure Functions in the Valence Quark Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaochao Zheng; Konrad Aniol; David Armstrong; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Sebastien Binet; Etienne Burtin; Emmanuel Busato; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Alexandre Camsonne; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jian-ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Francesco Cusanno; Raffaele De Leo; Alexandre Deur; Sonja Dieterich; Dipangkar Dutta; John Finn; Salvatore Frullani; Haiyan Gao; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Shalev Gilad; Ronald Gilman; Javier Gomez; Jens-ole Hansen; Douglas Higinbotham; Wendy Hinton; Tanja Horn; Cornelis De Jager; Xiaodong Jiang; Lisa Kaufman; James Kelly; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; John Lerose; David Lhuillier; Nilanga Liyanage; Demetrius Margaziotis; Frederic Marie; Pete Markowitz; Kathy Mccormick; Zein-eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Bryan Moffit; Sirish Nanda; Damien Neyret; Sarah Phillips; Anthony Powell; Thierry Pussieux; Bodo Reitz; Julie Roche; Michael Roedelbronn; Guy Ron; Marat Rvachev; Arunava Saha; Nikolai Savvinov; Jaideep Singh; Simon Sirca; Karl Slifer; Patricia Solvignon; Paul Souder; Daniel Steiner; Steffen Strauch; Vincent Sulkosky; William Tobias; Guido Urciuoli; Antonin Vacheret; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Hong Xiang; Yuan Xiao; Feng Xiong; Bin Zhang; Lingyan Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu; Piotr Zolnierczuk

    2004-05-01

    We report on measurements of the neutron spin asymmetries A{sub 1,2}{sup n} and polarized structure functions g{sub 1,2}{sup n} at three kinematics in the deep inelastic region, with x = 0.33, 0.47 and .60 and Q{sub 2} = 2.7, 3.5 and 4.8 (GeV/c){sup 2}, respectively. These measurements were performed using a 5.7 GeV longitudinally-polarized electron beam and a polarized {sup 3}He target. The results for A{sub 1}{sup n} and g{sub 1}{sup n} at x = 0.33 are consistent with previous world data and, at the two higher x points, have improved the precision of the world data by about an order of magnitude. The new A{sub 1}{sup n} data show a zero crossing around x = 0.47 and the value at x = 0.60 is significantly positive. These results agree with a next-to-leading order QCD analysis of previous world data. The trend of data at high x agrees with constituent quark model predictions but disagrees with that from leading-order perturbative QCD (pQCD) assuming hadron helicity conservation. Results for A{sub 2}{sup n} and g{sub 2}{sup n} have a precision comparable to the best world data in this kinematic region. Combined with previous world data, the moment d{sub 2}{sup n} was evaluated and the new result has improved the precision of this quantity by about a factor of two. When combined with the world proton data, polarized quark distribution functions were extracted from the new g{sub 1}{sup n}/F{sub 1}{sup n} values based on the quark parton model. While results for {Delta}u/u agree well with predictions from various models, results for {Delta}d/d disagree with the leading-order pQCD prediction when hadron helicity conservation is imposed.

  3. Quark Models and Quark Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1997-01-01

    Overwhelming experimental evidence for quarks as real physical constituents of hadrons along with the QCD analogs of the Balmer Formula, Bohr Atom and Schroedinger Equation already existed in 1966. A model of colored quarks interacting with a one-gluon-exchange potential explained the systematics of the meson and baryon spectrum and gave a hadron mass formula in surprising agreement with experiment. The simple quark model dismissed as heresy and witchcraft by the establishment predicted quantum numbers of an enormous number of hadronic states as well as relations between masses, reaction cross sections and electromagnetic properties, all unexplained by other approaches. Further developments leading to QCD included confinement in the large $N_c$ limit, duality, dual resonance and string models, high energy scattering systematics, unified treatment of mesons and baryons, no exotics and no free quarks.

  4. Species interactions regulate the collapse of biodiversity and ecosystem function in tropical forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Tom P; Lees, Alexander C; Seddon, Nathalie; Macgregor, Hannah E A; Darski, Bianca; Aleixo, Alexandre; Bonsall, Michael B; Tobias, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    Competitive interactions among species with similar ecological niches are known to regulate the assembly of biological communities. However, it is not clear whether such forms of competition can predict the collapse of communities and associated shifts in ecosystem function in the face of environmental change. Here, we use phylogenetic and functional trait data to test whether communities of two ecologically important guilds of tropical birds (frugivores and insectivores) are structured by species interactions in a fragmented Amazonian forest landscape. In both guilds, we found that forest patch size, quality, and degree of isolation influence the phylogenetic and functional trait structure of communities, with small, degraded, or isolated forest patches having an increased signature of competition (i.e., phylogenetic and functional trait overdispersion in relation to null models). These results suggest that local extinctions in the context of fragmentation are nonrandom, with a consistent bias toward more densely occupied regions of niche space. We conclude that the loss of biodiversity in fragmented landscapes is mediated by niche-based competitive interactions among species, with potentially far-reaching implications for key ecosystem processes, including seed dispersal and plant damage by phytophagous insects.

  5. Functional improvement of antibody fragments using a novel phage coat protein III fusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Bak; Larsen, Martin; Pedersen, Jesper Søndergaard;

    2002-01-01

    Functional expressions of proteins often depend on the presence of host specific factors. Frequently recombinant expression strategies of proteins in foreign hosts, such as bacteria, have been associated with poor yields or significant loss of functionality. Improvements in the performance...... of heterologous expression systems will benefit present-day quests in structural and functional genomics where high amounts of active protein are required. One example, which has been the subject of considerable interest, is recombinant antibodies or fragments thereof as expressions of these in bacteria......(s) of the filamentous phage coat protein III. Furthermore, it will be shown that the observed effect is neither due to improved stability nor increased avidity....

  6. Natural aminoacyl tRNA synthetase fragment enhances cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E McCormick

    Full Text Available A naturally-occurring fragment of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS has been shown in higher eukaryotes to 'moonlight' as a pro-angiogenic cytokine in addition to its primary role in protein translation. Pro-angiogenic cytokines have previously been proposed to be promising therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Here, we show that systemic delivery of the natural fragment of TyRS, mini-TyrRS, improves heart function in mice after myocardial infarction. This improvement is associated with reduced formation of scar tissue, increased angiogenesis of cardiac capillaries, recruitment of c-kitpos cells and proliferation of myocardial fibroblasts. This work demonstrates that mini-TyrRS has beneficial effects on cardiac repair and regeneration and offers support for the notion that elucidation of the ever expanding repertoire of noncanonical functions of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases offers unique opportunities for development of novel therapeutics.

  7. Top quark mass determination from the energy peaks of b-jets and B-hadrons at NLO QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, Kaustubh [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Franceschini, Roberto; Schulze, Markus [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Kim, Doojin [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Florida, Department of Physics, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We analyze the energy spectra of single b-jets and B-hadrons resulting from the production and decay of top quarks within the SM at the LHC at the NLO QCD. For both hadrons and jets, we calculate the correlation of the peak of the spectrum with the top quark mass, considering the ''energy peak'' as an observable to determine the top quark mass. Such a method is motivated by our previous work where we argued that this approach can have reduced sensitivity to the details of the production mechanism of the top quark, whether it concerns higher-order QCD effects or new physics contributions. For a 1% jet energy scale uncertainty, the top quark mass can then be extracted using the energy peak of b-jets with an error ± (1.2(exp) + 0.6(th)) GeV. In view of the dominant jet energy scale uncertainty in the measurement using b-jets, we also investigate the extraction of the top quark mass from the energy peak of the corresponding B-hadrons which, in principle, can be measured without this uncertainty. The calculation of the B-hadron energy spectrum is carried out using fragmentation functions at NLO. The dependence on the fragmentation scale turns out to be the largest theoretical uncertainty in this extraction of top quark mass. (orig.)

  8. Patterns of bird functional diversity on land-bridge island fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhifeng; Feeley, Kenneth J; Wang, Yanping; Pakeman, Robin J; Ding, Ping

    2013-07-01

    The loss of species diversity due to habitat fragmentation has been extensively studied. In contrast, the impacts of habitat fragmentation on functional diversity remains relatively poorly understood. We conducted bird functional diversity studies on a set of 41 recently isolated land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. We analysed differences in bird species richness and a recently developed suite of complementary functional diversity indices (FRic, volume of functional space occupied; FEve, evenness of abundance distribution in the functional trait space; FDiv, divergence in the distribution of abundance in the trait volume) across different gradients (island area and isolation). We found no correlations between FRic and FEve or FEve and FDiv, but negative correlations between FRic and FDiv. As predicted, island area accounted for most of the variation in bird species richness, whereas isolation explained most of the variation in species evenness (decreasing species evenness with increasing isolation). Functional diversity appears to be more strongly influenced by habitat filtering as opposed to limiting similarity. More specifically, across all islands, both FRic and FEve were significantly lower than expected for randomly assembled communities, but FDiv showed no clear patterns. FRic increased with island area, FEve decreased with island area and FDiv showed no clear patterns. Our finding that FEve decreases with island area at TIL may indicate low functional stability on such islands, and as such large islands and habitat patches may deserve extra attention and/or protection. These results help to demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of fragmentation on functional diversity in habitat management and reserve design plans.

  9. Three-Quark Bethe-Salpeter Vertex Function Under Pairwise Gluon-Exchange-Like Interaction Application to n-p Mass Difference

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    A qqq BSE formalism based on an input 4-fermion Lagrangian of "current" u,d quarks, is employed for the construction of a relativistic qqq-wave function) via the BSE. Chiral invariance is ensured by the vector character of the gluonic propagator in the infrared regime, while the `constituent' masses are the low momentum limits of the dynamicalmass function generated by standard DB{\\chi}. The Covariant Instantaneity Ansatz (CIA) gives an exact 3D reduction of the BSE for baryon spectroscopy, while the reconstructed 4D form identifies the baryon quark vertex function reconstructed through a reversal of steps offered by the CIA structure. It is employed for the quark loop integrals for the neutron - proton mass difference which receives contributions from two sources : i) the strong SU(2) effect arising from the $u-d$ mass difference (4 MeV); ii) the e.m. effect of the respective quark charges. The resultant n-p difference works out at 1.28 MeV (vs. 1.29 expt), with only two free parameters characterizing the in...

  10. Transverse momentum dependent gluon fragmentation functions from J/ψπ production at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Peng [Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    The back-to-back J/ψ and π associated production at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders is proposed to detect the gluon transverse momentum dependent (TMD) fragmentation functions. TMD factorization is assumed for this process. With a spinless pion, unpolarized and linearly polarized gluon TMD fragmentation functions can be defined. It is found that at parton level the hadronic tensor can be described by three independent structure functions. As a result, there are three independent angular distributions, of which the cos 2φ azimuthal asymmetry is sensitive to the linearly polarized gluon fragmentation function. (orig.)

  11. Medium-modified DGLAP evolution of fragmentation functions from large to small x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B.A.; Perez-Ramos, R. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2009-03-15

    The unified description of fragmentation function evolution from large to small x which was developed for the vacuum in previous publications is now generalized to the medium, and is studied for the case in which the complete contribution from the largest class of soft gluon logarithms, the double logarithms, are accounted for and with the fixed order part calculated to leading order. In this approach it proves possible to choose the remaining degrees of freedom related to the medium such that the distribution of produced hadrons is suppressed at large momenta while the production of soft radiation-induced charged hadrons at small momenta is enhanced, in agreement with experiment. Just as for the vacuum, our approach does not require further assumptions concerning fragmentation and is more complete than previous computations of evolution in the medium. (orig.)

  12. Radiation Feedback, Fragmentation, and the Environmental Dependence of the Initial Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R; Klein, Richard I; McKee, Christopher F

    2010-01-01

    The fragmentation of star-forming interstellar clouds, and the resulting stellar initial mass function (IMF), is determined largely by the temperature structure of the collapsing gas. Since radiation feedback from embedded stars can modify this as collapse proceeds, feedback plays an important role in determining the IMF. However, the effects and importance of radiative heating are likely to depend strongly on the surface density of the collapsing clouds, which determines both their effectiveness at trapping radiation and the accretion luminosities of the stars forming within them. In this paper we report a suite of adaptive mesh refinement radiation-hydrodynamic simulations using the ORION code in which we isolate the effect of column density on fragmentation by following the collapse of clouds of varying column density while holding the mass, initial density and velocity structure, and initial virial ratio fixed. We find that radiation does not significantly modify the overall star formation rate or efficie...

  13. The renormalised quark mass in the Schroedinger functional of lattice QCD. A one-loop calculation with a non-vanishing background field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, S.

    2002-09-04

    The renormalised quark mass in the Schroedinger functional is studied perturbatively with a non-vanishing background field. The framework in which the calculations are done is the Schroedinger functional. Its definition and basic properties are reviewed and it is shown how to make the theory converge faster towards its continuum limit by O(a) improvement. It is explained how the Schroedinger functional scheme avoids the implications of treating a large energy range on a single lattice in order to determine the scale dependence of renormalised quantities. The description of the scale dependence by the step scaling function is introduced both for the renormalised coupling and the renormalised quark masses. The definition of the renormalised coupling in the Schroedinger functional is reviewed, and the concept of the renormalised mass being defined by the axial current and density via the PCAC-relation is explained. The running of the renormalised mass described by its step scaling function is presented as a consequence of the fact that the renormalisation constant of the axial density is scale dependent. The central part of the thesis is the expansion of several correlation functions up to 1-loop order. The expansion coefficients are used to compute the critical quark mass at which the renormalised mass vanishes, as well as the 1-loop coefficient of the renormalisation constant of the axial density. Using the result for this renormalisation constant, the 2-loop anomalous dimension is obtained by conversion from the MS-scheme. Another important application of perturbation theory carried out in this thesis is the determination of discretisation errors. The critical quark mass at 1-loop order is used to compute the deviation of the coupling's step scaling function from its continuum limit at 2-loop order. Several lattice artefacts of the current quark mass, defined by the PCAC relation with the unrenormalised axial current and density, are computed at 1-loop order

  14. ATLAS top quark results

    CERN Document Server

    Menke, Sven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronises, analyses of events containing top quarks allow to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This talk will focus on recent precision top-quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration: Single top-quark and top-quark pair production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented, as well as measurements of top-quark pair production in association with a W or Z boson and measurements of top quark properties such as the spin correlation and W boson helicity in top quark pair events.

  15. Fragment approach to constrained density functional theory calculations using Daubechies wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Laura E., E-mail: lratcliff@anl.gov [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Université de Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INAC-SP2M, L-Sim, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Genovese, Luigi; Mohr, Stephan; Deutsch, Thierry [Université de Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INAC-SP2M, L-Sim, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-06-21

    In a recent paper, we presented a linear scaling Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) code based on Daubechies wavelets, where a minimal set of localized support functions are optimized in situ and therefore adapted to the chemical properties of the molecular system. Thanks to the systematically controllable accuracy of the underlying basis set, this approach is able to provide an optimal contracted basis for a given system: accuracies for ground state energies and atomic forces are of the same quality as an uncontracted, cubic scaling approach. This basis set offers, by construction, a natural subset where the density matrix of the system can be projected. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of this minimal basis formalism in providing a basis set that can be reused as-is, i.e., without reoptimization, for charge-constrained DFT calculations within a fragment approach. Support functions, represented in the underlying wavelet grid, of the template fragments are roto-translated with high numerical precision to the required positions and used as projectors for the charge weight function. We demonstrate the interest of this approach to express highly precise and efficient calculations for preparing diabatic states and for the computational setup of systems in complex environments.

  16. Habitat fragmentation has some impacts on aspects of ecosystem functioning in a sub-tropical seagrass bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatman, Jennifer L; Layman, Craig A; Fourqurean, James W

    2017-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation impacts ecosystem functioning in many ways, including reducing the availability of suitable habitat for animals and altering resource dynamics. Fragmentation in seagrass ecosystems caused by propeller scarring is a major source of habitat loss, but little is known about how scars impact ecosystem functioning. Propeller scars were simulated in seagrass beds of Abaco, Bahamas, to explore potential impacts. To determine if plant-herbivore interactions were altered by fragmentation, amphipod grazers were excluded from half the experimental plots, and epiphyte biomass and community composition were compared between grazer control and exclusion plots. We found a shift from light limitation to phosphorus limitation at seagrass patch edges. Fragmentation did not impact top-down control on epiphyte biomass or community composition, despite reduced amphipod density in fragmented habitats. Seagrass and amphipod responses to propeller scarring suggest that severely scarred seagrass beds could be subject to changes in internal nutrient stores and amphipod distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dipole factorization for DIS at NLO I: Loop correction to the photon to quark-antiquark light-front wave-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Beuf, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The one-loop QCD corrections to the light-front wave-function for the quark-antiquark Fock state inside a transverse or longitudinal off-shell photon are explicitly calculated, both in full momentum space and in mixed space (a.k.a. dipole space). These results provide one of the main contributions to virtual NLO corrections to many DIS observables (inclusive or not) in the dipole factorization formalism at low Bjorken x. In a follow-up article, these one-loop corrections are combined with earlier results on the wave-function for the quark-antiquark-gluon Fock state, in order to get the full set of NLO corrections to the DIS structure functions $F_2$ and $F_L$ in the dipole factorization formalism, valid at low Bjorken x.

  18. Quark sea asymmetry of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mírez, Carlos; Tomio, Lauro; Trevisan, L. A.; Frederico, T.

    2010-02-01

    The light anti-quark and quark distribution in the proton, as well as the neutron to proton ratio of the structure functions, extracted from experimental data, are well fitted by a statistical model of linear-confined quarks. The parameters of the model are given by a temperature, which is adjusted by the Gottfried sum-rule violation, and two chemical potentials given by the corresponding up ( u) and down ( d) quark normalizations in the nucleon. The quark energy levels are generated by a relativistic linear-confined scalar plus vector potential.

  19. $\\alpha_s$ from soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Ramos, Redamy

    2015-01-01

    The QCD coupling α s is extracted at approximate next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO ∗ ) accuracy from the energy evolution of the first two moments (multiplicity and mean) of the parton- to-hadron fragmentation functions at low fractional hadron momentum z. Comparisons of the experimental e + e − and DIS e ± p jet data to our NNLO ∗ +NNLL predictions, allow us to obtain α s (m 2 Z ) = 0.1205±0.0010 +0.0022 −0.0000 , in excellent agreement with the current world average.

  20. Do fragmentation functions in factorization theorems correctly treat non-perturbative effects?

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John

    2016-01-01

    Current all-orders proofs of factorization of hard processes are made by extracting the leading power behavior of Feynman graphs, i.e., by extracting asymptotics strictly order-by-order in perturbation theory. The resulting parton densities and fragmentation functions include non-perturbative effects. I show how there are missing elements in the proofs; these are related to and exemplified by string and cluster models of hadronization. The proofs rely on large rapidity differences between different parts of graphs for the process; but in reality large rapidity gaps are filled in

  1. Fragmentation Functions at Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Anderle, Daniele P; Stratmann, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a first analysis of parton-to-pion fragmentation functions at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD based on single-inclusive pion production in electron-positron annihilation. Special emphasis is put on the technical details necessary to perform the QCD scale evolution and cross section calculation in Mellin moment space. We demonstrate how the description of the data and the theoretical uncertainties are improved when next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections are included.

  2. Top quark mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Tuula [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  3. Phase-Space Coalescence for heavy and light quarks at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, V

    2007-01-01

    We review the application and successes of a phase-space coalescence plus fragmentation model that has been applied for hadronization at RHIC. The physical concept is discussed together with the practical implementation. The robustness of main predictions is reviewed together with several open issues like relevance of three dimensional calculation, finite width of the wave functions, effects of quark masses, energy-entropy conservation, space-momentum correlation. Eventually the relevance of coalescence also for the study of the microscopic interaction of heavy quarks is highlighted.

  4. Quark and gluon jet properties in symmetric three-jet events

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    Quark and gluon jets with the same energy, 24GeV, are compared in symmetric three-jet configurations from hadronic Z decays observed by the ALEPH detector. Jets are defined using the Durham algorithm. Gluon jets are identified using an anti-tag on b jets, based on either a track impact parameter method or a high transverse momentum lepton tag. The comparison of gluon and mixed flavour quark jets shows that gluon jets have a softer fragmentation function, a larger angular width and a higher particle multiplicity. Evidence is also presented which shows that the corresponding differences between gluon and heavy flavour jets are significantly smaller.

  5. Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Asymmetries and Spin-dependent Structure Functions in the Valence Quark Region

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, X; Armstrong, D S; Averett, T D; Bertozzi, W; Binet, S; Burtin, E; Busato, E; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J; Camsonne, A; Cates, G D; Chai, Z; Chen, J P; Seonho Choi; Chudakov, E; Cusanno, F; De Leo, R; Deur, A; Dieterich, S; Dutta, D; Finn, J M; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Gao, J; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Gómez, J; Hansen, J O; Higinbotham, D W; Hinton, W; Horn, T; De Jager, C W; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L; Kelly, J; Korsch, W; Krämer, K; Le Rose, J J; Lhuillier, D; Liyanage, N K; Margaziotis, D J; Marie, F; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Nanda, S; Neyret, D; Phillips, S K; Powell, A; Pussieux, T; Reitz, B; Roche, J; Roché, R; Roedelbronn, M; Ron, G; Rvachev, M; Saha, A; Savvinov, N; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Souder, P A; Steiner, D J; Strauch, S; Sulkosky, V; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G; Vacheret, A; Wojtsekhowski, B; Xiang, H; Xiao, Y; Xiong, F; Zhang, B; Zhu, L; Zhu, X

    2004-01-01

    We report on measurements of the neutron spin asymmetries $A_{1,2}^n$ and polarized structure functions $g_{1,2}^n$ at three kinematics in the deep inelastic region, with $x=0.33$, 0.47 and 0.60 and $Q^2=2.7$, 3.5 and 4.8 (GeV/c)$^2$, respectively. These measurements were performed using a 5.7 GeV longitudinally-polarized electron beam and a polarized $^3$He target. The results for $A_1^n$ and $g_1^n$ at $x=0.33$ are consistent with previous world data and, at the two higher $x$ points, have improved the precision of the world data by about an order of magnitude. The new $A_1^n$ data show a zero crossing around $x=0.47$ and the value at $x=0.60$ is significantly positive. These results agree with a next-to-leading order QCD analysis of previous world data. The trend of data at high $x$ agrees with constituent quark model predictions but disagrees with that from leading-order perturbative QCD (pQCD) assuming hadron helicity conservation. Results for $A_2^n$ and $g_2^n$ have a precision comparable to the best w...

  6. Direct observation of quark-hadron duality in the free neutron F2 structure function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niculescu, I. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Niculescu, G. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Melnitchouk, W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Arrington, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Christy, M. E. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Ent, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Griffioen, K. A. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Kalantarians, N. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Keppel, C. E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kuhn, S. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Tkachenko, S. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Zhang, J. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Using data from the recent BONuS experiment at Jefferson Lab, which utilized a novel spectator tagging technique to extract the inclusive electron-free neutron scattering cross section, we obtain the first direct observation of quark-hadron duality in the neutron F2 structure function. In addition, the data are used to reconstruct the lowest few (N = 2, 4 and 6) moments of F2 in the three prominent nucleon resonance regions, as well as the moments integrated over the entire resonance region. Comparison with moments computed from global parametrizations of parton distribution functions suggest that quark--hadron duality holds locally for the neutron in the second and third resonance regions down to Q2 ≈ 1 GeV2, with violations possibly up to 20% observed in the first resonance region.

  7. Functional Fit Approach (FFA) for Density of States method: SU(3) spin system and SU(3) lattice gauge theory with static quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We apply a recently developed variant of the Density of States (DoS) method, the so-called Functional Fit Approach (FFA) to two different models: the SU(3) spin model and SU(3) lattice gauge theory with static quarks. Both models can be derived from QCD and inherit the complex action problem at finite density. We discuss the implementation of DoS FFA in the two models and compute observables related to the particle density. For the SU(3) spin model we show that the results are in good agreement with the results from a Monte Carlo simulation in the dual formulation, which is free of the complex action problem. For the case of SU(3) lattice gauge theory with static quarks we present first results for the particle number as a function of the coupling for different values of the chemical potential.

  8. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ripperger

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae, a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  9. Non-perturbative renormalization of four-quark operators and B_K with Schroedinger functional scheme in quenched domain-wall QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yousuke; Taniguchi, Yusuke; Collaboration, for CP-PACS

    2007-01-01

    We present non-perturbative renormalization factors for $\\Delta S=2$ four-quark operators in quenched domain-wall QCD using the Schroedinger functional method. Non-perturbative renormalization factor for $B_K$ is evaluated at hadronic scale. Combined with the non-perturbative RG running obtained by the Alpha collaboration, our result yields renormalization factor which converts lattice bare $B_K$ to the renormalization group invariant one. We apply the renormalization factor to bare $B_K$ pre...

  10. Low functional richness and redundancy of a predator assemblage in native forest fragments of Chiloe island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ariel A; Jaksic, Fabian M

    2011-07-01

    1. Changes in land use and habitat fragmentation are major drivers of global change, and studying their effects on biodiversity constitutes a major research programme. However, biodiversity is a multifaceted concept, with a functional component linking species richness to ecosystem function. Currently, the interaction between functional and taxonomic components of biodiversity under realistic scenarios of habitat degradation is poorly understood. 2. The expected functional richness (FR)-species richness relationship (FRSR) is positive, and attenuated for functional redundancy in species-rich assemblages. Further, environmental filters are expected to flatten that association by sorting species with similar traits. Thus, analysing FRSR can inform about the response of biodiversity to environmental gradients and habitat fragmentation, and its expected functional consequences. 3. Top predators affect ecosystem functioning through prey consumption and are particularly vulnerable to changes in land use and habitat fragmentation, being good indicators of ecosystem health and suitable models for assessing the effects of habitat fragmentation on their FR. 4. Thus, this study analyses the functional redundancy of a vertebrate predator assemblage at temperate forest fragments in a rural landscape of Chiloe island (Chile), testing the existence of environmental filters by contrasting an empirically derived FRSR against those predicted from null models, and testing the association between biodiversity components and the structure of forest fragments. 5. Overall, contrasts against null models indicate that regional factors determine low levels of FR and redundancy for the vertebrate predator assemblage studied, while recorded linear FRSR indicates proportional responses of the two biodiversity components to the structure of forest fragments. Further, most species were positively associated with either fragment size or shape complexity, which are highly correlated. This, and the

  11. Unpolarised Transverse Momentum Dependent Distribution and Fragmentation Functions from SIDIS Multiplicities

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmino, M; H., J O Gonzalez; Melis, S; Prokudin, A

    2013-01-01

    The unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of SIDIS multiplicities for charged hadron production. The data are grouped into independent bins of the kinematical variables, in which the TMD factorisation is expected to hold. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape. HERMES data do not need any normalisation correction, while fits of the COMPASS data much improve with a $y$-dependent overall normalisation factor. A comparison of the extracted TMDs with previous EMC and JLab data confirms the adequacy of the simple Gaussian distributions. The possible role of the TMD evolution is briefly considered.

  12. A Monte Carlo study of jet fragmentation functions in PbPb and pp collisions at sqrt{s}=2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Ramos, Redamy

    2014-01-01

    The parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions (FFs) obtained from the YaJEM and PYTHIA6 Monte Carlo event generators, are studied for jets produced in a strongly-interacting medium and in the QCD "vacuum" respectively. The medium modifications are studied with the YaJEM code in two different scenarios by (i) accounting for the medium induced virtuality DeltaQ^2 transferred to the leading parton from the medium, and (ii) by altering the infrared sector in the Borghini-Wiedemann approach. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental jet data measured by the CMS experiment in PbPb and pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV. Though both scenarios qualitatively describe the shape and main physical features of the FFs, the ratios are in much better agreement with the first scenario. Results are presented for the Monte Carlo FFs obtained for different parton flavours (quark and gluon) and accounting exactly, or not, for the experimental jet reconstruction biases.

  13. Baryons as Fock states of 3,5,... Quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitri Diakonov; Victor Petrov

    2004-09-01

    We present a generating functional producing quark wave functions of all Fock states in the octet, decuplet and antidecuplet baryons in the mean field approximation, both in the rest and infinite momentum frames. In particular, for the usual octet and decuplet baryons we get the SU(6)-symmetric wave functions for their 3-quark component but with specific corrections from relativism and from additional quark-antiquark pairs. For the exotic antidecuplet baryons we obtain the 5-quark wave function.

  14. Nuclear Physics——Energy Dependence of String Fragmentation Function and φ Meson Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-hao; WANGZhong-qi

    2003-01-01

    Strangeness enhancement was suggested in the early eighties as one of the most promising signatures for the creation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma(QGP) phase in relativistic nuclear collisions.Following the experimental observations on strangeness enhancement in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS energies the WA97 has measured a clear enhancement of multi-strange baryons (Λ, Ξ, Ω )with their strange quark content in 158 AGeV/c Pb+Pb collisions relative to p+Pb collisions.

  15. Measurement of the 3He Spin Structure Functions in the Resonance Region: A Test of Quark-Hadron Duality on the Neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvignon, Patricia [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2006-08-01

    One of the biggest challenges in the study of the nucleon structure is the understanding of the transition from partonic degrees of freedom to hadronic degrees of freedom. In 1970, Bloom and Gilman noticed that structure function data taken at SLAC in the resonance region average to the scaling curve of deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Early theoretical interpretations suggested that these two very different regimes can be linked under the condition that the quark-gluon and quark-quark interactions are suppressed. Substantial efforts are ongoing to investigate this phenomenon both experimentally and theoretically. Quark-hadron duality has been confirmed for the unpolarized structure function F2 of the proton and the deuteron using data from the experimental Hall C at Jefferson Lab (JLab). Indications of duality have been seen for the proton polarized structure function g1 and the virtual photon asymmetry A1 at JLab Hall B and HERMES. Because of the different resonance behavior, it is expected that the onset of duality for the neutron will happen at lower momentum transfer than for the proton. Now that precise spin structure data in the DIS region are available at large x, data in the resonance region are greatly needed in order to test duality in spin-dependent structure functions. The goal of experiment E01-012 was to provide such data on the neutron (3He) in the moderate momentum transfer (Q2) region, 1.0 < Q2 < 4.0 (GeV/c2), where duality is expected to hold. The experiment ran successfully in early 2003 at Jefferson Lab in Hall B. It was an inclusive measurement of longitudinally polarized electrons scattering from a longitudinally or transversely polarized 3He target. Asymmetries and cross section differences were measured in order to extract the 3He spin structure function g1 and virtual photon asymmetry A1 in the resonance region. A test

  16. Gravitational fragmentation in turbulent primordial gas and the initial mass function of Population III stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul C.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Glover, Simon C.O.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bromm, Volker; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2010-08-25

    We report results from numerical simulations of star formation in the early universe that focus on the dynamical behavior of metal-free gas under different initial and environmental conditions. In particular we investigate the role of turbulence, which is thought to ubiquitously accompany the collapse of high-redshift halos. We distinguish between two main cases: the birth of Population III.1 stars - those which form in the pristine halos unaffected by prior star formation - and the formation of Population III.2 stars - those forming in halos where the gas is still metal free but has an increased ionization fraction. This latter case can arise either from exposure to the intense UV radiation of stellar sources in neighboring halos, or from the high virial temperatures associated with the formation of massive halos, that is, those with masses greater than {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}}. We find that turbulent primordial gas is highly susceptible to fragmentation in both cases, even for turbulence in the subsonic regime, i.e. for rms velocity dispersions as low as 20 % of the sound speed. Contrary to our original expectations, fragmentation is more vigorous and more widespread in pristine halos compared to pre-ionized ones. We therefore predict Pop III.1 stars to be on average of somewhat lower mass, and form in larger groups, than Pop III.2 stars. We find that fragment masses cover over two orders of magnitude, indicating that the resulting Population III initial mass function was significantly extended in mass as well. Our results suggest that the details of the fragmentation process depend on the local properties of the turbulent velocity field and hence we expect considerable variations in the resulting stellar mass spectrum in different halos. In particular, the lowest-mass objects in our sample should have survived to the present day and could potentially provide a unique record of the physical conditions of stellar birth in the primordial universe

  17. Study of Charm Fragmentation into $D^{*\\pm}$ Mesons in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Bacchetta, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2009-01-01

    The process of charm quark fragmentation is studied using $D^{*\\pm}$ meson production in deep-inelastic scattering as measured by the H1 detector at HERA. Two different regions of phase space are investigated defined by the presence or absence of a jet containing the $D^{*\\pm}$ meson in the event. The parameters of fragmentation functions are extracted for QCD models based on leading order matrix elements and DGLAP or CCFM evolution of partons together with string fragmentation and particle decays. Additionally, they are determined for a next-to-leading order QCD calculation in the fixed flavour number scheme using the independent fragmentation of charm quarks to $D^{*\\pm}$ mesons.

  18. Study of Charm Fragmentation into $D^{*\\pm}$ Mesons in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F D; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Bacchetta, A; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Beckingham, M; Begzsuren, K; Behnke, O; Belousov, A; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; de Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; De Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Essenov, S; Falkiewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Goettlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Hansson, M; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hovhannisyan, A; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jonsson, L; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, B; Naumann, Th; Newman, Paul R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G.D; Pejchal, O; Peng, H; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Preda, T; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Sheviakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, Arnd E; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P.D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Wegener, D; Wessels, M; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Yeganov, V; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zhu, Y C; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2009-01-01

    The process of charm quark fragmentation is studied using $D^{*\\pm}$ meson production in deep-inelastic scattering as measured by the H1 detector at HERA. Two different regions of phase space are investigated defined by the presence or absence of a jet containing the $D^{*\\pm}$ meson in the event. The parameters of fragmentation functions are extracted for QCD models based on leading order matrix elements and DGLAP or CCFM evolution of partons together with string fragmentation and particle decays. Additionally, they are determined for a next-to-leading order QCD calculation in the fixed flavour number scheme using the independent fragmentation of charm quarks to $D^{*\\pm}$ mesons.

  19. Ionization and fragmentation of complex molecules studied with a density functional theory based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Ion-impact induced ionization and fragmentation of complex molecules have important applications in many branches of science. If the molecule is H2O an obvious topic to address is the radiobiological relevance of these processes, e.g. in the context of hadron therapy, to name just one example. From a more fundamental physics viewpoint ion-molecule collision systems constitute interesting many-body systems, whose analysis poses challenges to both experimentalists and theorists. This talk will describe a theoretical approach to ion-molecule collisions, which is based on density functional theory to describe the nonperturbative electron dynamics. The basis generator method applied in the past successfully to ion-atom collisions is adapted to deal with the multi-center problem one faces when one considers molecular targets. Cross sections for single- and multiple-electron processes (capture and transfer to the continuum) are obtained directly from solving time-dependent Kohn-Sham-type orbital equations and using a Slater determinant based analysis. Fragmentation yields are predicted on the basis of a semi-phenomenological model which uses the calculated cross sections as input. Results will be presented for various ions impacting on water molecules in the energy range of 10-5000 keV/amu and compared with experimental data and previous theoretical calculations where available. First applications of the model to collisions involving CH4 molecules will also be discussed. This work has been supported by SHARCNET and NSERC Canada.

  20. Search for strange quark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, J C

    2000-01-01

    We present results of a search for charged and neutral strangelets produced on collisions of 11.6 A GeV/c Au beams with Pt or Pb targets. Yields of light nuclei and hypernuclei produced by coalescence were measured. Penalty factors were measured for the addition to a fragment of a nucleon or strange hadron. These are useful in planning future searches for strange quark matter.

  1. Non-perturbative renormalization of four-quark operators and B_K with Schroedinger functional scheme in quenched domain-wall QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Y

    2007-01-01

    We present non-perturbative renormalization factors for $\\Delta S=2$ four-quark operators in quenched domain-wall QCD using the Schroedinger functional method. Non-perturbative renormalization factor for $B_K$ is evaluated at hadronic scale. Combined with the non-perturbative RG running obtained by the Alpha collaboration, our result yields renormalization factor which converts lattice bare $B_K$ to the renormalization group invariant one. We apply the renormalization factor to bare $B_K$ previously obtained by the CP-PACS collaboration with the quenched domain-wall QCD(DWQCD). We compare our result with previous ones obtained by perturbative renormalization factors, different renormalization schemes or different quark actions. We also show that chiral symmetry breaking effects in the renormalization factor are numerically small.

  2. Quark mass effects in quark number susceptibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Thorben

    2016-01-01

    The quark degrees of freedom of the QGP with special focus on mass effects are investigated. A next-to-leading-order perturbation theory approach with quark mass dependence is applied and compared to lattice QCD results.

  3. Equilibrium configurations of large nanostructures using the embedded saturated-fragments stochastic density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Eitam; Rabani, Eran; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi

    2017-06-01

    An ab initio Langevin dynamics approach is developed based on stochastic density functional theory (sDFT) within a new embedded saturated fragment formalism, applicable to covalently bonded systems. The forces on the nuclei generated by sDFT contain a random component natural to Langevin dynamics, and its standard deviation is used to estimate the friction term on each atom by satisfying the fluctuation-dissipation relation. The overall approach scales linearly with the system size even if the density matrix is not local and is thus applicable to ordered as well as disordered extended systems. We implement the approach for a series of silicon nanocrystals (NCs) of varying size with a diameter of up to 3 nm corresponding to Ne = 3000 electrons and generate a set of configurations that are distributed canonically at a fixed temperature, ranging from cryogenic to room temperature. We also analyze the structure properties of the NCs and discuss the reconstruction of the surface geometry.

  4. Fragment-based treatment of delocalization and static correlation errors in density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafziger, Jonathan; Wasserman, Adam

    2015-12-21

    One of the most important open challenges in modern Kohn-Sham (KS) density-functional theory (DFT) is the correct treatment of systems involving fractional electron charges and spins. Approximate exchange-correlation functionals struggle with such systems, leading to pervasive delocalization and static correlation errors. We demonstrate how these errors, which plague density-functional calculations of bond-stretching processes, can be avoided by employing the alternative framework of partition density-functional theory (PDFT) even using the local density approximation for the fragments. Our method is illustrated with explicit calculations on simple systems exhibiting delocalization and static-correlation errors, stretched H2 (+), H2, He2 (+), Li2 (+), and Li2. In all these cases, our method leads to greatly improved dissociation-energy curves. The effective KS potential corresponding to our self-consistent solutions displays key features around the bond midpoint; these are known to be present in the exact KS potential, but are absent from most approximate KS potentials and are essential for the correct description of electron dynamics.

  5. Mass and Axial current renormalization in the Schr\\"odinger functional scheme for the RG-improved gauge and the stout smeared $O(a)$-improved Wilson quark actions

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, K -I; Kuramashi, Y; Nakamura, Y; Namekawa, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Ukita, N; Yamazaki, T; Yoshié, T

    2015-01-01

    We present the quark mass and axial current renormalization factors for the RG-improved Iwasaki gauge action and three flavors of the stout smeared $O(a)$-improved Wilson quark action. We employ $\\alpha=0.1$ and $n_{\\mathrm{step}}=6$ for the stout link smearing parameters and all links in the quark action are replaced with the smeared links. Using the Schr\\"{o}dinger functional scheme we evaluate the renormalization factors at $\\beta=1.82$ where large scale simulations are being carried out.

  6. Study of $\\tau$ decays involving kaons, spectral functions and determination of the strange quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Alemany, R; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Pacheco, A; Park, I C; Riu, I; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Becker, U; Boix, G; Cattaneo, M; Ciulli, V; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Halley, A W; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Leroy, O; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Tournefier, E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Cavanaugh, R J; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Cerutti, F; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Marinelli, N; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Thomson, E; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Williams, M; Giehl, I; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Etienne, F; Ealet, A; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Thulasidas, M; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bettarini, S; Boccali, T; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Chambers, J T; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Foss, J; Grupen, Claus; Prange, G; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Mamier, G; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Vogt, M; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G

    1999-01-01

    All ALEPH measurements of branching ratios of tau decays involving kaons are summarized including a combination of results obtained with K^0_S and K^0_L detection. The decay dynamics are studied, leading to the determination of contributions from vector K^*(892) and K^{*}(1410), and axial-vector K_1(1270) and K_1(1400) resonances. Agreement with isospin symmetry is observed among the different final states. Under the hypothesis of the conserved vector current, the spectral function for the K\\bar{K}\\pi mode is compared with the corresponding cross section for low energy e^+e^- annihilation, yielding an axial-vector fraction of (94^{+6}_{-8})% for this mode. The branching ratio for tau decay into all strange final states is determined to be B(\\tau^-\\to X^-(S=-1)\

  7. Unpolarized Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution and Fragmentation Functions at next-to-next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Echevarria, Miguel G; Vladimirov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The transverse momentum dependent parton distribution/fragmentation functions (TMDs) are essential in the factorization of a number of processes like Drell-Yan scattering, vector boson production, semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, etc. We provide a comprehensive study of unpolarized TMDs at next-to-next-to-leading order, which includes an explicit calculation of these TMDs and an extraction of their matching coefficients onto their integrated analogues, for all flavor combinations. The obtained matching coefficients are important for any kind of phenomenology involving TMDs. In the present study each individual TMD is calculated without any reference to a specific process. We recover the known results for parton distribution functions and provide new results for the fragmentation functions. The results for the gluon transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions are presented for the first time at one and two loops. We also discuss the structure of singularities of TMD operators and TMD matrix ...

  8. Unquenching effects in the quark and gluon propagator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamleh, Waseem; Bowman, Patrick O.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; Zhang, Jianbo

    2007-11-01

    In this work we examine the fat-link irrelevant clover (FLIC) overlap quark propagator and the gluon propagator on both dynamical and quenched lattices. The tadpole-improved Luscher-Weisz gauge action is used in both cases. The dynamical gauge fields use the FLIC fermion action for the sea quark contribution. We observe that the presence of sea quarks causes a suppression of the mass function, quark renormalization function, and gluon dressing function in the infrared. The ultraviolet physics is unaffected.

  9. Transversity of quarks in a nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Bora; D K Choudhury

    2003-11-01

    The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon’s properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (infinite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd twist-two distribution function – gluons do not couple to it. Quarks in a nucleon/hadron are relativistically bound and transversity is a measure of the relativistic nature of bound quarks in a nucleon. In this work, we review some important aspects of this less familiar distribution function which has not been measured experimentally so far.

  10. Quark energy loss in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Li-Hua; 10.1103/Phys.RevC.81.035207

    2011-01-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on nuclear targets is an ideal tool to study the energy loss effect of an outgoing quark in a nuclear medium. By means of the short hadron formation time, the experimental data with quark hadronization occurring outside the nucleus are picked out. A leading-order analysis is performed for the hadron multiplicity ratios as a function of the energy fraction on helium, neon, and copper nuclei relative to deuteron for the various identified hadrons. It is shown that the nuclear effects on parton distribution functions can be neglected. It is found that the theoretical results considering the nuclear modification of fragmentation functions due to quark energy loss are in good agreement with the experimental data. Whether the quark energy loss is linear or quadratic with the path length is not determined. The obtained energy loss per unit length is 0.38 \\pm 0.03 GeV/fm for an outgoing quark by the global fit.

  11. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with -CH(n), -NH(n) fragments, -COOH and -OH groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milowska, Karolina Z; Majewski, Jacek A

    2013-05-21

    We present results of extensive theoretical studies concerning stability, morphology, and band structure of single wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) covalently functionalized by -CH(n) (for n = 2,3,4), -NH(n) (for n = 1,2,3,4), -COOH, and -OH groups. These studies are based on ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory. For functionalized systems, we determine the dependence of the binding energies on the concentration of the adsorbed molecules, critical densities of adsorbed molecules, global and local changes in the morphology, and electronic structure paying particular attention to the functionalization induced changes of the band gaps. These studies reveal physical mechanisms that determine stability and electronic structure of functionalized systems and also provide valuable theoretical predictions relevant for application. In particular, we observe that functionalization of CNTs causes generally their elongation and locally sp(2) to sp(3) rehybridization in the neighborhood of chemisorbed molecules. For adsorbants making particularly strong covalent bonds with the CNTs, such as the -CH2 fragments, we observe formation of the characteristic pentagon/heptagon (5/7) defects. In systems functionalized with the -CH2, -NH4, and -OH groups, we determine critical density of molecules that could be covalently bound to the lateral surface of CNTs. Our studies show that functionalization of CNTs can be utilized for band gap engineering. Functionalization of CNTs can also lead to changes in their metallic/semiconductor character. In semiconducting CNTs, functionalizing molecules such as -CH3, -NH2, -OH, -COOH, and both -OH and -COOH, introduce "impurity" bands in the band gap of pristine CNTs. In the case of -CH3, -NH2 molecules, the induced band gaps are typically smaller than in the pure CNT and depend strongly on the concentration of adsorbants. However, functionalization of semiconducting CNTs with hydroxyl groups leads to the metallization

  12. Is the existence of a softest point in the directed flow excitation function an unambiguous signal for the creation of a quark-gluon plasma?

    CERN Document Server

    Bleicher, M; Bleicher, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    The excitation function of the in-plane directed flow of nucleons is studied within a non-equilibrium transport approach. It is demonstrated that a local minimum in the excitation function of the directed flow develops, which is not related to a transition into a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase. It is a consequence of the dynamical softening of the underlying equation of state, due to the onset of resonance matter and particle production. Thus, the interpretation of this minimum as a 'smoking gun' signature for the creation of a QGP is premature.

  13. Distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Rui-Dian; CAI Xu; QIAN Wan-Yan; YANG Chun-Bin

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the quark recombination model, we study the momentum distributions and cor- relations of constituent quarks in jets by analyzing the final state hadrons generated by PYTHIA for the hard parton fragmentation processes in vacuum. Parameterizations for the distributions are tabulated.

  14. ATLAS Top Quark Results

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  15. An improved strategy to recover large fragments of functional human neutrophil extracellular traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eBarrientos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Netosis is a recently described neutrophil function that leads to the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs in response to various stimuli. NETs are filaments of decondensed chromatin associated with granular proteins. In addition to their role against microorganisms, NETs have been implicated in autoimmunity, thrombosis and tissue injury. Access to a standardized source of isolated NETs is needed to better analyze the roles of NETs. The aim of this study was to develop a procedure yielding soluble, well-characterized NET preparations from fresh human neutrophils. The calcium ionophore A23187 was chosen to induce netosis, and the restriction enzyme Alu I was used to prepare large NET fragments. DNA and proteins were detected by electrophoresis and specific labeling. Some NET proteins (histone 3, lactoferrin were quantified by western blotting, and dsDNA was quantified by immunofluorescence. Co-existence of dsDNA and neutrophil proteins confirmed the quality of the NET preparations. Their biological activity was checked by measuring elastase activity and bacterial killing against various strains. Interindividual differences in histone 3, lactoferrin, elastase and dsDNA relative contents were observed in isolated NETs. However, the reproducibility of NET preparation and characterization was validated, suggesting that this interindividual variability was rather related to donor variation than to technical bias. This standardized protocol is suitable for producing, isolating and quantifying functional NETs that could serve as a tool for studying NET effects on immune cells and tissues.

  16. An improved strategy to recover large fragments of functional human neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Lorena; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; de Chaisemartin, Luc; Le-Moal, Vanessa Lievin; Sandré, Catherine; Bianchini, Elsa; Nicolas, Valerie; Pallardy, Marc; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Netosis is a recently described neutrophil function that leads to the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to various stimuli. NETs are filaments of decondensed chromatin associated with granular proteins. In addition to their role against microorganisms, NETs have been implicated in autoimmunity, thrombosis, and tissue injury. Access to a standardized source of isolated NETs is needed to better analyze the roles of NETs. The aim of this study was to develop a procedure yielding soluble, well-characterized NET preparations from fresh human neutrophils. The calcium ionophore A23187 was chosen to induce netosis, and the restriction enzyme AluI was used to prepare large NET fragments. DNA and proteins were detected by electrophoresis and specific labeling. Some NET proteins [histone 3, lactoferrin (LF)] were quantified by western blotting, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was quantified by immunofluorescence. Co-existence of dsDNA and neutrophil proteins confirmed the quality of the NET preparations. Their biological activity was checked by measuring elastase (ELA) activity and bacterial killing against various strains. Interindividual differences in histone 3, LF, ELA, and dsDNA relative contents were observed in isolated NETs. However, the reproducibility of NET preparation and characterization was validated, suggesting that this interindividual variability was rather related to donor variation than to technical bias. This standardized protocol is suitable for producing, isolating, and quantifying functional NETs that could serve as a tool for studying NET effects on immune cells and tissues.

  17. Polarization in heavy quark decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimujiang, K.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis I concentrate on the angular correlations in top quark decays and their next.to.leading order (NLO) QCD corrections. I also discuss the leading.order (LO) angular correlations in unpolarized and polarized hyperon decays. In the first part of the thesis I calculate the angular correlation between the top quark spin and the momentum of decay products in the rest frame decay of a polarized top quark into a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark in Two-Higgs-Doublet-Models: t({up_arrow}) {yields} b + H{sup +}. I provide closed form formulae for the O({alpha}{sub s}) radiative corrections to the unpolarized and the polar correlation functions for m{sub b}{ne}0 and m{sub b}=0. In the second part I concentrate on the semileptonic rest frame decay of a polarized top quark into a bottom quark and a lepton pair: t({up_arrow}){yields}X{sub b}+l{sup +}+{nu}{sub l}. I present closed form expressions for the O({alpha}{sub s}) radiative corrections to the unpolarized part and the polar and azimuthal correlations for m{sub b}{ne}0 and m{sub b}=0. In the last part I turn to the angular distribution in semileptonic hyperon decays. Using the helicity method I derive complete formulas for the leading order joint angular decay distributions occurring in semileptonic hyperon decays including lepton mass and polarization effects. (orig.)

  18. Single top quark production with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Soureek

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of single top quark production are presented, performed using CMS data collected in 2011, 2012 and 2015 at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV respectively. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. In the t-channel the ratio of top and anti-top production cross sections is determined and compared with predictions from different parton density distribution functions. In the same channel, the inclusive cross-section in the fiducial volume is also measured. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production such as the top-quark polarisation, W-helicity in top quark decay and searches for anomalous couplings to gluons, photons are also presented,. A search for the s-channel is also performed.

  19. Quark masses in two-flavor QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Creutz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Considered as a function of the quark mases, two-flavor QCD depends on three parameters, including one that is CP violating. As the masses vary to unphysical values, regions of both first- and second-order phase transitions are expected. For non-degenerate quarks, non-perturbative effects leave individual quark mass ratios with a renormalization scheme dependence. This complicates matching lattice results with perturbative schemes and clarifies the tautology with attacking the strong CP problem via a vanishing up quark mass.

  20. Quark mass dependence of quarkonium properties at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, H; Kaczmarek, O

    2014-01-01

    Quarkonium properties at finite temperature have been studied with quark masses of the charm and bottom quarks. Our simulations have been performed in quenched QCD with the $O(a)$-improved Wilson quarks on large and fine isotropic lattices with the spatial lattice extents $N_\\sigma =$ 96, 192 and the corresponding lattice spacings $a =$ 0.0190, 0.00967 fm, respectively, at temperatures in a range between about 0.7$T_c$ and 1.4$T_c$. We show temperature and quark mass dependence of quarkonium correlation functions and related physical quantities: the quark number susceptibility and the heavy quark diffusion constant.

  1. Magnetic moments of heavy baryons in the relativistic three-quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, A; Ivanov, M A; Körner, J G; Lyubovitskij, V E; Nicmorus, D; Pumsa-ard, K; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic moments of ground state single, double and triple heavy baryons containing charm or bottom quarks are calculated in a relativistic three-quark model, which, in the heavy quark limit, is consistent with Heavy Quark Effective Theory and Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory. The internal quark structure of baryons is modeled by baryonic three-quark currents with a spin-flavor structure patterned according to standard covariant baryonic wave functions and currents used in QCD sum rule calculations.

  2. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n,f) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Regnier, D; Schunck, N; Verriere, M

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically using the time dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in tw...

  3. Arthropods on plants in a fragmented Neotropical dry forest: a functional analysis of area loss and edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2015-02-01

    Loss and fragmentation of natural ecosystems are widely recognized as the most important threats to biodiversity conservation, with Neotropical dry forests among the most endangered ecosystems. Area and edge effects are major factors in fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine area and edge effects and their interaction, on ensembles of arthropods associated to native vegetation in a fragmented Chaco Serrano forest. We analyzed family richness and community composition of herbivores, predators, and parasitoids on three native plant species in 12 fragments of varying size and at edge/interior positions. We also looked for indicator families by using Indicator Species Analysis. Loss of family richness with the reduction of forest fragment area was observed for the three functional groups, with similar magnitude. Herbivores were richer at the edges without interaction between edge and area effects, whereas predators were not affected by edge/interior position and parasitoid richness showed an interaction between area and position, with a steeper area slope at the edges. Family composition of herbivore, predator, and parasitoid assemblages was also affected by forest area and/or edge/interior situation. We found three indicator families for large remnants and five for edges. Our results support the key role of forest area for conservation of arthropods taxonomic and functional diversity in a highly threatened region, and emphasize the need to understand the interactions between area and edge effects on such diversity. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Functional display of platelet-binding VWF fragments on filamentous bacteriophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yee

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor (VWF tethers platelets to sites of vascular injury via interaction with the platelet surface receptor, GPIb. To further define the VWF sequences required for VWF-platelet interaction, a phage library displaying random VWF protein fragments was screened against formalin-fixed platelets. After 3 rounds of affinity selection, DNA sequencing of platelet-bound clones identified VWF peptides mapping exclusively to the A1 domain. Aligning these sequences defined a minimal, overlapping segment spanning P1254-A1461, which encompasses the C1272-C1458 cystine loop. Analysis of phage carrying a mutated A1 segment (C1272/1458A confirmed the requirement of the cystine loop for optimal binding. Four rounds of affinity maturation of a randomly mutagenized A1 phage library identified 10 and 14 unique mutants associated with enhanced platelet binding in the presence and absence of botrocetin, respectively, with 2 mutants (S1370G and I1372V common to both conditions. These results demonstrate the utility of filamentous phage for studying VWF protein structure-function and identify a minimal, contiguous peptide that bind to formalin-fixed platelets, confirming the importance of the VWF A1 domain with no evidence for another independently platelet-binding segment within VWF. These findings also point to key structural elements within the A1 domain that regulate VWF-platelet adhesion.

  5. An Efficient Genome Fragment Assembling Using GA with Neighborhood Aware Fitness Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Kikuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To decode a long genome sequence, shotgun sequencing is the state-of-the-art technique. It needs to properly sequence a very large number, sometimes as large as millions, of short partially readable strings (fragments. Arranging those fragments in correct sequence is known as fragment assembling, which is an NP-problem. Presently used methods require enormous computational cost. In this work, we have shown how our modified genetic algorithm (GA could solve this problem efficiently. In the proposed GA, the length of the chromosome, which represents the volume of the search space, is reduced with advancing generations, and thereby improves search efficiency. We also introduced a greedy mutation, by swapping nearby fragments using some heuristics, to improve the fitness of chromosomes. We compared results with Parsons’ algorithm which is based on GA too. We used fragments with partial reads on both sides, mimicking fragments in real genome assembling process. In Parsons’ work base-pair array of the whole fragment is known. Even then, we could obtain much better results, and we succeeded in restructuring contigs covering 100% of the genome sequences.

  6. Sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation rate is associated with differential protein expression and enriched functions in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intasqui, Paula; Camargo, Mariana; Del Giudice, Paula T; Spaine, Deborah M; Carvalho, Valdemir M; Cardozo, Karina H M; Zylbersztejn, Daniel S; Bertolla, Ricardo P

    2013-10-01

    To analyse the proteomic profile of seminal plasma with the aim of identifying the proteins and post-genomic pathways associated with sperm DNA fragmentation. A cross-sectional study including 89 subjects from a human reproduction service was carried out. All semen samples were assessed for sperm DNA fragmentation using a comet assay. Results from 60 sperm were analysed using Komet 6.0.1 software and the 'Olive tail moment' variable was used to stratify these into low and high sperm DNA fragmentation groups. Seminal plasma proteins from the two groups were pooled and used for proteomic analysis. Quantitative data were used for functional enrichment studies. Seventy-two proteins were identified or quantified in seminal plasma. Of these, nine were differentially expressed in the low group and 21 in the high group. Forty-two proteins were conserved between these groups. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that sperm DNA fragmentation was related to functions such as lipoprotein particle remodelling and regulation, fatty acid binding and immune response. Proteins found exclusively in the low group may be involved in correcting spermatogenesis and/or improving sperm function. Proteins in the high group were associated with increased innate immune response, sperm motility and/or maturation and inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis. Protein expression and post-genomic pathways of seminal plasma differ according to the rate of sperm DNA integrity. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  7. On the strange quark mass with improved staggered quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, J.; Davies, C.; Lepage, G. P.; Mason, Q.; Trottier, H.

    2002-01-01

    We present results on the sum of the masses of light and strange quark using improved staggered quarks. Our calculation uses 2+1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The effects of the dynamical quarks are clearly visible.

  8. Quark Model in the Quantum Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, P. E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses in detail the totally symmetric three-quark karyonic wave functions. The two-body mesonic states are also discussed. A brief review of the experimental efforts to identify the quark model multiplets is given. (Author/SK)

  9. Quark Model in the Quantum Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, P. E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses in detail the totally symmetric three-quark karyonic wave functions. The two-body mesonic states are also discussed. A brief review of the experimental efforts to identify the quark model multiplets is given. (Author/SK)

  10. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGaughey, P.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Quack, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruuskanen, P.V. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)]|[Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  11. Measurement of the fragmentation function for photon-tagged jets in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This note presents a measurement of the charged-particle fragmentation function (FF) for jets azimuthally balanced by a high transverse momentum ($p_\\mathrm{T}$) prompt, isolated photon. FFs as a function of particle-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ and fraction of the jet $p_\\mathrm{T}$ carried by the particle, $z$, are measured in 26 pb$^{−1}$ of $pp$ and 0.49 nb$^{−1}$ of Pb+Pb collision data at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. In pp collisions, a comparison of the photon-tagged jet FF to that for inclusively selected jets is sensitive to the difference in fragmentation between quark– and gluon–initiated jets in vacuum. The ratio of the FF in Pb+Pb events to those in $pp$ events with the same selection on the photon kinematic variables provides information on the modification of the parton shower for quark-initiated jets as they traverse the hot nuclear medium. In comparison to the modified FF for inclusively-selected jets, photon-tagged jets show a sim...

  12. Top quark properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuji Takeuchi

    2012-10-01

    Since the top quark was discovered at Tevatron in 1995, many top quark properties have been measured. However, the top quark is still interesting due to unique features which originate from the extremely heavy mass, and providing various test grounds on the Standard Model as well as searches for a new physics. Though the measurements of the top quark had been performed only at Tevatron so far, LHC is now ready for measurements with more top quarks than Tevatron. In this article, recent measurements of top quark properties from Tevatron (CDF and DØ) as well as LHC (ATLAS and CMS) are presented.

  13. Thermalization of Quark Matter Produced at the Highest Energy of a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ Thermalization of quark matter is studied via a transport equation, which includes triple-quark elastic scattering amplitudes calculated in perturbative QCD. The triple-quark scatterings are demonstrated to be important for an anisotropic initial quark distribution produced in central Au-Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. By examining momentum isotropy to which the transport equation leads, we can determine a thermalization time of 2.2fm/c for quark matter itself to thermalize by the two-quark and the triple-quark elastic scatterings. Meanwhile, an initial thermal quark distribution function is obtained.

  14. Dilepton Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺泽君; 蒋维洲; 张家驹; 张伟; 刘波

    2002-01-01

    We have studied dilepton production in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon matter produced at RHIC energies.We find that the dilepton yield is no longer a monotonically decreasing function of the initial quark chemicalpotential. Therefore, the dilepton suppression may not be useful as a signature for quark-gluon matter formation.

  15. Heavy Baryon Transitions in a Relativistic Three-Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M A; Kroll, P; Lyubovitskij, V E

    1997-01-01

    Exclusive semileptonic decays of bottom and charm baryons are considered within a relativistic three-quark model with a Gaussian shape for the baryon-three-quark vertex and standard quark propagators. We calculate the baryonic Isgur-Wise functions, decay rates and asymmetry parameters.

  16. Viscosity over entropy ratio in a quark plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerski, P.; Alberico, W. M.; Chiacchiera, S.; DePace, A.; Hansen, H.; Molinari, A.; Nardi, M.

    2009-02-01

    The quark viscosity in the quark-gluon plasma is evaluated in the hard thermal loop (HTL) approximation. The different contributions to the viscosity arising from the various components of the quark spectral function are discussed. The calculation is extended to finite values of the chemical potential.

  17. Revisiting Chiral Extrapolation by Studying a Lattice Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-Bin; SUN Wei-Min; L(U) Xiao-Fu; ZONG Hong-Shi

    2009-01-01

    The quark propagator in the Landau gauge is studied on the lattice,including the quenched and the unquenched results.No obvious unquenched effects are found by comparing the quenched quark propagator with the dynamical one.For the quenched and unquenched configurations,the results with different quark masses have been computed.For the quark mass function,a nonlinear chiral extrapolating behavior is found in the in/tared region for both the quenched and dynamical results.

  18. Fuzzy electron density fragments in macromolecular quantum chemistry, combinatorial quantum chemistry, functional group analysis, and shape-activity relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Paul G

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Just as complete molecules have no boundaries and have "fuzzy" electron density clouds approaching zero density exponentially at large distances from the nearest nucleus, a physically justified choice for electron density fragments exhibits similar behavior. Whereas fuzzy electron densities, just as any fuzzy object, such as a thicker cloud on a foggy day, do not lend themselves to easy visualization, one may partially overcome this by using isocontours. Whereas a faithful representation of the complete fuzzy density would need infinitely many such isocontours, nevertheless, by choosing a selected few, one can still obtain a limited pictorial representation. Clearly, such images are of limited value, and one better relies on more complete mathematical representations, using, for example, density matrices of fuzzy fragment densities. A fuzzy density fragmentation can be obtained in an exactly additive way, using the output from any of the common quantum chemical computational techniques, such as Hartree-Fock, MP2, and various density functional approaches. Such "fuzzy" electron density fragments properly represented have proven to be useful in a rather wide range of applications, for example, (a) using them as additive building blocks leading to efficient linear scaling macromolecular quantum chemistry computational techniques, (b) the study of quantum chemical functional groups, (c) using approximate fuzzy fragment information as allowed by the holographic electron density theorem, (d) the study of correlations between local shape and activity, including through-bond and through-space components of interactions between parts of molecules and relations between local molecular shape and substituent effects, (e) using them as tools of density matrix extrapolation in conformational changes, (f) physically valid averaging and statistical distribution of several local electron densities of common stoichiometry, useful in electron density databank mining, for

  19. Small Current Quark Mass Effects on Dressed-Quark Propagator in an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; WU Xiao-Hua; SUN Wei-Min; ZHAO En-Guang; WANG Fan

    2003-01-01

    A method for obtaining the smallcurrent quark mass dependence of the dressed quark propagator froman effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach the small current quark mass effects ondressed-quark propagator have been studied. A comparison with previous results is given.

  20. Quarks and partons. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschos, E A

    1976-01-01

    This contribution reviews the evidence accumulated over the past year in favor of quarks and partons. Then it applies the quark ideas in order to interpret the neutrino-induced production of charm and the structure of neutral currents.

  1. Binary formation and mass function variations in fragmenting discs with short cooling times

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, R D; Cuadra, J

    2008-01-01

    Accretion discs at sub-pc distances around supermassive black holes are likely to cool rapidly enough that self-gravity results in fragmentation. Here, we use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of a simplified disc model to study how the outcome of fragmentation depends upon numerical resolution and cooling time, and to investigate the incidence of binary formation within fragmenting discs. We investigate a range of cooling times, from the relatively long cooling time-scales that are marginally unstable to fragmentation down to highly unstable cooling on a time-scale that is shorter than the local dynamical time. The characteristic mass of fragments decreases with reduced cooling time, though the effect is modest and dependent upon details of how rapidly bound clumps radiate. We observe a high incidence of capture binaries, though we are unable to determine their final orbits or probability of survival. The results suggest that faster cooling in the parent disc results in an increased binary fraction, a...

  2. Lower sperm DNA fragmentation after r-FSH administration in functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvolo, Giovanni; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Brucculeri, Anna Maria; Longobardi, Salvatore; Cittadini, Ettore; Bosco, Liana

    2013-04-01

    An observational clinical and molecular study was designed to evaluate the effects of the administration of recombinant human FSH on sperm DNA fragmentation in men with a non-classical form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. In the study were included 53 men with a non-classical form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. In all patients, sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI), assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) in situ DNA nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay, was evaluated before starting the treatment with 150 IU of recombinant human FSH, given three times a week for at least 3 months. Patients' semen analysis and DNA fragmentation index were re-evaluated after the 3-month treatment period. After recombinant human FSH therapy, we did not find any differences in terms of sperm count, motility and morphology. The average DNA fragmentation index was significantly reduced (21.15 vs 15.2, p15 %), while no significant variation occurred in the patients with DFI values ≤ 15 %. Recombinant human FSH administration improves sperm DNA integrity in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia men with DNA fragmentation index value >15 % .

  3. Fragmented inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors retain tetrameric architecture and form functional Ca2+ release channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzayady, Kamil J; Chandrasekhar, Rahul; Yule, David I

    2013-04-19

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms are a family of ubiquitously expressed ligand-gated channels encoded by three individual genes. The proteins are localized to membranes of intracellular Ca(2+) stores and play pivotal roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that IP3R1 is cleaved by the intracellular proteases calpain and caspase both in vivo and in vitro. However, the resultant cleavage products are poorly defined, and the functional consequences of these proteolytic events are not fully understood. We demonstrate that IP3R1 is cleaved during staurosporine-induced apoptosis, yielding N-terminal fragments encompassing the ligand-binding domain and the majority of the central modulatory domain together with a C-terminal fragment containing the channel domain and cytosolic tail. Notably, these fragments remain associated with the membrane after initiation of apoptotic cleavage. Furthermore, when recombinant IP3R1 fragments, corresponding to those predicted to be generated by caspase or calpain cleavage, are stably coexpressed in cells, they physically associate and form functional channels. These data provide novel insights regarding the regulation of IP3R1 during proteolysis and provide direct evidence that polypeptide continuity is not required for IP3R activation and Ca(2+) release.

  4. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dna2 can function as a sole nuclease in the processing of Okazaki fragments in DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levikova, Maryna; Cejka, Petr

    2015-09-18

    During DNA replication, synthesis of the lagging strand occurs in stretches termed Okazaki fragments. Before adjacent fragments are ligated, any flaps resulting from the displacement of the 5' DNA end of the Okazaki fragment must be cleaved. Previously, Dna2 was implicated to function upstream of flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1 or Rad27) in the processing of long flaps bound by the replication protein A (RPA). Here we show that Dna2 efficiently cleaves long DNA flaps exactly at or directly adjacent to the base. A fraction of the flaps cleaved by Dna2 can be immediately ligated. When coupled with DNA replication, the flap processing activity of Dna2 leads to a nearly complete Okazaki fragment maturation at sub-nanomolar Dna2 concentrations. Our results indicate that a subsequent nucleolytic activity of Fen1 is not required in most cases. In contrast Dna2 is completely incapable to cleave short flaps. We show that also Dna2, like Fen1, interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We propose a model where Dna2 alone is responsible for cleaving of RPA-bound long flaps, while Fen1 or exonuclease 1 (Exo1) cleave short flaps. Our results argue that Dna2 can function in a separate, rather than in a Fen1-dependent pathway.

  5. Overlap Quark Propagator in Coulomb Gauge QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado, Ydalia Delgado; Schröck, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The chirally symmetric Overlap quark propagator is explored in Coulomb gauge. This gauge is well suited for studying the relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, since confinement can be attributed to the infrared divergent Lorentz-vector dressing function. Using quenched gauge field configurations on a $20^4$ lattice, the quark propagator dressing functions are evaluated, the dynamical quark mass is extracted and the chiral limit of these quantities is discussed. By removing the low-lying modes of the Dirac operator, chiral symmetry is artificially restored. Its effect on the dressing functions is discussed.

  6. Applicability of Parametrized Form of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation with an effective gluon propagator, a parametrized fully dressed confining quark propagator is suggested in this paper. The parametrized quark propagator describes a confined quark propagation in hadron, and is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The vector and scalar self-energy functions [1 - Af(p2)] and [Bf(p2) - mf], dynamically running effective mass of quark Mf(p2) and the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensates as well as local quark vacuum condensates are predicted by use of the parametrized quark propagator. The results are compatible with other theoretical calculations.

  7. Quark Gluon Condensate,Virtuality and Susceptibility of QCD Vacuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Juan; WU Qing; MA Wei-Xing

    2008-01-01

    We study vacuum of QCD in this work.The structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate,values of various local quark and gluon vacuum condensates,quark-gluon mixed vacuum condensate,quark and gluon virtuality in QCD vacuum state,quark dynamical mass and susceptibility of QCD vacuum state to external field are predicted by use of the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in "rainbow" approximation with a modeling gluon propagator and three different sets of quark-quark interaction parameters.Our theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the correspondent empirical values used widely in literature,and many other theoretical calculations.The quark propagator and self-energy functions are also obtained from the numerical solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations.This work is centrally important for studying non-perturbative QCD,and has many important applications both in particle and nuclear physics.

  8. Rapid phylogenetic and functional classification of short genomic fragments with signature peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendzen Joel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification is difficult for shotgun metagenomics data from environments such as soils, where the diversity of sequences is high and where reference sequences from close relatives may not exist. Approaches based on sequence-similarity scores must deal with the confounding effects that inheritance and functional pressures exert on the relation between scores and phylogenetic distance, while approaches based on sequence alignment and tree-building are typically limited to a small fraction of gene families. We describe an approach based on finding one or more exact matches between a read and a precomputed set of peptide 10-mers. Results At even the largest phylogenetic distances, thousands of 10-mer peptide exact matches can be found between pairs of bacterial genomes. Genes that share one or more peptide 10-mers typically have high reciprocal BLAST scores. Among a set of 403 representative bacterial genomes, some 20 million 10-mer peptides were found to be shared. We assign each of these peptides as a signature of a particular node in a phylogenetic reference tree based on the RNA polymerase genes. We classify the phylogeny of a genomic fragment (e.g., read at the most specific node on the reference tree that is consistent with the phylogeny of observed signature peptides it contains. Using both synthetic data from four newly-sequenced soil-bacterium genomes and ten real soil metagenomics data sets, we demonstrate a sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the MEGAN metagenomics analysis package using BLASTX against the NR database. Phylogenetic and functional similarity metrics applied to real metagenomics data indicates a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 400 for distinguishing among environments. Our method assigns ~6.6 Gbp/hr on a single CPU, compared with 25 kbp/hr for methods based on BLASTX against the NR database. Conclusions Classification by exact matching against a precomputed list of signature

  9. Measurement of the strange quark contribution to the proton spin using neutral kaons at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shaojun

    2007-03-15

    This thesis reports a new ''isoscalar'' measurement of {delta}s + {delta} anti s. Because strange quarks carry no isospin, the strange seas in the proton and neutron are identical. In the deuteron, an isoscalar target, the fragmentation process in DIS can be described without any assumptions regarding isospin dependent fragmentation. In the isoscalar extraction of {delta}s + {delta} anti s only the spin asymmetry for K{sup 0}{sub s} A{sup K{sup 0}{sub s1,d}} (x,Q{sup 2}, z) and the inclusive asymmetry A{sub 1,d}(x,Q{sup 2}) are used. An accurate measurement of the total non-strange quark polarisation {delta}Q = {delta}u + {delta} anti u + {delta}d + {delta} anti d comes directly from A{sub 1,d}(x,Q{sup 2}). The fragmentation functions needed for a leading order (LO) extraction of {delta}S = {delta}s + {delta} anti s are measured directly at HERMES kinematics using the same data. As a result of this analysis, the helicity densities for the strange quarks are consistent with zero with the experimental uncertainty over the measured x kinematic range. (orig.)

  10. Top quark measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on dif- ferential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.

  11. Top Quark Results

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS collaboration; LHCb collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on differential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.

  12. Correlation functions in finite temperature field theories: formalism and applications to quark-gluon plasma; Fonctions de correlations en theorie des champs a temperature finie: aspects formels et applications au plasma de quarks et de gluons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelis, Francois [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France)

    1998-12-01

    The general framework of this work is thermal field theory, and more precisely the perturbative calculation of thermal Green`s functions. In a first part, I consider the problems closely related to the formalism itself. After two introductory chapters devoted to set up the framework and the notations used afterwards, a chapter is dedicated to a clarification of certain aspects of the justification of the Feynman rules of the real time formalism. Then, I consider in the chapter 4 the problem of cutting rules in the real time formalisms. In particular, after solving a controversy on this subject, I generalize these cutting rules to the `retarded-advanced` version of this formalism. Finally, the last problem considered in this part is that of the pion decay into two photons in a thermal bath. I show that the discrepancies found in the literature are due to peculiarities of the analytical properties of the thermal Green`s functions. The second part deals with the calculations of the photons or dilepton (virtual photon) production rate by a quark gluon plasma. The framework of this study is the effective theory based on the resummation of hard thermal loops. The first aspects of this study is related to the production of virtual photons, where we show that important contributions arise at two loops, completing the result already known at one loop. In the case of real photon production, we show that extremely strong collinear singularities make two loop contributions dominant compared to one loop ones. In both cases, the importance of two loop contributions can be interpreted as weaknesses of the hard thermal loop approximation. (author) 366 refs., 109 figs.

  13. The generalized parton distribution function (E^u+E^d)(x,xi,t) of the nucleon in the chiral quark soliton model

    CERN Document Server

    Ossmann, J; Schweitzer, P; Urbano, D; Göke, K

    2004-01-01

    The unpolarized spin-flip isoscalar generalized parton distribution function (E^u+E^d)(x,xi,t) is studied in the large-Nc limit at a low normalization point in the framework of the chiral quark-soliton model. This is the first study of generalized parton distribution functions in this model, which appear only at the subleading order in the large-Nc limit. Particular emphasis is put therefore on the demonstration of the theoretical consistency of the approach. The forward limit of (E^u+E^d)(x,xi,t) of which only the first moment -- the anomalous isoscalar magnetic moment of the nucleon -- is known phenomenologically, is computed numerically. Observables sensitive to (E^u+E^d)(x,xi,t) are discussed.

  14. The synthesis of functionalized 13,14-seco-steroids via Grob fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khripach, V.A.; Zhabinskii, V.N.; Fando, G.P.; Kuchto, A.I.; Lyakhov, A.S.; Govorova, A.A.; Groen, M.B.; Louw, van der J.; Groot, de Æ.

    2004-01-01

    A synthetic methodology for the synthesis of 13,14-seco-steroids with substituents at C-14 and C-17 is described. The approach involves Grob fragmentation of 14ß-hydroxy-17ß-tosylates, hydroboration–oxidation of the intermediate ¿13(17)-olefin, and hydride reduction of the 14-ketone. An unambiguous

  15. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Henneman, A A

    2001-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target, is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  16. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    OpenAIRE

    Henneman, A.

    2000-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target, is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  17. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, A.

    2001-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target [1], is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  18. Effects of growth form and functional traits on response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, R M; Zanne, A E; Gallagher, R V; Cornwell, W; Rossetto, M; O'Connor, P; Parkes, E A; Catterall, C F; Laffan, S W; Lusk, C H

    2013-12-01

    The conservation implications of large-scale rainforest clearing and fragmentation on the persistence of functional and taxonomic diversity remain poorly understood. If traits represent adaptive strategies of plant species to particular circumstances, the expectation is that the effect of forest clearing and fragmentation will be affected by species functional traits, particularly those related to dispersal. We used species occurrence data for woody plants in 46 rainforest patches across 75,000 ha largely cleared of forest by the early 1900s to determine the combined effects of area reduction, fragmentation, and patch size on the taxonomic structure and functional diversity of subtropical rainforest. We compiled species trait values for leaf area, seed dry mass, wood density, and maximum height and calculated species niche breadths. Taxonomic structure, trait values (means, ranges), and the functional diversity of assemblages of climbing and free-standing plants in remnant patches were quantified. Larger rainforest patches had higher species richness. Species in smaller patches were taxonomically less related than species in larger patches. Free-standing plants had a high percentage of frugivore dispersed seeds; climbers had a high proportion of small wind-dispersed seeds. Connections between the patchy spatial distribution of free-standing species, larger seed sizes, and dispersal syndrome were weak. Assemblages of free-standing plants in patches showed more taxonomic and spatial structuring than climbing plants. Smaller isolated patches retained relatively high functional diversity and similar taxonomic structure to larger tracts of forest despite lower species richness. The response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest differed between climbers and slow-growing mature-phase forest trees but not between climbers and pioneer trees. Quantifying taxonomic structure and functional diversity provides an improved basis for

  19. Measurement of the strangeness spectral function and the mass of the strange quark in hadronic {tau} decays with the OPAL detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, W.

    2004-03-01

    Tau lepton decays with open strangeness in the final state are measured with the Opal detector at LEP to determine the strange hadronic spectral function of the {tau} lepton and the mass of the strange quark. The decays {tau}{sup -} {yields} (K{pi}){sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}, (K{pi}{pi}){sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} and (K{pi}{pi}{pi}){sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} with final states consisting of neutral and charged kaons and pions, have been studied. The invariant mass distribution of 93.4% of these final states have been experimentally determined. Monte Carlo simulations have been used for the remaining 6.6% and for the strange final states including {eta} mesons. The reconstructed strange final states, corrected for resolution effects and detection efficiencies, yield the strange spectral function of the {tau} lepton. The moments of the spectral function and the ratio of strange to non-strange moments, which are important input parameters for theoretical analyses, are determined. Furthermore, the branching fractions B({tau}{sup -} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}}) = (0.471 {+-} 0.064{sub stat} {+-} 0.021{sub sys})%, B({tau}{sup -} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}) = (0.415 {+-} 0.059{sub stat} {+-} 0.031{sub sys})% have been measured. From the CKM weighted difference of strange and non-strange spectral moments, the mass of the strange quark at the {tau} mass scale has been determined: m{sub s}(m{sub {tau}}{sup 2}) = (84 {+-} 14{sub exp} {+-} 6{sub V{sub us}} {+-} 17{sub theo}) MeV. Evolving this result to customary scales yields m{sub s}(1 GeV{sup 2}) = (111{sub -35}{sup +26}) MeV, m{sub s}(4 GeV{sup 2}) = (82{sub -25}{sup +19}) MeV. (orig.)

  20. Relativistic Three-Quark Bound States in Separable Two-Quark Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Öttel, M; Alkofer, R

    2002-01-01

    Baryons as relativistic bound states in 3-quark correlations are described by an effective Bethe-Salpeter equation when irreducible 3-quark interactions are neglected and separable 2-quark correlations are assumed. We present an efficient numerical method to calculate the nucleon mass and its covariant wave function in this quantum field theoretic quark-diquark model with quark-exchange interaction. Expanding the components of the spinorial wave function in terms of Chebyshev polynomials, the four-dimensional integral equations are in a first step reduced to a coupled set of one-dimensional ones. This set of linear and homogeneous equations defines a generalised eigenvalue problem. Representing the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue, the Chebyshev moments are then obtained by iteration. The nucleon mass is implicitly determined by the eigenvalue, and its covariant wave function is reconstructed from the moments within the Chebyshev approximation.

  1. Linear-Scaling Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Based on the Idea of "From Fragments to Molecule".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fangqin; Liu, Wenjian; Zhang, Yong; Li, Zhendong

    2011-11-08

    To circumvent the cubic scaling and convergence difficulties encountered in the standard top-down localization of the global canonical molecular orbitals (CMOs), a bottom-up localization scheme is proposed based on the idea of "from fragments to molecule". That is, the global localized MOs (LMOs), both occupied and unoccupied, are to be synthesized from the primitive fragment LMOs (pFLMOs) obtained from subsystem calculations. They are orthonormal but are still well localized on the parent fragments of the pFLMOs and can hence be termed as "fragment LMOs" (FLMOs). This has been achieved by making use of two important factors. Physically, it is the transferability of the locality of the fragments that serves as the basis. Mathematically, it is the special block-diagonalization of the Kohn-Sham matrix that allows retention of the locality: The occupied-occupied and virtual-virtual diagonal blocks are only minimally modified when the occupied-virtual off-diagonal blocks are annihilated. Such a bottom-up localization scheme is applicable to systems composed of all kinds of chemical bonds. It is then shown that, by a simple prescreening of the particle-hole pairs, the FLMO-based time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) can achieve linear scaling with respect to the system size, with a very small prefactor. As a proof of principle, representative model systems are taken as examples to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithms. As both the orbital picture and integral number of electrons are retained, the FLMO-TDDFT offers a clear characterization of the nature of the excited states in line with chemical/physical intuition.

  2. Quark splitting in non-trivial \\theta-vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Hongxi; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Quark splitting in non-trivial $\\theta$-vacuum with a given helicity is investigated in pQCD with a modified quark propagator. We found that the quark splitting functions were modified by the presence of a topologically non-trivial QCD background field, though there is no explicit helicity flip associated with the radiative processes. The interaction with the topological non-trivial field leads to the degeneracy of the quark splitting functions for left- and right-handed quarks. Such degeneracy can lead to imbalance of left- and right-handed quarks in quark jet showers. We also discuss phenomenological consequences of such imbalance if there exists non-trivial topological gluon field configuration in heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Space-Time Geometry of Quark and Strange Quark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We study quark and strange quark matter in the context of general relativity. For this purpose, we solve Einstein's field equations for quark and strange quark matter in spherical symmetric space-times. We analyze strange quark matter for the different equations of state (EOS) in the spherical symmetric space-times, thus we are able to obtain the space-time geometries of quark and strange quark matter. Also, we discuss die features of the obtained solutions. The obtained solutions are consistent with the results of Brookhaven Laboratory, i.e. the quark-gluon plasma has a vanishing shear (i.e. quark-gluon plasma is perfect).

  4. Exploring quark transverse momentum distributions with lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard U. Musch, Philipp Hagler, John W. Negele, Andreas Schafer

    2011-05-01

    We discuss in detail a method to study transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) using lattice QCD. To develop the formalism and to obtain first numerical results, we directly implement a bi-local quark-quark operator connected by a straight Wilson line, allowing us to study T-even, "process-independent" TMDs. Beyond results for x-integrated TMDs and quark densities, we present a study of correlations in x and transverse momentum. Our calculations are based on domain wall valence quark propagators by the LHP collaboration calculated on top of gauge configurations provided by MILC with 2+1 flavors of asqtad-improved staggered sea quarks.

  5. A Secreted Slit2 Fragment Regulates Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Metabolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Katrin J; Long, Jonathan Z; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Cohen, Paul; Lo, James C; Serag, Sara; Kir, Serkan; Shinoda, Kosaku; Tartaglia, Julia A; Rao, Rajesh R; Chédotal, Alain; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steven P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-03-01

    Activation of brown and beige fat can reduce obesity and improve glucose homeostasis through nonshivering thermogenesis. Whether brown or beige fat also secretes paracrine or endocrine factors to promote and amplify adaptive thermogenesis is not fully explored. Here we identify Slit2, a 180 kDa member of the Slit extracellular protein family, as a PRDM16-regulated secreted factor from beige fat cells. In isolated cells and in mice, full-length Slit2 is cleaved to generate several smaller fragments, and we identify an active thermogenic moiety as the C-terminal fragment. This Slit2-C fragment of 50 kDa promotes adipose thermogenesis, augments energy expenditure, and improves glucose homeostasis in vivo. Mechanistically, Slit2 induces a robust activation of PKA signaling, which is required for its prothermogenic activity. Our findings establish a previously unknown peripheral role for Slit2 as a beige fat secreted factor that has therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  6. Measurement of the differential cross section of highly boosted top quarks as a function of their transverse momentum in $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV proton-proton collisions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Federica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section for high $p_T$ top quarks as a function of their transverse momentum using a sample of 20.3 $fb^{-1}$, collected in pp collisions from the ATLAS detector is presented. The techniques used in the analysis to reconstruct and identify the hadronic top quark with high Lorentz boost increase the detection efficiency and allow to extend the measurement in the TeV region. The observed yield is corrected for detector effects and the differential cross section obtained is compared with several theoretical predictions both in a fiducial region than extrapolated to the full phase space.

  7. Implications of two-body fragment decay for the interpretation of emission chronology from velocity-gated correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Helgesson, J; Ekman, J; Helgesson, Johan; Ghetti, Roberta; Jorgen Ekman

    2006-01-01

    From velocity-gated small-angle correlation functions the emission chronology can be deduced for non-identical particles, if the emission is independent. This is not the case for non-identical particles that originate from two-body decay of fragments. Experimental results may contain contributions from both independent emission and two-body decay, so care is needed in interpreting the velocity-gated correlation functions. It is shown that in some special cases, it is still possible to deduce the emission chronology, even if there is a contribution from two-body decay.

  8. Inclusive photoproduction of bottom quarks for low and medium pT in the general-mass variable-flavour-number scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kramer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present predictions for b-quark production in photoproduction and compare with experimental data from HERA. Our theoretical predictions are obtained at next-to-leading-order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme, an approach which takes into account the finite mass of the b quarks. We use realistic evolved nonperturbative fragmentation functions obtained from fits to e+e− data. We find in general good agreement of data with both the GM-VFNS and the FFNS calculations, while the more precise ZEUS data seem to prefer the GM-VFNS predictions.

  9. Inclusive photoproduction of bottom quarks for low and medium p{sub T} in the general-mass variable-flavour-number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Spiesberger, H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Prisma Cluster of Excellence; Cape Town Univ., Rondebosch (South Africa). Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics and Dept. of Physics

    2015-09-15

    We present predictions for b-quark production in photoproduction and compare with experimental data from HERA. Our theoretical predictions are obtained at next-to-leading-order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme, an approach which takes into account the finite mass of the b quarks. We use realistic evolved nonperturbative fragmentation functions obtained from fits to e{sup +}e{sup -} data. We find in general good agreement of data with both the GM-VFNS and the FFNS calculations, while the more precise ZEUS data seem to prefer the GM-VFNS predictions.

  10. The longitudinal heavy quark structure function F{sup Q} {sup anti} {sup Q}{sub L} in the region Q{sup 2}>>m{sup 2} at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Klein, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Neerven, W.L. van [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Lorentz Institute

    2006-08-15

    The logarithmic and constant contributions to the Wilson coefficient of the longitudinal heavy quark structure function to O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}) are calculated using mass factorization techniques in Mellin space. The small x behaviour of the Wilson coefficient is determined. Numerical illustrations are presented. (orig.)

  11. Top quark physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadov, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bauer, U.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E. L.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T. M. P.

    2000-03-24

    The top quark, when it was finally discovered at Fermilab in 1995 completed the three-generation structure of the Standard Model (SM) and opened up the new field of top quark physics. Viewed as just another SM quark, the top quark appears to be a rather uninteresting species. Produced predominantly, in hadron-hadron collisions, through strong interactions, it decays rapidly without forming hadrons, and almost exclusively through the single mode t {r_arrow} Wb. The relevant CKM coupling V{sub tb} is already determined by the (three-generation) unitarity of the CKM matrix. Rare decays and CP violation are unmeasurable small in the SM. Yet the top quark is distinguished by its large mass, about 35 times larger than the mass of the next heavy quark, and intriguingly close to the scale of electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. This unique property raises a number of interesting questions. Is the top quark mass generated by the Higgs mechanism as the SM predicts and is its mass related to the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling? Or does it play an even more fundamental role in the EW symmetry breaking mechanism? If there are new particles lighter than the top quark, does the top quark decay into them? Could non-SM physics first manifest itself in non-standard couplings of the top quark which show up as anomalies in top quark production and decays? Top quark physics tries to answer these questions. Several properties of the top quark have already been examined at the Tevatron. These include studies of the kinematical properties of top production, the measurements of the top mass, of the top production cross-section, the reconstruction of t{bar t}pairs in the fully hadronic final states, the study of {tau} decays of the top quark, the reconstruction of hadronic decays of the W boson from top decays, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, the measurement of the W helicity in top decays, and bounds on t{bar t} spin correlations. Most of these measurements are limited by

  12. Apolipoprotein E4 (1–272 fragment is associated with mitochondrial proteins and affects mitochondrial function in neuronal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michikawa Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein E allele ε4 (apoE4 is a strong risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Secreted apoE has a critical function in redistributing lipids among central nervous system cells to maintain normal lipid homeostasis. In addition, previous reports have shown that apoE4 is cleaved by a protease in neurons to generate apoE4(1–272 fragment, which is associated with neurofibrillary tanglelike structures and mitochondria, causing mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it still remains unclear how the apoE fragment associates with mitochondria and induces mitochondrial dysfunction. Results To clarify the molecular mechanism, we carried out experiments to identify intracellular apoE-binding molecules and their functions in modulating mitochondria function. Here, we found that apoE4 binds to ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase core protein 2 (UQCRC2 and cytochrome C1, both of which are components of mitochondrial respiratory complex III, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1 (COX IV 1, which is a component of complex IV, in Neuro-2a cells. Interestingly, these proteins associated with apoE4(1–272 more strongly than intact apoE4(1–299. Further analysis showed that in Neuro-2a cells expressing apoE4(1–272, the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes III and IV were significantly lower than those in Neuro-2a cells expressing apoE4(1–299. Conclusion ApoE4(1–272 fragment expressed in Neuro2a cells is associated with mitochondrial proteins, UQCRC2 and cytochrome C1, which are component of respiratory complex III, and with COX IV 1, which is a member of complex IV. Overexpression of apoE4(1–272 fragment impairs activities of complex III and IV. These results suggest that the C-terminal-truncated fragment of apoE4 binds to mitochondrial complexes and affects their activities, and thereby leading to neurodegeneration.

  13. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  14. Functional traits variation explains the distribution of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae in pronounced moisture gradients within fog-dependent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eSalgado-Negret

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fragmentation are major threats to world forests. Understanding how functional traits related to drought tolerance change across small-scale, pronounced moisture gradients in fragmented forests is important to predict species’ responses to these threats. In the case of Aextoxicon punctatum, a dominant canopy tree in fog-dependent rain forest patches in semiarid Chile, we explored how the magnitude, variability and correlation patterns of leaf and xylem vessel traits and hydraulic conductivity varied across soil moisture gradients established within and among forest patches of different size, which are associated with differences in tree establishment and mortality patterns. Leaf traits varied across soil-moisture gradients produced by fog interception. Trees growing at drier leeward edges showed higher LMA (leaf mass per area, trichome and stomatal density than trees from the wetter core and windward zones. In contrast, xylem vessel traits (vessels diameter and density did not vary producing loss of hydraulic conductivity at drier leeward edges. We also detected higher levels of phenotypic integration and variability at leeward edges. The ability of A. punctatum to modify leaf traits in response to differences in soil moisture availability established over short distances (<500 m facilitates its persistence in contrasting microhabitats within forest patches. However, xylem anatomy showed limited plasticity, which increases cavitation risk at leeward edges. Greater patch fragmentation, together with fluctuations in irradiance and soil moisture in small patches, could result in higher risk of drought-related tree mortality, with profound impacts on hydrological balances at the ecosystem scale.

  15. Density functional theory fragment descriptors to quantify the reactivity of a molecular family: application to amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senet, P; Aparicio, F

    2007-04-14

    By using the exact density functional theory, one demonstrates that the value of the local electronic softness of a molecular fragment is directly related to the polarization charge (Coulomb hole) induced by a test electron removed (or added) from (at) the fragment. Our finding generalizes to a chemical group a formal relation between these molecular descriptors recently obtained for an atom in a molecule using an approximate atomistic model [P. Senet and M. Yang, J. Chem. Sci. 117, 411 (2005)]. In addition, a practical ab initio computational scheme of the Coulomb hole and related local descriptors of reactivity of a molecular family having in common a similar fragment is presented. As a blind test, the method is applied to the lateral chains of the 20 isolated amino acids. One demonstrates that the local softness of the lateral chain is a quantitative measure of the similarity of the amino acids. It predicts the separation of amino acids in different biochemical groups (aliphatic, basic, acidic, sulfur contained, and aromatic). The present approach may find applications in quantitative structure activity relationship methodology.

  16. Sizing of rock fragmentation modeling due to bench blasting using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and radial basis function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karami Alireza; Afiuni-Zadeh Somaieh

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important characters of blasting,a basic step of surface mining,is rock fragmentation.It directly effects on the costs of drilling and economics of the subsequent operations of loading,hauling and crushing in mines.Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and radial basis function (RBF)show potentials for modeling the behavior of complex nonlinear processes such as those involved in fragmentation due to blasting of rocks.In this paper we developed ANFIS and RBF methods for modeling of sizing of rock fragmentation due to bench blasting by estimation of 80% passing size (K80) of Golgohar iron ore mine of Sir jan,Iran.Comparing the results of ANFIS and RBF models shows that although the statistical parameters RBF model is acceptable but the ANFIS proposed model is superior and also simpler because the ANFIS model is constructed using only two input parameters while seven input parameters used for construction of the RBF model.

  17. Comments on: "Measurement of Parton Distributions of Strange Quarks in the Nucleon from Charged-Kaon Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering on the Deuteron" by the HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the article by the HERMES Collaboration, Phys. Lett. B 666, 446 [arXiv:0803.2993], where several important results concerning strange quark properties in the nucleon were presented. The strange sea distribution was found to be very different from the non-strange in the Bjorken x scaling variable. In addition, the magnitude of these two distributions at low x is similar, contrary to most of the available Parton Distribution Function sets. The strange quark helicity distribution was also extracted combining inclusive and semi-inclusive kaon asymmetries. The result of the first moment of the strange quarks helicity distribution in the measured range is slightly positive, while a rather significant negative value is expected from the world polarised inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering measurements. The author shows that a certain combination of fragmentation functions extracted from the preliminary HERMES kaon multiplicities presents a very strong Q2 dependence. Such a strong de...

  18. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  19. String formation and chiral symmetry breaking in the heavy-light quark-antiquark system in QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonov, YA; Tjon, JA

    2000-01-01

    The effective quark Lagrangian is written for a light quark in the field of a static antiquark, explicitly containing field correlators as coefficient functions of products of quark operators. At large N-c the closed system of equations for the gauge-invariant quark Green's function in the field of

  20. String formation and chiral symmetry breaking in the heavy-light quark-antiquark system in QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonov, YA; Tjon, JA

    2000-01-01

    The effective quark Lagrangian is written for a light quark in the field of a static antiquark, explicitly containing field correlators as coefficient functions of products of quark operators. At large N-c the closed system of equations for the gauge-invariant quark Green's function in the field of

  1. Top Quark Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years after its discovery at the Tevatron collider, we still know little about the top quark. Its large mass suggests it may play a key role in the mechanism of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB), or open a window of sensitivity to new physics related to EWSB and preferentially coupled to it. To determine whether this is the case, precision measurements of top quark properties are necessary. The high statistics samples being collected by the Tevatron experiments during Run II start to incisively probe the top quark sector. This report summarizes the experimental status of the top quark, focusing in particular on the recent measurements from the Tevatron Run II.

  2. Top quark properties

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas Maestro, Javier

    2016-01-01

    An overview of recent top quark measurements in proton-proton collisions at 7, and 8 TeV in data collected with the CMS and ATLAS experiments at the LHC, using a data sample collected during the years 2011, 2012 is presented. The results include measurements of top-quark pairs spin correlation, the top pair charge asymmetry, the cross section of top-quark pair events produced in association with a W or a Z boson. The mass of the top quark is estimated by different methods. Some results on the same topics are also presented in data collected by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron collider.

  3. Large-p heavy-quark production in two-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, M.; Kramer, M. [DESY-Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Greco, M. [Rome Univ. III (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Kniehl, B.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    The next-to-leading-order (NLO) cross section for the production of heavy quarks at large transverse momenta {gamma}{gamma} collision is calculated with perturbative fragmentation functions (PFF). This approach allows for a resummation of terms {proportional_to} {alpha}{sub s}ln(p{sup 2}/m{sup 2}) which arise in NLO from collinear emission of gluons by a heavy quark at large p or from almost collinear branching of photons or gluons into heavy-quark pairs. It is presented single-inclusive distributions in p and rapidity including direct and resolved photons for {gamma}{gamma} production of heavy quarks at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders and at high-energy {gamma}{gamma} colliders. The results are compared with fixed- order calculation for m finite including QDC radiative corrections. The two approaches differ in the definitions and relative contributions of the direct and resolved terms, but essentially agree in their sum. The resummation of the {alpha}{sub s}ln(p{sup 2}/m{sup 2}) terms in the PFF approach leads to a softer p distribution and to reduced sensitivity to the choice of the renormalization and factorization scales.

  4. New quarks: exotic versus strong

    OpenAIRE

    Holdom, B.

    2011-01-01

    The new quarks of a fourth family are being pushed into the strongly interacting regime due to the lower limits on their masses. The theoretical basis and experimental implications of such quarks are compared with exotic quarks.

  5. The Quark - A Decade Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James T.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)

  6. The Quark - A Decade Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James T.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)

  7. Dynamically Running Mass of Light Quark and QCD Vacuum Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULi-Juan; PINGRong-Gang

    2004-01-01

    Based on Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in “rainbow”approximation, the dynamically running mass of light quark and QCD vacuum condensate are investigated. The structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate, the values of local vacuum condensate of quarks and quark-gluon mixture, and dynamical transition of quark mass from current quark to constituent quark are illustrated. At the same time, according to the knowledge and experience learned from an extensive study of the solutions of DSEs, a parameterized form of confining quark propagator is suggested for a practical use. The new parameterized form of quark propagator is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The predictions for p2-dependence of effective quark masses, Mr(p2), defined by the self-energy functions Af(p2) and Bf(p2), both from the numerical solutions of DSEs and from its parameterized form, are shown dynamically. Our conclusion is that all numerical results are consistent with empirical values used in(QCD sum rules and lattice QCD calculations. For a qualitative study, the parameterized form is a sumciently good approximation to confining quark propagator.

  8. Dynamically Running Mass of Light Quark and QCD Vacuum Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Juan; PING Rong-Gang; MA Wei-Xing

    2004-01-01

    Based on Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in "rainbow" approximation, the dynamically running mass of light quark and QCD vacuum condensate are investigated. The structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate, the values of local vacuum condensate of quarks and quark-gluon mixture, and dynamical transition of quark mass from current quark to constituent quark are illustrated. At the same time, according to the knowledge and experience learned from an extensive study of the solutions of DSEs, a parameterized form of confining quark propagator is suggested for a practical use. The new parameterized form of quark propagator is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The predictions for p2-dependence of effective quark masses, Mf(p2), defined by the self-energy functions Af(p2) and Bf(p2), both from the numerical solutions of DSEs and from its parameterized form, are shown dynamically. Our conclusion is that all numerical results are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules and lattice QCD calculations. For a qualitative study, the parameterized form is a sufficiently good approximation to confining quark propagator.

  9. Determination of the fragmentation functions from an NLO QCD analysis of the HERMES data on pion multiplicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Elliot; Sidorov, Alexander V.; Stamenov, Dimiter B.

    2016-04-01

    An NLO QCD analysis of the final HERMES data on pion multiplicities is presented and a new set of pion fragmentation functions is extracted from the best fit to the data. We have studied the so-called [x ,z ] and [Q2,z ] presentations of their data, as given by HERMES, which, in principle, should simply be two different ways of presenting the experimental data. We have based our extraction on an excellent fit to the [Q2,z ] presentation of the data.

  10. Determination of the fragmentation functions from an NLO QCD analysis of the HERMES data on pion multiplicities

    CERN Document Server

    Leader, Elliot; Stamenov, Dimiter B

    2015-01-01

    An NLO QCD analysis of the final HERMES data on pion multiplicities is presented and a new set of pion fragmentation functions is extracted from the best fit to the data. We have studied the so-called $[x,z]$ and $[Q^2,z]$ presentations of the HERMES data which, in principle, should simply be two different ways of presenting the same data. As we explain in detail, it appears that there is an inconsistency between these two formats and our extraction is based on the $[Q^2,z]$ presentation of the data.

  11. Echinococcus granulosus: Cloning and Functional in Vitro Characterization of an Actin Filament Fragmenting Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Herrera, E; Yamamoto, R R; Rodrigues, J J; Farias, S E; Ferreira, H B; Zaha, A

    2001-04-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of an Echinococcus granulosus gene that codes for a protein with actin filament fragmenting and nucleating activities (EgAFFP). The genomic region corresponding to the EgAFFP gene presents a coding sequence of 1110 bp that is interrupted by eight introns. The EgAFFP deduced amino acid sequence is about 40% homologous to those of several members of the gelsolin family, such as Physarum polycephalum fragmin, Dictyostelium discoideum severin, and Lumbricus terrestris actin modulator. As do other proteins of the same family, EgAFFP presents three repeated domains, each one characterized by internal conserved amino acid motifs. Assays with fluorescence-labeled actin showed that the full-length recombinant EgAFFP effectively binds actin monomers in both a calcium-dependent and calcium-independent manner and also presents actin nucleating and severing activities.

  12. A Heavy Quark Symmetry Approach to Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertus, C. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Amaro, J.E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Nieves, J. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2005-06-13

    We evaluate different properties of baryons with a heavy c or b quark. The use of Heavy Quark Symmetry (HQS) provides with an important simplification of the non relativistic three body problem which can be solved by means of a simple variational approach. This scheme is able to reproduce previous results obtained with more involved Faddeev calculations. The resulting wave functions are parametrized in a simple manner, and can be used to calculate further observables.

  13. Di-hadron fragmentation and mapping of the nucleon structure

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest...

  14. Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kasmaei, Babak S; Strickland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.

  15. Measurement of the Strangeness Spectral Function and the Mass of the Strange Quark in Hadronic tau Decays with the OPAL Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mader, Wolfgang Franz

    2004-01-01

    Tau lepton decays with open strangeness in the final state are measured with the Opal detector at LEP to determine the strange hadronic spectral function of the τ lepton and the mass of the strange quark. The decays τ −→ (Kπ) −ντ , (Kππ) −ντ and (Kπππ) −ντ with final states consisting of neutral and charged kaons and pions, have been studied. The invariant mass distribution of 93.4% of these final states have been experimentally determined. Monte Carlo simulations have been used for the remaining 6.6% and for the strange final states including η mesons. The reconstructed strange final states, corrected for resolution effects and detection efficiencies, yield the strange spectral function of the τ lepton. The moments of the spectral function and the ratio of strange to non-strange moments, which are important input parameters for theoretical analyses, are determined. Furthermore, the branching fractions B(τ − → K −π 0 ντ ) = (0.471 ± 0.064stat ± 0.021sys) % B(τ − → K ...

  16. SYNTHESYS OF A FUNCTIONALIZED TETRAHYDROFURAN FRAGMENT THROUGH BROMINATION-CYCLIZATION OF A CONJUGATED DIENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veaceslav Kulciţki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate 1,4-addition of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS to a diene system, possessing a suitable oxygen functionality, leads to functionalized tetrahydrofuran derivatives, which can be further derivatized into different synthetic targets.

  17. Top quark theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Laenen

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of a number of top quark properties such as its mass and its couplings are reviewed. Essential aspects in the theoretical description of top quark production, singly, in pairs and in association, as well as its decay related to spin and angular correlations are discussed.

  18. Top quark theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eric Laenen

    2012-10-01

    The theoretical aspects of a number of top quark properties such as its mass and its couplings are reviewed. Essential aspects in the theoretical description of top quark production, singly, in pairs and in association, as well as its decay related to spin and angular correlations are discussed.

  19. Gene duplication and fragment recombination drive functional diversification of a superfamily of cytoplasmic effectors in Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Ye, Wenwu; Liu, Li; Liu, Peihan; Wu, Yuren; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora and other oomycetes secrete a large number of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling and necrosis inducing proteins (CRN), or Crinkler. Here, we first investigated the evolutionary patterns and mechanisms of CRN effectors in Phytophthora sojae and compared them to two other Phytophthora species. The genes encoding CRN effectors could be divided into 45 orthologous gene groups (OGG), and most OGGs unequally distributed in the three species, in which each underwent large number of gene gains or losses, indicating that the CRN genes expanded after species evolution in Phytophthora and evolved through pathoadaptation. The 134 expanded genes in P. sojae encoded family proteins including 82 functional genes and expressed at higher levels while the other 68 genes encoding orphan proteins were less expressed and contained 50 pseudogenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that most expanded genes underwent gene duplication or/and fragment recombination. Three different mechanisms that drove gene duplication or recombination were identified. Finally, the expanded CRN effectors exhibited varying pathogenic functions, including induction of programmed cell death (PCD) and suppression of PCD through PAMP-triggered immunity or/and effector-triggered immunity. Overall, these results suggest that gene duplication and fragment recombination may be two mechanisms that drive the expansion and neofunctionalization of the CRN family in P. sojae, which aids in understanding the roles of CRN effectors within each oomycete pathogen.

  20. Gene duplication and fragment recombination drive functional diversification of a superfamily of cytoplasmic effectors in Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyu Shen

    Full Text Available Phytophthora and other oomycetes secrete a large number of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling and necrosis inducing proteins (CRN, or Crinkler. Here, we first investigated the evolutionary patterns and mechanisms of CRN effectors in Phytophthora sojae and compared them to two other Phytophthora species. The genes encoding CRN effectors could be divided into 45 orthologous gene groups (OGG, and most OGGs unequally distributed in the three species, in which each underwent large number of gene gains or losses, indicating that the CRN genes expanded after species evolution in Phytophthora and evolved through pathoadaptation. The 134 expanded genes in P. sojae encoded family proteins including 82 functional genes and expressed at higher levels while the other 68 genes encoding orphan proteins were less expressed and contained 50 pseudogenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that most expanded genes underwent gene duplication or/and fragment recombination. Three different mechanisms that drove gene duplication or recombination were identified. Finally, the expanded CRN effectors exhibited varying pathogenic functions, including induction of programmed cell death (PCD and suppression of PCD through PAMP-triggered immunity or/and effector-triggered immunity. Overall, these results suggest that gene duplication and fragment recombination may be two mechanisms that drive the expansion and neofunctionalization of the CRN family in P. sojae, which aids in understanding the roles of CRN effectors within each oomycete pathogen.

  1. Analytic second derivative of the energy for density functional theory based on the three-body fragment molecular orbital method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Hiroya, E-mail: nakata.h.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Center for Biological Resources and Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B-62 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Kojimachi Business Center Building, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Fedorov, Dmitri G., E-mail: d.g.fedorov@aist.go.jp [NRI, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Zahariev, Federico; Schmidt, Michael W.; Gordon, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry and Ames Laboratory, US-DOE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kitaura, Kazuo [Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-03-28

    Analytic second derivatives of the energy with respect to nuclear coordinates have been developed for spin restricted density functional theory (DFT) based on the fragment molecular orbital method (FMO). The derivations were carried out for the three-body expansion (FMO3), and the two-body expressions can be obtained by neglecting the three-body corrections. Also, the restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) Hessian for FMO3 can be obtained by neglecting the density-functional related terms. In both the FMO-RHF and FMO-DFT Hessians, certain terms with small magnitudes are neglected for computational efficiency. The accuracy of the FMO-DFT Hessian in terms of the Gibbs free energy is evaluated for a set of polypeptides and water clusters and found to be within 1 kcal/mol of the corresponding full (non-fragmented) ab initio calculation. The FMO-DFT method is also applied to transition states in S{sub N}2 reactions and for the computation of the IR and Raman spectra of a small Trp-cage protein (PDB: 1L2Y). Some computational timing analysis is also presented.

  2. Structural and functional insights into the anti-BACE1 Fab fragment that recognizes the BACE1 exosite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Lucas Joel; Andujar, Sebastián Antonio; Enriz, Ricardo Daniel; Baldoni, Héctor Armando

    2014-01-01

    A molecular modeling study giving structural, functional, and mutagenesis insights into the anti-BACE1 Fab fragment that recognizes the BACE1 exosite is reported. Our results allow extending experimental data resulting from X-ray diffraction experiments in order to examine unknown aspects for the Fab-BACE1 recognition and its binding mode. Thus, the study performed here allows extending the inherently static nature of crystallographic structures in order to gain a deeper understanding of the structural and dynamical basis at the atomic level. The characteristics and strength of the interatomic interactions involved in the immune complex formation are exhaustively analyzed. The results might explain how the anti-BACE1 Fab fragment and other BACE1 exosite binders are capable to produce an allosteric modulation of the BACE1 activity. Our site-directed mutagenesis study indicated that the functional anti-BACE1 paratope, residues Tyr32 (H1), Trp50 (H2), Arg98 (H3), Phe101 (H3), Trp104 (H3) and Tyr94 (L3), strongly dominates the binding energetics with the BACE1 exosite. The mutational studies described in this work might accelerate the development of new BACE1 exosite binders with interesting pharmacological activity.

  3. Top quark physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robin D.; /UC, Davis

    2005-10-01

    While the top quark was discovered in 1995 at the Fermilab Tevatron, a decade later they still have very little information about the top. As the heaviest particle yet discovered, the top quark is interesting in and of itself, but some speculate that it may play a special role in physics beyond the Standard Model. With Run 2 of the Tevatron well underway, they have the opportunity to study top quark properties with much better sensitivity, and to test whether top quarks behave as predicted by current theories. This article focuses on the basics of top quark physics at the Tevatron, highlighting only a sample of the many recent measurements, as new results are being released monthly, and constantly changing the landscape of our knowledge of top.

  4. Gravitational fragmentation in turbulent primordial gas and the initial mass function of Population III stars

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Paul C; Klessen, Ralf S; Bromm, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We report results from numerical simulations of star formation in the early universe that focus on the dynamical behavior of metal-free gas under different initial and environmental conditions. In particular we investigate the role of turbulence, which is thought to ubiquitously accompany the collapse of high-redshift halos. We distinguish between two main cases: the birth of Population III.1 stars - those which form in the pristine halos unaffected by prior star formation - and the formation of Population III.2 stars - those forming in halos where the gas is still metal free but has an increased ionization fraction. This latter case can arise either from exposure to the intense UV radiation of stellar sources in neighboring halos, or from the high virial temperatures associated with the formation of massive halos, that is, those with masses greater than 1e8 solar masses. We find that turbulent primordial gas is highly susceptible to fragmentation in both cases, even for turbulence in the subsonic regime, i.e...

  5. Function of CD163 fragments in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Cheng-Qian; Yi, Jian-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 plays an important role in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. To identify the domains of CD163 involved in PRRSV infection, CD163 fragments P1 (1-798 bp), P2 (790-2046 bp), P3 (2023-3345 bp), Y-P1 (160-798 bp), Y-P2 (790-2046 bp) and Y-P3 (2143-3084 bp) were expressed by eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems, respectively. Infection experiments revealed that non-permissive BHK-21 cells transfected with pCD163 could be infected by PRRSV. However, cells with truncated CD163 (P1, P2, or P3) were not susceptible to PRRSV. Meanwhile, Y-P1, Y-P2, and Y-P3 were expressed in E. coli and antisera to these peptides were prepared in mice. A virus blocking test showed that Y-P2 protein and anti-Y-P2 mouse serum could block PRRSV infection in a dose-dependent manner, while Y-P3 protein could improve virus infection.

  6. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... potential mu or increasing M_s, there is a quantum phase transition from the CFL phase to a new ``gapless CFL phase'' in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap. The transition occurs where M_s^2/mu is approximately equal to 2*Delta, with Delta the gap parameter. Gapless CFL, like CFL, leaves unbroken...... different from those of the CFL phase, even though its U(1) symmetries are the same. Both gapless quasiparticles have quadratic dispersion relations at the quantum critical point. For values of M_s^2/mu above the quantum critical point, one branch has conventional linear dispersion relations while the other...

  7. Effects of dynamical FLIC fermions in the quark and gluon propagator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamleh, W.; Bowman, P. O.; Leinweber, D. B.; Williams, A. G.; Zhang, J.-B.

    2006-11-01

    In this work we examine the FLIC overlap quark propagator and the gluon propagator on both dynamical and quenched lattices. The tadpole improved Luscher-Weisz gauge action is used in both cases. The dynamical gauge fields use the FLIC fermion action for the sea quark contribution. We observe that the presence of sea quarks causes a suppression of the mass function, quark renormalisation function and gluon dressing function in the infrared. The ultraviolet physics is unaffected.

  8. Measurement of the differential cross-section of highly boosted top quarks as a function of their transverse momentum in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV proton--proton collisions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The differential cross-section for pair production of top quarks with high transverse momentum is measured in 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The measurement is performed for $t\\bar{t}$ events in the lepton+jets channel. The cross-section is reported as a function of the hadronically decaying top quark transverse momentum for values above 300 GeV. The hadronically decaying top quark is reconstructed as an anti-$k_t$ jet with radius parameter $R=1.0$ and identified with jet substructure techniques. The observed yield is corrected for detector effects to obtain a cross-section at particle level in a fiducial region close to the event selection. A parton-level cross-section extrapolated to the full phase space is also reported for top quarks with transverse momentum above 300 GeV. The predictions of a majority of next-to-leading-order and leading-order matrix-element Monte Carlo generators are found to agree with the measured cross-sections.

  9. Temporal mesonic correlators at NLO for any quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Burnier, Y

    2013-01-01

    We present NLO results for thermal imaginary-time correlators in the vector and scalar channels as a function of the quark mass. The range of quark masses for which a non-relativistic approximation works in the temperature range considered is estimated, and charm quarks turn out to be a borderline case. Comparing with simulation data from fine lattices, we find good agreement in the vector channel but a substantial discrepancy in the scalar one. An explanation for the discrepancy is suggested in terms of physics of the quark-antiquark threshold region. Perturbative predictions for the bottom scalar spectral function around the threshold are also briefly reviewed.

  10. Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.

  11. Stainless steel surface functionalization for immobilization of antibody fragments for cardiovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, A; Hołowacz, I; Sunil Kumar, G B; Anandakumar, S; Wall, J G; Wawrzyńska, M; Paprocka, M; Kantor, A; Kraskiewicz, H; Olsztyńska-Janus, S; Hinder, S J; Bialy, D; Podbielska, H; Kopaczyńska, M

    2016-04-01

    Stainless steel 316 L material is commonly used for the production of coronary and peripheral vessel stents. Effective biofunctionalization is a key to improving the performance and safety of the stents after implantation. This paper reports the method for the immobilization of recombinant antibody fragments (scFv) on stainless steel 316 L to facilitate human endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) growth and thus improve cell viability of the implanted stents for cardiovascular applications. The modification of stent surface was conducted in three steps. First the stent surface was coated with titania based coating to increase the density of hydroxyl groups for successful silanization. Then silanization with 3 aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was performed to provide the surface with amine groups which presence was verified using FTIR, XPS, and fluorescence microscopy. The maximum density of amine groups (4.8*10(-5) mol/cm(2)) on the surface was reached after reaction taking place in ethanol for 1 h at 60 °C and 0.04M APTS. On such prepared surface the glycosylated scFv were subsequently successfully immobilized. The influence of oxidation of scFv glycan moieties and the temperature on scFv coating were investigated. The fluorescence and confocal microscopy study indicated that the densest and most uniformly coated surface with scFv was obtained at 37 °C after oxidation of glycan chain. The results demonstrate that the scFv cannot be efficiently immobilized without prior aminosilanization of the surface. The effect of the chemical modification on the cell viability of EPC line 55.1 (HucPEC-55.1) was performed indicating that the modifications to the 316 L stainless steel are non-toxic to EPCs.

  12. Ground state heavy baryon production in a relativistic quark-diquark model

    CERN Document Server

    Nobary, M A Gomshi

    2007-01-01

    We use current-current interaction to calculate the fragmentation functions to describe the production of spin-1/2, spin-1/2$'$ and spin-3/2 baryons with massive constituents in a relativistic quark-diquark model. Our results are in their analytic forms and are applicable for singly, doubly and triply heavy baryons. We discuss the production of $\\Omega_{bbc}$, $\\Omega_{bcc}$ and $\\Omega_{ccc}$ baryons in some detail. The results are satisfactorily compared with those obtained for triply heavy baryons calculated in a perturbative regime within reasonable values of the parameters involved.

  13. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

  14. Quark i mattoni del mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1983-01-01

    Quark rossi, verdi e blu ; quark dotati di stranezza e di incanto ; quark 'su' e 'giù' : sembra che i fisici delle particelle giochino a confondere la curiosità del profano, con queste denominazioni fantasiose. Che cosa significano ? e, soprattutto, i quark sono i costituenti davvero elementari della materia ?

  15. Unrestricted density functional theory based on the fragment molecular orbital method for the ground and excited state calculations of large systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Hiroya, E-mail: nakata.h.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Center for Biological Resources and Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B-62 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fedorov, Dmitri G. [NRI, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yokojima, Satoshi [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1423-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kitaura, Kazuo [Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, Minoru [Center for Biological Resources and Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B-62 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-04-14

    We extended the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method interfaced with density functional theory (DFT) into spin unrestricted formalism (UDFT) and developed energy gradients for the ground state and single point excited state energies based on time-dependent DFT. The accuracy of FMO is evaluated in comparison to the full calculations without fragmentation. Electronic excitations in solvated organic radicals and in the blue copper protein, plastocyanin (PDB code: 1BXV), are reported. The contributions of solvent molecules to the electronic excitations are analyzed in terms of the fragment polarization and quantum effects such as interfragment charge transfer.

  16. Immobilization and functional reconstitution of antibody Fab fragment by solid-phase refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Yoichi; Hamasaki, Kyoto; Nakagawa, Aya; Sasaki, Eiju; Shirai, Tatsunori; Okumura, Masahiro; Inoue, Manami; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2013-12-31

    In this study, we demonstrated the successful preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized hydrophilic polystyrene (phi-PS) plate via one- and two-step solid-phase refolding methods. Both polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag)-fused Fd fragment of heavy chain (Fab H-PS) and full-length of light-chain (Fab L-PS) were individually produced in insoluble fractions of Escherichia coli cells, and they were highly purified in the presence of 8M of urea. Antigen-binding activities of Fab antibody immobilized were correctly recovered by the one-step solid-phase refolding method that a mixture of Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS was immobilized in the presence of 0.5-2M urea, followed by surface washing of the phi-PS plate with PBST. These results indicate that by genetic fusion of a PS-tag, a complex between Fab H and Fab L was efficiently immobilized on the surface of a phi-PS plate even in the presence of a low concentration of urea, and was then correctly refolded to retain its high antigen-binding activity via removal of the urea. A two-step solid-phase refolding method whereby Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS were successively refolded on the surface of a phi-PS plate also resulted in Fab antibody formation on the plate. Furthermore, both the binding affinity and the specificity of the Fab antibody produced by the two-step method were highly maintained, according to the results of sandwich ELISA and competitive ELISA using Fab antibody-immobilized plate via two-step solid-phase refolding. Thus, the solid-phase refolding method demonstrated in this study should be quite useful for the preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized PS surface with high efficiency from individually produced Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS. This method will be applicable to the preparation of a large Fab antibody library on the surface of a PS plate for use in antibody screening.

  17. Spectral Properties of Quarks at Finite Temperature in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the quark spectral function above and below the critical temperature for deconfinement and at finite momentum in quenched lattice QCD. It is found that the temporal quark correlation function in the deconfined phase near the critical temperature is well reproduced by a two-pole ansatz for the spectral function. The bare quark mass and momentum dependences of the spectral function are analyzed with this ansatz. In the chiral limit we find that even near the critical temperature the quark spectral function has two collective modes corresponding to the normal and plasmino excitations in the high temperature (T) limit. The pole mass of these modes at zero momentum, which should be identified to be the thermal mass of the quark, is approximately proportional to T in a rather wide range of T in the deconfined phase.

  18. Top quark measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Grancagnolo, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  19. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with polystyrene via surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Thomas; Gibson, Christopher T.; Constantopoulos, Kristina; Shapter, Joseph G. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: amanda.ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate the covalent attachment of vertically aligned (VA) acid treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto a silicon substrate via dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling chemistry. Subsequently, the pendant carboxyl moieties on the sidewalls of the VA-SWCNTs were derivatized to acyl chlorides, and then finally to bis(dithioester) moieties using a magnesium chloride dithiobenzoate salt. The bis(dithioester) moieties were then successfully shown to act as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a surface initiated 'grafting-from' process from the VA-SWCNT surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified vertical alignment of the SWCNTs and the maintenance thereof throughout the synthesis process. Finally, Raman scattering spectroscopy and AFM confirmed polystyrene functionalization.

  20. Chemical Potential Dependence of the Dressed-Quark Propagator from an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; PING Jia-Lun; SUN Wei-Min; CHANG Chao-Hsi; WANG Fan

    2002-01-01

    We exhibit a method for obtaining the low chemical potential dependence of the dressed quark propagatorfrom an effective quark-quark interaction model. Within this approach we explore the chemical potential dependenceof the dressed-quark propagator, which provides a means of determining the behavior of the chiral and deconfinementorder parameters. A comparison with the results of previous researches is given.

  1. Heavy quarks in proton

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)655637

    The measurement of prompt photon associated with a b jet in proton-proton interactions can provide us insight into the inner structure of proton. This is because precision of determination of parton distribution functions of b quark and gluon can be increased by such a measurement. The measurement of cross-section of prompt photon associated with a b jet (process $pp\\longrightarrow \\gamma + b + X$) at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector is presented. Full 8 TeV dataset collected by ATLAS during the year 2012 was used in this analysis. Corresponding integrated luminosity is 20.3 $fb^{-1}$. Fiducial differential cross-section as a function of photon transverse momentum at particle level was extracted from data and compared with the prediction of leading order event generator Pythia 8. Cross-section extracted from data is normalised independently on the Monte Carlo prediction. Values of data distribution lie above Monte Carlo values. The difference can be explained by presence of higher order effects not ...

  2. Quark mass dependence of two-flavor QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    I explore the rich phase diagram of two-flavor QCD as a function of the quark masses. The theory involves three parameters, including one that is CP violating. As the masses vary, regions of both first- and second-order transitions are expected. For nondegenerate quarks, nonperturbative effects cease to be universal, leaving individual quark mass ratios with a renormalization scheme dependence. This raises complications in matching lattice results with perturbative schemes and demonstrates the tautology of attacking the strong CP problem via a vanishing up-quark mass.

  3. Quark mass dependence of two-flavor QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Creutz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    I explore the rich phase diagram of two-flavor QCD as a function of the quark masses. The theory involves three parameters, including one that is CP violating. As the masses vary, regions of both first and second order transitions are expected. For non-degenerate quarks, non-perturbative effects cease to be universal, leaving individual quark mass ratios with a renormalization scheme dependence. This raises complications in matching lattice results with perturbative schemes and demonstrates the tautology of attacking the strong CP problem via a vanishing up quark mass.

  4. Nucleon axial and tensor charges with dynamical overlap quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, N; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T

    2015-01-01

    We report on our calculation of the nucleon axial and tensor charges in 2+1-flavor QCD with dynamical overlap quarks. Gauge ensembles are generated at a single lattice spacing 0.12 fm and at a strange quark mass close to its physical value. We employ the all-mode-averaging technique to calculate the relevant nucleon correlation functions, and the disconnected quark loop is efficiently calculated by using the all-to-all quark propagator. We present our preliminary results for the isoscalar and isovector charges obtained at pion masses $m_\\pi$ = 450 and 540 MeV.

  5. Dependence of Quark Effective Mass on Gluon Propagators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-Rong; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSEs) in the "rainbow" approximation, the dependence of quark effective mass on gluon propagator is investigated by use of three different phenomenological gluon propagators with two parameters, the strength parameter x and range parameter △. Our theoretical calculations for the quark effective mass Mf(p2), defined by the self-energy functions Af(p2) and Bf(p2) of the DSEs, show that the dynamically running quark effective mass is strongly dependent on gluon propagator. Therefore, because gluon propagator is completely unknown,the quark effective mass cannot be exactly determined theoretically.

  6. One-loop lattice artifacts of a dynamical charm quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2011-10-15

    For a few observables in O(a) improved lattice QCD, we compute discretization effects arising from the vacuum polarization of a heavy quark at one-loop order. In particular, the force between static quarks, the running coupling in the Schroedinger functional and a related quantity, anti {upsilon}, are considered. Results show that the cutoff effects of a dynamical charm quark are typically smaller than those present in the pure gauge theory. This perturbative result is a good indication that dynamical charm quarks are feasible already now. (orig.)

  7. In silico structural and functional analysis of fragments of the ankyrin repeat protein p18(INK4c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenovsý, P; Otyepka, M

    2010-02-01

    Ankyrin repeat proteins (ARPs) are ubiquitous proteins that play critical regulatory roles in organisms and consist of repeating motifs (ankyrin repeats) stacked in non-globular, almost linear, "quasi one-dimensional" configurations. They also have highly unusual mechanical properties, notably ARPs can behave as nano-springs. Both their essential cellular functions and distinctive nano-mechanical properties have aroused interest in ARPs for potential applications in medicine and nanotechnology. Further, the modular architecture of ARPs, which lack the long-range contacts that typically stabilize globular proteins, provides a new paradigm for understanding protein stability and folding mechanisms of proteins. In the present study, the stability of ARP p18INK4c (p18) and fifty p18 fragments was investigated by all- atomic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water on a ~3.3 micro- seconds timescale. The fragment simulations indicate that p18 alpha-helices are significantly stabilized by tertiary interactions, because in the absence of their native context they readily melt. All single p18 ARs and their structural elements are also unstable outside their native context. The minimal stable motifs are pairs of ARs, implying that inter-repeat contacts are essential for AR stability. Further, pairs of internal ARs are less stable than pairs that include a native capping AR. The MD simulations also provide indications of the functional roles of p18 turns and loops; the turns appear to be essential for the stability of the protein, while the loops both help to stabilize the p18 structure and are involved in recognition processes. Temperature-induced unfolding analysis shows that the p18 melts from the N-terminus to the C- terminus.

  8. Functional decay in tree community within tropical fragmented landscapes: Effects of landscape-scale forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Santos, Larissa; Benchimol, Maíra; Mayfield, Margaret M; Faria, Deborah; Pessoa, Michaele S; Talora, Daniela C; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Cazetta, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes. We found that as forest cover decreases, both tree community richness and abundance decline, without exhibiting a threshold. At the family-level, species richness and abundance of the Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were also negatively impacted by the percent forest remaining at the landscape scale. For functional traits, we found a reduction in shade-tolerant, animal-dispersed and small-seeded species following a decrease in the amount of forest retained in landscapes. These results suggest that the amount of forest in a landscape is driving non-random losses in phylogenetic and functional tree diversity in Brazil's remaining Atlantic rainforests. Our study highlights potential restraints on the conservation value of Atlantic rainforest remnants in deforested landscapes in the future.

  9. Dibaryons with two strange quarks and one heavy flavor in a constituent quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aaron; Park, Woosung; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the symmetry property and the stability of dibaryons containing two strange quarks and one heavy flavor with isospin I =1/2 . We construct the wave function of the dibaryon in two ways. First, we directly construct the color and spin state of the dibaryon starting from the four possible S U (3 ) flavor states. Second, we consider the states composed of five light quarks and then construct the wave function of the dibaryon by adding one heavy quark. The stability of the dibaryon against the strong decay into two baryons is discussed by using the variational method in a constituent quark model with a confining and hyperfine potential. We find that, for all configurations with spin S =0 , 1, 2, the ground states of the dibaryons are the sum of two baryons, and there is no compact bound state that is stable against the strong decay.

  10. Dibaryons with two strange quarks and one heavy flavor in a constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Aaron; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry property and the stability of dibaryons containing two strange quarks and one heavy flavor with $I=\\frac{1}{2}$. We construct the wave function of the dibaryon in two ways. First, we directly construct the color and spin state of the dibaryon starting from the four possible SU(3) flavor state. Second, we consider the states composed of five light quarks, and then construct the wave function of the dibaryon by adding one heavy quark. The stability of the dibaryon against the strong decay into two baryons is discussed by using variational method in a constituent quark model with confining and hyperfine potential. We find that for all configurations with S=0,1,2, the ground states of the dibaryons are the sum of two baryons, and there are no compact bound state that is stable against the strong decay.

  11. Quark confinement mechanism for baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Goncharov, Yu P

    2013-01-01

    The confinement mechanism proposed earlier and then successfully applied to meson spectroscopy by the author is extended over baryons. For this aim the wave functions of baryons are built as tensorial products of those corresponding to the 2-body problem underlying the confinement mechanism of two quarks. This allows one to obtain the Hamiltonian of the quark interactions in a baryon and, accordingly, the possible energy spectrum of the latter. Also one may construct the electric and magnetic form factors of baryon in a natural way which entails the expressions for the root-mean-square radius and anomalous magnetic moment. To ullustrate the formalism in the given Chapter for the sake of simplicity only symmetrical baryons (i.e., composed from three quarks of the same flavours) $\\Delta^{++}$, $\\Delta^{-}$, $\\Omega^-$ are considered. For them the masses, the root-mean-square radii and anomalous magnetic moments are expressed in an explicit analytical form through the parameters of the confining SU(3)-gluonic fi...

  12. Top quark physics: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation I will primarily focus on top quark physics but I will include a discussion of the W-boson mass and the possibility of discovering a light Higgs boson via associated production at the Tevatron.

  13. Quarks in finite nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Guichon, P A M; Thomas, A W

    1996-01-01

    We describe the development of a theoretical description of the structure of finite nuclei based on a relativistic quark model of the structure of the bound nucleons which interact through the (self-consistent) exchange of scalar and vector mesons.

  14. Hermitian quark matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narendra Singh

    2003-01-01

    Assuming a relation between the quark mass matrices of the two sectors a unique solution can be obtained for the CKM flavor mixing matrix. A numerical example is worked out which is in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  15. Spectral properties of quarks above $\\T_{c}$ in quenched lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the quark spectral function above the critical temperature for deconfinement in quenched lattice QCD using clover improved Wilson fermions in Landau gauge. We show that the temporal quark correlator is well reproduced by a two-pole approximation for the spectral function and analyze the bare quark mass dependence of both poles as well as their residues. In the chiral limit we find that the quark spectral function has two collective modes which correspond to the normal and plasmino excitations. At large values of the bare quark mass the spectral function is dominated by a single pole.

  16. Do Quarks Propagate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Taylor, John C.

    1984-01-01

    Processes with coloured particles in the initial state are generally infrared divergent. We investigate the effect of this on processes with colourless particles in the initial state, when the amplitude is near an intermediate quark pole. The result is a characteristic logarithmic depedence...... on the 'binding energy'(even though spectator interactions are taken into account), and the result is gauge-invariant. Summed to all orders the logarithms could perhaps suppress the quark pole....

  17. Next-to-leading order corrections to the hadron energy distribution from polarized top quark decay in the general two Higgs doublet model

    CERN Document Server

    Nejad, S Mohammad Moosavi

    2016-01-01

    We study the scaled-energy ( x_B) distribution of bottom-flavored mesons (B) inclusively produced in polarized top quark decays at next-to-leading order in the two-Higgs-doublet model. To study the energy spectrum of B-mesons we present, for the first time, an analytical expression for the NLO corrections to the partial decay width t(\\uparrow)-> H^+b taking the H^+ boson to be stable. Specifically, we study the effect of gluon fragmentation which leads to an appreciable reduction in the partial decay width at low values of x_B. To describe both the b-quark and the gluon hadronization we apply fragmentation functions extracted through a global fit to e^+e^- data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC exploiting their universality and scaling violations.

  18. Quark flavor identification in electron-positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, H.S.

    1983-09-01

    The theoretical issues relevant to inclusive muon analysis, the MAC detector and its data flow structure, the identification of muons in hadronic events and the measurement of their momenta, and the selection of events so as to minimize background are described. Experimental results are presented describing the fragmentation of heavy quarks into hadrons, the semimuonic branching fractions of the heavy quarks, the asymmetry in the angular distribution of the heavy quarks, and the invariant mass and charged multiplicity of heavy quark jets. In addition, lower limits are set on the masses of certain proposed particles that are expected to decay semileptonically. Finally, events containing two muons are analyzed in order to investigate the possibility of mixing in the B-B system and whether the b might form its own SU(2) singlet.

  19. Quark flavor identification in electron-positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, H.S.

    1983-09-01

    The theoretical issues relevant to inclusive muon analysis, the MAC detector and its data flow structure, the identification of muons in hadronic events and the measurement of their momenta, and the selection of events so as to minimize background are described. Experimental results are presented describing the fragmentation of heavy quarks into hadrons, the semimuonic branching fractions of the heavy quarks, the asymmetry in the angular distribution of the heavy quarks, and the invariant mass and charged multiplicity of heavy quark jets. In addition, lower limits are set on the masses of certain proposed particles that are expected to decay semileptonically. Finally, events containing two muons are analyzed in order to investigate the possibility of mixing in the B-B system and whether the b might form its own SU(2) singlet.

  20. Molecular transformations of phenolic SOA during photochemical aging in the aqueous phase: competition among oligomerization, functionalization, and fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Smith, Jeremy; Laskin, Alexander; George, Katheryn M.; Anastasio, Cort; Laskin, Julia; Dillner, Ann M.; Zhang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Organic aerosol is formed and transformed in atmospheric aqueous phases (e.g., cloud and fog droplets and deliquesced airborne particles containing small amounts of water) through a multitude of chemical reactions. Understanding these reactions is important for a predictive understanding of atmospheric aging of aerosols and their impacts on climate, air quality, and human health. In this study, we investigate the chemical evolution of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formed during reactions of phenolic compounds with two oxidants - the triplet excited state of an aromatic carbonyl (3C∗) and hydroxyl radical (•OH). Changes in the molecular composition of aqSOA as a function of aging time are characterized using an offline nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (nano-DESI MS) whereas the real-time evolution of SOA mass, elemental ratios, and average carbon oxidation state (OSC) are monitored using an online aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Our results indicate that oligomerization is an important aqueous reaction pathway for phenols, especially during the initial stage of photooxidation equivalent to ˜ 2 h irradiation under midday winter solstice sunlight in Northern California. At later reaction times functionalization (i.e., adding polar oxygenated functional groups to the molecule) and fragmentation (i.e., breaking of covalent bonds) become more important processes, forming a large variety of functionalized aromatic and open-ring products with higher OSC values. Fragmentation reactions eventually dominate the photochemical evolution of phenolic aqSOA, forming a large number of highly oxygenated ring-opening molecules with carbon numbers (nC) below 6. The average nC of phenolic aqSOA decreases while average OSC increases over the course of photochemical aging. In addition, the saturation vapor pressures (C∗) of dozens of the most abundant phenolic aqSOA molecules are estimated. A wide range of C∗ values is observed, varying

  1. Bounds on the slope and curvature of Isgur-Wise function in a QCD-inspired quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, Bhaskar Jyoti [Department of Physics, Pandu College, Guwahati (India); Choudhury, D.K. [Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati (India)

    2011-09-15

    The quantum chromodynamics-inspired potential model pursued by us earlier has been recently modified to incorporate an additional factor 'c' in the linear cum Coulomb potential. While it felicitates the inclusion of standard confinement parameter b = 0.183 GeV{sup 2} unlike in previous work, it still falls short of explaining the Isgur-Wise function for the B mesons without ad hoc adjustment of the strong coupling constant. In this work, we determine the factor 'c' from the experimental values of decay constants and masses and show that the reality constraint on 'c' yields bounds on the strong coupling constant as well as on slope and curvature of Isgur-Wise function allowing more flexibility to the model. (author)

  2. Heating (Gapless) Color-Flavor Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram of neutral quark matter at high baryon density as a function of the temperature T and the strange quark mass Ms. At T=0, there is a sharp distinction between the insulating color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, which occurs where Ms^2/mu 0 and Delta_2->0) cross. Because we...

  3. Single Chain Fragment Variable Recombinant Antibody Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles for a Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yi; Raymond, Raymond L.; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the peptide linker connecting scFv VH and VL domains were genetically modified to contain different amino acids (i.e. cysteine (scFv-cys) or histidines ( scFv-his)) to enable the scFv to adsorb or self-assemble onto the gold nanoparticles (NPs). The scFv-cys stabilized gold NPs were used to develop a highly sensitive colorimetric immunosensor. The scFv-cys stabilized gold NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectra, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FT-IR. After adding the antigen rabbit IgG, the solution of scFv-cys stabilized gold NPs shows obvious visible color change from deep red to light purple due to the aggregation of the gold nanoparticles. Based on the colorimetric aggregation of scFv-cys stabilized gold NPs, the immunosensor exhibits high sensitivity with detection limit of 1.7 nM and good specificity. The good properties of the colorimetric aggregation immunosensor would be attributed to the small size of scFv and the covalent link between the scFv and gold NPs that improve the better orientation and enhance the probe density. With the advantages of speed, simplicity and specificity, the colorimetric immunoassay based on the functionalized scFv stabilized gold NPs represents a promising approach for protein analysis and clinical diagnostics. PMID:19327975

  4. Determination of the ratio of $b$-quark fragmentation fractions $f_s/f_d$ in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    With an integrated luminosity of 2.47 fb$^{-1}$ recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, the exclusive decays $B_{s}^{0}\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\phi$ and $B_{d}^{0}\\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{*0}$ of $B$ mesons produced in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV are used to determine the ratio of fragmentation fractions $f_s/f_d$. From the observed yields of 6640 $\\pm$ 100(stat) $\\pm$ 220(sys) $B_{s}^{0} \\rightarrow J/\\psi\\phi$ events and 36290 $\\pm$ 320(stat) $\\pm$ 650(sys) $B_{d}^{0}\\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{*0}$ events, the quantity $\\frac{f_s}{f_d}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(B_{s}^{0} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\phi)}{\\mathcal{B}(B_{d}^{0} \\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{*0})}$ is estimated to be 0.199 $\\pm$ 0.004(stat) $\\pm$ 0.010(sys).

  5. Production and Hadronization of Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Norrbin, E

    2000-01-01

    Heavy long-lived quarks, i.e. charm and bottom, are frequently studied both as tests of QCD and as probes for other physics aspects within and beyond the standard model. The long life-time implies that charm and bottom hadrons are formed and observed. This hadronization process cannot be studied in isolation, but depends on the production environment. Within the framework of the string model, a major effect is the drag from the other end of the string that the c/b quark belongs to. In extreme cases, a small-mass string can collapse to a single hadron, thereby giving a non-universal flavour composition to the produced hadrons. We here develop and present a detailed model for the charm/bottom hadronization process, involving the various aspects of string fragmentation and collapse, and put it in the context of several heavy-flavour production sources. Applications are presented from fixed-target to LHC energies.

  6. Observation of single top-quark production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-08-28

    We report observation of the electroweak production of single top quarks in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV based on 2.3 fb(-1) of data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse energy, together with jets originating from the fragmentation of b quarks, we measure a cross section of sigma(pp[over ]--> tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.94 + or - 0.88 pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10(-7), corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance for the observation.

  7. Gauge-invariant approach to quark dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sazdjian, H

    2016-01-01

    The main aspects of a gauge-invariant approach to the description of quark dynamics in the nonperturbative regime of QCD are first reviewed. In particular, the role of the parallel transport operation in constructing gauge-invariant Green's functions is presented, and the relevance of Wilson loops for the representation of the interaction is emphasized. Recent developments, based on the use of polygonal lines for the parallel transport operation, are then presented. An integro-differential equation is obtained for the quark Green's function defined with a phase factor along a single, straight line segment. It is solved exactly and analytically in the case of two-dimensional QCD in the large $N_c$ limit. The solution displays the dynamical mass generation phenomenon for quarks, with an infinite number of branch-cut singularities that are stronger than simple poles.

  8. Clustering and hadronization of quarks: a treatment of the low-P/sub T/ problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1979-10-01

    The low-p/sub T/ problem of hadron fragmentation is treated in the framework of quark model. The basic mechanism of hadronization of quarks is recombination, which is formulated on a firm basis. Clustering of quarks in a hadron is discussed in detail. The quark and antiquark joint distribution is derived systematically with incorporation of QCD ideas wherever possible. Parameters describing the distribution are determined by fitting low-Q/sup 2/ electroproduction data. No free parameters are, therefore, involved in the calculation of the pion inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region. The result agrees well with data in both shape and normalization. The formalism can be applied to calculate inclusive distributions of all nucleon - and pion-initiated reactions, while for kaon-initiated reactions it can be used to extract from low-p/sub T/ data the quark distributions in kaons. 10 figures.

  9. A Density Functional Equation of State for Supernova Simulations with 3-body forces and Quark Gluon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Meixner, Matthew; Olson, J. Pocahontas; Lan, Nguyen Q.; Dalhed, Holister E.

    2013-10-01

    We present an updated and improved equation of state (which we call the NDL EoS) for use in neutron-star structure and core-collapse supernova simulations. This EoS is begins with a framework originally developed by Bowers & Wilson, but there are numerous changes. Among them are: (1) a reformulation in the context of density functional theory; (2) the possibility of the formation of material with a net proton excess (Ye > 0 . 5); (3) an improved treatment of the nuclear statistical equilibrium and the transition to heavy nuclei as the density approaches nuclear matter density; (4) an improved treatment of the effects of pions in the regime above nuclear matter density including the incorporation of all the known mesonic and baryonic states at high temperature; (5) the effects of 3-body nuclear forces at high densities; and (6) the possibility of a first-order or crossover transition to a QCD chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase at densities above nuclear matter density. This paper details the physics of, and constraints on, this new EoS and describes its implementation in numerical simulations. We show comparisons of this EoS with other equations of state commonly used in supernova collapse simulations. Work at the University of Notre Dame is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Nuclear Theory Grant DE-FG02-95-ER40934.

  10. Quantum fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    1993-01-01

    Phenomenological and theoretical aspects of fragmentation for elementary particles (resp. nuclei) are discussed. It is shown that some concepts of classical fragmentation remain relevant in a microscopic framework, exhibiting non-trivial properties of quantum relativistic field theory (resp. lattice percolation). Email contact: pesch@amoco.saclay.cea.fr

  11. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 stimulate L1-mediated functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Florian; Lutz, David; Rusche, Norman; Bastús, Neus G.; Stieben, Martin; Höltig, Michael; Grüner, Florian; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Loers, Gabriele

    2013-10-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system.The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1

  12. Bootstrapping quarks and gluons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, G.F.

    1979-04-01

    Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces.

  13. Decays of heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, T G

    1979-01-01

    The weak decay of heavy b and t quarks is discussed using the mixing angles obtained in Fritzsch's model (1978). The author finds that the decay b to c dominates over b to u for 7quark lifetime is approximately 1.6*10/sup -13/ sec. for m /sub t/ approximately=14 GeV. For t quarks of this mass he finds tau /sub t/quark cascade decay is found to be an insignificant source of multimuons in nu interactions and suitably small in nu interactions, consistent with the data of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay and Harvard-Pennsylvania-Wisconsin- Fermilab collaborations. Several branching ratios for exotic final states produced via b quarks in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation are discussed. (23 refs).

  14. Determination of the Ratio of b-Quark Fragmentation Fractions f(s)/f(d) in pp Collisions at √s=7  TeV with the ATLAS Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bieniek, S P; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Breaden Madden, W D; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S

    2015-12-31

    With an integrated luminosity of 2.47  fb(-1) recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, the exclusive decays B(s)(0)→J/ψϕ and B(d)(0)→J/ψK(*0) of B mesons produced in pp collisions at √s=7  TeV are used to determine the ratio of fragmentation fractions f(s)/f(d). From the observed B(s)(0)→J/ψϕ and B(d)(0)→J/ψK(*0) yields, the quantity (f(s)/f(d))[B(B(s)(0)→J/ψϕ)/B(B(d)(0)→J/ψK(*0))] is measured to be 0.199±0.004(stat)±0.008(syst). Using a recent theory prediction for [B(B(s)(0)→J/ψϕ)/B(B(d)(0)→J/ψK(*0))] yields (f(s)/f(d))=0.240±0.004(stat)±0.010(syst)±0.017(th). This result is based on a new approach that provides a significant improvement of the world average.

  15. The Quark's Model and Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Yuri V.

    1977-01-01

    Quarks are elementary particles considered to be components of the proton, the neutron, and others. This article presents the quark model as a mathematical concept. Also discussed are gluons and bag models. A bibliography is included. (MA)

  16. The Quark's Model and Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Yuri V.

    1977-01-01

    Quarks are elementary particles considered to be components of the proton, the neutron, and others. This article presents the quark model as a mathematical concept. Also discussed are gluons and bag models. A bibliography is included. (MA)

  17. Top Quark Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I wil...

  18. Drell-Yan lepton pair production at LHC and TMD quark densities of the proton

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2014-01-01

    We use the TMD quark densities of the proton to investigate unpolarized Drell-Yan lepton pair production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC energies. We investigate the case where the gluon-to-quark splitting occurs at the last evolution step and calculate the TMD sea quark density as a convolution of the CCFM-evolved gluon distribution and the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function which contains all single logarithmic small-x corrections to the sea quark evolution for any order of perturbation theory. Based on the O(alpha) production amplitude of quark-antiquark annihilation calculated according to the reggeized quark approach, we analyze the distributions on the dilepton invariant mass, transverse momentum and rapidity as well as the specific angular correlations between the produced leptons as measured by the CMS, ATLAS and LHCb collaborations. We argue that these measurements impose stringent constraints on the TMD quark distributions of the proton.

  19. Dual therapeutic functions of F-5 fragment in burn wounds: preventing wound progression and promoting wound healing in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ayesha; O'Brien, Kathryn; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex; Garner, Warren; Woodley, David T; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5-treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing.

  20. Peripheral Elevation of a Klotho Fragment Enhances Brain Function and Resilience in Young, Aging, and α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Leon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction and decreased mobility from aging and neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, are major biomedical challenges in need of more effective therapies. Increasing brain resilience may represent a new treatment strategy. Klotho, a longevity factor, enhances cognition when genetically and broadly overexpressed in its full, wild-type form over the mouse lifespan. Whether acute klotho treatment can rapidly enhance cognitive and motor functions or induce resilience is a gap in our knowledge of its therapeutic potential. Here, we show that an α-klotho protein fragment (αKL-F, administered peripherally, surprisingly induced cognitive enhancement and neural resilience despite impermeability to the blood-brain barrier in young, aging, and transgenic α-synuclein mice. αKL-F treatment induced cleavage of the NMDAR subunit GluN2B and also enhanced NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity. GluN2B blockade abolished αKL-F-mediated effects. Peripheral αKL-F treatment is sufficient to induce neural enhancement and resilience in mice and may prove therapeutic in humans.

  1. Bottom-flavored hadrons from top-quark decay at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kramer, Gustav [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moosavi Nejad, Seyed M. [Yazd Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Physics; Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Particles

    2012-03-15

    We study the scaled-energy (x{sub B}) distribution of bottom-flavored hadrons (B) inclusively produced in top-quark decays at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme endowed with realistic, nonperturbative fragmentation functions that are obtained through a global fit to e{sup +}e{sup -} data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC exploiting their universality and scaling violations. Specifically, we study the effects of gluon fragmentation and finite bottom-quark and B-hadron masses. We find the NLO corrections to be significant. Gluon fragmentation leads to an appreciable reduction in the partial decay width at low values of x{sub B}. Hadron masses are responsible for the low-x{sub B} threshold, while the bottom-quark mass is of minor importance. Neglecting the latter, we also study the doubly differential distribution d{sup 2}{gamma}/(dx{sub B}d cos {theta}) of the partial width of the decay t{yields} bW{sup +} {yields} Bl{sup +}{nu}{sub l}+X, where {theta} is the decay angle of the charged lepton in the W-boson rest frame.

  2. Fragmented Authoritarianism or Integrated Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    of these business leaders prompts the question of whether we are seeing the development of distinct interest groups that could challenge Party and state authority and create a fragmented polity. However, through the nomenklatura system the Party has an important instrument of control to wield over business groups...... and the Party-state, I suggest the notion of integrated fragmentation....

  3. Cloning approach and functional analysis of anti-intimin single-chain variable fragment (scFv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Waldir P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimin is an important virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC. Both pathogens are still important causes of diarrhea in children and adults in many developing and industrialized countries. Considering the fact that antibodies are important tools in the detection of various pathogens, an anti-intimin IgG2b monoclonal antibody was previously raised in immunized mice with the conserved sequence of the intimin molecule (int388-667. In immunoblotting assays, this monoclonal antibody showed excellent specificity. Despite good performance, the monoclonal antibody failed to detect some EPEC and EHEC isolates harboring variant amino acids within the 338-667 regions of intimin molecules. Consequently, motivated by its use for diagnosis purposes, in this study we aimed to the cloning and expression of the single-chain variable fragment from this monoclonal antibody (scFv. Findings Anti-intimin hybridoma mRNA was extracted and reversely transcripted to cDNA, and the light and heavy chains of the variable fragment of the antibody were amplified using commercial primers. The amplified chains were cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector. Specific primers were designed and used in an amplification and chain linkage strategy, obtaining the scFv, which in turn was cloned into pAE vector. E. coli BL21(DE3pLys strain was transformed with pAE scFv-intimin plasmid and subjected to induction of protein expression. Anti-intimin scFv, expressed as inclusion bodies (insoluble fraction, was denatured, purified and submitted to refolding. The protein yield was 1 mg protein per 100 mL of bacterial culture. To test the functionality of the scFv, ELISA and immunofluorescence assays were performed, showing that 275 ng of scFv reacted with 2 mg of purified intimin, resulting in an absorbance of 0.75 at 492 nm. The immunofluorescence assay showed a strong reactivity with

  4. Dynamical Self-mass for Massive Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Z; Huang, Zheng

    1992-01-01

    We examine dynamical mass generation in QCD with large current mass quarks. A renormalization group analysis is performed to separate fermion self-mass into a dynamical and a kinematical part. It is shown that the energy scale og the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation and the effective gauge coupling are fixed by the current mass. The dynamical self-mass satisfies a homogeneous SD equation which has a trivial solution when the current mass exceeds a critical value. We therefore suggest that the quark condensate, as the function of the current mass, observes a local minimum around 2.7\\Lambda_(QCD).

  5. Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niculescu, Maria Ioana [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.

  6. Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results

    CERN Document Server

    Niculescu, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.

  7. Measurement of the hard component of jet fragmentation functions in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    This note describes the analysis of jet fragmentation functions in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV center of mass energy collected in 2010 with the CMS detector at the LHC. Jets are reconstructed using the anti-$k_T$ sequential clustering algorithm~\\cite{Cacciari:2008gp} with a resolution parameter of 0.3, using the particle flow method of event reconstruction. The heavy-ion background is subtracted using the iterative pileup subtraction method described in~\\cite{Kodolova:2007hd}. Fragmentation functions were constructed with charged particle tracks of $\\pt\\ > 4 \\GeVc$ in a sample of dijet events. Both the leading and subleading jets show fragmentation similar to that of a parton in a vacuum, as seen by comparisons to pp data and to simulations at 2.76 TeV of {\\sc {pythia}}~\\cite{bib_pythia} dijets embedded in a heavy ion background generated with {\\sc {hydjet}}~\\cite{Lokhtin:2005px}. The fragmentation function is studied as a function of collision centrality, as well as dijet $\\pt$ asymmetry. The results provide...

  8. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  9. Meson spectroscopy, quark mixing and quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A.T.

    1979-04-01

    A semiphenomenological theory of the quark-antiquark meson mass spectrum is presented. Relativistic kinematic effects due to unequal quark masses and SU (3) -breaking effects in the slopes of Regge trajectories and in radially excited states are taken into account. Violation of the OZI rule is accounted for by means of a mixing matrix for the quark wave functions, which is given by QCD. To describe the dependence of the mixing parameters on the meson masses, a simple extrapolation of the QCD expressions is proposed from the ''asymptotic-freedom'' region to the ''infrared-slavery'' region. To calculate the masses and mixing angles of the pseudoscalar mesons, the condition for a minimal pion mass is proposed. The eta-meson mass is then shown to be close to its maximum. The predictions of the theory for meson masses and mixing angles are in good agreement with experiment.

  10. Quark Helicity and Transversity Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Dae Sung

    2016-01-01

    The quark transversity distribution inside nucleon is less understood than the quark unpolarized and helicity distributions inside nucleon. In particular, it is important to know clearly why the quark helicity and transversity distributions are different. We investigate the origin of their discrepancy.

  11. Color confinement multi quark resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fan [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Ping, J.L. [Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China); Pang, H.R. [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chen, L.Z. [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2007-06-15

    A new kind microscopic resonance, the color confinement multi quark resonance is proposed and studied. The quark delocalization color screening model is compared to one of the chiral quark model, the Salamanca model, and a new mechanism of the intermediate range NN interaction, the mutual distortion of interacting nucleons, is checked to be similar to the {sigma} meson exchange.

  12. SNAP-Tag Technology: A Useful Tool To Determine Affinity Constants and Other Functional Parameters of Novel Antibody Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesen, Judith; Sack, Markus; Seidel, Melanie; Fendel, Rolf; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Stein, Christoph

    2016-08-17

    Antibody derivatives, such as the single chain fragment variable (scFv), can be developed as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in cancer research, especially in the form of fusion proteins. Such derivatives are easier to produce and modify than monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and achieve better tissue/tumor penetration. The genetic modification of scFvs is also much more straightforward than the challenging chemical modification of mAbs. Therefore, we constructed two scFvs derived from the approved monoclonal antibodies cetuximab (scFv2112) and panitumumab (scFv1711), both of which are specific for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a well-characterized solid tumor antigen. Both scFvs were genetically fused to the SNAP-tag, an engineered version of the human DNA repair enzyme O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase that allows the covalent coupling of benzylguanine (BG)-modified substrates such as fluorescent dyes. The SNAP-tag achieves controllable and irreversible protein modification and is an important tool for experimental studies in vitro and in vivo. The affinity constant of a scFv is a key functional parameter, especially in the context of a fusion protein. Therefore, we developed a method to define the affinity constants of scFv-SNAP fusion proteins by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. We could confirm that both scFvs retained their functionality after fusion to the SNAP-tag in a variety of procedures and assays, including ELISA, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. The experimental procedures described herein, and the new protocol for affinity determination by SPR spectroscopy, are suitable for the preclinical evaluation of diverse antibody formats and derivatives.

  13. Heavy meson fragmentation at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gomshi Nobary

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available   Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN will provide excellent opportunity to study the production and decay of heavy mesons and baryons with high statistics. We aim at the heavy mesons in this work and calculate their fragmentation functions consistent with this machine and present their total fragmentation probabilities and average fragmentation parameters.

  14. Nuclear and Quark Matter at High Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Biro, T S; Schram, Z

    2016-01-01

    We review important ideas on nuclear and quark matter description on the basis of high- temperature field theory concepts, like resummation, dimensional reduction, interaction scale separation and spectral function modification in media. Statistical and thermodynamical concepts are spotted in the light of these methods concentrating on the - partially still open - problems of the hadronization process.

  15. Nuclear and quark matter at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, Tamas S. [H.A.S. Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Jakovac, Antal [Roland Eotvos University, Budapest (Hungary); Schram, Zsolt [University of Debrecen, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-03-15

    We review important ideas on nuclear and quark matter description on the basis of high-temperature field theory concepts, like resummation, dimensional reduction, interaction scale separation and spectral function modification in media. Statistical and thermodynamical concepts are spotted in the light of these methods concentrating on the -partially still open- problems of the hadronization process. (orig.)

  16. Parton Distribution in Pseudoscalar Mesons with a Light-Front Constituent Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We compute the distribution amplitudes of the pion and kaon in the light-front constituent quark model with the symmetric quark-bound state vertex function. In the calculation we explicitly include the flavor-SU(3) symmetry breaking effect in terms of the constituent quark masses of the up (down) and strange quarks. To calculate the kaon parton distribution functions~(PDFs), we use both the conditions in the light-cone wave function, i.e., when $\\bar{s}$ quark is on-shell, and when $u$ quark is on-shell, and make a comparison between them. The kaon PDFs calculated in the two different conditions clearly show asymmetric behaviour due to the flavor SU(3)-symmetry breaking implemented by the quark masses.

  17. Multiple quark scattering and the changing slope of d sigma /dt in the small mod t mod region (for pp scattering)

    CERN Document Server

    Klenk, K F

    1973-01-01

    The changing slope of d sigma /dt at small mod t mod observed in the CERN-ISR p-p scattering data can be reproduced in the Glauber multiple quark scattering model by a quark-quark scattering amplitude that is an undamped rapidly oscillating function of momentum transferred to the quark. (9 refs).

  18. The Thomas-Fermi Quark Model: Non-Relativistic Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Quan

    2012-01-01

    Non-relativistic aspects of the Thomas-Fermi statistical quark model are developed. A review is given and our modified approach to spin in the model is explained. Our results are limited so far to two inequivalent simultaneous wave functions which can apply to multiple degenerate flavors. An explicit spin interaction is introduced, which requires the introduction of a generalized spin "flavor". Although the model is designed to be most reliable for many-quark states, we find surprisingly that it may be used to fit the low energy spectrum of octet and decouplet baryons. The low energy fit allows us to investigate the six-quark doubly strange H-dibaryon state, possible 6 quark nucleon-nucleon resonances and flavor symmetric strange states of higher quark content.

  19. The physics of heavy quark distributions in hadrons: Collider tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Lykasov, G. I.; Smiesko, J.; Tokar, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present a review of the current understanding of the heavy quark distributions in the nucleon and their impact on collider physics. The origin of strange, charm and bottom quark pairs at high light-front (LF) momentum fractions in hadron wavefunction-the "intrinsic" quarks, is reviewed. The determination of heavy-quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) is particularly significant for the analysis of hard processes at LHC energies. We show that a careful study of the inclusive production of open charm and the production of γ / Z / W particles, accompanied by the heavy jets at large transverse momenta can give essential information on the intrinsic heavy quark (IQ) distributions. We also focus on the theoretical predictions concerning other observables which are very sensitive to the intrinsic charm contribution to PDFs including Higgs production at high xF and novel fixed target measurements which can be tested at the LHC.

  20. Top quark properties in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Demilly, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Properties of the top quark are measured with the ATLAS detector using LHC proton-proton collisions data. Measurements of the top-quark mass and polarisation, as well as of the polarization of W bosons in top quark decays to probe the Wtb-vertex are presented. In addition, measurements of the spin correlation between top and anti-top quarks as well as of the top- quark charge asymmetry, which constitute important tests of QCD and are sensitive to new physics, are discussed.

  1. Top Quark Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Martijn

    2016-10-01

    Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I will discuss the status of those techniques and their results, and present a brief outlook of further improvements in the experimental determination of the top quark mass to be expected at the LHC and beyond.

  2. Quark gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2000-04-01

    Recent trends in the research of quark gluon plasma (QGP) are surveyed and the current experimental and theoretical status regarding the properties and signals of QGP is reported. We hope that the experiments commencing at relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) in 2000 will provide a glimpse of the QGP formation.

  3. Quark-resonance model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallante, E.; Petronzio, R.

    1995-01-01

    We construct an effective Lagrangian for low energy hadronic interactions through an infinite expansion in inverse powers of the low energy cutoff Λχ of all possible chiral invariant non-renormalizable interactions between quarks and mesons degrees of freedom arising from the bosonization of a gen

  4. Functional humanization of an anti-CD16 Fab fragment: obstacles of switching from murine {lambda} to human {lambda} or {kappa} light chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapschy, Martin; Fogarasi, Marton; Gruber, Helga; Gresch, Oliver; Schäfer, Claudia; Aguib, Yasmine; Skerra, Arne

    2009-03-01

    An alphaCD30xalphaCD16 bispecific monoclonal antibody (MAb) was previously shown to induce remission of Hodgkin's disease refractory to chemo- and radiotherapy through specific activation of natural killer (NK) cells, but the appearance of a human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response prevented its use for prolonged therapy. Here, we describe an effort to humanize the Fab arm directed against FcgammaRIII (CD16), which-in context with the previously humanized CD30 Fab fragment-provides the necessary component for the design of a clinically useful bispecific antibody. Thus, the CDRs of the anti-CD16 mouse IgG1/lambda MAb A9 were grafted onto human Ig sequences. In a first attempt, the murine V(lambda) domain was converted to a humanized lambda chain, which led, however, to complete loss of antigen-binding activity and extremely poor folding efficiency upon periplasmic expression in Escherichia coli. Hence, its CDRs were transplanted onto a human kappa light chain in a second attempt, which resulted in a functional recombinant Fab fragment, yet with 100-fold decreased antigen affinity. In the next step, an in vitro affinity maturation was performed, wherein random mutations were introduced into the humanized V(H) and V(kappa) domains through error-prone PCR, followed by a filter sandwich colony screening assay for increased binding activity towards the bacterially produced extracellular CD16 fragment. Finally, an optimized Fab fragment was obtained, which carries nine additional amino acid exchanges and exhibits an affinity that is within a factor of 2 identical to that of the original murine A9 Fab fragment. The resulting humanized Fab fragment was fully functional with respect to binding of the recombinant CD16 antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in cytofluorimetry with CD16-positive granulocytes, thus providing a promising starting point for the preparation of a fully human bispecific antibody that permits the therapeutic recruitment of NK cells.

  5. Measurement of the differential production cross section for top-quark pairs as a function of jet multiplicity in the lepton+jets final state at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The top-quark pair differential production cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\mathrm{TeV}$ as a function of the number of jets is measured in the lepton+jets ($e$/$\\mu$+jets) final state for an integrated luminosity of $19.7~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. The cross section is presented in the visible phase space of the measurement as well as extrapolated to the full phase space. The results are compared with theoretical predictions at next-to-leading order. The comparisons show good agreement between the data and the predictions within the experimental and theoretical uncertainties.

  6. Strange quark mass and Lambda parameter by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We determine f_K for lattice QCD in the two flavor approximation with non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions. The result is used to set the scale for dimensionful quantities in CLS/ALPHA simulations. To control its dependence on the light quark mass, two different strategies for the chiral extrapolation are applied. Combining f_K and the bare strange quark mass with non-perturbative renormalization factors and step scaling functions computed in the Schroedinger Functional, we determine the RGI strange quark mass and the Lambda parameter in units of f_K.

  7. Observation of Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Cecilia E.; /Illinois U., Chicago

    2009-09-01

    The author reports on the observation of electroweak production of single top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 Tev using 2.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using events containing an isolated electron or muon, missing transverse energy, two, three or four jets, with one or two of them identified as originating from the fragmentation of a b quark, the measured cross section for the process p{bar p} {yields} tb + X, tqb + X is 3.94 {+-} 0.88 pb (for a top quark mass of 170 GeV). the probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 2.5 x 10{sup -7}, corresponding to a 5.0 standard deviation significance. Using the same dataset, the measured cross sections for the t- and the s-channel processes when determined simultaneously with no assumption on their relative production rate are 3.14{sub -0.80}{sup +0.94} pb and 1.05 {+-} 0.81 pb respectively, consistent with standard model expectations. The measured t-channel cross section has a significance of 4.8 standard deviations, representing the first evidence for the production of an individual single top process to be detected.

  8. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiss, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effective Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.

  9. Search For Scalar Top Quark And Scalar Bottom Quark In Proton Antiproton Collisions At 1.8 Tev

    CERN Document Server

    Holck, C

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of a search for direct pair production of scalar top (or scalar bottom) quarks followed by the decay of scalar top (or scalar bottom) quark to a charm quark (or bottom quark) and a neutralino using 88 pb– 1 of data from pp&d1; collisions at s = 1.8 TeV. The experimental signature is two charm (or two bottom) jets plus significant missing energy. The number of events which pass all our selection criteria is consistent with our expectations from Standard Model processes. We observe 11(5) events in the scalar top (scalar bottom) analysis and expect 14.5 ± 4.2(5.8 ± 1.8). We use a next-to-leading order scalar quark cross section calculation to excluded points, at the 95% C.L., as a function of the scalar top mass (or scalar bottom mass) and the neutralino mass. --- 18 --- AN

  10. Influence of quark energy loss on extracting nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; LIU Na

    2009-01-01

    By means of two typical kinds of quark energy loss parametrization and the nuclear parton distribu-tions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order analysis is performed on the proton-induced Drell-Yau differential cross section ratios of tungsten versus deuterium as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei. It is found that the theoretical results with quark energy loss are in good agreement with the experimental data. The quark energy loss effect produces approximately 3% to 11% suppression on the Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios RW/D in the range 0.05 ≤ x2≤ 0.3. The application of nuclear Drell-Yan data with heavy targets is remarkably subject to difficulty in the constraint of the nuclear sea quark distribution.

  11. Polarized nonsinglet Delta{q_3} and nonsinglet fragmentation function D^{pi+}_{u_v} in the analytic approach to QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorov, A

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the application of an analytic approach called the analytic perturbation theory (APT) to the QCD analysis of DIS data. In particular, the results of the QCD analysis of a set of `fake' data on the polarized nonsinglet Delta{q3} and the nonsinglet fragmentation function D^{pi+}_{u_v} by using the Q^2-evolution within the APT are considered. The `fake' data are constructed based on parametrization of the polarized PDF and nonsinglet combination of the pion fragmentation functions. We confirm that APT can be successfully applied to QCD analysis of Delta{q_3}(x,Q^2) and D^{pi+}_{u_v}(z,Q^2) and that the inequality Lambda_{APT} > Lambda_{PT} obtained previously for the xF3(x) structure function takes place.

  12. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.-B.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 × 10^{53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars.

  13. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; Schulze, H -J

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9--11 km. We obtain an energy release as large as $3.6 \\times 10^{53}\\,\\text{erg}$ from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars.

  14. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.B. [China University of Geosciences, School of Mathematics and Physics, Wuhan (China); Schulze, H.J. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11 km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 x 10{sup 53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars. (orig.)

  15. Magma Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2015-05-01

    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  16. Measurement of double-differential cross sections for top quark pair production in pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV} and impact on parton distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Dvornikov, O.; Makarenko, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Zykunov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Chagas, E. Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Guativa, L. M. Huertas; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Ruan, M.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Stahl Leiton, A. G.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Zghiche, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Bihan, A.-C. Le; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Finco, L.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Khvedelidze, A.; Lomidze, D.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Albert, A.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Flügge, G.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Müller, T.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Arndt, T.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Grohsjean, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Lenz, T.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Zenaiev, O.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kurz, S.; Lapsien, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baur, S.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Caspart, R.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Freund, B.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Katkov, I.; Kudella, S.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Kousouris, K.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Filipovic, N.; Pasztor, G.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Bahinipati, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Kumari, P.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Kole, G.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Pandey, S.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Brivio, F.; Ciriolo, V.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malberti, M.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Fienga, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Antunes De Oliveira, A. Carvalho; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, U.; Gonella, F.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Rossin, R.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Braghieri, A.; Fallavollita, F.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Ressegotti, M.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Marzocchi, B.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Monteno, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Lee, A.; Kim, H.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Oh, S. B.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Seo, S. H.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Carpinteyro, S.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Saddique, A.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Pyskir, A.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Calpas, B.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Chtchipounov, L.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Sulimov, V.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Aushev, T.; Bylinkin, A.; Danilov, M.; Popova, E.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Korneeva, N.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Savrin, V.; Volkov, P.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Shtol, D.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Erice, C.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Suárez Andrés, I.; Vischia, P.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; Chen, Y.; Cimmino, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Everaerts, P.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Krammer, M.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. A.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Milenovic, P.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Verweij, M.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Wiederkehr, S. A.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Seitz, C.; Yang, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Tsai, J. F.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Boran, F.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Jesus, O.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Spencer, E.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Ghiasi Shirazi, S. M. A.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Franco Sevilla, M.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Duarte, J.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Cremonesi, M.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Wu, Y.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Forthomme, L.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Rupprecht, N.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Schulte, J. F.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. T.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Belknap, D. A.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-07-01

    Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair (t\\overline{t}) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 {TeV} with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^{-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton e^{± }μ ^{∓ } final state. The t\\overline{t} cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and t\\overline{t} system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. The inclusion of the measured t\\overline{t} cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution.

  17. Measurement of double-differential cross sections for top quark pair production in pp collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] and impact on parton distribution functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Chagas, E Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; De Souza, S Fonseca; Guativa, L M Huertas; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Ruan, M; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Ather, M W; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Ellithi Kamel, A; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Stahl Leiton, A G; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Bihan, A-C Le; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Finco, L; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Khvedelidze, A; Lomidze, D; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Knutzen, S; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A

    2017-01-01

    Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text] with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton [Formula: see text] final state. The [Formula: see text] cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and [Formula: see text] system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. The inclusion of the measured [Formula: see text] cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution.

  18. Investigating the chemical mechanisms of the functionalization and fragmentation of hydrocarbons in the heterogeneous oxidation by OH using a stochastic kinetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, A. A.; Wilson, K. R.; Hinsberg, B.; Houle, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    While the heterogeneous oxidation of atmospheric organic aerosols influences their effects on climate, air quality, and visibility, a more detailed understanding of the chemical mechanisms in heterogeneous oxidation is crucial for improving models of their chemical evolution in the atmosphere. Previous experimental work in our lab has shown two general reaction pathways for organic aerosol upon oxidation: functionalization, which adds additional oxygen functional groups to the carbon skeleton, and fragmentation, which leads to C-C bond scission and lower molecular weight oxidized products. Furthermore, these pathways were also found to be dependent on molecular structure, with more branched or oxidized hydrocarbons undergoing more fragmentation than less branched or oxidized hydrocarbons. However, while the mechanisms of hydrocarbon oxidation have been studied extensively in the gas phase, to what extent the gas phase mechanisms of hydrocarbon oxidation can be reliably applied to heterogeneous or bulk oxidation in aerosol remains unclear. To investigate the role of the condensed phase and molecular structure in the mechanism of heterogeneous organic aerosol oxidation, stochastic kinetics models are developed and compared to measurements of the products in the oxidation of hydrocarbons. Within the aerosol bulk, condensed phase rate coefficients and product branching ratios for peroxy reactions lead to different product distributions than those expected from gas phase peroxy reactions due to the presence of the liquid radical cage at the reaction site. As a result, tertiary alcohols and ketones were found to be the predominate products in the oxidation of squalane as observed in experiments. As the aerosol becomes further oxidized, β-scission of alkoxy radicals with neighboring functional groups is the primary fragmentation pathway leading to lower volatility products. In conjunction with this fragmentation mechanism, elimination of CO2 from acyloxy radicals was

  19. Top quark pair production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baernreuther, Peter

    2012-06-28

    One of the most interesting and manifold processes in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics is the top quark pair production. It enabled the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron in 1995 and the determination of many of its properties. By means of a precise measurement and calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production it is possible to extract the top quark mass. Improvements in the gluon parton distribution functions (important for the Higgs boson production) or improvements in the prediction of the Higgs mass are also closely linked with the top quark pair production. Furthermore, the production process plays an important role in the discovery of new physics. On the one hand the top quark pair decays form the largest part of the background in many BSM models, on the other hand BSM physics can be detected directly in the decay process by investigating the charge symmetry or the invariant mass spectrum. At the LHC it will be possible for the first time to produce a large amount of top quarks; thereby the statistical errors of the observables will be strongly reduced. The enormous increase in the production rate has two reasons. On the one hand, the acceleration energy of the LHC (14 TeV and 7 TeV) is significantly greater than that of the Tevatron (1.96 Tev). This leads to an increase of the cross section by a factor of 100 ({proportional_to}7.3 pb at the Tevatron to {proportional_to}800 pb at 14 TeV LHC). On the other hand, the luminosity of the LHC outperforms the Tevatron by a factor of 10-100. The reduced experimental errors for the observables demand an improvement of the theoretical error. The experimental accuracy of the LHC and the great relevance of the process led to an intensive activity of different research groups in order to improve the calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production. This work presents for the first time a complete numerical result for the full NNLO correction for the top quark pair

  20. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... into separate parts or systems: skeleton, skin, services, internal cladding, etc. Each building part/system is being conceived, produced, delivered and maintained by different construction companies. Basically the building is being fragmented into separate parts living their separate lives. The architect has...... to create architectural meaning and give character to an architecture of fragmentation. Layers are both seen as conceptual as well as material frames which define certain strong properties or meanings in the architectural work. Defining layers is a way of separating and organizing; it both defines...

  1. Tandem mass spectrometry and density functional theory of RDX fragmentation pathways: Role of ion-molecule complexes in loss of NO3 and lack of molecular ion peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeilani, Yassin A; Duncan, Kameron A; Newallo, Domnique S; Thompson, Albert N; Bose, Nripendra K

    2015-05-15

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is an explosive compound that finds a wide range of military and civilian applications. RDX has been a target in environmental matrices by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). MS/MS in negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode of RDX provides important fragmentation patterns that are useful for structural elucidation. The fragmentation patterns are needed for proper identification of precursor and product ions in analytical methods that depend on MS/MS approaches for a reliable identification of RDX. This study focuses on the MS fragmentation mechanisms of RDX in NCI mode using both MS/MS and density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies were performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. The DFT results showed that NCI of RDX leads to the formation of an anion-molecule complex that was energetically more stable than the RDX anion. The fragmentation proceeds through two pathways, leading to the loss of NO(2) and NO(3). The loss of NO(3) takes place in an anion-molecule complex leading to the formation of characteristic nitroso group fragment ions. Using the fragmentation schemes, important ion structures are proposed including structures for m/z 160, 129, 102, and 86. The results demonstrate the importance of both charge-induced and charge-remote dissociations in RDX pathways. The ion structures identified along the pathways could be used as targets in analytical methods for reliable identification purposes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Fragmentation trees reloaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Sebastian; Dührkop, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics commonly uses liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to measure abundances of metabolites; subsequent tandem mass spectrometry is used to derive information about individual compounds. One of the bottlenecks in this experimental setup is the interpretation of fragmentation spectra to accurately and efficiently identify compounds. Fragmentation trees have become a powerful tool for the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data of small molecules. These trees are determined from the data using combinatorial optimization, and aim at explaining the experimental data via fragmentation cascades. Fragmentation tree computation does not require spectral or structural databases. To obtain biochemically meaningful trees, one needs an elaborate optimization function (scoring). We present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees, transforming the combinatorial optimization into a Maximum A Posteriori estimator. We demonstrate the superiority of the new scoring for two tasks: both for the de novo identification of molecular formulas of unknown compounds, and for searching a database for structurally similar compounds, our method SIRIUS 3, performs significantly better than the previous version of our method, as well as other methods for this task. SIRIUS 3 can be a part of an untargeted metabolomics workflow, allowing researchers to investigate unknowns using automated computational methods.Graphical abstractWe present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees from tandem mass spectrometry data based on Bayesian statistics. The best scoring fragmentation tree most likely explains the molecular formula of the measured parent ion.

  3. Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule. PMID:21487244

  4. Parametrization of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wei-Xing; ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; SHEN Peng-Nian; HU Zhao-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized form of the quark propagator is suggested. The corresponding quark selfform of the quark propagator proposed in this work describes a confining quark propagation, and is quite convenient to be used in any numerical calculations.

  5. Measurement of double-differential cross sections for top quark pair production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV and impact on parton distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Danilov, Mikhail; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Volkov, Petr; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; Cimmino, Anna; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Zaleski, Shawn; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair ($ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed in the dilepton $\\mathrm{ e }^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ final state. The $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions ar...

  6. The Multimedia Project Quarked!

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Can exposure to fundamental ideas about the nature of matter help motivate children in math and science and support the development of their understanding of these ideas later? Physicists, designers, and museum educators at the University of Kansas created the Quarked!(tm) Adventures in the subatomic Universe project to provide an opportunity for youth to explore the subatomic world in a fun and user friendly way. The project components include a website (located at http://www.quarked.org) and hands-on education programs. These are described and assessment results are presented. Questions addressed include the following. Can you engage elementary and middle school aged children with concepts related to particle physics? Can young children make sense of something they can't directly see? Do teachers think the material is relevant to their students?

  7. PlexinA1 is a new Slit receptor and mediates axon guidance function of Slit C-terminal fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Jacquier, Arnaud; Charoy, Camille; Reynaud, Florie; Nawabi, Homaira; Thoinet, Karine; Kindbeiter, Karine; Yoshida, Yutaka; Zagar, Yvrick; Kong, Youxin; Jones, Yvonne E; Falk, Julien; Chédotal, Alain; Castellani, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Robo-Slit and Plexin-Semaphorin signaling participate in various developmental and pathogenic processes. During commissural axon guidance in the spinal cord, chemorepulsion by Semaphorin3B and Slits controls midline crossing. Slit processing generates an N-terminal fragment (SlitN) that binds to Robo1 and Robo2 receptors and mediates Slit repulsive activity, as well as a C-terminal fragment (SlitC) with an unknown receptor and bioactivity. We identified PlexinA1 as a Slit receptor and found that it binds the C-terminal Slit fragment specifically and transduces a SlitC signal independently of the Robos and the Neuropilins. PlexinA1-SlitC complexes are detected in spinal cord extracts, and ex vivo, SlitC binding to PlexinA1 elicits a repulsive commissural response. Analysis of various ligand and receptor knockout mice shows that PlexinA1-Slit and Robo-Slit signaling have complementary roles during commissural axon guidance. Thus, PlexinA1 mediates both Semaphorin and Slit signaling, and Slit processing generates two active fragments, each exerting distinct effects through specific receptors.

  8. Production in yeast of pseudotype virus-like particles harboring functionally active antibody fragments neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleckaityte Milda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant antibodies can be produced in different formats and different expression systems. Single chain variable fragments (scFvs represent an attractive alternative to full-length antibodies and they can be easily produced in bacteria or yeast. However, the scFvs exhibit monovalent antigen-binding properties and short serum half-lives. The stability and avidity of the scFvs can be improved by their multimerization or fusion with IgG Fc domain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possibilities to produce in yeast high-affinity scFv-Fc proteins neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin (VLY, the main virulence factor of Gardnerella vaginalis. Results The scFv protein derived from hybridoma cell line producing high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against VLY was fused with human IgG1 Fc domain. Four different variants of anti-VLY scFv-Fc fusion proteins were constructed and produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-tagged scFv-Fc and hexahistidine-tagged scFv-Fc proteins were found predominantly as insoluble aggregates and therefore were not suitable for further purification and activity testing. The addition of yeast α-factor signal sequence did not support secretion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc but increased the amount of its intracellular soluble form. However, the purified protein showed a weak VLY-neutralizing capability. In contrast, the fusion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc molecules with hamster polyomavirus-derived VP2 protein and its co-expression with VP1 protein resulted in an effective production of pseudotype virus-like particles (VLPs that exhibited strong VLY-binding activity. Recombinant scFv-Fc molecules displayed on the surface of VLPs neutralized VLY-mediated lysis of human erythrocytes and HeLa cells with high potency comparable to that of full-length antibody. Conclusions Recombinant scFv-Fc proteins were expressed in yeast with low efficiency. New approach to display the sc

  9. Production in yeast of pseudotype virus-like particles harboring functionally active antibody fragments neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleckaityte, Milda; Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Sezaite, Indre; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2011-12-15

    Recombinant antibodies can be produced in different formats and different expression systems. Single chain variable fragments (scFvs) represent an attractive alternative to full-length antibodies and they can be easily produced in bacteria or yeast. However, the scFvs exhibit monovalent antigen-binding properties and short serum half-lives. The stability and avidity of the scFvs can be improved by their multimerization or fusion with IgG Fc domain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possibilities to produce in yeast high-affinity scFv-Fc proteins neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin (VLY), the main virulence factor of Gardnerella vaginalis. The scFv protein derived from hybridoma cell line producing high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against VLY was fused with human IgG1 Fc domain. Four different variants of anti-VLY scFv-Fc fusion proteins were constructed and produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-tagged scFv-Fc and hexahistidine-tagged scFv-Fc proteins were found predominantly as insoluble aggregates and therefore were not suitable for further purification and activity testing. The addition of yeast α-factor signal sequence did not support secretion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc but increased the amount of its intracellular soluble form. However, the purified protein showed a weak VLY-neutralizing capability. In contrast, the fusion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc molecules with hamster polyomavirus-derived VP2 protein and its co-expression with VP1 protein resulted in an effective production of pseudotype virus-like particles (VLPs) that exhibited strong VLY-binding activity. Recombinant scFv-Fc molecules displayed on the surface of VLPs neutralized VLY-mediated lysis of human erythrocytes and HeLa cells with high potency comparable to that of full-length antibody. Recombinant scFv-Fc proteins were expressed in yeast with low efficiency. New approach to display the scFv-Fc molecules on the surface of pseudotype VLPs was successful and

  10. Cross-Correlation of Excitation Functions for Different Fragments and Different Scattering Angles in 27Al(19F, x) y Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian-Long; WU He-Yu; LI Zhi-Chang; LU Xiu-Qin; ZHAO Kui; ZHOU Ping; LIU Jian-Cheng; XU Guo-Ji; Sergey Yu Kun; WANG Qi; BAI Zhen; DONG Yu-Chuan; LI Song-Lin; DUAN Li-Min; XU Hu-Shan; XU Hua-Gen; CHEN Ruo-Fu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Excitation functions have been measured for different projectile-like fragments produced in 27 Al(19 F,x)y reactions at incident energies from 110.25 to 118. 75 Me V in 250 ke V steps. Strong cross section fluctuations of the excitation functions are observed. The cross-correlation coefficients of the excitation functions for different atomic number Z and for different scattering angle θcm have been deduced. These coefficients are much larger than the statistical theoretical calculated ones. This indicates that there are strong correlations between different exit channels in the dissipative heavy ion collision of 27 Al(19 F,x )y.

  11. The discovery of quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, M

    1992-05-29

    Quarks are widely recognized today as being among the elementary particles of which matter is composed. The key evidence for their existence came from a series of inelastic electron-nucleon scattering experiments conducted between 1967 and 1973 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Other theoretical and experimental advances of the 1970s confirmed this discovery, leading to the present standard model of elementary particle physics.

  12. Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Rafelski, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the Hagedorn temperature half-centenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustra...

  13. What is a Quark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Gordon L.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2015-03-01

    We are used to thinking of quarks as fundamental particles in the same way we think of the electron, or gauge bosons, neutrinos, leptons. In strong theory, these objects are unified with gravitation and the physics of spacetime into what is hoped to be an ultimate theory, string/M theory. The string/M theory paradigm completely changes the way we think of the socalled elementary particles in quantum field theory.

  14. The unquenched quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Santopinto, E

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we briefly discuss the results for charmonium and bottomonium spectra with self-energy corrections in the unquenched quark model, due to the coupling to the meson-meson continuum. The UQM formalism can be extended to include also the effects of hybrid mesons, i.e. hybrid loops. Finally, we discuss the results of a calculation of hybrid mesons spectrum in Coulomb Gauge QCD.

  15. Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang-Seong [INFN, Pisa

    2016-06-02

    We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying into $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $t\\bar t$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.

  16. Quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.

  17. Scalar condensate and light quark masses from overlap fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Pilar; Jansen, Karl; Lellouch, Laurent; Wittig, Hartmut

    2001-01-01

    We have studied pseudoscalar correlation functions computed using the overlap operator. Within the accuracy of our calculation we find that the quark mass dependence agrees with the prediction of lowest-order Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) for quark masses in the range of m ~ m_s/2-2m_s. We present the results of an analysis which assumes lowest-order ChPT to be valid to extract the low-energy constants Sigma and f_P, as well as the strange quark mass. Non-perturbative renormalization is i...

  18. Heating (Gapless) Color-Flavor Locked Quark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, K; Rajagopal, K; Fukushima, Kenji; Kouvaris, Chris; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram of neutral quark matter at high baryon density as a function of the temperature T and the strange quark mass Ms. At T=0, there is a sharp distinction between the insulating color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, which occurs where Ms^2/mu 0 and Delta_2->0) cross. Because we do not make any small-Ms approximation, if we choose a relatively strong coupling leading to large gap parameters, we are able to pursue the analysis of the phase diagram all the way up to such large values of Ms that there are no strange quarks present.

  19. Renormalization of quark propagator, vertex functions and twist-2 operators from twisted-mass lattice QCD at $N_f$=4

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, Benoît; Guichon, Pierre; Morénas, Vincent; Pène, Olivier; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2014-01-01

    We present a precise non-perturbative determination of the renormalization constants in the mass independent RI'-MOM scheme. The lattice implementation uses the Iwasaki gauge action and four degenerate dynamical twisted mass fermions. The gauge configurations are provided by the ETM Collaboration. Renormalization constants for scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector and axial operators, as well as the quark propagator renormalization, are computed at three different values of the lattice spacing, two volumes and several twisted mass parameters. The method we developed allows for a precise cross-check of the running, thanks to the particular proper treatment of hypercubic artifacts. Results for the twist-2 operator $O_{44}$ are also presented.

  20. Functional analysis of a frame-shift mutant of the dihydropyridine receptor pore subunit (α1S expressing two complementary protein fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortenson Lindsay

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The L-type Ca2+ channel formed by the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR of skeletal muscle senses the membrane voltage and opens the ryanodine receptor (RyR1. This channel-to-channel coupling is essential for Ca2+ signaling but poorly understood. We characterized a single-base frame-shift mutant of α1S, the pore subunit of the DHPR, that has the unusual ability to function voltage sensor for excitation-contraction (EC coupling by virtue of expressing two complementary hemi-Ca2+ channel fragments. Results Functional analysis of cDNA transfected dysgenic myotubes lacking α1S were carried out using voltage-clamp, confocal Ca2+ indicator fluoresence, epitope immunofluorescence and immunoblots of expressed proteins. The frame-shift mutant (fs-α1S expressed the N-terminal half of α1S (M1 to L670 and the C-terminal half starting at M701 separately. The C-terminal fragment was generated by an unexpected restart of translation of the fs-α1S message at M701 and was eliminated by a M701I mutation. Protein-protein complementation between the two fragments produced recovery of skeletal-type EC coupling but not L-type Ca2+ current. Discussion A premature stop codon in the II-III loop may not necessarily cause a loss of DHPR function due to a restart of translation within the II-III loop, presumably by a mechanism involving leaky ribosomal scanning. In these cases, function is recovered by expression of complementary protein fragments from the same cDNA. DHPR-RyR1 interactions can be achieved via protein-protein complementation between hemi-Ca2+ channel proteins, hence an intact II-III loop is not essential for coupling the DHPR voltage sensor to the opening of RyR1 channel.

  1. String worldsheet for accelerating quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Semenoff, Gordon W.

    2015-10-01

    We consider the AdS bulk dual to an external massive quark in SYM following an arbitrary trajectory on Minkowski background. While a purely outgoing boundary condition on the gluonic field allows one to express the corresponding string worldsheet in a closed form, the setup has curious consequences. In particular, we argue that any quark whose trajectory on flat spacetime approaches that of a light ray in the remote past (as happens e.g. in the case of uniform acceleration) must necessarily be accompanied by an anti-quark. This is puzzling from the field theory standpoint, since one would expect that a sole quark following any timelike trajectory should be allowed. We explain the resolution in terms of boundary and initial conditions. We analyze the configuration in global AdS, which naturally suggests a modification to the boundary conditions allowing for a single accelerated quark without accompanying anti-quark. We contrast this resolution with earlier proposals.

  2. The quark-gluon vertex in Landau gauge bound-state studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard

    2015-05-01

    We present a practical method for the solution of the quark-gluon vertex for use in Bethe-Salpeter and Dyson-Schwinger calculations. The efficient decomposition into the necessary covariants is detailed, with the numerical algorithm outlined for both real and complex Euclidean momenta. A truncation of the quark-gluon vertex, that neglects explicit back-coupling to enable the application to bound-state calculations, is given together with results for the quark propagator and quark-gluon vertex for different quark flavours. The relative impact of the various components of the quark-gluon vertex is highlighted with the flavour dependence of the effective quark-gluon interaction obtained, thus providing insight for the construction of phenomenological models within the rainbow ladder. Finally, we solve the corresponding Green's functions for complex Euclidean momenta as required in future bound-state calculations.

  3. Dileptons from a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma at Finite Baryon Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Na-Na; HE Ze-Jun; LONG Jia-Li; CAI Xiang-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    We perform a complete calculation for the delepton production from the processes q(q-) →l(l-), Compton-like (qg→ql(l-),(q-)g→ql(l-)), q(q-)→gl(l-), gluon fusion g(g-)→c(c-), annihilation q(q-)→c(c-) as well as multiple scattering of quarks in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma system at finite baryon density. It is found that quark-antiquark annihilation,Compton-like, gluon fusion and multiple scattering of quarks give important contribution. Moreover, the increase of the quark phase life-time with increasing initial quark chemical potential makes the dilepton yield as an increasing function of the initial quark chemical potential.

  4. Energy change of a heavy quark in a viscous quark–gluon plasma with fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bing-feng, E-mail: jiangbf@mails.ccnu.edu.cn [Center for Theoretical Physics and School of Sciences, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, Hubei 445000 (China); Hou, De-fu, E-mail: houdf@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Li, Jia-rong, E-mail: ljr@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

    2016-09-15

    When a heavy quark travels through the quark–gluon plasma, the polarization and fluctuating chromoelectric fields will be produced simultaneously in the plasma. The drag force due to those fields exerting in return on the moving heavy quark will cause energy change to it. Based on the dielectric functions derived from the viscous chromohydrodynamics, we have studied the collisional energy change of a heavy quark traversing the viscous quark–gluon plasma including fluctuations of chromoelectric field. Numerical results indicate that the chromoelectric field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the moving heavy quark. Shear viscosity suppresses the fluctuation-induced energy gain and the viscous suppression effect for the charm quark is much more remarkable than that for the bottom quark. While, the fluctuation energy gain is much smaller than the polarization energy loss in magnitude and the net energy change for the heavy quark is at loss.

  5. The quark-gluon vertex in Landau gauge bound-state studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Richard [Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Giessen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    We present a practical method for the solution of the quark-gluon vertex for use in Bethe-Salpeter and Dyson-Schwinger calculations. The efficient decomposition into the necessary covariants is detailed, with the numerical algorithm outlined for both real and complex Euclidean momenta. A truncation of the quark-gluon vertex, that neglects explicit back-coupling to enable the application to bound-state calculations, is given together with results for the quark propagator and quark-gluon vertex for different quark flavours. The relative impact of the various components of the quark-gluon vertex is highlighted with the flavour dependence of the effective quark-gluon interaction obtained, thus providing insight for the construction of phenomenological models within the rainbow ladder. Finally, we solve the corresponding Green's functions for complex Euclidean momenta as required in future bound-state calculations. (orig.)

  6. Constituent quark masses from modified perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); International Institute for Theoretical and Applied Physics (IITAP), UNESCO and Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Rigol Madrazo, M. [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2002-03-01

    A recently proposed modified perturbative expansion for QCD incorporating gluon condensation is employed to evaluate the quark and gluon self-energy corrections in first approximation. The results predict mass values of 1/3 of the nucleon mass for the light quarks u, d, and s and a monotonously growing variation with the current mass. The only phenomenological input is that left angle G{sup 2} right angle is evaluated up to order g{sup 2} as a function of the unique parameter C defining the modified propagator, and then C is fixed to give a current estimate of left angle g{sup 2}G{sup 2} right angle. The light quarks u and d as a result are found to be confined and the s, c, b and t ones show damped propagation modes, suggesting a model for the large differences in stability between the nucleons and the higher resonances. The above properties of quark modes diverge from the fully confinement result following from the similar gluon propagator previously considered by Munczek and Nemirovski. On the other hand, the condensate effects on the gluon self-energy furnish a tachyonic mass shell as predicted by the Fukuda analysis of gluon condensation in QCD. (orig.)

  7. Strange quark momentum fraction from overlap fermion

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Mingyang; Liu, Keh-Fei; Gong, Ming

    2015-01-01

    We present a calculation of $\\langle x \\rangle_s$ for the strange quark in the nucleon. We also report the ratio of the strange $\\langle x \\rangle$ to that of $u/d$ in the disconnected insertion which will b